WorldWideScience

Sample records for fact sheet effective

  1. Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... sheet Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) – CDC fact sheet Gonorrhea – CDC fact sheet STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis ( ...

  2. Anesthesia Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education About NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Anesthesia Anesthesia Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area En español ... Version (464 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is anesthesia? Anesthesia is a medical treatment that prevents patients ...

  3. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Structural Biology Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area PDF Version (688 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is structural biology? Structural biology is the study of how biological ...

  4. Systems Integration Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Systems Integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The Systems Integration subprogram enables the widespread deployment of safe, reliable, and cost-effective solar energy technologies by addressing the associated technical and non-technical challenges. These include timely and cost-effective interconnection procedures, optimal system planning, accurate prediction of solar resources, monitoring and control of solar power, maintaining grid reliability and stability, and many more. To address the challenges associated with interconnecting and integrating hundreds of gigawatts of solar power onto the electricity grid, the Systems Integration program funds research, development, and demonstration projects in four broad, interrelated focus areas: grid performance and reliability, dispatchability, power electronics, and communications.

  5. Cholera Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cholera","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... that includes feedback at the local level and information-sharing at the global level. Cholera cases are ...

  6. Pseudomonas - Fact Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2012-01-01

    Fact sheet on Pseudomonas, including:What is Pseudomonas?What infections does it cause?Who is susceptible to pseudomonas infection?How will I know if I have pseudomonas infection?How can Pseudomonas be prevented from spreading?How can I protect myself from Pseudomonas?How is Pseudomonas infection treated?

  7. Hibernia fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This fact sheet gives details of the Hibernia oil field including its location, discovery date, oil company's interests in the project, the recoverable reserves of the two reservoirs, the production system used, capital costs of the project, and overall targets for Canadian benefit. Significant dates for the Hibernia project are listed. (UK)

  8. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  9. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  10. Biomolecular Science (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    A brief fact sheet about NREL Photobiology and Biomolecular Science. The research goal of NREL's Biomolecular Science is to enable cost-competitive advanced lignocellulosic biofuels production by understanding the science critical for overcoming biomass recalcitrance and developing new product and product intermediate pathways. NREL's Photobiology focuses on understanding the capture of solar energy in photosynthetic systems and its use in converting carbon dioxide and water directly into hydrogen and advanced biofuels.

  11. Rubella - Fact Sheet for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and 4 through 6 years Fact Sheet for Parents Color [2 pages] Español: Rubéola The best way ... according to the recommended schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that Prevent Them Chickenpox ...

  12. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-05-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.

  13. Photovoltaics Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Photovoltaics (PV) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Solar Energy Technologies Office works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar PV, which is the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity by a semiconductor, in support of the goals of the SunShot Initiative. SunShot supports research and development to aggressively advance PV technology by improving efficiency and reliability and lowering manufacturing costs. SunShot’s PV portfolio spans work from early-stage solar cell research through technology commercialization, including work on materials, processes, and device structure and characterization techniques.

  14. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 01: Fire Effects Information System (FEIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Sutherland

    2004-01-01

    The Fire Effects Information System (FEIS) provides accessible, up-to-date fire effects summaries, taken from current English-language literature, for almost 900 plant species, about 100 animal species, and 16 Kuchler plant communities found on the North American continent. This fact sheet discusses the development of FEIS and what is contained in the species summary....

  15. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 05: prescriptions and fire effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanie Miller

    2004-01-01

    Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 5: prescriptions and fire effects. Miller, Melanie. 2004. Res. Note RMRS-RN-23-5-WWW. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 2 p. While our understanding of the causes for variation in postfire effects is increasing, burn...

  16. Superfund fact sheet: The remedial program. Fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The fact sheet describes what various actions the EPA can take to clean up hazardous wastes sites. Explanations of how the criteria for environmental and public health risk assessment are determined and the role of state and local governments in site remediation are given. The fact sheet is one in a series providing reference information about Superfund issues and is intended for readers with no formal scientific training

  17. NTPR Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    History Documents US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports Enewetak Atoll Cleanup Documents TRAC About Who We Are Our Values History Locations Our Leadership Director Support Center Contact Us FAQ Sheet Links Success Stories Contracts Business Opportunities Current

  18. 2012 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  19. State Fact Sheets on COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Search The CDC Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . COPD Homepage Data and Statistics Fact Sheets Publications Publications ...

  20. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  1. Pharmacogenomics Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all prescription drugs. For example, it converts the painkiller codeine into its active form, morphine. There are ... patients by providing guidance on dose, possible side effects, or differences in effectiveness for people with certain ...

  2. Cerebral Aneurysms Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Health (NIH), the leading federal supporter of biomedical research in the world. As part of its mission, ... in postmenopausal women than in men. Estrogen replacement therapy reduces the ... research projects include studies of the effectiveness of microsurgical ...

  3. Fact Sheets on Pesticides in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Coalition against the Misuse of Pesticides, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of a collection of fact sheets about the use of pesticides in schools and how to reduce it. The sheets are: (1) "Alternatives to Using Pesticides in Schools: What Is Integrated Pest Management?"; (2) "Health Effects of 48 Commonly Used Pesticides in Schools"; (3) "The Schooling of State Pesticide…

  4. Whooping Cough (Pertussis) - Fact Sheet for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... months 4 through 6 years Fact Sheet for Parents Color [2 pages] Español: Tosferina (pertussis) The best ... according to the recommended schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that Prevent Them Chickenpox ...

  5. Vietnamese Hurricane Response Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Các tờ dữ kiện được cung cấp nơi đây mô tả vai trò của EPA trong việc đáp ứng với bão và cách các chương trình cụ thể cung cấp sự hỗ trợ. The Vietnamese fact sheets provided here describe EPA's role in a hurricane response.

  6. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 07: The "laws" of effective public education about fire hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Within the past 10 years, breakthrough research has identified factors that are most important for effectively communicating about wildland fire hazards. This fact sheet discusses seven "Laws" of effective public communication that should be considered in any state-of-the-art education campaign.

  7. Fact sheet: Ethanol from corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-31

    This fact sheet is intended to provide an overview of the advantages of ethanol from corn, emphasizing ethanol`s contribution to environmental protection and sustainable agriculture. Ethanol, an alternative fuel used as an octane enhancer is produced through the conversion of starch to sugars by enzymes, and fermentation of these sugars to ethanol by yeast. The production process may involve wet milling or dry milling. Both these processes produce valuable by-products, in addition to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol contains about 32,000 BTU per litre. It is commonly believed that using state-of-the-art corn farming and corn processing processes, the amount of energy contained in ethanol and its by-products would be more than twice the energy required to grow and process corn into ethanol. Ethanol represents the third largest market for Ontario corn, after direct use as animal feed and wet milling for starch, corn sweetener and corn oil. The environmental consequences of using ethanol are very significant. It is estimated that a 10 per cent ethanol blend in gasoline would result in a 25 to 30 per cent decrease in carbon monoxide emissions, a 6 to 10 per cent decrease in net carbon dioxide, a slight increase in nitrous oxide emissions which, however, would still result in an overall decrease in ozone formation, since the significant reduction in carbon monoxide emissions would compensate for any slight increase in nitrous oxide. Volatile organic compounds emission would also decrease by about 7 per cent with a 10 per cent ethanol blend. High level blends could reduce VOCs production by as much as 30 per cent. 7 refs.

  8. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Overview Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV/ ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Last Reviewed: August 25, 2017 ...

  9. Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Research (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-02-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide scientific, engineering, and analytical expertise to help advance innovation in concentrating solar power (CSP). This fact sheet summarizes how NREL is advancing CSP research.

  10. Nanotechnology for Site Remediation: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet presents a snapshot of nanotechnology and its current uses in remediation. It presents information to help site project managers understand the potential applications of this group of technologies at their sites.

  11. 16 CFR 460.13 - Fact sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.13 Fact sheets. If you are a manufacturer, you must give retailers and installers fact... uses. (b) A heading: “This is ____ insulation.” Fill in the blank with the type and form of your... compressed during installation.” (e) After the chart and any statement dealing with the specific type of...

  12. Integrated Vegetation Management Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    IVM is generally defined as the practice of promoting desirable, stable, low-growing plant communities that will resist invasion by tall growing tree species through the use of appropriate, environmentally-sound, and cost-effective control methods.

  13. Final Rule for Industrial Process Cooling Towers: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact sheet concerning a final rule to reduce air toxics emissions from industrial process cooling towers. Air toxics are those pollutants known or suspected of causing cancer or other serious health effects.

  14. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides guidance on classifying articles under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and determining the applicability of EPA’s articles exclusion policy for purposes of the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule. The primary goal of this document is to help the regulated community comply with the requirements of the CDR rule.

  15. Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Chemicals Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the chemical manufacturing, processing, and use information collected for the 2012 Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule. Users do not have access to the complete CDR data set and should draw conclusions with care.

  16. Renewable Energy Project Development Assistance (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-07-01

    This fact sheet provides information on the Tribes selected to receive assistance from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy 2013 Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, which provides technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects on tribal lands.

  17. Toxicity of Pesticides. Agrichemical Fact Sheet 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Winand K.

    This fact sheet gives the acute oral and dermal toxicity (LD 50) of over 250 pesticides in lab animals. The chemicals are categorized as fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, or miscellaneous compounds. One or more trade names are given for each pesticide. In addition, a brief explanation of toxicity determination is given. (BB)

  18. College Experience and Volunteering. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo, Karlo Barrios

    2007-01-01

    College experience and volunteering are positively correlated. Measurable differences in civic activity exist between young people who attend college and young people who do not. This fact sheet explores volunteering as civic engagement among youth with college experience, ages 19-25, which was down for the second year in a row in 2006. The…

  19. World War II Informational Fact Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Defense, Washington, DC.

    This commemorative book provides numerous fact sheets on various aspects of World War II, both on the fighting front and the homefront. Replicas of posters of the war era, descriptions of battles with maps, contributions of women and minorities to the war effort, even music of the wartime era, add to this collection of resource materials useful to…

  20. SunShot Initiative Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2015-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national effort launched in 2011 that aggressively drives innovation to make solar energy fully cost competitive with traditional energy sources before the end of the decade. The SunShot fact sheet outlines goals and successes of the program as it works with private companies, universities, non-profit organizations, state and local governments, and national laboratories to drive down the cost of solar electricity to $0.06 per kilowatt-hour, without incentives, by the year 2020.

  1. Participation in Sports and Civic Engagement. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mark Hugo; Moore, Kimberlee

    2006-01-01

    One reason to offer sports in school is to teach youth the values, skills, and habits that will make them more active, engaged, and responsible citizens. Past evidence on the civic effects of sports is mixed, but points to some potential positive civic effects. This fact sheet uses recent data from the 2002 National Youth Survey of Civic…

  2. Optimal Materials and Deposition Technique Lead to Cost-Effective Solar Cell with Best-Ever Conversion Efficiency (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes how the SJ3 solar cell was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Based on NREL and Solar Junction technology, the commercial SJ3 concentrator solar cell - with 43.5% conversion efficiency at 418 suns - uses a lattice-matched multijunction architecture that has near-term potential for cells with {approx}50% efficiency. Multijunction solar cells have higher conversion efficiencies than any other type of solar cell. But developers of utility-scale and space applications crave even better efficiencies at lower costs to be both cost-effective and able to meet the demand for power. The SJ3 multijunction cell, developed by Solar Junction with assistance from foundational technological advances by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, has the highest efficiency to date - almost 2% absolute more than the current industry standard multijunction cell-yet at a comparable cost. So what did it take to create this cell having 43.5% efficiency at 418-sun concentration? A combination of materials with carefully designed properties, a manufacturing technique allowing precise control, and an optimized device design.

  3. Epilepsy: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 6 = La Epilepsia: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on epilepsy is offered in both English and Spanish. It provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications. It notes that epilepsy is classified as "other health impaired" under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and that students with epilepsy are eligible for special…

  4. Autism: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 1 = Autismo: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on autism is offered in both English and Spanish, and is the same in both languages although numbered differently. It provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications. It notes that autism is listed as a separate category under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.…

  5. Large Fleets Lead in Petroleum Reduction (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proc, H.

    2011-03-01

    Fact sheet describes Clean Cities' National Petroleum Reduction Partnership, an initiative through which large private fleets can receive support from Clean Cities to reduce petroleum consumption.

  6. 75 FR 24740 - Recovery Fact Sheet RP9580.102, Permanent Relocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency [Docket ID FEMA-2010-0028] Recovery Fact Sheet RP9580.102, Permanent Relocation AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS... Management Agency (FEMA). DATES: This fact sheet is effective April 14, 2010. ADDRESSES: This final fact...

  7. Best Management Practice Fact Sheet. 12, Filtering Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Sample, David; Barlow, Stefani

    2013-01-01

    This fact sheet is one of a 15-part series on urban stormwater management practices. This fact sheet discusses filtering practices, what they are, where they are used, how they work, maintenance, limitations, performance, expected costs and includes a glossary of terms.

  8. Best Management Practice Fact Sheet. 10, Dry Swale

    OpenAIRE

    Sample, David; Doumar, Lia

    2013-01-01

    This fact sheet is one of a 15-part series on urban stormwater management practices. This fact sheet discusses dry swales, what they are, where they are used, how they work, maintenance, limitations, performance, expected costs and includes a glossary of terms.

  9. Best Management Practice Fact Sheet. 11, Wet Swale

    OpenAIRE

    Sample, David; Doumar, Lia

    2013-01-01

    This fact sheet is one of a 15-part series on urban stormwater management practices. This fact sheet discusses wet swales, what they are, where they are used, how they work, maintenance, limitations, performance, expected costs and includes a glossary of terms.

  10. Spina Bifida. Fact Sheet = Espina Bifida. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet offers definitions of the three types of spina bifida (spina bifida occulta, meningocele, and myelomeningocele), outlines their incidence, describes characteristics of individuals with spina bifida, and reviews educational implications. The fact sheet discusses the need for many children with myelomeningocele to learn to manage…

  11. Cerebral Palsy: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 2 = La Paralisis Cerebral: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on cerebral palsy is offered in both English and Spanish. First, it provides a definition and considers various causes (e.g., an insufficient amount of oxygen reaching the fetal or newborn brain). The fact sheet then offers incidence figures and explains characteristics of the three main types of cerebral palsy: spastic, athetoid,…

  12. Spina Bifida: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 12 = La Espina Bifida: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet offers definitions of the three types of spina bifida, outlines their incidence, describes characteristics of individuals with spina bifida, and reviews educational implications. The fact sheet emphasizes that school programs should be flexible to accommodate these students' special needs and frequent absences, that children with…

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: News: Publications: Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Management System Pollution Prevention History 60 impacts Diversity Locations Facts & Figures Does Sandia Buy? Opportunities Small Business Procurement Technical Assistance Program (PTAP) Current Technology Partnerships Business, Industry, & Non-Profits Government Universities Center for

  14. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Imported Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides guidance and sample reporting scenarios on the reporting exemption for the import of a chemical substance as part of an article, for purposes of the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule.

  15. Catalogue of Energy Efficiency Measures for France: descriptive fact sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    ADEME wished to learn about existing effective energy efficiency measures implemented outside of France, whether cross-sectoral or targeted at a specific sector (industry, transport, buildings or agriculture). The objective of this survey was to determine whether any of these measures could be applied in France, with the goal of holding down the growth of energy consumption. This survey has led to the writing of a catalog of 53 two-page fact sheets describing the measures identified as interesting for France. These measures were analysed via classic criteria of evaluation such as cost-efficiency or impact, allowing to highlight the most successful measures for the French territory

  16. Emotional Disturbance. NICHCY Disability Fact Sheet #5

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The mental health of our children is a natural and important concern for us all. The fact is, many mental disorders have their beginnings in childhood or adolescence, yet may go undiagnosed and untreated for years. "Umbrella" terms such as emotional disturbance, behavioral disorders, or mental illness are used to refer to mental…

  17. Cerebral Palsy. NICHCY Disability Fact Sheet #2

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral palsy--also known as CP--is a condition caused by injury to the parts of the brain that control the body's ability to use muscles effectively. Often the injury happens before birth, sometimes during delivery or soon after birth. The symptoms will differ from person to person and change as children and their nervous systems mature. This…

  18. Fact Sheet: Alternative Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel Transition Program for Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet summarizes EPA's final rule modifying the diesel fuel regulations to apply an effective date of 6-1-2010 for 15 ppm sulfur requirements for highway, nonroad, locomotive and marine diesel fuel produced/imported for, distributed

  19. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Pursuant to the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended (42 USC 6901, et seq.), and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act (Section 74-4-1 et seq., NMSA 1978), Permit is issued to the owner and operator of the US DOE, WIPP site (hereafter called the Permittee(s)) to operate a hazardous waste storage facility consisting of a container storage unit (Waste Handling Building) and two Subpart X miscellaneous below-ground storage units (Bin Scale Test Rooms 1 and 3), all are located at the above location. The Permittee must comply with all terms and conditions of this Permit. This Permit consists of the conditions contained herein, including the attachments. Applicable regulations cited are the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations, as amended 1992 (HWMR-7), the regulations that are in effect on the date of permit issuance. This Permit shall become effective upon issuance by the Secretary of the New Mexico Environment Department and shall be in effect for a period of ten (10) years from issuance. This Permit is also based on the assumption that all information contained in the Permit application and the administrative record is accurate and that the activity will be conducted as specified in the application and the administrative record. The Permit application consists of Revision 3, as well as associated attachments and clarifying information submitted on January 25, 1993, and May 17, 1993

  20. Fact sheet on spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA gives high priority to safe and effective spent fuel management. As an example of continuing efforts, the 2003 International Conference on Storage of Spent Fuel from Power Reactors gathered 125 participants from 35 member states to exchange information on this important subject. With its large number of Member States, the IAEA is well-positioned to gather and share information useful in addressing Member State priorities. IAEA activities on this topic include plans to produce technical documents as resources for a range of priority topics: spent fuel performance assessment and research, burnup credit applications, cask maintenance, cask loading optimization, long term storage requirements including records maintenance, economics, spent fuel treatment, remote technology, and influence of fuel design on spent fuel storage. In addition to broader topics, the IAEA supports coordinated research projects and technical cooperation projects focused on specific needs. The proceedings of the 2003 IAEA conference on storage of spent fuel from power reactors has been ranked in the top twenty most accessed IAEA publications. These proceedings are available for free downloads at http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PubDetails.asp?pubId=6924]. The IAEA organized and held a 2004 meeting focused on long term spent fuel storage provisions in Central and Eastern Europe, using technical cooperation funds to support participation by these Member States. Over ninety percent of the participants in this meeting rated its value as good or excellent, with participants noting that the IAEA is having a positive effect in stimulating communication, cooperation, and information dissemination on this important topic. The IAEA was advised in 2004 that results from a recent coordinated research project (IAEA-TECDOC-1343) were used by one Member State to justify higher clad temperatures for spent fuel in dry storage, leading to more efficient storage and reduced costs. Long term

  1. Best Management Practice, Fact Sheet 2. Sheet Flow to Open Space

    OpenAIRE

    Sample, David; Doumar, Lia

    2013-01-01

    This publication explains what sheet flow to open space is, where and how it is used, their limitations, routine and nonroutine maintenance, expected costs, and a glossary of terms. This fact sheet is one of a 15-part series on urban stormwater management practices.

  2. Teenage Pregnancy. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Fact Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Laurie L.

    This fact sheet addresses the issue of teenage pregnancy. Six factors contributing to the current attention focused on teenage pregnancy and parenthood are listed and teenage pregnancy and birth rates are discussed. Other areas covered include teenage nonuse of contraception, sex education by schools and parents, family planning services, and the…

  3. Hispanics/Latinos & Cardiovascular Disease: Statistical Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statistical Fact Sheet 2013 Update Hispanics/Latinos & Cardiovascular Diseases Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) (ICD/10 codes I00-I99, Q20-Q28) (ICD/9 codes 390-459, 745-747)  Among Mexican-American adults age 20 ...

  4. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-06-01

    This is the Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  5. Child Care in Sweden. Fact Sheets on Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedish Inst., Stockholm.

    This fact sheet outlines Sweden's policies of government-supported child care and parental insurance provisions. Swedish families receive: (1) free maternity and child health care; (2) child allowances for each child of 9,000 krona per year through age 16; (3) up to 450 days of paid parental leave for the birth of a child, with 360 days paid at 90…

  6. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    This is the Vietnamese language translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) fact sheet. The Solutions Center helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  7. Careers "Fact Sheets" for clinical engineering & biomedical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacela, A F

    1991-01-01

    Three Careers "Fact Sheets" include information on CE and BMET job titles, job descriptions, and certification. These materials are intended to aid in furthering professional recognition for Clinical Engineers and BMETs, and may be useful in communicating with Administration or Human Resources departments.

  8. SunShot Catalyst Prize Competition Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2015-04-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Catalyst Energy Innovation Prize, an open innovation program launched in 2014 by the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. This program aims to catalyze the rapid creation and development of products and solutions that address near-term challenges in the U.S. solar energy marketplace.

  9. Delinquency Cases in Juvenile Court, 2002. OJJDP Fact Sheet #02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Anne L.

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet presents statistics on delinquency cases processed by juvenile courts in 2002. The number of delinquency cases handled by juvenile courts decreased 11 percent between 1997 and 2002. During this time, the number of person offense cases decreased 2 percent, property offense cases decreased 27 percent, drug law violation cases…

  10. State Arts Agency Fact Sheet: Support for Arts Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online Submission, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This national overview of state arts agency grants and services for arts education includes summary statistics and geographic distribution. The fact sheet uses data from Final Descriptive Reports of state arts agency grant-making activities submitted annually to the National Assembly of State Arts Agencies (NASAA) and the National Endowment for…

  11. Epilepsy. Fact Sheet = Epilepsia. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet, written in both English and Spanish, provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications of epilepsy. It notes that epilepsy is classified as "other health impaired" under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and that children with epilepsy or seizure disorders…

  12. Fact Sheet: What Parents Need to Know About Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Post-Disaster Child Care Resources ACF Capabilities Policies Resources You are here ACF Home › Office of Human Services Emergency Preparedness and Response › Resource Library › Fact Sheet: What Parents Need to Know About ...

  13. Down Syndrome: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 4 = El Sindrome de Down: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on Down Syndrome is offered in both English and Spanish. First it provides a definition and description of this syndrome, noting its etiology in a chromosomal abnormality. Incidence figures are then given. Typical characteristics of people with Down Syndrome are listed. Commonly associated health-related problems are noted,…

  14. Spina Bifida: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 12 = La Espina Bifida: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on spina bifida is offered in both English and Spanish. It provides definitions of the three types of spina bifida (spina bifida occulta, meningocele, and myelomeningocele). Incidence figures are given as are typical characteristics of children with spina bifida. Educational implications are briefly noted, including the need to…

  15. General Information about Learning Disabilities (Fact Sheet Number 7) = Informacion General sobre Impedimentos en el Aprendizaje (Fact Sheet Number 19).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interstate Research Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet providing general information about learning disabilities is presented in both English and Spanish versions. It begins with the federal definition of learning disabilities and a discussion of its implications followed by estimates of incidence. Typical characteristics of students with learning disabilities are then summarized as…

  16. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 02: First Order Fire Effects Model (FOFEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Sutherland

    2004-01-01

    FOFEM 5.2 is a simple, yet versatile computer program that predicts first order fire effects using text and graphic outputs. It can be used in a variety of situations including: determining acceptable upper and lower fuel moistures for conducting prescribed burns, determining the number of acres that may be burned on a given day without exceeding particulate emission...

  17. EERE-Supported International Activities in Latin America (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-05-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is involved in a variety of international initiatives, partnerships, and events that promote greater understanding and use of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) worldwide. In support of the Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas (ECPA), EERE is working with several Latin American countries to advance EE and RE deployment for economic growth, energy security, poverty relief, and disaster recovery goals. This fact sheet highlights those activities.

  18. Fact Sheets: Air Toxics Rules for the Manufacture of Amino/Phenolic Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a December 1999 fact sheet for the proposed National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP): Manufacture of Amino/Phenolic Resins and a September 2014 fact sheet with information regarding the final NESHAP

  19. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Fact Sheet for Healthcare Workers and Morticians

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home » Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education » Fact Sheets Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Fact Sheet for Healthcare Workers and Morticians Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare, fatal brain disorder that ...

  20. Canada and the Kyoto Protocol: Fact Sheet No. 1 - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    This fact sheet outlines the principles underlying Canada's position at the sixth Conference of Parties (COP6) regarding climate change. Capsule descriptions of the Canadian view on carbon sinks (advocating a broader inclusion of sink activities), application of the flexibility mechanisms (the Clean Development Mechanism, Joint Implementation and International Emissions Trading), the issue of compliance (Canada favoring strong incentives to ensure compliance), and strengthening the capacity of developing countries to enhance their contribution to fighting climate change (Canada acknowledging that capacity building and technology transfer needs to be a central part of the global approach to combating climate change)

  1. 75 FR 55340 - Recovery Fact Sheet 9580.100, Mold Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ...] Recovery Fact Sheet 9580.100, Mold Remediation AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... accepting comments on Recovery Fact Sheet RP9580.100, Mold Remediation. DATES: Comments must be received by... 20472-3100. II. Background The Recovery Fact Sheet RP9580.100, Mold Remediation, identifies the expenses...

  2. 75 FR 13777 - Disaster Assistance Fact Sheet DAP9580.107, Child Care Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ...] Disaster Assistance Fact Sheet DAP9580.107, Child Care Services AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency... (FEMA) is providing notice of the availability of the final Disaster Assistance Fact Sheet DAP9580.107...'s Web site at http://www.fema.gov . You may also view a hard copy of the fact sheet at the Office of...

  3. Fact sheet on thyroid test in Fukushima prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiranuma, Yuri

    2017-01-01

    Fukushima Prefecture chose about 360,000 people who were 18 years old or younger at the time of the accident at Fukushima Daiichi NPS on March 11, 2011, and started thyroid test as part of the prefectural health survey on October 9, 2011. The survey is entrusted to Fukushima Medical University of Medicine from Fukushima Prefecture. This fact sheet summarizes the current state of thyroid test in Fukushima Prefecture. A considerable amount of data and related information have been accumulated in the seventh year from the beginning. However, especially the information disclosed in English by people concerned combined the results of the second round, which was not analyzed properly, with those of the first round. This fact gives a suspicion of intention to deny the possibility of radiation influence in such a way as to make it invisible even if there was the influence. This study firstly prepared an English fact sheet to convey the actual situation in English. However, since some official information/views were contained in papers only available in English, this study also prepared the Japanese version for enabling to grasp the current situation. The Japanese version is supplemented with explanation rather than the Japanese translation of the English version, in order to make it easier to understand. The future of thyroid test is a topic that is causing controversy. Now that the transparency, scientific fairness, and the data integrity of Fukushima Medical University are suspected, it is extremely important that an independent analysis in the true sense is to be performed by qualified experts based on the latest evidence. (A.O.)

  4. Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty. Poverty Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damron, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty," released in March 2015 and prepared by intern Neil Damron, explores the brain's basic anatomy and recent research findings suggesting that poverty affects the brain development of infants and young children and the potential lifelong effects of the changes. The sheet draws from a variety of…

  5. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 10: The Understory Response Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Sutherland; Melanie Miller

    2005-01-01

    The Understory Response Model is a species-specific computer model that qualitatively predicts change in total species biomass for grasses, forbs, and shrubs after thinning, prescribed fire, or wildfire. The model examines the effect of fuels management on plant survivorship and reproduction. This fact sheet identifies the intended users and uses, required inputs, what...

  6. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 15: Landscape change and aesthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Esposito

    2006-01-01

    Fuels management produces changes in the landscape that can impact scenic beauty. If people do not consider a forest to be scenic, they may think that the low scenic quality is a result of poor management or ecological health. This fact sheet looks at the relevency of the effects of natural and human-caused landscape changes, when planning fuels management.

  7. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; forest structure and fire hazard fact sheet 02: fire hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Fire hazard reflects the potential fire behavior and magnitude of effects as a function of fuel conditions. This fact sheet discusses crown fuels, surface fuels, and ground fuels and their contribution and involvement in wildland fire.Other publications in this series...

  8. 16 CFR 460.15 - How installers must handle fact sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.15 How installers must handle fact sheets. If you are an installer, you... from you, you must show them the fact sheet(s) for the type(s) of insulation they want. You can decide...

  9. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 06: Important considerations for communicating about hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Effective public education and communication campaigns about wildland fire and fuels management should have clear objectives, and use the right techniques to achieve these objectives. This fact sheet lists seven important considerations for planning or implementing a hazard communication effort.

  10. Oil Notifications: Emergency Response Notification System (ERNS) fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The Emergency Response Notification System (ERNS) is a national computer database which provides the only centralized mechanism for documenting and verifying incident notification information as initially reported to the National Response Center (NRC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and to a limited extent, the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG). The initial notification data may be followed up with updated information from various Federal, State and local response authorities, as appropriate. ERNS contains data that can be used to analyze release notifications, support emergency planning efforts, and assist decision makers in developing spill prevention programs. The fact sheet provides summary information on notifications of releases of oil reported in accordance with the Clean Water Act (CWA). Under Section 311 of the CWA, discharges of oil which: (1) cause a sheen to appear on the surface of the water; (2) violate applicable water quality standards; or (3) cause sludge or emulsion to be deposited beneath the surface of the water or adjoining shoreline, must be reported to the NRC

  11. Canada and the Kyoto Protocol: Fact Sheet No. 5 - Developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    This fact sheet acknowledges that global change affects developed and developing countries alike, and the fact that most developing countries do not have the human, financial and technical capacity to effectively address climate change issues without help from the industrialized nations. The fact sheet also puts Canada on record as being in agreement with the spirit of the Kyoto Protocol to encourage the participation of developing countries in global efforts to combat climate change and promote sustainable development and reaffirms Canada's willingness to provide financial and technical assistance to developing countries to enable them to play a meaningful part in this global effort. In this context, the fact sheet briefly describes the new Canada Climate Change Development Fund which has been set up to reduce the growth of GHG emissions and support carbon sink activities in developing countries, to strengthen the capacity of developing conuntries to reduce their vulnerability to adverse effects of climate change, and to participate in global efforts to combat them

  12. CMS fact sheet : to give an overview of the basic facts on the CMS Detector, its aims and collaboration

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS, Outreach

    2010-01-01

    2-sided color print A4 size sheet containing the facts on the CMS Detector, its name, what it is designed to do, questions scientists hope to answer, collaboration members, detector parts and their functions, and other miscellaneous facts on the CMS detector

  13. Supporting Documentation for the 2008 Update to the Insulation Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, Therese K [ORNL

    2008-02-01

    The Insulation Fact Sheet provides consumers for general guidance and recommended insulation levels for their home. This fact sheet has been on-line since 1995 and this update addresses new insulation materials, as well as updated costs for energy and materials.

  14. Cerebral Palsy. Fact Sheet = La Paralisis Cerebral. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on cerebral palsy is written in both English and Spanish. First, it provides a definition of cerebral palsy and considers various causes (e.g., an insufficient amount of oxygen reaching the fetal or newborn brain). The fact sheet then offers incidence figures and explains characteristics of the three main types of cerebral palsy:…

  15. 77 FR 40626 - RP9580.210, Personal Assistance Services in Shelters Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency [Docket ID FEMA-2012-0014] RP9580.210, Personal Assistance Services in Shelters Fact Sheet AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management... Management Agency (FEMA) is accepting comments on Recovery Fact Sheet RP9580.210, Personal Assistance...

  16. Catalog of CERCLA applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) - fact sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    Section 121(d) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), requires attainment of federal and state applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs). Subpart E, Section 300.400(g) {open_quotes}Identification of applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements{close_quotes} of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP)(55 FR 8666, March 8, 1990) describes the process for attaining ARARs. The purpose of this catalog is to provide DOE Program Offices and Field Organizations with all of the {open_quotes}Quick Reference Fact Sheets{close_quotes} on attaining ARARS. These fact sheets provide overviews of ARARs for CERCLA cleanup actions pertinent to DOE environmental restoration activities. All of the fact sheets in this catalog were prepared by the Environmental Protection Agency`s Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. Fact sheets 1-7 discuss land disposal restrictions (LDRs) and their applicability. LDRs may pertain to a number of CERCLA response actions at DOE facilities. Fact Sheets 8-13 are based on the CERCLA Compliance with Other Laws Manual: Parts I and II and provide an overview of many other CERCLA ARARs. Overview of ARARs-Focus on ARAR Waivers (fact sheet 11), provides a good introduction to ARARS. The last two fact sheets, 14 and 15, are periodic reports that describe additional fact sheets and clarify issues.

