WorldWideScience

Sample records for facing medical education

  1. Educational challenges faced by international medical graduates in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Hashim Gastroenterology Department, Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton, UK Introduction: International medical graduates (IMGs in the UK constitute approximately one-quarter of the total number of doctors registered in the General Medical Council (GMC. The transition of IMGs into the health care system in the UK is accompanied by significant sociocultural and educational challenges. This study aims to explore the views of IMGs in medical training on the educational challenges they face.Methods: This study was conducted in the Kent, Surrey and Sussex region in 2015. All IMGs who work in medical (physicianly training programs were included. Data were collected through a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. Thematic approach was used to analyze the qualitative data.Results: Of the total 61 IMGs included, 17 responded to the survey and 3 were interviewed. The common educational barriers faced by IMGs were related to lack of appreciation of the values and structure of the National Health Service (NHS, ethical and medicolegal issues, receiving feedback from colleagues and the different learning strategies in the UK. IMGs suggested introduction of a mandatory dedicated induction program in the form of formal teaching sessions. They also believed that a supervised shadowing period prior in the first job in the UK would be beneficial. Further assessment areas should be incorporated into the prequalifying examinations to address specific educational needs such as NHS structure and hospital policies. Other measures such as buddying schemes with senior IMGs and educating NHS staff on different needs of IMGs should also be considered.Conclusion: This study highlighted important educational challenges faced by IMGs and generated relevant solutions. However, the opinions of the supervisors and other health care professionals need to be explored. Keywords: international medical graduates, IMG, educational barriers

  2. Face and content validity of a novel, web-based otoscopy simulator for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Brandon; Lewis, Jordan; Morris, David P; Husein, Murad; Ladak, Hanif M; Agrawal, Sumit K

    2015-02-24

    Despite the fact that otoscopy is a widely used and taught diagnostic tool during medical training, errors in diagnosis are common. Physical otoscopy simulators have high fidelity, but they can be expensive and only a limited number of students can use them at a given time. 1) To develop a purely web-based otoscopy simulator that can easily be distributed to students over the internet. 2) To assess face and content validity of the simulator by surveying experts in otoscopy. An otoscopy simulator, OtoTrain™, was developed at Western University using web-based programming and Unity 3D. Eleven experts from academic institutions in North America were recruited to test the simulator and respond to an online questionnaire. A 7-point Likert scale was used to answer questions related to face validity (realism of the simulator), content validity (expert evaluation of subject matter and test items), and applicability to medical training. The mean responses for the face validity, content validity, and applicability to medical training portions of the questionnaire were all ≤3, falling between the "Agree", "Mostly Agree", and "Strongly Agree" categories. The responses suggest good face and content validity of the simulator. Open-ended questions revealed that the primary drawbacks of the simulator were the lack of a haptic arm for force feedback, a need for increased focus on pneumatic otoscopy, and few rare disorders shown on otoscopy. OtoTrain™ is a novel, web-based otoscopy simulator that can be easily distributed and used by students on a variety of platforms. Initial face and content validity was encouraging, and a skills transference study is planned following further modifications and improvements to the simulator.

  3. Inappropriate attitudes, fitness to practise and the challenges facing medical educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Demian

    2007-01-01

    The author outlines a number of reasons why morally inappropriate attitudes may give rise to concerns about fitness to practise. He argues that inappropriate attitudes may raise such concerns because they can lead to harmful behaviours (such as a failure to give proper care or treatment), and because they are often themselves harmful (both because of the offence that they can cause and because of the unhealthy pall that they may cast over relations between healthcare practitioners and patients). He also outlines some of the challenges that the cultivation and assessment of attitudes in students raise for medical educators and some of the ways in which those challenges may be approached and possibly overcome. PMID:17971472

  4. Medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, P

    1992-01-01

    In theory, the Medical Council of India (MCI) determines the standards and qualifications of medical schools. It also sanctions curricula and ensures standards. Yet no standards exist on the mode of selection in medical schools, duration of study, course content, student stipends or period of internship. It takes 4.5 years to finish medical school. Students undergo preclinical, paraclinical, and clinical training. Most courses are in English which tends to favor the urban elite. Students cannot always communicate with patients in local languages. Textbooks often provide medical examples unrelated to India. Pedagogy consists mainly of lectures and rote learning predominates. Curricula tend not to provide courses in community health. Students pick up on the elitist attitudes of the faculty. For example, faculty do not put much emphasis on community health, individual health, equity in health care delivery, and teamwork. Further the education system is not patient oriented, but hospital or disease oriented. Faculty should train students in creating sanitation programs, knowing local nutritious foods, and in making community diagnoses. Yet they tend to be practitioners 1st then educators. Further faculty are not paid well and are not always invited to take part in improving curriculum, so morale is often low. Moreover experience in health planning and management issues is not required for administrators. In addition, medical schools are not well equipped with learning aids, libraries, or teaching staff. Tax revenues finance medical education. 75% of graduating physicians set up a private practice. Further many physicians go to urban areas. 34-57% emigrate to other countries. The problems of medical education will not be solved until the political and economic system becomes more responsive to the health needs of the people.

  5. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Ismail K.

    2009-01-01

    Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

  6. Blended Learning in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing pedagogical advancements in medical education across the globe have gained the attention of academicians for the preparation of well-educated and competent physicians to address the healthcare issues facing today. The integration of technology into medical pedagogy has proved effective in many ways. This has made the medical education…

  7. Continuing Education: Facing the Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Marianne

    1986-01-01

    Examines a number of issues facing the Australian library and information services community in the area of continuing education, including recommendations of the Library Association of Australia, the cost of continuing education activities, the role and responsibility of schools of library and information studies, and notions of coordination.…

  8. The Health Careers Opportunity Program: Deterrents Faced by Minority Students in a Post-Baccalaureate Medical Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Monica Eileen

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: Research indicates that the effort to increase the number of minorities underrepresented in medical schools across the United States has wavered for more than 40 years and has never reached population parity. Using the conceptual framework of barriers to adult learning, this case study was designed, through triangulation…

  9. [Research in medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Charlotte Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    of articles on medical education studies indicate a need for improvement of the quality of medical education research in order to contribute to the advancement of educational practice as well as educational research. In particular, there is a need to embed studies in a conceptual theoretical framework......Research in medical education is a relatively new discipline. Over the past 30 years, the discipline has experienced a tremendous growth, which is reflected in an increase in the number of publications in both medical education journals and medical science journals. However, recent reviews...

  10. [Research in medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Charlotte Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    Research in medical education is a relatively new discipline. Over the past 30 years, the discipline has experienced a tremendous growth, which is reflected in an increase in the number of publications in both medical education journals and medical science journals. However, recent reviews...... of articles on medical education studies indicate a need for improvement of the quality of medical education research in order to contribute to the advancement of educational practice as well as educational research. In particular, there is a need to embed studies in a conceptual theoretical framework...

  11. SIMULATION IN MEDICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. Palés Argullós

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In last twenty years, we are seeing increasingly widespread use of simulations in the training of doctors and other professionals of health sciences at the different stages of their educational continuum (undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing medical education. So much so that the concept of simulations-based medical education has emerged and it is now recognized as a vital tool to ensure the learning of medical students and doctors, and to improve patient safety. This article will describe the reasons for the introduction and development of this new methodology, its advantages and the different models and currently available resources. We will describe also the characteristics of so-called simulation centres or clinical skills laboratories that have been developed worldwide, where the simulation-based medical education take place. Moreover, we will refer briefly to the situation in our country and finally to the principles of a good development of the simulation-based medical education.

  12. Medical education in Libya: the challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamer, Hani T S; Bakoush, Omran

    2009-06-01

    The history of medical education in Libya spans over a period of 40 years. Medical schools had a good and promising start in the 1970s. The graduates of the first few classes had a good impact on the health services in Libya. However, the medical schools did not embrace the immense changes that medical education experienced over the last two decades. This article aims to give a background on the medical education in Libya and explore the challenges facing it, which may help in gaining the initial momentum that seems to have been lost.

  13. Educational technology in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heeyoung; Resch, David S; Kovach, Regina A

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to review the past practices of educational technology and envision future directions for medical education. The discussion starts with a historical review of definitions and perspectives of educational technology, in which the authors propose that educators adopt a broader process-oriented understanding of educational technology. Future directions of e-learning, simulation, and health information technology are discussed based on a systems view of the technological process. As new technologies continue to arise, this process-oriented understanding and outcome-based expectations of educational technology should be embraced. With this view, educational technology should be valued in terms of how well the technological process informs and facilitates learning, and the acquisition and maintenance of clinical expertise.

  14. Rural Medical Education in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Heidi; Renouf, Tia

    2016-10-11

    Despite a large number of yearly medical graduates, rural New Zealand is faced with a scarcity of practicing physicians. Opportunities to learn and practice in rural settings start at the undergraduate level and extend to practicing physicians. There are a number of different programs available to facilitate rural medical education for all students and physicians. These programs will be discussed in this article.

  15. Medical education in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Stefan; Brännström, Thomas; Hanse, Eric; Ledin, Torbjörn; Nilsson, Gunnar; Sandler, Stellan; Tidefelt, Ulf; Donnér, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate medical education in Sweden has moved from nationally regulated, subject-based courses to programmes integrated either around organ systems or physiological and patho-physiological processes, or organised around basic medical science in conjunction with clinical specialities, with individual profiles at the seven medical schools. The national regulations are restricted to overall academic and professional outcomes. The 5½ year long university undergraduate curriculum is followed by a mandatory 18 months internship, delivered by the County Councils. While quality control and accreditation for the university curriculum is provided by the Swedish National Agency for Higher Education, no such formal control exists for the internship; undergraduate medical education is therefore in conflict with EU directives from 2005. The Government is expected to move towards 6 years long university undergraduate programmes, leading to licence, which will facilitate international mobility of both Swedish and foreign medical students and doctors. Ongoing academic development of undergraduate education is strengthened by the Bologna process. It includes outcome (competence)-based curricula, university Masters level complying with international standards, progression of competence throughout the curriculum, student directed learning, active participation and roles in practical clinical education and a national assessment model to assure professional competence. In the near future, the dimensioning of Swedish undergraduate education is likely to be decided more by international demands and aspects of quality than by national demands for doctors.

  16. Continuing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, D

    1987-04-01

    With the rapid advances in medical science and increasing complexities of patient care, the need for continuing medical education (CME) is widely accepted by the profession. CME follows general and higher professional training, and should be a life long process. Teaching hospitals and postgraduate professional institutions play vital roles in organising, promoting, and monitoring this activity. CME directorates should be established. University authorities must recognise the important role of medical teachers in postgraduate and continuing medical education, and the staff establishment and terms of service should be held regularly. Medical libraries should have easy borrowing facilities. Self-assessment and audio-visual material are particularly helpful to the busy practitioner and inexpensive local or regional journals of quality can provide pertinent and up-to-date information. All charges for attending scientific meetings and educational material should be tax deductible or subsidized. The effectiveness of CME is difficult to assess and participation is almost impossible to enforce. Much depends on the standard of medical practice wanted by society. Recertification of general practitioners or specialists poses many problems. On the other hand, completion of self-assessment programmes, active participation at medical meetings, contributions to scientific literature, and membership of medical societies with built-in peer review could be monitored and regularly used to evaluate professional status.

  17. Medical education in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Victor K E

    2008-01-01

    Malaysia has a long history of medical education, with Singapore becoming the first medical school to serve the region after its foundation in 1905. The first school to be established in Kuala Lumpur after independence from the British was the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Malaya in 1963. Whilst today there are 21 public and private medical schools, all offering a 5 year undergraduate programme, some private schools have diversified by developing international collaboration and conduct twinning or credit-transfer programmes. All medical schools require accreditation by the National Accreditation Board and the Malaysian Medical Council. Although the criteria for accreditation is comprehensive and covers a broad range of areas of assessment, it is debatable whether it always matches the needs of the country. The dramatic increase in medical schools in the last two decades has posed challenges in terms of maintenance of quality, physical infrastructure and suitably qualified faculty.

  18. Medical education: Changes and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qin; Lee, Liming; Larry D. Gruppen; Ba, Denian

    2013-01-01

    As medical education undergoes significant internationalization, it is important for the medical education community to understand how different countries structure and provide medical education. This article highlights the current landscape of medical education in China, particularly the changes that have taken place in recent years. It also examines policies and offers suggestions about future strategies for medical education in China. Although many of these changes reflect international tr...

  19. Transforming Medical Education: Is Competency-Based Medical Education the Right Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Michael E

    2016-05-01

    There is growing recognition within the medical education community that medical education in this country needs to be changed to better prepare doctors for the challenges they will face in providing their patients high-quality medical care. A competency-based medical education (CBME) approach was endorsed by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the American Board of Medical Specialties approximately 15 years ago, and a self-designated group-the International Competency-Based Medical Education (ICBME) Collaborators-is now calling on members of the medical education community to join them in their effort to establish CBME as the approach to be used in transforming medical education, not only in the United States but also around the world.In response to an article in this issue by a group of ICBME Collaborators, the author argues that more evidence about the effectiveness of CBME is needed before a global shift to this approach is undertaken. It is time for major organizations and foundations that are committed to improving medical education to step forward and take the lead in partnering with the medical education community to conduct a critical evaluation of CBME. In addition, maintenance of certification, relicensure, and continuing medical education programs should be evaluated for their effectiveness in ensuring that physicians are clinically competent not only at the beginning of their career but also until the end.

  20. Face of America Character Education Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World T.E.A.M. Sports, Charlotte, NC.

    This document presents a description of the Face of America Classroom Program, a character education program based on a mission to bridge and build communities through sports. Three language arts lesson plans are provided on three themes: achievement, stereotypes (especially of people with disabilities), and strategies for healthy minds and…

  1. Financing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersdorf, R G

    1991-02-01

    The cost of a medical education may dissuade qualified young people from entering the medical profession or may so load them with debt that they cannot pursue relatively low-paid careers in primary care or clinical investigation. Three aspects of this problem are examined: (1) the cost of medical school, (2) the magnitude of student indebtedness, and (3) the effects of this indebtedness on career choices. High tuition and fees require many students to assume sizable educational debts, some of which are so large that the trainees will be unable to repay them unless they enter highly remunerative specialties. Also, high levels of indebtedness may increase default levels once graduates feel the full impact of scheduled repayments. Several steps would help to alleviate this problem, but are unlikely to solve it. First, medical schools should lower tuition or at least declare a moratorium on increases. Second, limits should be imposed on the amount of total education debt a student is allowed to assume. Third, hospitals with extensive residency programs should assume some responsibility for helping trainees manage their finances. Fourth, the government should institute a loan forgiveness program that addresses the need for physician-investigators, primary care physicians, those willing to practice in underserved areas, and those from underrepresented minorities. And fifth, all institutions involved in medical training and its finance should work together to advise students on managing their debts.

  2. Medical education: Changes and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Lee, Liming; Gruppen, Larry D.; Ba, Denian

    2013-01-01

    As medical education undergoes significant internationalization, it is important for the medical education community to understand how different countries structure and provide medical education. This article highlights the current landscape of medical education in China, particularly the changes that have taken place in recent years. It also examines policies and offers suggestions about future strategies for medical education in China. Although many of these changes reflect international trends, Chinese medical education has seen unique transformations that reflect its particular culture and history. PMID:23631405

  3. Face-to-face Training is the Preferred Modality of Professional Continuing Education for Librarians of All Ages, but More Evidence is Needed. A Review of: Lynn, V. A., Bose, A., & Boehmer, S. J. (2010. Librarian instruction-delivery modality preferences for professional continuing education. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 98(1, 57-64.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Oxborrow

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To establish the preferred modality for professional continuing education (CE among members of three library associations. The primary hypothesis was that face-to-face training is the preferred modality, and the secondary hypothesis was that younger librarians are more likely to favour online or blended training modalities. In addition, the authors sought to investigate which factors influence participants’ decisions to take up training.Design – Online questionnaire.Setting – Three library associations based in the United States of America. These were the American Library Association (ALA, the Special Libraries Association (SLA, and the Medical Library Association (MLA.Subjects – A random sample of 328 members of the ALA (86 participants, SLA (63 participants, and MLA (291 participants. Some participants were members of more than one association.Methods – Participants were recruited to complete an online survey via direct e-mail contact (MLA, messages on email discussion lists (SLA and social networks (ALA. The survey asked about participants’ experience of, and preference for, five different training modalities for CE. These were: face-to-face (classroom instruction, web-based synchronous (with real-time participant-instructor interaction, web-based asynchronous (with instructor involvement, but not in real time, blended (a combination of different modalities, and webcasts (live online presentations with limited participant-instructor interaction. Participants were then asked to rank factors which would influence their decision to undertake CE courses. The factors were cost, opportunity to socialize/network, time away from work, learning at their own pace, and having immediate access to either the class instructor or other participants. Participants were also given space to comment on both CE modalities and influencing factors.Main Results – There was a statistically significant preference for face-to-face

  4. Standards for medical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Nigel; Lloyd-Jones, Gaynor

    2003-02-01

    In the current UK socio-political climate of mounting regulation of professional practice, a debate on the topic of standards amongst medical teachers seems timely. The role of teacher is increasingly recognised as a core professional activity for all doctors and one that cannot be left to chance, aptitude or inclination. As a consequence, faculties have developed a plethora of teacher training programmes for medical teachers. But what is good medical teaching? Unless we know what it is, how can we develop it? One possible approach is to develop clear and comprehensive standards, defining what we mean by competent or effective clinical teaching. In this article we have evaluated and compared two models of standards for clinical educators. The first is the outcome-based approach developed at Dundee Medical School and the second is the scholarship model devised initially by Boyer and then elaborated by Glassick and Fincher et al. The key features of both models are briefly described and their comparative strengths and problematic aspects explored. Both models offer interesting and stimulating ideas and together they provide an instructive contrast. They make a valuable contribution to the ongoing process of improving the provision of medical education.

  5. Status of medical mycology education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, William J; Mitchell, Thomas G; Schell, Wiley A; Espinel-Ingroff, Ana; Coico, Richard F; Walsh, Thomas J; Perfect, John R

    2003-12-01

    The number of immunocompromised patients and subsequent invasive fungal infections continues to rise. However, the education of future medical mycologists to engage this growing problem is diminishing. While there are an increasing number of publications and grants awarded in mycology, the time and detail devoted to teaching medical mycology in United States medical schools are inadequate. Here we review the history in medical mycology education and the current educational opportunities. To accurately gauge contemporary teaching we also conducted a prospective survey of microbiology and immunology departmental chairpersons in United States medical schools to determine the amount and content of contemporary education in medical mycology.

  6. Tele-education as method of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Pandza, Haris; Kulasin, Igor; Masic, Zlatan; Valjevac, Salih

    2009-01-01

    -surgery, tele-radiology and other specific telemedicine applications should be introduced to the curricula. Telemedicine and distance learning are best suited for medical education and doctor-to-doctor consultation--first contact between doctor and a patient should stay face-to-face when possible. In this paper, we present the results of the project Introduction and Implementation of Distance Learning at the Medical Faculty of University of Sarajevo and compare it with the following expected outcomes: development and integration of information technology in medical education; creation of flexible infrastructure which will enable access to e-learning to all students and teaching staff; improvement of digital literacy of academic population; ensuring high educational standards to students and teaching staff; helping medical staffto develop "life-long learning" approach in work and education.

  7. [Assessment in Medical Education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Martha Delgado; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of medical education is fundamental for proper feedback and evaulation of students. The overall purpose of the evaluation is numerically and formatively revised. The suggested evaluation processes is described taking into account the Miller competence pyramid as a tool for designing evaluations and concepts of validity and reproducibility in assessments. The utility of student and the teacher is also raised. The issue of assessment should leave the knowledge parameters that are usually used. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Community-Oriented Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Community-orientated medicine is a topical area for debate in the current discussions about medical education, but it can be argued that medical education has always been in the community because medical practice is located therein. It is widely accepted that community settings provide a wealth of learning opportunities for students and trainees…

  9. Medical education... meet Michel Foucault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Brian D; Martimianakis, Maria A; McNaughton, Nancy; Whitehead, Cynthia

    2014-06-01

    There have been repeated calls for the greater use of conceptual frameworks and of theory in medical education. Although it is familiar to few medical educators, Michel Foucault's work is a helpful theoretical and methodological source. This article explores what it means to use a 'Foucauldian approach', presents a sample of Foucault's historical-genealogical studies that are relevant to medical education, and introduces the work of four researchers currently undertaking Foucauldian-inspired medical education research. Although they are not without controversy, Foucauldian approaches are employed by an increasing number of scholars and are helpful in shedding light on what it is possible to think, say and be in medical education. Our hope in sharing this Foucauldian work and perspective is that we might stimulate a dialogue that is forward-looking and optimistic about the possibilities for change in medical education. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Augmented reality in medical education?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamphuis, Carolien; Barsom, Esther; Schijven, Marlies; Christoph, Noor

    2014-01-01

    .... Educational technology and more specifically augmented reality (AR) has the potential to offer a highly realistic situated learning experience supportive of complex medical learning and transfer...

  11. Problems faced by editors of peer reviewed medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, Shaukat A

    2004-01-01

    Forty-six medical and dental journals are published from Pakistan of which only 29 are currently recognized by the Pakistan Medical and Dental Council. Only a few are peer reviewed. Six are indexed in Medline while EMBASE Excerpta Medica and World Health Organization Index Medicus for Eastern Mediterranean Region cover others. Editors of the peer reviewed medical journals are faced with numerous problems, which relate to the authors. Some of these are: shortage of quality of manuscripts, poor quality of reviewers, problems with indexation in international indexing services particularly Medline, duplicate submission and authorship and lastly, financial problems. Patronage from the Pharma industry is the major source of revenue which itself has serious implications. Editing a medical journal is a very stressful job and the editors have to work under too many pressures. A lot of useful data is presented at medical conferences, but a vast majority of it remains unpublished for various reasons, which adversely affects the citation rate from scientists from the developing third world countries in the world of medical literature. A few lectures on medical writing and research methodology to final year medical students will expose them to the art of medical writing. Specialty organizations can be persuaded to have a session on medical writing at their conferences, which will be extremely helpful not only to the potential new authors but also others, thereby improving the quality of their manuscripts. In addition to regular seminars, workshops for authors, reviewers and training courses for editors, subscribing to local medical journals by healthcare professionals and libraries are some of the measures that will help improve the situation to a great extent.

  12. Fasa University Medical School: a novel experience in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSAIN A. RONAGHY

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In early 1970`s a combination of a shortage and misdistribution of health services and growing public dissatisfaction about the health care available, along with increasing expectations, has put great strain on the mind of the staff of the Department of Medicine Shiraz University School of Medicine. The purpose of this report is to give an account of what was originally planned and what has happened since the start of Fasa Medical School in April 1978. Methods: This is a case report about an experience in medical education in Iran. At the time, two major problems were facing our country. The first was gross mal-distribution of these healthcare facilities, which were mostly concentrated in Tehran and big cities of Iran, and the second problem was continuous exodus of Iranian Medical graduates to the Western countries. Results: The main idea of creating Fasa Medical School was to create a system in which primary care in small villages are provided by VHW with the middle level health workers of “Behdar Roustaee” to be supported by local physicians who reside in small towns. Conclusion: For Fasa Medical School, education was emphasized on community based, student centered, and problem based medical education located in the community and based on teamwork and cooperation.

  13. Competency-based medical education in postgraduate medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iobst, William F.; Sherbino, Jonathan; Ten Cate, Olle; Richardson, Denyse L.; Dath, Deepak; Swing, Susan R.; Harris, Peter; Mungroo, Rani; Holmboe, Eric S.; Frank, Jason R.

    2010-01-01

    With the introduction of Tomorrow's Doctors in 1993, medical education began the transition from a time-and process-based system to a competency-based training framework. Implementing competency-based training in postgraduate medical education poses many challenges but ultimately requires a demonstr

  14. Reflective writing in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Philip; Stewart, Rosalyn

    2012-01-01

    The teaching of reflection and the use of reflective writing assignments is commonplace in medical school education. There is a preponderance of research in medical education, which appraises and discusses new ways of teaching reflection. Students often complain about having to write about their experience with that patient. This work explores some of the reasoning between the variability of student acceptance of reflection in medical education. The method is based on available literature as well as a personal perspective regarding reflective writing in medical education. Reflection is a skill that requires teaching and practice. It is within the explicit process of teaching reflection in medical education that reflective learners can be developed. Reflection includes the take-home lesson from patient encounters. Its use can help learners become better physicians in terms of medical and humanistic effectiveness and support personal growth.

  15. The educational attributes and responsibilities of effective medical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatem, Charles J; Searle, Nancy S; Gunderman, Richard; Krane, N Kevin; Perkowski, Linda; Schutze, Gordon E; Steinert, Yvonne

    2011-04-01

    Of the many roles that the academic-educator may fulfill, that of teacher is particularly challenging. Building on prior recommendations from the literature, this article identifies the skill set of teachers across the medical education continuum-characteristics of attitude and attributes, knowledge, and pedagogic skills that permit effective teaching to be linked with effective learning and understanding. This examination which characterizes teachers' attitudes, knowledge, and skills serves to reemphasize the centrality of teaching within medical education, provides direction for faculty and institutions alike in the discharge of academic responsibilities, and makes educational accountability clear. This listing of teacher attitudes and responsibilities was vetted in 2009 by medical education leaders from across North America during a national conference on faculty development.A set of recommendations concerning faculty development issues for medical teachers is offered. The recommendations are intended to establish an academic culture in medical education that values and rewards-academically and fiscally-those centrally committed to the role of teacher. The challenges of defining skills, developing and funding programs, and ongoing evaluation must be faced to achieve success in teaching throughout medical education, now and in the future. Faculty members, fellow learners, and patients deserve no less.

  16. [Flipped classroom in basic medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merenmies, Jussi; Niemi-Murola, Leila; Pyörälä, Eeva

    2015-01-01

    Medical education is facing changes in order to improve young doctors' competency to respond better to current needs of the patients and the society. Both curriculum content and teaching methods are revised. In addition to vibrant research in academic medical education, teachers are supported by the improved web-based learning environments and novel technical tools. Flipped classroom, a new paradigm that benefits from technical development, provides many opportunities for medical education. This teaching method always consists of two mutually complementary parts. The first part of the learning action takes place independently off classroom with video lectures or other stimuli for learning. The second part takes place in conjunction with the teacher and other students, and requires student group interactions.

  17. Electives in Graduate Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Zayapragassarazan, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Modern curricula have both compulsory portions and electives or portions chosen by students. Electives have been a part of graduate and postgraduate general higher education. Electives are included in various standards for graduate medical education and are also included in proposed Medical Council of India Regulations on Graduate Medical…

  18. Course Evaluation in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Jennifer R.; Shea, Judy A.

    2007-01-01

    Course evaluation is integral to medical education. We discuss (1) distinctive features of medical education that impact on course evaluation, (2) a framework for course evaluations, (3) details that shape the evaluation process, (4) key measurement issues important to data gathering and interpretation, and (5) opportunities for expanding the…

  19. Learner-Centered Teaching Style: Comparing Face-to-Face and Online Adult Educators' Commitment Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Shanda E.

    2013-01-01

    For at least 50 years, prominent adult learning theorists have recommended that adult educators commit to a learner-centered teaching approach. Extensive teaching styles research has been conducted on face-to-face and online adult educators, albeit separately, to examine their commitment levels to the learner-centered style. In addition, there has…

  20. Learner-Centered Teaching Style: Comparing Face-to-Face and Online Adult Educators' Commitment Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Shanda E.

    2013-01-01

    For at least 50 years, prominent adult learning theorists have recommended that adult educators commit to a learner-centered teaching approach. Extensive teaching styles research has been conducted on face-to-face and online adult educators, albeit separately, to examine their commitment levels to the learner-centered style. In addition, there has…

  1. A Variety of Diversity: Facing Higher Education's Educational Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Eric L.

    2008-10-01

    First among the many important challenges facing American higher education is the need to improve the effectiveness of our educational programs. Public concern has heightened the sense of urgency for colleges and universities to make progress on improving and measuring educational outcomes, which is made more challenging by the varieties of diversity facing us. Diversity is not just an issue related to student recruitment or experience, but rather it is one that also relates to institutions and their faculties. New educational methods must address such diversity to be effective, and one possible example can be found in ongoing research at the University of Michigan that explores the educational implications of implementing a web-based lecture capture system in large lecture courses. Student use of and reactions to such systems is important, as is the potential to influence course performance for students in general, but also for underrepresented and at-risk student subpopulations. In addition to helping bring our current landscape into focus, this paper will identify effective practices as well as continuing challenges to improving educational practice for undergraduate students.

  2. Can face-to-face patient education be replaced by computer-based patient education? A randomised trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulers, B.J.; Welters, C.F.; Spauwen, P.H.M.; Houpt, P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Computer-based patient education is an effective (therapeutic) tool. More and more studies prove that it can be an effective additive for face-to-face education, but it is still unclear if it is possible to educate patients by only using a computer. Our objective was to compare knowledge

  3. Can face-to-face patient education be replaced by computer-based patient education? A randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulers, Bram J.; Welters, Carlo F. M.; Spauwen, Paul H. M.; Houpt, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Computer-based patient education is an effective (therapeutic) tool. More and more studies prove that it can be an effective additive for face-to-face education, but it is still unclear if it is possible to educate patients by only using a computer. Our objective was to compare knowledge

  4. A meaningful MESS (Medical Education Scholarship Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shari A. Whicker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Graduate medical education faculty bear the responsibility of demonstrating active research and scholarship; however, faculty who choose education-focused careers may face unique obstacles related to the lack of promotion tracks, funding, career options, and research opportunities. Our objective was to address education research and scholarship barriers by providing a collaborative peer-mentoring environment and improve the production of research and scholarly outputs. Methods: We describe a Medical Education Scholarship Support (MESS group created in 2013. MESS is an interprofessional, multidisciplinary peer-mentoring education research community that now spans multiple institutions. This group meets monthly to address education research and scholarship challenges. Through this process, we develop new knowledge, research, and scholarly products, in addition to meaningful collaborations. Results: MESS originated with eight founding members, all of whom still actively participate. MESS has proven to be a sustainable unfunded local community of practice, encouraging faculty to pursue health professions education (HPE careers and fostering scholarship. We have met our original objectives that involved maintaining 100% participant retention; developing increased knowledge in at least seven content areas; and contributing to the development of 13 peer-reviewed publications, eight professional presentations, one Masters of Education project, and one educational curriculum. Discussion: The number of individuals engaged in HPE research continues to rise. The MESS model could be adapted for use at other institutions, thereby reducing barriers HPE researchers face, providing an effective framework for trainees interested in education-focused careers, and having a broader impact on the education research landscape.

  5. [The globalization of medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Fred C J

    2013-01-01

    With reference to a recently published research article on the applicability and effectiveness of problem-based learning (PBL) in non-Western medical schools, this commentary explores the assumption that a set of shared values is the common denominator of the globalisation of medical education. The use and effectiveness of PBL are not isolated from the cultural and social structural context in which it is applied; critical differences in values and in views on education underlie what educators and students perceive to be effective locally. The globalisation of medical education is more than the import of instructional designs, and includes Western models of social organisation that require deep reflection and adaptation for success; hence, instead of spreading models for medical education across the globe, more effort should be put into the support of 'home-grown' equivalents and alternatives.

  6. Fostering international undergraduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Smith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The severe lack of human resources in the health care field in many countries has resulted in avid interest in global undergraduate medical education. Christian medical missionaries have, thus, a unique opportunity to contribute to transformative, holistic development through the training of future physicians for resource-limited settings. Starting a new medical school is, however, a complex process which requires significant resources and intellectual investment. This paper outlines some of the challenges encountered in faith-based individuals’ engagement in undergraduate medical education, as well as suggesting some practical solutions and recommendations.

  7. Elementary science education: Dilemmas facing preservice teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sherry Elaine

    Prospective teachers are involved in a process of induction into a culture of teaching that has rules, or codes of conduct for engaging in teaching practice. This same culture of teaching exists within a larger culture of schooling that also has values and norms for behaviors, that over time have become institutionalized. Teacher educators are faced with the challenging task of preparing preservice teachers to resolve dilemmas that arise from conflicts between the pressure to adopt traditional teaching practices of schooling, or to adopt inquiry-based teaching practices from their university methods classes. One task for researchers in teacher education is to define with greater precision what factors within the culture of schooling hinder or facilitate implementation of inquiry-based methods of science teaching in schools. That task is the focus of this study. A qualitative study was undertaken using a naturalistic research paradigm introduced by Lincoln and Guba in 1985. Participant observation, interviews, discourse analysis of videotapes of lessons from the methods classroom and written artifacts produced by prospective teachers during the semester formed the basis of a grounded theory based on inductive analysis and emergent design. Unstructured interviews were used to negotiate outcomes with participants. Brief case reports of key participants were also written. This study identified three factors that facilitated or hindered the prospective teachers in this research success in implementing inquiry-based science teaching in their field placement classrooms: (a) the culture of teaching/teacher role-socialization, (b) the culture of schooling and its resistance to change, and (c) the culture of teacher education, especially in regards to grades and academic standing. Some recommendations for overcoming these persistent obstacles to best practice in elementary science teaching include: (a) preparing prospective teachers to understand and cope with change

  8. Social accountability of medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Stefan; Karle, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Medical doctors constitute a profession which embraces trust from and accountability to society. This responsibility extends to all medical educational institutions. Social accountability of medical education means a willingness and ability to adjust to the needs of patients and health care systems...... both nationally and globally. But it also implies a responsibility to contribute to the development of medicine and society through fostering competence for research and improvement. Accreditation is a process by which a statutory body evaluates and recognises an educational institution and/or its...

  9. A Viewpoint on Medical Education in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozafar Khazaei

    2013-08-01

    of students, determining appropriate strategies to prevent academic failure can preserve financial and human investment and enhance the academic rank of the universities. Taking the academic failure into account as one of the challenges facing medical education in Iran and doing intervention and meta-analysis studies are recommended.The increasing number of medical sciences students, especially general medicine during the recent years, that has caused congestion in theoretical and practical classes and relative decline in the quality of education, is also another noticeable challenge in the medical education. It seems necessary to have appropriate and prospective plan for this quantitative increase of students before they enter clinical wards in hospitals and to make anticipations for the preparation of physical and educational conditions and facilities needed for clinical and outpatient training. Taking into account of the ability and interest of the new generation of students in electronic facilities like internet and mobile and explicit emphasis of educational authorities and programmers of the country in the recent medical education congress (2013 on the necessity of applying virtual education, designing new educational programs and models based on virtual education can be considered as one of the methods of coping with the given challenge.

  10. Training versus Education: eLearning, Hybrid, and Face-to-Face Modalities - a Participatory Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Blair

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Is training education or is education training? Universities and organizations treat training and education synonymously, but it is worth exploring the differences. Universities are scrambling to standardize a preferred delivery method of education and training. With the blended modalities of eLearning, face-to-face, and hybrid learning, the educational delivery seems to be equalizing. The disruptive shift with technology in education or training is complicated by the expectations of our millennial, Gen Y, and Gen Z students. As an added pressure at the university level, even more importantly, the expectation of the administration and the accrediting bodies keep changing the 'play book' on requirements. Given the ever changing complexities of today's paradigm-shift in education and learning, we explored the complexities of navigating the delivery methods to achieve educational goals in higher education or training goals in corporate America.

  11. Cultural competence in medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Janne; Jervelund, Signe Smith; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2017-01-01

    the survey, and 199 responded. The response rate is 14%. Data were analysed through descriptive calculations, and answers to open-ended questions were coded using content analysis. Results: Results showed that 82.4% of the informants agreed or strongly agreed that the medical education programme should...... in receiving training on cultural competence. Conclusions: Generally, there is interest in and acknowledgement of the importance of cultural competence in Danish medical education among teachers at the University of Copenhagen. This creates an opportunity to implement cultural competence in the medical...

  12. The art of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheele, F

    2012-01-01

    Is the art of medical education just making sure to provide sufficient up to date medical knowledge and a lot of clinical experience? It is much more. The art of medical education is about a teaching program that is designed to serve the community of the near future. The program is the result of a thorough evaluation of societal needs and is capable of influencing the properties of future care. New care professionals who are trained in the program will -become instrumental in solving complex problems in health systems. The art of medical education is about the change of traditional ideas of how to cope with these health systems. This change will raise anger and resistance. Effective change management is essential to survive attacks from laggards and to maintain enthusiasm to invest in the health care of the future. Educationalist science provides several important insights that help us find the optimal shape of the program. Good role models and a learning environment that is an example of the intended professional and organisational behaviour, learning by doing, simulation programs, educational tools like e-learning systems, a good assessment and feedback system, and a portfolio to prove and discuss professional progress are all pivotal components of the ideal program. To achieve mastery within the art of medical education, a quality improvement program will be the crown of the process. Medical education is a multifaceted process and so the quality improvement should be. The art of medical education is a great challenge. The health care of your future deserves it.

  13. Professionalism in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Sean; Southgate, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    Medical professionalism in today's society requires the exhibition of a range of qualities deployed in the service of patients, rather than more traditionally defined aspects such as mastery, autonomy and self-regulation. These qualities incorporate demonstrated clinical competence; aspiring to excellence in practice while demonstrating humility…

  14. Sexual Health Competencies for Undergraduate Medical Education in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Carey Roth; Eckstrand, Kristen L; Knudson, Gail; Koehler, Jean; Leibowitz, Scott; Tsai, Perry; Feldman, Jamie L

    2017-04-01

    The number of hours spent teaching sexual health content and skills in medical education continues to decrease despite the increase in sexual health issues faced by patients across the lifespan. In 2012 and 2014, experts across sexuality disciplines convened for the Summits on Medical School Education and Sexual Health to strategize and recommend approaches to improve sexual health education in medical education systems and practice settings. One of the summit recommendations was to develop sexual health competencies that could be implemented in undergraduate medical education curricula. To discuss the process of developing sexual health competencies for undergraduate medical education in North America and present the resulting competencies. From 2014 to 2016, a summit multidisciplinary subcommittee met through face-to-face, phone conference, and email meetings to review prior competency-based guidelines and then draft and vet general sexual health competencies for integration into undergraduate medical school curricula. The process built off the Association of American Medical Colleges' competency development process for training medical students to care for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and gender non-conforming patients and individuals born with differences of sex development. This report presents the final 20 sexual health competencies and 34 qualifiers aligned with the 8 overall domains of competence. Development of a comprehensive set of sexual health competencies is a necessary first step in standardizing learning expectations for medical students upon completion of undergraduate training. It is hoped that these competencies will guide the development of sexual health curricula and assessment tools that can be shared across medical schools to ensure that all medical school graduates will be adequately trained and comfortable addressing the different sexual health concerns presented by patients across the lifespan. Bayer CR, Eckstrand KL, Knudson G, et

  15. Undergraduate medical education in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenot, Jean-François

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years, clinical science (3 years and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany.

  16. QUALITY ENHANCEMENT IN MEDICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Nejati Ajibisheh

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient time, education has been evaluated in terms of its practical value among the Chinese; however, despite its long history, performance evaluation is the most complex and controversial of human resource management techniques (Roberts, 2003, and a little understood function of organizational life.Performance appraisal in both the private and the public sectors have become an integral part of work life. Of course, there is a growing interest to use performance management techniques in educational institutes in order to increase the competitiveness and quality of university education in a globalized environment .Accordingly, medical education requires special performance management and excellence models to improve the quality of course materials and provided services.The aim of this article is to develop a model of academic excellence based on a combination of SERVQUAL technique, Balanced Scorecard model, and EFQM Excellence Model. The SERVQUAL technique can be used to identify the gap between medical students\\' expectations and perceived experience as indicators of service quality, to measure quality of services offered by medical universities.In this article, with the use of Balanced Scorecard and EFQM, a comprehensive model will be introduced to enhance the quality of medical education. The model will recommend a process within different academic quality dimensions. In addition, the paper will introduce approaches to use available resources effectively to improve educational development.

  17. Interactive Video in Medical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekhar, Arcot J.; Price, Ronald N.

    1989-01-01

    A variety of attributes have to be taught to a medical student. Various formats of these skills are currently in vogue, namely lectures, small group sessions, preceptorships, etc. The objective of this project is to evaluate the utility of interactive video in medical education. Lessons using interactive video were developed to teach history taking skills, procedural skills, problem solving skills and to acquire knowledge base. Evaluation strategies are being developed to assess which format,...

  18. Human values in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J R

    1976-11-01

    Attitudes and values in medicine vary with the nature of the individual, his education and training, and the circumstances of his professional life. Comparisons are drawn between medical education in Britain 40 years ago and today. Though education has changed, British students are still mainly motivated by a desire to care for sick people. The impact of personal medicine on a country that has long accepted the need for some kind of national health service is described. It is postulated that as government and public become increasingly involved in health care, it is of paramount importance that medical education should provide a clear understanding of what a profession is and inculcate a determination to maintain true professional status. New responsibilities of the profession, to the public at large and to society, are suggested. The ability of medical education to exert a good influence on concern for human values in medicine depends in the final analysis on the ability to show excellence to medical students.

  19. [Piercing: health education or medicalization?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meningaud, J P; Moutel, G; Hervé, C

    2000-06-10

    In Europe, the piercing mode has naturally been associated with specific complications raising an important public health problem. The debate on the role physicians should play requires a careful analysis of the ethical issues involved. Specifically, should the piercing be done in a medical setting? This question is raised because, when performed under ideal conditions, the act of piercing requires a certain degree of medical competency: history taking, asepsia, technical procedure (hemostasis), anesthesia.... However, mandatory medicalization would not, in our opinion, appear to be desirable since we are dealing with a social rite which lies outside the domain of specific medical care. Nevertheless, although we do not advocate systematic medicalization, we do believe that medicine should play a role, in terms of public health, in this emerging practice. We discuss the modalities of a health education dialogue which could be established with professional practicing piercing.

  20. Computer science education for medical informaticians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Judith R; Price, Susan L

    2004-03-18

    The core curriculum in the education of medical informaticians remains a topic of concern and discussion. This paper reports on a survey of medical informaticians with Master's level credentials that asked about computer science (CS) topics or skills that they need in their employment. All subjects were graduates or "near-graduates" of a single medical informatics Master's program that they entered with widely varying educational backgrounds. The survey instrument was validated for face and content validity prior to use. All survey items were rated as having some degree of importance in the work of these professionals, with retrieval and analysis of data from databases, database design and web technologies deemed most important. Least important were networking skills and object-oriented design and concepts. These results are consistent with other work done in the field and suggest that strong emphasis on technical skills, particularly databases, data analysis, web technologies, computer programming and general computer science are part of the core curriculum for medical informatics.

  1. Avoiding pitfalls in overseas medical educational experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L Sessions

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, there are a growing number of medical students participating in international health electives. These experiences have the potential to be mutually beneficial to both the host country and the student. However, there is a significant risk of unethical and damaging practices during these trips, including concerns for sending trainees without appropriate pre-travel preparation with inadequate accountability to local health care providers at a stage in their education that imposes an undue burden on the local health facilities. This article describes one first year medical student’s experience in navigating common challenges faced in international health electives and offers practical advice enlightened by the literature on how to overcome them. We emphasize the need for students to ensure adequate pre-trip preparation, communicate their level of training clearly, practice cultural humility, ensure personal safety, and engage in projects needed by the host community.

  2. Pediatric hospitalists and medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottolini, Mary C

    2014-07-01

    Pediatric hospital medicine (PHM) is moving toward becoming an American Board of Pediatrics (ABP) subspecialty, roughly a decade after its formal inception in 2003. Education has played a central role as the field has evolved. Hospitalists are needed to educate trainees, medical students, residents, fellows, and nurse practitioner and physician assistant students in inpatient pediatric practice. Continuous professional development is needed for hospitalists currently in practice to augment clinical skills, such as providing sedation and placing peripherally inserted central catheter lines, and nonclinical skills in areas such as quality improvement methodology, hospital administration, and health service research. To address the educational needs of the current and future state of PHM, additional training is now needed beyond residency training. Fellowship training will be essential to continue to advance the field of PHM as well as to petition the ABP for specialty accreditation. Training in using adult educational theory, curriculum, and assessment design are critical for pediatric hospitalists choosing to advance their careers as clinician-educators. Several venues are available for gaining advanced knowledge and skill as an educator. PHM clinician-educators are advancing the field of pediatric education as well as their own academic careers by virtue of the scholarly approach they have taken to designing and implementing curricula for unique PHM teaching situations. PHM educators are changing the educational paradigm to address challenges to traditional education strategies posed by duty hour restrictions and the increasing drive to shorten the duration of the hospitalization. By embracing learning with technology, such as simulation and e-learning with mobile devices, PHM educators can address these challenges as well as respond to learning preferences of millennial learners. The future for PHM education is bright.

  3. How lead consultants approach educational change in postgraduate medical education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, J.P.; Westerman, M.; Teunissen, P.W.; Lee, N.; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Dorr, P.J.; Scheele, F.

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Consultants in charge of postgraduate medical education (PGME) in hospital departments ('lead consultants') are responsible for the implementation of educational change. Although difficulties in innovating in medical education are described in the literature, little is known about how lead

  4. Challenges and Opportunities Facing Technology Education in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng Steven

    2009-01-01

    The technology education in Taiwan is prescribed in the national curriculum and provided to all students in grades 1-12. However, it faces the following challenges: (1) Lack of worthy image, (2) Inadequate teachers in elementary schools, (3) Deficient teaching vitality in secondary schools, and (4) Diluted technology teacher education programs. In…

  5. The Impediments Facing Community Engagement in Omani Educational Tertiary Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Jinan Hatem

    2016-01-01

    Prior to the vital role that social capital plays in accomplishing prosperity for any educational tertiary institution, it was emphasised in several countries' agendas, including the Sultanate of Oman. This study endeavours to explore the impediments facing the enhancement of the social capital in Omani educational tertiary institutions through…

  6. Leveraging e-learning in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kadriye O; Cidon, Michal J; Seto, Teresa L; Chen, Haiqin; Mahan, John D

    2014-07-01

    e-Learning has become a popular medium for delivering instruction in medical education. This innovative method of teaching offers unique learning opportunities for medical trainees. The purpose of this article is to define the present state of e-learning in pediatrics and how to best leverage e-learning for educational effectiveness and change in medical education. Through addressing under-examined and neglected areas in implementation strategies for e-learning, its usefulness in medical education can be expanded. This study used a systematic database review of published studies in the field of e-learning in pediatric training between 2003 and 2013. The search was conducted using educational and health databases: Scopus, ERIC, PubMed, and search engines Google and Hakia. A total of 72 reference articles were suitable for analysis. This review is supplemented by the use of "e-Learning Design Screening Questions" to define e-learning design and development in 10 randomly selected articles. Data analysis used template-based coding themes and counting of the categories using descriptive statistics.Our search for pediatric e-learning (using Google and Hakia) resulted in six well-defined resources designed to support the professional development of doctors, residents, and medical students. The majority of studies focused on instructional effectiveness and satisfaction. There were few studies about e-learning development, implementation, and needs assessments used to identify the institutional and learners' needs. Reviewed studies used various study designs, measurement tools, instructional time, and materials for e-learning interventions. e-Learning is a viable solution for medical educators faced with many challenges, including (1) promoting self-directed learning, (2) providing flexible learning opportunities that would offer continuous (24h/day/7 days a week) availability for learners, and (3) engaging learners through collaborative learning communities to gain

  7. Plagiarism in graduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Ariel Forrester

    2007-06-01

    The act of overt plagiarism by graduates of accredited residency programs represents a failure in personal integrity. It also indicates a lack of professionalism, one of the six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies for graduate medical education. A recent experience at one geriatric fellowship indicates that the problem of plagiarism may be more prevalent than previously recognized. A situation was discovered at the geriatric medicine fellowship at Florida Hospital Family Medicine Residency Program in Orlando, Fla, in which three of the personal statements included in a total of 26 applications to the fellowship in the past 2 years contained portions plagiarized from a single Web site. The aim in documenting this plagiarism is to raise awareness among medical educators about the availability of online sources of content and ease of electronic plagiarism. Some students and residents may not recognize copying other resources verbatim as plagiarism. Residency programs should evaluate their own need for education about plagiarism and include this in the training of the competency of professionalism.

  8. [Nursing school facing new educational challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna Torres, Blanca Herlinda; Gonzáles Rendón, M C Cristina

    2013-06-01

    The current avatars situate education schools and colleges in training students for competitions so that they be able to: perform successfully in the labor market, develop in a globalized world and deliver "human sense" services these can offer. The pillars of education [1] or the four ways to acquire significant knowledge for life are the basic premises on which is built the new educational dynamics in the context of globalization and global village, prepare students for internationalizaition is now imperative. In a globalized world in which we now live, acquire an ecological awareness, sense of solidarity, responsibility, social justice, peace, harmony, democracy, equity and learn to know, are actions that are thought together and as indispensable for complex life on the planet. The socio-cultural, economic, technological and political demand new ways of understanding the world and require fundamental changes in lifestyles for sustainable development.

  9. Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adj...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adjustments to Medicare Inpatient Payment Rates The indirect medical education (IME) and disproportionate share...

  10. Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adj...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adjustments to Medicare Inpatient Payment Rates The indirect medical education (IME) and disproportionate share...

  11. Innovations in higher medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popkov V.M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the innovations in the higher medical education. Particular attention in this sphere is paid to the detailed analysis of the subject as a mechanism of cognition and psycho-emotional aspect. It should be noticed that the development of the university education demands the integration of functional systems to study the general medicine and the art of healing. In conclusion it has been found out that the new methodological approach is necessary to bring the teacher closer to the subject particularly to integrate the relation of the opposites.

  12. Individualized education plans in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Myriam; Grewald, Yekaterina; Hutchinson, Karen; Amoateng-Adjepong, Yaw; Manthous, Constantine

    2011-10-01

    Individualized education plans (IEP) are commonly used in nonmedical educational programs to define students' deficiencies and action plans for addressing them. There are no reports of using IEP for medical education. Internal medicine residency of a community teaching hospital. Residents requiring IEP were identified by a consensus of faculty members. IEPs, overseen by mentors, included: 1. List of deficiencies, 2. Techniques for remediation, 3. Schedule for meetings and re-evaluation of IEP progress. Demographic and evaluative data were abstracted from the performance files of internal medicine residents who served in the program between 2003 and 2010. Characteristics and educational outcomes of those receiving IEPs were compared to those not requiring IEPs. Of 92 residents, 16 received IEPs; 13 for medical knowledge, four for professionalism and one for communication.Average age was greater (35.2 vs 30.3 y; P=0.004) and graduation less recent (8.7 vs 4.8 y; P=0.03). USMLE step I and American Board of Internal Medicine in-service scores were lower in those with IEP (82.6 vs 89.4; P=0.001; 44.6 vs 68.5 percentile relative to same-PGY level; P=0.01). Three residents repeated a PGY year (two successfully) and four completed two to six extra months at the same PGY level. All but two residents in the program between 2003 and 2010 passed Boards on their first attempt; neither had an IEP. Of the 12 with successful IEPs, three graduated to primary-care positions, two to hospitalist positions, and six to subspecialty fellowships; one was lost to follow-up. A formal IEP process similar to that employed in nonmedical education was associated with successful graduation and board certification in a majority of medical trainees who required remediation.

  13. Promissory Concept of medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy V. Voronenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuing medical education (CME is a dynamic system, where distance learning is an important component. In this article, we posit the Promissory Concept of distance learning. The central principle upon which this methodology is based is that the doctor can be located in any place where the information needed for his or her practice is easily available to the patient and where the doctor is able to monitor the development of his or her knowledge and practical skills, and is able to build his or her educational record of accomplishment. The Promissory Concept combines the availability of existing online opportunities with professional self-development which can be put to the test by an external supervisor (a professor or curator, who in turn will be able to identify existing advantages in knowledge, as well as those requiring further improvement, thus helping the learner's professional development. This approach was introduced to general practitioners and nephrologists practising in Ukraine in 2013. From 2014, the Promissory Concept has been associated with the Renal Eastern Europe Nephrology Academy's (REENA annual CME course, which has been accredited by ERA-EDTA (European Renal Association–European Dialysis and Transplant Association for the past 8 years. REENA is controlled by the state organisation of postgraduate education – Shupyk National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education. The Promissory Concept is supported by printed educational material in the scientific medical Ukrainian journal Kidneys, which is registered in scientific databases (as a Google scholar, etc.. An important characteristic of the Promissory Concept is the active involvement of doctors, who give constructive feedback on the programme. This feedback contributes to the content of the CME learning activity, as well as enhancing compliance in participation. As a result, it helps create motivated adherence and improved professional development.

  14. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Blended Versus Face-to-Face Delivery of Evidence-Based Medicine to Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklen, Peter; Rivers, George; Foo, Jonathan; Ooi, Ying Ying; Reeves, Scott; Walsh, Kieran; Ilic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Background Blended learning describes a combination of teaching methods, often utilizing digital technologies. Research suggests that learner outcomes can be improved through some blended learning formats. However, the cost-effectiveness of delivering blended learning is unclear. Objective This study aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of a face-to-face learning and blended learning approach for evidence-based medicine training within a medical program. Methods The economic evaluation was conducted as part of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the evidence-based medicine (EBM) competency of medical students who participated in two different modes of education delivery. In the traditional face-to-face method, students received ten 2-hour classes. In the blended learning approach, students received the same total face-to-face hours but with different activities and additional online and mobile learning. Online activities utilized YouTube and a library guide indexing electronic databases, guides, and books. Mobile learning involved self-directed interactions with patients in their regular clinical placements. The attribution and differentiation of costs between the interventions within the RCT was measured in conjunction with measured outcomes of effectiveness. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated comparing the ongoing operation costs of each method with the level of EBM proficiency achieved. Present value analysis was used to calculate the break-even point considering the transition cost and the difference in ongoing operation cost. Results The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio indicated that it costs 24% less to educate a student to the same level of EBM competency via the blended learning approach used in the study, when excluding transition costs. The sunk cost of approximately AUD $40,000 to transition to the blended model exceeds any savings from using the approach within the first year of its implementation; however, a

  15. The impact of pharmacist face-to-face counseling to improve medication adherence among patients initiating statin therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan I

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Michael Taitel1, Jenny Jiang1, Kristi Rudkin2, Susan Ewing2, Ian Duncan 1Clinical Outcomes and Analytics, Walgreens, 2Corporate Innovation Team, Walgreens, Deerfield, Illinois, USAPurpose: To evaluate the impact of a community-based pharmacist-led face-to-face counseling program on medication adherence for patients who were new to therapy (NTT for statin medications.Patients and methods: This retrospective cohort study evaluated a program that was implemented in 76 national community pharmacies located in the midwest USA. It consisted of two face-to-face patient counseling sessions with a pharmacist that addressed patient barriers to adherence. A group of 2056 NTT statin patients was identified between September 1, 2010 and October 31, 2010, and was followed for 12 months. The intervention group consisted of 586 patients, and the comparison group comprised 516 patients. Outcomes were measured using the continuous medication possession ratio (MPR, categorical MPR, and medication persistency.Results: After adjusting for covariates, the intervention group had statistically greater MPR than the comparison group at every month measured. For example, at 12 months the intervention group had a MPR of 61.8% (CI, 54.5%–69.2% and the comparison group had a MPR of 56.9% (CI, 49.5%–64.3%; this 4.9% difference is significant (P < 0.01. The 12 month categorical MPR also showed significant differences between groups (χ2 = 6.12, P < 0.05; 40.9% of the intervention group and 33.7% of comparison group had a MPR greater than or equal to 80%. Finally, the intervention group had significantly greater persistency with their medication therapy than the comparison group at 60, 90, 120, and 365 days.Conclusion: Patients who participated in brief face-to-face counseling sessions with a community pharmacist at the beginning of statin therapy demonstrated greater medication adherence and persistency than a comparison group. This brief targeted intervention at the

  16. Integration of Medical Education and Healthcare Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Khojasteh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nThe Ministry of Health and Medical Education in Iran is responsible for public health, medical treatment and the management and planning of medical education, that is, training under supervision, of which expertise at all levels, from first degree to doctorate, is organized. The plan to create a health and treatment network and integrate medical education into healthcare system was designed to revolutionize the health machine in the country.

  17. E-learning challenges faced by academics in higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Nurul; Beer, Martin; Slack, Frances

    2015-01-01

    E-learning has become a necessity in higher education institutions and is being deployed in educational establishments throughout the world. Researchers have made much emphasis on its benefits but not much is discussed on the disadvantages of e-learning technology. This paper references some of the research work on the limitations of e-learning technology, categorises it in five challenges that teachers are faced with and suggestions for a successful e-learning outcome. This paper also discus...

  18. The Challenges Facing Catholic Education in France Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, François

    2016-01-01

    The effects of secularisation on society demand a rethinking of the identity and mission of Catholic schools in France. In 2013, the French bishops published a new directory which offers new approaches, described here, based on the three challenges facing Catholic education in France: linking social responsibility and evangelisation, setting up…

  19. Medical Readers' Theater: Relevance to Geriatrics Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Johanna; Cho, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    Medical Readers' Theater (MRT) is an innovative and simple way of helping medical students to reflect on difficult-to-discuss topics in geriatrics medical education, such as aging stereotypes, disability and loss of independence, sexuality, assisted living, relationships with adult children, and end-of-life issues. The authors describe a required…

  20. Medical Readers' Theater: Relevance to Geriatrics Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Johanna; Cho, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    Medical Readers' Theater (MRT) is an innovative and simple way of helping medical students to reflect on difficult-to-discuss topics in geriatrics medical education, such as aging stereotypes, disability and loss of independence, sexuality, assisted living, relationships with adult children, and end-of-life issues. The authors describe a required…

  1. Initiatives for Medical Education Research at the International Medical University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Chandra Jutti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Medical Education research is a relativelynew field but one that is progressing rapidly worldwide.This article is an attempt to take stock of the currentstatus of Medical Education research in InternationalMedical University and to explore the various factorsthat have influenced its direction. It also shares some ofthe initiatives that have been instituted or intended tobe instituted at our university.

  2. The Medical Service gets a face-lift

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The Medical Service is to be entirely renovated over the next four months with the aim of rationalising space and thereby facilitating access to treatment. Anyone for musical chairs? Try Building 57 where, over the next four months, the various sections of the Medical Service will be moving around from one room to another. But the eight members of the Medical Service know that all this to-ing and fro-ing is in a good cause, as their workplace is to be entirely refurbished. To ensure as little disruption as possible to the day-to-day services for people working at CERN, the infirmary, secretariat and laboratory will have to move around as the refurbishment work progresses. But there's no way the restoration of the Medical Service can be called a luxury. 'It hasn't chang-ed a jot since 1969,' says Véronique Fassnacht, Head of the Medical Service. But over the past 30 years, medical analysis equipment has been progressively miniaturised, with new, much smaller devices reducing the need for floor space...

  3. Analysis of the Children's Hospital Graduate Medical Education Program Fund Allocations for Indirect Medical Education Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Barbara O.; Kawata, Jennifer

    This study analyzed issues related to estimating indirect medical education costs specific to pediatric discharges. The Children's Hospital Graduate Medical Education (CHGNE) program was established to support graduate medical education in children's hospitals. This provision authorizes payments for both direct and indirect medical education…

  4. An upcoming program for medical humanities education in Fudan University's School of Basic Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Cheng, Xunjia

    2017-05-23

    Ideal medical care requires professional skills as well as appropriate communication skills. However, traditional medical education in medical schools mostly emphasizes the former. To remedy this situation, medical humanities education will be incorporated into education for medical students at Fudan University. Comprehensive medical education that includes both medical skills and humanities may greatly improve medical care.

  5. Augmented reality in medical education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Carolien; Barsom, Esther; Schijven, Marlies; Christoph, Noor

    2014-09-01

    Learning in the medical domain is to a large extent workplace learning and involves mastery of complex skills that require performance up to professional standards in the work environment. Since training in this real-life context is not always possible for reasons of safety, costs, or didactics, alternative ways are needed to achieve clinical excellence. Educational technology and more specifically augmented reality (AR) has the potential to offer a highly realistic situated learning experience supportive of complex medical learning and transfer. AR is a technology that adds virtual content to the physical real world, thereby augmenting the perception of reality. Three examples of dedicated AR learning environments for the medical domain are described. Five types of research questions are identified that may guide empirical research into the effects of these learning environments. Up to now, empirical research mainly appears to focus on the development, usability and initial implementation of AR for learning. Limited review results reflect the motivational value of AR, its potential for training psychomotor skills and the capacity to visualize the invisible, possibly leading to enhanced conceptual understanding of complex causality.

  6. A Historical Perspective of Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcioglu, Huseyin; Bilge, Ugur; Unluoglu, Ilhami

    2015-01-01

    Even though there are significant developments in recent years in medical education, physicians are still needed reform and innovation in order to prepare the information society. The spots in the forefront of medical education in recent years; holistic approach in all processes, including health education, evidence-based medicine and…

  7. A Historical Perspective of Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcioglu, Huseyin; Bilge, Ugur; Unluoglu, Ilhami

    2015-01-01

    Even though there are significant developments in recent years in medical education, physicians are still needed reform and innovation in order to prepare the information society. The spots in the forefront of medical education in recent years; holistic approach in all processes, including health education, evidence-based medicine and…

  8. CONTINUING MEDICAL EDUCATION: CLOSING THE GAP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    *E. Ogbaini-Emovon. *Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin ... Medical education and learning never ends, especially .... their marketing strategies. Doctors .... dental council, nursing and midwife.

  9. Medical education research in GCC countries

    OpenAIRE

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Hassan, Asim; Aqil, Mansoor; Usmani, Adnan Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical education is an essential domain to produce physicians with high standards of medical knowledge, skills and professionalism in medical practice. This study aimed to investigate the research progress and prospects of GCC countries in medical education during the period 1996–2013. Methods In this study, the research papers published in various global scientific journals during the period 1996–2013 were accessed. We recorded the total number of research documents having an aff...

  10. Teaching teamwork in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Susan; Magrane, Diane; Friedman, Erica

    2009-08-01

    Teamwork has become a major focus in healthcare. In part, this is the result of the Institute of Medicine report entitled To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System, which details the high rate of preventable medical errors, many of which are the result of dysfunctional or nonexistent teamwork. It has been proposed that a healthcare system that supports effective teamwork can improve the quality of patient care and reduce workload issues that cause burnout among healthcare professionals. Few clear guidelines exist to help guide the implementation of all these recommendations in healthcare settings. In general, training programs designed to improve team skills are a new concept for medicine, particularly for physicians who are trained largely to be self-sufficient and individually responsible for their actions. Outside of healthcare, research has shown that teams working together in high-risk and high-intensity work environments make fewer mistakes than individuals. This evidence originates from commercial aviation, the military, firefighting, and rapid-response police activities. Commercial aviation, an industry in which mistakes can result in unacceptable loss, has been at the forefront of risk reduction through teamwork training. The importance of teamwork has been recognized by some in the healthcare industry who have begun to develop their own specialty-driven programs. The purpose of this review is to discuss the current literature on teaching about teamwork in undergraduate medical education. We describe the science of teams, analyze the work in team training that has been done in other fields, and assess what work has been done in other fields about the importance of team training (ie, aviation, nonmedical education, and business). Additionally, it is vital to assess what work has already been done in medicine to advance the skills required for effective teamwork. Much of this work has been done in fields in which medical professionals deal with crisis

  11. Face to face interventions for informing or educating parents about early childhood vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Jessica; Synnot, Anneliese; Ryan, Rebecca; Hill, Sophie; Horey, Dell; Willis, Natalie; Lin, Vivian; Robinson, Priscilla

    2013-05-31

    Childhood vaccination (also described as immunisation) is an important and effective way to reduce childhood illness and death. However, there are many children who do not receive the recommended vaccines because their parents do not know why vaccination is important, do not understand how, where or when to get their children vaccinated, disagree with vaccination as a public health measure, or have concerns about vaccine safety.Face to face interventions to inform or educate parents about routine childhood vaccination may improve vaccination rates and parental knowledge or understanding of vaccination. Such interventions may describe or explain the practical and logistical factors associated with vaccination, and enable parents to understand the meaning and relevance of vaccination for their family or community. To assess the effects of face to face interventions for informing or educating parents about early childhood vaccination on immunisation uptake and parental knowledge. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 7); MEDLINE (OvidSP) (1946 to July 2012); EMBASE + Embase Classic (OvidSP) (1947 to July 2012); CINAHL (EbscoHOST) (1981 to July 2012); PsycINFO (OvidSP) (1806 to July 2012); Global Health (CAB) (1910 to July 2012); Global Health Library (WHO) (searched July 2012); Google Scholar (searched September 2012), ISI Web of Science (searched September 2012) and reference lists of relevant articles. We searched for ongoing trials in The International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (searched August 2012) and for grey literature in The Grey Literature Report and OpenGrey (searched August 2012). We also contacted authors of included studies and experts in the field. There were no language or date restrictions. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster RCTs evaluating the effects of face to face interventions delivered to individual parents or groups of parents to inform or educate

  12. Accreditation of undergraduate and graduate medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Deborah J; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Accreditation organizations such as the Liaison Committee for Medical Education (LCME), the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC), and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) are charged with the difficult task of evaluating the educational quality...... of medical education programs in North America. Traditionally accreditation includes a more quantitative rather than qualitative judgment of the educational facilities, resources and teaching provided by the programs. The focus is on the educational process but the contributions of these to the outcomes...... are not at all clear. As medical education moves toward outcome-based education related to a broad and context-based concept of competence, the accreditation paradigm should change accordingly. Udgivelsesdato: 2006-Aug...