  17. OPA Q's and A's: Overview of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The OPA Q's and A's are part of a series of fact sheets that provide up-to-date information on EPA's implementation of the OPA. The first fact sheet provides an overview of the various provisions of the OPA and the Agency's responsibilities under the new law

  18. Technical fact sheets on the impacts of new energy efficiency technologies and measures in ice rinks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents energy efficiency facts on ice rinks and arenas to advise and inform refrigeration and building professionals. The aim of the paper was to facilitate estimation and compare impacts of various energy efficiency measures and new technologies on the consumption of energy and the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A computer-based tool modelling ice rink energy consumption was constructed based on DOE-2.1E software. The simulation tool was developed to study the sensitivity of various eco-energetic technologies applied to arenas. Results of the simulations have made it possible to construct 8 facts sheets, including information on simulated heat exchange; calculation of energy consumption for heating and refrigeration; the incorporation of several types of Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems; and to show various strategies of operation. To account for the effects of ice within a building, calculation routines in the form of functional values were added. The model addressed the following parameters: climate; characteristics of the envelope; lighting power and intensity; temperature of the resurfacing water; ice sheet temperature; humidity level of the ice rink; fresh air intake; emissivity index of the ceiling above the ice sheet; refrigeration systems according to type, capacity, output and operation mode; capacity output and operation mode of the air heating system, including heat recovery from the refrigeration system; and capacity, output and operation mode of the domestic and resurfacing hot water heating system, including heat recovery from the refrigeration system. Fact sheets were presented for the type of technology; description; direct or indirect benefits; energy-savings potential; environmental impacts; specific comments from specialists; and a set of charts to facilitate comprehension. tabs., figs.

  19. Facts about food irradiation. A series of fact sheets from the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-01

    The safety and benefits of foods processed by ionizing radiation are well documented. In an effort to provide governments, especially those of developing countries, with scientifically accurate information on issues of general interest to the public, the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI), which was established under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the IAEA, decided at its 7th Annual Meeting in Rome, Italy, on October 1990, to issue a series of ''Fact Sheets'' on the subject. ICGFI, an inter-governmental body with a membership of 37 governments, has as one of its mandates the function to provide information to Member States of the FAO, WHO, and IAEA and to the three organizations themselves on the safe and proper use of food irradiation technology. The Fact Sheets included here cover issues relating to: status and trends; scientific and technical terms; food irradiation and radioactivity; chemical changes in irradiated food; nutritional quality of irradiated foods; genetic studies; microbiological safety of irradiated food; irradiation and food safety; irradiation and food additives and residues; packaging of irradiated foods; safety of irradiation facilities; controlling the process; food irradiation costs; and irradiated foods and the consumer. The Fact Sheets have been separately indexed and included in the INIS Database under Reference Numbers 23011206-23011217, 23011319 and 23012743. The Fact Sheets were first issued by the ICGFI Secretariat (Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna, Austria) in May 1991.

  20. Facts about food irradiation. A series of fact sheets from the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The safety and benefits of foods processed by ionizing radiation are well documented. In an effort to provide governments, especially those of developing countries, with scientifically accurate information on issues of general interest to the public, the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI), which was established under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the IAEA, decided at its 7th Annual Meeting in Rome, Italy, on October 1990, to issue a series of ''Fact Sheets'' on the subject. ICGFI, an inter-governmental body with a membership of 37 governments, has as one of its mandates the function to provide information to Member States of the FAO, WHO, and IAEA and to the three organizations themselves on the safe and proper use of food irradiation technology. The Fact Sheets included here cover issues relating to: status and trends; scientific and technical terms; food irradiation and radioactivity; chemical changes in irradiated food; nutritional quality of irradiated foods; genetic studies; microbiological safety of irradiated food; irradiation and food safety; irradiation and food additives and residues; packaging of irradiated foods; safety of irradiation facilities; controlling the process; food irradiation costs; and irradiated foods and the consumer. The Fact Sheets have been separately indexed and included in the INIS Database under Reference Numbers 23011206-23011217, 23011319 and 23012743. The Fact Sheets were first issued by the ICGFI Secretariat (Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna, Austria) in May 1991

  1. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 08: The "Golden Rule" and other lessons on communicating about hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Other fact sheets identified considerations for communicating about hazards, talked about the importance of working locally, and discussed the seven laws of effective hazard communication. This fact sheet introduces the "Golden Rule" of hazard communication and shares some final lessons from hazard educators.

  2. Energy-Saving Opportunities for Manufacturing Companies, International Fact Sheet (Spanish)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-08-01

    This English/Spanish fact sheet describes the Industrial Technologies Program Save Energy Now model and provides information on tools and resources to help manufacturing facilities reduce industrial energy intensity.

  3. Fact Sheet: Notice of Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document for Tributyltin (TBT) - Final

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information pertaining to 2004 Final Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Tributyltin (TBT) for freshwater and saltwater. This fact sheet includes the safe levels of TBT that should protect the majority of species.

  4. Fact Sheet - Final Air Toxics Rule for Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact sheet summarizing main points of National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for gold ore processing and production facilities, the seventh largest source of mercury air emission in the United States.

  5. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Chemical Substances which are the Subject of Certain TSCA Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides guidance for people who may be subject to the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule on how their requirements for reporting for 2016 may be affected when chemical substances are the subject of certain TSCA actions.

  6. Final Rule to Reduce Hazardous Air Emissions from Newly Built Stationary Combustion Turbines: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains an August 2003 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Stationary Combustion Turbines. This document provides a summary of the information for this NESHAP.

  7. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Reporting Manufactured Chemical Substances from Metal Mining and Related Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides guidance on the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule requirements related to the reporting of mined metals, intermediates, and byproducts manufactured during metal mining and related activities.

  8. Drinking water regulations under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The fact sheet describes the requirements covered under the 1986 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. Levels of various contaminants (including radio nuclides) are explained. Also discussed are the Surface Water Treatment Rule and the Total Coliforms Rule

  9. Guidelines for Home Energy Upgrade Professionals: Standard Work Specifications for Multifamily Energy Upgrades (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-08-01

    This fact sheet provides essential information about the 2011 publication of the Workforce Guidelines for Multifamily Home Energy Upgrades, including their origin, their development with the help of industry leaders to create the standard work specifications for retrofit work.

  10. Enhancing Tribal Energy Security and Clean Energy (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-07-01

    This fact provides information on the Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) initiative to provide technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects in Indian Country.

  11. Asthma and Environment Fact Sheet for Parents and Schools. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Important facts about asthma and the environment include: (1) Asthma has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, affecting about 25 million people of all ages and races, including about 7 million children; (2) Nearly one in 10 school-aged children has asthma, and the percentage of children with asthma is rising more rapidly in…

  12. African Americans: College Majors and Earnings. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Fasules, Megan L.; Porter, Andrea; Landis-Santos Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Access to college for African Americans has increased, but African Americans are highly concentrated in lower-paying majors. The college major, which has critical economic consequences throughout life, reflects personal choices but also reflects the fact that African-American students are concentrated in open-access four-year institutions that…

  13. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; forest structure and fire hazard fact sheet 03: visualizing forest structure and fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    The software described in this fact sheet provides managers with tools for visualizing forest and fuels information. Computer-based landscape simulations can help visualize stand and landscape conditions and the effects of different management treatments and fuel changes over time. These visualizations can assist forest planning by considering a range of management...

  14. Facts about Volunteers. NCJW Center for the Child Fact Sheet Number 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council of Jewish Women, New York, NY. Center for the Child.

    Volunteering is a vital and widespread activity in the United States; in fact, volunteers perform many essential community functions. Those who believe that most volunteers are women with time on their hands, that volunteers just do "charity work," and that volunteers are a source of cheap labor who can replace paid professionals and…

  15. Supporting documentation for the 1997 revision to the DOE Insulation Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, T.K.

    1997-08-22

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Insulation Fact Sheet has been revised to reflect developments in energy conservation technology and the insulation market. A nationwide insulation cost survey was made by polling insulation contractors and builders, and the results are reported here. These costs, along with regional weather data, regional fuel costs, and fuel-specific system efficiencies were used to produce recommended insulation levels for new and existing houses. This report contains all of the methodology, algorithms, assumptions, references, and data resources that were used to produce the 1997 DOE Insulation Fact Sheet.

  16. Wind-Wildlife Impacts Literature Database (WILD)(Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    The Wind-Wildlife Impacts Literature Database (WILD), developed and maintained by the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is comprised of over 1,000 citations pertaining to the effects of land-based wind, offshore wind, marine and hydrokinetic, power lines, and communication and television towers on wildlife.

  17. Fact sheet on nuclear power plant instrumentation and control technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are facing challenges in several instrumentation and control (I and C) areas with ageing and obsolete components and equipment. With license renewals and power uprates, the long-term operation and maintenance of obsolete I and C systems may not be a cost-effective and reliable option. The effort needed to maintain or increase the reliability and useful life of existing I and C systems may be greater in the long run than modernizing I and C systems or replacing them completely with new digital systems. The increased functionality of the new I and C systems can also open up new possibilities to better support the operation and maintenance activities in the plant. The IAEA recognizes the importance of the profound role the I and C systems play in the reliable, safe, efficient, and cost-effective operations of NPPs by supporting the activities of the Department of Nuclear Energy's Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (TWG-NPPCI). The group was established in March 1970. Its membership currently includes thirty Member States and three international organizations. The most recent meeting of the TWG-NPPCI was held in May 2005 in Vienna. The meeting report is available at http://www.iaea.org/OurWork/ST/NE/NENP/twg_nppc.html. The next meeting of the TWGNPPCI will be the 21st meeting of the advisory body, and it will be held in May 2007

  18. Fact Sheet: Improving Energy Efficiency for Server Rooms and Closets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Hoi Ying [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mahdavi, Rod [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Greenberg, Steve [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brown, Rich [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tschudi, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Delforge, Pierre [Natural Resources Defense Council, New York, NY (United States); Dickerson, Joyce [Natural Resources Defense Council, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Is there a ghost in your IT closet? If your building has one or more IT rooms or closets containing between 5 and 50 servers, chances are that they account for a significant share of the building’s energy use (in some cases, over half!). Servers, data storage arrays, networking equipment, and the cooling and power conditioning that support them tend to draw large amounts of energy 24/7, in many cases using more energy annually than traditional building loads such as HVAC and lighting. The good news is that there are many cost-effective actions, ranging from simple to advanced, that can dramatically reduce that energy use, helping you to save money and reduce pollution.

  19. Are we reaching the target audience? Evaluation of a fish fact sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, J; Waishwell, L

    2001-09-28

    According to the US Environmental Protection Agency, over 16% of freshwater lakes and 7% of the rivers are under some sort of fish consumption advisory because of the presence of toxic chemicals. There is considerable interest in the issuing of information, advisories, and fact sheets concerning the consumption of wild-caught fish from contaminated waters, and in the actual consumption patterns of subsistence and recreational anglers. Despite the large number of consumption advisories issued by state agencies, there is little information on how these advisories, or other forms of risk communication, are perceived by target audiences, notably fishermen and women of child-bearing age. The states of South Carolina and Georgia issue consumption advisories for fish from the Savannah River, among other sites. To gain a greater insight into the perception of anglers about a supplemental fish fact sheet jointly developed by South Carolina, Georgia, federal agencies, and the Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, we interviewed fisherman along the Savannah River. The objectives were to determine: (1) whether they had previously read the Fish Fact Sheet or had heard about the consumption advisories; (2) what major message they obtained from the sheet; (3) who they felt the fact sheet was aimed at, and who should get the Fish Fact Sheet; (4) who should be concerned about health risks from consuming the fish; and (5) the best method of disseminating such information. We interviewed 92 fishermen (37% black, 62% white) during the fishing season of 1999. Half had heard some information about consumption advisories, mainly from the media (64%). The study concluded that there were no ethnic differences in whether they had heard about the advisories, understood the major message of the fact sheet, felt they could reduce their risk from consuming the fish, or felt that it made a difference which agency issued the fact sheet. There were significant ethnic

  20. FY2000 Hanford Technology Deployment Accomplishments Fact Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WIBLE, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Cleaning up the Hanford Site is one of the top priorities for the U. S. Department of Energy. The department is continually looking for ways to expedite cleanup and reduce costs. During Fiscal Year (FY) 2000. Hanford Site staff deployed 24 new technologies, which produced an estimated lifecycle cost savings of 479 million dollars. This is a clear indicator of the impacts new technology has had and will have on the cleanup efforts. The Hanford Site cleanup is focused on the following: Restoring the Columbia River Corridor; Building and operating the tank waste treatment complex to complete the cleanup of highly radioactive tank waste at Hanford; and Transitioning the Central Plateau. Applying innovative science and technology from national laboratories, universities, and private industry is critical to our complex cleanup mission. The 24 new technologies deployed in FY 2000 are significantly higher than our goal of 14 technological deployments. Eleven of these technologies supported restoring the Columbia River Corridor, and seven were involved with the remediation of radioactive tank waste. These deployments produced valuable information to determine the effectiveness of the new technologies in the field and the efficiencies gained over existing cleanup methods. In several cases, the technology deployed presented a solution to a problem where a clear path of remediation had not yet been determined. New and innovative technologies will play a significant role in the cleanup of the Hanford Site and enable remediation to be done more efficiently. Technology is being developed at a staggering pace. This requires excellent communication throughout the scientific and industry arenas. To effect this communication, we have implemented a technology needs process in conjunction with the multi-year work planning process. Through the combination of these two processes, technology developments and deployments address the near-term technology needs and enable us to plan for the

  1. New technology for sulfide reductions and increased oil recovery: Petroleum project fact sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-14

    This Fact Sheet is written for the Inventions and Innovations Program about a new technology for sulfide reduction and increased oil recovery. The new technology, called Bio-Competitive Exclusion (BCX), results in greater oil production and prevents the production of corrosive hydrogen sulfide in oil and gas reservoirs. This BCX process is initiated and maintained by a new product, called Max-Well 2000, in which nutrients are custom designed to stimulate targeted beneficial microorganisms that live in every oil and gas reservoir. Rapid growth of these microorganisms excludes activity of harmful sulfide-producing bacteria and produces by-products that serve as effective tertiary oil recovery agents and as sulfide degradation agents. Oil and gas production is both increased and sweetened.

  2. ATLAS Fact Sheet : To raise awareness of the ATLAS detector and collaboration on the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Outreach

    2010-01-01

    Facts on the Detector, Calorimeters, Muon System, Inner Detector, Pixel Detector, Semiconductor Tracker, Transition Radiation Tracker,, Surface hall, Cavern, Detector, Magnet system, Solenoid, Toroid, Event rates, Physics processes, Supersymmetric particles, Comparing LHC with Cosmic rays, Heavy ion collisions, Trigger and Data Acquisition TDAQ, Computing, the LHC and the ATLAS collaboration. This fact sheet also contains images of ATLAS and the collaboration as well as a short list of videos on ATLAS available for viewing.

  3. Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PCE) PDF | Espanol PDF Pesticides PDF | Espanol PDF Pregnancy and Natural Disasters PDF | Espanol PDF Reproductive Hazards of the Workplace PDF | Espanol PDF Research Study Participation PDF | Espanol ...

  4. Women, Work and Health Hazards: A Fact Sheet and Cosmetologists: Health Risks at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Commission on Working Women, Washington, DC.

    The first part of this document is a fact sheet that provides information on health hazards faced by employed women. It covers the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA), job-related diseases suffered by workers in female-dominated occupations, employer responsibilities under OSHA, and the lack of statistical reporting on job-related disease.…

  5. African American Students and U.S. High Schools. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This fact sheet highlights the statistics of the status of the African American students living in the continental United States in terms of: population; graduation, dropouts, and preparedness; schools, segregation, and teacher quality; and special, gifted, and college preparatory education. According to the National Center for Education…

  6. Systems Performance Analyses of Alaska Wind-Diesel Projects; Kotzebue, Alaska (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2009-04-01

    This fact sheet summarizes a systems performance analysis of the wind-diesel project in Kotzebue, Alaska. Data provided for this project include wind turbine output, average wind speed, average net capacity factor, and optimal net capacity factor based on Alaska Energy Authority wind data, estimated fuel savings, and wind system availability.

  7. 75 FR 45144 - Recovery Fact Sheet 9580.203, Debris Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency [Docket ID FEMA-2010-0045] Recovery Fact Sheet 9580.203, Debris Monitoring AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is...

  8. Young People and Political Campaigning on the Internet. CIRCLE Fact Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Peter; Lopez, Mark Hugo

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet discusses young people and political campaigning on the Internet. It explains how the Internet has become a powerful force in political campaigns. A survey released by the Pew Research Center for the People & the Press on January 11, 2004 found that the Internet is gaining importance as a source of political news, especially for…

  9. Human Trafficking of Children in the United States: A Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This fact sheet presents questions and answers related to the human trafficking of children in the United States. It describes human trafficking and its extent in the United States, how human traffickers target children for coerced labor and sex exploitation, how to identify victims of human trafficking, how to report a suspected incidence of…

  10. Juvenile Delinquency Probation Caseload, 1985-2002. OJJDP Fact Sheet #04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livsey, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet presents statistics on delinquency cases resulting in probation, 2002. Probation was the disposition in 38 percent of all delinquency cases processed by the juvenile courts in 2002. The number of cases placed on probation increased 44 percent between 1985 and 2002. Property offense cases made up the greatest proportion of the…

  11. Fact sheet: National primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The Fact Sheet contains a summary of what the regulations will do, establish, and provide; regulatory impact in regards to benefits and costs; treatment technique requirements; tap water monitoring for lead and copper; water quality monitoring (other than lead and copper); monitoring schedules, regulatory schedules for large, medium-sized, and small systems

  12. Training Sessions and Materials Present Ways to Improve System Efficiency: OIT Technical Assistance Fact Sheet: Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericksen, E.

    1999-01-01

    Interested in learning about innovative ways to improve the efficiency of your plant's steam, electric motor, and compressed air systems? This US Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies fact sheet offers information regarding training sessions, teleconferences, and various training materials to teach you and your company ways to reduce energy use, save money, and reduce waste and pollution through system optimization

  13. How Schools Responded to Student Mental Health Needs Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAND Corporation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This fact sheet summarizes a study that examined how schools in the U.S. Gulf Coast region perceived the mental health needs of students after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita and how schools responded. According to the report, despite strong initial efforts to support the mental health needs of students displaced by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, many…

  14. Long-Term Consequences for Teens with Older Sexual Partners. Fact Sheet. Publication #2008-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelar, Erin; Ryan, Suzanne; Manlove, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Existing research on the risks of having sex at a young age with an older partner has focused on poorer reproductive health outcomes in the adolescent years, but scant attention has been paid to the longer-term implications of these relationships. Using survey data from high school students, this "Fact Sheet" presents findings from recent Child…

  15. Becoming Resilient: Disaster Planning and Recovery: NREL Experts Assist Before and After a Disaster (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkiss, E.

    2014-08-01

    This fact sheet provides information on how private industry; federal, state, and local governments; non-profit organizations; and communities can utilize NREL's expertise, tools, and innovations to incorporate energy efficiency and renewable energy into the planning, recovery, and rebuilding stages of disaster.

  16. Servicios del Centro de Soluciones Para la Energia Limpia (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    This is the Spanish translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  17. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; economic uses fact sheet 07: markets and log prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Markets and prices for logs vary widely across the West, fluctuating from place to place in response to regional variables and hauling costs. This fact sheet discusses those variables, locality of log markets, markets for low-value logs, and caveats to consider when using My Fuel Treatment Planner.

  18. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 10: Stages of collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Esposito

    2006-01-01

    Collaboration is a powerful tool for improving both the management of wildland fire and the overall health of forests and other elements of fire-dependent ecosystems. This fact sheet discusses seven stages that are typical of most collaborations.Other publications in this...

  19. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 16: Prescribed fire and visual quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Esposito

    2006-01-01

    Research shows that, while prescribed burning and other fuels treatments can lower visual quality in some situations, they can also improve it in others. This fact sheet reviews the visual aspects of different levels of prescribed burning.Other publications in this series...

  20. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; economic uses fact sheet 04: My Fuel Treatment Planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    In the face of rapidly changing public and political attitudes toward fire and fuel planning, one thing remains constant: the fuel planner is ultimately responsible for making decisions on the land. This fact sheet discusses the options for fuel treatments, and the need, development, and use of the MS Excel-based tool, My Fuel Treatment Planner.

  1. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 12: Keys to successful collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Esposito

    2006-01-01

    Collaborating on fire and fuels management with a host of public and private partners may seem like an impossible undertaking, and presents many challenges. This fact sheet reviews tips for what to focus on as you embark on a collaborative fuels management project.Other...

  2. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 09: Benefits of collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Esposito

    2006-01-01

    Wildland fire professionals at the Federal, State, and local levels have a long tradition of collaborating across agencies and jurisdictions to achieve goals that they could not achieve independently. This fact sheet discusses the reasons and resources for collaboration.Other...

  3. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 11: Challenges to collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Esposito

    2006-01-01

    Bringing the right people into a collaborative process can be difficult. Potential collaborators must all feel they have something to gain to justify investing resources, sharing knowledge, and perhaps compromising on goals and actions. This fact sheet discusses some of the common challenges that individuals, communities, and institutions face in collaboration.

  4. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 05: The importance of working locally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    People who evaluate their actions in terms of what others think are often said to be guided by community norms. With respect to fuels management, this means that when you are "selling" a property owner on taking steps to reduce fuels, you are not just "selling" to one person, but to a network of people. This fact sheet discusses three tools to help...

  5. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 14: Landscape preference in forested ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Esposito

    2006-01-01

    It is important to understand what types of landscape settings most people prefer to be able to plan fuels treatment and other forest management activities that will be acceptable to the general public. This fact sheet considers the four common elements of visually preferred forest settings: large trees; herbacious, smooth groundcover; open midstory canopy; and vistas...

  6. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; economic uses fact sheet 03: economic impacts of fuel treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    With increased interest in reducing hazardous fuels in dry inland forests of the American West, agencies and the public will want to know the economic impacts of fuel reduction treatments. This fact sheet discusses the economic impact tool, a component of My Fuel Treatment Planner, for evaluating economic impacts.

  7. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; economic uses fact sheet 06: selection criteria analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Confidence in decisionmaking can often come from knowing if others in similar circumstances would choose the same management strategy. Researchers at the USDA FS Pacific Northwest Research Station and the University of Saskatchewan have developed a Selection Criteria Analysis for answering this very question. This fact sheet discusses factors affecting the choice of...

  8. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; economic uses fact sheet 05: NEPA and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is the law that requires Federal agencies to consider the environmental impacts of their actions, involve the public in the decisionmaking process, and disclose information, starting at the initial stages of planning. This fact sheet discusses when you should consider economics in the NEPA process, when to do an analysis,...

  9. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; economic uses fact sheet 02: log hauling cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Knowing the cost of fuel reduction treatments and associated activities, such as hauling cut trees, is essential for fire and fuels planning. This fact sheet explores the main factors that determine the cost of hauling cut trees and points the user to an interactive tool that can help plan for those and other expenses.

  10. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 11: Smoke Impact Spreadsheet (SIS) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent Wickman; Ann Acheson

    2005-01-01

    The Smoke Impact Spreadsheet (SIS) is a simple-to-use planning model for calculating particulate matter (PM) emissions and concentrations downwind of wildland fires. This fact sheet identifies the intended users and uses, required inputs, what the model does and does not do, and tells the user how to obtain the model.

  11. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; economic uses fact sheet 01: mastication treatments and costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Mastication, or mulching, is a mechanical fuel treatment that changes the structure and size of fuels in the stand. This fact sheet describes the kinds of equipment available, where mastication should be used, and treatment factors affecting cost.Other publications in this...

  12. Ancient DNA (aDNA): What is it? Why is it important?- Fact Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Alexa Walker; George Nicholas; Daryl Pullman; Alan Goodman; Bioarchaeology and Genetics Working Group

    2014-01-01

    As genetic research is increasingly applied to new areas of study, including in archaeological and heritage contexts, a range of questions arise concerning the social, ethical, legal, and political implications of ancient DNA. This fact sheet explains the nature and challenges of aDNA research, and why information from it is important and relevant to people today.  

  13. Fact Sheet- Ancient DNA: What is it? Why is it Important?

    OpenAIRE

    Alexa Walker; George Nicholas; Daryl Pullman; Alan Goodman; Bioarchaeology and Genetics Working Group

    2016-01-01

    As genetic research is increasingly applied to new areas of study, including in archaeological and heritage contexts, a range of questions arise concerning the social, ethical, legal, and political implications of ancient DNA. This fact sheet explains the nature and challenges of aDNA research, and why information from it is important and relevant to people today. 

  14. Final Rule to Reduce Toxic Air Emissions from Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Facilities Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a February 2003 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing.

  15. Fact Sheets and Questions and Answers for the Final Air Toxics Rules for the Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the July 1995 final rule fact sheet and the January 2015 proposed rule fact sheet that contains information on the National Emission Standards for Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities, as well as a 2001 Q&A document on the rule

  16. 75 FR 33821 - Recovery Fact Sheet RP9580.205, Public Assistance Funding to Public Housing Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is providing notice of the availability of the final Recovery Fact Sheet... the fact sheet at the Office of Chief Counsel, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Room 835, 500 C... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency [Docket ID FEMA-2010-0034...

  17. Community Renewable Energy Deployment Provides Replicable Examples of Clean Energy Projects (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-09-01

    This fact sheet describes the U.S. Department of Energy's Community Renewable Energy Deployment (CommRE) program, which is a more than $20 million effort funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, to promote investment in clean energy solutions and provide real-life examples for other local governments, campuses, and small utilities to replicate. Five community-based renewable energy projects received funding from DOE through the CommRE and their progress is detailed.

  18. Waste generation and pollution prevention progress fact sheet: Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site is responsible for maintaining nuclear testing capability, supporting science-based Stockpile Stewardship experiments, maintaining nuclear agency response capability, applying environmental restoration techniques to areas affected by nuclear testing, managing low-level and mixed radioactive waste, investigating demilitarization technologies, investigating counter- proliferation technologies, supporting work-for-others programs and special Department of Defense activities, operating a hazardous materials spill test center, and providing for the commercial development of the site. This fact sheet provides information on routine waste generation and projected reduction by waste type. Also, materials recycled by the Nevada Test Site in 1994 are listed

  19. Final Air Toxics Standards for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a December 2007 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources

  20. Final Rule to Reduce Toxic Air Pollutants from Surface Coating of Plastic Parts and Products Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains an August 2004 fact sheet with information regarding the final NESHAP for Surface Coating of Plastic Parts and Products. This document provides a summary of the information for the information for this regulation.

  1. Framework for DOE mixed low-level waste disposal: Site fact sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruebel, M.M.; Waters, R.D.; Hospelhorn, M.B.; Chu, M.S.Y. [eds.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required to prepare and submit Site Treatment Plans (STPS) pursuant to the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct). Although the FFCAct does not require that disposal be addressed in the STPS, the DOE and the States recognize that treatment of mixed low-level waste will result in residues that will require disposal in either low-level waste or mixed low-level waste disposal facilities. As a result, the DOE is working with the States to define and develop a process for evaluating disposal-site suitability in concert with the FFCAct and development of the STPS. Forty-nine potential disposal sites were screened; preliminary screening criteria reduced the number of sites for consideration to twenty-six. The DOE then prepared fact sheets for the remaining sites. These fact sheets provided additional site-specific information for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the twenty-six sites as potential disposal sites. The information also provided the basis for discussion among affected States and the DOE in recommending sites for more detailed evaluation.

  2. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 09: Fire and Fuels Extension to the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FFE-FVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth Reinhardt

    2005-01-01

    FFE-FVS is a model linking stand development, fuel dynamics, fire behavior and fire effects. It allows comparison of mid- to long-term effects of management alternatives including harvest, mechanical fuel treatment, prescribed fire, salvage, and no action. This fact sheet identifies the intended users and uses, required inputs, what the model does, and tells the user...

  3. Opening the Door to the American Dream: Increasing Higher Education Access and Success for Immigrants. New York Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erisman, Wendy; Looney, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    This fact sheet presents a snapshot of important facts that are specific to the state of New York from the "Opening the Door to the American Dream: Increasing Higher Education Access and Success for Immigrants" report, which exposes systemic barriers that prevent immigrants from entering college and/or completing bachelor's degrees…

  4. NREL Showcases Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Bus, Helps DOE Set Standards for Outreach (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) accomplishments in showcasing a Ford hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine (H2ICE) bus at The Taste of Colorado festival in Denver. NREL started using its U.S. Department of Energy-funded H2ICE bus in May 2010 as the primary shuttle vehicle for VIP visitors, members of the media, and new employees. In September 2010, NREL featured the bus at The Taste of Colorado. This was the first major outreach event for the bus. NREL's educational brochure, vehicle wrap designs, and outreach efforts serve as a model for other organizations with DOE-funded H2ICE buses. Work was performed by the Hydrogen Education Group and Market Transformation Group in the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

  5. Photovoltaics (PV) as an Eligible Measure in Residential PACE Programs: Benefits and Challenges (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J.

    2010-06-01

    Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing is one of several new financial models broadening access to clean energy by addressing the barrier of initial capital cost. The majority of the PACE programs in the market today include PV as an eligible measure. PV appeals to homeowners as a way to reduce utility bills, self-generate sustainable power, increase energy independence and demonstrate a commitment to the environment. If substantial state incentives for PV exist, PV projects can be economic under PACE, especially when partnered with good net metering policies. At the same time, PV is expensive relative to other eligible measures with a return on investment horizon that might exceed program targets. This fact sheet reviews the benefits and potential challenges of including PV in PACE programs.

  6. Technologies for Distributed Energy Resources. Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Technical Assistance Fact Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitchford, P.; Brown, T.

    2001-01-01

    This four-page fact sheet describes distributed energy resources for Federal facilities, which are being supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). Distributed energy resources include both existing and emerging energy technologies: advanced industrial turbines and microturbines; combined heat and power (CHP) systems; fuel cells; geothermal systems; natural gas reciprocating engines; photovoltaics and other solar systems; wind turbines; small, modular biopower; energy storage systems; and hybrid systems. DOE FEMP is investigating ways to use these alternative energy systems in government facilities to meet greater demand, to increase the reliability of the power-generation system, and to reduce the greenhouse gases associated with burning fossil fuels

  7. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 13: Strategies for managing fuels and visual quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Esposito

    2006-01-01

    The public's acceptance of forest management practices, including fuels reduction, is heavily based on how forests look. Fuels managers can improve their chances of success by considering aesthetics when making management decisions. This fact sheet reviews a three-part general strategy for managing fuels and visual quality: planning, implementation, and monitoring...

  8. 9/11 and the War on Terror in Curricula and in State Standards Documents. CIRCLE Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Jeremy; Hess, Diana

    2011-01-01

    This Fact Sheet reports findings from an ongoing study of the representation of 9/11 and terrorism in curricula, textbooks, and state standards documents. The study was conducted in three stages. The first two stages focused on how supplemental curricula and best-selling social studies textbooks published between 2002-2010 present the events of…

  9. State and Local Clean Energy Policy Primer: Getting from Here to Clean Electricity with Policy (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-04-01

    This fact sheet proposes a framework for how states and localities can build policy portfolios by first setting the stage for clean energy in the market with low cost policies, and then growing the market with successive policies until the need for financial incentives can be reduced and eventually eliminated.

  10. Small Businesses Save Big: A Borrower's Guide To Increase the Bottom Line Using Energy Efficiency (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Dollars saved through energy efficiency can directly impact your bottom line. Whether you are planning for a major renovation or upgrading individual pieces of building equipment, these improvements can help reduce operating costs, save on utility bills, and boost profits. This fact sheet provides a guide for small businesses to find the resources to increase the energy efficiency of their buildings.

  11. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 13: Root Disease Analyzer-Armillaria Response Tool (ART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geral I. McDonald; Philip D. Tanimoto; Thomas M. Rice; David E. Hall; Jane E. Stewart; Paul J. Zambino; Jonalea R. Tonn; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim

    2005-01-01

    The Root Disease Analyzer-Armillaria Response Tool (ART) is a Web-based tool that estimates Armillaria root disease risk in dry forests of the Western United States. This fact sheet identifies the intended users and uses, required inputs, what the model does and does not do, and tells the user how to obtain the model.

  12. Rising Above the Water: New Orleans Implements Energy Efficiency and Sustainability Practices Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes the technical assistance that the U.S. Department of Energy, through its National Renewable Energy Laboratory, provided to New Orleans, Louisiana, which helped the city incorporate energy efficiency into its rebuilding efforts for K-12 schools and homes following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. NREL also provided support and analysis on energy policy efforts.

  13. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 03: structure fires in the wildland-urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Sutherland

    2004-01-01

    National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) data indicate that wildfires destroyed approximately 9,000 homes between 1985 and 1994 in the United States. The loss of homes to wildfire has had a significant impact on Federal fire policy. This fact sheet discusses the causes of home ignitions in the wildland-urban interface, home ignition zones, how to reduce home...

  14. 77 FR 2743 - Recovery Directorate Fact Sheet 9580.213, Residential Electrical Meter Repair-“Power Up”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ...] Recovery Directorate Fact Sheet 9580.213, Residential Electrical Meter Repair--``Power Up'' AGENCY: Federal..., Residential Electrical Meter Repair--``Power Up.'' DATES: Comments must be received by February 21, 2012... authority, FEMA may fund the repair of residential electrical meters damaged in a major disaster or...

  15. Better Solar Cells and Manufacturing Processes Using NREL's Ultrafast Quantum Efficiency Method (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-08-01

    Fact sheet on the FlashQE system, a 2011 R&D 100 Award winner. A solid-state optical system by NREL and Tau Science measures solar cell quantum efficiency in less than a second, enabling a suite of new capabilities for solar cell manufacturers.

  16. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 08: Evaluating sedimentation risks associated with fuel management

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Elliot; Pete Robichaud

    2005-01-01

    This fact sheet describes the sources of sediment in upland forest watersheds in the context of fuel management activities. It presents the dominant forest soil erosion processes, and the principles behind the new sediment delivery interface developed to aid in erosion analysis of fuel management projects.