  13. 'Face value': new medical imaging software in commercial view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopmans, Catelijne

    2011-04-01

    Based on three ethnographic vignettes describing the engagements of a small start-up company with prospective competitors, partners and customers, this paper shows how commercial considerations are folded into the ways visual images become 'seeable'. When company members mount demonstrations of prototype mammography software, they seek to generate interest but also to protect their intellectual property. Pivotal to these efforts to manage revelation and concealment is the visual interface, which is variously performed as obstacle and ally in the development of a profitable product. Using the concept of 'face value', the paper seeks to develop further insight into contemporary dynamics of seeing and showing by tracing the way techno-visual presentations and commercial considerations become entangled in practice. It also draws attention to the salience and significance of enactments of surface and depth in image-based practices.

  14. Has medical education killed "silence"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shuh Shing

    2017-04-01

    There is an ignorance of "silence" observed from student selection methods to teaching and learning approaches. While selecting the candidates with suitable values to medical schools is crucial, most methods are unable to address fairness issue toward students from some disadvantaged background or certain personality specifically introversion. Similarly, teaching and learning approaches have shifted away from didactic to a more discursive methods such as brainstorming, team-based learning and case-based learning. These methods emphasize active participation and communication with team members, but having more discussion does not indicate that deep learning has taken place. Majority of these approaches require students to complete a task within an allocated time frame. Therefore, most of the time is utilized to complete a task instead of learning how to acquire a skill or learning how to learn. Important "silent" skills such as observation, reasoning process, and listening skills, are given less time or almost none due to time constraint within these discursive approaches, although these skills are extremely important as a doctor. Hence, it is time to think about on how best to balance the use of silence and externalize thought processes in medical education.

  15. Curriculum Trends in Medical Education in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprajita

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Medical education began in Mauritius with the establishment of Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam (SSR Medical college in 1999 followed by a breakthrough in field of medicine with opening of Anna Medical College and Research Center (AMCRC in 2010 and Padhamshree DY PatilMedical College in 2013.Though it was an appreciable beginning of medical education in Mauritius, medical schools are currently experiencing hardships in delivering right medical exposure to health care professionals. Mauritian medical schools now need to review their current teaching methodology and present curriculum to keep pace with global standards. Integrated curriculum which is now gaining popularity world-wide is to be introduced and strongly implemented in medical schools in Mauritius. This curriculum would breach barriers and improve integration between pre-clinical and clinical sciences thus facilitating long-term retention of knowledge in medical schools and develop a professionally sound approach towards management of health care. Horizontal curriculum can be replaced by vertical and spiral integration. For this major change, faculty engaged in medical profession are to be acquainted about innovative strategies and emerging trends in medical education. Thus this article aims to highlight the current scenario of medical education in Mauritius and also offer suggestions about possible future strategies to be implemented in medical colleges.

  16. Trends in research about postgraduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galindo-Cárdenas, Leonor Angélica

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was framed in the research: Characterization of professional competency-based model in medical education developed in twelve clinical and nine surgical specializations at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Antioquia. Its aim was to inquire about the state of the art in medical postgraduate education. The guiding question was: Where is present-day research headed in medical postgraduate education. For this descriptive, nonexperimental work, 12 bibliographic databases were reviewed and 28 research articles related to graduate medical formation were selected. The findings were compared, analyzed and interpreted. The tendency in research on graduate medical education points to the need of having multi-inter-trans-disciplinary and humanistic proposals based on constructivism; to consider evaluation as a process emphasizing on learning and the participation of students, and to build systems of pedagogical formation of tutors and interactive and flexible curricula. The lack of studies that promote competencies-based training in postgraduate medical education is notorious.

  17. Integrating environmental health into medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehle, Kimberly S; Crawford, Jewel L; Hatcher, Michael T

    2011-10-01

    Although environmental factors contribute to more than 25% of all global disease, and toxic agents ranked fifth in underlying causes of U.S. deaths in 2000, environmental medicine education is largely omitted in the continuum of U.S. medical education. The paucity of specialists trained in environmental medicine (i.e., occupational medicine and other preventive medicine specialties and subspecialties), coupled with the lack of adequate general medical education on how to prevent, diagnose, refer, or treat patients exposed to hazardous substances in the environment, contributes to lost opportunities for primary prevention or early intervention to mitigate or minimize environmentally related disease burden. Survey findings of graduating medical students over the past few years have identified environmental health as a medical school topic area that can be improved. This article reflects a panel presentation on the challenge of including environmental health in general medical education. It was given at the 2010 "Patients and Populations: Public Health in Medical Education" conference cosponsored by the CDC and the American Association of Medical Colleges. A variety of educational strategies, models, and educational resources are presented that illustrate how recommended competency-based environmental health content can be integrated into medical education to better prepare medical students and physicians without specialized expertise in environmental medicine to provide or facilitate environmental preventive or curative patient care.

  18. [Medical education challenged by the learning society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Hernández, Luis Felipe; Infante-Castañeda, Claudia B

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the limitations of dominant paradigms in education and identifies the necessity of research-situated learning in real environments and how medical education must be involved with knowledge management in real, complex, adaptive systems, and concludes with the need for constructing novel educative paradigms with regard to new educational paradigms.

  19. Controlled trial of worksite health education through face-to-face counseling vs. e-mail on drinking behavior modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Ikuno; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kono, Keiko; Matsuki, Hideaki; Yano, Eiji

    2006-07-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a traditional face-to-face health education and e-mail health education on alcohol usage among male workers in comparison with a control group. Male workers at a manufacturing plant (N=36) who had abnormal serum gamma-GTP were stratified by age and job types, then randomized into three groups: face-to-face education, e-mail education, and the control. The subjects were assessed on their knowledge about and attitude towards drinking, reported alcohol consumption, and serum gamma-GTP before the start of education and 2 months later after comparison of the education. Paired t-test and repeated ANOVA were conducted to test the significance of changes pre and post the intervention and across groups. In the face-to-face group, knowledge (p=0.001), attitude (p=0.026), alcohol consumption (p=0.003) and serum gamma-GTP showed significant improvement. In the e-mail group, only alcohol consumption showed marginal improvement (p=0.077). In the control group, no variables remarkably changed. These results indicate that the face-to-face health education was more effective than the e-mail program. We discuss why the face-to-face approach was superior to the e-mail approach in this study by referring to self-monitoring, goal setting processes and timely feedback. We concluded that further studies are warranted to identify the effect of health education using e-mails and other network tools in consideration of the above three factors.

  20. Effectiveness of continuing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinopoulos, Spyridon S; Dorman, Todd; Ratanawongsa, Neda; Wilson, Lisa M; Ashar, Bimal H; Magaziner, Jeffrey L; Miller, Redonda G; Thomas, Patricia A; Prokopowicz, Gregory P; Qayyum, Rehan; Bass, Eric B

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Despite the broad range of continuing medical education (CME) offerings aimed at educating practicing physicians through the provision of up-to-date clinical information, physicians commonly overuse, under-use, and misuse therapeutic and diagnostic interventions. It has been suggested that the ineffective nature of CME either accounts for the discrepancy between evidence and practice or at a minimum contributes to this gap. Understanding what CME tools and techniques are most effective in disseminating and retaining medical knowledge is critical to improving CME and thus diminishing the gap between evidence and practice. The purpose of this review was to comprehensively and systematically synthesize evidence regarding the effectiveness of CME and differing instructional designs in terms of knowledge, attitudes, skills, practice behavior, and clinical practice outcomes. REVIEW METHODS We formulated specific questions with input from external experts and representatives of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) which nominated this topic. We systematically searched the literature using specific eligibility criteria, hand searching of selected journals, and electronic databases including: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), PsycINFO, and the Educational Resource Information Center (ERIC). Two independent reviewers conducted title scans, abstract reviews, and then full article reviews to identify eligible articles. Each eligible article underwent double review for data abstraction and assessment of study quality. RESULTS Of the 68,000 citations identified by literature searching, 136 articles and 9 systematic reviews ultimately met our eligibility criteria. The overall quality of the literature was low and consequently firm conclusions were

  1. Philosophy in medical education: a means of protecting mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Eric J

    2014-08-01

    This study sought to identify and examine less commonly discussed challenges to positive mental health faced by medical students, residents, and physicians with hopes of improving current efforts to protect the mental health of these groups. Additionally, this work aimed to suggest an innovative means of preventing poor mental health during medical education. Literature on medical student, resident, and physician mental health was carefully reviewed and a number of psychiatrists who treat physician-patients were interviewed. The culture of medicine, medical training, common physician psychology and identity, and conflicting professional expectations all seem to contribute to poor mental health among medical students, residents, and physicians. Many current efforts may be more successful by better addressing the negative effects of these characteristics of modern medicine. Programs aimed at promoting healthy mental lifestyles during medical education should continue to be developed and supported to mitigate the deleterious effects of the challenging environment of modern medicine. To improve these efforts, educators may consider incorporating philosophical discussions on meaning and fulfillment in life between medical students and faculty. Through medical school faculty members sharing and living out their own healthy outlooks on life, students may emulate these habits and the culture of medicine may become less challenging for positive mental health.

  2. Undergraduate Rural Medical Education Program Development: Focus Group Consultation with the NRHA Rural Medical Educators Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Laura H.; Wheat, John R.; Leeper, James D.; Florence, Joseph A.; Boulger, James G.; Hunsaker, Matt L.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Over a decade ago, leaders in rural medical education established the Rural Medical Educators (RME) Group, an interest group within the National Rural Health Association, to support faculty in rural medical education programs. This group has convened an annual RME conclave since 2006. In 2008, this conclave convened 15 national leaders in…

  3. The Role of Medical Museums in Contemporary Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marreez, Yehia M. A-H.; Willems, Luuk N. A.; Wells, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    From the early 19th century until the most recent two decades, open-space and satellite museums featuring anatomy and pathology collections (collectively referred to as "medical museums") had leading roles in medical education. However, many factors have caused these roles to diminish dramatically in recent years. Chief among these are the great…

  4. The Impact of the Clinical Medical Librarian on Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkis, Jeanne; Hamburger, Stephen

    1981-01-01

    A University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine team approach is described that combines the knowledge and skills of the physician, nurse, clinical pharmacist, clinical medical librarian, etc., into a cooperative unit to provide health education and health care delivery. The impact of the clinical medical librarian is discussed. (MLW)

  5. Medical education quality assessment. Perspectives in University Policlinic context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricel Castellanos González

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Quality has currently a central role within our National Health System, particularly in the formative process of human resources where we need professionals more prepared every day and ready to face complex tasks. We make a bibliographic review related to quality assessment of educational process in health system to analyze the perspectives of the new model of University Policlinic, formative context of Medical Sciences students.

  6. Costs of a medical education: comparison with graduate education in law and business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jason R; Brown, Jeffrey J

    2006-02-01

    The costs of graduate school education are climbing, particularly within the fields of medicine, law, and business. Data on graduate level tuition, educational debt, and starting salaries for medical school, law school, and business school graduates were collected directly from universities and from a wide range of published reports and surveys. Medical school tuition and educational debt levels have risen faster than the rate of inflation over the past decade. Medical school graduates have longer training periods and lower starting salaries than law school and business school graduates, although physician salaries rise after completion of post-graduate education. Faced with an early debt burden and delayed entry into the work force, careful planning is required for medical school graduates to pay off their loans and save for retirement.

  7. Stimulating medical education research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, D.; Scherpbier, A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Cate, O.T.J. ten

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, the Dutch have been active innovators and researchers in the medical education domain. With regards to the quantity of publications in the medical education literature, the Netherlands rank second among countries in Europe and fourth worldwide over the past years, relate

  8. Stimulating medical education research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, Debbie; Scherpbier, Albert; Van Der Vleuten, Cees; Ten Cate, Olle

    BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, the Dutch have been active innovators and researchers in the medical education domain. With regards to the quantity of publications in the medical education literature, the Netherlands rank second among countries in Europe and fourth worldwide over the past years,

  9. Stimulating medical education research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, D.; Scherpbier, A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Cate, O.T.J. ten

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, the Dutch have been active innovators and researchers in the medical education domain. With regards to the quantity of publications in the medical education literature, the Netherlands rank second among countries in Europe and fourth worldwide over the past years,

  10. Child Psychiatry Curricula in Undergraduate Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Michael Gifford; Giesen, Femke; Walter, Garry

    2008-01-01

    A study to review the amount of time devoted to child psychiatry in undergraduate medical education is conducted. Results conclude that relatively low priority is given to child psychiatry in medical education with suggestions for international teaching standards on the subject.

  11. "Accounting Education at a Crossroad in 2010" and "Challenges Facing Accounting Education in Australia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Paul; Watty, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Of the various reports released in 2010, two purport to examine the state of accounting education in Australia. These are "Accounting Education at a Crossroad in 2010" and "Challenges Facing Accounting Education in Australia". Both were released as collaborations of the leading academic organisation, the Accounting and Finance…

  12. "Accounting Education at a Crossroad in 2010" and "Challenges Facing Accounting Education in Australia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Paul; Watty, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Of the various reports released in 2010, two purport to examine the state of accounting education in Australia. These are "Accounting Education at a Crossroad in 2010" and "Challenges Facing Accounting Education in Australia". Both were released as collaborations of the leading academic organisation, the Accounting and Finance…

  13. Testing the Benefits of Blended Education: Using Social Technology to Foster Collaboration and Knowledge Sharing in Face-to-Face LIS Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, Denise E.; Copeland, Andrea J.; Zach, Lisl

    2013-01-01

    Blended education, which mixes elements of face-to-face and online educational delivery, can occur at the activity, course, program, or administrative level. This study examined the use of student blogs to test the benefits of course-level blended educational delivery for LIS students enrolled in a face-to-face course. Data collected from…

  14. The development of education for medical librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, B

    1972-01-01

    Formal education for medical library specialization was initiated only thirty-two years ago despite the fact that medical libraries received special treatment for many years before that time. The philosophy of specialized education was developed as early as 1925, and this theory was finally put into practice beginning with the medical reference and bibliography course given at Columbia in 1939. In the late 1940s the requisites for medical librarians were formalized into a certification code by the Medical Library Association, and since that time specialized education for medical librarians has grown stronger using this code as a guideline. This education consists basically of two types-formal library school courses and internship programs which offer a working-while-learning situation. Now that the established programs have a few years of history, there is a need for evaluation and restatement of goals and methods.

  15. Medical education and health care in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, J M

    1980-10-01

    Health care and medical education in Uganda, once the best in Black Africa, have been adversely affected by the economic, political, and social upheavals in this developing country during the past decade. Crop failures, inadequate public health measures, shortage of medical equipment and essential drugs, and lack of sufficient medical school faculty have resulted in a major crisis. Substantial aid from the medical profession in developed countries will be necessary to help restore medical practice and education to the level present before the regime of Idi Amin.

  16. Higher education in the face of social challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Cuevas Jiménez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Higher education refers to the subsequent training to high school education; that is undergraduate and graduate; whose mission is to preserve; develop and disseminate culture. Throughout the history of higher education it has undergone a process of transformation; mainly due to the development of knowledge and the transformation of society. In the process they highlighted two great moments; in the first; which culminated in the mid-twentieth century; it conceived the higher education institution encompassing all knowledge of society; and who graduated was ready to perform professionally throughout life; the second time; after those dates; it is conceivable that knowledge is no longer exclusive to the institution of higher education; and there can be no efficient performance without continuous training and continuous updating of knowledge. The objective of this work is to point out the general goals and some strategies of the students’ formation of superior education; to confront the big challenges that it faces today the society. To define this goals and strategies four challenge levels are considered: a physical; structural and politicalideological challenges; b challenges around the scientifictechnician and of the knowledge advances; c challenges of the internal structure of the formative process and the access to the superior education; and d challenges in the formation of values in the students. 

  17. The role of medical museums in contemporary medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marreez, Yehia M A-H; Willems, Luuk N A; Wells, Michael R

    2010-01-01

    From the early 19th century until the most recent two decades, open-space and satellite museums featuring anatomy and pathology collections (collectively referred to as "medical museums") had leading roles in medical education. However, many factors have caused these roles to diminish dramatically in recent years. Chief among these are the great advances in information technology and web-based learning that are currently at play in every level of medical training. Some medical schools have abandoned their museums while others have gradually given away their museums' contents to devote former museum space to new classrooms, lecture halls, and laboratories. These trends have accelerated as medical school enrollment has increased and as increasing interest in biological and biomedical research activities have caused medical schools to convert museum space into research facilities. A few medical schools, however, have considered the contents of their museums as irreplaceable resources for modern medicine and medical education and the space these occupy as great environments for independent and self-directed learning. Consequently, some medical schools have updated their medical museums and equipped them with new technologies. The Anatomical Museum of Leiden University Medical Center in The Netherlands and the Medical Museum of Kawasaki Medical School in Kurashiki, Okayama, Japan, are two examples of such upgraded museums. Student surveys at Leiden University have indicated that all students (100%) found audio-guided museum tours to be useful for learning and majorities of them found guided tours to be clinically relevant (87%). However, 69% of students felt that museum visits should be optional rather than compulsory within the medical training curriculum.

  18. Supporting medical education research quality: the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical Education Research Certificate program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppen, Larry D; Yoder, Ernie; Frye, Ann; Perkowski, Linda C; Mavis, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the medical education research (MER) reported in the literature has been frequently criticized. Numerous reasons have been provided for these shortcomings, including the level of research training and experience of many medical school faculty. The faculty development required to improve MER can take various forms. This article describes the Medical Education Research Certificate (MERC) program, a national faculty development program that focuses exclusively on MER. Sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges and led by a committee of established medical education researchers from across the United States, the MERC program is built on a set of 11 interactive workshops offered at various times and places across the United States. MERC participants can customize the program by selecting six workshops from this set to fulfill requirements for certification. This article describes the history, operations, current organization, and evaluation of the program. Key elements of the program's success include alignment of program content and focus with needs identified by prospective users, flexibility in program organization and logistics to fit participant schedules, an emphasis on practical application of MER principles in the context of the participants' activities and interests, consistency in program content and format to ensure standards of quality, and a sustainable financial model. The relationship between the national MERC program and local faculty development initiatives is also described. The success of the MERC program suggests that it may be a possible model for nationally disseminated faculty development programs in other domains.

  19. Blending Face-to-Face Higher Education with Web-Based Lectures: Comparing Different Didactical Application Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrieux, Hannelore; Vangestel, Sandra; Raes, Annelies; Matthys, Paul; Schellens, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Blended learning as an instructional approach is getting more attention in the educational landscape and has been researched thoroughly. Yet, this study reports the results of an innovation project aiming to gain insight into three different scenarios of applying web-based lectures: as preparation for face-to-face practical exercises, as a…

  20. Increasing Anonymity in Peer Assessment by Using Classroom Response Technology within Face-to-Face Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Annelies; Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Peer assessment is becoming more popular in higher education, however it often goes together with undesirable social effects like peer pressure and favoritism, especially when students need to evaluate peers in a face-to-face setting. The present study was set up to investigate increased anonymity in peer assessment to counter these undesirable…

  1. Japan Society for Medical Education (JSME: Its history and activities for the last 45 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutaro Ban

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Japan Society for Medical Education (JSME [1] was established in 1969 and we are celebrating the 45th anniversary this year. In this article I describe the history of JSME as well as current activities of our society. In addition I briefly describe major changes in medical education during the last decade and current topics we are facing regarding medical education in Japan. It would be my great pleasure if this article can encourages development of the Czech and Slovak Society for Medical Education.

  2. Current issues in medical education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing, virtual reality, the use ol' simulated subjects, e learn- ing, and the new .... leges (AAMCÏ proposed a group oi' leaming objectives as guide- lines for medical schools. .... Suggestions for action research studies of cli- mates in medical ...

  3. Developing virtual patients for medical microbiology education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, David; O'Gorman, Ciaran; Gormley, Gerry J

    2013-12-01

    The landscape of medical education is changing as students embrace the accessibility and interactivity of e-learning. Virtual patients are e-learning resources that may be used to advance microbiology education. Although the development of virtual patients has been widely considered, here we aim to provide a coherent approach for clinical educators. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [The importance of Internet in medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandza, H; Masić, I; Knezević, Z

    1999-01-01

    Internet is more and more involved in medical education in many countries including Bosnia and Herzegovina. Not only medical student but also physicians are using Internet to find out the latest information in specific field of medicine. Some sites are specially designed to be used for medical education. Information about some programs or courses of medical education can be found here. Improvements of network resources and multimedia technologies have made it possible to satisfy needs for medical Education. Multimedia approach offer possibility to show text, picture, sound or movie considering specific need. All of that is available on Internet. Many search engine are available in the world and student can use all of them when they have access to Internet. The more precise search can be done on specific sites that include information about medical conditions and medical education. The most important is MEDLINE. MEDLINE is bibliographic database of National Library Of Medicine in USA. This database can be explored from several sites. All relevant information about article can be find here including abstract and service to obtain full text of specific article. Database can be searched using specific keywords that can be find in text or in MESH thesaurus. Data about authors, their addresses and title of article can be found, too. The possibility of using Internet in medical education are considered in this article. Some of Internet sites are described, too.

  5. Self-regulated learning: why is it important compared to traditional learning in medical education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddaiah-Subramanya, Manjunath; Nyandowe, Masimba; Zubair, Omar

    2017-01-01

    Self-regulated learning has played an increasingly significant role in medical education over the last one to two decades. Medical educators have endeavored to ensure that the students are equipped to face the challenges of continued growth of medical knowledge. Here we enquire and reflect on various aspects of self-regulated learning including its strengths and weaknesses. We investigate how it could be incorporated with traditional teaching to bring the best out of the students and what students think about it.

  6. Social marketing: application to medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, S P; Greer, D S

    2001-01-16

    Medical education is often a frustrating endeavor, particularly when it attempts to change practice behavior. Traditional lecture-based educational methods are limited in their ability to sustain concentration and interest and to promote learner adherence to best-practice guidelines. Marketing techniques have been very effective in changing consumer behavior and physician behavior. However, the techniques of social marketing-goal identification, audience segmentation, and market research-have not been harnessed and applied to medical education. Social marketing can be applied to medical education in the effort to go beyond inoculation of learners with information and actually change behaviors. The tremendous potential of social marketing for medical education should be pilot-tested and systematically evaluated.

  7. Sophistry, the Sophists and modern medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macsuibhne, S P

    2010-01-01

    The term 'sophist' has become a term of intellectual abuse in both general discourse and that of educational theory. However the actual thought of the fifth century BC Athenian-based philosophers who were the original Sophists was very different from the caricature. In this essay, I draw parallels between trends in modern medical educational practice and the thought of the Sophists. Specific areas discussed are the professionalisation of medical education, the teaching of higher-order characterological attributes such as personal development skills, and evidence-based medical education. Using the specific example of the Sophist Protagoras, it is argued that the Sophists were precursors of philosophical approaches and practices of enquiry underlying modern medical education.

  8. Modelling empathy in medical and nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpas, Phillipa J; Corbett, Andrea

    2012-03-30

    Medical and nursing student numbers are expected to increase significantly in NZ over the next few years. The ethical, and professional and clinical skills' training of trainee health practitioners is a central and crucial component in medical and nursing education and is underpinned by a strong commitment to improve patient health and well being. In this discussion we reflect on the virtue of empathy and the importance of role modelling in the education of nurses and doctors. We endorse the claim that as medical educators, how and what we teach matters.

  9. [Professional medical education in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nikova, I Iu; Romantsov, M G; Shul'diakov, A A

    2013-09-01

    There is a tendency to increase the role of education process in the life of the individual, caused by necessity of new knowledge, experience and skills, which is the effective measure to adapt human being to the current social and economic conditions. The idea of education as a relatively short period of life is gone. It becomes obvious, that use of forms and types of adult education becomes limited and inefficient. The development of the modern education system involves training with a high level of independence and leadership of the individual student; provision by vocational education institutions a wide range of educational services; adequate to the needs of the labor market; variability of methods and forms of education; active use of the modern educational technology as one of the most convenient ways of training.

  10. Creating a longitudinal database in medical education: Perspectives from the pioneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Croiset, Gerda

    2016-01-01

    The Jefferson Longitudinal Study of Medical Education (JLSME) is the longest running database in medical education and covers the collection and measurement of background, learning, performance, and psychosocial variables before, during, and after medical school. Recently, our research group at VU University Medical Center School of Medical Sciences launched a longitudinal study in medical education, called the "Student Motivation and Success Study." While setting up this study, we faced many challenges and learning about the JLSME helped us gain a fresh perspective on our work. We interviewed Drs. Joseph Gonnella and Mohammadreza Hojat, the leaders of the JLSME, and present their experiences verbatim in this article and summarize the lessons we learned as tips for others. We conclude that by establishing a longitudinal database, medical educators can test and ensure the quality of the doctors they produce, justify curricular reforms, participate in a continuing inquiry into their educational practices, and produce more generalizable research findings.

  11. Factors That Influence the Financing and Cost of Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPheeters, Harold L.

    Financing and cost factors in medical education and the effect of the many missions of a medical school on funding issues are discussed. The teaching mission of medical schools includes undergraduate medical education (preparation for the MD degree), graduate medical education (training of resident physicians), biomedical specialist education,…

  12. Emphasizing humanities in medical education: Promoting the integration of medical scientific spirit and medical humanistic spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peipei; Tang, Wei

    2017-05-23

    In the era of the biological-psychological-social medicine model, an ideal of modern medicine is to enhance the humanities in medical education, to foster medical talents with humanistic spirit, and to promote the integration of scientific spirit and humanistic spirit in medicine. Throughout the United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), other Western countries, and some Asian countries like Japan, many medical universities have already integrated the learning of medical humanities in their curricula and recognized their value. While in China, although medical education reform over the past decade has emphasized the topic of medical humanities to increase the professionalism of future physicians, the integration of medical humanity courses in medical universities has lagged behind the pace in Western countries. In addition, current courses in medical humanities were arbitrarily established due to a lack of organizational independence. For various reasons like a shortage of instructors, medical universities have failed to pay sufficient attention to medical humanities education given the urgent needs of society. The medical problems in contemporary Chinese society are not solely the purview of biomedical technology; what matters more is enhancing the humanities in medical education and fostering medical talents with humanistic spirit. Emphasizing the humanities in medical education and promoting the integration of medical scientific spirit and medical humanistic spirit have become one of the most pressing issues China must address. Greater attention should be paid to reasonable integration of humanities into the medical curriculum, creation of medical courses related to humanities and optimization of the curriculum, and actively allocating abundant teaching resources and exploring better methods of instruction.

  13. Acute IPPS - Direct Graduate Medical Education (DGME)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Section 1886(h) of the Act, establish a methodology for determining payments to hospitals for the costs of approved graduate medical education (GME) programs.

  14. Commissioning medical education: principles for best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2016-04-01

    We need to ensure that we get value for money for our investments in medical education. Commissioning is one method of ensuring that we get value. However, like any other tool, it needs to be used properly.

  15. Gerontology and geriatrics in Dutch medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tersmette, W; van Bodegom, D; van Heemst, D; Stott, D; Westendorp, R

    2013-01-01

    The world population is ageing and healthcare services require trained staff who can address the needs of older patients. In this study we determined how current medical education prepares Dutch students of medicine in the field of Gerontology and Geriatrics (G&G). Using a checklist of the essentials of G&G, we assessed Dutch medical education on three levels. On the national level we analysed the latest National Blueprint for higher medical education (Raamplan artsopleiding 2009). On the faculty level we reviewed medical curricula on the basis of interviews with program directors and inspection of course materials. On the student level we assessed the topics addressed in the questions of the cross-institutional progress test (CIPT). The National Bluepr int contains few specific G&G objectives. Obligatory G&G courses in medical schools on average amount to 2.2% of the total curriculum measured as European Credit Transfer System units (ECTS). Only two out of eight medical schools have practical training during the Master phase in the form of a clerkship in G&G. In the CIPT, on average 1.5% of questions cover G&G. Geriatric education in the Netherlands does not seem to be in line with current demographic trends. The National Blueprint falls short of providing sufficiently detailed objectives for education on the care of older people. The geriatric content offered by medical schools is varied and incomplete, and students are only marginally tested on their knowledge of G&G in the CIPT.

  16. Software engineering education in medical informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leven, F J

    1989-11-01

    Requirements and approaches of Software Engineering education in the field of Medical Informatics are described with respect to the impact of (1) experiences characterizing the "software misery", (2) status and tendencies in software methodology, and (3) educational status and needs in computer science education influenced by the controversy "theoretical versus practical education". Special attention is directed toward the growing importance of analysis, design methods, and techniques in the professional spectrum of Medical Informatics, the relevance of general principles of systems engineering in health care, the potential of non-procedural programming paradigms, and the intersection of Artificial Intelligence and education. Realizations of and experiences with programs in the field of Software Engineering are reported with respect to special requirements in Medical Informatics.

  17. [Changing aspects in continuing medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okisaka, Shigekuni

    2007-02-01

    Self-directed learning based on adult education theory and self-assessment are necessary for continuing medical education. Self-directed learning is the process whereby the individual takes the initiative in diagnosing his learning needs and setting his own individual learning goals, showing clearly the human and physical resources, putting an appropriate plan into practice, and evaluating the learning outcome. Because self-assessment is the evaluation of the process where the individual confirms his actual learning, portfolio assessment is utilized for this purpose. In the continuing medical education program of the Japanese Ophthalmological Society, it is vital that the appropriate credit and recognition program keep up with the changes in adult education theory. Therefore, portfolio assessment is introduced for self-assessment. The Ophthalmic Pathology Slide Seminar is a model of medical education based on self-directed learning.

  18. Medical Education and the Contemporary World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, George E., Ed.

    Proceedings of a conference on Medical Education in the Contemporary World, organized by Dr. George E. Miller and sponsored by the University of Illinois in Chicago, September 13-14, 1976, are presented. American and foreign medical edu- cation experts considered the principal and recurrent problems confronting the field in a period of rapid…

  19. Information Technology and Undergraduate Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masys, Daniel R.

    1989-01-01

    Hewlett-Packard Corporation grant enabled Harvard Medical School to begin using computer technology in medical educational applications. Hardware and software selection, integration into the curriculum, teaching the use of computers, cost, successful applications, knowledge base access, simulations, video and graphics teaching programs, and…

  20. Social Accountable Medical Education: A concept analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABDOLMALEKI, MOHAMMADREZA; YAZDANI, SHAHRAM; MOMENI, SEDIGHEH; MOMTAZMANESH, NADER

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Considering the pervasiveness of social accountable medical education concept around the world and the growing trend of literature in this regard as well as various interpretations made about this concept, we found it necessary to analyze the concept of social accountable medical education. Methods: In this study, the modified version of McKenna’s approach to concept analysis was used to determine the concept, explain structures and substructures and determine the border concepts neighboring and against social accountability in medical education. Results: By studying the selected sources,the components of the concept were obtained to identify it and express an analytic definition of social accountability in medical education system. Then, a model case with all attributes of the given concept and the contrary and related concepts were mentioned to determine the boundary between the main concept and auxiliary ones. Conclusion: According to the results of this study in the field of social accountability, the detailed and transparent analytical definition of social accountable medical education can be used in future studies as well as the function and evaluation of medical education system. PMID:28761884

  1. Social Accountable Medical Education: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolmaleki, Mohammadreza; Yazdani, Shahram; Momeni, Sedigheh; Momtazmanesh, Nader

    2017-07-01

    Considering the pervasiveness of social accountable medical education concept around the world and the growing trend of literature in this regard as well as various interpretations made about this concept, we found it necessary to analyze the concept of social accountable medical education. In this study, the modified version of McKenna's approach to concept analysis was used to determine the concept, explain structures and substructures and determine the border concepts neighboring and against social accountability in medical education. By studying the selected sources,the components of the concept were obtained to identify it and express an analytic definition of social accountability in medical education system. Then, a model case with all attributes of the given concept and the contrary and related concepts were mentioned to determine the boundary between the main concept and auxiliary ones. According to the results of this study in the field of social accountability, the detailed and transparent analytical definition of social accountable medical education can be used in future studies as well as the function and evaluation of medical education system.