  17. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; forest structure and fire hazard fact sheet 01: forest structure and fire hazard overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Many managers and policymakers guided by the National Environmental Policy Act process want to understand the scientific principles on which they can base fuel treatments for reducing the size and severity of wildfires. These Forest Structure and Fire Hazard fact sheets discuss how to estimate fire hazard, how to visualize fuel treatments, and how the role of...

  18. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 18: Issues affecting social acceptability of fuels treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Esposito

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have tried to understand how information about forest management can influence a person's landscape preferences and aesthetic appreciation. These findings are relevant for fuels management projects, since these projects are often characterized by conflicts between aesthetic and ecological objectives. This fact sheet discusses different aspects and ways...

  19. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 04: Three critical topics to cover when talking about hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    The amount of science applicable to the management of wildfire hazards is increasing daily. In addition, the attitudes of landowners and policymakers about fire and fuels management are changing. This fact sheet discusses three critical keys to communicating about wildfire hazards.

  20. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 17: Considering social acceptability of fuels treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Esposito

    2006-01-01

    When making decisions about fuels treatments, forest managers need to assess not only the biological impacts of a treatment, but the social impacts as well. Social acceptability is based on value judgments by people-their notions of what is "good" and what is "better." This fact sheet discusses six questions that may be useful for framing initial...

  1. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; forest structure and fire hazard fact sheet 04: role of silviculture in fuel treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    The principal goals of fuel treatments are to reduce fireline intensities, reduce the potential for crown fires, improve opportunities for successful fire suppression, and improve forest resilience to forest fires. This fact sheet discusses thinning, and surface fuel treatments, as well as challenges associated with those treatments.

  2. Questions and Answers about School-Age Children in Self-Care: A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Children in Self-Care, and answers the following questions about school-age children in self-care: (1) How many school-age children are in…

  3. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 03: Developing personal responsibility for fuels reduction: More ways to catch and hold people's attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Other fact sheets discuss the different types of information that are useful in explaining to property owners the importance of taking personal responsibility for fuels management on their land. However, for some property owners, new information is not enough-they may need more information in order to understand that change is necessary. This fact sheet discusses ways...

  4. Fact sheets relating to use of geothermal energy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    A compilation of data relating to geothermal energy in each of the 50 states is presented. The data are summarized on one page for each state. All summary data sheets use a common format. Following the summary data sheet there are additional data on the geology of each state pertaining to possible hydrothermal/geothermal resources. Also there is a list of some of the reports available pertaining to the state and state energy contacts. The intent of these documents is to present in a concise form reference data for planning by the Department of Energy.

  5. The acquisition of dangerous biological materials: Technical facts sheets to assist risk assessments of 46 potential BW agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceto, Donato Gonzalo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Astuto-Gribble, Lisa M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gaudioso, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Numerous terrorist organizations have openly expressed interest in producing and deploying biological weapons. However, a limiting factor for many terrorists has been the acquisition of dangerous biological agents, as evidenced by the very few successful instances of biological weapons use compared to the number of documented hoaxes. Biological agents vary greatly in their ability to cause loss of life and economic damage. Some agents, if released properly, can kill many people and cause an extensive number of secondary infections; other agents will sicken only a small number of people for a short period of time. Consequently, several biological agents can potentially be used to perpetrate a bioterrorism attack but few are likely capable of causing a high consequence event. It is crucial, from a US national security perspective, to more deeply understand the likelihood that terrorist organizations can acquire the range of these agents. Few studies have attempted to comprehensively compile the technical information directly relevant to the acquisition of dangerous bacteria, viruses and toxins. In this report, technical fact sheets were assembled for 46 potentially dangerous biological agents. Much of the information was taken from various research sources which could ultimately and significantly expedite and improve bioterrorism threat assessments. By systematically examining a number of specific agent characteristics included in these fact sheets, it may be possible to detect, target, and implement measures to thwart future terrorist acquisition attempts. In addition, the information in these fact sheets may be used as a tool to help laboratories gain a rudimentary understanding of how attractive a method laboratory theft is relative to other potential acquisition modes.

  6. Other Solid Waste Incineration (OSWI) Units Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a November 2005, and and November 2006 fact sheet with information regarding the final and proposed NSPS and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources for OSWI. This document provides a summary of the information for this regulation

  7. Sewage Sludge Incinerators: Final Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources Final Rule Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a February 2011 fact sheet with information regarding the final NSPS and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources for Sewage Sludge Incinerators (SSI). This document provides a summary of the information for these regulations.

  8. 7 CFR Exhibit D to Subpart B of... - Fact Sheet-The Federal Interagency Task Force on Food and Shelter for the Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Management of Property Exhibit D to Subpart B of Part 1955—Fact Sheet—The... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fact Sheet-The Federal Interagency Task Force on Food and Shelter for the Homeless D Exhibit D to Subpart B of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the...

  9. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 15: The Wildlife Habitat Response Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Pilliod

    2005-01-01

    The Wildlife Habitat Response Model (WHRM) is a Web-based computer tool for evaluating the potential effects of fuel-reduction projects on terrestrial wildlife habitats. It uses species-habitat associations in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), dry-type Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), lodgepole pine (Pinus...

  10. Canada and the Kyoto Protocol: Fact Sheet No. 6 - The science and impacts of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    A summary description of the scientific underpinnings of climate change is provided. The 'greenhouse effect' mechanism whereby the atmosphere regulates the Earth's temperature and how human activities have enhanced the greenhouse effect by the release of significant amounts of carbon dioxide and methane, causing the atmosphere to trap heat are outlined. Evidence is provided to show that while the Earth's average temperature has increased by only about half a degree C in the last 100 years, the 1980s and the 1990s have been the warmest decades since the beginning of keeping records. In the absence of actions to reduce GHG emissions, average global temperatures could rise by one to three degrees C over the next century, causing changes in other elements of the Earth's climate system, which in turn would influence weather patterns. What these changes might mean for human health, the health of plant and animal communities and ranges of species sensitive to changes in temperatures, are summarized. The most direct effect of climate change on human health is expected to be heat stress, resulting in increased frequency of illness and death among the very young, the elderly and those with respiratory ailments, especially in large urban areas. A northward extension of the range of infectious diseases, making it necessary to introduce increased measures to control them, is also a distinct possibility

  11. Group Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit for 30% Energy Savings: Washington, D.C. (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-11-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes - such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost-effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study's results will be used to identify cost effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.

  12. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Project fact sheets 2000, status as of June 30, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program), a model of government and industry cooperation, responds to the Department of Energy's (DOE) mission to foster a secure and reliable energy system that is environmentally and economically sustainable. The CCT Program represents an investment of over $5.2 billion in advanced coal-based technology, with industry and state governments providing an unprecedented 66 percent of the funding. With 26 of the 38 active projects having completed operations, the CCT Program has yielded clean coal technologies (CCTs) that are capable of meeting existing and emerging environmental regulations and competing in a deregulated electric power marketplace. The CCT Program is providing a portfolio of technologies that will assure that U.S. recoverable coal reserves of 274 billion tons can continue to supply the nation's energy needs economically and in an environmentally sound manner. As the nation embarks on a new millennium, many of the clean coal technologies have realized commercial application. Industry stands ready to respond to the energy and environmental demands of the 21st century, both domestically and internationally, For existing power plants, there are cost-effective environmental control devices to control sulfur dioxide (S02), nitrogen oxides (NO,), and particulate matter (PM). Also ready is a new generation of technologies that can produce electricity and other commodities, such as steam and synthetic gas, and provide efficiencies and environmental performance responsive to global climate change concerns. The CCT Program took a pollution prevention approach as well, demonstrating technologies that remove pollutants or their precursors from coal-based fuels before combustion. Finally, new technologies were introduced into the major coal-based industries, such as steel production, to enhance environmental performance. Thanks in part to the CCT Program, coal--abundant, secure, and economical

  13. How Much Do You Know about Teen Sexual Behavior? A True-False Quiz. Fact Sheet. Publication 2008-31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Emily; Peterson, Kristen; Manlove, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Despite media attention to teen sexual behavior and public concern about its consequences, the public is surprisingly ill-informed or misinformed on the subject. Yet without the facts, it is difficult to develop effective approaches to curb risky sexual behaviors and prevent teen pregnancy and STI transmission. This paper presents a true or false…

  14. Adolescent Literacy. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The nation's workforce is demanding ever more literate workers and citizens. As technology advances and the American economy grows increasingly knowledge based, individuals must be able to read, write, and communicate at higher levels in order to remain economic and social contributors. A student's level of literacy is a critical determinant of…

  15. Respirator Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 6, 2014 Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  16. Rett Syndrome Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help them maintain adequate weight. Special academic, social, vocational, and support services may be required in some ... Are Funded Small Business Grants Overview Areas of Interest Budget Information Grant Timeline Award Information Entrepreneurial Resources ...

  17. Marketing Transformation (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2011-10-13

    Through the SunShot Initiative, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) works with manufacturers, communities, states, utilities, and other partners to enable the solar market by reducing non-hardware balance-of-system (BOS) costs, developing a skilled workforce, and eliminating market barriers to widespread adoption of solar technologies.

  18. Fact Sheet: Trigeminal Neuralgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health, is the federal government’s leading supporter of biomedical research on disorders of the brain and nervous system. ... by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. One ... mucosa). Current drug therapy is absorbed through the body, which may lead ...

  19. Narcolepsy: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institutes of Health (NIH), the leading supporter of biomedical research in the world. The NINDS, along with several ... Testimony Legislative Updates Impact NINDS Contributions to Approved Therapies ... Director, Division of Intramural Research

  20. Children's Toys Fact Sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer HJ; Veen MP van; LMB

    2002-01-01

    Mathematical models are available for the exposure assessment of compounds in consumer products. The computer program CONSEXPO is used for the calculations. Since the huge number of consumer products does not allow exposure assessment of every product separately, a limited number of main categories

  1. Environmental Management Fact Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    In recent years, the need for nuclear materials has decreased and the Department of Energy (DOE) has focused greater attention on cleaning up contamination left from past activities. The Office of Environmental Management (EM) within DOE is responsible for managing waste and cleaning up contamination at DOE sites across the nation. This collection…

  2. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is caused by a virus transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes. People with Zika virus disease can have symptoms including mild fever, skin ... framework. Q&A: Zika virus and complication ... mosquito from the Aedes genus, mainly Aedes aegypti in tropical regions. Aedes ...

  3. Penguin Fact Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flotsam and Jetsam: A Newsletter for Massachusetts Marine Educators, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents factual information on penguins using an outline format. Includes descriptions of physical characteristics, behavioral mechanisms, geographical distribution, and physiological processes. Provides separate bibliographies for teachers and students. (ML)

  4. Myasthenia Gravis Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or duplicated without permission of the Office on Women’s Health in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Citation of the source is appreciated. Page last updated: March 14, 2018. About Us Who we are What ...

  5. CASA Fact Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Court Appointed Special Advocate Association, Seattle WA.

    Each year nearly 400,000 children in the United States are thrust into court through no fault of their own. Often these children also become victims of the United States' overburdened child welfare system. A Court Appointed Special Advocate (CASA) volunteer is a trained citizen who is appointed by a judge to represent the best interests of a child…

  6. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Primary Mitochondrial Disorders Weight Loss A Acai Aloe Vera Anabolic Steroids Antioxidants (see Exercise and Athletic Performance ) ... Pills (see Weight Loss ) Dietary Supplements Vitamin D E Echinacea Ephedra Essiac/Flor-Essence European Elder Evening ...

  7. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  8. Stroke Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... federal government website managed by the Office on Women's Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . 200 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, DC 20201 1-800-994- ...

  9. Ovarian Cancer Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... federal government website managed by the Office on Women's Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . 200 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, DC 20201 1-800-994- ...

  10. Diabetes Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... federal government website managed by the Office on Women's Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . 200 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, DC 20201 1-800-994- ...

  11. Infertility Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... federal government website managed by the Office on Women's Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . 200 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, DC 20201 1-800-994- ...

  12. Uterine Fibroids Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... federal government website managed by the Office on Women's Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . 200 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, DC 20201 1-800-994- ...

  13. Burns Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload this page. Sign ... disease. Please consult with a qualified health care professional for answers to personal medical questions. NIGMS is ...

  14. Sepsis Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload this page. Sign ... disease. Please consult with a qualified health care professional for answers to personal medical questions. NIGMS is ...

  15. Trauma Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload this page. Sign ... disease. Please consult with a qualified health care professional for answers to personal medical questions. NIGMS is ...

  16. Small Businesses Save Big: A Guide to Help SBA Lenders Understand and Communicate the Value of Energy Efficiency Investments (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Dollars saved through energy efficiency can directly impact your bottom line. Whether you are planning for a major renovation or upgrading individual pieces of building equipment, these improvements can help reduce operating costs, save on utility bills, and boost profits. This fact sheet provides guidelines for SBA lenders to understand the value of financing energy efficiency investments.

  17. Alfabetizacion de las personas que son sordas e invidentes. Hoja informativa de DB-LINK (Literacy for Persons Who Are Deaf-Blind. DB-LINK Fact Sheet).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Barbara

    This fact sheet discusses the importance of literacy for individuals who are deaf-blind, the social functions of reading and writing, and conditions necessary for the development of literacy. Strategies for promoting literacy among this population are described and include: (1) invite children and adults who are deaf-blind to observe as you use…

  18. Clinical Social Work. State Laws Governing Independent Practice and Reimbursement of Services. Fact Sheet for the Honorable Daniel K. Inouye, United States Senate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This fact sheet on state laws governing the independent practice and reimbursement of services for clinical social workers contains information from questionnaires sent to the state agencies responsible for health insurance regulations and Medicaid and licensing activities. Information on Ohio, the only state which did not respond, is not…

  19. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 02: Developing personal responsibility for fuels reduction: Types of information to encourage proactive behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Fuels management responsibilities may include providing local property owners with the information for taking responsibility for reducing fuels on their land. This fact sheet discusses three different types of information that may be useful in programs to engage property owners in fuel reduction activities.

  20. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 01: Developing personal responsibility for fuels reduction: Building a successful program to engage property owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    In the course of work as a land manager, you will no doubt be involved in developing programs to achieve various objectives, including the improvement of fuels management on private lands. This fact sheet describes six steps that will help you plan and conduct a successful program.

  1. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 12: Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) Fuel Management (FuMe) tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Elliot; David Hall

    2005-01-01

    The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) Fuel Management (FuMe) tool was developed to estimate sediment generated by fuel management activities. WEPP FuMe estimates sediment generated for 12 fuel-related conditions from a single input. This fact sheet identifies the intended users and uses, required inputs, what the model does, and tells the user how to obtain the...

  2. Endogenous Peer Effects: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ryan; Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine endogenous peer effects, which occur when a student's behavior or outcome is a function of the behavior or outcome of his or her peer group. Endogenous peer effects have important implications for educational policies such as busing, school choice and tracking. In this study, the authors quantitatively review the literature on…

  3. Ethical Practices For Effective Leadership: Fact Or Fallacy-The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethical Practices For Effective Leadership: Fact Or Fallacy-The Kenyan Experience. ... KCA Journal of Business Management ... argue that laws alone cannot 'convert' the society that has developed and perfected the art of unethical practices.

  4. Effect of Temperature and Sheet Temper on Isothermal Solidification Kinetics in Clad Aluminum Brazing Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Michael J.; Whitney, Mark A.; Wells, Mary A.; Winkler, Sooky

    2016-09-01

    Isothermal solidification (IS) is a phenomenon observed in clad aluminum brazing sheets, wherein the amount of liquid clad metal is reduced by penetration of the liquid clad into the core. The objective of the current investigation is to quantify the rate of IS through the use of a previously derived parameter, the Interface Rate Constant (IRC). The effect of peak temperature and initial sheet temper on IS kinetics were investigated. The results demonstrated that IS is due to the diffusion of silicon (Si) from the liquid clad layer into the solid core. Reduced amounts of liquid clad at long liquid duration times, a roughened sheet surface, and differences in resolidified clad layer morphology between sheet tempers were observed. Increased IS kinetics were predicted at higher temperatures by an IRC model as well as by experimentally determined IRC values; however, the magnitudes of these values are not in good agreement due to deficiencies in the model when applied to alloys. IS kinetics were found to be higher for sheets in the fully annealed condition when compared with work-hardened sheets, due to the influence of core grain boundaries providing high diffusivity pathways for Si diffusion, resulting in more rapid liquid clad penetration.

  5. Using the Global Burden of Disease study to assist development of nation-specific fact sheets to promote prevention and control of hypertension and reduction in dietary salt: a resource from the World Hypertension League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norm R C; Lackland, Daniel T; Lisheng, Liu; Niebylski, Mark L; Nilsson, Peter M; Zhang, Xin-Hua

    2015-03-01

    Increased blood pressure and high dietary salt are leading risks for death and disability globally. Reducing the burden of both health risks are United Nations' targets for reducing noncommunicable disease. Nongovernmental organizations and individuals can assist by ensuring widespread dissemination of the best available facts and recommended interventions for both health risks. Simple but impactful fact sheets can be useful for informing the public, healthcare professionals, and policy makers. The World Hypertension League has developed fact sheets on dietary salt and hypertension but in many circumstances the greatest impact would be obtained from national-level fact sheets. This manuscript provides instructions and a template for developing fact sheets based on the Global Burden of Disease study and national survey data. ©2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Low-level radiation effects: a fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brill, A.B.; Adelstein, S.J.; Saenger, E.L.; Webster, E.W.

    1982-01-01

    Low Level Raidation Effects: A Fact Book, prepared by the Society of Nuclear Medicine Subcommittee on the Risks of Low-Level Ionizing Radiation, attempts to examine the health effects of small doses of radiation. For immediate questions, this work provides a well-organized brief summary of recent radiologic data from refereed scientific literature and from the publications of advisory groups such as the National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurement (NCRP), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), and the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). Since it consists almost entirely of tables and graphs from the above-mentioned sources along with summary paragraphs, the Fact Book is very useful in the preparation of lectures. The book is divided into seven sections. Chapter One, Glossary, Units and Conversion Factors, is useful because nearly all data given in the rest of the book is in conventional units and should be converted to SI units for future technical audiences. Chapter 2, Radiobiology, covers the fundamental principles of the field. Chapter 3, Radiation Doses, can be used to help an audience appreciate the relative magnitudes of radiation exposures they may read about or encounter. Chapter 4, Late Somatic Effects of Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation, gives data concerning cancer induction and embryonic effects, and Chapter 5 provides data on genetic effects Chapter 6, Risks, Statistical Facts and Public Perception can be used to compare the risks of radiation exposure with more commonly encountered risks

  7. Space Charge Effect in the Sheet and Solid Electron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ho Young; Kim, Hyoung Suk; Ahn, Saeyoung

    1998-11-01

    We analyze the space charge effect of two different types of electron beam ; sheet and solid electron beam. Electron gun simulations are carried out using shadow and control grids for high and low perveance. Rectangular and cylindrical geometries are used for sheet and solid electron beam in planar and disk type cathode. The E-gun code is used to study the limiting current and space charge loading in each geometries.

  8. Effects of the IMF on the plasma sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akasofu, S.-I.; Meng, C.-I.

    1986-01-01

    It is suggested that the IMF Bsub(z) component controls partially the geometry of the cross-section (y-z plane) of the plasma sheet. Our vacuum superposition model suggests that the cross-section has a dumbbell shape for te IMF Bsub(z) O. It is also suggested that the thinning and subsequent expansion of the plasma sheet during magnetospheric substorms are partially due to a direct effect of the IMF Bsub(z). (author)

  9. Facts and effects of hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlandi, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    This work resumes the facts and the effects involved by the two strongest hurricanes that recently hit the Gulf of Mexico producing strong reductions in oil and gas supply and a huge lack of refining capacity. Today, in spite of the partial recovery of activities and the price decrease, the way of the reconstruction is still long to achieve and chasing of the winter season could prompt a new rise of oil prices [it

  10. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facts Search form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, ... Drugs? Effects of Drugs Drug Use and Other People Drug Use and Families Drug Use and Kids ...

  11. Mirage effect from thermally modulated transparent carbon nanotube sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliev, Ali E; Gartstein, Yuri N; Baughman, Ray H

    2011-10-28

    The single-beam mirage effect, also known as photothermal deflection, is studied using a free-standing, highly aligned carbon nanotube aerogel sheet as the heat source. The extremely low thermal capacitance and high heat transfer ability of these transparent forest-drawn carbon nanotube sheets enables high frequency modulation of sheet temperature over an enormous temperature range, thereby providing a sharp, rapidly changing gradient of refractive index in the surrounding liquid or gas. The advantages of temperature modulation using carbon nanotube sheets are multiple: in inert gases the temperature can reach > 2500 K; the obtained frequency range for photothermal modulation is ~100 kHz in gases and over 100 Hz in high refractive index liquids; and the heat source is transparent for optical and acoustical waves. Unlike for conventional heat sources for photothermal deflection, the intensity and phase of the thermally modulated beam component linearly depends upon the beam-to-sheet separation over a wide range of distances. This aspect enables convenient measurements of accurate values for thermal diffusivity and the temperature dependence of refractive index for both liquids and gases. The remarkable performance of nanotube sheets suggests possible applications as photo-deflectors and for switchable invisibility cloaks, and provides useful insights into their use as thermoacoustic projectors and sonar. Visibility cloaking is demonstrated in a liquid.

  12. Sheet resistance effects in mercury cadmium telluride implanted photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorito, G.; Gasparrini, G.; Svelto, F.

    1977-01-01

    The frequency response of Hg + implanted Hgsub(1-x)Cdsub(x)Te photodiodes is discussed. This analysis, evaluating both the response to fast laser pulses and the 3 dB rolloff of the diode shot-noise spectrum, showed the necessity of adopting a distributed equivalent circuit model taking into account the implanted layer sheet resistance. Frequency behaviour, in fact, proved not to match a simple p-n junction model based on a lumped standard equivalent circuit. On this basis apparent anomalies previously reported can be explained, and useful suggestions can be obtained for design and fabrication of fast detectors. (author)

  13. Rolling induced size effects in elastic–viscoplastic sheet metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau

    2015-01-01

    sheet rolling, where a non-homogeneous material deformation takes place between the rollers. Large strain gradients develop where the rollers first come in contact with the sheet, and a higher order plasticity model is employed to illustrate their influence at small scales. The study reveals...... presented revolves around the rolling induced effect of visco-plasticity (ranging hot and cold rolling) in combination with strain gradient hardening – including both dissipative and energetic contributions. To bring out first order effects on rolling at small scale, the modeling efforts are limited to flat...

  14. Elastic effects behind cooperative bonding inβ-sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2004-01-01

    We present extensive density functional theory calculations of the bonding between strands in â-sheets. We identify a significant cooperative effect whereby the interaction increases in strength with the number of strands. We show that the effect is related to a coupling between interstrand bonding...

  15. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Top of Page CDC Fact Sheets Related to High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Pulmonary Hypertension Heart Disease Signs ...

  16. Air-To-Water Heat Pumps with Radiant Delivery in Low Load Homes: Tucson, Arizona and Chico, California (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-11-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  17. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 04: wildlife responses to fuels treatments: key considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Pilliod

    2004-01-01

    Managers face a difficult task in predicting the effects of fuels treatments on wildlife populations, mostly because information on how animals respond to fuels treatments is scarce or does not exist. This paper discusses key considerations-aspects of an animal's ecology and available information-that, despite the scarcity of information, may make predictions of...

  18. Building America Case Study: Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space, Waldorf, Maryland (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  19. Currency Mismatch, Balance-sheet effect and Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Chikafumi

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of the currency mismatch between assets and liabilities on monetary policy. The currency mismatch causes macroeconomic instability through balance-sheet effects. To analyze the problem, we apply a small open economy dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model with international credit-market imperfections. As a result, despitethe currency mismatch and high trade openness, a targeting rule to address the terms of trade is not efficient. This result depends on...

  20. Asthma in Adults Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Lung Association Epidemiology and Statistics Unit using SPSS software. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, 2016. Analysis by the American Lung Association Epidemiology and Statistics ...

  1. Force Protection Basing: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-29

    manpower. The effort in FY17 included Doctrine, Organization, Training, Materiel, Leadership , Personnel, and Facilities (DOTMLPF) integration and...base with modular reusable protection available for relocation. Technologies from this STO-D allowed improved planning, troop-to-task management , and...in an operationally feasible timeframe. 1D. Why should Army leadership care about this: During full spectrum operations, to negate a threat’s

  2. Amchitka, Alaska Site Fact Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Amchitka Island is near the western end of the Aleutian Island chain and is the largest island in the Rat Island Group that is located about 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, and 870 miles east of the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The island is 42 miles long and 1 to 4 miles wide, with an area of approximately 74,240 acres. Elevations range from sea level to more than 1,100 feet above sea level. The coastline is rugged; sea cliffs and grassy slopes surround nearly the entire island. Vegetation on the island is low-growing, meadow-like tundra grasses at lower elevations. No trees grow on Amchitka. The lowest elevations are on the eastern third of the island and are characterized by numerous shallow lakes and heavily vegetated drainages. The central portion of the island has higher elevations and fewer lakes. The westernmost 3 miles of the island contains a windswept rocky plateau with sparse vegetation

  3. Immigrant Education: A Fact Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Steven R.

    This report provides information on immigrant education in the United States in the areas of funding, participation, population, services, and allocation method. Additionally, it explores reauthorization issues confronting the Emergency Immigrant Education Act for fiscal year 1994. The report shows that: (1) there has been a steady decrease in…

  4. Fact Sheets - The National Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Guard About Us By the Numbers Contact Us FAQ Federal Mission History Join Us Leaders Director of March Today in Guard History Leadership CNGB VCNGB SEA DANG DARNG Joint Staff J-1 J-2 J-3 J-4 J-5 J-6 J Marshal Office of the Joint Surgeon PARC Small Business Programs Chaplain Diversity NGB-GOMO Resources

  5. Accelerating Geothermal Research (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    Geothermal research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is advancing geothermal technologies to increase renewable power production. Continuous and not dependent on weather, the geothermal resource has the potential to jump to more than 500 gigawatts in electricity production, which is equivalent to roughly half of the current U.S. capacity. Enhanced geothermal systems have a broad regional distribution in the United States, allowing the potential for development in many locations across the country.

  6. Weatherization Assistance Program Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2018-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program reduces energy costs for low-income households by increasing the energy e ciency of their homes, while ensuring their health and safety. The Program supports 8,500 jobs and provides weatherization services to approximately 35,000 homes every year using DOE funds.

  7. State Energy Program Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2018-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s State Energy Program (SEP) provides funding and technical assistance to states, territories, and the District of Columbia to enhance energy security, advance state-led energy initiatives, and maximize the benefits of decreasing energy waste.

  8. Energy Fact Sheets - Sandia Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Energy Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Menu Stationary Power solar Energy Conversion Efficiency Increasing the amount of electricity produced from a given thermal energy input. Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2

  9. Afghanistan [Education Sector Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Three decades of conflict devastated Afghanistan's education systems and institutions. In 2002, an estimated 900,000 boys attended school, while women and girls were almost completely excluded from educational opportunities. Since then, the Afghan government, USAID, and international donors have worked closely to rebuild Afghanistan's education…

  10. WEO-2007 Fact Sheet: China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    It is scarcely in doubt that China's energy needs will continue to grow and fuel its economic development. Less certain, however, is the rate of increase and how those needs are going to be met, as they depend on just how quickly the economy expands and on the economic and energy policy landscape worldwide. Rising incomes will surely underpin strong growth for transport and housing, the use of electric appliances and space heating and cooling.

  11. Condom Fact Sheet in Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... transmitted only by genital fluids (STDs such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, and HIV infection) than against infections ... transmitted by genital fluids (STDs such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis). Consistent and correct use of latex ...

  12. Low Back Pain Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arthritis. Potential tests include complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein. Blood tests may ... size and relieving pressure on the nerves. Several channels may be made depending on how tissue needs ...

  13. Advanced Algal Systems Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Research and development (R&D) on advanced algal biofuels and bioproducts presents an opportunity to sustainably expand biomass resource potential in the United States. The Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) Advanced Algal Systems Program is carrying out a long-term, applied R&D strategy to lower the costs of algal biofuel production by working with partners to develop revolutionary technologies and conduct crosscutting analyses to better understand the potential

  14. Bomb Threat Assessments. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunkel, Ronald F.

    2010-01-01

    This information provides a brief, summary outline of how investigators should assess anonymous bomb threats at schools. Applying these principles may help administrators and law enforcement personnel accurately assess the viability and credibility of a threat and appropriately gauge their response. Any credible evidence provided by teachers or…

  15. Lycopodium: Careful Harvest Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth Nauertz

    2003-01-01

    Lycopodium comes from the Greek words "luko" (wolf) and "podos" (foot); thus the common name of "wolf's paw" or "Wolf's foot." Despite the common names of clubmoss, Lycopodium species are not related to mosses, but rather to ferns. They are evergreen, perennial, clonal, and rhizomatous in nature.

  16. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; forest structure and fire hazard fact sheet 06: Guide to fuel treatments in dry forests of the Western United States: assessing forest structure and fire hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2005-01-01

    The Guide to Fuel Treatments analyzes a range of potential silvicultural thinnings and surface fuel treatments for 25 representative dry-forest stands in the Western United States. The guide provides quantitative guidelines and visualization for treatment based on scientific principles identified for reducing potential crown fires. This fact sheet identifies the...

  17. Physiotherapy exercise programmes: are instructional exercise sheets effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jo; Lewis, Jeremy; Prichard, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Effective compliance with physiotherapy exercises is only possible if patients remember the exercises accurately. The purpose of this study was to assess how well elderly in-patients remembered simple physiotherapy exercises, by comparing the ability to accurately reproduce a set of exercises in a group of patients that had received a written exercise sheet, with a group that had not. The study also aimed to investigate the relationship between memory for exercises and cognition. Sixty-four in-patients in an acute hospital were taught 3 exercises. Half of the subjects were randomised to receive exercise sheets to reinforce the teaching (Group 1). The rest of the subjects did not receive this memory aid (Group 2). Two to three days later subjects were asked to demonstrate their exercises. The accurate recall of the exercises was scored using a new assessment scale with a maximum score of 24. The mean exercise score was 17.19 for group 1 (SD = 5.91) and 16.24 for Group 2 (SD = 6.01). There was no significant difference in exercise score between groups (Mann Whitney U test p = 0.44). There was a statistically significant small positive correlation between exercise score and cognition (tau = 0.263). The study showed that older adult in-patients do not remember physiotherapy exercises effectively after a single teaching session and that their memory is not significantly improved by provision of an exercise sheet.

  18. Communicacion Expresiva: Como los ninos nos envian mensajes [and] Comunicacion Receptiva: Como los ninos entienden nuestros mensajes [and] Interacciones de Comunicacion: Hacen falta dos. Hojas informativa de DB-LINK (Communication Interactions: It Takes Two [and] Receptive Communication: How Children Understand Your Messages to Them [and] Expressive Communication: How Children Send Their Messages to You. DB-LINK Fact Sheets).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stremel, Kathleen

    This document consists of three separately published fact sheets combined here because of the close relationship of their subject matter. The first fact sheet, "Communication Interactions: It Takes Two" (Kathleen Stremel), defines communication; suggests ways to find opportunities for interactive communication; offers specific suggestions for…

  19. Orientation and Morphology Effects in Rapid Silicon Sheet Solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszek, T. F.

    1984-01-01

    Radial growth anisotropies and equilibrium forms of point nucleated, dislocation free silicon sheets spreading horizontally on the free surface of a silicon melt were measured for (100), (110), (111), and (112) sheet planes. The growth process was recorded. Qualitative Wulff surface free energy polar plots were deduced from the equilibrium shapes for each sheet plane. Predicted geometries for the tip shape of unidirectional, dislocation free, horizontally grown sheets growing in various directions within the planes were analyzed. Polycrystalline sheets and dendrite propagation were analyzed. For dendrites, growth rates on the order of 2.5 m/min and growth rate anisotropies of 25 are measured.

  20. Facts about food irradiation: Chemical changes in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet addresses the safety of irradiated food. The irradiation process produces very little chemical change in food, and laboratory experiments have shown no harmful effects in animals fed with irradiated milk powder. 3 refs

  1. Mercury Quick Facts: Health Effects of Mercury Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2012 What are the Health Effects of Mercury Exposure? The health effects that can be caused by breathing mercury depend ... they breathe faster and have smaller lungs. Health effects caused by long-term exposure to mercury vapors • • Anxiety • • Excessive shyness • • Anorexia • • Sleeping ...

  2. Effects of electron pressure anisotropy on current sheet configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.; Vasko, I. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Recent spacecraft observations in the Earth's magnetosphere have demonstrated that the magnetotail current sheet can be supported by currents of anisotropic electron population. Strong electron currents are responsible for the formation of very thin (intense) current sheets playing the crucial role in stability of the Earth's magnetotail. We explore the properties of such thin current sheets with hot isotropic ions and cold anisotropic electrons. Decoupling of the motions of ions and electrons results in the generation of a polarization electric field. The distribution of the corresponding scalar potential is derived from the electron pressure balance and the quasi-neutrality condition. We find that electron pressure anisotropy is partially balanced by a field-aligned component of this polarization electric field. We propose a 2D model that describes a thin current sheet supported by currents of anisotropic electrons embedded in an ion-dominated current sheet. Current density profiles in our model agree well with THEMIS observations in the Earth's magnetotail.