  2. Globalization and the modernization of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Fred C J; Simmonds Goulbourne, Jacqueline D

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, there are essential differences underpinning what educators and students perceive to be effective medical education. Yet, the world looks on for a recipe or easy formula for the globalization of medical education. This article examines the assumptions, main beliefs, and impact of globalization on medical education as a carrier of modernity. The article explores the cultural and social structures for the successful utilization of learning approaches within medical education. Empirical examples are problem-based learning (PBL) at two medical schools in Jamaica and the Netherlands, respectively. Our analysis shows that people do not just naturally work well together. Deliberate efforts to build group culture for effective and efficient collaborative practice are required. Successful PBL is predicated on effective communication skills, which are culturally defined in that they require common points of understanding of reality. Commonality in cultural practices and expectations do not exist beforehand but must be clearly and deliberately created. The globalization of medical education is more than the import of instructional designs. It includes Western models of social organization requiring deep reflection and adaptation to ensure its success in different environments and among different groups.

  3. Applying adult learning practices in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Suzanne; Shell, Richard; Kassis, Karyn; Tartaglia, Kimberly; Wallihan, Rebecca; Smith, Keely; Hurtubise, Larry; Martin, Bryan; Ledford, Cynthia; Bradbury, Scott; Bernstein, Henry Hank; Mahan, John D

    2014-07-01

    The application of the best practices of teaching adults to the education of adults in medical education settings is important in the process of transforming learners to become and remain effective physicians. Medical education at all levels should be designed to equip physicians with the knowledge, clinical skills, and professionalism that are required to deliver quality patient care. The ultimate outcome is the health of the patient and the health status of the society. In the translational science of medical education, improved patient outcomes linked directly to educational events are the ultimate goal and are best defined by rigorous medical education research efforts. To best develop faculty, the same principles of adult education and teaching adults apply. In a systematic review of faculty development initiatives designed to improve teaching effectiveness in medical education, the use of experiential learning, feedback, effective relationships with peers, and diverse educational methods were found to be most important in the success of these programs. In this article, we present 5 examples of applying the best practices in teaching adults and utilizing the emerging understanding of the neurobiology of learning in teaching students, trainees, and practitioners. These include (1) use of standardized patients to develop communication skills, (2) use of online quizzes to assess knowledge and aid self-directed learning, (3) use of practice sessions and video clips to enhance significant learning of teaching skills, (4) use of case-based discussions to develop professionalism concepts and skills, and (5) use of the American Academy of Pediatrics PediaLink as a model for individualized learner-directed online learning. These examples highlight how experiential leaning, providing valuable feedback, opportunities for practice, and stimulation of self-directed learning can be utilized as medical education continues its dynamic transformation in the years ahead.

  4. Private medical education: provider's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riches, D J

    2000-08-01

    Issues related to the provision of private education are discussed in relation to the need, clinical teaching, professional standards and financial implications. The advantages and disadvantages are summarised.

  5. Major Problems Facing Educational Planning in the Next Decade. The Fundamentals of Educational Planning: Lecture-Discussion Series No. 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Philip H.

    Educational planners will face ten central problems in the next decade. First, there will be a rising demand for education, spurred by continued rapid population growth. Second, educational development will face increasing financial constraints in many countries. Third, educational systems will have to respond to serious shortages of specialized…

  6. Meeting the challenges of training more medical students: lessons from Flinders University's distributed medical education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couper, Ian D; Worley, Paul S

    2010-07-05

    To use data from an evaluation of the Flinders University Parallel Rural Community Curriculum (PRCC) to inform four immediate challenges facing medical education in Australia as medical student numbers increase. Thematic analysis of data obtained from focus groups with medical students undertaking the PRCC, a year-long undergraduate clinical curriculum based in rural general practice; and individual interviews with key faculty members, clinicians, health service managers and community representatives from 13 rural general practices and one urban tertiary teaching hospital in South Australia. Data were collected in 2006 and re-analysed for this study in January 2009. Participants' views grouped around the themes of the four identified challenges: how to expand the venues for clinical training without compromising the quality of clinical education; how to encourage graduates to practise in under-served rural, remote and outer metropolitan regions; how to engage in a sustainable way with teaching in the private sector; and how to reverse the current decline in altruism and humanism in medical students during medical school. Participants' views supported the PRCC approach as a solution to the challenges facing Australian medical education. The enabling capacity of the PRCC's longitudinal integrated approach to clinical attachments was revealed as a key factor that was common to each of the four themes. The continuity provided by longitudinal integrated clinical attachments enables an expansion of clinical training sites, including into primary care and the private sector. This approach to clinical training also enables students to develop the skills and personal qualities required to practise in areas of need.

  7. A Linked Dataset of Medical Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Stefan; Taibi, Davide; Yu, Hong Qing; Dovrolis, Nikolas

    2015-01-01

    Reusable educational resources became increasingly important for enhancing learning and teaching experiences, particularly in the medical domain where resources are particularly expensive to produce. While interoperability across educational resources metadata repositories is yet limited to the heterogeneity of metadata standards and interface…

  8. Information Technologies (ITs) in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Pandza, Haris; Toromanovic, Selim; Masic, Fedja; Sivic, Suad; Zunic, Lejla; Masic, Zlatan

    2011-09-01

    Advances in medicine in recent decades are in significant correlation with the advances in the information technology. Modern information technologies (IT) have enabled faster, more reliable and comprehensive data collection. These technologies have started to create a large number of irrelevant information, which represents a limiting factor and a real growing gap, between the medical knowledge on one hand, and the ability of doctors to follow its growth on the other. Furthermore, in our environment, the term technology is generally reserved for its technical component. Education means, learning, teaching, or the process of acquiring skills or behavior modification through various exercises. Traditionally, medical education meant the oral, practical and more passive transferring of knowledge and skills from the educators to students and health professionals. For the clinical disciplines, of special importance are the principles, such as, "learning at bedside," aided by the medical literature. In doing so, these techniques enable students to contact with their teachers, and to refer to the appropriate literature. The disadvantage of these educational methods is in the fact, that teachers often do not have enough time. Additionally they are not very convenient to the horizontal and vertical integration of teaching, create weak or almost no self education, as well as, low skill levels and poor integration of education with a real social environment. In this paper authors describe application of modern IT in medical education - their advantages and disadvantages comparing with traditional ways of education.

  9. Practical trials in medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin G; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan M; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    , limitations and future directions for this kind of research. CURRENT STATE: Practical trials have the overall aim of informing decision makers. They are carried out in real-life settings and are characterised by (i) comparison of viable alternative education strategies, (ii) broad inclusion criteria regarding...... participants across several settings and (iii) multiple outcome measures with long-term follow-up to evaluate both benefits and risks. Questions posed by practical trials may be proactive in applying theory in the development of educational innovations or reactive to educational reforms and innovations. Non......CONTEXT: Concerns have been raised over the gap between education theory and practice and how research can contribute to inform decision makers on their choices and priorities. Little is known about how educational theories and research outcomes produced under optimal conditions in highly...

  10. Needs and necessities of medical ethics education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Larijani

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, new medical technologies and their probable misuses have emerged public concerns about medical ethics. Medical ethics is a practical discipline that provides a structured approach for identifying, analyzing, and resolving ethical issues in clinical medicine. "nIn this study we reviewed some new methods of teaching medical ethics in other countries by searching in internet and literature. "nTwo key features related to the teaching of medical ethics are active involvement of students in the learning process instead of merely lecturing about the ethical principles and assessing how students apply their knowledge of ethical principles in simulated and actual situations. In many countries such as Iran, medical schools attempted to address medical ethics issues in formal ethics classes. "nIt is clear that the traditional method is no longer sufficient to meet the needs of practitioners and societies and new methods particularly those emphasize on active learning, individual participation, group interactions, and a process - based approach, should be developed and implemented. In addition, a concerted effort to improve education in medical ethics will benefit the medical profession and services to patients. Therefore, we recommend policy makers of medical ethics education to change the traditional methods to the modern methods; which are used now in the world.

  11. Medical teachers' perception towards simulation-based medical education: A multicenter study in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shabnam; Al-Mously, Najwa; Al-Senani, Fahmi; Zafar, Muhammad; Ahmed, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the perception of medical teachers toward the integration of simulation-based medical education (SBME) in undergraduate curriculum and also identify contextual barriers faced by medical teachers. This cross-sectional observational study included medical teachers from three universities. A questionnaire was used to report teachers' perception. SBME was perceived by medical teachers (basic sciences/clinical, respectively) as enjoyable (71.1%/75.4%), effective assessment tool to evaluate students' learning (60%/73.9%) and can improve learning outcome (88.8%/79.7%). Similarly, (91.1%/71%) of teachers think that simulation should be part of the curriculum and not stand alone one time activity. Teachers' training for SBME has created a significant difference in perception (p medical curriculum are major perceived barriers for effective SBME. Results highlight the positive perception and attitude of medical teachers toward the integration of SBME in undergraduate curriculum. Prior formal training of teachers created a different perception. Top perceived barriers for effective SBME include teachers' formal training supported with time and resources and the early integration into the curriculum. These critical challenges need to be addressed by medical schools in order to enhance the integration SBME in undergraduate curricula.

  12. Faculty development in medical education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMantia, Joseph; Hamstra, Stanley J; Martin, Daniel R; Searle, Nancy; Love, Jeffrey; Castaneda, Jill; Aziz-Bose, Rahela; Smith, Michael; Griswold-Therodorson, Sharon; Leuck, JoAnna

    2012-12-01

    This 2012 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference breakout session was devoted to the task of identifying the history and current state of faculty development in education research in emergency medicine (EM). The participants set a future agenda for successful faculty development in education research. A number of education research and content experts collaborated during the session. This article summarizes existing academic and medical literature, expert opinions, and audience consensus to report our agreement and findings related to the promotion of faculty development.

  13. What is the Best Evidence Medical Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Masoomi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Best Evidence Medical Education (BEME is defined as: “The implementation by teachers and educational bodies in their practice, of methods and approaches to education based on the best evidence available.” Five steps have been recognized in the practice of BEME. These are: framing the question, developing a search strategy, evaluating the evidence, implementing change and evaluating that change. In this paper, I described the concept of BEME, its steps, and challenges.

  14. Status of medical education reform at Saga Medical School 5 years after introducing PBL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Yasutomo; Koizumi, Shunzo

    2008-03-01

    In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL) is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums) to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors). Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum) is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including "silent tutors" and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan.

  15. Status of Medical Education Reform at Saga Medical School 5 Years After Introducing PBL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutomo Oda

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors. Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including “silent tutors” and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan.

  16. Properties of publications on anatomy in medical education literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorstenbosch, M.A.T.M.; Bolhuis, S.; Kuppeveld, S. van; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Laan, R.F.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Publications on anatomy in medical education appear to be largely anecdotal. To explore this, we investigated the literature on anatomy in medical education, aiming first to evaluate the contribution of the literature on anatomy in medical education to "best evidence medical education" (BEME) and se

  17. Properties of Publications on Anatomy in Medical Education Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc; Bolhuis, Sanneke; van Kuppeveld, Sascha; Kooloos, Jan; Laan, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Publications on anatomy in medical education appear to be largely anecdotal. To explore this, we investigated the literature on anatomy in medical education, aiming first to evaluate the contribution of the literature on anatomy in medical education to "best evidence medical education" (BEME) and second to evaluate the development of this…

  18. Social media use in medical education: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheston, Christine C; Flickinger, Tabor E; Chisolm, Margaret S

    2013-06-01

    The authors conducted a systematic review of the published literature on social media use in medical education to answer two questions: (1) How have interventions using social media tools affected outcomes of satisfaction, knowledge, attitudes, and skills for physicians and physicians-in-training? and (2) What challenges and opportunities specific to social media have educators encountered in implementing these interventions? The authors searched the MEDLINE, CINAHL, ERIC, Embase, PsycINFO, ProQuest, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Scopus databases (from the start of each through September 12, 2011) using keywords related to social media and medical education. Two authors independently reviewed the search results to select peer-reviewed, English-language articles discussing social media use in educational interventions at any level of physician training. They assessed study quality using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument. Fourteen studies met inclusion criteria. Interventions using social media tools were associated with improved knowledge (e.g., exam scores), attitudes (e.g., empathy), and skills (e.g., reflective writing). The most commonly reported opportunities related to incorporating social media tools were promoting learner engagement (71% of studies), feedback (57%), and collaboration and professional development (both 36%). The most commonly cited challenges were technical issues (43%), variable learner participation (43%), and privacy/security concerns (29%). Studies were generally of low to moderate quality; there was only one randomized controlled trial. Social media use in medical education is an emerging field of scholarship that merits further investigation. Educators face challenges in adapting new technologies, but they also have opportunities for innovation.

  19. Complexity in graduate medical education: a collaborative education agenda for internal medicine and geriatric medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anna; Fernandez, Helen; Cayea, Danelle; Chheda, Shobhina; Paniagua, Miguel; Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Day, Hollis

    2014-06-01

    Internal medicine residents today face significant challenges in caring for an increasingly complex patient population within ever-changing education and health care environments. As a result, medical educators, health care system leaders, payers, and patients are demanding change and accountability in graduate medical education (GME). A 2012 Society of General Internal Medicine (SGIM) retreat identified medical education as an area for collaboration between internal medicine and geriatric medicine. The authors first determined a short-term research agenda for resident education by mapping selected internal medicine reporting milestones to geriatrics competencies, and listing available sample learner assessment tools. Next, the authors proposed a strategy for long-term collaboration in three priority areas in clinical medicine that are challenging for residents today: (1) team-based care, (2) transitions and readmissions, and (3) multi-morbidity. The short-term agenda focuses on learner assessment, while the long-term agenda allows for program evaluation and improvement. This model of collaboration in medical education combines the resources and expertise of internal medicine and geriatric medicine educators with the goal of increasing innovation and improving outcomes in GME targeting the needs of our residents and their patients.

  20. Comparison of Face to Face Education with Other Methods to Pregnant Mothers in Increase Exclusive Breast Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Saba

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: There is a direct relationship between the education and exclusive breast-feeding. Most of the educational programs have given after child birth, based on " Rooming in plan”, but because of difficult situation and busy thoughts of mothers, they were not desirable way of education, therefore in this study the role of verbal & nonverbal education was evaluated on the rate of breast-feeding by mothers before delivery.Materials & Methods: This is a randomized controlled-trial study on 108 pregnant women, 20-30 yrs old, paraone, without any systemic disease referring to Health Center of Hamadan. They were divided into two groups of 54 each , group Ι was given verbal education (lecture, movie, slide, question & answer and group ΙΙ nonverbal education (pamphlet of verbal abstracts. The two groups were followed up to 6 months after delivery in respect of restricted breast-feeding.Results: The rate of restricted breast-feeding was 82.7% for mothers on verbal education and 56.5% for nonverbal ones. This difference of percentile rise in two group was statistically meaningful, which showed verbal education was more efficient on outcome of restricted breast-feeding.Conclusion: We concluded that face to face education is more efficient compared to non-verbal education in increase exclusive breast feeding.

  1. Reflections on experimental research in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A; Beckman, Thomas J

    2010-08-01

    As medical education research advances, it is important that education researchers employ rigorous methods for conducting and reporting their investigations. In this article we discuss several important yet oft neglected issues in designing experimental research in education. First, randomization controls for only a subset of possible confounders. Second, the posttest-only design is inherently stronger than the pretest-posttest design, provided the study is randomized and the sample is sufficiently large. Third, demonstrating the superiority of an educational intervention in comparison to no intervention does little to advance the art and science of education. Fourth, comparisons involving multifactorial interventions are hopelessly confounded, have limited application to new settings, and do little to advance our understanding of education. Fifth, single-group pretest-posttest studies are susceptible to numerous validity threats. Finally, educational interventions (including the comparison group) must be described in detail sufficient to allow replication.

  2. Simulation in Medical School Education: Review for Emergency Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Shahram Lotfipour; T. Kent Denmark; Christopher Erik McCoy; Srinidhi Subraya Bhat; Elizabeth ter Haar; Bharath Chakravarthy

    2011-01-01

    Medical education is rapidly evolving. With the paradigm shift to small-group didactic sessions and focus on clinically oriented case-based scenarios, simulation training has provided educators a novel way to deliver medical education in the 21st century. The field continues to expand in scope and practice and is being incorporated into medical school clerkship education, and specifically in emergency medicine (EM). The use of medical simulation in graduate medical education is well documente...

  3. Teaching Conflict: Professionalism and Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, K J

    2015-12-01

    Resistance by physicians, medical researchers, medical educators, and medical students to pharmaceutical industry influence in medicine is often based on the notion that physicians (guided by the ethics of their profession) and the industry (guided by profit) are in conflict. This criticism has taken the form of a professional movement opposing conflict of interest (COI) in medicine and medical education and has resulted in policies and guidelines that frame COI as the problem and outline measures to address this problem. In this paper, I offer a critique of this focus on COI that is grounded in a broader critique of neo-liberalism, arguing it individualizes the relationship between physicians and industry, too neatly delineates between the two entities, and reduces the network of social, economic, and political relations to this one dilemma.

  4. China's Medical Education and Interventional Neuroradiology Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xianli; He, Hongwei; Wu, Zhongxue

    2015-11-01

    China's medical education system is complex and consists of degree programs lasting from 3 to 8 years, the inconsistency across previous educational backgrounds is a challenge when implementing residency training objectives and contents. Only in several advanced medical universities, education for interventional neuroradiology (INR) is a part of a rotation in the 2-year training for neurosurgery. Advanced INR techniques are confined to big cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, where most of the Chinese INRs have their 6 to 12 months fellowship to major medical centers. With a tremendous economic growth in the region, we expect that INR practice will evolve at an equally rapid pace, and information presented in this chapter may soon become obsolete.

  5. [Simulation in medical education: a synopsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvetto, Marcia; Bravo, María Pía; Montaña, Rodrigo; Utili, Franco; Escudero, Eliana; Boza, Camilo; Varas, Julián; Dagnino, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Clinical simulation is defined as a technique (not a technology) to replace or amplify real experiences with guided experiences that evoke or replicate substantial aspects of the real world in a fully interactive fashion. Over the past few years, there has been a significant growth in its use, both as a learning tool and as an assessment for accreditation. Example of this is the fact that simulation is an integral part of medical education curricula abroad. Some authors have cited it as an unavoidable necessity or as an ethical imperative. In Chile, its formal inclusion in Medical Schools' curricula has just begun. This review is an overview of this important educational tool, presenting the evidence about its usefulness in medical education and describing its current situation in Chile.

  6. Benefits of simulation training in medical education

    OpenAIRE

    Abas T; Juma FZ

    2016-01-01

    Tamkin Abas, Fatema Zehra JumaManchester Medical School, University of Manchester, Manchester, UKWe read about the satisfaction of simulation experiences of paramedic students1 with great interest. As medical students, with early clinical experience comparative to paramedic training in the UK, we agree that simulation-based learning is well received in health care education. As part of the curriculum at the University of Manchester, we are exposed to a variety of simulation-based environments...

  7. Relevance of anatomy to medical education and clinical practice: perspectives of medical students, clinicians, and educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbayeh, Amgad; Qaedi Choo, Mohammad A; Quane, Kathleen A; Finucane, Paul; McGrath, Deirdre; O'Flynn, Siun; O'Mahony, Siobhain M; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P

    2016-12-01

    Against a backdrop of ever-changing diagnostic and treatment modalities, stakeholder perceptions (medical students, clinicians, anatomy educators) are crucial for the design of an anatomy curriculum which fulfils the criteria required for safe medical practice. This study compared perceptions of students, practising clinicians, and anatomy educators with respect to the relevance of anatomy education to medicine. A quantitative survey was administered to undergraduate entry (n = 352) and graduate entry students (n = 219) at two Irish medical schools, recently graduated Irish clinicians (n = 146), and anatomy educators based in Irish and British medical schools (n = 30). Areas addressed included the association of anatomy with medical education and clinical practice, mode of instruction, and curriculum duration. Graduate-entry students were less likely to associate anatomy with the development of professionalism, teamwork skills, or improved awareness of ethics in medicine. Clinicians highlighted the challenge of tailoring anatomy education to increase student readiness to function effectively in a clinical role. Anatomy educators indicated dissatisfaction with the time available for anatomy within medical curricula, and were equivocal about whether curriculum content should be responsive to societal feedback. The group differences identified in the current study highlight areas and requirements which medical education curriculum developers should be sensitive to when designing anatomy courses.

  8. [Medical education: between science and Bildungsroman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion-Veyron, Régis; Bourquin, Céline; Saraga, Michael; Stiefel, Friedrich

    2016-02-10

    For many years, a major focus of interest has been the patient, in the context of a constantly changing society and increasingly complex medical practices. We propose to shift this focus on the physician, who is entangled in a similar, but less evident way. In these three articles, we explore, in succession, the lived experience of the contemporary physician, the ethos which brings together the medical community, and the education of the future physician, using research projects currently under way within the Service of Liaison Psychiatry at Lausanne University Hospital. The article hereunder is dedicated to the education and will examine the multiple and paradoxical expectations that punctuate it.

  9. Evolution of medical education in ancient Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanouil Pikoulis; Pavlos Msaouel; Efthimios D Avgerinos; Sofia Anagnostopoulou; Christos Tsigris

    2008-01-01

    @@ The study of ancient Greece is essential for the proper understanding of the evolution of modem Western medicine.An important innovation of classical Greek medicine was the development of a body of medical theory associated with natural philosophy,i.e.a strong secular tradition of free enquiry,or what would now be called "science" (Επιστημη).Medical education rests upon the ancient Greek foundations and its history remains a fascinating topic for modem physicians and medical teachers.

  10. Basic sciences curriculum in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RITA REZAEE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traditional methods are generally used for teaching basic science courses at Shiraz Medical School. Such courses are taught during the first and second years of a seven-year medical program. The goal of this study was to analyze teachers and students’ perceptions of basic science teaching in medical education. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the college of medicine of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Results: Regarding the students’ viewpoints, 71.4% reported that curriculum content in basic sciences was enough and had good relevance. 59.2% of students believed the objectives of basic sciences curriculum were clear. Conclusion: The burden of teaching basic sciences ranges from sustaining interest to clinical relevance. It is expected that medical schools will continuously monitor what works and what does not work with their curricula and make the necessary adaptations as required.

  11. Enhancing cultural competence in medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Janne; Norredam, Marie; Dogra, Nisha

    2017-01-01

    A health system serving diverse populations requires health professionals who are competent in caring for patients and population groups who differ in e.g. age, gender, socio-economic status, migrant status, and ethnicity. Cultural competence (CC) among health professionals is viewed as one...... the project Culturally Competent in Medical Education involving 13 partners from 11 countries.4 The project aimed to support the implementation of CC in medical curricula. First, a Delphi Study involving 34 experts was conducted to develop a framework of core cultural competencies for medical school teachers...... The proposed guidelines were presented in September 2015 in Amsterdam at a workshop entitled: “How to integrate cultural competence in medical education”. A range of participants attended the workshop, including the project partners, deans and faculty members of Dutch medical schools, physicians, and students...

  12. [A pragmatic vision of medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumplido-Hernández, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    Some aspects of the educative system at the Mexican Institute of Social Security are described. It is based on the perception of a problematic situation that constitutes a challenge. An educational process to enhance the quality of medical education is proposed, with the adoption of a participative model of self-constructive learning. This proposal is based on theoretical references in a both philosophical and sociological knowledge perspective of an individual related to institutional behavior, to end with a psychological view from which some learning theories are explored. An educational model is built with the inclusion of institutional elements, like the new evaluation system for residents; centers for educational investigation and a teacher training process. Three axes of the educational process are proposed: tutorial teaching, development of complex abilities of thought and critical reading. The evaluation system includes guides for measuring the operational process established and the professional responsibilities of the different participants.

  13. How to improve medical education website design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levine David

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Internet provides a means of disseminating medical education curricula, allowing institutions to share educational resources. Much of what is published online is poorly planned, does not meet learners' needs, or is out of date. Discussion Applying principles of curriculum development, adult learning theory and educational website design may result in improved online educational resources. Key steps in developing and implementing an education website include: 1 Follow established principles of curriculum development; 2 Perform a needs assessment and repeat the needs assessment regularly after curriculum implementation; 3 Include in the needs assessment targeted learners, educators, institutions, and society; 4 Use principles of adult learning and behavioral theory when developing content and website function; 5 Design the website and curriculum to demonstrate educational effectiveness at an individual and programmatic level; 6 Include a mechanism for sustaining website operations and updating content over a long period of time. Summary Interactive, online education programs are effective for medical training, but require planning, implementation, and maintenance that follow established principles of curriculum development, adult learning, and behavioral theory.

  14. Development of an Asset Map of Medical Education Research Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaanse, Mary E.; Russell, Eleanor L.; Crandall, Sonia J.; Lambros, Ann; Manuel, Janeen C.; Kirk, Julienne K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Medical education research is gaining recognition as scholarship within academic medical centers. This survey was conducted at a medium-sized academic medical center in the United States. The purpose of the study was to learn faculty interest in research in medical education, so assets could be used to develop educational scholarship…

  15. Medical Education and Leadership in Breastfeeding Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie Scott; Bell, Esther

    2017-08-17

    Physicians' experience with high quality training in breastfeeding during their medical education is historically varied. The process of becoming a board-certified physician entails more than 20 years of education, and although medical school and residency training timelines and courses are relatively standardized across the United States and even internationally, breastfeeding education varies greatly across schools and programs. The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine (ABM) exists, in part, because historically, physicians have received too little clinical training in breastfeeding and infant nutrition. An overarching goal of ABM, which is a multispecialty organization of doctors around the world, is to educate all maternal-child healthcare professionals, not just physicians, about breastfeeding. Within the field of medicine, family doctors, pediatricians, and obstetrician/gynecologists are considered the most logical source of breastfeeding expertise. However, the need for breastfeeding education goes beyond those providers who have obvious interactions with mothers and babies. We must educate anesthesiologists, surgeons, internists, and psychiatrists, among others. Building pipelines of physicians who are well educated in breastfeeding medicine allows more effective collaboration and care of mothers and infants among providers in various medical and surgical specialties as well as between doctors and other healthcare providers. This evidence-based education needs to be multifaceted, with didactic curricula for a strong knowledge base complemented by clinical experiences for skill development and application. Clinical knowledge and skills can also be reinforced during nonclinical opportunities in teaching, research, advocacy, and professional development. In this article, we describe a foundational framework for physician education in breastfeeding medicine as well as several creative noncurricular opportunities to develop breastfeeding expertise in future

  16. Continuing medical education in Turkey: Recent developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaman Hakan

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Turkish Association of Medicine founded a Continuing Medical Education Accreditation Committee in 1993 to evaluate and accredit scientific meetings and publications. The aims of this project were to raise the standards of meetings and to introduce compulsory revalidation and re-certification for physicians in Turkey. Discussion Since the year 1994, 2348 applications to the Continuing Medical Education board have been made (mostly for scientific meetings, and 95% of these applications have been accepted. Physicians received 139.014 credits during this time. This number is increasing every year. Meeting organisers' demand for such a kind of evaluation is increasing, because participants increasingly request it. Summary Efforts for revalidation and re-certification of physicians have not been completely successful yet. In the near future the Co-ordination Council of Medical Speciality Societies is going to oblige member associations to establish speciality boards. This will be the first step to the conventional use of Continuing Medical Education credits in occupational evaluation. Time-limited re-certification of physicians is the principal goal of Turkish Medical Association. Efforts to implement this change in legislation are being made.

  17. The utility of simulation in medical education: what is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Yasuharu; Bryson, Ethan O; DeMaria, Samuel; Jacobson, Lisa; Quinones, Joshua; Shen, Bing; Levine, Adam I

    2009-08-01

    Medical schools and residencies are currently facing a shift in their teaching paradigm. The increasing amount of medical information and research makes it difficult for medical education to stay current in its curriculum. As patients become increasingly concerned that students and residents are "practicing" on them, clinical medicine is becoming focused more on patient safety and quality than on bedside teaching and education. Educators have faced these challenges by restructuring curricula, developing small-group sessions, and increasing self-directed learning and independent research. Nevertheless, a disconnect still exists between the classroom and the clinical environment. Many students feel that they are inadequately trained in history taking, physical examination, diagnosis, and management. Medical simulation has been proposed as a technique to bridge this educational gap. This article reviews the evidence for the utility of simulation in medical education. We conducted a MEDLINE search of original articles and review articles related to simulation in education with key words such as simulation, mannequin simulator, partial task simulator, graduate medical education, undergraduate medical education, and continuing medical education. Articles, related to undergraduate medical education, graduate medical education, and continuing medical education were used in the review. One hundred thirteen articles were included in this review. Simulation-based training was demonstrated to lead to clinical improvement in 2 areas of simulation research. Residents trained on laparoscopic surgery simulators showed improvement in procedural performance in the operating room. The other study showed that residents trained on simulators were more likely to adhere to the advanced cardiac life support protocol than those who received standard training for cardiac arrest patients. In other areas of medical training, simulation has been demonstrated to lead to improvements in medical

  18. Emotional Intelligence Medical Education: Measuring the Unmeasurable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Natalie J.; Rees, Charlotte E.; Hudson, J. Nicky; Bleakley, Alan

    2005-01-01

    The construct of emotional intelligence (EI) has gained increasing popularity over the last 10 years and now has a relatively large academic and popular associated literature. EI is beginning to be discussed within the medical education literature, where, however, it is treated uncritically. This reflections paper aims to stimulate thought about…

  19. The Study of Literature in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Kathryn Montgomery; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This article argues that study of literature in the medical curriculum develops physician skills in observation and interpretation, clinical imagination, and self-expression and self-knowledge; enriches moral education; fosters tolerance for uncertainty; and promotes empathy for patients. Appropriate courses for inclusion of and classroom…

  20. Research and Evaluation in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Helena A.; Collins, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of medical education is continuously evolving, as are the needs of the learner. The appropriate use of research and evaluation is key when assessing the need for change and instituting one's innovative endeavours. This paper demonstrates how research seeks to generate new knowledge, whereas evaluation uses information acquired from…

  1. Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwadie, Adnan D.

    2013-01-01

    As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

  2. Progress testing in postgraduate medical education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, M.G.; Scheele, F.; Schuwirth, L.W.; Essed, G.G.M.; Nijhuis, J.G.; Braat, D.D.M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of knowledge in postgraduate medical education has often been discussed. However, recent insights from cognitive psychology and the study of deliberate practice recognize that expert problem solving requires a well-organized knowledge database. This implies that postgraduate ass

  3. Mobile technology use in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luanrattana, Rattiporn; Win, Khin Than; Fulcher, John; Iverson, Don

    2012-02-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the PDA functionalities for a problem-based learning (PBL) medical curriculum at the Graduate School of Medicine (GSM), the University of Wollongong (UOW). The study determines the factors/aspects of incorporating PDAs, and the attitudes of stakeholders regarding the use of PDAs in such a PBL-based medical curriculum. In-depth interviews were designed and conducted with medical faculty, the medical education technology team and honorary medical academics. Four major PDA functionalities were identified, these being: clinical-log, reference, communication, and general functions. Two major aspects for the incorporation of PDAs into the PBL-medical curriculum at the UOW were determined from the interviews, these being technical and practical aspects. There is a potential for PDAs to be incorporated into the PBL-medical curricula at the UOW. However, a clear strategy needs to be defined as to how best to incorporate PDAs into PBL-medical curricula with minimal impact on students, as well as financial and resource implications for the GSM.

  4. What language is your doctor speaking? Facing the problems of translating medical documents into English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mićović Dragoslava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available What is translation - a craft, an art, a profession or a job? Although one of the oldest human activities, translation has not still been fully defined, and it is still young in terms of an academic discipline. The paper defines the difference between translation and interpreting and then attempts to find the answer to the question what characteristics, knowledge and skills a translator must have, particularly the one involved in court translation, and where his/her place in the communication process (both written and oral communication is. When translating medical documentation, a translator is set within a medical language environment as an intermediary between two doctors (in other words, two professionals in the process of communication which would be impossible without him, since it is conducted in two different languages. The paper also gives an insight into types of medical documentation and who they are intended for. It gives practical examples of the problems faced in the course of translation of certain types of medical documentation (hospital discharge papers, diagnoses, case reports,.... Is it possible to make this kind of communication between professionals (doctors standardized, which would subsequently make their translation easier? Although great efforts are made in Serbia regarding medical language and medical terminology, the conclusion is that specific problems encountered by translators can hardly be overcome using only dictionaries and translation manuals.

  5. [What language is your doctor speaking? Facing the problems of translating medical documents into English].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mićović, Dragoslava

    2013-01-01

    What is translation--a craft, an art, a profession or a job? Although one of the oldest human activities, translation has not still been fully defined, and it is still young in terms of an academic discipline. The paper defines the difference between translation and interpreting and then attempts to find the answer to the question what characteristics, knowledge and skills a translator must have, particularly the one involved in court translation, and where his/her place in the communication process (both written and oral communication) is. When translating medical documentation, a translator is set within a medical language environment as an intermediary between two doctors (in other words, two professionals) in the process of communication which would be impossible without him, since it is conducted in two different languages. The paper also gives an insight into types of medical documentation and who they are intended for. It gives practical examples of the problems faced in the course of translation of certain types of medical documentation (hospital discharge papers, diagnoses, case reports,...). Is it possible to make this kind of communication between professionals (doctors) standardized, which would subsequently make their translation easier? Although great efforts are made in Serbia regarding medical language and medical terminology, the conclusion is that specific problems encountered by translators can hardly be overcome using only dictionaries and translation manuals.

  6. Preparing for the changing role of instructional technologies in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Bernard R; McNeil, Sara G; Cook, David A; Agarwal, Kathryn L; Singhal, Geeta R

    2011-04-01

    As part of an international faculty development conference in February 2010, a working group of medical educators and physicians discussed the changing role of instructional technologies and made recommendations for supporting faculty in using these technologies in medical education. The resulting discussion highlighted ways technology is transforming the entire process of medical education and identified several converging trends that have implications for how medical educators might prepare for the next decade. These trends include the explosion of new information; all information, including both health knowledge and medical records, becoming digital; a new generation of learners; the emergence of new instructional technologies; and the accelerating rate of change, especially related to technology. The working group developed five recommendations that academic health leaders and policy makers may use as a starting point for dealing with the instructional technology challenges facing medical education over the next decade. These recommendations are (1) using technology to provide/support experiences for learners that are not otherwise possible-not as a replacement for, but as a supplement to, face-to-face experiences, (2) focusing on fundamental principles of teaching and learning rather than learning specific technologies in isolation, (3) allocating a variety of resources to support the appropriate use of instructional technologies, (4) supporting faculty members as they adopt new technologies, and (5) providing funding and leadership to enhance electronic infrastructure to facilitate sharing of resources and instructional ideas.

  7. Effectiveness and acceptance of web-based learning compared to traditional face-to-face learning for performance nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Lee M; Grediagin, Ann; Koenig, Chad; Sanders, LesLee F

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness and acceptance of Web-based (WB) versus face-to-face (FF) lecturing. There were 48 soldiers stationed at Fort Bragg, NC who completed the study, participating in either a Web-based or face-to-face lecture on nutrition for performance. The lecture was 30 minutes long. Participants completed a prequiz and survey before the lecture and a postquiz and survey at its conclusion. Results showed there was no difference in the effectiveness of the two mediums on the basis of postquiz scores (Web-based group = 75.68; face-to-face group = 73.27; p = 0.436). Change in scores from pre to post also showed no difference between the two groups (p = 0.375). Assessing the acceptance of the two teaching mediums, there was no significant difference reported, except for the instructor's ability to answer questions (p = 0.05). The conclusion of this study is that Web-based learning can be an effective and acceptable tool for registered dietitians to educate soldiers on nutrition for performance.

  8. Tele-Immersive medical educational environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Zhuming; Dech, Fred; Silverstein, Jonathan; Rasmussen, Mary

    2002-01-01

    By combining teleconferencing, tele-presence, and Virtual Reality, the Tele-Immersive environment enables master surgeons to teach residents in remote locations. The design and implementation of a Tele-Immersive medical educational environment, Teledu, is presented in this paper. Teledu defines a set of Tele-Immersive user interfaces for medical education. In addition, an Application Programming Interface (API) is provided so that developers can easily develop different applications with different requirements in this environment. With the help of this API, programmers only need to design a plug-in to load their application specific data set. The plug-in is an object-oriented data set loader. Methods for rendering, handling, and interacting with the data set for each application can be programmed in the plug-in. The environment has a teacher mode and a student mode. The teacher and the students can interact with the same medical models, point, gesture, converse, and see each other.

  9. Problems Faced by Physical Handicapped Students in Educational Institutions in District Kohat

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    Hussain, Ishtiaq; Bashir, Muhammad; ud Din, Muhammad Naseer; Butt, Muhammad Naeem; Akhter, Shagufa; Inamullah, Hafiz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the problems faced by physical handicapped students in normal educational institutions and to find solutions to the problems faced by physical handicapped students. All the physical handicapped students studying in educational institutions in District Kohat constituted the population of the study. The study…

  10. Comparing the Success of Students Enrolled in Distance Education Courses vs. Face-to-Face Classrooms.

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    Jackman, Diane H.; Swan, Michael K.

    2000-01-01

    Secondary students (n=623) enrolled in at least 1 distance education course (424 at remote sites) were studied. Distance education made no difference in grade point average (GPA); 12th graders at host sites had significantly lower GPA than those at remote sites; and student success was above average in distance education courses. (SK)

  11. Educational programs in US medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, H S; Etzel, S I; Barzansky, B

    1993-09-01

    As described in the introduction, the data presented in this report can be viewed in both a historical and an environmental context. From a historical perspective, there has been change in many areas of medical education. The number of applicants to medical schools has risen sharply in the past few years, a result seemingly inconsistent with the dissatisfaction with medicine expressed by many physicians and with the uncertainties about the eventual outcomes of health system reform. The number of minority applicants and enrollees is slowly rising, but at rates below the goals identified by such initiatives as the Association of American Medical Colleges' "Project 3000 by 2000." Even with the expansion of the applicant pool, however, most medical schools do not anticipate enrollment increases. Medical school tuition also continues to increase significantly, in both public and private schools. The number of faculty members in the clinical disciplines also has continued to rise, although the rate of increase has become less marked. The decrease in the number of basic science faculty members that occurred this year will need to be monitored to ensure that appropriate faculty resources are available for teaching, especially with the initiatives to introduce more active learning formats during the basic science years. The medical curriculum continues to evolve at differing rates across schools. Many "innovations" have become part of the curricular repertoire; for example, medical schools have incorporated educational formats, such as problem-based learning or computer-assisted instruction, which emphasize active student learning, although in a number of cases they are limited to a small portion of the curriculum. In addition, the availability of clinical experiences during the first 2 years of the curriculum, especially those located in ambulatory settings, gives students an early glimpse of the world of actual medical practice. The use of standardized patients provides

  12. Medical Students’ and Interns’ Attitudes toward Medical Ethics Education in a Thai Medical School

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    Sakda Sathirareuangchai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical ethics has been accepted as part of every accredited medical curriculum for the past 40 years. Medical students’ attitudes have an important role for development and improvement of the curriculum. Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital is the oldest and largest medical school in Thailand, and has been teaching medical ethics since 1907. Objective: To determine attitudes among medical students and interns toward medical ethics education and understand the factors influencing their attitudes. Methods: Mixed quantitative and qualitative research was conducted with early 6th year medical students and interns. A questionnaire was adapted from previous studies and included some original items. Results: Of the 550 questionnaires distributed, 386 were returned (70.2% response rate. Males (n=180 made up 46.63 % of the sample. Interns (n=219, 56.74 % tended to have more positive attitudes toward ethics learning than did medical students (n = 167, 43.26 %. Male participants tended to agree more with negative statements about ethics learning than did females. There was no statistically significant effect of hometown (Bangkok versus elsewhere or grade point average on attitudes. The main problem cited with medical ethics education was lack of engaging methods. Conclusion: Because clinical experience has an effect on learners’ attitudes towards ethics education, medical ethics should be taught at the appropriate time and with proper techniques, such as drawing explicit ties between ethical principles and real-life situations. Attention to the more detailed aspects of these data should also facilitate improvements to curriculum content, thereby ensuring better educational outcomes.

  13. The use of Facebook in medical education – A literature review

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    Pander, Tanja; Pinilla, Severin; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos; Fischer, Martin R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The vogue of social media has changed interpersonal communication as well as learning and teaching opportunities in medical education. The most popular social media tool is Facebook. Its features provide potentially useful support for the education of medical students but it also means that some new challenges will have to be faced. Aims: This review aimed to find out how Facebook has been integrated into medical education. A systematical review of the current literature and grade of evidence is provided, research gaps are identified, links to prior reviews are drawn and implications for the future are discussed. Method: The authors searched six databases. Inclusion criteria were defined and the authors independently reviewed the search results. The key information of the articles included was methodically abstracted and coded, synthesized and discussed in the categories study design, study participants’phase of medical education and study content. Results: 16 articles met all inclusion criteria. 45-96% of health care professionals in all phases of their medical education have a Facebook profile. Most studies focused on Facebook and digital professionalism. Unprofessional behavior and privacy violations occurred in 0.02% to 16%. In terms of learning and teaching environment, Facebook is well accepted by medical students. It is used to prepare for exams, share online material, discuss clinical cases, organize face-to-face sessions and exchange information on clerkships. A few educational materials to teach Facebook professionalism were positively evaluated. There seems to be no conclusive evidence as to whether medical students benefit from Facebook as a learning environment on higher competence levels. Discussion: Facebook influences a myriad of aspects of health care professionals, particularly at undergraduate and graduate level in medical education. Despite an increasing number of interventions, there is a lack of conclusive evidence in terms of

  14. Radiation Oncology Physics and Medical Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourland, Dan

    2011-10-01

    Medical physics, an applied field of physics, is the applications of physics in medicine. Medical physicists are essential professionals in contemporary healthcare, contributing primarily to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases through numerous inventions, advances, and improvements in medical imaging and cancer treatment. Clinical service, research, and teaching by medical physicists benefits thousands of patients and other individuals every day. This talk will cover three main topics. First, exciting current research and development areas in the medical physics sub-specialty of radiation oncology physics will be described, including advanced oncology imaging for treatment simulation, image-guided radiation therapy, and biologically-optimized radiation treatment. Challenges in patient safety in high-technology radiation treatments will be briefly reviewed. Second, the educational path to becoming a medical physicist will be reviewed, including undergraduate foundations, graduate training, residency, board certification, and career opportunities. Third, I will introduce the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), which is the professional society that represents, advocates, and advances the field of medical physics (www.aapm.org).

  15. Challenges facing primary care practices aiming to implement patient-centered medical homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Melissa M; Rose, Danielle E; Rubenstein, Lisa V; Canelo, Ismelda A; Schectman, Gordon; Stark, Richard; Yano, Elizabeth M

    2014-07-01

    While the potential of patient-centered medical homes (PCMH) is promising, little is known empirically about the frontline challenges that primary care (PC) leaders face before making the decision to implement PCMH, let alone in making it a reality. Prior to the design and implementation of the Veterans Health Administration's (VA) national PCMH model--Patient Aligned Care Teams (PACT)--we identified the top challenges faced by PC directors and examined the organizational and area level factors that influenced those challenges. A national cross-sectional key informant organizational survey was fielded to the census of PC directors at VA medical centers and large community-based outpatient clinics (final sample n = 229 sites). PC directors were asked to rate the degree to which they faced 48 management challenges in eight PCMH-related domains (access, preventive care, chronic diseases requiring care in PC, challenging medical conditions, mental health/substance abuse, special populations, PC coordination of care, and clinical informatics). Responses were dichotomized as moderately-to-extremely challenging versus somewhat-slightly-not at all challenging. Items were rank ordered; chi square or regression techniques were used to examine variations in facility size, type, urban/rural location, and region. On average, VA PC directors reported 16 moderate-to-extreme challenges, and the top 20 challenges spanned all eight PCMH domains. Four of the top 20 challenges, including the top two challenges, were from the clinical informatics domain. Management of chronic non-malignant pain requiring opiate therapy was the third most reported challenge nationwide. Significant organizational and area level variations in reported challenges were found especially for care coordination. Better understanding of PC challenges ahead of PCMH implementation provides important context for strategic planning and redesign efforts. As a national healthcare system, the VA provides a unique

  16. Department of medical education; A personal history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAHMAN JOORABCHI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a brief overview of the history of formal introduction of the art and science of education into the sphere of medical education in Shiraz. Before this introduction medical education was, and in the majority of other institutions world-wide still is, a simple transfer of knowledge from teacher to student. The students accepted their passive role because this was how they had been taught all their life. The teachers perpetuated this process because this was how they were taught themselves. After all, what was good enough for them was good enough for the students. All one needed to be a good teacher was to be an expert in ones field. What the Department of Medical Education attempted to do locally and the Regional Teacher Training Center internationally, was to promulgate problem-based, learner directed teaching using the principles of adult learning and using evaluation methods that were valid and reliable. This article describes the process used for this transformation and some of the results obtained.

  17. The medical-industrial complex, professional medical associations, and continuing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofferman, Jerome

    2011-12-01

    Financial relationships among the biomedical industries, physicians, and professional medical associations (PMAs) can be professional, ethical, mutually beneficial, and, most importantly, can lead to improved medical care. However, such relationships, by their very nature, present conflicts of interest (COIs). One of the greatest concerns regarding COI is continuing medical education (CME), especially because currently industry funds 40-60% of CME. COIs have the potential to bias physicians in practice, educators, and those in leadership positions of PMAs and well as the staff of a PMA. These conflicts lead to the potential to bias the content and type of CME presentations and thereby influence physicians' practice patterns and patient care. Physicians are generally aware of the potential for bias when industry contributes funding for CME, but they are most often unable to detect the bias. This may because it is very subtle and/or the educators themselves may not realize that they have been influenced by their relationships with industry. Following Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education guidelines and mandating disclosure that is transparent and complete have become the fallback positions to manage COIs, but such disclosure does not really mitigate the conflict. The eventual and best solutions to ensure evidence-based education are complete divestment by educators and leaders of PMAs, minimal and highly controlled industry funding of PMAs, blind pooling of any industry contributions to PMAs and CME, strict verification of disclosures, clear separation of marketing from education at CME events, and strict oversight of presentations for the presence of bias.

  18. [Competency-based assessment in medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champin, Denisse

    2014-01-01

    At present, competency-based curriculum is considered to be the most appropriate model in medical education. Much has been written about this model; however, a crucial aspect of the model is the assessment of competency development which is a different point compared to the traditional model of cognitive assessment. Assessment in the context of the competencybased curriculum model must be aligned with the profile of the competencies that the institution offers. This publication reports the evaluation experience in a Medical School of Peru that applies a competency-based curriculum.

  19. Medical Education: Barefoot Doctors, Health Care, Health Education, Nursing Education, Pharmacy Education, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Franklin

    1987-01-01

    This is part I of a two-part annotated bibliography of selected references on medical education in the People's Republic of China. The references date from 1925 to 1983. Most of the references are from the 1970's. (RH)

  20. Twelve tips on teaching and learning humanism in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Libby Gordon; Sherif, Youmna Ashraf

    2014-08-01

    The teaching of humanistic values is recognized as an essential component of medical education and continuing professional development of physicians. The application of humanistic values in medical care can benefit medical students, clinicians and patients. This article presents 12 tips on fostering humanistic values in medical education. The authors reviewed the literature and present 12 practical tips that are relevant to contemporary practices. The tips can be used in teaching and sustaining humanistic values in medical education. Humanistic values can be incorporated in formal preclinical environments, the transition into clinical settings, medical curricula and clinical clerkships. Additionally, steps can be taken so that medical educators and institutions promote and sustain humanistic values.

  1. Benefits of simulation training in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abas T

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tamkin Abas, Fatema Zehra JumaManchester Medical School, University of Manchester, Manchester, UKWe read about the satisfaction of simulation experiences of paramedic students1 with great interest. As medical students, with early clinical experience comparative to paramedic training in the UK, we agree that simulation-based learning is well received in health care education. As part of the curriculum at the University of Manchester, we are exposed to a variety of simulation-based environments, ranging from examining simulated patients to practicing resuscitation and emergency care on mannequins. We would like to provide insight into our understanding of where simulation training fits into health care education and highlight a key aspect of its satisfaction that we feel has been overlooked.View the original paper by Williams and colleagues

  2. A Comprehensive Wellness Program for Veterinary Medical Education: Design and Implementation at North Carolina State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth; Flammer, Keven; Borst, Luke; Huckle, Jeffrey; Barter, Hillary; Neel, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Research in veterinary medical education has illustrated the challenges students face with respect to mental and emotional wellness, lack of attention to physical health, and limited opportunities to meaningfully engage with persons from different backgrounds. In response, the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine has…

  3. Undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care: a nationwide survey at German medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Stefan K; Timmermann, Arnd; Müller, Michael P; Angstwurm, Matthias; Walcher, Felix

    2009-05-12

    Since June 2002, revised regulations in Germany have required "Emergency Medical Care" as an interdisciplinary subject, and state that emergency treatment should be of increasing importance within the curriculum. A survey of the current status of undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care establishes the basis for further committee work. Using a standardized questionnaire, all medical faculties in Germany were asked to answer questions concerning the structure of their curriculum, representation of disciplines, instructors' qualifications, teaching and assessment methods, as well as evaluation procedures. Data from 35 of the 38 medical schools in Germany were analysed. In 32 of 35 medical faculties, the local Department of Anaesthesiology is responsible for the teaching of emergency medical care; in two faculties, emergency medicine is taught mainly by the Department of Surgery and in another by Internal Medicine. Lectures, seminars and practical training units are scheduled in varying composition at 97% of the locations. Simulation technology is integrated at 60% (n = 21); problem-based learning at 29% (n = 10), e-learning at 3% (n = 1), and internship in ambulance service is mandatory at 11% (n = 4). In terms of assessment methods, multiple-choice exams (15 to 70 questions) are favoured (89%, n = 31), partially supplemented by open questions (31%, n = 11). Some faculties also perform single practical tests (43%, n = 15), objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; 29%, n = 10) or oral examinations (17%, n = 6). Emergency Medical Care in undergraduate medical education in Germany has a practical orientation, but is very inconsistently structured. The innovative options of simulation technology or state-of-the-art assessment methods are not consistently utilized. Therefore, an exchange of experiences and concepts between faculties and disciplines should be promoted to guarantee a standard level of education in emergency medical care.

  4. Undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care: A nationwide survey at German medical schools

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    Timmermann Arnd

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since June 2002, revised regulations in Germany have required "Emergency Medical Care" as an interdisciplinary subject, and state that emergency treatment should be of increasing importance within the curriculum. A survey of the current status of undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care establishes the basis for further committee work. Methods Using a standardized questionnaire, all medical faculties in Germany were asked to answer questions concerning the structure of their curriculum, representation of disciplines, instructors' qualifications, teaching and assessment methods, as well as evaluation procedures. Results Data from 35 of the 38 medical schools in Germany were analysed. In 32 of 35 medical faculties, the local Department of Anaesthesiology is responsible for the teaching of emergency medical care; in two faculties, emergency medicine is taught mainly by the Department of Surgery and in another by Internal Medicine. Lectures, seminars and practical training units are scheduled in varying composition at 97% of the locations. Simulation technology is integrated at 60% (n = 21; problem-based learning at 29% (n = 10, e-learning at 3% (n = 1, and internship in ambulance service is mandatory at 11% (n = 4. In terms of assessment methods, multiple-choice exams (15 to 70 questions are favoured (89%, n = 31, partially supplemented by open questions (31%, n = 11. Some faculties also perform single practical tests (43%, n = 15, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; 29%, n = 10 or oral examinations (17%, n = 6. Conclusion Emergency Medical Care in undergraduate medical education in Germany has a practical orientation, but is very inconsistently structured. The innovative options of simulation technology or state-of-the-art assessment methods are not consistently utilized. Therefore, an exchange of experiences and concepts between faculties and disciplines should be promoted to guarantee a standard

  5. Educational Multimedia Materials in Academic Medical Training

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    Kołodziejczak Barbara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of generally available applications for creating multimedia and interactive educational materials, such as presentations, instructional videos, self-tests and interactive repetitions. With the use of the presented tools, pilot materials were developed to support the teaching of biostatistics at a medical university. The authors conducted surveys among students of faculties of medicine in order to evaluate the materials used in terms of quality and usefulness. The article presents the analysis of the results obtained.

  6. Facing the educational challenges in South Africa: an educophilosophical reflection

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    C.T. Viljoen

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The educational challenge in South Africa is currently demonstrated by the fact that education is seen as a priority on all agendas, be they national, provincial or local. Developments in society compel educational thinkers to rethink the role and status of education in a democratic society. In this article an educo-philosophical perspective is applied in an attempt to analyse some of the developments that might have an influence on educational thought and practice.

  7. Alternatives in Medical Education: Non-Animal Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Peggy, Ed.

    The technology explosion in medical education has led to the use of computer models, videotapes, interactive videos, and state-of-the-art simulators in medical training. This booklet describes alternatives to using animals in medical education. Although it is mainly intended to describe products applicable to medical school courses, high-quality,…

  8. Metaphysics and medical education: taking holism seriously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bruce

    2013-06-01

    Medical education is now suffused with concepts that have their source outside the traditional scientific and medical disciplines: concepts such as holism, connectedness and reflective practice. Teaching of these, and other problematic concepts such as medical uncertainty and error, has been defined more by the challenge they pose to the standard model rather than being informed by a strong positive understanding. This challenge typically involves a critical engagement with the idea of objectivity, which is rarely acknowledged as an inherently metaphysical critique. Consequently, these ideas prove to be difficult to teach well. I suggest that the lack of an integrating, positive narrative is the reason for teaching difficulty, and propose that what is needed is an explicit commitment to teach the metaphysics of medicine, with the concept of holism being the fulcrum on which the remaining concepts turn. An acknowledged metaphysical narrative will encompass the scientific realism that medical students typically bring to their tertiary education, and at the same time enable a bigger picture to be drawn that puts the newer and more problematic concepts into context.

  9. Qualitative research methods for medical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Janice L; Balmer, Dorene F; Giardino, Angelo P

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a primer for qualitative research in medical education. Our aim is to equip readers with a basic understanding of qualitative research and prepare them to judge the goodness of fit between qualitative research and their own research questions. We provide an overview of the reasons for choosing a qualitative research approach and potential benefits of using these methods for systematic investigation. We discuss developing qualitative research questions, grounding research in a philosophical framework, and applying rigorous methods of data collection, sampling, and analysis. We also address methods to establish the trustworthiness of a qualitative study and introduce the reader to ethical concerns that warrant special attention when planning qualitative research. We conclude with a worksheet that readers may use for designing a qualitative study. Medical educators ask many questions that carefully designed qualitative research would address effectively. Careful attention to the design of qualitative studies will help to ensure credible answers that will illuminate many of the issues, challenges, and quandaries that arise while doing the work of medical education. Copyright © 2011 Academic Pediatric Association. All rights reserved.

  10. Rethinking professionalism in medical education through formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daaleman, Timothy P; Kinghorn, Warren A; Newton, Warren P; Meador, Keith G

    2011-05-01

    Contemporary educational approaches to professionalism do not take into account the dominant influence that the culture of academic medicine has on the nascent professional attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of medical learners. This article examines formation as an organizing principle for professionalism in medical education. Virtue, the foundation to understanding professionalism, is the habits and dispositions that are fostered in individuals but that are embedded in learning environments. Formation, the ongoing integration of an individual, growing in self-awareness and in recognition of a life of service, with others who share in the common mission of a larger group, depicts this process. One model of formation considers a continuum from novice to more advance stages that is predicated on rules that must be applied in greater contextually shaped situations. Within medical education, formation is the process by which lives of service are created and sustained by learning communities that promote human capacities for intuition, empathy, and compassion. An imagined curriculum in formation would link the lived experiences of mentors and learners with an interdisciplinary set of didactic materials in an intentionally progressive fashion.

  11. Judicious Use of Simulation Technology in Continuing Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Michael T.; DiazGranados, Deborah; Feldman, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Use of simulation-based training is fast becoming a vital source of experiential learning in medical education. Although simulation is a common tool for undergraduate and graduate medical education curricula, the utilization of simulation in continuing medical education (CME) is still an area of growth. As more CME programs turn to simulation to…

  12. Faculty development in medical education research: a cooperative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Wendy C; Love, Jeffrey N; Santen, Sally A; Hobgood, Cherri D; Mavis, Brian E; Maggio, Lauren A; Farrell, Susan E

    2010-05-01

    As the definition of scholarship is clarified, each specialty should develop a cadre of medical education researchers who can design, test, and optimize educational interventions. In 2004, the Association for American Medical Colleges' Group on Educational Affairs developed the Medical Education Research Certificate (MERC) program to provide a curriculum to help medical educators acquire or enhance skills in medical education research, to promote effective collaboration with seasoned researchers, and to create better consumers of medical education scholarship. MERC courses are offered to individuals during educational meetings. Educational leaders in emergency medicine (EM) identified a disparity between the "scholarship of teaching" and medical education research skills, and they collaborated with the MERC steering committee to develop a mentored faculty development program in medical education research. A planning committee comprising experienced medical education researchers who are also board-certified, full-time EM faculty members designed a novel approach to the MERC curriculum: a mentored team approach to learning, grounded in collaborative medical education research projects. The planning committee identified areas of research interest among participants and formed working groups to collaborate on research projects during standard MERC workshops. Rather than focusing on individual questions during the course, each mentored group identified a single study hypothesis. After completing the first three workshops, group members worked under their mentors' guidance on their multiinstitutional research projects. The expected benefits of this approach to MERC include establishing a research community network, creating projects whose enrollments offer a multiinstitutional dimension, and developing a cadre of trained education researchers in EM.

  13. Face validity of VIS-Ed: a visualization program for teaching medical students and residents the biomechanics of cervical spine trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courteille, Olivier; Ho, Johnson; Fahlstedt, Madelen; Fors, Uno; Felländer-Tsai, Li; Hedman, Leif; Möller, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This RCT study aimed to investigate if VIS-Ed (Visualization through Imaging and Simulation - Education) had the potential to improve medical student education and specialist training in clinical diagnosis and treatment of trauma patients. The participants' general opinion was reported as high in both groups (lecture vs. virtual patient (VP)). Face validity of the VIS-Ed for cervical spine trauma was demonstrated and the VP group reported higher stimulation and engagement compared to the lecture group. No significant difference in the knowledge test between both groups could be observed, confirming our null hypothesis that VIS-Ed was on par with a lecture.

  14. Virtual reality in medical education and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Laurie A.; Bell, Brad; Sullivan, Tim; Voss, Mark; Payer, Andrew F.; Goza, Stewart Michael

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC)/LinCom Corporation, the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston (UTMB), and the Galveston Independent School District (GISD) have teamed up to develop a virtual visual environment display (VIVED) that provides a unique educational experience using virtual reality (VR) technologies. The VIVED end product will be a self-contained educational experience allowing students a new method of learning as they interact with the subject matter through VR. This type of interface is intuitive and utilizes spatial and psychomotor abilities which are now constrained or reduced by the current two dimensional terminals and keyboards. The perpetual challenge to educators remains the identification and development of methodologies which conform the learners abilities and preferences. The unique aspects of VR provide an opportunity to explore a new educational experience. Endowing medical students with an understanding of the human body poses some difficulty challenges. One of the most difficult is to convey the three dimensional nature of anatomical structures. The ideal environment for addressing this problem would be one that allows students to become small enough to enter the body and travel through it - much like a person walks through a building. By using VR technology, this effect can be achieved; when VR is combined with multimedia technologies, the effect can be spectacular.

  15. Twelve Tips for teaching medical professionalism at all levels of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eraky, Mohamed Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Review of studies published in medical education journals over the last decade reveals that teaching medical professionalism is essential, yet challenging. According to a recent Best Evidence in Medical Education (BEME) guide, there is no consensus on a theoretical or practical model to integrate the teaching of professionalism into medical education. The aim of this article is to outline a practical manual for teaching professionalism at all levels of medical education. Drawing from research literature and author's experience, Twelve Tips are listed and organised in four clusters with relevance to (1) the context, (2) the teachers, (3) the curriculum, and (4) the networking. With a better understanding of the guiding educational principles for teaching medical professionalism, medical educators will be able to teach one of the most challenging constructs in medical education.

  16. Education in Countries in Transition Facing Globalization--A Case Study Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaus, Ivo; Slaus-Kokotovic, Andrea; Morovic, Jasenka

    2004-01-01

    The status of the educational system of Croatia is presented and several human development indicators for Croatia are compared with those of other countries in transition. The role of education in facing globalisation and in assuring sustainable development is analysed. The aims of various levels of education: primary, secondary and higher…

  17. Peace Education Research in the Twenty-First Century: Three Concepts Facing Crisis or Opportunity?

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    Cremin, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the concepts of peace, education and research, and the ways in which they combine to form the field of peace education and peace education research. It discusses the ways in which each can be said to be facing a crisis of legitimation, representation and praxis, and the structural and cultural violence that inhibit efforts…

  18. Re-Searching Secondary Teacher Trainees in Distance Education and Face-to-Face Mode: Study of Their Background Variables, Personal Characteristics and Academic Performance

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    Garg, Mamta; Gakhar, Sudesh

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to describe and compare the background variables, personal characteristics and academic performance of secondary teacher trainees in distance education and face-to-face mode. The results indicated that teacher trainees in distance education differed from their counterparts in age, marital status, sex and…

  19. [A survey of medical information education in radiological technology schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Hoshino, Shuhei; Hosoba, Minoru; Okuda, Yasuo; Konishi, Yasuhiko; Ikeda, Ryuji

    2010-08-20

    The purpose of this study was to clarify actual conditions and problems in medical information education and to propose the educational concept to be adopted in medical information. A questionnaire survey was carried out by the anonymous method in June 2008. The survey was intended for 40 radiological technology schools. The questionnaire items were as follows: (1) educational environment in medical information education, (2) content of a lecture in medical information, (3) problems in medical information education. The response rate was 55.0% (22 schools). Half of the responding schools had a laboratory on medical information. Seventeen schools had a medical information education facility, and out of them, approximately 50% had an educational medical information system. The main problems of the medical information education were as follows: (a) motivation of the students is low, (b) the educational coverage and level for medical information are uncertain, (c) there are not an appropriate textbook and educational guidance. In conclusion, these findings suggest that it is necessary to have a vision of medical information education in the education of radiological technologists.

  20. Higher Education in Hungary: Facing the Political Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Tamas

    1990-01-01

    This article stresses the importance of the integration of Hungary's higher education system into Europe's, in a discussion which covers the Hungarian system's structure and functions; participation in higher education; organization and management; and finance. (DB)

  1. Structural Adjustment and the Changing Face of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin

    1995-01-01

    Reviews educational reforms being made in an era of economic restructuring, including those driven by competitiveness, those made in response to reduced public funding for education, and those made to improve education's role in social mobility and equalization. Suggests an alternative model based on newly industrialized Asian countries. (SK)

  2. Charter Schools: Today. Changing the Face of American Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Education Reform, Washington, DC.

    This progress report reviews comprehensive research on the impact of the nation's charter schools on education and the education system. Chapter 1 looks at the "ripple effect" charter schools have on public schools. Charter schools' efforts to improve public education create new choices for parents. The competition causes public schools…

  3. Power and Resistance: Leading Change in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Kristina; Josephson, Anna; Reeves, Scott; Nordquist, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    A key role for educational leaders within undergraduate medical education is to continually improve the quality of education; global quality health care is the goal. This paper reports the findings from a study employing a power model to highlight how educational leaders influence the development of undergraduate medical curricula and the…

  4. Power and Resistance: Leading Change in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Kristina; Josephson, Anna; Reeves, Scott; Nordquist, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    A key role for educational leaders within undergraduate medical education is to continually improve the quality of education; global quality health care is the goal. This paper reports the findings from a study employing a power model to highlight how educational leaders influence the development of undergraduate medical curricula and the…

  5. Systems That Teach: Medical Education and the Future Healthcare Workforce

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    Bennett, Elisabeth E.; Higgens, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    Physician education has followed relatively rigid guidelines since the Flexner report of 1910. Medical education has been largely didactic with time-based progression and certifying exams, and with variable degrees of autonomy and supervision in graduate (post MD/DO degree) medical education programs. Innovative educational approaches now…

  6. PRIME Partnerships in International Medical Education - Restoring a Christian ethos to medical education worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huw Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern medicine has developed from an essentially Christian world-view and in Western countries has been greatly influenced by the Christian tradition of hospitality and caring for the sick. However, during the 20th century, medical education became increasingly secularised and focussed on the bio-physical model of disease, losing sight of a holistic view of the person that includes awareness of a spiritual dimension. Former Communist countries in particular have little recent tradition of caring, and medical education there tends to be characterised by poor role-models and out-dated didactic teaching. In the resource poor countries of the global South there are many Christian hospitals and clinics but often a lack of experienced medical teachers. Partnerships in International Medical Education (PRIME’s vision and mission is to support health-care education worldwide to restore a Christian-based holistic approach to patients, and act as a resource where needed, tailoring medical educational programmes to meet the needs of overseas partners (or colleagues in the NHS. Using interactive leaner-centred and problem-based educational methods, PRIME tutors (all experienced and qualified Christian medical educators seek to model patient-centred care by using learner-centred teaching, valuing each person as a bearer of the image of God. Most of PRIME’s teaching involves the doctor-patient relationship, communication skills, compassion, ethics and professionalism, often based around particular clinical scenarios to suit the learners. Small teams of voluntary tutors visiting partner institutions and colleagues for a few weeks a year can have a surprisingly large impact, as those grasping the vision become advocates for positive change in their own situations. Training of trainers and teachers in learner-centred, androgogic methodology to build capacity and sustainability is also a major part of the work.