  3. Class effect of pharmacotherapy in bipolar disorder: fact or misbelief?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieta Eduard

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anecdotal reports suggests that most clinicians treat medications as belonging to a class with regard to all therapeutic indications; this means that the whole 'class' of drugs is considered to possesses a specific therapeutic action. The present article explores the possible existence of a true 'class effect' for agents available for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Methods We reviewed the available treatment data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs and explored 16 'agent class'/'treatment issue' cases for bipolar disorder. Four classes of agents were examined: first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs, second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs, antiepileptics and antidepressants, with respect to their efficacy on four treatment issues of bipolar disorder (BD (acute mania, acute bipolar depression, maintenance against mania, maintenance against depression. Results From the 16 'agent class'/' treatment issue' cases, only 3 possible class effects were detected, and they all concerned acute mania and antipsychotics. Four effect cases have not been adequately studied (FGAs against acute bipolar depression and in maintenance protection from depression, and antidepressants against acute mania and protection from mania and they all concern treatment cases with a high risk of switching to the opposite pole, thus research in these areas is poor. There is no 'class effect' at all concerning antiepileptics. Conclusions The available data suggest that a 'class effect' is the exception rather than the rule in the treatment of BD. However, the possible presence of a 'class effect' concept discourages clinicians from continued scientific training and reading. Focused educational intervention might be necessary to change this attitude.

  4. Getting the Facts Straight about the Effects of School Desegregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Willis D.

    1979-01-01

    Examines the effects of school desegregation by suggesting some reasons why those who review the research might misinterpret or misrepresent the evidence; and by summarizing what is known about two significant types of outcomes--academic achievement, and busing and "white flight." (Author/MLF)

  5. The greenhouse effect and energy efficiency: some facts and figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Human activities are changing the composition of the atmosphere. In particular the burning of fossil fuels emits carbon dioxide, one of the so-called ''greenhouse gases'' that help maintain the Earth's surface at a temperature suitable for life. They transmit incoming sunlight but trap outgoing radiated heat. Levels of greenhouse gases are increasing, giving rise to concern that the world may warm further, leading to climate change. Energy efficiency can make an important contribution to controlling the greenhouse effect, and brings further benefits for industry and commerce through cost savings. 17 figs

  6. Effect of Cell Sheet Manipulation Techniques on the Expression of Collagen Type II and Stress Fiber Formation in Human Chondrocyte Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongin, Sopita; Waikakul, Saranatra; Chotiyarnwong, Pojchong; Siriwatwechakul, Wanwipa; Viravaidya-Pasuwat, Kwanchanok

    2018-03-01

    Cell sheet technology is applied to human articular chondrocytes to construct a tissue-like structure as an alternative treatment for cartilage defect. The effect of a gelatin manipulator, as a cell sheet transfer system, on the quality of the chondrocyte sheets was investigated. The changes of important chondrogenic markers and stress fibers, resulting from the cell sheet manipulation, were also studied. The chondrocyte cell sheets were constructed with patient-derived chondrocytes using a temperature-responsive polymer and a gelatin manipulator as a transfer carrier. The properties of the cell sheets, including sizes, expression levels of collagen type II and I, and the localization of the stress fibers, were assessed and compared with those of the cell sheets harvested without the gelatin manipulator. Using the gelatin manipulator, the original size of the chondrocyte cell sheets was retained with abundant stress fibers, but with a decrease in the expression of collagen type II. Without the gelatin manipulator, although the cell shrinkage occurred, the cell sheet with suppressed stress fiber formation showed significantly higher levels of collagen type II. These results support our observations that stress fiber formation in chondrocyte cell sheets affected the production of chondrogenic markers. These densely packed tissue-like structures possessed a good chondrogenic activity, indicating their potential for use in autologous chondrocyte implantation to treat cartilage defects.

  7. γ-ray irradiation effect on magnetic properties of electromagnetic Fe-Si sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harara, W.

    1994-11-01

    The present work investigates the effect of γ-ray irradiation on the relative and differential magnetic permeabilities of electromagnetic steel sheets. The experimental work was carried out using transformer Fe-Si (97-3%) sheets. The sheets have two different forms E and I> The magnetic field dependence on the relative permeability as well as on the differential permeability before and after irradiation were measured. The measurements show that the relative permeability values of the sheets after irradiation in the region of rotation of magnetization domains were decreased whereas the value of their differential permeability around each working point remains unchangeable. (author). 7 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

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  9. Effects of electron pressure anisotropy on current sheet configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artemyev, A. V., E-mail: aartemyev@igpp.ucla.edu; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A. [Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Vasko, I. Y. [Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Recent spacecraft observations in the Earth's magnetosphere have demonstrated that the magnetotail current sheet can be supported by currents of anisotropic electron population. Strong electron currents are responsible for the formation of very thin (intense) current sheets playing the crucial role in stability of the Earth's magnetotail. We explore the properties of such thin current sheets with hot isotropic ions and cold anisotropic electrons. Decoupling of the motions of ions and electrons results in the generation of a polarization electric field. The distribution of the corresponding scalar potential is derived from the electron pressure balance and the quasi-neutrality condition. We find that electron pressure anisotropy is partially balanced by a field-aligned component of this polarization electric field. We propose a 2D model that describes a thin current sheet supported by currents of anisotropic electrons embedded in an ion-dominated current sheet. Current density profiles in our model agree well with THEMIS observations in the Earth's magnetotail.

  10. Legislation and regulations for prevention of legionella in drinking and hot water. Explanation of care obligation, alternate techniques and risk assessment. Fact sheet; Wet- en regelgeving Legionellapreventie in drink- en warmtapwater. Uitleg over zorgplicht, alternatieve technieken en risico-analyse. Informatieblad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    The reason for this fact sheet is the revision of the drinking water regulations, including the regulations for the prevention of legionella, July 1, 2011. Many market parties consider the regulations as complex, even after the revision. This fact sheet provides more clarity [Dutch] Aanleiding voor dit informatieblad is de op 1 juli 2011 herziene drinkwaterregelgeving, inclusief de voor legionellapreventie relevante bepalingen. Veel marktpartijen ervaren deze regelgeving, ook na herziening, als complex. Dit informatieblad verschaft meer duidelijkheid.

  11. Effect of uncertainty parameters on graphene sheets Young's modulus prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahlaoui, Habib; Sidhom Habib; Guedri, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Software based on molecular structural mechanics approach (MSMA) and using finite element method (FEM) has been developed to predict the Young's modulus of graphene sheets. Obtained results have been compared to results available in the literature and good agreement has been shown when the same values of uncertainty parameters are used. A sensibility of the models to their uncertainty parameters has been investigated using a stochastic finite element method (SFEM). The different values of the used uncertainty parameters, such as molecular mechanics force field constants k_r and k_θ, thickness (t) of a graphene sheet and length ( L_B) of a carbon carbon bonds, have been collected from the literature. Strong sensibilities of 91% to the thickness and of 21% to the stretching force (k_r) have been shown. The results justify the great difference between Young's modulus predicted values of the graphene sheets and their large disagreement with experimental results.

  12. ACCOUNTING POLICIES EFFECTS ON DEPRECIATION AND EVALUATION OF BALANCE SHEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Elena DREGHICIU

    2016-12-01

    Starting from the diversity of principles and rules that exist within the accounting, this paper aims to form a main problematic frame concerning the principle of the method’s constancy, whose purpose is applying the same registration, evaluation and presentation methods for operations, transactions, and balance sheet elements.

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  14. Drug Facts

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  2. Current sheets with inhomogeneous plasma temperature: Effects of polarization electric field and 2D solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catapano, F.; Zimbardo, G.; Artemyev, A. V.; Vasko, I. Y.

    2015-01-01

    We develop current sheet models which allow to regulate the level of plasma temperature and density inhomogeneities across the sheet. These models generalize the classical Harris model via including two current-carrying plasma populations with different temperature and the background plasma not contributing to the current density. The parameters of these plasma populations allow regulating contributions of plasma density and temperature to the pressure balance. A brief comparison with spacecraft observations demonstrates the model applicability for describing the Earth magnetotail current sheet. We also develop a two dimensional (2D) generalization of the proposed model. The interesting effect found for 2D models is the nonmonotonous profile (along the current sheet) of the magnetic field component perpendicular to the current sheet. Possible applications of the model are discussed

  3. Current sheets with inhomogeneous plasma temperature: Effects of polarization electric field and 2D solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catapano, F., E-mail: menacata3@gmail.com; Zimbardo, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, Rende, Cosenza (Italy); Artemyev, A. V., E-mail: ante0226@gmail.com; Vasko, I. Y. [Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    We develop current sheet models which allow to regulate the level of plasma temperature and density inhomogeneities across the sheet. These models generalize the classical Harris model via including two current-carrying plasma populations with different temperature and the background plasma not contributing to the current density. The parameters of these plasma populations allow regulating contributions of plasma density and temperature to the pressure balance. A brief comparison with spacecraft observations demonstrates the model applicability for describing the Earth magnetotail current sheet. We also develop a two dimensional (2D) generalization of the proposed model. The interesting effect found for 2D models is the nonmonotonous profile (along the current sheet) of the magnetic field component perpendicular to the current sheet. Possible applications of the model are discussed.

  4. Geomagnetic activity effects on plasma sheet energy conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamrin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we use three years (2001, 2002, and 2004 of Cluster plasma sheet data to investigate what happens to localized energy conversion regions (ECRs in the plasma sheet during times of high magnetospheric activity. By examining variations in the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J is the current density obtained by Cluster, we have studied the influence on Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs and Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs from variations in the geomagnetic disturbance level as expressed by the Kp, the AE, and the Dst indices. We find that the ECR occurrence frequency increases during higher magnetospheric activities, and that the ECRs become stronger. This is true both for CLRs and for CGRs, and the localized energy conversion therefore concerns energy conversion in both directions between the particles and the fields in the plasma sheet. A higher geomagnetic activity hence increases the general level of energy conversion in the plasma sheet. Moreover, we have shown that CLRs live longer during magnetically disturbed times, hence converting more electromagnetic energy. The CGR lifetime, on the other hand, seems to be unaffected by the geomagnetic activity level. The evidence for increased energy conversion during geomagnetically disturbed times is most clear for Kp and for AE, but there are also some indications that energy conversion increases during large negative Dst. This is consistent with the plasma sheet magnetically mapping to the auroral zone, and therefore being more tightly coupled to auroral activities and variations in the AE and Kp indices, than to variations in the ring current region as described by the Dst index.

  5. Thermal vibration of a rectangular single-layered graphene sheet with quantum effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lifeng; Hu, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    The thermal vibration of a rectangular single-layered graphene sheet is investigated by using a rectangular nonlocal elastic plate model with quantum effects taken into account when the law of energy equipartition is unreliable. The relation between the temperature and the Root of Mean Squared (RMS) amplitude of vibration at any point of the rectangular single-layered graphene sheet in simply supported case is derived first from the rectangular nonlocal elastic plate model with the strain gradient of the second order taken into consideration so as to characterize the effect of microstructure of the graphene sheet. Then, the RMS amplitude of thermal vibration of a rectangular single-layered graphene sheet simply supported on an elastic foundation is derived. The study shows that the RMS amplitude of the rectangular single-layered graphene sheet predicted from the quantum theory is lower than that predicted from the law of energy equipartition. The maximal relative difference of RMS amplitude of thermal vibration appears at the sheet corners. The microstructure of the graphene sheet has a little effect on the thermal vibrations of lower modes, but exhibits an obvious effect on the thermal vibrations of higher modes. The quantum effect is more important for the thermal vibration of higher modes in the case of smaller sides and lower temperature. The relative difference of maximal RMS amplitude of thermal vibration of a rectangular single-layered graphene sheet decreases monotonically with an increase of temperature. The absolute difference of maximal RMS amplitude of thermal vibration of a rectangular single-layered graphene sheet increases slowly with the rising of Winkler foundation modulus.

  6. Feature Size Effect on Formability of Multilayer Metal Composite Sheets under Microscale Laser Flexible Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixia Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Multilayer metal composite sheets possess superior properties to monolithic metal sheets, and formability is different from monolithic metal sheets. In this research, the feature size effect on formability of multilayer metal composite sheets under microscale laser flexible forming was studied by experiment. Two-layer copper/nickel composite sheets were selected as experimental materials. Five types of micro molds with different diameters were utilized. The formability of materials was evaluated by forming depth, thickness thinning, surface quality, and micro-hardness distribution. The research results showed that the formability of two-layer copper/nickel composite sheets was strongly influenced by feature size. With feature size increasing, the effect of layer stacking sequence on forming depth, thickness thinning ratio, and surface roughness became increasingly larger. However, the normalized forming depth, thickness thinning ratio, surface roughness, and micro-hardness of the formed components under the same layer stacking sequence first increased and then decreased with increasing feature size. The deformation behavior of copper/nickel composite sheets was determined by the external layer. The deformation extent was larger when the copper layer was set as the external layer.

  7. Hall magnetohydrodynamic effects for current sheet flapping oscillations related to the magnetic double gradient mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkaev, N. V.; Semenov, V. S.; Biernat, H. K.

    2010-01-01

    Hall magnetohydrodynamic model is investigated for current sheet flapping oscillations, which implies a gradient of the normal magnetic field component. For the initial undisturbed current sheet structure, the normal magnetic field component is assumed to have a weak linear variation. The profile of the electric current velocity is described by hyperbolic functions with a maximum at the center of the current sheet. In the framework of this model, eigenfrequencies are calculated as functions of the wave number for the ''kink'' and ''sausage'' flapping wave modes. Because of the Hall effects, the flapping eigenfrequency is larger for the waves propagating along the electric current, and it is smaller for the opposite wave propagation with respect to the current. The asymmetry of the flapping wave propagation, caused by Hall effects, is pronounced stronger for thinner current sheets. This is due to the Doppler effect related to the electric current velocity.

  8. Effect of Bottoming on Material Property during Sheet Forming Process through Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinlabi, Stephen A.; Fatoba, Olawale S.; Mashinini, Peter M.; Akinlabi, Esther T.

    2018-03-01

    Metal forming is one of the conventional manufacturing processes of immense relevance till date even though modern manufacturing processes have evolved over the years. It is a known fact that material tends to return or spring back to its original form during forming or bending. The phenomena have been well managed through its application in various manufacturing processes by compensating for the spring back through overbending and bottoming. Overbending is bending the material beyond the desired shape to allow the material to spring back to the expected shape. Bottoming, on the other hand, is a process of undergoing plastic deformation at the point of bending. This study reports on the finite element analysis of the effect of bottoming on the material property during the sheet forming process with the aim of optimising the process. The result of the analysis revealed that the generated plastic strains are in the order between 1.750e00-1 at the peak of the bending and 3.604e00-2, which was at the early stage of the bending.

  9. Gun Sales. Firearm Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Minimal federal regulations on firearm sales have facilitated the proliferation of guns, gun owners, and gun dealers in the United States. This fact sheet offers data on the growing number of firearm dealers, the relative ease of obtaining and keeping a license to sell guns from the Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the lack of…

  10. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts ... addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain ...

  11. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) ... treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice ( ...

  12. Back Pain Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketing Patient Fact Sheets Contact the ACA State Licensing Boards Research JMPT Abstracts Latest Issue Evidence in ... Chiropractic Posture Backpack Safety Spinal Health Winter Activities Kids and Sports Exercising Outdoors with Baby Gardening Chronic ...

  13. Effect of Intermediate Annealing on Microstructure and Property of 5182 Aluminum Alloy Sheet for Automobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of intermediate annealing on the microstructure and properties of 5182 aluminum alloy sheet with full annealed state (5182-O was investigated by means of optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and universal testing machine. The results indicate that compared with 5182-O sheet without intermediate annealing, 5182-O sheet with intermediate annealing possesses too fine grain size, intermetallic compounds not broken enough, larger size intermetallic particles, less dispersed phase. Yield strength and ultimate tensile strength, work hardening exponent and normal anisotropy of plastic strain ratio decrease but planner anisotropy of plastic strain ratio increases. The mechanical properties and forming ability of 5182-O aluminum alloy sheet and its microstructure are not improved significantly after intermediate annealing.

  14. Effect of preparation methods on dispersion stability and electrochemical performance of graphene sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Li, E-mail: chenli1981@lut.cn; Li, Na; Zhang, Mingxia; Li, Pinnan; Lin, Zhengping

    2017-05-15

    Chemical exfoliation is one of the most important strategies for preparing graphene. The aggregation of graphene sheets severely prevents graphene from exhibiting excellent properties. However, there are no attempts to investigate the effect of preparation methods on the dispersity of graphene sheets. In this study, three chemical exfoliation methods, including Hummers method, modified Hummers method, and improved method, were used to prepare graphene sheets. The influence of preparation methods on the structure, dispersion stability in organic solvents, and electrochemical properties of graphene sheets were investigated. Fourier transform infrared microscopy, Raman spectra, transmission electron microscopy, and UV–vis spectrophotometry were employed to analyze the structure of the as-prepared graphene sheets. The results showed that graphene prepared by improved method exhibits excellent dispersity and stability in organic solvents without any additional stabilizer or modifier, which is attributed to the completely exfoliation and regular structure. Moreover, cyclic voltammetric and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements showed that graphene prepared by improved method exhibits superior electrochemical properties than that prepared by the other two methods. - Graphical abstract: Graphene oxides with different oxidation degree were obtained via three methods, and then graphene with different crystal structures were created by chemical reduction of exfoliated graphene oxides. - Highlights: • Graphene oxides with different oxidation degree were obtained via three oxidation methods. • The influence of oxidation methods on microstructure of graphene was investigated. • The effect of oxidation methods on dispersion stability of graphene was investigated. • The effect of oxidation methods on electrochemical properties of graphene was discussed.

  15. Effect of preparation methods on dispersion stability and electrochemical performance of graphene sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Li; Li, Na; Zhang, Mingxia; Li, Pinnan; Lin, Zhengping

    2017-01-01

    Chemical exfoliation is one of the most important strategies for preparing graphene. The aggregation of graphene sheets severely prevents graphene from exhibiting excellent properties. However, there are no attempts to investigate the effect of preparation methods on the dispersity of graphene sheets. In this study, three chemical exfoliation methods, including Hummers method, modified Hummers method, and improved method, were used to prepare graphene sheets. The influence of preparation methods on the structure, dispersion stability in organic solvents, and electrochemical properties of graphene sheets were investigated. Fourier transform infrared microscopy, Raman spectra, transmission electron microscopy, and UV–vis spectrophotometry were employed to analyze the structure of the as-prepared graphene sheets. The results showed that graphene prepared by improved method exhibits excellent dispersity and stability in organic solvents without any additional stabilizer or modifier, which is attributed to the completely exfoliation and regular structure. Moreover, cyclic voltammetric and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements showed that graphene prepared by improved method exhibits superior electrochemical properties than that prepared by the other two methods. - Graphical abstract: Graphene oxides with different oxidation degree were obtained via three methods, and then graphene with different crystal structures were created by chemical reduction of exfoliated graphene oxides. - Highlights: • Graphene oxides with different oxidation degree were obtained via three oxidation methods. • The influence of oxidation methods on microstructure of graphene was investigated. • The effect of oxidation methods on dispersion stability of graphene was investigated. • The effect of oxidation methods on electrochemical properties of graphene was discussed.

  16. Facts versus feelings? The effectiveness of hard versus soft sell appeals in online advertising

    OpenAIRE

    De Veirman, Marijke; Hudders, Liselot; Cauberghe, Veroline

    2015-01-01

    In two experimental studies, the advertising effects of hard versus soft sell appeals are investigated. Both studies show that in online advertising (banner ads and viral video ads), soft sell appeals in advertisements on high involvement products generate a more positive attitude towards the ad than hard sell appeals. In print advertising however, hard sell appeals lead to a more positive Aad, due to the fact that the advertisement is perceived as less irritating and more credible. Additiona...

  17. Facts on Employee Assistance Programs. Clearinghouse Fact Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Thomas C.

    Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) offer employees confidential, professional assistance for the kinds of personal problems that adversely affect their lives and their jobs. These programs started when acute worker shortages during World War II, coupled with the successes of Alcoholic Anonymous, prompted some companies in the 1940s to develop…

  18. Cost and Ductility Effectiveness of Concrete Columns Strengthened with CFRP and SFRP Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Abdelrahman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, steel fibre reinforced polymers (SFRP sheets have been introduced for the repair and rehabilitation of concrete structures. Few researchers studied the behaviour of the concrete columns wrapped with SFRP sheets; however, several critical parameters such as the cost and ductility effectiveness of the SFRP wrapped concrete columns have been lightly addressed. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to study the cost and ductility effectiveness of SFRP wrapped concrete columns and compare the results with the conventionally used carbon FRP (CFRP wrapped concrete columns. In addition, an analytical procedure to predict the cost effectiveness of SFRP wrapped concrete columns is also suggested, from which, a parametric study was conducted. The parametric study investigated the effect of the concrete strength, the number of SFRP layers, and the size and slenderness effects on the cost effectiveness of the concrete columns wrapped with SFRP sheets. The results from the cost and ductility effectiveness study indicated that the SFRP wrapped concrete columns showed enhanced performance over the CFRP wrapped concrete columns. The suggested analytical procedure proved to be a reliable and accurate method to predict the cost effectiveness parameter of SFRP wrapped concrete columns. The parametric study showed the significant impact of the investigated parameters on the cost effectiveness of concrete columns wrapped with SFRP sheets.

  19. The Effect of Creep on the Residual Stresses Generated During Silicon Sheet Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, J. W.; Lambropoulos, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The modeling of stresses generated during the growth of thin silicon sheets at high speeds is an important part of the EFG technique since the experimental measurement of the stresses is difficult and prohibitive. The residual stresses which arise in such a growth process lead to serious problems which make thin Si ribbons unsuitable for fabrication. The constitutive behavior is unrealistic because at high temperature (close to the melting point) Si exhibits considerable creep which significantly relaxes the residual stresses. The effect of creep on the residual stresses generated during the growth of Si sheets at high speeds was addressed and the basic qualitative effect of creep are reported.

  20. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco and Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What ... Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can call 1-800- ...

  1. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco and Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? ... Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can call 1-800-662- ...

  2. Crystallite Size Effect on Thermal Conductive Properties of Nonwoven Nanocellulose Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetani, Kojiro; Okada, Takumi; Oyama, Hideko T

    2015-07-13

    The thermal conductive properties, including the thermal diffusivity and resultant thermal conductivity, of nonwoven nanocellulose sheets were investigated by separately measuring the thermal diffusivity of the sheets in the in-plane and thickness directions with a periodic heating method. The cross-sectional area (or width) of the cellulose crystallites was the main determinant of the thermal conductive properties. Thus, the results strongly indicate that there is a crystallite size effect on phonon conduction within the nanocellulose sheets. The results also indicated that there is a large interfacial thermal resistance between the nanocellulose surfaces. The phonon propagation velocity (i.e., the sound velocity) within the nanocellulose sheets was estimated to be ∼800 m/s based on the relationship between the thermal diffusivities and crystallite widths. The resulting in-plane thermal conductivity of the tunicate nanocellulose sheet was calculated to be ∼2.5 W/mK, markedly higher than other plastic films available for flexible electronic devices.

  3. Calculation of thermal effects occuring during the manufacture of CR-39 sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilagyi, S.; Somogyi, G.

    1984-01-01

    To manufacture a good-quality, uniform CR-39 track detector, the polymerization rate should be below a critical value to avoid the development of undesirable thermal gradients and internal temperature fluctuations in the sheet being cast. To improve curing cycles a computer program was developed to study the trends of thermal effects under different casting conditions. These calculations are based on the solution of the one-dimensional heat transport equation and take into account the relations proposed by Dial et. al. for describing the chemical kinetics of CR-39 polymerization. The authors have revised the empirical parameters available to such calculations. With new ''Dial constants'' they have calculated the critical initial bath temperature (which results in thermal runaway at the central plane of the sheet being cast) as a function of the CR-39 thickness and IPP initiator concentration. Results are also presented for the temperature profile in the depth of cast CR-39 sheets.

  4. Effects of organic acid pickling on the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Blawert, C.; Scharnagl, N.

    2010-01-01

    mu m of the contaminated surface was required to reach corrosion rates less than 1 mm/year in salt spray condition. Among the three organic acids examined, acetic acid is the best choice. Oxalic acid can be an alternative while citric acid is not suitable for cleaning AZ31 sheet, because......Organic acids were used to clean AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet and the effect of the cleaning processes on the surface condition and corrosion performance of the alloy was investigated. Organic acid cleanings reduced the surface impurities and enhanced the corrosion resistance. Removal of at least 4...

  5. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Programs Office Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2018-02-01

    One of the Department of Energy’s (DOE) primary forums for helping state and local governments implement costeffective and productive energy systems for American homes, communities, businesses, and industries is the Weatherization and Intergovernmental Programs Office (WIP). WIP is part of DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s “all of the above” national energy strategy to create greater energy affordability, security and resiliency.

  6. Norwegian Petroleum Activity 97. Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report is the official governmental review of the offshore operations on the Norwegian Continental Shelf in 1996. It covers the following topics: (1) Summary, (2) Historical overview, (3) State organization of petroleum activities, (4) The economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas, (5) State revenues, (6) Mainland activities, (7) Petroleum resources, (8) Production, (9) Marketing situation for petroleum products, (10) Environmental aspects, (11) The legal and license framework, (12) Licensing rounds, (13) Exploration, (14) Fields in production, (15) Fields under development, (16) Discoveries with development plan under consideration, (17) Transportation systems, (18) License interests, (19) Company interests, (20) White papers, (21) Useful postal addresses. 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  7. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. The main support scheme for electricity from renewable energy sources is a feed-in tariff scheme. For operators of photovoltaics (PV) and onshore wind installations an investment subsidy instrument is available as well. Besides, the sale of generated renewable electricity is incentivized by an exemption from excise duty. Also renewable heat production installations are eligible for an investment subsidy instrument. For renewable transport fuels a bio-fuels quota scheme is on place. Moreover, producers/suppliers of bio-fuels and petroleum fuels blended with bio-fuels benefit from a fiscal incentive

  8. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. For electricity from renewable sources of energy main support instruments are feed-in tariffs (FIPs) and feed-in premiums (FiPs). Operators of renewable energy installation have to make a choice for either the applicable FiT or the corresponding FiP. Except for hydro installations with a capacity of 10 MW, the FiT/FiP scheme has been closed for new installations generating electricity from renewables. Hydro power installations with a size ≤ 10 MW are also eligible for subsidies. Installations for production of renewable heat can apply for subsidies granted by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and are exempt from real estate tax. A renewable heating obligation for buildings is in place and a regulation on the use of renewable heating by public authorities. The main support scheme for renewable transport fuels is a renewable transport quota scheme. This scheme obliges companies importing or producing gasoline or automotive diesel to ensure that bio-fuels make up a defined percentage of their overall annual sales volume of automotive fuels. Besides, bio-fuels are exempt from a consumption tax

  9. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. In Greece, electricity from renewable sources is promoted through feed-in premiums, granted through tenders (as from 2017), feed-in tariffs for limited cases, a preferential tax regime (since 2016) and a net metering scheme. Heating and cooling from renewable energy sources is incentivised by way of a preferential tax regime and an investment subsidy scheme. The main instrument for renewable energy use in transport is a bio-fuels quota scheme

  10. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. In Portugal, electricity from renewable sources from existing plants is mainly promoted through a feed-in tariff. Support to new RES plants can currently only be remunerated through the open energy market. For RES-H there is currently no direct support mechanism or fiscal benefit in place (as of January 2017); only indirect support. In the transport sector, the main incentives are a bio-fuel quota system and a tax exemption to small producers of bio-fuels

  11. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Main support policy: Renewable electricity in Bulgaria is promoted primarily through a feed-in tariff scheme. For new projects this scheme is only open for installations up to 30 kW. The grid operator is mandated to the purchase and dispatch electricity at a guaranteed price for eligible generators. The use of renewable energy for heating and cooling is promoted through a subsidy from the European Regional Development Fund and through an exemption for building owners from property tax. Main Bulgarian support scheme for renewable energy in transport is a quota system. There is a professional training programme for RES-installers as well as a building obligation for the use of renewable heating and for the exemplary role of public authorities

  12. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. In Hungary, electricity from renewable energy sources is supported by a feed-in-tariff or a market ('green') premium, depending on the capacity and energy source. Household-sized power plants up to 50 kVA can benefit from net metering. In general, subsidy programmes also promote the use of renewable energy sources in the electricity and heating sector. The main support scheme for the use of renewable energy in the transportation sector is a quota system supplemented by a reimbursement of excise duty

  13. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Main support scheme: for RES-E a new support scheme based on a premium in addition to the market price is in place since 2016, whereby the generators sell their electricity directly in the market. For RES-H and C the Heat Fund support is the main tool for collective buildings. For individual housing, a tax credit is the main support scheme. The promotion of bio-fuels in France is mainly provided through fiscal regulation mechanisms. On the one hand, the lower competitiveness of bio-fuels compared to conventional fuels is improved through a partial exemption of the domestic consumption tax. On the other hand, the tax on polluting activities prescribes higher rates for companies trading fuel for consumption, in case they do not respect the national quota of bio-fuels to be blended within conventional fuels, which is defined for each fuel type

  14. Extravehicular Activity Fact Sheet: An EVA Chronology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology chronicles the 154 EVAs conducted from March 1965 to April 1997. It is intended to make clear the crucial role played by EVA in...

  15. Fact Sheet 1999. Norwegian Petroleum Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breivik, Jan

    1999-10-01

    As discussed in this publication, petroleum resources in the order of 9.5 billion (bn) standard cubic metres (scm) oil equivalents (oe) have been discovered on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS), 77 per cent in the North Sea, 19 per cent in the Norwegian Sea and four per cent in the Barents Sea. By the end of 1998, remaining reserves on the NCS totalled 1.6 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 160 mill scm oe of natural gas liquids. Thirty-two exploration wells, including 21 wildcats and 11 for appraisal, were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1998. 939 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. In 1998 governmental approval was given for the Huldra, Snorre B phase II, Gullfaks satellites phase II and Yme Beta West. Norwegian offshore petroleum production in 1998 totalled 222.5 scm oe, including 168.9 mill scm oe of oil, 43.6 mill scm oe of gas and 10 mill scm oe of NGL/condensate. Oil production declined by 4 per cent compared with 1997, while gas sales rose by 2 per cent. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum exports in 1998 was NOK 123 bn, or about 30 per cent of the country`s total earnings from foreign sales. Petroleum production and pipeline transport accounted for 12 per cent of Norway`s gross national product. Net government revenues from taxes and royalties on petroleum operations is put at 27.6 billion NOK. The publication also includes a list of white papers and a list of useful postal addresses. 23 figs., 14 tabs.

  16. Fact Sheets & Publications | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  17. State Fact Sheets | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  18. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Main support scheme in Germany: tendering scheme for RES-E, small power plants up to 100 kW are supported by a feed-in tariff. Market Incentive Programme (MAP) for RES-H, Electric Mobility Strategy for the transport sector

  19. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Luxembourg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Main support instruments for incentivising electricity from renewable energy sources are feed-in tariffs and feed-in premiums. A subsidy instrument is used as well. Households operating small solar installations are entitled to tax benefits. Renewable heat production is promoted through four subsidy instruments. Renewable transport fuels are promoted by way of a bio-fuels blending quota scheme

  20. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. The main support scheme to stimulate electricity from renewable energy sources is a feed-in premium scheme. RES-E project developers with installations = 10 kW have to acquire access to this scheme by submitting successful bids in tenders. Subsidies and loans can be obtained by RES-E project developers through successful applications at the Climate Change Special Programme or the Lithuanian Environmental Investment Funds (investment subsidies only). RES-E plants are exempted from excise duty. Consumers with a small PV installation can benefit from net metering. Producers of heating and cooling from renewable energy sources are exempt from environmental pollution tax and are eligible for grants. Moreover, heat suppliers are obliged to purchase all heat produced from renewable energy sources. Renewable transport fuels are promoted through reimbursement of raw materials for bio-fuel production, a bio-fuels (blending) quota scheme as well as exemption from excise tax and environmental pollution tax

  1. Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-07-01

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF) supports the development of a sustainable bioenergy industry by providing access to a variety of data sets, publications, and collaboration and mapping tools that support bioenergy research, analysis, and decision making. In the KDF, users can search for information, contribute data, and use the tools and map interface to synthesize, analyze, and visualize information in a spatially integrated manner.

  2. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Electricity from renewable sources is promoted through a premium tariff (and a guaranteed feed-in tariff for installations of less than 30 kW), allocated through tenders. Soft loans and subsidies for renewable energy projects are also provided. Renewable energy sources for heating purposes only are not promoted through a national support scheme. A training programme for RES installers aims at promoting the development, installation and usage of power generating and heating installations based on renewables. The main promotion scheme in the field of renewable transport fuels is a bio-fuels quota scheme. Additionally, the state provides bio-fuels incentives taking the form of a tax credits mechanism

  3. Powering Our Sustainable Future (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-07-01

    One of the Energy Department's most successful outreach efforts, the Solar Decathlon provides sponsors with rich opportunities for recognition - from naming rights to signage and speaking opportunities to special events. Support from the business community is crucial to the success of the competition and the experience of thousands of student decathletes. This sponsorship brochure reveals reasons why sponsors support the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon and how organizations can become involved as Solar Decathlon sponsors.