  7. On-line Versus Face-to-Face Education: Utilizing Technology to Increase Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    Company, 2001. Gould , Jay W., III. "Program Planning of Asynchronous On-Line Courses: Design Complexities and Ethics." Acquisition Review Quarterly...Vanessa, Juanita Johnson-Bailey,Scipio A.J. Colin, Elizabeth Peterson, and Stephen D. Brookfield. The Handbook of Race and Adult Education. San Francisco

  8. Challenges Faced by Graduate Business Education in Southern Africa: Perceptions of MBA Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temtime, Zelealem T.; Mmereki, Rebana N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the degree of satisfaction and perceived relevance of the Graduate Business Education (GBE) programme at the University of Botswana. Design/methodology/approach: A self-administered questionnaire and face to face interviews were used to collect data from Master of Business Administration (MBA)…

  9. The moral education of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, R

    1998-01-01

    The author begins his essay by discussing George Eliot's novel Middlemarch, in which a doctor, early in his career, wanders from his idealistic commitment to serving the poor. Although he establishes a prominent practice, he considers himself a failure because "he had not done what he once meant to do." The essay explores how many of us (physicians included) forsake certain ideals or principles--not in one grand gesture, but in moment-to-moment decisions, in day-to-day rationalizations and self-deceptions, until we find ourselves caught in lives whose implications we have long ago stopped examining, never mind judging. Medical education barrages students with information, fosters sometimes ruthless competition, and perpetuates rote memorization and an obsession with test scores--all of which stifle moral reflection. Apart from radically rethinking medical education (doing away with the MCAT, for example, as Lewis Thomas proposed), how can we teach students to consider what it means to be a good doctor? Calling upon the work of Eliot, Walker Percy, and others, the author discusses how the study of literature can broaden and deepen the inner lives of medical students and encourage moral reflectiveness.

  10. Facing Multiculturalism's Challenges in Korean Education and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olneck, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Multicultural policy in South Korea faces variants of challenges endemic to multiculturalism. These challenges are "dilemmas of difference," "variable terms of inclusion," and "legitimacy." In Korea, these challenges arise in a setting in which ethnic diversity is of relatively recent origin, an ideology of ethnic homogeneity is prevalent, and…

  11. Facing Multiculturalism's Challenges in Korean Education and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olneck, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Multicultural policy in South Korea faces variants of challenges endemic to multiculturalism. These challenges are "dilemmas of difference," "variable terms of inclusion," and "legitimacy." In Korea, these challenges arise in a setting in which ethnic diversity is of relatively recent origin, an ideology of ethnic…

  12. Trends in pathology graduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C B

    2001-07-01

    Comprehensive data show trends in graduate medical education in pathology with regard to the numbers of accredited programs, persons certified from those programs, and demographics of the population of first year-trainees in pathology. Experience with US seniors and foreign-trained physicians in the PGY match process for pathology from 1991 through 2000 is presented, along with data on the types of medical schools generating pathology trainees for the PGY-1 year and the top medical schools of origin of US medical graduates who completed the program and became certified in pathology between 1995 and 1999. The impact of reimbursement of the credentialing year is also addressed through data collected from the PRODS Survey 2000, and those results are reviewed. Finally, turnover rates among pathology program directors of combined AP/CP programs and subspecialty programs since 1994 are presented. An analysis of these trends is provided, along with suggestions to improve both the perception of careers in pathology and the actual choice of a career in pathology.

  13. The current medical education system in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Nobuo; Suzuki, Toshiya; Tohda, Shuji

    2011-07-04

    To contribute to the innovation of the medical education system in Japan, we visited 35 medical schools and 5 institutes in 12 countries of North America, Europe, Australia and Asia in 2008-2010 and observed the education system. We met the deans, medical education committee and administration affairs and discussed about the desirable education system. We also observed the facilities of medical schools.Medical education system shows marked diversity in the world. There are three types of education course; non-graduate-entry program(non-GEP), graduate-entry program(GEP) and mixed program of non-GEP and GEP. Even in the same country, several types of medical schools coexist. Although the education methods are also various among medical schools, most of the medical schools have introduced tutorial system based on PBL or TBL and simulation-based learning to create excellent medical physicians. The medical education system is variable among countries depending on the social environment. Although the change in education program may not be necessary in Japan, we have to innovate education methods; clinical training by clinical clerkship must be made more developed to foster the training of the excellent clinical physicians, and tutorial education by PBL or TBL and simulation-based learning should be introduced more actively.

  14. Networking in medical education: Creating and connecting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supe Avinash

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Social networking is being increasingly used as a tool of choice for communications and collaborations in business and higher education. Learning and practice become inseparable when professionals work in communities of practice that create interpersonal bonds and promote collective learning. Individual learning that arises from the critical reconstruction of practice, in the presence of peers and other health professionals, enhances a physician′s capability of clinical judgment and evidence-based practice. As such, it would be wise for medical schools, whose responsibility it is to prepare students to make a transition to adult life with the skills they need to succeed in both arenas, to reckon with it.

  15. The Changing Face of Creativity in Australian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anne; Ammermann, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Traditional ties between "arts" education (that is, discipline-based arts subjects and activities in schools) and an emergent notion of "creativity" in educational discourses and policy documents are loosening, with implications for both. While creativity seems to be on the ascent, the arts may not be as fortunate; creative…

  16. Facing Bilingual Education: Kindergarten Teachers' Attitudes, Strategies and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Mor-Sommerfeld, Aura; Leikin, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how majority-language teachers coping with additive education view their roles in a bilingual framework, how they perceive issues of culture and language in young bilingual children, and how they understand the term "bilingual education" in an L2 non-additive context. The study has been conducted in the context of…

  17. Red Bull, Starbucks, and the Changing Face of Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewbank, Ann Dutton; Foulger, Teresa S.; Carter, Heather L.

    2010-01-01

    Colleges of education are not using Facebook and other social media to their best advantage. Instead of building online communities, colleges of education tend to use social media merely for press releases. The innovative Facebook pages of five large corporations can serve as models for colleges wishing to improve their command of these media.

  18. Red Bull, Starbucks, and the Changing Face of Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewbank, Ann Dutton; Foulger, Teresa S.; Carter, Heather L.

    2010-01-01

    Colleges of education are not using Facebook and other social media to their best advantage. Instead of building online communities, colleges of education tend to use social media merely for press releases. The innovative Facebook pages of five large corporations can serve as models for colleges wishing to improve their command of these media.

  19. Problems Faced by Preservice Special Education Teachers in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hiary, Ghaleb M.; Almakanin, Hisham A.; Tabbal, Suha A.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important factors in the success of educating children with special needs is the quality of the special education teacher. While teachers are responsible for a plethora of duties, it is important that teacher preparation programs provide adequate training to ensure teachers are well prepared for the teaching profession. However,…

  20. Higher education in the face of XXI century challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svyrydenko Denys

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines “order of the day” of higher education modernization processes at the context of two major trends of social transformations at the beginning of ХХІ century – globalization processes and information society establishing ones. It is shown that as an answer to these tendencies higher education sphere is modernized by form in terms of organizational changes (actualization of distance learning ideas, virtual university model; organizational changes to correspond market realities etc. as well as by content (changes of pedagogical practices towards formation of personality of new type, transformation of educational content towards formation tolerant and multicultural world-view of students etc.. The author stands on position that there is a need of deep theoretical surveys used methods of philosophy of education to substantiate modernization processes. Mentioned surveys have potential to find the ways of qualitative incorporation of higher education sphere into complicate social dynamics of present days.

  1. Introducing Handheld Computing for Interactive Medical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Finkelstein

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this project were: (1 development of an interactive multimedia medical education tool (CO-ED utilizing modern features of handheld computing (PDA and major constructs of adult learning theories, and (2 pilot testing of the computer-assisted education in residents and clinicians. Comparison of the knowledge scores using paired t-test demonstrated statistically significant increase in subject knowledge (p<0.01 after using CO-ED. Attitudinal surveys were analyzed by total score (TS calculation represented as a percentage of a maximal possible score. The mean TS was 74.5±7.1%. None of the subjects (N=10 had TS less than 65% and in half of the subjects (N=5 TS was higher than 75%. Analysis of the semi-structured in-depth interviews showed strong support of the study subjects in using PDA as an educational tool, and high acceptance of CO-ED user interface. We concluded that PDA have a significant potential as a tool for clinician education.

  2. Commentary: "I hope i'll continue to grow": rubrics and reflective writing in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulehan, Jack; Granek, Iris A

    2012-01-01

    One respected tradition in medical education holds that physicians should struggle to maintain sensibility, openness, and compassion in the face of strong contravening tendencies. However, today's medical education is structured around a more recent tradition, which maintains that physicians should struggle to develop emotional detachment as a prerequisite for objectivity. In this model, sensibility and reflective capacity are potentially subversive. Reflective writing is one component of a revisionist approach to medical education that explicitly addresses reflective "habits of the mind" as core competencies and builds on existential concerns voiced by medical students. In response to Wald and colleagues' study, the authors reflect on the role of repeated formative feedback in developing reflective capacity. Formative feedback is as critical in this process as it is in traditional clinical learning. The authors emphasize that well-designed rubrics can assist learners in delineating desired outcomes and teachers in providing appropriate guidance.

  3. Medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics education perspectives in South East Europe in graduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijaljica, Goran

    2014-03-01

    Ethics has an established place within the medical curriculum. However notable differences exist in the programme characteristics of different schools of medicine. This paper addresses the main differences in the curricula of medical schools in South East Europe regarding education in medical ethics and bioethics, with a special emphasis on research ethics, and proposes a model curriculum which incorporates significant topics in all three fields. Teaching curricula of Medical Schools in Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro were acquired and a total of 14 were analyzed. Teaching hours for medical ethics and/or bioethics and year of study in which the course is taught were also analyzed. The average number of teaching hours in medical ethics and bioethics is 27.1 h per year. The highest national average number of teaching hours was in Croatia (47.5 h per year), and the lowest was in Serbia (14.8). In the countries of the European Union the mean number of hours given to ethics teaching throughout the complete curriculum was 44. In South East Europe, the maximum number of teaching hours is 60, while the minimum number is 10 teaching hours. Research ethics topics also show a considerable variance within the regional medical schools. Approaches to teaching research ethics vary, even within the same country. The proposed model for education in this area is based on the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Bioethics Core Curriculum. The model curriculum consists of topics in medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics, as a single course, over 30 teaching hours.

  4. 'Soft and fluffy': medical students' attitudes towards psychology in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Stephen; Wallace, Sarah; Nathan, Yoga; McGrath, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    Psychology is viewed by medical students in a negative light. In order to understand this phenomenon, we interviewed 19 medical students about their experiences of psychology in medical education. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Four main themes were generated: attitudes, teaching culture, curriculum factors and future career path; negative attitudes were transmitted by teachers to students and psychology was associated with students opting for a career in general practice. In summary, appreciation of psychology in medical education will only happen if all educators involved in medical education value and respect each other's speciality and expertise.

  5. Considering the changing face of social media in higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaree, Blaine A

    2015-08-01

    There is currently much ongoing consideration as to how educators can make use of new technologies to engage students. The prevalence of social media use within both private and professional circles has made these technologies increasingly important for educators. This commentary briefly outlines some of the ways social media has been used in higher education and also some of the primary concerns. Current and future trends are also addressed. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Media richness and social information processing: rationale for multifocal continuing medical education activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, S C; Turner, J W

    2001-01-01

    Academic business communication has studied the results of media selection in organizations. Little of this work has been discussed in the context of continuing medical education (CME); however, it may apply to improving the design of educational activities. This article reviews literature on media richness and social information processing theories. The concept of media richness suggests that media choice results from a match between the objective characteristics of the medium and the content requirements of a message. In this context, media include face-to-face conversation and print and electronic media. Social information processing theory suggests that media selection is also based on participants' social norms for how information is communicated in their environment and the participants' familiarity with specific media types. Appraisal of CME with respect to these theories suggests that the complex relationship of CME content and CME participant environments invites the most effective strategies of multiple media experienced over time in what might be called multifocal continuing medical education.

  7. Whither (Whether) Medical Humanities? The Future of Humanities and Arts in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    This special issue of "Journal for Learning through the Arts" focuses on the uses of literature and arts in medical education. The introductory article addresses current debate in the field of medical humanities (MH), namely the existential question of what is the purpose of integrating humanities/arts in medical education; and then examines how…

  8. Alcohol Medical Scholars Program--A Mentorship Program for Improving Medical Education regarding Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Karin J.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Hernandez-Avila, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    The Alcohol Medical Scholars Program (AMSP) is designed to improve medical education related to substance use disorders (SUDs) through mentorship of junior, full-time academic faculty from medical schools across the United States. Scholarship focuses on literature review and synthesis, lecture development and delivery, increasing SUD education in…

  9. Medical students as medical educators: opportunities for skill development in the absence of formal training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Michael J; Hafler, Janet P

    2011-09-01

    All physicians, at some point in their career, are responsible for the education of their peers and junior colleagues. Although medical students are expected to develop clinical and research skills in preparation for residency, it is becoming clear that a student should also be expected to develop abilities as a teacher. A handful of institutions have student-as-teacher programs to train medical students in education, but most students graduate from medical school without formal training in this area. When such a program does not exist, medical students can gain experience in education through participation in peer teaching, course design, educational committees, and medical education scholarship. In doing so, they attain important skills in the development, implementation, and evaluation of educational programs. These skills will serve them in their capacity as medical educators as they advance in their careers and gain increasing teaching responsibility as residents, fellows, and attending physicians. Copyright © 2011.

  10. Mobile Learning in Medical Education: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-10-01

    In the past several years, mobile learning made rapid inroads into the provision of medical education. There are significant advantages associated with mobile learning. These include high access, low cost, more situated and contextual learning, convenience for the learner, continuous communication and interaction between learner and tutor and between learner and other learners, and the ability to self-assess themselves while learning. Like any other form of medical pedagogy, mobile learning has its downsides. Disadvantages of mobile learning include: inadequate technology, a risk of distraction from learning by using a device that can be used for multiple purposes, and the potential for breakdown in barriers between personal usage of the mobile device and professional or educational use. Despite these caveats, there is no question but that mobile learning offers much potential. In the future, it is likely that the strategy of mobile first, whereby providers of e-learning think of the user experience on a mobile first, will result in learners who increasingly expect that all e-learning provision will work seamlessly on a mobile device.

  11. Competency based medical education in gastrointestinal motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadlapati, R; Keswani, R N; Pandolfino, J E

    2016-10-01

    Traditional apprenticeship-based medical education methods focusing on subjective evaluations and case-volume requirements do not reliably produce clinicians that provide high-quality care in unsupervised practice. Consequently, training approaches are shifting towards competency based medical education, which incorporates robust assessment methods and credible standards of physician proficiency. However, current gastroenterology and hepatology training in the US continues to utilize procedural volume and global impressions without standardized criteria as markers of competence. In particular, efforts to optimize competency based training in gastrointestinal (GI) motility are not underway, even though GI motility disorders account for nearly half of outpatient gastroenterology visits. These deficiencies compromise the quality of patient care. Thus, there is a great need and opportunity to shift our focus in GI motility training towards a competency based approach. First, we need to clarify the variable rates of learning for individual diagnostic tests. We must develop integrated systems that standardize training and monitor physician competency for GI motility diagnostics. Finally, as a profession and society, we must create certification processes to credential competent physicians. These advances are critical to optimizing the quality of GI motility diagnostics in practice.

  12. Affordances of knowledge translation in medical education: a qualitative exploration of empirical knowledge use among medical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyura, Betty; Légaré, France; Baker, Lindsay; Reeves, Scott; Rosenfield, Jay; Kitto, Simon; Hodges, Brian; Silver, Ivan; Curran, Vernon; Armson, Heather; Leslie, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about knowledge translation processes within medical education. Specifically, there is scant research on how and whether faculty incorporate empirical medical education knowledge into their educational practices. The authors use the conceptual framework of affordances to examine factors within the medical education practice environment that influence faculty utilization of empirical knowledge. In 2012, the authors, using a purposive sampling strategy, recruited medical education leaders in undergraduate medical education from a Canadian university. Recruits all had direct teaching and curricular development roles in either preclinical or clinical courses across the four years of the undergraduate curriculum. Data were collected through individual semistructured interviews on participants' use of empirical evidence, as well as the factors that influence integration of empirical knowledge into practice. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Fifteen medical educators participated. The authors identified both constraining and facilitating affordances of empirical medical education knowledge use. Constraining affordances included poor quality and availability of evidence, inadequate knowledge delivery approaches, work and role overload, faculty and student change resistance, and resource limitations. Facilitating affordances included faculty development, peer recommendations, and local involvement in medical education knowledge creation. Affordances of the medical education practice environment influence empirical knowledge use. Developing strategies for effective knowledge translation thus requires careful assessment of contextual factors that can enable, constrain, or inhibit evidence use. Empirical knowledge use is most likely to occur among medical educators who are afforded rich, facilitative opportunities for participation in creating, seeking, and implementing knowledge.

  13. Education Innovation: Case Studies in e-Learning and Face-to-Face Teaching in Higher Education: What is the Best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, J. A.

    Education innovation is here to stay. This chapter gives the results of a study of the application of information and communication technology to advanced teaching and learning activities. It is strategically important that the technology opens up new ways of teaching and learning. The purpose of this chapter is firstly to identify the typical advanced teaching and learning activities/functions that can be applied in e-Learning and face-to-face teaching and learning. Case studies were selected from a group of teachers who have already been involved in both teaching modes for some years and thus have experience in blended teaching and learning. A number of teaching activities/functions were seen as positive in their application in the e-Learning situation. Those that stand out are peer review and collaboration, promotion of reflection and stimulation of critical and creative thinking, team teaching, promotion of discovery/extension of knowledge, and problematization of the curriculum. In face-to-face teaching and learning, inviting engagement, how to come to know, involving metaphors and analogies, teaching that connects to learning, inspire change, promote understanding, and others stand out. As seen by the teachers in the case studies, both e-Learning and face-to-face teaching and learning are seen as complementary to each other. We define this view as blended teaching and learning.

  14. Profile of graduates of Israeli medical schools in 1981--2000: educational background, demography and evaluation of medical education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterman, Noemi; Shalev, Ilana

    2005-05-01

    In light of changes in the medical profession, the different requirements placed on physicians and the evolving needs of the healthcare system, the need arose to examine the medical education curriculum in Israel. This survey, conducted by the Samuel Neaman Institute for Science and Technology, summarizes 20 years of medical education in Israel's four medical schools, as the first stage in mapping the existing state of medical education in Israel and providing a basis for decision-making on future medical education programs. To characterize the academic background of graduates, evaluate their attitudes towards current and alternative medical education programs, and examine subgroups among graduates according to gender, medical school, high school education, etc. The survey included graduates from all four Israeli medical schools who graduated between the years 1981 and 2000 in a sample of 1:3. A questionnaire and stamped return envelope were sent to every third graduate; the questionnaire included open and quantitative questions graded on a scale of 1 to 5. The data were processed for the entire graduate population and further analyzed according to subgroups such as medical schools, gender, high school education, etc. The response rate was 41.3%. The survey provided a demographic profile of graduates over a 20 year period, their previous educational and academic background, additional academic degrees achieved, satisfaction, and suggestions for future medical education programs. The profile of the medical graduates in Israel is mostly homogenous in terms of demographics, with small differences among the four medical schools. In line with recommendations of the graduates, and as an expression of the changing requirements in the healthcare system and the medical profession, the medical schools should consider alternative medical education programs such as a bachelor's degree in life sciences followed by MD studies, or education programs that combine medicine with

  15. The Multiple Faces of Peer Review in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Kenneth

    2002-04-01

    I use autobiographical narratives to describe and analyse my involvement in peer review activities in science education and to illustrate their historical, social and cultural constitution. I explore ways in which peer review and science education have interrelated in 30-plus years in which I have been a science educator. I employ cultural sociology and activity theory to identify patterns of coherence and coexisting contradictions that create tensions able to catalyse improvements in science education. I argue that early career science educators need a gradual induction into peer review activities, preferably increasing their effectiveness by coparticipating with more experienced colleagues. Also, I critically examine my roles as a peer reviewer, within various contexts that include being an editor of journals and a book series, an examiner of dissertations and an advisor of graduate students, and as a reviewer of applications for tenure and promotion. In so doing I probe power relationships between the reviewer and the reviewed and explore the possibility that peer review is hegemonic. Finally, I present strategies for science educators to reach a collective understanding of how to enact peer review equitably.

  16. Diagnostic Reasoning across the Medical Education Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Scott Smith

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to study linguistic and non-linguistic elements of diagnostic reasoning across the continuum of medical education. We performed semi-structured interviews of premedical students, first year medical students, third year medical students, second year internal medicine residents, and experienced faculty (ten each as they diagnosed three common causes of dyspnea. A second observer recorded emotional tone. All interviews were digitally recorded and blinded transcripts were created. Propositional analysis and concept mapping were performed. Grounded theory was used to identify salient categories and transcripts were scored with these categories. Transcripts were then unblinded. Systematic differences in propositional structure, number of concept connections, distribution of grounded theory categories, episodic and semantic memories, and emotional tone were identified. Summary concept maps were created and grounded theory concepts were explored for each learning level. We identified three major findings: (1 The “apprentice effect” in novices (high stress and low narrative competence; (2 logistic concept growth in intermediates; and (3 a cognitive state transition (between analytical and intuitive approaches in experts. These findings warrant further study and comparison.

  17. Training of Leadership Skills in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesewetter, Jan; Schmidt-Huber, Marion; Netzel, Janine; Krohn, Alexandra C.; Angstwurm, Matthias; Fischer, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Effective team performance is essential in the delivery of high-quality health-care. Leadership skills therefore are an important part of physicians’ everyday clinical life. To date, the development of leadership skills are underrepresented in medical curricula. Appropriate training methods for equipping doctors with these leadership skills are highly desirable. Objective: The review aims to summarize the findings in the current literature regarding training in leadership skills in medicine and tries to integrate the findings to guide future research and training development. Method: The PubMED, ERIC, and PsycArticles, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX and Academic search complete of EBSCOhost were searched for training of leadership skills in medicine in German and English. Relevant articles were identified and findings were integrated and consolidated regarding the leadership principles, target group of training and number of participants, temporal resources of the training, training content and methods, the evaluation design and trainings effects. Results: Eight studies met all inclusion criteria and no exclusion criteria. The range of training programs is very broad and leadership skill components are diverse. Training designs implied theoretical reflections of leadership phenomena as well as discussions of case studies from practice. The duration of training ranged from several hours to years. Reactions of participants to trainings were positive, yet no behavioral changes through training were examined. Conclusions: More research is needed to understand the factors critical to success in the development of leadership skills in medical education and to adapt goal-oriented training methods. Requirements analysis might help to gain knowledge about the nature of leadership skills in medicine. The authors propose a stronger focus on behavioral training methods like simulation-based training for leadership skills in medical education. PMID:24282452

  18. Toward Social Accountability of Medical Education in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Entezari

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nFour values of social accountability are, relevance, quality, cost effectiveness and equity, as they pertain to the activities of medi­cal schools, namely education, research and service. Integration of medical education into health service provision is the best strategy for health system responsiveness and social accountability of medical education.

  19. Cost in Medical Education: One Hundred and Twenty Years Ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-01-01

    The first full paper that is dedicated to cost in medical education appears in the "BMJ" in 1893. This paper "The cost of a medical education" outlines the likely costs associated with undergraduate education at the end of the nineteenth century, and offers guidance to the student on how to make financial planning. Many lessons…

  20. Education and Moral Respect for the Medical Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I argue that medical education must remain attuned to the interests that physicians have in their own self-development despite ongoing calls for ethics education aimed at ensuring physicians maintain focus on the interests of the patient and society. In particular, I argue that medical education should advance (and abide by) criteria…

  1. Accreditation of Medical Education in China: Accomplishments and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing

    2014-01-01

    As an external review mechanism, accreditation has played a positive global role in quality assurance and promotion of educational reform. Accreditation systems for medical education have been developed in more than 100 countries including China. In the past decade, Chinese standards for basic medical education have been issued together with…

  2. [Design and implementation of a competency-based curriculum for medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risco de Domínguez, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    Competency-based education is a form of designing, developing, delivering and documenting instruction based on a set of objectives and results that have been recommended for medical education. This article describes the steps in the process of designing and implementing a competency-based curriculum at a new medical school in a Peruvian university. We present the process followed including context analysis, mission design, the professional profile, the content and organization of the curriculum as well as the evaluation and resources for the training. Finally, issues and challenges faced, as well as lessons learned are summarized.

  3. Te Kotahitanga: Addressing Educational Disparities Facing Maori Students in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Russell; Berryman, Mere; Cavanagh, Tom; Teddy, Lani

    2009-01-01

    The major challenges facing education in New Zealand today are the continuing social, economic and political disparities within our nation, primarily between the descendants of the European colonisers and the Indigenous Maori people. These disparities are also reflected in educational outcomes. In this paper, an Indigenous Maori Peoples' solution…

  4. Advances in medical education and practice: student perceptions of the flipped classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramnanan CJ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Christopher J Ramnanan,1 Lynley D Pound2 1Department of Innovation in Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, 2Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, ON, Canada Abstract: The flipped classroom (FC approach to teaching has been increasingly employed in undergraduate medical education in recent years. In FC applications, students are first exposed to content via online resources. Subsequent face-to-face class time can then be devoted to student-centered activities that promote active learning. Although the FC has been well received by students in other contexts, the perceptions of medical students regarding this innovation are unclear. This review serves as an early exploration into medical student perceptions of benefits and limitations of the FC. Medical students have generally expressed strong appreciation for the pre-class preparation activities (especially when facilitated by concise, readily accessed online tools as well as for interactive, engaging small group classroom activities. Some students have expressed concerns with the FC and noted that suboptimal student preparation and insufficient direction and structure during active learning sessions may limit the student-centered benefits. Although students generally perceive that FC approaches can improve their learning and knowledge, this has not been conclusively shown via performances on assessment tools, which may be related to caveats with the assessment tools used. In any case, lifelong self-directed learning skills are perceived by medical students to be enhanced by the FC. In conclusion, medical students have generally expressed strong satisfaction with early applications of the FC to undergraduate medical education, and generally prefer this method to lecture-based instruction. Keywords: flipped classroom, active learning, student perceptions, undergraduate medical education, medical student, case-based learning, problem-based learning, team

  5. Evaluation of face-validity of multiple choice questions in special lessons of dentistry at Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H Toodehzaiem

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluation is an important part of all educational activities and considering of these evaluations help us to improve all educational institutes . The aim of this study was evaluation of face validity of multiple choice questions in faculty of dentistry in second semester of 1385-1386 at Shahid Sadughi University of medical sciences. Methods : In this study, for evaluating of face validity, all of the multiple choice questions were examined with a check list which were considered and the percentage of face validity established . Then data were analyzed. Results : Introduction page, time of the exam and name of the professor(s were written in all of the exams. The independency of the questions and the lack of vague words in the question's stem were 100%. The percentage of each professor's contribution in the exam and the length of the choices for each question were 8.7% and 27.7% respectively. Conclusion : Face validity of the questions was 92-99.7%. According to this investigation it is concluded that some of the professors need to pass the question plan courses.

  6. Mobile technologies in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 105.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Ken; Ellaway, Rachel H; Topps, David; Archibald, Douglas; Hogue, Rebecca J

    2016-06-01

    Mobile technologies (including handheld and wearable devices) have the potential to enhance learning activities from basic medical undergraduate education through residency and beyond. In order to use these technologies successfully, medical educators need to be aware of the underpinning socio-theoretical concepts that influence their usage, the pre-clinical and clinical educational environment in which the educational activities occur, and the practical possibilities and limitations of their usage. This Guide builds upon the previous AMEE Guide to e-Learning in medical education by providing medical teachers with conceptual frameworks and practical examples of using mobile technologies in medical education. The goal is to help medical teachers to use these concepts and technologies at all levels of medical education to improve the education of medical and healthcare personnel, and ultimately contribute to improved patient healthcare. This Guide begins by reviewing some of the technological changes that have occurred in recent years, and then examines the theoretical basis (both social and educational) for understanding mobile technology usage. From there, the Guide progresses through a hierarchy of institutional, teacher and learner needs, identifying issues, problems and solutions for the effective use of mobile technology in medical education. This Guide ends with a brief look to the future.

  7. Simulation in Medical School Education: Review for Emergency Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Lotfipour

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Medical education is rapidly evolving. With the paradigm shift to small-group didactic sessions and focus on clinically oriented case-based scenarios, simulation training has provided educators a novel way to deliver medical education in the 21st century. The field continues to expand in scope and practice and is being incorporated into medical school clerkship education, and specifically in emergency medicine (EM. The use of medical simulation in graduate medical education is well documented. Our aim in this article is to perform a retrospective review of the current literature, studying simulation use in EM medical student clerkships. Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of simulation in teaching basic science, clinical knowledge, procedural skills, teamwork, and communication skills. As simulation becomes increasingly prevalent in medical school curricula, more studies are needed to assess whether simulation training improves patient-related outcomes.

  8. Simulation in medical school education: review for emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Bharath; Ter Haar, Elizabeth; Bhat, Srinidhi Subraya; McCoy, Christopher Eric; Denmark, T Kent; Lotfipour, Shahram

    2011-11-01

    Medical education is rapidly evolving. With the paradigm shift to small-group didactic sessions and focus on clinically oriented case-based scenarios, simulation training has provided educators a novel way to deliver medical education in the 21st century. The field continues to expand in scope and practice and is being incorporated into medical school clerkship education, and specifically in emergency medicine (EM). The use of medical simulation in graduate medical education is well documented. Our aim in this article is to perform a retrospective review of the current literature, studying simulation use in EM medical student clerkships. Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of simulation in teaching basic science, clinical knowledge, procedural skills, teamwork, and communication skills. As simulation becomes increasingly prevalent in medical school curricula, more studies are needed to assess whether simulation training improves patient-related outcomes.

  9. Medical Education: Barefoot Doctors, Health Care, Health Education, Nursing Education, Pharmacy Education, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Franklin

    1987-01-01

    This is Part II of a two-part annotated bibliography of selected references on medical education in the People's Republic of China. The references date from 1913 to 1982. Most of the references are from the 1960's and 1970's. (RH)

  10. Medical Student Attitudes about Mental Illness: Does Medical-School Education Reduce Stigma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…

  11. Acknowledging Stress in Undergraduate Medical Education and Methods of Overcoming it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjwala Jayant kulkarni

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Medical education is very demanding and stressful. Medical undergraduates face social, emotional and physical problems due to stress which affect their learning ability, academic performance and patient care. When students look at their education as a challenge, stress can bring them a sense of competence and increased capacity to learn but when education is seen as a threat, such stress can elicit feelings of helplessness. Each year of medical education is characterized having unique stress. Hence, present study was undertaken to examine coping strategies of first and second year medical undergraduates and to suggest different methods to attenuate them. The prospective data was collected from first and second year medical undergraduates enrolled at MGM Medical College, Kamothe Navi Mumbai, by using prevalidated questionnaire. The questionnaire probed to find out emotional maturity , problem solving ability, guidance needed for the career planning, problems related to health due to stress, availability of nutritious food and time for grooming as well as coping strategies in various situations. Data analysis was done by using Likert scale (1-4 points and results were tabulated in the form of percentage. The cause of stress observed among medical undergraduates was academic, financial as well as emotional and their coping strategies were poor. Hence it is suggested to take corrective measures at various levels like institutional level, students’ level as well as parents should be concealed to develop and inculcate adaptive coping skills in medical undergraduates.

  12. Why decision support systems are important for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Stathis Th; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2016-03-01

    During the last decades, the inclusion of digital tools in health education has rapidly lead to a continuously enlarging digital era. All the online interactions between learners and tutors, the description, creation, reuse and sharing of educational digital resources and the interlinkage between them in conjunction with cheap storage technology has led to an enormous amount of educational data. Medical education is a unique type of education due to accuracy of information needed, continuous changing competences required and alternative methods of education used. Nowadays medical education standards provide the ground for organising the educational data and the paradata. Analysis of such education data through education data mining techniques is in its infancy, but decision support systems (DSSs) for medical education need further research. To the best of our knowledge, there is a gap and a clear need for identifying the challenges for DSSs in medical education in the era of medical education standards. Thus, in this Letter the role and the attributes of such a DSS for medical education are delineated and the challenges and vision for future actions are identified.

  13. Facing Ambivalence in Education: A Strange(r's) Hope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansson, Niclas; Langmann, Elisabet

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how our understanding of ambivalence would shift if we saw it as an inherent and essential part of the ordinary work of education. Following Bauman's sociology of the stranger and Derrida's deconstructions of hospitality, the article unfolds in three parts. In the first part we discuss the preconditions of modern education…

  14. Urban America and Crucial Issues Facing Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert L.

    Today's university is an active, political force within our society which must actively commit its resources to the eradication of urban problems such as racism, poverty, health care, infant mortality, drug abuse, inferior housing, unemployment, education, transportation, and so on. First and foremost, the "white mask" of the university must be…

  15. Challenges Facing Blended Learning in Higher Education in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Raymond; Tham, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the current stage of development of blended learning in higher education in China, South Korea and Japan, with a comparison to the city state of Singapore. It is noted that blended learning and e-learning are introduced at institutes of higher learning in these countries with varying

  16. Challenges Facing Blended Learning in Higher Education in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Raymond; Tham, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the current stage of development of blended learning in higher education in China, South Korea and Japan, with a comparison to the city state of Singapore. It is noted that blended learning and e-learning are introduced at institutes of higher learning in these countries with varying

  17. China's Social Work Education in the Face of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Between 1952 and 1979, social work was banned as an academic discipline, and social workers relied on experience alone in carrying out their duties. Since then social work training has been offered in universities and vocational schools; and existing social workers have received in-service training. However, social work education is still in its…

  18. Globalization in the Face of Standardization: Implications for Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Rocio; Norman, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    As globalization affects political and economic systems, cultures, and the environment, it affects the educational needs of a globalized workforce. In this complex, fast-evolving knowledge economy, workers must possess analytic skills, creativity, flexibility, and innovation. They need oral and written communication skills and the disposition to…

  19. Empathy in medical education: A case for social construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfield, Laura E; Underman, Kelly

    2017-04-01

    In this brief review, we build upon suggestions in Pedersen's [1] excellent critical review of empathy research in medical education and make the case for an increase in social constructivist scholarship related to emotions and empathy within medical education contexts. In the process, we define social construction, as well as provide several key opportunities in which these types of theories could provide insights for medical educators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Undocumented students pursuing medical education: The implications of deferred action for childhood arrivals (DACA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderas-Medina Anaya, Yohualli; del Rosario, Mithi; Doyle, Lawrence Hy; Hayes-Bautista, David E

    2014-12-01

    There are about 1.8 million young immigrants in the United States who came or were brought to the country without documentation before the age of 16. These youth have been raised and educated in the United States and have aspirations and educational achievements similar to those of their native-born peers. However, their undocumented status has hindered their pursuit of higher education, especially in medical and other graduate health sciences. Under a new discretionary policy, Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA), many of these young immigrants are eligible to receive permission to reside and work in the United States. DACA defers deportation of eligible, undocumented youth and grants lawful presence in the United States, work permits, Social Security numbers, and, in most states, driver's licenses. These privileges have diminished the barriers undocumented students traditionally have faced in obtaining higher education, specifically in pursuing medicine. With the advent of DACA, students are slowly matriculating into U.S. medical schools and residencies. However, this applicant pool remains largely untapped. In the face of a physician shortage and the implementation of the Affordable Care Act, an increase in matriculation of qualified undocumented students would be greatly beneficial. This Perspective is intended to begin discussion within the academic medicine community of the implications of DACA in reducing barriers for the selection and matriculation of undocumented medical students and residents. Moreover, this Perspective is a call to peers in the medical community to support undocumented students seeking access to medical school, residency, and other health professions.

  1. Information technology and its role in anaesthesia training and continuing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Larry F; Erlendson, Matthew J; Sun, John S; Clemenson, Anna M; Martin, Paul; Eng, Reuben L

    2012-03-01

    Today's educators are faced with substantial challenges in the use of information technology for anaesthesia training and continuing medical education. Millennial learners have uniquely different learning styles than previous generations of students. These preferences distinctly incorporate the use of digital information technologies and social technologies to support learning. To be effective teachers, modern educators must be familiar with these new information technologies and understand how to use them for medical education. Examples of new information technologies include learning management systems, lecture capture, social media (YouTube, Flickr), social networking (Facebook), Web 2.0, multimedia (video learning triggers and point-of-view video) and mobile computing applications. The information technology challenges for educators in the twenty-first century include: (a) understanding how technology shapes the learning preferences of today's anaesthesia residents, (b) distinguishing between the function and properties of new learning technologies and (c) properly using these learning technologies to enhance the anaesthesia curriculum.

  2. Computerised provider order entry and residency education in an academic medical centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Brian; Kuper, Ayelet; Robinson, Nicole; Morra, Dante; Etchells, Edward; Wu, Robert; Shojania, Kaveh

    2012-08-01

    Many academic medical centres (AMCs) have introduced institutional policies, changed processes of care and implemented new technologies to improve health care quality. The impact of such changes on medical education has received little attention. We examine the impact of computerised provider order entry (CPOE) on the educational experiences of medical trainees who work and train in AMCs. We conducted semi-structured interviews of postgraduate trainees and attending physicians in internal medicine at five AMCs (two with CPOE, three without CPOE). Trainees routinely rotate from CPOE to non-CPOE AMCs, whereas some attending physicians work at both types of AMC and are therefore well positioned to reflect on differences between CPOE and non-CPOE learning environments. Data collection and analysis used grounded theory methods. We sampled purposively until we achieved theoretical saturation. Our study included 11 residents and six attending physicians. Computerised provider order entry had both positive and negative impacts on five aspects of postgraduate training: (i) learning (better for medication interactions and availability of learning resources; worse for learning medication doses); (ii) teaching (more medication information available to enhance case discussions; fewer face-to-face teaching opportunities); (iii) feedback (improved ability to observe medication ordering behaviours to inform feedback; less provision of direct feedback); (iv) clinical supervision (facilitates efficient and safe supervision from a distance; may impede trainee independence), and (v) trainee assessment (increased opportunity to assess clinical decision-making and organisational skills). We identify five key educational themes that are positively and negatively impacted by CPOE. These themes form a conceptual framework that could be applied to define the educational impact of other health care quality and patient safety practices. This will help educators to identify educational

  3. Nurses’ attitudes and behaviors on patient medication education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen JF

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication education is vital for positive patient outcomes. However, there is limited information about optimal medication education by nurses during hospitalization and care transitions. Objective: Examine nurses’ attitudes and behaviors regarding the provision of patient medication education. The secondary objectives were to determine if nurses’ medication education attitudes explain their behaviors, describe nurses’ confidence in patient medication knowledge and abilities, and identify challenges to and improvements for medication education. Methods: A cross sectional survey was administered to nurses servicing internal medicine, cardiology, or medical-surgical patients. Results: Twenty-four nurses completed the survey. Greater than 90% of nurses believed it is important to provide information on new medications and medical conditions, utilize resources, assess patient understanding and adherence, and use open ended question. Only 58% believed it is important to provide information on refill medications. Greater than 80% of nurses consistently provided information on new medications, assessed patient understanding, and utilized resources, but one-third or less used open-ended questions or provided information on refill medications. Most nurses spend 5-9 minutes per patient on medication education and their attitudes matched the following medication education behaviors: assessing adherence (0.57; p<0.01, providing information on new medications (0.52; p<0.05, using open-ended questions (0.51; p<0.01, and providing information on refill medications (0.39; p<0.05. Nurses had higher confidence that patients can understand and follow medication instructions, and identify names and purpose of their medications. Nurses had lower confidence that patients know what to expect from their medication or how to manage potential side effects. Communication, including language barriers and difficulty determining the patient

  4. Education to Face the Wicked Challenges of Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bland Tomkinson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The nature of sustainable development requires new paradigms for education. Issues of sustainability are ‘wicked problems’ that do not lend themselves to conventional didactic approaches. The challenge for higher education is to examine interdisciplinary approaches to global societal responsibility and, within this, issues of education for sustainable development. Approach: A project, sponsored by the Royal Academy of Engineering, developed a course unit in sustainable development across several disciplines. The approach was initially pedagogic in nature, with a strong evaluative theme. At the same time, a Delphi study was undertaken by the same team and this inter-relates with the main project. The focus of the action research was a series of ‘wicked’ problems that would provide real-world challenges with no simple answers. Results: The project was evaluated in a number of ways, not least the pre-and post-testing of students’ attitudes and approaches, but also using nominal group techniques. The project demonstrated that an interdisciplinary PBL approach succeeded in deepening the learning of the students as well as developing key skills. Conclusion: The use of collaborative, group-based approaches, notably PBL, offers a key way of approaching the design of curricula for sustainable development and other areas of global societal responsibility that hinge on ‘wicked problems’.

  5. EDUCATION AND YOUNG FACE OF DEMANDING JOB MARKET BRAZILIAN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Raza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses an analysis of public policies applied to education and their influence on economic development and social rise of workers in the Brazilian labor market, which requires efficient, economically productive people in constant training. It aims at examining the overall efficiency of the management model of educational public policies, as well as the teaching process and preparation of young people to the labor market. From the results of this study, we can conclude that there is a huge gap between institutions of secondary education and the labor market; we discussed questions such as how school refusal is caused by disinterest and lack of relationship between theory and practice, required for the insertion of the young in the labor market, as well as the lack of integration among schools, businesses and society. Thus, it is proved necessary to adopt more efficient policies to decrease the distance or lack of preparation of the young to develop the country's economic and bring social development.

  6. Advances in medical education and practice: student perceptions of the flipped classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnanan, Christopher J; Pound, Lynley D

    2017-01-01

    The flipped classroom (FC) approach to teaching has been increasingly employed in undergraduate medical education in recent years. In FC applications, students are first exposed to content via online resources. Subsequent face-to-face class time can then be devoted to student-centered activities that promote active learning. Although the FC has been well received by students in other contexts, the perceptions of medical students regarding this innovation are unclear. This review serves as an early exploration into medical student perceptions of benefits and limitations of the FC. Medical students have generally expressed strong appreciation for the pre-class preparation activities (especially when facilitated by concise, readily accessed online tools) as well as for interactive, engaging small group classroom activities. Some students have expressed concerns with the FC and noted that suboptimal student preparation and insufficient direction and structure during active learning sessions may limit the student-centered benefits. Although students generally perceive that FC approaches can improve their learning and knowledge, this has not been conclusively shown via performances on assessment tools, which may be related to caveats with the assessment tools used. In any case, lifelong self-directed learning skills are perceived by medical students to be enhanced by the FC. In conclusion, medical students have generally expressed strong satisfaction with early applications of the FC to undergraduate medical education, and generally prefer this method to lecture-based instruction. PMID:28144171

  7. Advances in medical education and practice: student perceptions of the flipped classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnanan, Christopher J; Pound, Lynley D

    2017-01-01

    The flipped classroom (FC) approach to teaching has been increasingly employed in undergraduate medical education in recent years. In FC applications, students are first exposed to content via online resources. Subsequent face-to-face class time can then be devoted to student-centered activities that promote active learning. Although the FC has been well received by students in other contexts, the perceptions of medical students regarding this innovation are unclear. This review serves as an early exploration into medical student perceptions of benefits and limitations of the FC. Medical students have generally expressed strong appreciation for the pre-class preparation activities (especially when facilitated by concise, readily accessed online tools) as well as for interactive, engaging small group classroom activities. Some students have expressed concerns with the FC and noted that suboptimal student preparation and insufficient direction and structure during active learning sessions may limit the student-centered benefits. Although students generally perceive that FC approaches can improve their learning and knowledge, this has not been conclusively shown via performances on assessment tools, which may be related to caveats with the assessment tools used. In any case, lifelong self-directed learning skills are perceived by medical students to be enhanced by the FC. In conclusion, medical students have generally expressed strong satisfaction with early applications of the FC to undergraduate medical education, and generally prefer this method to lecture-based instruction.

  8. Troubling Muddy Waters: Problematizing Reflective Practice in Global Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Thirusha; Kumagai, Arno K

    2016-03-01

    The idea of exporting the concept of reflective practice for a global medical education audience is growing. However, the uncritical export and adoption of Western concepts of reflection may be inappropriate in non-Western societies. The emphasis in Western medical education on the use of reflection for a specific end--that is, the improvement of individual clinical practice--tends to ignore the range of reflective practice, concentrating on reflection alone while overlooking critical reflection and reflexivity. This Perspective places the concept of reflective practice under a critical lens to explore a broader view for its application in medical education outside the West. The authors suggest that ideas about reflection in medicine and medical education may not be as easily transferable from Western to non-Western contexts as concepts from biomedical science are. The authors pose the question, When "exporting" Western medical education strategies and principles, how often do Western-trained educators authentically open up to the possibility that there are alternative ways of seeing and knowing that may be valuable in educating Western physicians? One answer lies in the assertion that educators should aspire to turn exportation of educational theory into a truly bidirectional, collaborative exchange in which culturally conscious views of reflective practice contribute to humanistic, equitable patient care. This discussion engages in troubling the already-muddy waters of reflective practice by exploring the global applicability of reflective practice as it is currently applied in medical education. The globalization of medical education demands critical reflection on reflection itself.

  9. Satisfaction of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences\\' alumni about the quality of medical education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S.J. Mirmohammadi; A. H. Mehrparvar; M. Bahaloo; M. H. Davari

    2013-01-01

    .... opinion of alumni in assessment of the quality of education is important, This study aims to assess the quality of medical education in basic and clinical sciences according to the opinion of alumni...

  10. Twelve tips on how to compile a medical educator's portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Claudia Lucy; Wilson, Anthony; Agius, Steven

    2017-09-17

    Medical education is an expanding area of specialist interest for medical professionals. Whilst most doctors will be familiar with the compilation of clinical portfolios for scrutiny of their clinical practice and provision of public accountability, teaching portfolios used specifically to gather and demonstrate medical education activity remain uncommon in many non-academic settings. For aspiring and early career medical educators in particular, their value should not be underestimated. Such a medical educator's portfolio (MEP) is a unique compendium of evidence that is invaluable for appraisal, revalidation, and promotion. It can stimulate and provide direction for professional development, and is a rich source for personal reflection and learning. We recommend that all new and aspiring medical educators prepare an MEP, and suggest twelve tips on how to skillfully compile one.

  11. [Humanities in medical education: between reduction and integration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Taehee

    2015-09-01

    Reductive logic has been a major reasoning style in development of modern biomedical sciences. However, when "medical humanities" is developed by reductive reasoning, integrative and holistic values of humanities tend to be weakened. In that sense, identity and significance of "medical humanities" continue to be controversial despite of its literal clarity. Humanities in medical education should be established by strengthening humanistic and socialistic aspects of regular medical curriculum as well as developing individual "medical humanities" programs.

  12. The Government-Medical Education Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Califano, Joseph A., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Issues addressed in this speech to the Association of American Medical Colleges include: oversupply of doctors, geographic maldistribution, demographic changes needed by medical schools, federal strategies, medical ethics, preventive medicine, and the economics of health care.

  13. A Review of Medical Education and Medical Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, R. Brian; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Information technology may help physicians to manage information more effectively through more accessible clinical indexes, databases of diagnostic test characteristics, computerized audits of clinical activities, on-line access to medical literature, etc. Medical informatics, a new discipline dedicated to the solution of information problems in…

  14. The Current State of Medical Education in Chinese Medical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosik, Russell Oliver; Huang, Lei; Cai, Qiaoling; Xu, Guo-Tong; Zhao, Xudong; Guo, Li; Tang, Wen; Chen, Qi; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Today's doctor is as much a humanist as a scientist. Medical schools have responded to this change by introducing a variety of courses, most notably those concerning the humanities and ethics. Thus far, no one has examined the extent of use of these subjects in Chinese medical schools. The goal of this study is to determine how many and in…

  15. Perspectives on management education: an exploratory study of UK and Portuguese medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Henrique M G; Detmer, Don E; Rubery, Eileen

    2005-09-01

    Healthcare management is becoming extremely important and large health organizations face increasing demands for leadership and system change. The role of doctors is pivotal but their relationship with management issues and practice has been a matter of long-lasting debate. The aim of this research was to establish opinions of medical students and other medical educational stakeholders on the value and structure of a management and leadership course in medical school. A survey of undergraduate medical students from two medical schools (n = 268) was carried out, and quantitative and qualitative data were analysed and compared with opinions collected from interviews with hospital managers and clinical professors. Portuguese medical students attributed higher relevance to leadership/management education than their UK counterparts. For both groups, such a course would be best: (1) situated in the clinical years, (2) optional and (3) one term/semester long. Main topics desired were 'Managing people/team management'; 'National Health Service'; 'Doctors and Leadership', 'Costs/prices and resource management'. In conclusion, leadership/management education is perceived as relevant but its inclusion in the medical curriculum as well as its content needs careful consideration. Education in informatics and knowledge management would also provide a positive contribution to professional development but is scarcely appreciated at present.

  16. 76 FR 63612 - National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation Meeting AGENCY: National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation, Office of Postsecondary Education, U.S. Department of... of the National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation (NCFMEA). For each...

  17. Resistance to medical educational change: management and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsuen-Chiuan

    2007-01-01

    Medical education in Taiwan is currently undergoing active renovation. Reform and changes always bring resistance from the levels of individuals, institution and even the society. As an educational leader, to be able to manage resistance is a key to successful reform. This review article provides management strategies and communication skills to solve the resistance problem. The best solution to the problem is "to prevent" resistance from happening through identifying those who may be reluctant to change, and the reasons behind the potential resistance. Some of the reasons for resistance are threatening of self-interest and a loss of face, excess uncertainty, conservatism, fear of personal-worth declination in the organization, and different assessment or perception. The management and communication strategies are suggested to adjust to fit reform process, i.e., recognizing the needs for change, planning process, implementation, and institutionalization innovation. Finally, it is only with respect, empathy, sincerity and support that the resistance to changes can be resolved and difficulties can be overcome.

  18. Virtual patient simulator for distributed collaborative medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudell, Thomas P; Summers, Kenneth L; Holten, Jim; Hakamata, Takeshi; Mowafi, Moad; Jacobs, Joshua; Lozanoff, Beth K; Lozanoff, Scott; Wilks, David; Keep, Marcus F; Saiki, Stanley; Alverson, Dale

    2003-01-01

    Project TOUCH (Telehealth Outreach for Unified Community Health; http://hsc.unm.edu/touch) investigates the feasibility of using advanced technologies to enhance education in an innovative problem-based learning format currently being used in medical school curricula, applying specific clinical case models, and deploying to remote sites/workstations. The University of New Mexico's School of Medicine and the John A. Burns School of Medicine at the University of Hawai'i face similar health care challenges in providing and delivering services and training to remote and rural areas. Recognizing that health care needs are local and require local solutions, both states are committed to improving health care delivery to their unique populations by sharing information and experiences through emerging telehealth technologies by using high-performance computing and communications resources. The purpose of this study is to describe the deployment of a problem-based learning case distributed over the National Computational Science Alliance's Access Grid. Emphasis is placed on the underlying technical components of the TOUCH project, including the virtual reality development tool Flatland, the artificial intelligence-based simulation engine, the Access Grid, high-performance computing platforms, and the software that connects them all. In addition, educational and technical challenges for Project TOUCH are identified.

  19. Effect of Medical Education on Empathy in Osteopathic Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTighe, Adam J; DiTomasso, Robert A; Felgoise, Stephanie; Hojat, Mohammadreza

    2016-10-01

    Empathy is an integral component of the patient-physician relationship and involves a cognitive ability to connect with others in a meaningful fashion. Multiple longitudinal studies have shown that self-reported allopathic medical student empathy declines significantly during year 3. However, to date, only 4 cross-sectional studies have been published on osteopathic medical students' empathy. Whereas studies of allopathic medical students reported a decline in empathy, similar results were not found in osteopathic studies. To investigate (1) self-reported empathy through years 1 to 3 of osteopathic medical students and (2) whether empathy declines during year 3. Design included cross-sectional and test-retest data collection. Private osteopathic medical school in the Northeast region of the United States. Osteopathic medical students. The Jefferson Scale of Empathy medical student version. Respondents (N=717) included 383 women (53%) and 334 men (47%). When empathy levels were examined by demographics, the only significant finding was that women reported significantly higher empathy levels than men (112.3 vs 109.3; P<.001). Cross-sectional results indicate that mean empathy levels were significantly lower for third-year students at the end of the year (108.7) compared with first- and second-year students at the beginning of the year (111.3 and 112.4, respectively; P<.05). Test-retest analyses of year 3 indicated significantly lower empathy levels from the beginning to the end of the academic year (111.2 and 108.7, respectively; P<.05). Osteopathic medical students' empathy declined significantly during year 3, which is consistent with the findings from allopathic samples but differs from findings from osteopathic samples. More research is needed to build the data on osteopathic medical student samples and to achieve a better understanding of changes in empathy in osteopathic and allopathic medical students.

  20. Perspectives in medical education-2. A blueprint for reform of medical education in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, R Harsha

    2006-09-01

    A blueprint for reform of medical education in Japan is presented, with the goal of training well rounded physicians who possess the ability to think critically and the clinical skill to function as generalists before they enter specialty training. Practical solutions are offered in three problem areas that lie at the heart of the shortcomings in Japanese medical education. They have to do with (i) the way Japanese students learn, (ii) the way Japanese teachers teach, and (iii) the material that students are taught. The inherently passive nature of Japanese students can be changed by emphasizing "active learning" and "critical thinking at the bedside" through a problem-oriented approach, both in the classroom and in the wards. Changing student learning, however, requires a commitment to teaching. At the present time, there is no incentive to teach at all, let alone teach in a constructive or interactive way. Teaching is widely perceived as a burden that takes time away from research, rather than as a credible and rewarding academic pursuit. Thus, promotion policies must be altered to reward teachers and accord teaching its rightful place as a primary function of the faculty. Finally, the introduction of active learning and interactive teaching depends on reducing the current emphasis on didactic instruction, which is passive and unidirectional. Thus, medical school curricula must be restructured to emphasize a problem-oriented, organ system-based approach throughout medical school, starting from the preclinical years. Reforms in all three areas must be implemented in concert for them to succeed.

  1. Education and research in medical optronics in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demongeot, Jacques; Fleute, M.; Herve, T.; Lavallee, Stephane

    2000-06-01

    First we present here the main post-graduate courses proposed in France both for physicians and engineers in medical optronics. After we explain which medical domains are concerned by this teaching, essentially computer assisted surgery, telemedicine and functional exploration. Then we show the main research axes in these fields, in which new jobs have to be invented and new educational approaches have to be prepared in order to satisfy the demand coming both from hospitals (mainly referent hospitals) and from industry (essentially medical imaging and instrumentation companies). Finally we will conclude that medical optronics is an important step in an entire chain of acquisition and processing of medical data, capable to create the medical knowledge a surgeon or a physician needs for diagnosis or therapy purposes. Optimizing the teaching of medical optronics needs a complete integration from acquiring to modeling the medical reality. This tendency to give a holistic education in medical imaging and instrumentation is called `Model driven Acquisition' learning.

  2. Faculty development and medical education units in India: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkoli, B V; Sood, Rita

    2009-01-01

    Faculty development in medical education is gaining momentum in India. While planning a National Conference on Medical Education (NCME 2007), we did a survey of principals and faculty of medical colleges to understand the status of faculty development programmes and medical education units in medical colleges in India. Questionnaires were sent to principals of medical colleges by surface mail and to faculty through a web-based programme to elicit information on various aspects of faculty development programmes and medical education units. The responses of both groups were analysed. The number of medical education units has increased rapidly after regulations have been revised in 1997 by the Medical Council of India. The main activities of medical education units were to conduct workshops targeted at medical teachers. The frequently covered topics were teaching-learning, media and student assessment. Lectures dominated the methodology of imparting information. Evaluation was done mainly by feedback questionnaires and pre-test/post-test questionnaires. Projects and follow up were rarely used. The responses from both groups were strikingly similar. The major strengths of medical education units were perceived as availability of trained and motivated faculty, good infrastructure and supportive leadership. The shortcomings were lack of infrastructure, funding and full-time faculty, besides time constraints and resistance to change. The respondents suggested strengthening of infrastructure, appointment of full-time faculty and staff, incentives and recognition of contributions to faculty development, making participation a mandatory requirement, extending the scope of faculty development programmes to include research and networking at the national level. Conclusion. The study reveals the need for policy decisions that support functioning of medical education units in India besides active participation of the faculty.

  3. Social Media: Portrait of an Emerging Tool in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Durga; Taylor, Jacob; Cheston, Christine C; Flickinger, Tabor E; Chisolm, Margaret S

    2016-02-01

    The authors compare the prevalence of challenges and opportunities in commentaries and descriptive accounts versus evaluative studies of social media use in medical education. A previously published report of social media use in medical education provided an in-depth discussion of 14 evaluative studies, a small subset of the total number of 99 articles on this topic. This study used the full set of articles identified by that review, including the 58 commentaries and 27 descriptive accounts which had not been previously reported, to provide a glimpse into how emerging tools in medical education are initially perceived. Each commentary, descriptive account, and evaluative study was identified and compared on various characteristics, including discussion themes regarding the challenges and opportunities of social media use in medical education. Themes related to the challenges of social media use in medical education were more prevalent in commentaries and descriptive accounts than in evaluative studies. The potential of social media to affect medical professionalism adversely was the most commonly discussed challenge in the commentaries (53%) and descriptive accounts (63%) in comparison to technical issues related to implementation in the evaluative studies (50%). Results suggest that the early body of literature on social media use in medical education-like that of previous innovative education tools-comprises primarily commentaries and descriptive accounts that focus more on the challenges of social media than on potential opportunities. These results place social media tools in historical context and lay the groundwork for expanding on this novel approach to medical education.

  4. Promoting Interdisciplinary Collaboration: Trainees Addressing Siloed Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts, Robert Li; Christodoulou, Joanna; Goldman, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Professional siloing within medical institutions has been identified as a problem in medical education, including resident training. The authors discuss how trainees from different disciplines can collaborate to address this problem. Method: A group of trainees from psychiatry, developmental medicine, neurology, and education came…

  5. 42 CFR 412.322 - Indirect medical education adjustment factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indirect medical education adjustment factor. 412.322 Section 412.322 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Capital-Related Costs § 412.322 Indirect medical education adjustment factor. (a) Basic data....

  6. Medical Education and the Physician Workforce of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mosawi, Aamir Jalal

    2008-01-01

    The lack of resources in a country experiencing decades of successive wars, blockade, administrative corruption, and poor governance led to deteriorated standards throughout medical education. Although professional certification programs exist, continuing medical education accreditation and credit systems are required to monitor and certify the…

  7. Storytelling: Discourse Analysis for Understanding Collective Perceptions of Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vovides, Yianna; Inman, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Using discourse analysis, the goal of this exploratory project was to determine what practitioners of medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa considered key achievements, within the scope of their Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) activities, after their initial two-year implementation efforts. To do so, a series of 58 video stories…

  8. Changes, trends and challenges of medical education in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido M, Pablo A; Cravioto, Alejandro; Pereda, Ana; Rondón, Roberto; Pereira, Gloria

    2006-02-01

    This paper briefly reviews the current situation of Latin American medical schools and the search to improve the quality and professionalism of medical education through the region. Institutional evaluation and accreditation programs based on nationally ongoing developing standards have been accepted, now optimized and complemented by the framework of the Global & International Standards of Medical Education working jointly with the WFME. More recently, the process has evolved to look into the quality of the outcomes of the medicals as seen by examinations implemented at the end of medical studies and the initiation of medical practice. In addition, there is vision for the application of new programs such as the global minimum essential requirements advanced by the Institute for International Medical Education (IIME). The PanAmerican Federation of Associations of Medical Schools (PAFAMS), an academic, non-governmental organization, is fostering the exchange of ideas and experiences among members, associations and affiliated medical schools geared to focus on the quality and professionalism of the graduates of medical schools in Latin America. These actions also aim to consolidate databases of information on medical education and innovative endeavors in continuing professional education and development through e-learning projects in the region.

  9. Medical Typewriting; Business Education: 7705.32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schull, Amy P.

    This guide describes a course designed to prepare students for employment as medical records clerks capable of handling all types of medical forms and reports, and using and spelling medical terminology correctly. The need for medical typists is critical. The guide contains enrollment guidelines, performance objectives (i.e., type medical…

  10. Expected Benefits of Streamlining Undergraduate Medical Education by Early Commitment to Specific Medical Specialties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbassat, Jochanan; Baumal, Reuben

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduate medical education is too long; it does not meet the needs for physicians' workforce; and its content is inconsistent with the job characteristics of some of its graduates. In this paper we attempt to respond to these problems by streamlining medical education along the following three reforms. First, high school graduates would be…

  11. [Graduate Medical Education - Structured, competency based training in Anesthesiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnenkamp, Klaus; Wenning, Markus

    2016-07-01

    The "Joint Commission of BDA and DGAI for Graduate Medical Education and Further Education" presents a concept for postgraduate training in anesthesiology. Aiming at a different and demanding generation of young physicians it proposes a new approach to an attractive training in anesthesiology e. g. by simulation as one key concept. It is also intended to meet the guidelines of the German Medical Association of competency based rather than time based or procedure based graduate medical education. A clear structure and the competency based approach shall facilitate a process of professional teaching. The article describes the new concept of graduate medical education by the German Medical Association and the respective aims and objectives of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany. An existing implementation in a hospital is given as an example of feasibility.

  12. Medical education in India: current challenges and the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Anjali; Kashyap, Surender

    2014-12-01

    Medical education in India is suffering from various shortcomings at conceptual as well as implementation level. With the expansion in medical education, the doctor to patient ratio has increased but these numbers do not align well with the overall quality of medical care in the country. To address this issue, a comprehensive analysis of various associated factors is essential. Indian medical education is suffering from a maldistribution of resources, unregulated growth in the private sector, lack of uniform admission procedures and traditional curricula lacking innovative approaches. To achieve higher standards of medical education, our goal should be to re-evaluate each and every aspect; create an efficient accreditation system; promote an equal distribution of resources, redesign curricula with stricter implementation and improved assessment methodologies; all of which will generate efficient medical graduates and consequently better health care delivery, and resulting in desired change within the system.

  13. Effects on Deaf Patients of Medication Education by Pharmacists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyoguchi, Naomi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kubota, Toshio; Shimazoe, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Deaf people often experience difficulty in understanding medication information provided by pharmacists due to communication barriers. We held medication education lectures for deaf and hard of hearing (HH) individuals and examined the extent to which deaf participants understood medication-related information as well as their attitude about…

  14. Medical Dictation and Transcription; Business Education: 7707.43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Carol S.

    The course prepares the business education student for the duties and ethics of the medical secretary and involves intensive practice with a high degree of speed and accuracy in taking dictation and transcribing materials related to the medical profession. Included are skills in spelling, pronouncing, and defining the most-used medical terms and…

  15. Widening Participation in Medical Education: Challenging Elitism and Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursicot, Kathy; Roberts, Trudie

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we examine issues relating to the enduring nature of elitism and exclusion in medical education by exploring the changes in social and policy influences on the admission and inclusion of women and disabled people to undergraduate medical courses and the medical profession. The widening participation imperative in the United Kingdom…

  16. Medical Students' Perceptions and Preferences for Sexual Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, Brian; Bezek, Katelyn

    2017-01-01

    Sexual health topics are not well-covered in US medical schools. Research has not typically asked medical students what sexual health topics they would like addressed and their preferred methods of sexual health education. This study attempted to address this deficit via an online survey of medical students at an institution where little sexual…

  17. Economic analysis in medical education: definition of essential terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2014-10-01

    Medical education is expensive. There is a growing interest in the subject of cost and value in medical education. However, in the medical education literature, terms are sometimes used loosely - and so there is a need for basic grounding in the meaning of commonly used and important terms in medical education economics. The purpose of this article is to define some terms that are frequently used in economic analysis in medical education. In this article, terms are described, and the descriptions are followed by a worked example of how the terms might be used in practice. The following terms are described: opportunity cost, total cost of ownership, sensitivity analysis, viewpoint, activity-based costing, efficiency, technical efficiency, allocative efficiency, price and transaction costs.