  4. Part D Reconsideration Appeals Fact Sheets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — If a Part D plan sponsor issues an adverse redetermination decision, the enrollee or the enrollees representative may appeal the decision to the Independent Review...

  5. Fact sheet on fuel manufacturing and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Section (NFCMS) supports Member States to improve in-pile fuel performance and management of materials; and to develop advanced fuel technologies for ensuring reliability and economic efficiency of the nuclear fuel cycle, provides assistance to Member States to support fuel-manufacturing capability, including quality assurance techniques, optimization of manufacturing parameters and radiation protection, supports the development fuel modeling expertise in Member States, covering both normal operation and postulated and severe accident conditions, provides information and support for the operation of Nuclear Power Plant to ensure that the environment and water chemistry is appropriate for fuel operation, supports fuel failure investigations, including equipment for failed fuel detection and for post-irradiation examination and inspection, as well as fuel repair, provides information and support research into the basic properties of fuel materials, including UO2, MOX, (Th, Pu)O2, (Th, U233)O2 fuels and zirconium alloy cladding and fuel assembly components and offers guidance on the relationship with back-end requirement (interim storage, transport, reprocessing, disposal), fuel utilization and management, MOX fuels, alternative fuels and advanced fuel technology and materials, economic and other aspects of nuclear fuel use (e.g. environmental impact). Recently NFCMS provided support to a Member State manufacturing Gadolinia doped fuel and provided in-mast sipping equipment to a Nuclear Power Plant to allow the determination of fuel failure. Member States interested in fuel performance and manufacture should contact the Technical Cooperation Department of the Agency and Member States interested in knowing more about the Agency's programme on source management should contact: C. Ganguly, Section Head, V. Inozemtsev, J. Killeen

  6. CASIS Fact Sheet: Hardware and Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Michael R.; Romero, Vergel

    2016-01-01

    Vencore is a proven information solutions, engineering, and analytics company that helps our customers solve their most complex challenges. For more than 40 years, we have designed, developed and delivered mission-critical solutions as our customers' trusted partner. The Engineering Services Contract, or ESC, provides engineering and design services to the NASA organizations engaged in development of new technologies at the Kennedy Space Center. Vencore is the ESC prime contractor, with teammates that include Stinger Ghaffarian Technologies, Sierra Lobo, Nelson Engineering, EASi, and Craig Technologies. The Vencore team designs and develops systems and equipment to be used for the processing of space launch vehicles, spacecraft, and payloads. We perform flight systems engineering for spaceflight hardware and software; develop technologies that serve NASA's mission requirements and operations needs for the future. Our Flight Payload Support (FPS) team at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) provides engineering, development, and certification services as well as payload integration and management services to NASA and commercial customers. Our main objective is to assist principal investigators (PIs) integrate their science experiments into payload hardware for research aboard the International Space Station (ISS), commercial spacecraft, suborbital vehicles, parabolic flight aircrafts, and ground-based studies. Vencore's FPS team is AS9100 certified and a recognized implementation partner for the Center for Advancement of Science in Space (CASIS

  7. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. In the United Kingdom RES-E are supported through a feed-in tariff, Contracts for Difference scheme, a quota system and tax regulation mechanism. For RES-H and C a subsidy and price-based mechanisms are available for supporting RES-H installations. Furthermore, a quota system for biofuels and a grant scheme for transport is in place. A training programme for RES-E plant installers is in place, as well as a certification programme for RES-E installations. An overarching Renewable Energy Roadmap relating to RES-E has been laid down and implemented

  8. The Marfan Syndrome [and] Fact Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyeritz, Reed E.; Conant, Julia

    This introduction to the Marfan syndrome, a heritable disorder of connective tissue primarily affecting the bones and ligaments, eyes, cardiovascular system, and lungs, is intended for a general audience. The question-and-answer format was chosen by individuals with the syndrome to reflect their major questions and concerns. It incorporates the…

  9. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-01-01

    Clean Cities' National Clean Fleets Partnership establishes strategic alliances with large fleets to help them explore and adopt alternative fuels and fuel economy measures to cut petroleum use. The initiative leverages the strength of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, nearly 18,000 stakeholders, and more than 20 years of experience. It provides fleets with top-level support, technical assistance, robust tools and resources, and public acknowledgement to help meet and celebrate fleets' petroleum-use reductions.

  10. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

  11. Fact sheet. Norwegian petroleum activity 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harv, M.R.

    1995-02-01

    This report on the Norwegian petroleum activity in 1994 is published by the Royal Ministry of Industry and Energy. Production to the end of 1994 totaled 1.63 billion scm oe. At 31 Dec 1994, total reserves on the Norwegian continental shelf comprised 1.34 billion scm oe of oil, 1.35 billion scm oe of gas and 0.1 billion scm oe of NGLs. The net increment in oil and gas during 1994 was about 115 million scm oe. Twenty-seven exploration wells, including 22 wildcats and five appraisal wells, were completed or temporarily abandoned on the Norwegian continental shelf in 1994. Governmental approval was given for developing the second phase of the Ekofisk field, the Vigdis and Snorre Lunde oil fields, and two smaller formations on the Veslefrikk field. Investment in petroleum operations totaled about NOK 50 billion. Norwegian oil and gas production came to about 180 million scm oe. At present levels of output, Norway's petroleum resources are sufficient to support production of oil for 20 years and of gas for 115 years. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum exports in 1994 is NOK 114 billion, representing about 34% of the country's total export earnings. State revenues from taxes and royalties on petroleum operations came to about NOK 23.7 billion, or eight per cent of total government revenues. 24 figs., 13 tabs

  12. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Electricity from renewable sources of energy is stimulated by a feed-in tariff scheme which includes elements of a renewable quota scheme and tendering. Since 2011 this scheme only applies to pre-existing RES-E installations and is closed for new RES-E projects. Moreover, the present main RES-E support scheme is being evaluated which may result in reforms within short. Small-scale renewable generation, notably PV, is stimulated by net metering. On the other hand, since January 2014 a tax for subsidised electricity generators is in place. Renewable heating and cooling is promoted by fiscal instruments. To date, renewable transport fuels are promoted through a tax mechanism as well

  13. Potential health hazards of radiation. Fact Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    During World War II and the Cold War, the federal government developed and operated industrial facilities for the research, production, and testing of nuclear weapons, as well as other scientific and engineering research. These processes left a legacy of radioactive and chemical waste, environmental contamination, and hazardous facilities and materials at well over 100 sites. Some of these sites processed uranium and vanadium, and upon closure, left behind millions of cubic yards of mill tailings on the sites and throughout the nearby communities. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) administers the cleanup of these areas to minimize the risks to the public and environment from exposure to the tailings and the radon gas they produce

  14. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Electricity from renewable sources is promoted through investment subsidies in combination with a net metering scheme. Renewable heating and cooling is promoted by investment subsidies to enterprises and households respectively. To date, no incentives for production and use of bio-fuels in the transport sector are in place

  15. Fact Sheet: Early Warning Signs of Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... items) Social Phobia (1 item) Populations Children and Adolescents (10 items) Men’s Mental Health (5 items) Women’s Mental Health (7 items) Military Service Members (1 item) Older Adults (3 items) Prevention Prevention (2 items) Suicide Prevention (2 items) Research ...

  16. At-Risk Students Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Montana's definition of a basic system of quality public elementary and secondary schools includes educational programs for at-risk students (20-9-309, MCA). State statute defines an at-risk student as a "student who is affected by environmental conditions that negatively impact the student's educational performance or threaten a student's…

  17. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Denmark surpassed its 2020 nationally binding renewable energy in 2015. In March 2012 a new Energy Agreement was reached in Denmark. The Agreement contains a wide range of ambitious initiatives, which aims at bringing Denmark closer to the target of 100% renewable energy in the energy and transport sectors by 2050. Main support measures to promote renewable energy in Denmark consist of a feed-in premium scheme (combined with tenders for offshore wind), a quota system, tax regulation mechanisms and subsidy schemes

  18. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. With Ireland's current 'trajectory' of renewable energy growth, it is likely to slightly fall short of its 2020 nationally binding renewable energy target. Ireland initiated a 'moratorium' on its REFIT (Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff) support scheme in December 2015, with the aim of introducing a revised scheme in 2017 in line with market developments. Grants and tax relief remain in place for renewable heat promotion. An Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan (OREDP) was introduced in 2014, which sets out Government policy in relation to the sustainable development of Ireland's abundant offshore renewable energy resource

  19. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. By 2014 Finland already surpassed its 2020 target for renewable energy use under the 2009 EU Renewable Energy Directive. The current feed-in premium system will be discontinued and is expected to be replaced with a competitive technology-neutral tendering scheme, in line with the requirements set in the 2014 State Aid guidelines

  20. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. The promotion of renewable electricity in Romania relies primarily on a renewable quota scheme. Since 2017 the scheme has been closed for new projects. Renewable heating and cooling is promoted through investment subsidies. Renewable energy sources in the transport sector are promoted by a bio-fuels quota scheme and indirectly through a subsidy scheme for the purchase of electric vehicles

  1. Fact Sheet on the Earnings Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    A comparison of median income since 1955 shows that the salary differential between men and women has increased in recent years. Although this is due primarily to the over-representation of women in low-skilled, low-paying jobs, even within the same occupations men are better paid. Salary comparisons for professional occupations show differentials…

  2. Spina Bifida. NICHCY Disability Fact Sheet #12

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Spina bifida" is one of the most common birth defects in the United States, affecting some 1,500 babies each year. Spina bifida happens during the first month or so of pregnancy and means that the baby's spine did not close completely. Damage to the nerves and the spinal cord may result. Following a brief story about a child with a…

  3. Guillain-Barré Syndrome Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefit. In the process of plasma exchange, a plastic tube called a catheter is inserted into the ... a viral or bacterial infection suggests that certain characteristics of some viruses and bacteria may activate the ...

  4. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Italy approved the National Energy Strategy in 2013. It is built around 7 priorities and focusses on a sustainable deployment of renewable energy and stresses the importance of energy efficiency. The Strategy contains targets and measures until 2020 as well as long-term strategies until 2050. In 2013, the green certificate scheme was replaced by other support schemes to promote RES-E, namely different feed-in and premium tariffs. Very large plants are awarded contracts under a tender scheme (auction process). For RESH, there exists a tax regulation scheme and incentive for small RES-H sources. RES-T is promoted by quotas

  5. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Genital Herpes Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Pelvic ... often caused by some STDs, like chlamydia and gonorrhea . Other infections that are not sexually transmitted can ...

  6. Young Children in Deep Poverty. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekono, Mercedes; Jiang, Yang; Smith, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    A U.S. family of three living in deep poverty survives on an annual income below $9,276, or less than $9.00 a day per family member. The struggle to raise children on such a meager income is not a rare circumstance among U.S. families, especially those with young children. Currently, 11 percent of young children (0-9 years) live in households with…

  7. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. The European Union aims to achieve a 20% share (with legally binding national targets) of its final energy consumption from RES by 2020, and at least a 27% share (not broken down into nationally binding targets) by 2030. Key instruments at EU level to promote RES include directives, such as the 2009 Renewable Energy Directive. The EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) is also intended to support RES. The European Commission has also adopted state aid guidelines to ensure that support schemes to promote RES at national level are compatible with EU competition law and internal market rules. Further instruments are research, development and innovation funding programmes, such as Horizon2020, the Innovation Fund, and the NER300 programme. RES are also supported through regional development funds as well as through grants and loans for RES projects and related infrastructure from the European Investment Bank (EIB) and the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI). A recast directive on the promotion of RES in the period 2020- 2030 is to be adopted along with governance rules to ensure that the EU-wide RES target for 2030 is met

  8. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Belgium consists of three regions: Brussels, Flanders and Wallonia, each with much autonomy in determining renewable support policies, except for support to offshore wind and hydro power which fall under the competence of the federal government. Electricity from renewable sources is promoted at regional and federal levels mainly through a quota system based on the trade of certificates, complemented by regional support measures. In the three regions small PV installations benefit from net metering. The federal government supports renewable heating and cooling by way of a tax deduction on investment costs. The main support scheme for renewable energy sources used in transport is a quota system under the competence of the federal government

  9. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  10. Law Enforcement School Programs. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas Safe Schools Initiative Division, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The school shooting incidents during the decade of the 1990's prompted an increase of law enforcement presence in schools. The School Violence Resource Center (SVRC) at the Criminal Justice Institute (CJI) University of Arkansas System undertook a project to determine what programs law enforcement agencies currently provide in their local schools…

  11. Next Generation Air Measurement Technologies Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is advancing lower cost and portable air measurement technology to enhance monitoring capabilities for complying with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The technology is providing mobile and stationary real-time measurement capabilities.

  12. Solar Energy Technologies Office Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2018-03-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Office (SETO) supports early-stage research and development to improve the affordability, reliability, and performance of solar technologies on the grid. The office invests in innovative research efforts that securely integrate more solar energy into the grid, enhance the use and storage of solar energy, and lower solar electricity costs.

  13. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. In Slovenia, electricity from renewable sources is promoted through a feed-in tariff (so called 'guaranteed purchase') and a premium tariff (so called 'operating premium'), both granted through a tender procedure. Renewable energy sources for heating purposes are promoted mainly through loans on concessional terms and subsidies. The main incentive for renewable energy use in transport are tax exemptions and subsidies

  14. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Sweden surpassed its 2020 nationally binding renewable energy in 2013. Main support measures to promote renewable energy in Sweden consists of a quota system, various tax regulation mechanisms and subsidy schemes. Sweden has a joint support scheme with Norway, thus being the first EU Member State to implement a cooperation mechanism, as defined under the 2009 EU Renewable Energy Directive. The Swedish coalition government has agreed on a target of 100% renewable electricity production by 2040

  15. Online Public Access Catalogs. ERIC Fact Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Pauline A.

    A listing is presented of 17 documents in the ERIC database concerning the Online Catalog (sometimes referred to as OPAC or Online Public Access Catalog), a computer-based and supported library catalog designed for patron use. The database usually represents recent acquisitions and often contains information about books on order and items in…

  16. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Mid-2016 Poland revamped its national support scheme for electricity from renewable energy sources, started to phase out a certificates-backed renewable electricity quota scheme, and put in place a feed-in tariff/feed-in premium (FiT/FiP) system in place with the support levels being determined by approved tender bids. Furthermore, a fiscal and soft loan instrument is used for supplementary support. Three subsidy instruments and a soft loan instrument are deployed for the promotion of renewable heat. Renewable energy in transport is promoted through a bio-fuels quota scheme

  17. Health Insurance Rate Review Fact Sheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act is bringing an unprecedented level of scrutiny and transparency to health insurance rate increases. The Act ensures that, in any State, any...

  18. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Main support scheme: sliding feed-in premium scheme which is used to promote RES based electricity, renewable gas and heating purposes is the SDE+ which is structured as feed-in premiums and financed through a levy on the energy bill of end consumers

  19. What Is Quality Preschool? Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advocates for Children of New Jersey, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Children need quality early learning programs. This can be a child care center, a preschool or a Head Start program. Not all early learning programs provide the high quality children need. This paper presents questions that should be considered when looking for an early learning program.

  20. Epilepsy. NICHCY Disability Fact Sheet #6

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Epilepsy is a seizure disorder. According to the Epilepsy Foundation of America, a seizure happens when a brief, strong surge of electrical activity affects part or all of the brain. About three million Americans have epilepsy. Of the 200,000 new cases diagnosed each year, nearly 45,000 are children and adolescents. Following a brief story of a…

  1. Fact sheet. Norwegian petroleum activity 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westgaard, T. [ed.

    1996-02-01

    The present report from the Royal Ministry of Industry and Energy deals with the Norwegian petroleum activity. Main topics are as follow: Historical overview; state organisation of petroleum activities; the economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas; state revenues; mainland activities; petroleum resources; production; marketing situation for petroleum products; environmental aspects; the legal and licence framework; licensing rounds; exploration; fields in production; fields under development; discoveries with development plan under consideration; transportation systems; licence interests; company interests. 36 refs., 24 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Electricity from renewable sources is mainly promoted through feed-in premiums (FiP). In addition, investment subsidies are available for biogas/biomass-based RES-E and wind power installations. Renewable heat is stimulated through investment subsidies to CHP plants generating renewable heat and electricity, as well as subsidies for private heat consumers. Renewable transport fuels are currently mainly incentivised by way of a support scheme to promote the purchase of electric cars that use power produced from renewable energy sources. Recently, a measure for supporting bio-methane in the transport sector has been adopted. Generally, a number of investment subsidy schemes are in place to promote the development, installation and use of renewable energy production installations. However, certain subsidy conditions still have to be announced and implemented. The total amount of financial support to be allocated to renewable energy and energy efficiency related projects during period 2014-2020 will be over euro 490 million. The current administratively determined FiP scheme is set to be replaced by an auction-based scheme within short

  3. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Main support scheme: sliding feed-in premium scheme, incentives for small scale solar thermal installations, heat pumps, geothermal and biomass heating plants, quota system in the transport sector

  4. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Malta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Malta's RES target for 2020 is 10%. By 2015, Malta had reached a RES share of 5%. Due to several major technology-related developments, Malta has revised the originally planned RES mix presented in its 2010 NREAP. Whilst offshore wind is no longer expected to contribute to reaching the target, installation of solar PV systems is given higher priority. Malta uses a combination of feed-in tariffs, grant schemes and a quota obligation on the share of bio-fuels delivered on the market to promote renewable energy sources

  5. Energy DataBus (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-07-01

    NREL has developed the Energy DataBus, an open-sourced software that collects massive amounts of energy-related data at second-to-second intervals; stores it in a massive, scalable database; and turns it into useful information.

  6. Policy Pathways: Q and A Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    There are two main messages for this series. First, with respect to energy efficiency, countries know what to do, but not necessarily how to do it. These Pathways try to fill this 'know-how' gap. Second, the IEA acknowledges that simply making recommendations to countries is not enough. We have made 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations, but we know that countries need assistance with how to implement them. We can reinterpret the proverb about teaching a man to fish. ''Give a country an energy efficiency recommendation, and you hold their attention for a day. Help a country to implement the recommendation, and you are more likely to launch energy savings that last for years.''

  7. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. On October 2015, a new support scheme (the 'Regimen Retributivo Especifico') was established in Spain. The aim was to grant a specific remuneration regime for new biomass plants located in the mainland electricity system and for wind energy plants. The allocation of the referred specific remuneration regime has been done through a competitive call for tenders. A tax regulation mechanism for investments related to RESE plants is in place. There is a tax credit for solar thermal and for bio-fuels in transport. Furthermore a quota system for bio-fuels is in place. RES-E operators are entitled to grid connection, priority dispatch against the grid operator. Currently no support schemes for RES-H and C are in place in Spain

  8. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... federal government website managed by the Office on Women's Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . 200 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, DC 20201 1-800-994- ...

  9. Effect of highly reflective roofing sheet on building thermal loads for a school in Osaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jihui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, urban heat island (UHI phenomenon and building energy consumptions are becoming serious. Strategies to mitigate UHI and reduce building energy consumptions are implemented worldwide. In Japan, as an effective means of mitigating UHI and saving energy of buildings, highly reflective (HR and green roofs are increasingly used. In order to evaluate the effect of roofs with high reflection and thermal insulation on the energy conservation of buildings, we investigated the roof solar reflectivity of the subject school in Osaka, in which the HR roofing sheet was installed on the roof from 2010. Thermal loads, including cooling and heating loads of the top floor of school, were calculated using the thermal load calculation software, New HASP/ACLD-β. Comparing the thermal loads after HR roofing sheet installation to previous, the annual thermal load decreased about 25 MJ/m2-year and the cooling load decreased about 112 MJ/m2-year. However, the heating load increased about 87 MJ/m2-year in winter. To minimize the annual thermal load, thermal insulation of the roof was also considered be used together with HR roofing sheet in this study. The results showed that the combination of HR roofing sheet and high thermal insulation is more effective to reduce the annual thermal load.

  10. Contesting facts about wind farms in Australia and the legitimacy of adverse health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Shannon; Botterill, Linda Courtenay

    2017-02-01

    The development of wind energy in Australia has been subject to ongoing public debate and has been characterised by concerns over the health impacts of wind turbines. Using discursive psychology, we examine 'wind turbine syndrome' as a contested illness and analyse how people build and undermine divergent arguments about wind-farm health effects. This article explores two facets of the dispute. First, we consider how participants construct 'facts' about the health effects of wind farms. We examine rhetorical resources used to construct wind farms as harmful or benign. Second, we examine the local negotiation of the legitimacy of health complaints. In the research interviews examined, even though interviewees treat those who report experiencing symptoms from wind farms as having primary rights to narrate their own experience, this epistemic primacy does not extend to the ability to 'correctly' identify symptoms' cause. As a result, the legitimacy of health complaints is undermined. Wind turbine syndrome is an example of a contested illness that is politically controversial. We show how stake, interest and legitimacy are particularly relevant for participants' competing descriptions about the 'facts' of wind turbine health effects.

  11. Facts about food irradiation: Packaging of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet considers the effects on packaging materials of food irradiation. Extensive research has shown that almost all commonly used food packaging materials toted are suitable for use. Furthermore, many packaging materials are themselves routinely sterilized by irradiation before being used. 2 refs

  12. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to main content Easy-to-Read Drug Facts Search form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts ... Past Drug Use Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page ...

  13. QED blue-sheet effects inside black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burko, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    The interaction of the unboundedly blueshifted photons of the cosmic microwave background radiation with a physical object falling towards the inner horizon of a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole is analyzed. To evaluate this interaction we consider the QED effects up to the second order in the perturbation expansion. We then extrapolate the QED effects up to a cutoff, which we introduce at the Planckian level. (Our results are not sensitive to the cutoff energy.) We find that the energy absorbed by an infalling observer is finite, and for typical parameters would not lead to a catastrophic heating. However, this interaction would almost certainly be fatal for a human being, or other living organisms of similar size. On the other hand, we find that smaller objects may survive the interaction. Our results do not provide support for the idea that the Cauchy horizon is to be regarded as the boundary of spacetime. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  14. The effect of ambient pressure on ejecta sheets from free-surface ablation

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.; Mansoor, Mohammad M.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Truscott, T. T.

    2016-01-01

    We present observations from an experimental study of the ablation of a free liquid surface promoted by a focused laser pulse, causing a rapid discharge of liquid in the form of a very thin conical-shaped sheet. In order to capture the dynamics, we employ a state-of-the-art ultra-high-speed video camera capable of capturing events at (Formula presented.) fps with shutter speeds down to 20 ns, whereby we were able to capture not only the ejecta sheet, but also the shock wave, emerging at speeds of up to 1.75 km/s, which is thus found to be hypersonic (Mach 5). Experiments were performed at a range of ambient pressures in order to study the effect of air drag on the evolution of the sheet, which was always observed to dome over, even at pressures as low as 3.8 kPa. At reduced pressures, the extended sheet evolution led to the formation of interference fringe patterns from which, by comparison with the opening speed of rupture, we were able to determine the ejecta thickness. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  15. The effect of ambient pressure on ejecta sheets from free-surface ablation

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.

    2016-04-16

    We present observations from an experimental study of the ablation of a free liquid surface promoted by a focused laser pulse, causing a rapid discharge of liquid in the form of a very thin conical-shaped sheet. In order to capture the dynamics, we employ a state-of-the-art ultra-high-speed video camera capable of capturing events at (Formula presented.) fps with shutter speeds down to 20 ns, whereby we were able to capture not only the ejecta sheet, but also the shock wave, emerging at speeds of up to 1.75 km/s, which is thus found to be hypersonic (Mach 5). Experiments were performed at a range of ambient pressures in order to study the effect of air drag on the evolution of the sheet, which was always observed to dome over, even at pressures as low as 3.8 kPa. At reduced pressures, the extended sheet evolution led to the formation of interference fringe patterns from which, by comparison with the opening speed of rupture, we were able to determine the ejecta thickness. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  16. Calculation of thermal effects occurring during the manufacture of CR-39 sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilagyi, S.; Somogyi, G. (Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Debrecen. Atommag Kutato Intezete)

    1984-01-01

    To manufacture a good-quality, uniform CR-39 track detector, the polymerization rate should be chosen below a critical value to avoid the development of undesirable thermal gradients and internal temperature fluctuations in the sheet being cast. To improve curing cycles, especially for thick CR-39 sheets, a computer programme was developed by which we could study the trends of thermal effects under different casting conditions. Our calculations are based on the solution of the one dimensional heat transport equation, taking into account the relations proposed by Dial et al (1955) for describing the chemical kinetics of CR-39 polymerization. We have revised the empirical parameters available to such calculations. With new 'Dial constants' we have calculated the critical initial bath temperature (which results in thermal runaway at the central plane of the sheet being cast) as a function of the CR-39 thickness and IPP initiator concentration. Results are also presented for the temperature profile developing in the depth of cast CR-39 sheets.

  17. Calculation of thermal effects occurring during the manufacture of CR-39 sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilagyi, S.; Somogyi, G.

    1984-01-01

    To manufacture a good-quality, uniform CR-39 track detector, the polymerization rate should be chosen below a critical value to avoid the development of undesirable thermal gradients and internal temperature fluctuations in the sheet being cast. To improve curing cycles, especially for thick CR-39 sheets, a computer programme was developed by which we could study the trends of thermal effects under different casting conditions. Our calculations are based on the solution of the one dimensional heat transport equation, taking into account the relations proposed by Dial et al (1955) for describing the chemical kinetics of CR-39 polymerization. We have revised the empirical parameters available to such calculations. With new 'Dial constants' we have calculated the critical initial bath temperature (which results in thermal runaway at the central plane of the sheet being cast) as a function of the CR-39 thickness and IPP initiator concentration. Results are also presented for the temperature profile developing in the depth of cast CR-39 sheets. (author)

  18. Thermal effects on the stability of circular graphene sheets via nonlocal continuum mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Reza Asemi

    Full Text Available Recently, graphene sheets have shown significant potential for environmental engineering applications such as wastewater treatment. Different non-classical theories have been used for modeling of such nano-sized systems to take account of the effect of small length scale. Among all size-dependent theories, the nonlocal elasticity theory has been commonly used to examine the stability of nano-sized structures. Some research works have been reported about the mechanical behavior of rectangular nanoplates with the consideration of thermal effects. However, in comparison with the rectangular graphene sheets, research works about the nanoplates of circular shape are very limited, especially for the buckling properties with thermal effects. Hence, in this paper, an axisymmetric buckling analysis of circular single-layered graphene sheets (SLGS is presented by decoupling the nonlocal equations of Eringen theory. Constitutive relations are modified to describe the nonlocal effects. The governing equations are derived using equilibrium equations of the circular plate in polar coordinates. Numerical solutions for buckling loads are computed using Galerkin method. It is shown that nonlocal effects play an important role in the buckling of circular nanoplates. The effects of the small scale on the buckling loads considering various parameters such as the radius of the plate, radius-to-thickness ratio, temperature change and mode numbers are investigated.

  19. Research on the Effects of the Movable Die and its Counter Force on Sheet Hydroforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Li X.; Zhang, Shi H.; Wang, Ben X.

    2007-01-01

    An improved Sheet Hydro-forming process was proposed, which was investigated in Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences. ASAME system and FEM are used to analyze the forming process to explain some results that were found in the experiment. In the simulation, the effect of the movable die on the maximum principal stress is investigated in detail by using the FEM code LS-DYNA. For this case, the movable die changes the distribution of the maximum principal stress. For the sheet hydroforming without the movable die, the principal stress near the shoulder of the movable die arrives to the maximum value when t=0.0033s suddenly. But for the sheet hydroforming with the movable die, the maximum principal stress still lies in the die radius. The principal stress near the shoulder of the movable die is smaller. At the last stage contacting with the die, for the case without the movable die, the maximum principal stress near the shoulder of movable die is larger than that of the sheet hydroforming with the movable die. Moreover, the stress distribution near the shoulder of movable die for the case without the movable die is complicated. It is instable and very easy to occur wrinkling. The movable die delays the maximum thickness strain to the contacting die stage. So the formability of sheet metal can be remarkably improved by adopting the movable die. On a certain extent, the uniform distribution of thickness can be realized by increasing the counterforce of movable die. The minimum thickness reduction moves outside which is very helpful for the uniform thickness distribution. In this paper, two kinds of materials, soft steel and stainless steel, were investigated

  20. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? What are some signs and symptoms of someone ... use problem? How Does Drug Use Become an Addiction? What Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted ...

  1. Effects of thickness and surface roughness on mechanical properties of aluminum sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Chang Hee; Jung, Yun Chul; Kim, Young Suk

    2010-01-01

    The effect of thickness on the mechanical properties of Al 6K21-T4 sheet specimens under uniaxial tension was investigated. In order to reduce the thickness of the specimens without changing the microstructure and grain size, chemical etching was carried out, resulting in Al sheets ranging from 0.40 mm to 1.58 mm in thickness. Additionally, the effect of surface roughness was determined by finite element (FE) calculations performed using FE code MARC 2007. Tensile specimens of varying surface roughness were modeled and simulated. An analysis of the combined effects of the thickness and surface roughness revealed that the yield and tensile strengths decreased when the number of grains over the thickness was decreased. The ductility also decreased when reducing the thickness. An FE simulation showed that both the surface roughness and thickness affected the flow-curve shape. Moreover, the effect of the surface roughness tended to increase when decreasing the sheet thickness of specimens having the same roughness

  2. Effect of tool geometry on friction stir spot welding of polypropylene sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Bilici

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of tool geometry and properties on friction stir spot welding properties of polypropylene sheets were studied. Four different tool pin geometries, with varying pin angles, pin lengths, shoulder diameters and shoulder angles were used for friction stir spot welding. All the welding operations were done at the room temperature. Lap-shear tensile tests were carried out to find the weld static strength. Weld cross section appearance observations were also done. From the experiments the effect of tool geometry on friction stir spot weld formation and weld strength were determined. The optimum tool geometry for 4 mm thick polypropylene sheets were determined. The tapered cylindrical pin gave the biggest and the straight cylindrical pin gave the lowest lap-shear fracture load.

  3. Effect of Entrainment and Overflow Occurrences on Concentration Profile in PUREX Flow Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yoshinori; Ishii, Junichi; Matsumoto, Shiro

    2003-01-01

    A deviation in the operational condition of a mixer settler and a centrifugal contactor causes an entrainment or an overflow, which affects the concentration profile. Although there has been no quantitative study about the effect of such abnormal flows on the concentration profile, the occurrence of such abnormal flows has been severely restricted for a PUREX flow sheet. However, the restriction of abnormal flows can be relaxed when the effect of such flows is limited within the allowable range such that the concentration of the product does not deviate from its specification. This relaxation could serve to benefit a continuous operation under a certain degree of deviation from the operational condition and a smaller design load of a solvent extractor. From this viewpoint, the relationship between the magnitude of abnormal flows and the effect of them on the process was studied quantitatively using a specially developed code in a wide range of PUREX flow sheet conditions, and the possibility of this relaxation was investigated. The results showed that the effect of the abnormal flow on the concentration in the organic outflow or aqueous raffinate was dominated by the leakage fraction under normal conditions regardless of each specific flow sheet condition. The common correlations were found between the leakage fraction of uranium and plutonium under the occurrence of abnormal flows and that under no abnormal flow for the stripping and extracting conditions, respectively. Comparing the given correlations and the usual specification of the leakage fraction of uranium and plutonium suggested that the restriction of the abnormal flows could be relaxed for a usual PUREX flow sheet

  4. Corporate Sector Debt Composition and Exchange Rate Balance Sheet Effect in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Mehtap Kesriyeli; Erdal Ozmen; Serkan Yigit

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the causes and balance sheet effect consequences of the liability dollarisation of non-financial sectors in Turkey using the Company Accounts database compiled by the Central Bank of Turkey. The results from the panel EGLS and GMM procedures suggest that both sector-specific (tangibility, leverage ratio, export share) and macroeconomic condition variables (inflation, real exchange rate change, budget deficits and confidence) are significant in explaining the corporate ...

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on the structural, mechanical and optical properties of polytetrafluoroethylene sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadian-Kohol, M.; Asgari, M.; Shakur, H. R.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the effects of gamma radiation on the chemical structure, mechanical and optical properties of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sheet were investigated with various doses up to 12 kGy. The chemical changes in the structure were studied by FTIR spectroscopy. Also, effects of radiation on the different mechanical parameters such as Young's modulus, toughness, strain, and stress were studied at the maximum tolerable force and the fracture points. Furthermore, changing the various optical parameters such as absorption coefficient, Urbach energy, optical band gaps, refractive index, optical dispersion parameters and plasma resonance frequency were studied by UV-visible spectroscopy. Formation of a band at 1594 cm-1, which was belonged to double carbon bonds, indicated that chain-scission was occurred at 12 kGy gamma irradiation dose. As well, the mechanical results showed an increase in the elastic behavior of PTFE sheets and a decrease in the plastic behavior of it with absorbed dose increasing. Moreover, the results showed that gamma irradiation can effectively change the various optical properties of PTFE sheets due to different phenomena such as degradation of the main chains, occurring chain-scission, formation of free radicals and cross-linking in the polymer structure.

  6. Effect of Punch Stroke on Deformation During Sheet Forming Through Finite Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinlabi, Stephen; Akinlabi, Esther

    2017-08-01

    Forming is one of the traditional methods of making shapes, bends and curvature in metallic components during a fabrication process. Mechanical forming, in particular, employs the use of a punch, which is pressed against the sheet material to be deformed into a die by the application of an external force. This study reports on the finite element analysis of the effects of punch stroke on the resulting sheet deformation, which is directly a function of the structural integrity of the formed components for possible application in the automotive industry. The results show that punch stroke is directly proportional to the resulting bend angle of the formed components. It was further revealed that the developed plastic strain increases as the punch stroke increases.

  7. Steel Fibres: Effective Way to Prevent Failure of the Concrete Bonded with FRP Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gribniak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the efficiency of steel fibres for improving mechanical properties (cracking resistance and failure toughness of the concrete has been broadly discussed in the literature, the number of studies dedicated to the fibre effect on structural behaviour of the externally bonded elements is limited. This experimental study investigates the influence of steel fibres on the failure character of concrete elements strengthened with external carbon fibre reinforced polymer sheets. The elements were subjected to different loading conditions. The test data of four ties and eight beams are presented. Different materials were used for the internal bar reinforcement: in addition to the conventional steel, high-grade steel and glass fibre reinforced polymer bars were also considered. The experimental results indicated that the fibres, by significantly increasing the cracking resistance, alter the failure character from splitting of the concrete to the bond loss of the external sheets and thus noticeably increase the load bearing capacity of the elements.

  8. Investigation on the Effect of Drained Strength when Designing Sheet Pile Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kirsten Malte; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Augustesen, Anders Hust

    that the height, anchor force, and the maximum bending moment in the wall can be lowered significantly when the effective cohesion is increased above zero. However, as the cohesion increases, the drop in the moment levels off, which implies that the benefit obtained from investigations increasing the cohesion......Long sheet pile walls are constructed in the cities as an integrated part of deep excavations for e.g. parking lots, pumping stations, reservoirs, and cut and cover tunnels. To minimise costs, the strength of the soil needs to be determined in the best possible way. The drained strength of clay...... expressed by c and ϕ is often estimated as c 10% = 10%・cu, and found by estimations based on the soil describtion, respectively. However, due to possible slicken slides and tension cracks, c = 0 is used on the back side of the sheet pile wall. This reduces the strength significantly. A parametric study...

  9. Comprehension of hazard communication: effects of pictograms on safety data sheets and labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelhouwer, Eric; Davis, Jerry; Franco-Watkins, Ana; Dorris, Nathan; Lungu, Claudiu

    2013-09-01

    The United Nations has proposed the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals to make hazard communication more uniform and to improve comprehension. Two experiments were conducted to test whether the addition of hazard and precautionary pictograms to safety data sheets and product labels would improve the transfer of information to users compared to safety data sheets and product labels containing text only. Additionally, naïve users, workers, and experts were tested to determine any potential differences among users. The effect of adding pictograms to safety data sheets and labels was statistically significant for some conditions, but was not significant across all conditions. One benefit of the addition of pictograms was that the time to respond to the survey questions decreased when the pictograms were present for both the SDS and the labels. GHS format SDS and labels do provide benefits to users, but the system will need further enhancements and modifications to continue to improve the effectiveness of hazard communication. The final rule to modify the HCS to include the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) for the Classification and Labelling of Chemicals announced by OSHA (2012b) will change the information content of every chemical SDS and label used in commerce. This study suggests that the inclusion of GHS hazard pictograms and precautionary pictograms to SDS and labels may benefit the user. Copyright © 2013 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of homogenization treatment on recrystallization behavior of 7150 aluminum sheet during post-rolling annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Zhanying; Zhao, Gang; Chen, X.-Grant

    2016-01-01

    The effects of two homogenization treatments applied to the direct chill (DC) cast billet on the recrystallization behavior in 7150 aluminum alloy during post-rolling annealing have been investigated using the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. Following hot and cold rolling to the sheet, measured orientation maps, the recrystallization fraction and grain size, the misorientation angle and the subgrain size were used to characterize the recovery and recrystallization processes at different annealing temperatures. The results were compared between the conventional one-step homogenization and the new two-step homogenization, with the first step being pretreated at 250 °C. Al_3Zr dispersoids with higher densities and smaller sizes were obtained after the two-step homogenization, which strongly retarded subgrain/grain boundary mobility and inhibited recrystallization. Compared with the conventional one-step homogenized samples, a significantly lower recrystallized fraction and a smaller recrystallized grain size were obtained under all annealing conditions after cold rolling in the two-step homogenized samples. - Highlights: • Effects of two homogenization treatments on recrystallization in 7150 Al sheets • Quantitative study on the recrystallization evolution during post-rolling annealing • Al_3Zr dispersoids with higher densities and smaller sizes after two-step treatment • Higher recrystallization resistance of 7150 sheets with two-step homogenization

  11. Effects of welding parameters on friction stir spot welding of high density polyethylene sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilici, Mustafa Kemal; Yukler, Ahmet Irfan

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: (a) Schematic illustration of the cross section of a friction stir spot weld and (b) Geometry of the weld bonded area, x: nugget thickness and y: the thickness of the upper sheet. Highlights: → Welding parameters affect the FSSW nugget formation and the strength of the joint. → Melting of polyethylene occurred in the vicinity of the tool pin. → The joint that fractures with a pull nugget failure mode has a higher strength. -- Abstract: Friction stir spot welding parameters affect the weld strength of thermoplastics, such as high density polyethylene (HDPE) sheets. The effects of the welding parameters on static strength of friction stir spot welds of high density polyethylene sheets were investigated. For maximizing the weld strength, the selection of welding parameters is very important. In lap-shear tests two fracture modes were observed; cross nugget failure and pull nugget failure. The tool rotational speed, tool plunge depth and dwell time were determined to be important in the joint formation and its strength. The joint which had a better strength fails with a pull nugget failure morphology. Weld cross section image analysis of the joints were done with a video spectral comparator. The plunge rate of the tool was determined to have a negligible effect on friction stir spot welding.

  12. Reptile Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinheimer, Margaret

    1993-01-01

    Describes an award-winning bulletin board for introducing a unit on reptiles. This interactive bulletin board contains fun facts and counters common misconceptions about reptiles. Twelve true-false statements are hidden behind pull-up flaps. Four pictures ask students to identify the difference between often-confused animals. (PR)

  13. Knowledge synthesis of benefits and adverse effects of measles vaccination: the Lasbela balance sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledogar, Robert J; Fleming, John; Andersson, Neil

    2009-10-14

    In preparation for a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a community intervention to increase the demand for measles vaccination in Lasbela district of Pakistan, a balance sheet summarized published evidence on benefits and possible adverse effects of measles vaccination. The balance sheet listed: 1) major health conditions associated with measles; 2) the risk among the unvaccinated who contract measles; 3) the risk among the vaccinated; 4) the risk difference between vaccinated and unvaccinated; and 5) the likely net gain from vaccination for each condition. Two models revealed very different projections of net gain from measles vaccine. A Lasbela-specific combination of low period prevalence of measles among the unvaccinated, medium vaccination coverage and low vaccine efficacy rate, as revealed by the baseline survey, resulted in less-than-expected gains attributable to vaccination. Modelled on estimates where the vaccine had greater efficacy, the gains from vaccination would be more substantial. Specific local conditions probably explain the low rates among the unvaccinated while the high vaccine failure rate is likely due to weaknesses in the vaccination delivery system. Community perception of these realities may have had some role in household decisions about whether to vaccinate, although the major discouraging factor was inadequate access. The balance sheet may be useful as a communication tool in other circumstances, applied to up-to-date local evidence.

  14. Effect of Process Parameters on the Structure and Properties of Galvanized Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S. K.; Saha, B. B.; Triathi, B. D.; Avtar, Ram

    2010-07-01

    The effect of galvanizing parameters on the structure (spangle size and coating microstructure) and properties (formability and corrosion resistance) of galvanized sheets was studied in a hot dip process simulator (HDPS) in a conventional Pb bearing (0.08-0.10%) zinc bath by varying zinc bath Al level (0.10-0.28%), bath temperature (718-743 K), dipping time (1.5-3.5 s), wiping gas flow rate (200-450 lpm), nozzle distance (15-17 mm) and wiping delay time (0.1-2.1 s). Al level in the range of 0.18-0.24% in combination with dipping time of 1.5-2.5 s and bath temperature of 718-733 K results in superior formability ( E cv: ~9.3 mm) of the composite (thickness: 0.8 mm). High post-dip cooling rates (~25 K/s) suppress spangle growth (spangle size: ~2 mm). The spangle size of the GI sheet strongly influences the corrosion rate which increases from 5.8 to 9.2 mpy with a decrease in spangle size from 17.5 to 3 mm. By controlling the Al level (0.20%) in zinc bath and bath temperature (733 K), the corrosion rate of mini-spangle GI sheet can be controlled to a level of 5.5 mpy.

  15. Does the Drug Facts Label for nonprescription drugs meet its design objectives? A new procedure for assessing label effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Ryan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate an expanded procedure for assessing drug-label comprehension. Innovations include a pretest of drug preconceptions, verbal ability and label attentiveness measures, a label-scanning task, a free-recall test, category-clustering measures, and preconception-change scores. In total, 55 female and 39 male undergraduates read a facsimile Drug Facts Label for aspirin, a Cohesive-Prose Label, or a Scrambled-Prose Label. The Drug Facts Label outperformed the Scrambled-Prose Label, but not the Cohesive-Prose Label, in scanning effectiveness. The Drug Facts Label was no better than the Cohesive-Prose Label or the Scrambled-Prose Label in promoting attentiveness, recall and organization of drug facts, or misconception refutation. Discussion focuses on the need for refutational labels based on a sequence-of-events text schema.

  16. Effect of Fe, Co, Si and Ge impurities on optical properties of graphene sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheyri, A.; Nourbakhsh, Z.; Darabi, E.

    2016-01-01

    The electronic and linear optical properties of pure graphene and impurity-graphene (with Fe, Co, Si and Ge impurities) sheets are investigated by using the full potential linear augmented plane wave plus local orbital (FPLAPW + lo) in the framework of the density functional theory (DFT). The calculated results are obtained within the generalized gradient approximation using the Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof scheme in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. The band structure, partial electron density of states, dielectric function, absorption coefficient, optical conductivity, extinction index, energy loss function, reflectivity and the refraction index of these sheets for parallel and perpendicular electromagnetic wave polarization to sheet are investigated. The optical conductivity of Si-graphene and Ge-graphene sheets for the parallel electromagnetic wave polarization to the sheet starts with a gap about 0.4 eV confirms that these sheets have semiconductor behavior. Also the optical spectra of these sheets are anisotropic along these two wave polarizations. The dielectric function in the static limit of pure graphene sheet for perpendicular electromagnetic wave polarization to sheet does not significant change in the presence of Si, Ge, Fe and Co impurities. The static refractive index of Fe-graphene and Co-graphene sheets for parallel electromagnetic wave polarization to sheet is much larger than the corresponding value of pure graphene sheet. - Highlights: • Graphene sheet with Fe and Co impurities is metal. • Graphene sheet with Si and Ge impurities is semiconductor with 0.2 eV energy band gap. • These sheets optical spectra have metallic behavior for perpendicular polarization. • These sheets optical spectra have semiconductor behavior for parallel polarization. • Graphene sheet with Si and Ge impurities can use for optoelectronic devices.

  17. Effect of Fe, Co, Si and Ge impurities on optical properties of graphene sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kheyri, A. [Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nourbakhsh, Z., E-mail: z.nourbakhsh@sci.ui.ac.ir [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Darabi, E. [Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-01

    The electronic and linear optical properties of pure graphene and impurity-graphene (with Fe, Co, Si and Ge impurities) sheets are investigated by using the full potential linear augmented plane wave plus local orbital (FPLAPW + lo) in the framework of the density functional theory (DFT). The calculated results are obtained within the generalized gradient approximation using the Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof scheme in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. The band structure, partial electron density of states, dielectric function, absorption coefficient, optical conductivity, extinction index, energy loss function, reflectivity and the refraction index of these sheets for parallel and perpendicular electromagnetic wave polarization to sheet are investigated. The optical conductivity of Si-graphene and Ge-graphene sheets for the parallel electromagnetic wave polarization to the sheet starts with a gap about 0.4 eV confirms that these sheets have semiconductor behavior. Also the optical spectra of these sheets are anisotropic along these two wave polarizations. The dielectric function in the static limit of pure graphene sheet for perpendicular electromagnetic wave polarization to sheet does not significant change in the presence of Si, Ge, Fe and Co impurities. The static refractive index of Fe-graphene and Co-graphene sheets for parallel electromagnetic wave polarization to sheet is much larger than the corresponding value of pure graphene sheet. - Highlights: • Graphene sheet with Fe and Co impurities is metal. • Graphene sheet with Si and Ge impurities is semiconductor with 0.2 eV energy band gap. • These sheets optical spectra have metallic behavior for perpendicular polarization. • These sheets optical spectra have semiconductor behavior for parallel polarization. • Graphene sheet with Si and Ge impurities can use for optoelectronic devices.

  18. Compressive pre-stress effects on magnetostrictive behaviors of highly textured Galfenol and Alfenol thin sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia R. Downing

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fe-Ga (Galfenol and Fe-Al (Alfenol are rare-earth-free magnetostrictive alloys with mechanical robustness and strong magnetoelastic coupling. Since highly textured Galfenol and Alfenol thin sheets along orientations have been developed with magnetostrictive performances of ∼270 ppm and ∼160 ppm, respectively, they have been of great interest in sensor and energy harvesting applications. In this work, we investigate stress-dependent magnetostrictive behaviors in highly textured rolled sheets of NbC-added Fe80Al20 and Fe81Ga19 alloys with a single (011 grain coverage of ∼90%. A compact fixture was designed and used to introduce a uniform compressive pre-stress to those thin sheet samples along a [100] direction. As compressive pre-stress was increased to above 100 MPa, the maximum observed magnetostriction increased 42% in parallel magnetostriction along the stress direction, λ//, in highly textured (011 Fe81Ga19 thin sheets for a compressive pre-stress of 60 MPa. The same phenomena were observed for (011 Fe80Al20 (maximum increase of 88% with a 49 MPa compressive stress. This trend is shown to be consistent with published results on the effect of pre-stress on magnetostriction in rods of single crystal and textured polycrystalline Fe-Ga alloy of similar compositions, and single crystal data gathered using our experimental set up. Interestingly, the saturating field (Hs does not vary with pre-stresses, while the saturating field in rod-shaped samples of Fe-Ga increases with an increase of pre-stress. This suggests that for a range of compressive pre-stresses, thin sheet samples have larger values of d33 transduction coefficients and susceptibility than rod-shaped samples of similar alloy compositions, and hence they should provide performance benefits when used in sensor and actuator device applications. Thus, we discuss potential reasons for the unexpected trends in Hs with pre-stress, and present preliminary results from tests conducted

  19. Effects of Higher-order Cognitive Strategy Training on Gist Reasoning and Fact Learning in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyn F Gamino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving the reasoning skills of adolescents across the United States has become a major concern for educators and scientists who are dedicated to identifying evidence-based protocols to improve student outcome. This small sample randomized, control pilot study sought to determine the efficacy of higher-order cognitive training on gist-reasoning and fact-learning in an inner-city public middle school. The study compared gist-reasoning and fact-learning performances after training in a smaller sample when tested in Spanish, many of the students’ native language, versus English. The 54 eighth grade students who participated in this pilot study were enrolled in an urban middle school, predominantly from lower socio-economic status families, and were primarily of minority descent. The students were randomized into one of three groups, one that learned cognitive strategies promoting abstraction of meaning, a group that learned rote memory strategies, or a control group to ascertain the impact of each program on gist-reasoning and fact-learning from text-based information. We found that the students who had cognitive strategy instruction that entailed abstraction of meaning significantly improved their gist-reasoning and fact-learning ability. The students who learned rote memory strategies significantly improved their fact-learning scores from a text but not gist-reasoning ability. The control group showed no significant change in either gist-reasoning or fact-learning ability. A trend toward significant improvement in overall reading scores for the group that learned to abstract meaning as well as a significant correlation between gist-reasoning ability and the critical thinking on a state-mandated standardized reading test was also found. There were no significant differences between English and Spanish performance of gist reasoning and fact learning. Our findings suggest that teaching higher-order cognitive strategies facilitates gist

  20. The Effect of Solar Forcing on the Greenland Ice Sheet during the Holocene - A Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bügelmayer, Marianne; Roche, Didier; Renssen, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Abrupt climate changes did not only happen during glacials but also during interglacials such as the Holocene. Marine sediments provide evidence for the periodic occurrence of centennial-scale events with enhanced iceberg discharge during the past 11.000 years (Bond et al., 2001). These events were chronologically linked to reduced solar activity as reconstructed using cosmogenic isotopes (Bond et al., 2001), indicating that even an external forcing that is considered to be small, has a potential impact on climate due to several feedback mechanisms (Renssen et al., 2006). The interactions between climate and solar irradiance have been investigated using numerical models (e.g. Haigh, 1996; Renssen et al, 2006), but so far without dynamically computing the Greenland ice sheet and iceberg calving. Thus, the impact of solar variations on iceberg discharge and the underlying mechanisms have not been analysed so far. To analyse the effect of variations in solar activity on the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) and the iceberg calving, as well as possible feedback mechanisms that enhance the impact of the total solar irradiance, we use the earth system model of intermediate complexity (iLOVECLIM, Roche et al., 2013), coupled to the ice sheet/ice shelf model GRISLI (Ritz et al., 2001) and to a dynamic-thermodynamic iceberg module (Jongma et al., 2009, Bügelmayer et al., 2014) to perform transient experiments of the last 6000 years. The experiments are conducted applying reconstructed atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, volcanic aerosol loads, orbital parameters and variations in the total solar irradiance. We present the response of the coupled model to different solar irradiance scenarios to evaluate modeled GIS sensitivity to relatively modest variations in radiative forcing. Moreover, we investigate the dependence of the model results on the chosen model sensitivity. References: Bond, G., Kromer, B., Beer, J., Muscheler, R., Evans, M. N., Showers, W., … Bonani, G

  1. CERN Quick Facts 2017 (French version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Mobs, Esma

    2017-01-01

    Facts about CERN, the contributions of its Member States, its machines and experiments, the number of its employees and users, management structure, etc. Previously called "CERN General Information Sheet"

  2. CERN Quick Facts 2016 (French version)

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070305

    2016-01-01

    Facts about CERN, the contributions of its Member States, its machines and experiments, the number of its employees and users, management structure, etc. Previously called "CERN General Information Sheet"

  3. CERN Quick Facts 2016 (English version)

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070305

    2016-01-01

    Facts about CERN, the contributions of its Member States, its machines and experiments, the number of its employees and users, management structure, etc. Previously called "CERN General Information Sheet"

  4. CERN Quick Facts 2017 (English version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Mobs, Esma

    2017-01-01

    Facts about CERN, the contributions of its Member States, its machines and experiments, the number of its employees and users, management structure, etc. Previously called "CERN General Information Sheet"

  5. More Cancer Types - SEER Cancer Stat Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Statistical Fact Sheets are summaries of common cancer types developed to provide an overview of frequently-requested cancer statistics including incidence, mortality, survival, stage, prevalence, and lifetime risk.

  6. Transient thermal effect, nonlinear refraction and nonlinear absorption properties of graphene oxide sheets in dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Liang; Liu, Zhi-Bo; Li, Xiao-Chun; Ma, Qiang; Chen, Xu-Dong; Tian, Jian-Guo; Xu, Yan-Fei; Chen, Yong-Sheng

    2013-03-25

    The nonlinear refraction (NLR) properties of graphene oxide (GO) in N, N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) was studied in nanosecond, picosecond and femtosecond time regimes by Z-scan technique. Results show that the dispersion of GO in DMF exhibits negative NLR properties in nanosecond time regime, which is mainly attributed to transient thermal effect in the dispersion. The dispersion also exhibits negative NLR in picosecond and femtosecond time regimes, which are arising from sp(2)- hybridized carbon domains and sp(3)- hybridized matrix in GO sheets. To illustrate the relations between NLR and nonlinear absorption (NLA), NLA properties of the dispersion were also studied in nanosecond, picosecond and femtosecond time regimes.

  7. Effect of Hydraulic Pressure on Warm Hydro Mechanical Deep Drawing of Magnesium Alloy Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wu, Linzhi; Yuan, Shijian

    The uniaxial tensile test and hydraulic bulging test of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets were applied to study the influence of temperature on the material properties and obtain the forming limit curves at different temperatures. Numerical simulations of warm hydro mechanical deep drawing were carried out to investigate the effect of hydraulic pressure on the formability of a cylindrical cup, and the simplified hydraulic pressure profiles were used to simulate the loading procedure of hydraulic pressure. The optimal hydraulic pressure at different temperatures were given and verified by experimental studies at temperature 100°C and 170V.

  8. Effect of strain path change on limits to ductility of anisotropic metal sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuroda, M.; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2000-01-01

    of the anisotropic plasticity models, and it is shown that elastic straining plays a large role, as the stresses quickly move from one point of the yield surface to another. When the load is removed between steps, the stress point moves in a different manner, which results in quite different flow localization......Localized necking in thin metal sheets is analyzed by using the M-K-model approach, and the effect of a number of different non-proportional strain paths prior to the occurrence flow localization are considered. The analyses account for plastic anisotropy, using four different anisotropic...

  9. Facts about food irradiation: Genetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Results published in the mid-1970s from the National Institute of Nutrition (NIN) in India showed increased numbers of polyploid cells in rats, mice, monkeys and malnourished children fed irradiated wheat products. This fact sheet considers the validity of these results. A large number of independent studies have been subsequently performed, and in none of these have results been obtained that support the NIN findings. The conclusion is that there is no evidence to link the consumption of irradiated food with any mutagenic effect. 3 refs

  10. Effects of transverse temperature field nonuniformity on stress in silicon sheet growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataga, P. A.; Hutchinson, J. W.; Chalmers, B.; Bell, R. O.; Kalejs, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    Stress and strain rate distributions are calculated using finite element analysis for steady-state growth of thin silicon sheet temperature nonuniformities imposed in the transverse (sheet width) dimension. Significant reductions in residual stress are predicted to occur for the case where the sheet edge is cooled relative to its center provided plastic deformation with high creep rates is present.

  11. Facts, fallacies, and politics of comparative effectiveness research: Part 2 - implications for interventional pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Falco, Frank J E; Boswell, Mark V; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2010-01-01

    The United States leads the world in many measures of health care innovation. However, it has been criticized to lag behind many developed nations in important health outcomes including mortality rates and higher health care costs. The surveys have shown the United States to outspend all other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries with spending on health goods and services per person of $7,290 - almost 2(1/2) times the average of all OECD countries in 2007. Rising health care costs in the United States have been estimated to increase to 19.1% of gross domestic product (GDP) or $4.4 trillion by 2018. CER is defined as the generation and synthesis of evidence that compares the benefits and harms of alternate methods to prevent, diagnose, treat, and monitor a clinical condition or to improve the delivery of care. The, comparative effectiveness research (CER) has been touted by supporters with high expectations to resolve most ill effects of health care in the United States providing high quality, less expensive, universal health care. The efforts of CER in the United States date back to the late 1970s and it was officially inaugurated with the enactment of the Medicare Modernization Act (MMA). It has been rejuvenated with the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 with an allocation of $1.1 billion. CER has been the basis of decision for health care in many other countries. Of all the available agencies, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) of the United Kingdom is the most advanced, stable, and has provided significant evidence, though based on rigid and proscriptive economic and clinical formulas. While CER is taking a rapid surge in the United States, supporters and opponents are emerging expressing their views. Since interventional pain management is a new and evolving specialty, with ownership claimed by numerous organizations, at times it is felt as if it has many fathers and other

  12. Effect of heat- and steam-generating sheet on daily activities of living in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: randomized prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Hisaoka, Hidehiko; Kurosawa, Hisashi

    2008-05-01

    Thermotherapy is widely known to be effective for osteoarthritis of the knee (knee OA), but most treatment methods make use of dry heat. We developed a sheet that generates heat and steam simultaneously. In this prospective randomized study, we evaluated the effectiveness of this sheet. Of 41 female patients with knee OA randomized to use the heat/steam-generating sheet or the dry heat-generating sheet, 37 patients (20 using the heat/steam-generating sheet and 17 using the dry heat-generating sheet) who used the sheets continuously for 4 weeks were studied. Outcome measures included the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and Japan Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores, which were applied at baseline and after 2 and 4 weeks of use. Significant improvement of the total WOMAC score was observed at 2 and 4 weeks (compared to baseline) in the heat/steam-generating sheet group, but no significant change was observed in the dry heat-generating sheet group. Among the JOA scores, the gait ability score was also improved significantly only in the heat/steam-generating sheet group. The effects were still seen 6 weeks after completion of treatment. The present study provided evidence that the heat/steam-generating sheet that we developed is effective for alleviating pain and is especially superior in regard to improving stiffness and gait impairment in patients with knee OA. Furthermore, the effect persists for at least 6 weeks after application.

  13. Viscoelastic Fluid over a Stretching Sheet with Electromagnetic Effects and Nonuniform Heat Source/Sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Long Hsiao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A magnetic hydrodynamic (MHD of an incompressible viscoelastic fluid over a stretching sheet with electric and magnetic dissipation and nonuniform heat source/sink has been studied. The buoyant effect and the electric number E1 couple with magnetic parameter M to represent the dominance of the electric and magnetic effects, and adding the specific item of nonuniform heat source/sink is presented in governing equations which are the main contribution of this study. The similarity transformation, the finite-difference method, Newton method, and Gauss elimination method have been used to analyze the present problem. The numerical solutions of the flow velocity distributions, temperature profiles, and the important wall unknown values of f''(0 and θ'(0 have been carried out. The parameter Pr, E1, or Ec can increase the heat transfer effects, but the parameter M or A* may decrease the heat transfer effects.

  14. Decontamination sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Emiko; Kanesaki, Ken.

    1995-01-01

    The decontamination sheet of the present invention is formed by applying an adhesive on one surface of a polymer sheet and releasably appending a plurality of curing sheets. In addition, perforated lines are formed on the sheet, and a decontaminating agent is incorporated in the adhesive. This can reduce the number of curing operation steps when a plurality steps of operations for radiation decontamination equipments are performed, and further, the amount of wastes of the cured sheets, and operator's exposure are reduced, as well as an efficiency of the curing operation can be improved, and propagation of contamination can be prevented. (T.M.)

  15. Simulated Nano scale Peeling Process of Monolayer Graphene Sheet: Effect of Edge Structure and Lifting Position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, N.; Okamoto, H.; Masuda, S.; Itamura, N.; Miura, K.

    2010-01-01

    The nanoscale peeling of the graphene sheet on the graphite surface is numerically studied by molecular mechanics simulation. For center-lifting case, the successive partial peelings of the graphene around the lifting center appear as discrete jumps in the force curve, which induce the arched deformation of the graphene sheet. For edge-lifting case, marked atomic-scale friction of the graphene sheet during the nanoscale peeling process is found. During the surface contact, the graphene sheet takes the atomic-scale sliding motion. The period of the peeling force curve during the surface contact decreases to the lattice period of the graphite. During the line contact, the graphene sheet also takes the stick-slip sliding motion. These findings indicate the possibility of not only the direct observation of the atomic-scale friction of the graphene sheet at the tip/surface interface but also the identification of the lattice orientation and the edge structure of the graphene sheet.

  16. Effective factors on optimizing banks’ balance sheet using fuzzy analytical hierarchy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoja Rezaei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Every bank seeks methods to optimize its assets and liabilities, thus the main subject is managing assets-liabilities in the balance sheet and the main question is by which factor banks will be enabled to have an optimized combination of assets and liabilities in a common level of risk to get the most return. This case study is dedicated to Refah bank and is an applicable study. The data has collected from the headquarter by a questionnaire and finally effective factors weight on optimizing bank balance sheet determined by using Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process. Results showed that revenue has more effect on optimizing for %39.5 and also loan to deposit ratio for %.74, regarding revenue as a symbol of efficiency in banks, it seems to be the most important factor and goal in banking industry. Furthermore banks need to have some liquidity to respond customers demand to cover one of the most important risks of banking. This factor importance determined to be %18 in Refah Bank by using model and experts view.

  17. A Quasi-Experimental Study Investigating the Effect of Scent on Students' Memory of Multiplication Facts and Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leap, Evelyn M.

    2013-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study was conducted with two fifth grade classrooms to investigate the effect of scent on students' acquisition and retention of multiplication facts and math anxiety. Forty participants received daily instruction for nine weeks, using a strategy-rich multiplication program called Factivation. Students in the Double Smencil…

  18. Document sheet no.3. The sanitary effects and the medical uses of the radioactivity, the radiations, the biological effects, the medical uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In order to inform the public the ANCLI published information sheets. This sheet no.3 deals with the sanitary effects and the medical uses of the radioactivity. It presents the radiations definitions (the internal and external irradiation, the doses levels, the absorbed doses), the biological effects (deterministic effects, random effects and chronicity effects), and the medical uses (radiotherapy and monitoring of chemotherapy). (A.L.B.)

  19. Investigation into the factors that influence inverse bulging effect during sheet hydro-mechanical deep drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Lihui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors that influence inverse bulging effect during sheet hydro-mechanical deep drawing are especially researched in this paper. According to the different inverse bulging process, two modes can be singled: the initial inverse bulging (IIB and the local inverse bulging (LIB. IIB includes two parameters: inverse bulging height ratio (HIb/t and inverse bulging pressure ratio (PIb/t. LIB is influenced by IIB and has a direct relationship with liquid chamber pressure in the forming process. The optimal inverse bulging parameters of hemispherical bottom cylindrical part and flat bottom cylindrical part are obtained by numerical simulation. Process parameters including the clearance between the punch and the blank holder and the blank holder entrance radius that have a large influence on inverse bulging effect are optimized, so as to make inverse bulging effect behave better in hydroforming process. Finally, the accuracy of the numerical simulation results was verified by experiments.

  20. Effect of elastic-plastic behavior of coating layer on drawability and frictional characteristic of galvannealed steel sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seong Won; Lee, Jung Min; Joun, Man Soo; Kim, Dong Hwan

    2016-01-01

    During a galvannealed sheet metal forming, the failures of coating layers (powdering, flaking and cracking) frequently affect the strain state of sheets and deteriorate the frictional characteristic between sheets and tools. Two FE-models in this study were suggested to investigate the effects of the mechanical behavior of coating layers on the formability and friction of the coated steel sheets in FE analysis; the first is one-layer model to express the coated sheet as one stress-strain curve and the second is a multiple-layer model which is composed of substrates and coating layers, separately. First, the frictional properties and the formability of the coated sheets were experimentally investigated using a cup deep-drawing trial. After, the drawing process was simulated by FE analysis of the two models. In the multiplelayer model, the mechanical behavior of the coating is defined as a stress-strain curve which was determined using the nanoindentation test of the coating, its FE analysis and artificial neural network method. The result showed that the multiple-layer model provides more accuracy predictions of drawing loads than the one-layer model in the FE analysis, compared to the actual cup drawing test.

  1. Effect of elastic-plastic behavior of coating layer on drawability and frictional characteristic of galvannealed steel sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seong Won; Lee, Jung Min [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Joun, Man Soo [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Hwan [International University of Korea, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    During a galvannealed sheet metal forming, the failures of coating layers (powdering, flaking and cracking) frequently affect the strain state of sheets and deteriorate the frictional characteristic between sheets and tools. Two FE-models in this study were suggested to investigate the effects of the mechanical behavior of coating layers on the formability and friction of the coated steel sheets in FE analysis; the first is one-layer model to express the coated sheet as one stress-strain curve and the second is a multiple-layer model which is composed of substrates and coating layers, separately. First, the frictional properties and the formability of the coated sheets were experimentally investigated using a cup deep-drawing trial. After, the drawing process was simulated by FE analysis of the two models. In the multiplelayer model, the mechanical behavior of the coating is defined as a stress-strain curve which was determined using the nanoindentation test of the coating, its FE analysis and artificial neural network method. The result showed that the multiple-layer model provides more accuracy predictions of drawing loads than the one-layer model in the FE analysis, compared to the actual cup drawing test.

  2. Facts for Families from the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry [1989].

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Washington, DC.

    Six fact sheets on issues relevant to children's emotional well being are presented in this document. The first fact sheet, "Children and Divorce" provides information for parents to consider when getting a divorce. Parents are encouraged to be aware of the stress that the events surrounding a divorce cause for the child. The second fact sheet,…

  3. Facts for Families from the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry [1991].

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Washington, DC.

    Nine fact sheets relevant to children's emotional well-being are presented in this document. The first fact sheet, "Teenagers with Eating Disorders" focuses on anorexia nervosa and bulimia. The second fact sheet, "Children and Grief" describes age-related responses to death, and ways of coping with a death in a family that…

  4. Experimental determination of spring back and thinning effect of aluminum sheet metal during L-bending operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilip Kumar, K.; Appukuttan, K.K.; Neelakantha, V.L.; Naik, Padmayya S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The spring back and thinning effect during L-bending was determined on aluminum sheet. • Beyond a particular clearance, the above said effects are linearly increasing. • Below the critical clearance scratches will occur on the surface due to wear. • As the clearance reduces, the wear rate increases on the punching surface. - Abstract: In automotive industry, significant efforts are being put forth to replace steel sheets with aluminum sheets for various applications. Besides its higher cost, there are several technical hurdles for wide usage of aluminum sheets in forming. Major problems in aluminum sheet metal forming operations are deformation errors and spring back effect. These problems are dependent on the number of parameters such as die and tool geometry, friction condition, loading condition and anisotropic properties of the metal. To predict the exact shape, the geometry based punch contact program must be used. The shape changes once the punch is withdrawn, because of the materials elasticity. Prediction of such a spring back effect is a major challenging problem in industry involving sheet metal forming operations. It also needs applying appropriate back tension during the forming complex shapes. Slight deformation of the metal leads to non-axisymmetric loading. One can predict the residual stress by determining plastic and elastic deformation. Thus appropriate spring back effect can be investigated. The present investigation was carried out to determine the spring back and thinning effect of aluminum sheet metal during L-bending operation. Number of specimens with thickness varying from 0.5 mm to 3.5 mm were prepared. The experiments were conducted for different clearances between punch and die. It is observed that, beyond a particular clearance for each thickness of the sheet metal, the spring back and thinning effects were linearly increasing. However, below the critical clearance, scratches on the surface of the sheet metal were

  5. Microwave effects on NiMoS and CoMoS single-sheet catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, I; Silva, Alexander M; Modesto-Costa, Lucas

    2018-05-04

    Single-sheet nanoclusters of MoS 2 , NiMoS or CoMoS are widely used in hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysis in the petroleum industry. In HDS reactions under microwave irradiation, experiments indirectly pointed out that for pristine MoS 2 reaction rates are accelerated because hot spots are generated on the catalyst bed. In this work, we investigated NiMoS and CoMoS isolated single-sheet substituted catalysts before and after thiophene adsorption focusing on quantifying the effect of microwave irradiation. For that purpose, density functional theory (DFT) molecular charge densities of each system were decomposed according to the distributed multipole analysis (DMA) of Stone. Site dipole values of each system were directly associated with a larger or smaller interaction with the microwave field according to a proposed general approach. We showed that microwave enhancement of HDS reaction rates can occur more efficiently in the CoMoS and NiMoS promoted clusters compared to pristine MoS 2 in the following order: CoMoS > NiMoS > MoS 2 . The atomic origin of the catalyst hot spots induced by microwaves was clearly established in the promoted clusters.

  6. Effect of Heating Rate on Grain Structure and Superplasticity of 7B04 Aluminum Alloy Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Min

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fine-grained 7B04 aluminum alloy sheets were manufactured through thermo-mechanical treatment. The effects of anneal heating rate on grain structure and superplasticity were investigated using electron back scattering diffraction(EBSD and high temperature tensile test. The results show that at the heating rate of 5.0×10-3K/s, the average grain sizes along the rolling direction(RD and normal direction(ND are 28.2μm and 13.9μm respectively, the nucleation rate is 1/1000. With the increase of heating rate, the average grain size decreases, and the nucleation rate increases. When the heating rate increases to 30.0K/s, the average grain sizes along the RD and ND decrease respectively to 9.9μm and 5.1μm, and the nucleation rate increases to 1/80. Besides, with the increase of heating rate, the elongation of sheets also increases. The elongation of the specimens increases from 100% to 730% under the deforming condition of 773K/8×10-4s-1.

  7. Casimir effects for a flat plasma sheet: II. Fields and stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, G

    2005-01-01

    We study the self-stresses experienced by the single plasma sheet modelled in the preceding paper, and determine the exact mean-squared Maxwell fields in vacuum around it. These are effects that probe the physics of such systems further than do the ground-state eigenvalues responsible for the cohesive energy β; in particular, unlike β they depend not only on the collective properties but also on the self-fields of the charge carriers. The classical part of the interaction between the sheet and a slowly moving charged particle follows as a byproduct. The main object is to illustrate, in simple closed or almost closed form, the consequences of imperfect (dispersive) reflectivity. The largely artificial limit of perfect reflection reduces all the results to those long familiar outside a half-space taken to reflect perfectly from the outset; but a careful examination of the approach to this limit is needed in order to resolve paradoxes associated with the surface energy, and with the mechanism which, in the limit, disjoins the two flanking half-spaces both electromagnetically and quantally

  8. Heliospheric current sheet and effects of its interaction with solar cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malova, H. V., E-mail: hmalova@yandex.ru [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Popov, V. Yu.; Grigorenko, E. E.; Dunko, A. V.; Petrukovich, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    The effects of interaction of solar cosmic rays (SCRs) with the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) in the solar wind are analyzed. A self-consistent kinetic model of the HCS is developed in which ions with quasiadiabatic dynamics can present. The HCS is considered an equilibrium embedded current structure in which two main plasma species with different temperatures (the low-energy background plasma of the solar wind and the higher energy SCR component) contribute to the current. The obtained results are verified by comparing with the results of numerical simulations based on solving equations of motion by the particle tracing method in the given HCS magnetic field with allowance for SCR particles. It is shown that the HCS is a relatively thin multiscale current configuration embedded in a thicker plasma layer. In this case, as a rule, the shear (tangential to the sheet current) component of the magnetic field is present in the HCS. Taking into account high-energy SCR particles in the HCS can lead to a change of its configuration and the formation of a multiscale embedded structure. Parametric family of solutions is considered in which the current balance in the HCS is provided at different SCR temperatures and different densities of the high-energy plasma. The SCR densities are determined at which an appreciable (detectable by satellites) HCS thickening can occur. Possible applications of this modeling to explain experimental observations are discussed.

  9. Effect of microalloying with rare-earth on recrystallization behaviour and damping properties of Mg sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ning; Peng, Qiuming; Pan, Junling; Li, Hui; Xiao, Wenlong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Rare earth additions accelerate recovery, but retard recrystallization. • Internal peak at mediate temperatures corresponds to grain boundary relaxation. • Internal peak at elevated temperature is a recrystallization peak. • Grain size, basal texture and dislocation density affect damping remarkably. - Abstract: The effect of a small amount of rare earth elements (RE: Nd and Dy, 0.5 wt.%) on recrystallization behaviour, microstructural evolution and damping properties of deformed Mg sheets have been investigated. The recrystallization behaviour was analyzed in terms of the Johnson–Mehl–Avrami–Kolmogorov model via the variation of microhardness. The Avrami exponent of pure Mg sheet ranged from 1.02 to 1.16, and it was reduced by adding REs. The acceleration of recovery and retardation of recrystallization were detected by the presence of REs. Three point bending was carried out to assess damping properties. At the temperature of ∼150 °C, the damping peak corresponds to grain boundary relaxation, which was affected by grain size, basal texture and the variation of dislocation density on basal plane. At elevated temperatures, a non-thermal activated peak was mainly dependent upon annealing condition, where its height and temperature were increased by adding REs, assigning to be a recrystallization peak

  10. Mobility Balance Sheet 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorritsma, P.; Derriks, H.; Francke, J.; Gordijn, H.; Groot, W.; Harms, L.; Van der Loop, H.; Peer, S.; Savelberg, F.; Wouters, P.

    2009-06-01

    The Mobility Balance Sheet provides an overview of the state of the art of mobility in the Netherlands. In addition to describing the development of mobility this report also provides explanations for the growth of passenger and freight transport. Moreover, the Mobility Balance Sheet also focuses on a topical theme: the effects of economic crises on mobility. [nl

  11. Facts about food irradiation: Controlling the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet briefly reviews the procedures that exist to control the process of food irradiation. It also summarizes the difficulties in identifying irradiated food, which stem from the fact that irradiation does not physically change the food or cause significant chemical changes in foods. 4 refs

  12. Effects of flow sheet implementation on physician performance in the management of asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Gary

    2002-01-01

    This project focused on increasing compliance, in a large family practice group, with quality indicators for the management of asthma. The objective was to determine if use of a flow sheet incorporating the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines could improve compliance with those guidelines if the flow sheet was placed in patients' medical records. After review and selection of 14 clinical quality indicators, physicians in the practice implemented a flow sheet as an intervention. These flow sheets were inserted into the records of 122 randomly selected patients with asthma. Medical records were reviewed before the flow sheets were placed in the records, and again approximately 6 months later, to determine if there was a change in compliance with the quality indicators. Improvement of documentation was demonstrated in 13 of the 14 quality indicators. The results indicate that compliance with asthma management quality indicators can improve with the use of a flow sheet.

  13. Facts on Nirex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This folder contains twelve two-page leaflets (fact sheets) which answer questions posed about UK NIREX Ltd, its operations and radioactive waste. NIREX (the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive) is the organisation responsible for implementing the British Government's policy for the disposal of most low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste produced in the United Kingdom. The questions posed are; what is NIREX. What is radioactivity. What is radioactive waste. Radioactive waste, what are the options. What is a radioactive waste repository. Some aspects of such a repository are then explained - how engineered barriers work, how geological barriers work, how long can concrete last, how is the radioactive waste transported, how are repository sites identified. The last two leaflets consider why do we need research, and look at radioactive waste management worldwide. The answers are in non-technical language and are short. (UK)

  14. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? Effects of Drugs Drug Use and Other People Drug ... Unborn Children Drug Use and Your Health Other Effects on the Body Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug ...

  15. The effect of sudden ice sheet melt on ocean circulation and surface climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovic, R. F.; Gregoire, L. J.; Wickert, A. D.; Valdes, P. J.; Burke, A.

    2017-12-01

    Collapse of ice sheets can cause significant sea-level rise and widespread climate change. Around 14.6 thousand years ago, global mean sea level rose by 15 m in less than 350 years during an event known as Meltwater Pulse 1a. Ice sheet modelling and sea-level fingerprinting has suggested that approximately half of this 50 mm yr-1 sea level rise may have come from a North American ice Saddle Collapse that drained into the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans. However, dating uncertainties make it difficult to determine the sequence of events and their drivers, leaving many fundamental questions. For example, was melting from the northern ice sheets responsible for the Older-Dryas or other global-scale cooling events, or did a contribution from Antarctica counteract the climatic effects? What was the role of the abrupt Bølling Warming? And how were all these signals linked to changes in Atlantic Ocean overturning circulation?To address these questions, we examined the effect of the North American ice Saddle Collapse using a high resolution network drainage model coupled to an atmosphere-ocean-vegetation General Circulation Model. Here, we present the quantitative routing estimates of the consequent meltwater discharge and its impact on climate. We also tested a suite of more idealised meltwater forcing scenarios to examine the global influence of Arctic versus Antarctic ice melt. The results show that 50% of the Saddle Collapse meltwater pulse was routed via the Mackenzie River into the Arctic Ocean, and 50% was discharged directly into the Atlantic/Gulf of Mexico. This meltwater flux, equivalent to a total of 7.3 m of sea-level rise, caused a strong (6 Sv) weakening of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and widespread Northern Hemisphere cooling of 1-5 °C. The greatest cooling is in the Arctic (5-10 °C in the winter), but there is also significant winter warming over eastern North America (1-3 °C). We propose that this robust submillennial mechanism was

  16. Modeling the effect of doping on the catalyst-assisted growth and field emission properties of plasma-grown graphene sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Neha; Sharma, Suresh C.; Sharma, Rinku

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical model describing the effect of doping on the plasma-assisted catalytic growth of graphene sheet has been developed. The model accounts the charging rate of the graphene sheet, kinetics of all the plasma species, including the doping species, and the growth rate of graphene nuclei and graphene sheet due to surface diffusion, and accretion of ions on the catalyst nanoparticle. Using the model, it is observed that nitrogen and boron doping can strongly influence the growth and field emission properties of the graphene sheet. The results of the present investigation indicate that nitrogen doping results in reduced thickness and shortened height of the graphene sheet; however, boron doping increases the thickness and height of the graphene sheet. The time evolutions of the charge on the graphene sheet and hydrocarbon number density for nitrogen and boron doped graphene sheet have also been examined. The field emission properties of the graphene sheet have been proposed on the basis of the results obtained. It is concluded that nitrogen doped graphene sheet exhibits better field emission characteristics as compared to undoped and boron doped graphene sheet. The results of the present investigation are consistent with the existing experimental observations.

  17. Modeling the effect of doping on the catalyst-assisted growth and field emission properties of plasma-grown graphene sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Neha; Sharma, Suresh C.; Sharma, Rinku [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University (DTU), Shahbad Daulatpur, Bawana Road, Delhi-110042 (India)

    2016-08-15

    A theoretical model describing the effect of doping on the plasma-assisted catalytic growth of graphene sheet has been developed. The model accounts the charging rate of the graphene sheet, kinetics of all the plasma species, including the doping species, and the growth rate of graphene nuclei and graphene sheet due to surface diffusion, and accretion of ions on the catalyst nanoparticle. Using the model, it is observed that nitrogen and boron doping can strongly influence the growth and field emission properties of the graphene sheet. The results of the present investigation indicate that nitrogen doping results in reduced thickness and shortened height of the graphene sheet; however, boron doping increases the thickness and height of the graphene sheet. The time evolutions of the charge on the graphene sheet and hydrocarbon number density for nitrogen and boron doped graphene sheet have also been examined. The field emission properties of the graphene sheet have been proposed on the basis of the results obtained. It is concluded that nitrogen doped graphene sheet exhibits better field emission characteristics as compared to undoped and boron doped graphene sheet. The results of the present investigation are consistent with the existing experimental observations.

  18. Stagnation point flow and heat transfer over a nonlinear shrinking sheet with slip effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.F. Fauzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an investigation is performed to analyze the effects of the slip parameters A and B on the steady stagnation-point flow and heat transfer due to a shrinking sheet in a viscous and incompressible fluid. Using similarity transformations, the governing boundary layer equations are transformed into the nonlinear ordinary (similar differential equations. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the shooting method. The dual solutions for velocity and temperature distribution exist for certain values of the positive constant velocity and temperature slip parameters. Likewise, a stability analysis has been performed to find the nature of the dual solutions. The velocity slip will delay the boundary layer separation whereas the temperature slip does not affect the boundary layer separation.

  19. Viscous Flow over Nonlinearly Stretching Sheet with Effects of Viscous Dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Alinejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow and heat transfer characteristics of incompressible viscous flow over a nonlinearly stretching sheet with the presence of viscous dissipation is investigated numerically. The similarity transformation reduces the time-independent boundary layer equations for momentum and thermal energy into a set of coupled ordinary differential equations. The obtained equations, including nonlinear equation for the velocity field and differential equation by variable coefficient for the temperature field , are solved numerically by using the fourth order of Runge-Kutta integration scheme accompanied by shooting technique with Newton-Raphson iteration method. The effect of various values of Prandtl number, Eckert number and nonlinear stretching parameter are studied. The results presented graphically show some behaviors such as decrease in dimensionless temperature due to increase in Pr number, and curve relocations are observed when heat dissipation is considered.

  20. Effectiveness of Rotation-free Triangular and Quadrilateral Shell Elements in Sheet-metal Forming Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, M.; Sabourin, F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the effectiveness of triangular 3-node shell element without rotational d.o.f. and the extension to a new 4-node quadrilateral shell element called S4 with only 3 translational degrees of freedom per node and one-point integration. The curvatures are computed resorting to the surrounding elements. Extension from rotation-free triangular element to a quadrilateral element requires internal curvatures in order to avoid singular bending stiffness. Two numerical examples with regular and irregular meshes are performed to show the convergence and accuracy. Deep-drawing of a box, spring-back analysis of a U-shape strip sheet and the crash simulation of a beam-box complete the demonstration of the bending capabilities of the proposed rotation-free triangular and quadrilateral elements

  1. The Effect of Varying Ultrafast Pulse Laser Energies on the Electrical Properties of Reduced Graphene Oxide Sheets in Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Khaled H.; Irannejad, Mehrdad; Wales, Benjamin; Sanderson, Joseph; Musselman, Kevin P.; Yavuz, Mustafa

    2018-02-01

    Laser treatment of graphene oxide solution among other techniques is a well-established technique for producing reduced graphene sheets. However, production of high-quality ultra-low sheet resistance reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets in solution has been a challenge due to their high degree of randomness, defect-rich medium, and lack of controlability. Recent studies lack an in-depth analytic comparison of laser treatment parameters that yield the highest quality rGO sheets with a low defect ratio. Hence, in this study, we implement a comprehensive comparison of laser treatment parameters and their effect on the yielded rGO sheets from an electronic and physical standpoint. Ultra-low sheet resistance graphene oxide sheets were fabricated using ultrafast laser irradiation with different laser pulse energies in the range of 0.25-2 mJ. Laser treatment for 10 min using a pulse energy of 1 mJ resulted in an increase in the defect spacing, accompanied by a large red shift in the optical absorption of the C=C bond, indicating significant restoration of the s p 2 carbon bonds. These enhancements resulted in a significant reduction in the electrical resistance of the rGO flakes (up to 2 orders of magnitude), raising the electron mobility of the films produced using the irradiated graphene oxide a step closer to that of pristine graphene films. From this study, we can also deduce which exposure regimes result in the fabrication of quantum dots and continuous defect-free films.

  2. Case Management for Individuals with Mental Retardation. ARC Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for Retarded Citizens, Arlington, TX.

    A question-and-answer format is used in this fact sheet to provide information on case management for individuals with mental retardation. The fact sheet describes the major components of a case management system, the role of the case manager, the individual's or family's role in case management, providers of case management services and systems…

  3. Organ Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After the transplant Preventing rejection Post-transplant medications Types of immunosuppressants Switching immunosuppressants Side effects Other medications Generic and brand name drugs Post-transplant tests Infections and immunity Lifestyle changes Health concerns Back to work or ...

  4. Liver Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After the transplant Preventing rejection Post-transplant medications Types of immunosuppressants Switching immunosuppressants Side effects Other medications Generic and brand name drugs Post-transplant tests Infections and immunity Lifestyle changes Health concerns Back to work or ...

  5. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Use and Unborn Children Drug Use and Your Health Other Effects on the Body Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug Use and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between Drug ...

  6. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drug Use and Kids Drug Use and Unborn Children Drug Use and Your Health Other Effects on ... Someone Find Treatment and Recovery Resources? Prevention Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking to Kids ...

  7. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Other Effects on the Body Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug Use and Mental Health Problems Often Happen ... to prescription drugs. The addiction slowly took over his life. I need different people around me. To ...

  8. Particle pitch angle diffusion due to nonadiabatic effects in the plasma sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.C.; Lee, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    In order to understand certain aspects of the plasma sheet dynamics, a numerical study of the nonadiabatic behavior of particles in a model field geometry is performed. The particle's magnetic moment as a function of time is calculated for various initial parameters, corresponding to various particle energies and degrees of field curvature. It is shown that the magnetic moment changes as the particle passes through the plasma sheet and that the magnitude of the change is related to the curvature of the field at the middle of the plasma sheet. The relation of the magnitude of the change in magnetic moment to the particle's pitch and phase angles as it passes through the sheet is numerically resolved. The nature of the change may be considered as a mechanism for pitch angle diffusion, and the diffusion coefficient is calculated. This scattering mechanism is significant for plasma sheet ions (1--10 keV) as well as energetic electrons (>100 keV)

  9. Effects of thermo-mechanical behavior and hinge geometry on folding response of shape memory polymer sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailen, Russell W.; Dickey, Michael D.; Genzer, Jan; Zikry, Mohammed

    2017-11-01

    Shape memory polymer (SMP) sheets patterned with black ink hinges change shape in response to external stimuli, such as absorbed thermal energy from an infrared (IR) light. The geometry of these hinges, including size, orientation, and location, and the applied thermal loads significantly influence the final folded shape of the sheet, but these variables have not been fully investigated. We perform a systematic study on SMP sheets to fundamentally understand the effects of single and double hinge geometries, hinge orientation and spacing, initial temperature, heat flux intensity, and pattern width on the folding behavior. We have developed thermo-viscoelastic finite element models to characterize and quantify the stresses, strains, and temperatures as they relate to SMP shape changes. Our predictions indicate that hinge orientation can be used to reduce the total bending angle, which is the angle traversed by the folding face of the sheet. Two parallel hinges increase the total bending angle, and heat conduction between the hinges affects the transient folding response. IR intensity and initial temperatures can also influence the transient folding behavior. These results can provide guidelines to optimize the transient folding response and the three-dimensional folded structure obtained from self-folding polymer origami sheets that can be applied for myriad applications.

  10. [The effect of colored syringes and a colored sheet on the incidence of syringe swaps during anesthetic management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Yoshihiro; Kawakami, Takayuki; Suzuki, Hideo; Igarashi, Takashi; Saitoh, Kazuhiko; Seo, Norimasa

    2005-09-01

    Syringe swap is an important problem in anesthetic care, causing harm to patients. We examined the effect of colored syringe and a colored sheet on the incidence of syringe swaps during anesthetic management. We determined the color code. The blue-syringe contains local anesthetics; yellow-syringe, sympathomimetic drugs; and white-syringe with a red label fixed opposite the scale, muscle relaxants. The colored sheet displays the photographs of the syringe with drug name, dose and volume. The colored syringe and colored sheet were supplied for use from February 2004. We compared the incidence of syringe swaps during the period from February 2004 to January 2005 with that from February 2003 to January 2004. Although five syringe swaps were recorded from February 2003 to January 2004, in 5901 procedures, we encountered no syringe swaps from February 2004 to January 2005, in 6078 procedures. The colored syringe and colored sheet significantly decreased the incidence of syringe swaps during anesthetic management (P sheet together with colored syringes can prevent syringe swaps during anesthesia.

  11. Design and evaluation of noise suppression sheet for GHz band utilizing magneto-elastic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Koichi; Yoshida, Shigeyoshi

    2017-12-01

    Feasibility of realizing a noise suppression sheet (NSS) coping with the low SHF band such as the 5 GHz band was investigated, which was composed of soft magnetic metal flakes dispersed in a polymer. For suppressing noises, the higher frequency one of the bimodal frequency dispersion (lower frequency one: Dispersion DII, higher frequency one: Dispersion DIII) seen in the imaginary permeability (μ″; magnetic loss component) spectrum of the NSS was aimed to utilize. Referring to the previous finding that Dispersion DIII is originated from a magneto-elastic effect, several magnetic composite sheets were prepared using various alloy flakes with different saturation magnetostriction (λs), and their frequency (fr(DIII)) and magnitude (μ″(DIII)) of Dispersion DIII were investigated. It was found that the NSS containing flakes with higher λs exhibited higher fr(DIII) and higher μ″(DIII)/μ″(DII), which was ratio of μ″(DIII) to the magnitude of Dispersion DII (μ″(DII)). The fr(DIII) for the NSS having the highest λs containing Fe-Co alloy flake reached 7.45 GHz and μ″ in the 5 GHz band was approximately twice as high as the conventional NSS containing Fe-Si-Al alloy flake. For transmission attenuation power ratio (Rtp) when an NSS was placed on a microstrip line with characteristic impedance of 50 Ω, NSS with larger fr(DIII)2 · μ″(DIII) ∝ Ms2 (Ms: saturation magnetization), which theoretically gave the frequency limit of imaginary permeability for a thin film, exhibited larger Rtp in the low SHF band. These results suggested that an NSS containing a magnetic flake material with both large λs and Ms was suitable for suppressing low SHF band noises.

  12. Effects of Changing Hot Rolling Direction on Microstructure, Texture and Mechanical Properties of Cu-2.7Be Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Daibo; Liu, Chuming; Yu, Haijun; Han, Tan

    2018-03-01

    A hot rolling scheme (cross-rolling and unidirectional rolling) was adopted to process Cu-2.7Be sheets used as multiplier dynodes in photomultiplier. The effects of changing rolling direction on microstructure, texture and mechanical properties were studied by a combination of XRD, EBSD and TEM. It was found that higher copper-type texture and lower brass texture intensity were obtained in the ultimately cross-rolling (CR) sheet compared with the unidirectional rolling (UR) sheet.The EBSD results indicated that the grain orientation from mainly for UR sample turns to random for CR sample. Great enhancements in YS and UTS after unidirectional rolling were attributed to the massive and polygonal γ precipitates. The CR sample exhibited lower anisotropy, because of the increase of S and γ precipitates with spherical and tiny shape.

  13. Ion motion in the current sheet with sheared magnetic field – Part 2: Non-adiabatic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Artemyev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate dynamics of charged particles in current sheets with the sheared magnetic field. In our previouspaper (Artemyev et al., 2013 we studied the particle motion in such magnetic field configurations on the basis of the quasi-adiabatic theory and conservation of the quasi-adiabatic invariant. In this paper we concentrate on violation of the adiabaticity due to jumps of this invariant and the corresponding effects of stochastization of a particle motion. We compare effects of geometrical and dynamical jumps, which occur due to the presence of the separatrix in the phase plane of charged particle motion. We show that due to the presence of the magnetic field shear, the average value of dynamical jumps is not equal to zero. This effect results in the decrease of the time interval necessary for stochastization of trapped particle motion. We investigate also the effect of the magnetic field shear on transient trajectories, which cross the current sheet boundaries. Presence of the magnetic field shear leads to the asymmetry of reflection and transition of particles in the current sheet. We discuss the possible influence of single-particle effects revealed in this paper on the current sheet structure and dynamics.

  14. Variable viscosity and thermal conductivity effects on MHD flow and heat transfer in viscoelastic fluid over a stretching sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, Ahmed M.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of flow and heat transfer of an electrically conducting viscoelastic fluid over a continuously stretching sheet in the presence of a uniform magnetic field is analyzed for the case of power-law variation in the sheet temperature. The fluid viscosity and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary as a function of temperature. The basic equations comprising the balance laws of mass, linear momentum, and energy modified to include the electromagnetic force effect, the viscous dissipation, internal heat generation or absorption and work due to deformation are solved numerically

  15. Alcohol Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Effects on the Body Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug Use and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between Drug Use and HIV/ ... malt liquor 12 ounces of regular beer Being drunk can make a person feel very silly, angry, or sad for no reason. It can make it hard to walk in a straight line, talk ... English Español ...

  16. The Effect of Grinding and Polishing Procedure of Tool Steels in Sheet Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvall, F.; Bergström, J.; Krakhmalev, P.

    2010-01-01

    The surface finish of tools in sheet metal forming has a large influence on the performance of the forming tool. Galling, concern of wear in sheet metal forming, is a severe form of adhesive wear where sheet material is transferred on to the tool surface. By polishing the tools to a fine surface ...... 40 and Vanadis 6 and up to ten different grinding and polishing treatments were tested against AISI 316 stainless steel. The tests showed that an optimum surface preparation might be found at the transition between abrasive and adhesive wear....

  17. Thermal stratification effects on MHD radiative flow of nanofluid over nonlinear stretching sheet with variable thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Shagaiya Daniel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The combined effects of thermal stratification, applied electric and magnetic fields, thermal radiation, viscous dissipation and Joules heating are numerically studied on a boundary layer flow of electrical conducting nanofluid over a nonlinearly stretching sheet with variable thickness. The governing equations which are partial differential equations are converted to a couple of ordinary differential equations with suitable similarity transformation techniques and are solved using implicit finite difference scheme. The electrical conducting nanofluid particle fraction on the boundary is passively rather than actively controlled. The effects of the emerging parameters on the electrical conducting nanofluid velocity, temperature, and nanoparticles concentration volume fraction with skin friction, heat transfer characteristics are examined with the aids of graphs and tabular form. It is observed that the variable thickness enhances the fluid velocity, temperature, and nanoparticle concentration volume fraction. The heat and mass transfer rate at the surface increases with thermal stratification resulting to a reduction in the fluid temperature. Electric field enhances the nanofluid velocity which resolved the sticking effects caused by a magnetic field which suppressed the profiles. Radiative heat transfer and viscous dissipation are sensitive to an increase in the fluid temperature and thicker thermal boundary layer thickness. Comparison with published results is examined and presented. Keywords: MHD nanofluid, Variable thickness, Thermal radiation, Similarity solution, Thermal stratification

  18. Effects of RGD immobilization on light-induced cell sheet detachment from TiO{sub 2} nanodots films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kui; Wang, Tiantian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yu, Mengliu [The Affiliated Stomatologic Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310003 (China); Wan, Hongping [School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Lin, Jun [The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310003 (China); Weng, Wenjian, E-mail: wengwj@zju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); The Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Wang, Huiming, E-mail: hmwang1960@hotmail.com [The Affiliated Stomatologic Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310003 (China)

    2016-06-01

    Light-induced cell detachment is reported to be a safe and effective cell sheet harvest method. In the present study, the effects of arginine–glycine–aspartic acid (RGD) immobilization on cell growth, cell sheet construction and cell harvest through light illumination are investigated. RGD was first immobilized on TiO{sub 2} nanodots films through simple physical adsorption, and then mouse pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded on the films. It was found that RGD immobilization promoted cell adhesion and proliferation. It was also observed that cells cultured on RGD immobilized films showed relatively high level of pan-cadherin. Cells harvested with ultraviolet illumination (365 nm) showed good viability on both RGD immobilized and unmodified TiO{sub 2} nanodot films. Single cell detachment assay showed that cells detached more quickly on RGD immobilized TiO{sub 2} nanodot films. That could be ascribed to the RGD release after UV365 illumination. The current study demonstrated that RGD immobilization could effectively improve both the cellular responses and light-induced cell harvest. - Highlights: • RGD immobilization on TiO{sub 2} nanodots film favors light-induced cell sheet detachment. • Physically adsorbed RGD detaches from the film through ultraviolet illumination. • RGD detachment promotes cells and cell sheets detachment.

  19. The Effect of Topographic Shadowing by Ice on Irradiance in the Greenland Ice Sheet Ablation Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidman, S. Z.; Rennermalm, A. K.; Ryan, J.; Cooper, M. G.; Smith, L. C.

    2017-12-01

    Accurately predicting runoff contributions to global sea level rise requires more refined surface mass balance (SMB) models of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). Topographic shadowing has shown to be important in the SMB of snow-covered regions, yet SMB models for the GrIS generally ignore how surface topography affects spatial variability of incoming solar radiation on a surface. In the ablation zone of Southwest Greenland, deeply incised supraglacial drainage features, fracturing, and large-scale bed deformation result in extensive areas of rough surface topography. This topography blocks direct radiation such that shadowed areas receive less energy for melting while other topographic features such as peaks recieve more energy. In this study, we quantify how shadowing from local topography features changes incoming solar radiation. We apply the ArcGIS Pro Solar Radiation Toolset to calculate the direct and diffuse irradiance in sunlit and shadowed areas by determining the sun's movement for every half hour increment of 2016. Multiple digital elevation models (DEMs) with spatial resolutions ranging from 0.06 to 5m were derived from fixed wing and quadcopter UAV imagery collected in summer 2016 and the ArcticDEM dataset. Our findings show that shadowing significantly decreases irradiance compared to smoothed surfaces where local topography is removed. This decrease is exponentially proportional to the DEM pixel sized with 5m DEMs only able to capture a small percentage of the effect. Applying these calculations to the ArcticDEM to cover a larger study area indicates that decreases in irradiance are nonlinearly proportional to elevation with highly crevassed areas showing a larger effect from shadowing. Even so, shading at higher elevations reduces irradiance enough to result in several centimeters snow water equivalence (SWE) per year of over-prediction of runoff in SMB models. Furthermore, analysis of solar radiation products shows that shadowing predicts albedo

  20. Interference and problem size effect in multiplication fact solving: Individual differences in brain activations and arithmetic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Visscher, Alice; Vogel, Stephan E; Reishofer, Gernot; Hassler, Eva; Koschutnig, Karl; De Smedt, Bert; Grabner, Roland H

    2018-05-15

    In the development of math ability, a large variability of performance in solving simple arithmetic problems is observed and has not found a compelling explanation yet. One robust effect in simple multiplication facts is the problem size effect, indicating better performance for small problems compared to large ones. Recently, behavioral studies brought to light another effect in multiplication facts, the interference effect. That is, high interfering problems (receiving more proactive interference from previously learned problems) are more difficult to retrieve than low interfering problems (in terms of physical feature overlap, namely the digits, De Visscher and Noël, 2014). At the behavioral level, the sensitivity to the interference effect is shown to explain individual differences in the performance of solving multiplications in children as well as in adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate the individual differences in multiplication ability in relation to the neural interference effect and the neural problem size effect. To that end, we used a paradigm developed by De Visscher, Berens, et al. (2015) that contrasts the interference effect and the problem size effect in a multiplication verification task, during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquisition. Forty-two healthy adults, who showed high variability in an arithmetic fluency test, participated in our fMRI study. In order to control for the general reasoning level, the IQ was taken into account in the individual differences analyses. Our findings revealed a neural interference effect linked to individual differences in multiplication in the left inferior frontal gyrus, while controlling for the IQ. This interference effect in the left inferior frontal gyrus showed a negative relation with individual differences in arithmetic fluency, indicating a higher interference effect for low performers compared to high performers. This region is suggested in the literature to be

  1. Effects of electromechanical resonance on photocatalytic reduction of the free-hanging graphene oxide sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostovari, F.; Abdi, Y.; Darbari, S.; Ghasemi, F.

    2013-01-01

    In this report we present a simple, low-temperature method which is compatible with standard technology, to achieve graphene-based devices in large quantity. In this approach we take advantage of photocatalytic behavior of TiO 2 to achieve photocatalytic reduction of chemically synthesized graphene oxide (GO) sheets. TiO 2 nanoparticles have been deposited on GO sheets hanging from Au/SiO 2 /Si interdigital electrodes to realize TiO 2 /GO heterostructures. We investigated photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 nanoparticles in the presence of UV-illumination, to reduce the GO sheets. Based on the Raman spectroscopy, the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 nanoparticles resulted in a decrease in the number of C–O bonds. Electrical measurements show that graphene sheets with the controlled electrical conductivity were obtained, so that higher illumination time led to higher conductivity and better reduction of GO sheets. Also, strain-induced photocatalytic reduction of the GO sheets has been investigated by their electrical characteristics. It has been shown for the first time that the electromechanical-induced strain enhances the photocatalytic behavior of the fabricated TiO 2 /GO heterostructure significantly.

  2. Effects of electromechanical resonance on photocatalytic reduction of the free-hanging graphene oxide sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostovari, F.; Abdi, Y., E-mail: y.abdi@ut.ac.ir [University of Tehran, Nano-Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Darbari, S. [Tarbiat Modarres University (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghasemi, F. [University of Tehran, Nano-Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    In this report we present a simple, low-temperature method which is compatible with standard technology, to achieve graphene-based devices in large quantity. In this approach we take advantage of photocatalytic behavior of TiO{sub 2} to achieve photocatalytic reduction of chemically synthesized graphene oxide (GO) sheets. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles have been deposited on GO sheets hanging from Au/SiO{sub 2}/Si interdigital electrodes to realize TiO{sub 2}/GO heterostructures. We investigated photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in the presence of UV-illumination, to reduce the GO sheets. Based on the Raman spectroscopy, the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles resulted in a decrease in the number of C-O bonds. Electrical measurements show that graphene sheets with the controlled electrical conductivity were obtained, so that higher illumination time led to higher conductivity and better reduction of GO sheets. Also, strain-induced photocatalytic reduction of the GO sheets has been investigated by their electrical characteristics. It has been shown for the first time that the electromechanical-induced strain enhances the photocatalytic behavior of the fabricated TiO{sub 2}/GO heterostructure significantly.

  3. Carbon sheet pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, N.; Sagara, A.; Kawamura, T.; Motojima, O.; Ono, T.

    1993-07-01

    A new hydrogen pumping scheme has been proposed which controls recycling of the particles for significant improvement of the energy confinement in toroidal magnetic fusion devices. In this scheme, a part of the vacuum vessel surface near the divertor is covered with carbon sheets of a large surface area. Before discharge initiation, the sheets are baked up to 700 ∼ 1000degC to remove the previously trapped hydrogen atoms. After being cooled down to below ∼ 200degC, the unsaturated carbon sheets trap high energy charge exchange hydrogen atoms effectively during a discharge and overall pumping efficiency can be as high as ∼ 50 %. (author)

  4. Long term effects of low doses of ionising radiation: facts and fallacies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, G.K.

    1993-01-01

    Health effects of low doses of ionising radiation have been a public concern. The public perception of these low effects is that it causes cancer and genetic effects. Enormous amount of work regarding this cancer has been done all over the world, on occupational workers exposed to low doses of ionising radiation. These studies do not show any adverse effect on them. Epidemiological studies done on members of public staying near nuclear facilities also have shown that there is no health risk involved in staying near these facilities. Genetic effects have also shown negative results. These two aspects of health effects of low dose of radiation are discussed in detail. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab

  5. Facts and feelings: Framing effects in responses to uncertainties about high-voltage power lines

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries, G.; de Bruijn, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    To ensure power supply security, electricity transmission system operators (TSOs) have to upscale high-voltage overhead power lines. However, upscaling frequently meets opposition. Opposition can be caused by uncertainties about risks and benefits and might lead to costly delays (Linder, 1995; Wiedemann, Boerner,& Claus, 2016). To minimize opposition, TSOs and related public services need to respond to these uncertainties in a credible and convincing (effective) way. Effective risk commun...

  6. Evaluation of actual costs of power sources and effects on balance sheets of electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Murakami, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident, almost all nuclear power stations continued to stop operation and sharp increase of purchase costs of fossil fuels forced some electric utilities to suffer a deficit. This article presented quantitative analysis of effects of present state on power costs and balance sheets of electric utilities. Levelized costs of electricity increased from 8.6 ¥/kWh (2010) to 11.6 ¥/kWh (2011) and 12.6 ¥/kWh (2012). Total power costs increased from 7.5 Trillion¥(2010) to 9.5 Trillion¥(2011). Due to increase of cost of fossil fuel compensated for nuclear power, electric utilities suffered a net loss of 0.8 Trillion¥ and decreased surplus to 2.5 Trillion¥ in 2011. Net loss of 1.3 Trillion¥ and surplus of 1.2 Trillion¥ was estimated for 2012. This state was beyond the limit of utilities' efforts to reduce costs and uncertain share of power sources became a great risk. Future share of power sources should be judged appropriately from various standpoints (costs, stable supply, energy security and national economic growth) and early public dissemination of new philosophy on share of power sources was highly required. (T. Tanaka)

  7. GASN sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    This document gathers around 50 detailed sheets which describe and present various aspects, data and information related to the nuclear sector or, more generally to energy. The following items are addressed: natural and artificial radioactive environment, evolution of energy needs in the world, radioactive wastes, which energy for France tomorrow, the consequences in France of the Chernobyl accident, ammunitions containing depleted uranium, processing and recycling of used nuclear fuel, transport of radioactive materials, seismic risk for the basic nuclear installations, radon, the precautionary principle, the issue of low doses, the EPR, the greenhouse effect, the Oklo nuclear reactors, ITER on the way towards fusion reactors, simulation and nuclear deterrence, crisis management in the nuclear field, does nuclear research put a break on the development of renewable energies by monopolizing funding, nuclear safety and security, the plutonium, generation IV reactors, comparison of different modes of electricity production, medical exposure to ionizing radiations, the control of nuclear activities, food preservation by ionization, photovoltaic solar collectors, the Polonium 210, the dismantling of nuclear installations, wind energy, desalination and nuclear reactors, from non-communication to transparency about nuclear safety, the Jules Horowitz reactor, CO 2 capture and storage, hydrogen, solar energy, the radium, the subcontractors of maintenance of the nuclear fleet, biomass, internal radio-contamination, epidemiological studies, submarine nuclear propulsion, sea energy, the Three Mile Island accident, the Chernobyl accident, the Fukushima accident, the nuclear after Fukushima

  8. Neuraxial analgesia effects on labor progression: facts, fallacies, uncertainties, and the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Erica N.; Tao, Weike; Craig, Margaret; McIntire, Donald; Leveno, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 60% of women who labor receive some form of neuraxial analgesia, but concerns have been raised regarding whether it negatively impacts the labor and delivery process. In this review, we attempt to clarify what has been established as truths, falsities, and uncertainties regarding the effects of this form of pain relief on labor progression, negative and/or positive. Additionally, although the term “epidural” has become synonymous with neuraxial analgesia, we discuss two other techniques, combined spinal-epidural and continuous spinal analgesia, that are gaining popularity, as well as their effects on labor progression. PMID:25088476

  9. TESTING THE EFFECTS OF HYPNOTICS ON MEMORY VIA THE TELEPHONE : FACT OR FICTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, JL; Louwerens, JW; Cnossen, F; de Jong, HTP

    The two benzodiazapines used in this experiment, namely midazolam and flunitrazepam, have both been shown to have effects on memory processing in laboratory studies. In spite of the potential hazards involved in real life testing, it should be possible to replicate such findings in everyday

  10. Mastering the Multiplication Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ettorre, Jenna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to share the results of a six-week research project (after baseline data was collected) that focused on three different strategies (flashcards, interactive games, and music) and their effectiveness in helping fifth grade students memorize the basic multiplication facts. Many teachers face a serious problem when their…

  11. Synergistic Effect between Metal-Nitrogen-Carbon Sheets and NiO Nanoparticles for Enhanced Electrochemical Water-Oxidation Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Li, Kai; Zhong, Hai-xia; Xu, Dan; Wang, Zhong-li; Jiang, Zheng; Wu, Zhi-jian; Zhang, Xin-bo

    2015-09-01

    Identifying effective means to improve the electrochemical performance of oxygen-evolution catalysts represents a significant challenge in several emerging renewable energy technologies. Herein, we consider metal-nitrogen-carbon sheets which are commonly used for catalyzing the oxygen-reduction reaction (ORR), as the support to load NiO nanoparticles for the oxygen-evolution reaction (OER). FeNC sheets, as the advanced supports, synergistically promote the NiO nanocatalysts to exhibit superior performance in alkaline media, which is confirmed by experimental observations and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Our findings show the advantages in considering the support effect for designing highly active, durable, and cost-effective OER electrocatalysts. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The use of the effect size in JCR Spanish journals of psychology: from theory to fact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García García, Juan; Ortega Campos, Elena; De la Fuente Sánchez, Leticia

    2011-11-01

    In 1999, Wilkinson and the Task Force on Statistical Inference published "Statistical Methods and Psychology: Guidelines and Explanation." The authors made several recommendations about how to improve the quality of Psychology research papers. One of these was to report some effect-size index in the results of the research. In 2001, the fifth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association included this recommendation. In Spain, in 2003, scientific journals like Psicothema or the International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology (IJCHP) published editorials and papers expressing the need to calculate the effect size in the research papers. The aim of this study is to determine whether the papers published from 2003 to 2008 in the four Spanish journals indexed in the Journal Citation Reports have reported some effect-size index of their results. The findings indicate that, in general, the followup of the norm has been scanty, though the evolution over the analyzed period is different depending on the journal.

  13. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: facts, environmental contamination, possible biological effects, and countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ban, Nobuhiko; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Tokonami, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, an earthquake led to major problems at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A 14-m high tsunami triggered by the earthquake disabled all AC power to Units 1, 2, and 3 of the Power Plant, and carried off fuel tanks for emergency diesel generators. Despite many efforts, cooling systems did not work and hydrogen explosions damaged the facilities, releasing a large amount of radioactive material into the environment. In this review, we describe the environmental impact of the nuclear accident, and the fundamental biological effects, acute and late, of the radiation. Possible medical countermeasures to radiation exposure are also discussed.

  14. Effect of humid-thermal environment on wave dispersion characteristics of single-layered graphene sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Dabbagh, Ali

    2018-04-01

    In the present article, the hygro-thermal wave propagation properties of single-layered graphene sheets (SLGSs) are investigated for the first time employing a nonlocal strain gradient theory. A refined higher-order two-variable plate theory is utilized to derive the kinematic relations of graphene sheets. Here, nonlocal strain gradient theory is used to achieve a more precise analysis of small-scale plates. In the framework of the Hamilton's principle, the final governing equations are developed. Moreover, these obtained equations are deemed to be solved analytically and the wave frequency values are achieved. Some parametric studies are organized to investigate the influence of different variants such as nonlocal parameter, length scale parameter, wave number, temperature gradient and moisture concentration on the wave frequency of graphene sheets.

  15. Metallurgical Effects of Shunting Current on Resistance Spot-Welded Joints of AA2219 Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Vardanjani, M.; Araee, A.; Senkara, J.; Jakubowski, J.; Godek, J.

    2016-08-01

    Shunting effect is the loss of electrical current via the secondary circuit provided due to the existence of previous nugget in a series of welding spots. This phenomenon influences on metallurgical aspects of resistance spot-welded (RSW) joints in terms of quality and performance. In this paper RSW joints of AA2219 sheets with 1 mm thickness are investigated metallurgically for shunted and single spots. An electro-thermal finite element analysis is performed on the RSW process of shunted spot and temperature distribution and variation are obtained. These predictions are then compared with experimental micrographs. Three values of 5 mm, 20 mm, and infinite (i.e., single spot) are assumed for welding distance. Numerical and experimental results are matching each other in terms of nugget and HAZ geometry as increasing distance raised nugget size and symmetry of HAZ. In addition, important effect of shunting current on nugget thickness, microstructure, and Copper segregation on HAZ grain boundaries were discovered. A quantitative analysis is also performed about the influence of welding distance on important properties including ratio of nugget thickness and diameter ( r t), ratio of HAZ area on shunted and free side of nugget ( r HA), and ratio of equivalent segregated and total amount of Copper, measured in sample ( r Cu) on HAZ. Increasing distance from 5 mm to infinite, indicated a gain of 111.04, -45.55, and -75.15% in r t, r HA, and r Cu, respectively, while obtained ratios for 20 mm welding distance was suitable compared to single spot.

  16. Effect of Process Parameter in Laser Cutting of PMMA Sheet and ANFIS Modelling for Online Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Anamul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser beam machining (LBM is a promising and high accuracy machining technology in advanced manufacturing process. In LBM, crucial machining qualities of the end product include heat affected zone, surface roughness, kerf width, thermal stress, taper angle etc. It is essential for industrial applications especially in laser cutting of thermoplastics to acquire output product with minimum kerf width. The kerf width is dependent on laser input parameters such as laser power, cutting speed, standoff distance, assist gas pressure etc. However it is difficult to get a functional relationship due to the high uncertainty among these parameters. Hence, total 81 sets of full factorial experiment were conducted, representing four input parameters with three different levels. The experiments were performed by a continuous wave (CW CO2 laser with the mode structure of TEM01 named Zech laser machine that can provide maximum laser power up to 500 W. The polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA sheet with thickness of 3.0 mm was used for this experiment. Laser power, cutting speed, standoff distance and assist gas pressure were used as input parameters for the output named kerf width. Standoff distance, laser power, cutting speed and assist gas pressure have the dominant effect on kerf width, respectively, although assist gas has some significant effect to remove the harmful gas. ANFIS model has been developed for online control purposes. This research is considered important and helpful for manufacturing engineers in adjusting and decision making of the process parameters in laser manufacturing industry of PMMA thermoplastics with desired minimum kerf width as well as intricate shape design purposes.

  17. Homeostatic effect of laughter on diabetic cardiovascular complications: The myth turned to fact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureldein, Mohamed H; Eid, Assaad A

    2018-01-01

    Laughter has been used for centuries to alleviate pain in morbid conditions. It was not until 1976 that scientists thought about laughter as a form of therapy that can modulate hormonal and immunological parameters that affect the outcome of many serious diseases. Moreover, laughter therapy was shown to be beneficial in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by delaying the onset of many diabetic complications. Laughter is also described to influence the cardiovascular and endothelial functions and thus may protect against diabetic cardiovascular complications. In this review, we outline the different biochemical, physiological and immunological mechanisms by which laughter may influence the overall state of wellbeing and enhance disease prognosis. We also focus on the biological link between laughter therapy and diabetic cardiovascular complications as well as the underlying mechanisms involved in T2DM. Reviewing all the essential databases for "laughter" and "type 2 diabetes mellitus". Although laughter therapy is still poorly investigated, recent studies show that laughter may retard the onset of diabetic complications, enhance cardiovascular functions and rectify homeostatic abnormalities associated with T2DM. Laughter therapy is effective in delaying diabetic complications and should be used as an adjuvant therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrologic effects of large southwestern USA wildfires significantly increase regional water supply: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wine, M. L.; Cadol, D.

    2016-08-01

    In recent years climate change and historic fire suppression have increased the frequency of large wildfires in the southwestern USA, motivating study of the hydrological consequences of these wildfires at point and watershed scales, typically over short periods of time. These studies have revealed that reduced soil infiltration capacity and reduced transpiration due to tree canopy combustion increase streamflow at the watershed scale. However, the degree to which these local increases in runoff propagate to larger scales—relevant to urban and agricultural water supply—remains largely unknown, particularly in semi-arid mountainous watersheds co-dominated by winter snowmelt and the North American monsoon. To address this question, we selected three New Mexico watersheds—the Jemez (1223 km2), Mogollon (191 km2), and Gila (4807 km2)—that together have been affected by over 100 wildfires since 1982. We then applied climate-driven linear models to test for effects of fire on streamflow metrics after controlling for climatic variability. Here we show that, after controlling for climatic and snowpack variability, significantly more streamflow discharged from the Gila watershed for three to five years following wildfires, consistent with increased regional water yield due to enhanced infiltration-excess overland flow and groundwater recharge at the large watershed scale. In contrast, we observed no such increase in discharge from the Jemez watershed following wildfires. Fire regimes represent a key difference between the contrasting responses of the Jemez and Gila watersheds with the latter experiencing more frequent wildfires, many caused by lightning strikes. While hydrologic dynamics at the scale of large watersheds were previously thought to be climatically dominated, these results suggest that if one fifth or more of a large watershed has been burned in the previous three to five years, significant increases in water yield can be expected.

  19. Pro-sexual and androgen enhancing effects of Tribulus terrestris L.: Fact or Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neychev, Vladimir; Mitev, Vanyo

    2016-02-17

    Historically, aphrodisiacs have had a reputation for making sex more achievable and satisfying. It has been long believed that Tribulus terrestris L. (TT), an annual plant of the family Zygophyllaceae, possesses aphrodisiac properties purportedly attributed to its ability to influence levels or mimic function of sex hormones. Due to this appealing beliefs, the popularity of medicinal products from TT is expanding at a remarkable pace among consumers who are attempting to enhance their sexual health. However, reliable scientific evidence supporting these purported bioactivities are scant and far from conclusive. To critically analyze and updated the evidence supporting a role for TT as an aphrodisiac and to reappraise the widely believed view of TT as an androgen enhancing botanical supplement. An extensive review of the literature was carried out based on systematic search of major scientific databases (PubMed, Elsevier, Springer Link, Google Scholar, Medline Plus, and Web of Science) for studies of phytochemical, pharmacological and traditional uses of TT published between 1968 and 2015. In addition, the reference lists of the available articles were reviewed and relevant studies including material in journals which are not indexed internationally were reviewed. Analysis of phytochemical and pharmacological studies in humans and animals revealed an important role for TT in treating erectile dysfunction and sexual desire problems; however, empirical evidence to support the hypothesis that this desirable effects are due to androgen enhancing properties of TT is, at best, inconclusive, and analysis of empirical evidence from a comprehensive review of available literature proved this hypothesis wrong. While the mechanisms underlying TT aphrodisiac activity remain largely unknown, there is emerging compelling evidence from experimental studies in animals for possible endothelium and nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms underlying TT aphrodisiac and pro-erectile activities

  20. Chernobyl: the facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radicella, Renato

    2007-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident and its consequences are briefly outlined in order to provide a synthesis of the facts from the most reliable sources. The paper describes in main lines the accident and the measures that were taken to mitigate its effects. The data on the radiation doses received by the population and the effects of the accident on the human health as well as on the environment are summarized. (author) [es

  1. Effects of β-sheet crystals and a glycine-rich matrix on the thermal conductivity of spider dragline silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinju; Kim, Duckjong; Lee, Seung-Mo; Choi, Ji-Ung; You, Myungil; So, Hye-Mi; Han, Junkyu; Nah, Junghyo; Seol, Jae Hun

    2017-03-01

    We measured the thermal conductivity of Araneus ventricosus' spider dragline silk using a suspended microdevice. The thermal conductivity of the silk fiber was approximately 0.4Wm -1 K -1 at room temperature and gradually increased with an increasing temperature in a manner similar to that of other disordered crystals or proteins. In order to elucidate the effect of β-sheet crystals in the silk, thermal denaturation was used to reduce the quantity of the β-sheet crystals. A calculation with an effective medium approximation supported this measurement result showing that the thermal conductivity of β-sheet crystals had an insignificant effect on the thermal conductivity of SDS. Additionally, the enhancement of bonding strength in a glycine-rich matrix by atomic layer deposition did not increase the thermal conductivity. Thus, this study suggests that the disordered part of the glycine-rich matrix prevented the peptide chains from being coaxially extended via the cross-linking covalent bonds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of material scatter on the plastic behavior and stretchability in sheet metal forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebenga, J.H.; Atzema, E.H.; Atzema, E.H.; An, Y.G.; Vegter, H.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.

    2014-01-01

    Robust design of forming processes is gaining attention throughout the industry. To analyze the robustness of a sheet metal forming process using Finite Element (FE) simulations, an accurate input in terms of parameter scatter is required. This paper presents a pragmatic, accurate and economic

  3. Effects of debonds and face sheet damage in GRP sandwich panels in naval ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayman, B.; Berggreen, Christian; Quispitupa, Amilcar

    2009-01-01

    Sandwich construction with face sheets of fibre-reinforced plastics (FRP) and a core of polymer foam or balsa wood offer a lightweight construction that is well suited to naval and other vessels for high-speed operation or where payload considerations require that the structural weight be minimised...

  4. Effects of face sheet damage on residual strength of GRP sandwich panels in naval ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayman, Brian; Echtermeyer, Andreas T.; Berggreen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    is represented by machined cracks and circular holes in the face laminates. Tests have been performed on laminate specimens with and without circular holes under tensile loading and on sandwich face sheets with holes, cracks and real impact damage under compressive loading. The results are compared...

  5. How effective is albedo modification (solar radiation management geoengineering) in preventing sea-level rise from the Greenland Ice Sheet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applegate, Patrick J; Keller, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Albedo modification (AM) is sometimes characterized as a potential means of avoiding climate threshold responses, including large-scale ice sheet mass loss. Previous work has investigated the effects of AM on total sea-level rise over the present century, as well as AM’s ability to reduce long-term (≫10 3 yr) contributions to sea-level rise from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS). These studies have broken new ground, but neglect important feedbacks in the GIS system, or are silent on AM’s effectiveness over the short time scales that may be most relevant for decision-making (<10 3 yr). Here, we assess AM’s ability to reduce GIS sea-level contributions over decades to centuries, using a simplified ice sheet model. We drive this model using a business-as-usual base temperature forcing scenario, as well as scenarios that reflect AM-induced temperature stabilization or temperature drawdown. Our model results suggest that (i) AM produces substantial near-term reductions in the rate of GIS-driven sea-level rise. However, (ii) sea-level rise contributions from the GIS continue after AM begins. These continued sea level rise contributions persist for decades to centuries after temperature stabilization and temperature drawdown begin, unless AM begins in the next few decades. Moreover, (iii) any regrowth of the GIS is delayed by decades or centuries after temperature drawdown begins, and is slow compared to pre-AM rates of mass loss. Combined with recent work that suggests AM would not prevent mass loss from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, our results provide a nuanced picture of AM’s possible effects on future sea-level rise. (letter)

  6. Effects of the amino acid sequence on thermal conduction through β-sheet crystals of natural silk protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Bai, Zhitong; Ban, Heng; Liu, Ling

    2015-11-21

    Recent experiments have discovered very different thermal conductivities between the spider silk and the silkworm silk. Decoding the molecular mechanisms underpinning the distinct thermal properties may guide the rational design of synthetic silk materials and other biomaterials for multifunctionality and tunable properties. However, such an understanding is lacking, mainly due to the complex structure and phonon physics associated with the silk materials. Here, using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics, we demonstrate that the amino acid sequence plays a key role in the thermal conduction process through β-sheets, essential building blocks of natural silks and a variety of other biomaterials. Three representative β-sheet types, i.e. poly-A, poly-(GA), and poly-G, are shown to have distinct structural features and phonon dynamics leading to different thermal conductivities. A fundamental understanding of the sequence effects may stimulate the design and engineering of polymers and biopolymers for desired thermal properties.

  7. Effects of die quench forming on sheet thinning and 3-point bend testing of AA7075-T6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Samuel; Omer, Kaab; Rahmaan, Taamjeed; Butcher, Clifford; Worswick, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Lab-scaled AA7075 aluminum side impact beams were manufactured using the die quenching technique in which the sheet was solutionized and then quenched in-die during forming to a super saturated solid state. Sheet thinning measurements were taken at various locations throughout the length of the part and the effect of lubricant on surface scoring and material pick-up on the die was evaluated. The as-formed beams were subjected to a T6 aging treatment and then tested in three-point bending. Simulations were performed of the forming and mechanical testing experiments using the LS-DYNA finite element code. The thinning and mechanical response was predicted well.

  8. Effect of certain production parameters and post-production treatments on the etching characteristics of CR-39 sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, G.; Toth-Szilagyi, M.; Hunyadi, I.; Hafez, A.-F.

    1986-01-01

    There is a permanent need in producing track recording detectors of well defined behaviour from CR-39 monomer. Therefore, more studies on the role of production parameters determining the stability of main etching characteristics (bulk etch rate, Vsub(B);etch rate ratio, Vsub(T)/Vsub(B);opaqueness after longer etching periods) are highly required. In our studies we have examined different commercial CR-39 sheets (Homalite, Pershore, MA-ND) to compare their registration sensitivity to selected alpha and proton energies. In addition, we have investigated the main etching parameters of CR-39 sheets manufactured under different casting conditions varying the concentration of initiator and certain additives. Finally, the effect of some post-production treatments, annealing and storage in vacuum, on the Vsub(B) and Vsub(T)/Vsub(B) values is studied.

  9. Effects of Elevated Temperatures on the Compressive Strength Capacity of Concrete Cylinders Confined with FRP Sheets: An Experimental Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif El-Gamal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their high strength, corrosion resistance, and durability, fiber reinforced polymers (FRP are very attractive for civil engineering applications. One of these applications is the strengthening of concrete columns with FRP sheets. The performance of this strengthening technique at elevated temperature is still questionable and needs more investigations. This research investigates the effects of exposure to high temperatures on the compressive strength of concrete cylinders wrapped with glass and carbon FRP sheets. Test specimens consisted of 30 unwrapped and 60 wrapped concrete cylinders. All specimens were exposed to temperatures of 100, 200, and 300°C for periods of 1, 2, and 3 hours. The compressive strengths of the unwrapped concrete cylinders were compared with their counterparts of the wrapped cylinders. For the unwrapped cylinders, test results showed that the elevated temperatures considered in this study had almost no effect on their compressive strength; however, the wrapped specimens were significantly affected, especially those wrapped with GFRP sheets. The compressive strength of the wrapped specimens decreased as the exposure period and the temperature level increased. After three hours of exposure to 300°C, a maximum compressive strength loss of about 25.3% and 37.9%, respectively, was recorded in the wrapped CFRP and GFRP specimens.

  10. Facts about food irradiation: Food irradiation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet gives the cost of a typical food irradiation facility (US $1 million to US $3 million) and of the food irradiation process (US $10-15 per tonne for low-dose applications; US $100-250 per tonne for high-dose applications). These treatments also bring consumer benefits in terms of availability, storage life and improved hygiene. 2 refs

  11. Facts about food irradiation: Status and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet introduces the concept of irradiating food to reduce post-harvest losses from infestation, contamination and spoilage, to lower the incidence of foodborne diseases and to assist international trade in food products by offering an alternative to fumigation or some other treatments that may not be acceptable to the importing countries

  12. Thermo Physics Facilities Branch Brochure ARC Jet Complex Fact Sheets, Hypervelocity Free-Flight Aerodynamic Facility Fact Sheets, Ames Vertical Gun Range Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretter, E. F. (Editor); Kuhns, Jay (Editor); Nuez, Jay (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The Ames Arc Jet Complex has a rich heritage of over 40 years in Thermal Protection System (TPS) development for every NASA Space Transportation and Planetary program, including Apollo, Space Shuttle, Viking, Pioneer-Venus, Galileo, Mars Pathfinder,Stardust, NASP,X-33,X-34,SHARP-B1 and B2,X-37 and Mars Exploration Rovers. With this early TPS history came a long heritage in the development of the arc jet facilities. These are used to simulate the aerodynamic heating that occurs on the nose cap, wing leading edges and on other areas of the spacecraft requiring thermal protection. TPS samples have been run in the arc jets from a few minutes to over an hour,from one exposure to multiple exposures of the same sample, in order t o understand the TPS materials response to a hot gas flow environment (representative of real hyperthermal environments experienced in flight). The Ames Arc l e t Complex is a key enabler for customers involved in the three major areas of TPS development: selection, validation, and qualification. The arc jet data are critical for validating TPS thermal models, heat shield designs and repairs, and ultimately for flight qualification.

  13. Numerical analysis of the effect of the TEM00 radiation mode polarisation on the cut shape in laser cutting of thick metal sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitsev, A V; Kovalev, O B; Orishich, Anatolii M; Fomin, V M

    2005-01-01

    The effect of polarisation of a Gaussian beam on the radiation absorption during laser cutting of metals is investigated. A generalised formula is proposed for calculating the absorption coefficient, which describes the polarisation of three types (linear, elliptical, and circular), taking into account the fact that the beam may interact with a metal surface of an arbitrary shape. A comparison with the existing analogues (in the cases of linear and circular radiation polarisation) confirmed the advantage of employing the formula for the spatial description of the shape of the surface produced, which is highly important for processing (cutting, welding, drilling) of thick materials. The effect of laser radiation characteristics on the surface shape and cut depth in cutting stainless steel sheets is investigated numerically. It is shown for the first time that the cutting of materials by the TEM 00 beam is most efficient when the beam has elliptical polarisation directed along the direction of beam displacement and characterised by a specific axial ratio. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  14. An effective self-assessment based on concept map extraction from test-sheet for personalized learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Keng-Hou; Lin, Yu-Shih; Chang, Yi-Chun; Chu, Chih-Ping

    2013-12-01

    Examination is a traditional way to assess learners' learning status, progress and performance after a learning activity. Except the test grade, a test sheet hides some implicit information such as test concepts, their relationships, importance, and prerequisite. The implicit information can be extracted and constructed a concept map for considering (1) the test concepts covered in the same question means these test concepts have strong relationships, and (2) questions in the same test sheet means the test concepts are relative. Concept map has been successfully employed in many researches to help instructors and learners organize relationships among concepts. However, concept map construction depends on experts who need to take effort and time for the organization of the domain knowledge. In addition, the previous researches regarding to automatic concept map construction are limited to consider all learners of a class, which have not considered personalized learning. To cope with this problem, this paper proposes a new approach to automatically extract and construct concept map based on implicit information in a test sheet. Furthermore, the proposed approach also can help learner for self-assessment and self-diagnosis. Finally, an example is given to depict the effectiveness of proposed approach.

  15. Effects of bamboo charcoal on fouling and microbial diversity in a flat-sheet ceramic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjie; Liu, Xiaoning; Wang, Dunqiu; Jin, Yue

    2017-11-01

    Membrane fouling is a problem in full-scale membrane bioreactors. In this study, bamboo charcoal (BC) was evaluated for its efficacy in alleviating membrane fouling in flat-sheet membrane bioreactors treating municipal wastewater. The results showed that BC addition markedly improved treatment performance based on COD, NH 4 + -N, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus levels. Adding BC slowed the increase in the trans-membrane pressure rate and resulted in lower levels of soluble microbial products and extracellular polymeric substances detected in the flat-sheet membrane bioreactor. BC has a porous structure, and a large quantity of biomass was detected using scanning electron microscopy. The microbial community analysis results indicated that BC increased the microbial diversity and Aminomonas, Anaerofustis, uncultured Anaerolineaceae, Anaerolinea, and Anaerotruncus were found in higher abundances in the reactor with BC. BC addition is an effective method for reducing membrane fouling, and can be applied to full-scale flat-sheet membrane bioreactors to improve their function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of process parameters on sheet resistance uniformity of fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudaya, Chairul; Park, Ji Hun; Lee, Joong Kee

    2012-01-01

    An alternative indium-free material for transparent conducting oxides of fluorine-doped tin oxide [FTO] thin films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate [PET] was prepared by electron cyclotron resonance - metal organic chemical vapor deposition [ECR-MOCVD]. One of the essential issues regarding metal oxide film deposition is the sheet resistance uniformity of the film. Variations in process parameters, in this case, working and bubbler pressures of ECR-MOCVD, can lead to a change in resistance uniformity. Both the optical transmittance and electrical resistance uniformity of FTO film-coated PET were investigated. The result shows that sheet resistance uniformity and the transmittance of the film are affected significantly by the changes in bubbler pressure but are less influenced by the working pressure of the ECR-MOCVD system.

  17. The Effects of Plastic Anisotropy in Warm and Hot Forming of Magnesium Sheet Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleff, Eric M.; Antoniswamy, Aravindha R.; Carpenter, Alexander J.; Yavuz, Emre

    Mg alloy sheet materials often exhibit plastic anisotropy at room temperature as a result of the limited slip systems available in the HCP lattice combined with a commonly strong basal texture. Less well studied is plastic anisotropy developed at the elevated temperatures associated with warm and hot forming. At these elevated temperatures, particularly above 200°C, the activation of additional slip systems significantly increases ductility. However, plastic anisotropy is also induced at elevated temperatures by a strong crystallographic texture, and it can require an accounting in material constitutive models to achieve accurate forming simulations. The type and degree of anisotropy under these conditions depend on both texture and deformation mechanism. The current understanding of plastic anisotropy in Mg AZ31B and ZEK100 sheet materials at elevated temperatures is reviewed in this article. The recent construction of material forming cases is also reviewed with strategies to account for plastic anisotropy in forming simulations.

  18. Facts about food irradiation: Irradiation and food additives and residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet considers the issue of the irradiation of food containing food additives or pesticide residues. The conclusion is that there is no health hazard posed by radiolytic products of pesticides or food additives. 1 ref

  19. Herpes Can Happen to Anyone: Share Facts, Not Fears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... promiscuous. Links Oral Herpes Sexually Transmitted Diseases Genital Herpes (CDC) Genital Herpes Fact Sheet (CDC) What You Need to Know About Genital Herpes Video (CDC) References Vaccination to Reduce Reactivation of ...

  20. Facts about food irradiation: Nutritional quality of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet briefly considers the nutritional value of irradiated foods. Micronutrients, especially vitamins, are sensitive to any food processing method, but irradiation does not cause any special nutritional problems in food. 4 refs