  18. Medical education for social justice: Paulo Freire revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DasGupta, Sayantani; Fornari, Alice; Geer, Kamini; Hahn, Louisa; Kumar, Vanita; Lee, Hyun Joon; Rubin, Susan; Gold, Marji

    2006-01-01

    Although social justice is an integral component of medical professionalism, there is little discussion in medical education about how to teach it to future physicians. Using adult learning theory and the work of Brazilian educator Paulo Freire, medical educators can teach a socially-conscious professionalism through educational content and teaching strategies. Such teaching can model non-hierarchical relationships to learners, which can translate to their clinical interactions with patients. Freirian teaching can additionally foster professionalism in both teachers and learners by ensuring that they are involved citizens in their local, national and international communities.

  19. Perspectives in medical education 9. Revisiting the blueprint for reform of medical education in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, R Harsha; Rao, Kanchan H

    2010-01-01

    Reform of medical education at Keio University has been underway since 2003. We measure the progress made since then in five specific categories that span fifteen recommendations presented in our "Blueprint for Reform" at the outset of the effort. These are effectiveness of leadership, curriculum reform, recognition of teaching, clinical competence, and comprehensive training in general internal medicine (GIM). First, effective leadership is being sustained through a succession of Deans, although a potentially crippling loss of leadership in the Department of Medical Education must be offset through timely appointment. Second, curriculum reform is awaiting the implementation in 2012 of an integrated, organ system-based curriculum with an emphasis on ward clerkships, but the introduction of PBL has been delayed indefinitely. Third, teaching is being recognized through the use of student feedback to reward good teachers and through funds for six full-time equivalent salaries dedicated to medical education, but promotions still depend exclusively on research, without consideration of teaching ability. Fourth, clinical skills training is still lacking, although enthusiasm for it seems to be building, thanks to the presence on the wards of a (still miniscule) cadre of dedicated teachers. Finally, exposure to GIM remains non-existent; however, visionary leadership in a newly-independent Emergency Department and the wide variety of medical problems seen there provide a remarkable opportunity to craft a uniquely Japanese solution to the problem. The changes implemented to date are impressive, and we remain enthusiastic about the future, even as we recognize the magnitude of the task that lies ahead.

  20. EFSUMB statement on medical student education in ultrasound [short version

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantisani, V; Dietrich, C F; Badea, R;

    2016-01-01

    The European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) recommends that ultrasound should be used systematically as an easy accessible and instructive educational tool in the curriculum of modern medical schools. Medical students should acquire theoretical knowledge...... of the modality and hands-on training should be implemented and adhere to evidence-based principles. In this paper we summarise EFSUMB policy statements on medical student education in ultrasound....

  1. Teaching in Medical Education | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many postdoctoral fellows are considering an academic career at a medical school. In addition to conducting research, new faculty members must learn effective teaching methodologies. This course will focus on good teaching practices, including basic strategies for developing and organizing a course. The purpose of the "Teaching in Medical Education (TIME)" course is to increase the scientist's ability to teach in medical education. The course will provide basic knowledge in teaching methods, course planning, writing a syllabus and developing examinations.

  2. Status of neurology medical school education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran I.; Isaacson, Richard S.; Safdieh, Joseph E.; Finney, Glen R.; Sowell, Michael K.; Sam, Maria C.; Anderson, Heather S.; Shin, Robert K.; Kraakevik, Jeff A.; Coleman, Mary; Drogan, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To survey all US medical school clerkship directors (CDs) in neurology and to compare results from a similar survey in 2005. Methods: A survey was developed by a work group of the American Academy of Neurology Undergraduate Education Subcommittee, and sent to all neurology CDs listed in the American Academy of Neurology database. Comparisons were made to a similar 2005 survey. Results: Survey response rate was 73%. Neurology was required in 93% of responding schools. Duration of clerkships was 4 weeks in 74% and 3 weeks in 11%. Clerkships were taken in the third year in 56%, third or fourth year in 19%, and fourth year in 12%. Clerkship duration in 2012 was slightly shorter than in 2005 (fewer clerkships of ≥4 weeks, p = 0.125), but more clerkships have moved into the third year (fewer neurology clerkships during the fourth year, p = 0.051). Simulation training in lumbar punctures was available at 44% of schools, but only 2% of students attempted lumbar punctures on patients. CDs averaged 20% protected time, but reported that they needed at least 32%. Secretarial full-time equivalent was 0.50 or less in 71% of clerkships. Eighty-five percent of CDs were “very satisfied” or “somewhat satisfied,” but more than half experienced “burnout” and 35% had considered relinquishing their role. Conclusion: Trends in neurology undergraduate education since 2005 include shorter clerkships, migration into the third year, and increasing use of technology. CDs are generally satisfied, but report stressors, including inadequate protected time and departmental support. PMID:25305155

  3. mEducator: A Best Practice Network for Repurposing and Sharing Medical Educational Multi-type Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidis, Panagiotis D.; Kaldoudi, Eleni; Pattichis, Costas

    Although there is an abundance of medical educational content available in individual EU academic institutions, this is not widely available or easy to discover and retrieve, due to lack of standardized content sharing mechanisms. The mEducator EU project will face this lack by implementing and experimenting between two different sharing mechanisms, namely, one based one mashup technologies, and one based on semantic web services. In addition, the mEducator best practice network will critically evaluate existing standards and reference models in the field of e-learning in order to enable specialized state-of-the-art medical educational content to be discovered, retrieved, shared, repurposed and re-used across European higher academic institutions. Educational content included in mEducator covers and represents the whole range of medical educational content, from traditional instructional teaching to active learning and experiential teaching/studying approaches. It spans the whole range of types, from text to exam sheets, algorithms, teaching files, computer programs (simulators or games) and interactive objects (like virtual patients and electronically traced anatomies), while it covers a variety of topics. In this paper, apart from introducing the relevant project concepts and strategies, emphasis is also placed on the notion of (dynamic) user-generated content, its advantages and peculiarities, as well as, gaps in current research and technology practice upon its embedding into existing standards.

  4. Nurses and challenges faced as clinical educators: a survey of a group of nurses in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian E A Eta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical teaching is an important component of clinical education. In nursing, clinical teaching is ensured by clinical nurse educators (CNEs. This study aimed at describing the major challenges faced by CNEs in Cameroon. METHODS: In a qualitative study, supplemented with quantitative methods, CNEs were enrolled from three health districts to represent their frequency in Cameroon’s health delivery system. RESULTS: A total of 56 CNEs participated in the study, of whom, as many as 58.9% acknowledged always facing challenges in clinical teaching and supervision. The major challenges identified were the lack of opportunities to update knowledge and skills, students’ lack of preparedness and the CNEs not being prepared for clinical teaching. CNEs attributed these challenges in major part to the lack of incentives and poor health policies. CONCLUSION: CNEs in Cameroon do indeed face major challenges which are of diverse origins and could adversely affect teaching in clinical settings

  5. Continuing medical and dental education on the global stage: the nexus of supporting international Christian healthcare workers and developing educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov D Slashcheva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges facing international healthcare missionaries is that of maintaining up-to-date knowledge and staying current with professional certification. Since 1978, annual programs by the Christian Medical and Dental Associations have offered professional continuing education to thousands of US healthcare professionals serving as missionaries in the regions of Africa, Asia, and, in more recent years, globally. In addition, conference programming is designed to prepare, train, and support healthcare missionaries to, in turn, serve as educators in their places of ministry. The program is designed for both professional education and personal encouragement. Utilizing historical documents from program facilitation and interviews from those involved with its implementation, this paper describes the history, vision, and favorable quantitative growth and qualitative impact on participants. The program continues to grow as healthcare missionaries are educated near their places of service, while reinforcing their own roles as educators.

  6. Global health competencies and approaches in medical education: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battat, Robert; Seidman, Gillian; Chadi, Nicholas; Chanda, Mohammed Y; Nehme, Jessica; Hulme, Jennifer; Li, Annie; Faridi, Nazlie; Brewer, Timothy F

    2010-12-22

    Physicians today are increasingly faced with healthcare challenges that require an understanding of global health trends and practices, yet little is known about what constitutes appropriate global health training. A literature review was undertaken to identify competencies and educational approaches for teaching global health in medical schools. Using a pre-defined search strategy, 32 articles were identified; 11 articles describing 15 global health competencies for undergraduate medical training were found. The most frequently mentioned competencies included an understanding of: the global burden of disease, travel medicine, healthcare disparities between countries, immigrant health, primary care within diverse cultural settings and skills to better interface with different populations, cultures and healthcare systems. However, no consensus on global health competencies for medical students was apparent. Didactics and experiential learning were the most common educational methods used, mentioned in 12 and 13 articles respectively. Of the 11 articles discussing competencies, 8 linked competencies directly to educational approaches. This review highlights the imperative to document global health educational competencies and approaches used in medical schools and the need to facilitate greater consensus amongst medical educators on appropriate global health training for future physicians.

  7. Global health competencies and approaches in medical education: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulme Jennifer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians today are increasingly faced with healthcare challenges that require an understanding of global health trends and practices, yet little is known about what constitutes appropriate global health training. Methods A literature review was undertaken to identify competencies and educational approaches for teaching global health in medical schools. Results Using a pre-defined search strategy, 32 articles were identified; 11 articles describing 15 global health competencies for undergraduate medical training were found. The most frequently mentioned competencies included an understanding of: the global burden of disease, travel medicine, healthcare disparities between countries, immigrant health, primary care within diverse cultural settings and skills to better interface with different populations, cultures and healthcare systems. However, no consensus on global health competencies for medical students was apparent. Didactics and experiential learning were the most common educational methods used, mentioned in 12 and 13 articles respectively. Of the 11 articles discussing competencies, 8 linked competencies directly to educational approaches. Conclusions This review highlights the imperative to document global health educational competencies and approaches used in medical schools and the need to facilitate greater consensus amongst medical educators on appropriate global health training for future physicians.

  8. Rationale for Students Preparation and Entrepreneurship Education in the Face of Global Economic Crisis in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Nwite

    2016-01-01

    The rationale for students preparation in job creation through entrepreneurship education was examined. Problems of unemployment among Nigerian university graduates and challenges to entrepreneurship in the face of global economic crisis were also highlighted. The persistent problem of unemployment among University graduates and its attendant…

  9. Using the Dynamic Model of Educational Effectiveness to Design Strategies and Actions to Face Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakides, Leonidas; Creemers, Bert P. M.; Muijs, Daniel; Rekers-Mombarg, Lyset; Papastylianou, Dona; Van Petegem, Peter; Pearson, Diana

    2014-01-01

    This project investigates the impact of the dynamic approach to school improvement (DASI) aiming to help schools face and reduce bullying through integrating research on bullying with educational effectiveness research (EER). A network of approximately 15 schools in each participating country (i.e., Belgium, Cyprus, England, Greece, and The…

  10. Using the dynamic model of educational effectiveness to design strategies and actions to face bullying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyriakides, Leonidas; Creemers, Bert P.M.; Muijs, Daniel; Rekers-Mombarg, Lyset; Papastylianou, Donna; Van Petegem, Peter; Pearson, Diana

    2014-01-01

    This project investigates the impact of the dynamic approach to school improvement (DASI) aiming to help schools face and reduce bullying through integrating research on bullying with educational effectiveness research (EER). A network of approximately 15 schools in each participating country (i.e.,

  11. Future Critical Issues and Problems Facing Technology and Engineering Education in the Commonwealth of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros; Moye, Johnny J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the future critical issues and problems facing the K-12 technology and engineering education profession in the Commonwealth of Virginia. This study was based on the Wicklein nationwide studies (1993a, 2005). Even though this study did not exactly replicate the Wicklein studies--since it was limited to…

  12. Faces of Learning: 50 Powerful Stories of Defining Moments in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaltain, Sam, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Everyone has a personal learning story, a time when they became actively engaged in their own education. Maybe it was an especially challenging teacher, or a uniquely supportive environment, or a collaborative classroom. In "Faces of Learning", both well-known public figures, such as Arne Duncan and Al Franken, and ordinary Americans recall the…

  13. Challenges Facing Women Academic Leadership in Secondary Schools of Irbid Educational Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jaradat, Mahmoud Khaled Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the challenges facing women academic leadership in secondary schools of Irbid Educational Area. A random sample of 187 female leaders were chosen. They responded to a 49-item questionnaire prepared by the researcher. The items were distributed into four domains: organizational, personal, social and physical…

  14. Using the Dynamic Model of Educational Effectiveness to Design Strategies and Actions to Face Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakides, Leonidas; Creemers, Bert P. M.; Muijs, Daniel; Rekers-Mombarg, Lyset; Papastylianou, Dona; Van Petegem, Peter; Pearson, Diana

    2014-01-01

    This project investigates the impact of the dynamic approach to school improvement (DASI) aiming to help schools face and reduce bullying through integrating research on bullying with educational effectiveness research (EER). A network of approximately 15 schools in each participating country (i.e., Belgium, Cyprus, England, Greece, and The…

  15. Self-Determination in Medical Education: Encouraging Medical Educators to Be More like Blues Artists and Poets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Heather; Williams, Geoffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, medical education has focused largely on medical students' intellectual development, mostly ignoring the broader psychological milieu of medical practice. This chasm can result in practitioners who are less likely to process their emotions and/or support their patient's needs, and more likely to experience burnout. Self-determination…

  16. The introverted medical school - time to rethink medical education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    excellence have been derived from the schools of the UK and elsewhere. ... Health Policy Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical. Medicine, University of ... an approach to integrating health sciences education with the provision of ...

  17. Provider Education about Glaucoma and Glaucoma Medications during Videotaped Medical Visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Sleath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine how patient, physician, and situational factors are associated with the extent to which providers educate patients about glaucoma and glaucoma medications, and which patient and provider characteristics are associated with whether providers educate patients about glaucoma and glaucoma medications. Methods. Patients with glaucoma who were newly prescribed or on glaucoma medications were recruited and a cross-sectional study was conducted at six ophthalmology clinics. Patients’ visits were videotape recorded and patients were interviewed after visits. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. Results. Two hundred and seventy-nine patients participated. Providers were significantly more likely to educate patients about glaucoma and glaucoma medications if they were newly prescribed glaucoma medications. Providers were significantly less likely to educate African American patients about glaucoma. Providers were significantly less likely to educate patients of lower health literacy about glaucoma medications. Conclusion. Eye care providers did not always educate patients about glaucoma or glaucoma medications. Practice Implications. Providers should consider educating more patients about what glaucoma is and how it is treated so that glaucoma patients can better understand their disease. Even if a patient has already been educated once, it is important to reinforce what has been taught before.

  18. Satisfaction of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences\\' alumni about the quality of medical education

    OpenAIRE

    S.J. Mirmohammadi; A. H Mehrparvar; M Bahaloo; M. H Davari

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In order to achieve acceptable quality in educations, the quality of learning should be assessed. opinion of alumni in assessment of the quality of education is important, This study aims to assess the quality of medical education in basic and clinical sciences according to the opinion of alumni of Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences during 2008-2012 Method: This cross-sectional study conducted on alumni graduated from 2008-2012. Data was collected using a questionnaire whic...

  19. Medical education in cyberspace: critical considerations in the health system

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAZDANI, SHAHRAM; KHOSHGOFTAR, ZOHREH; AHMADY, SOLEIMAN; RASTEGARPOUR, HASSAN; FOROUTAN, SEYED ABBAS

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Over the past few decades, two revolutionary approaches have emerged as a new form of medical education: Electronic Medical Education and Web-based Medical Education. A number of well-known medical institutions, such as Harvard and Johns Hopkins used a wide range of cyberspace capabilities to increase their competitiveness. Researchers have expressed that cyberspace will change health system’s main objective of training physicians and medical education. We conducted this study to identify the health system critical considerations on core issues, involving the development of medical education on cyberspace. Methods: In order to conduct this study, we observed the steps of a critical literature review, combined with the ‘Four-phase method’ adopted by Carnwell and Daly. We focused on particular literature on health and cyber system functions; it was associated with systemic approach. Results: We developed a six-level taxonomy, Cyber level, Governance level, Ministerial level, Organizational level, Program level and Performance level, as a key solution that can be applied for the success of medical education on cyberspace. The results were summarized and appraised in more details. Conclusion: Medical education on cyberspace is a complex interdisciplinary system. It is important that all aspects of the health systems be involved as integral to the development of cyber based medical education; without this convergence, we will be confused by the decisions made by others within the system. Health system should also communicate with those external sectors that are critical to achieving better learning on cyberspace. Integrated planning, governance and management of medical education in cyberspace are pivotal elements for the promotion. PMID:28124017

  20. Medical education in cyberspace: critical considerations in the health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Shahram; Khoshgoftar, Zohreh; Ahmady, Soleiman; Rastegarpour, Hassan; Foroutan, Seyed Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades, two revolutionary approaches have emerged as a new form of medical education: Electronic Medical Education and Web-based Medical Education. A number of well-known medical institutions, such as Harvard and Johns Hopkins used a wide range of cyberspace capabilities to increase their competitiveness. Researchers have expressed that cyberspace will change health system's main objective of training physicians and medical education. We conducted this study to identify the health system critical considerations on core issues, involving the development of medical education on cyberspace. In order to conduct this study, we observed the steps of a critical literature review, combined with the 'Four-phase method' adopted by Carnwell and Daly. We focused on particular literature on health and cyber system functions; it was associated with systemic approach. We developed a six-level taxonomy, Cyber level, Governance level, Ministerial level, Organizational level, Program level and Performance level, as a key solution that can be applied for the success of medical education on cyberspace. The results were summarized and appraised in more details. Medical education on cyberspace is a complex interdisciplinary system. It is important that all aspects of the health systems be involved as integral to the development of cyber based medical education; without this convergence, we will be confused by the decisions made by others within the system. Health system should also communicate with those external sectors that are critical to achieving better learning on cyberspace. Integrated planning, governance and management of medical education in cyberspace are pivotal elements for the promotion.

  1. Rethinking Anatomy: How to Overcome Challenges of Medical Education's Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Bruno; Dourado, Luís; Tsisar, Stanislav; Diniz, José Miguel; Madeira, Maria Dulce; Ferreira, Maria Amélia

    2017-02-27

    Due to scientific and technological development, Medical Education has been readjusting its focus and strategies. Medical curriculum has been adopting a vertical integration model, in which basic and clinical sciences coexist during medical instruction. This context favours the introduction of new complementary technology-based pedagogical approaches. Thus, even traditional core sciences of medical curriculum, like Anatomy, are refocusing their teaching/learning paradigm. We performed a bibliographic review aiming to reflect on Medical Education's current pedagogical trend, by analysing the advantages of the introduction and diversification of pedagogical approaches in Anatomy Education. Anatomy Education's status quo is characterized by: less available teaching time, increasing demands from radiology and endoscopy imaging and other invasive and non-invasive medical techniques, increasing number of medical students and other logistical restrains exposed by the current Medical Education scenario. The traditional learning approach, mainly based on cadaveric dissection, is drifting to complementary newer technologies - such as 3D models or 2D/3D digital imaging - to examine the anatomy of the human body. Also, knowledge transfer is taking different channels, as learning management systems, social networks and computer-assisted learning and assessment are assuming relevant roles. The future holds promising approaches for education models. The development of Artificial Intelligence, Virtual Reality and Learning Analytics could provide analytic tools towards a real-time and personalized learning process. A reflection on Anatomy Education, as a comprehensive model, allows us to understand Medical Education's complexity. Therefore, the present Medical Education context favours a blended learning approach, in which multi-modality pedagogical strategies may become the landmark.

  2. [Education for medical teamwork in Shinshu University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamiya, Osamu

    2006-03-01

    Both students of health sciences (medical technology, nursing science, physical therapy, and occupational therapy) and medical students learn medical teamwork in the primary stage by joint practice in Shinshu University. The aim of this class is for students that will become medical staff to increase their necessary communication skills for medical teamwork in addition to understanding the mutual medical professional fields in a medical institution. The 242 students of the medical department (147 students of health sciences and 95 students of medicine) take 15 classes during their first term as freshers. One teacher takes charge of a group consisting of 14 students for tutorials by mutually cooperation between teachers of medicine and health sciences. Positive relationships are expected to develop in the group, raising sociality and ethics so that both students of health science and medicine experience interdisciplinary discussion in small groups as an ideal method for continuing health care in times of poor knowledge of medicine and health care.

  3. International medical students' expectations and worries at the beginning of their medical education: a qualitative focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, Daniel; Huber, Julia; Ippen, Franziska M; Eckart, Wolfgang; Junne, Florian; Zipfel, Stephan; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph

    2016-01-28

    The number of international students has increased substantially within the last decade. Due to cultural barriers, this specific group faces diverse challenges. In comparison to German colleagues, international medical students perform significantly lower in clinical examinations and exceed the average duration of study; they suffer from personal distress as well as insufficient support. Within the present study, their individual perspectives, expectations, hopes and fears were examined. Four focus groups with first-year international medical students (N = 16) were conducted in October 2013. Each 60- to 90-min discussion was audiotaped, transcribed and analysed using qualitative methods. International medical students go abroad in search of good study-conditions. For the choice of place of study, affordability, social ties as well as an educational system following the achievement principle are decisive factors. While contact with German-students and other international students is seen as beneficial, international medical students are most concerned to encounter problems and social exclusion due to language deficits and intercultural differences. Facilitating the access to university places, the provision of financial aid and, moreover, social support, nurturing cultural integration, would greatly benefit international medical students. Hereby, the establishment of specific medical language courses as well as programs fostering intercultural-relations could prove to be valuable.

  4. Gamification and Multimedia for Medical Education: A Landscape Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Lise; Lewis, Joy H; Dalton, David

    2016-01-01

    Medical education is rapidly evolving. Students enter medical school with a high level of technological literacy and an expectation for instructional variety in the curriculum. In response, many medical schools now incorporate technology-enhanced active learning and multimedia education applications. Education games, medical mobile applications, and virtual patient simulations are together termed gamified training platforms. To review available literature for the benefits of using gamified training platforms for medical education (both preclinical and clinical) and training. Also, to identify platforms suitable for these purposes with links to multimedia content. Peer-reviewed literature, commercially published media, and grey literature were searched to compile an archive of recently published scientific evaluations of gamified training platforms for medical education. Specific educational games, mobile applications, and virtual simulations useful for preclinical and clinical training were identified and categorized. Available evidence was summarized as it related to potential educational advantages of the identified platforms for medical education. Overall, improved learning outcomes have been demonstrated with virtual patient simulations. Games have the potential to promote learning, increase engagement, allow for real-word application, and enhance collaboration. They can also provide opportunities for risk-free clinical decision making, distance training, learning analytics, and swift feedback. A total of 5 electronic games and 4 mobile applications were identified for preclinical training, and 5 electronic games, 10 mobile applications, and 12 virtual patient simulation tools were identified for clinical training. Nine additional gamified, virtual environment training tools not commercially available were also identified. Many published studies suggest possible benefits from using gamified media in medical curriculum. This is a rapidly growing field. More

  5. The impact of managed care on graduate medical education and academic medical centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognia, J L; Wintroub, B U

    1996-09-01

    The goal of this article is to examine the present and future impact of managed care on graduate medical education (GME) and academic medical centers. Obviously, the later 2 entities are closely intertwined and will share in the consequences of changes in our medical care systems. However, there are differences in the funding of medical schools as compared with GME provided by teaching hospitals, and an appreciation of the vital issues and concerns requires that each be discussed separately.

  6. A framework of teaching competencies across the medical education continuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, W.M.; Zanting, A.; van Beukelen, P.; de Grave, W.; Baane, J.A.; Bustraan, J.A.; Engbers, R.; Fick, T.E.; Jacobs, J.C.G.; Vervoorn, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The quality of teachers in higher education is subject of increasing attention, as exemplified by the development and implementation of guidelines for teacher qualifications at Universities in The Netherlands. Aim: Because medical education takes a special position in higher education th

  7. A framework of teaching competencies across the medical education continuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, W. M.; Zanting, A.; Van Beukelen, P.; De Grave, W.; Baane, J. A.; Bustraan, J. A.; Engbers, R.; Fick, Th E.; Jacobs, J. C. G.; Vervoorn, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The quality of teachers in higher education is Subject of increasing attention, its exemplified by the development and implementation of guidelines for teacher qualifications at Universities in The Netherlands. Aim: Because medical education takes a special position in higher education t

  8. Guidelines for Primary Health Care teaching in undergraduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marcos Piva Demarzo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available These are a set of guidelines built by the Brazilian Association of Medical Education (ABEM and the Brazilian Society of Family and Community Medicine (SBMFC with the aim of supporting medical schools in a practical and objective manner, when elaborating pedagogical-political projects on Primary Health Care (PHC. The advent of the Brazilian National Curricular Guidelines for Medical Education, which are approved by the Ministry of Education in 2001 have since improved the teaching of undergraduate medical students on PHC, but there are still wide variations in implementation and quality of it in medical curricula. These guidelines by ABEM/SBMFC partnership can exert considerable influence on medical curricula by establishing minimum requirements and core competencies for PHC in Brazil.

  9. [Promotion of the systematization of consistent education for medical technologists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Kiyoko; Sato, Kenji

    2006-03-01

    Although only about 35 years have passed since the birth of medical technology, marked advances have been made in the clinical laboratory science field. However, the educational system for technologists attached importance only to the learning of techniques for a long period because special training schools primarily provided medical technologist education. With the passing of time, the need for advanced knowledge has increased, and a plan to change the education system for medical technologists to 4-year colleges was evaluated. In 1989, the Course of Laboratory Sciences as a 4-year system for medical technologist education was established in the Department of Medicine, Tokyo Medical & Dental University. The Doctoral Course of Graduate School (first term) was established in 1993 and the Doctoral Course of Graduate School(second term) in 1995. In 2001, these courses formed a graduate university as the Division of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, the Graduate School of Allied Health Sciences. Thus, a consistent educational system for medical technologists was established. By March 2005, about 500 students had graduated from this division. Based on this experience, we produced a 4-stage developmental program and provide an advanced educational system for the promotion of the systematization of consistent medical technologist education.

  10. Medical students' use of Facebook for educational purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Anam

    2016-06-01

    Medical students use Facebook to interact with one another both socially and educationally. This study investigates how medical students in a UK medical school use Facebook to support their learning. In particular, it identifies the nature of their educational activities, and details their experiences of using an educational Facebook group. Twenty-four medical students who self-identified as being Facebook users were invited to focus groups to attain a general overview of Facebook use within an educational context. A textual analysis was then conducted on a small group of intercalating medical students who used a self-created Facebook group to supplement their learning. Five of these students participated in semi-structured interviews. Six common themes were generated. These included 'collaborative learning', 'strategic uses for the preparation for assessment', 'sharing experiences and providing support', 'creating and maintaining connections', 'personal planning and practical organization' and 'sharing and evaluating educational resources'. Evidence from this study shows that medical students are using Facebook informally to enhance their learning and undergraduate lives. Facebook has enabled students to create a supportive learning community amongst their peers. Medical educators wishing to capitalize on Facebook, as a platform for formal educational initiatives, should remain cautious of intruding on this peer online learning community.

  11. The desirability of education in didactic skills according to medical interns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloek, Anne T; Verbakel, Joshua R A; Bernard, Simone E; Evenboer, Januska; Hendriks, Eef J; Stam, Hanneke

    2012-12-01

    Since all doctors at some point in their career will be faced with their role as a teacher, it appears desirable that future doctors are educated in didactic skills. At present, however, there are no formal opportunities for developing didactic skills at the majority of Dutch medical faculties. The main question of this study is: How do medical interns perceive the quality and quantity of their education in didactic skills? The Dutch Association for Medical Interns (LOCA) ran a national survey among 1,008 medical interns that measured the interns' self-assessed needs for training in didactic skills during medical school. Almost 80 % of the respondents argue that the mastery of didactic skills composes an essential competency for doctors, with the skill of providing adequate feedback considered to be the most important didactic quality for doctors. Of the respondents, 41 % wish to be educated in didactic skills, both during their medical undergraduate degree and during their subsequent training to become a resident. Teaching while being observed and receiving feedback in this setting is regarded as a particularly valuable didactic method by 74 % of the medical interns. Of the respondents, 82 % would invest time to follow training for the development of didactic skills if it was offered. Medical interns stress the importance of doctors' didactic skills during their clinical internships. Compared with current levels, most interns desire increased attention to the formal development of didactic skills during medical school. Considering the importance of didactic skills and the need for more extensive training, the LOCA advises medical faculties to include more formal didactic training in the medical curriculum.

  12. Review of online educational resources for medical physicists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisciandaro, Joann I

    2013-11-04

    Medical physicists are often involved in the didactic training of graduate students, residents (both physics and physicians), and technologists. As part of continuing medical education, we are also involved in maintenance of certification projects to assist in the education of our peers. As such, it is imperative that we remain current concerning available educational resources. Medical physics journals offer book reviews, allowing us an opportunity to learn about newly published books in the field. A similar means of communication is not currently available for online educational resources. This information is conveyed through informal means. This review presents a summary of online resources available to the medical physics community that may be useful for educational purposes.

  13. [Give attention to war in medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, Leo; Groenewegen, Henk J; Meijman, Frans J

    2009-01-01

    Medical consequences of war are prominent in the media. The United Nations and the World Medical Association have called for medical curricula to permanently include consideration of human rights, in particular human rights in war time. Information on the medical consequences of war and weapon systems is valuable knowledge. Courses on this subject are popular amongst medical students, a considerable number of whom are willing to spend a period working for organisations as the Red Cross, Doctors without Borders or the Military Health Service. In spite of this, none of the Dutch medical faculties has given the subject a permanent place in its curriculum. Gathering knowledge on the medical consequences of war depends completely on the efforts of individuals.

  14. Clinical skills training in undergraduate medical education using a student-centered approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin Grønnebæk

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on how to engage students in self-directed learning and in peer-learning activities to improve clinical skills training in undergraduate medical education. The first study examined the clinical skills teaching provided by student teachers compared to that provided by associate...... demonstrated remarkable advantages to peer-learning in skills-lab. Thus, peer-learning activities could be essential to providing high-quality medical training in the face of limited clinical teacher resources in future undergraduate medical education....... professors. This study showed that student teachers performed as good as or even better than associate professors when teaching simple clinical skills. The second study of this thesis examined how complex clinical skills--such as patient management skills--develop with increasing levels of competence...

  15. The Medical Staff Ride: an education tool for military medical leadership development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricknell, Martin C M

    2016-08-01

    This paper provides a description of the Medical Staff Ride as an educational tool for military medical leadership. It is based upon two Medical Staff Rides covering the Somme Campaign 1916 and the Normandy Campaign 1944. It describes the key educational activity 'The Stand' at which history and current issues are brought together through study of a particular location on the historical battlefield. The Medical Staff Ride can be divided into six distinct phases, each of which have common question sets for analysis by attendees. The Medical Staff Ride can be shown to have valuable educational outcomes that are efficient in time and cost, and effective in achieving personal learning. The supporting Readers for the two Medical Staff Rides covered by this paper are available as electronic supplement to this edition of the journal.

  16. Integration of Medical Education in Medical Services: A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razavi Seyed Mansour

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ministry of health and Medical Education (MOH&ME with the goals of attaining the comprehensive self sufficiency in medical fields and accountability of universities to public health needs were established in Iran in 1985. After that, ministry moved one step towards the integration of medical education into the health services in 1994. A dilemma about returning the system into the prior situation was increased in 2002, during which the parliament tried to change the situation toward disintegration. We have studied the attitudes of key academic persons regarding the segregation of medical universities (MOH&ME establishment and "Integration" of medical education into the health delivery system. A descriptive, cross sectional and correlation study was conducted on 556 universities staffs in 11 universities throughout the country. We applied a questionnaire with 28 questions on 5 axes. The analytical test used in this study was Pearson chi-square. The most understudied staffs, agreed with Integration philosophy. They believed that, although it seems the quality of medical education has declined, but some effective factors such as increasing admitted students, irregular increasing of universities and self controlling of educational hospitals, deficit of educational budget and other reasons were the main effective causes in this declining of quality, and most of them believed that the reintegration of MOH&ME into the ministry of sciences organization will not benefit for the country. This study has presented some reasons of proposed declining the quality of medical education and some suggestions for development of present system.

  17. Parental leave policies in graduate medical education: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Laura S; Lyon, Sarah; Garza, Rebecca; Butz, Daniel R; Lemelman, Benjamin; Park, Julie E

    2017-10-01

    A thorough understanding of attitudes toward and program policies for parenthood in graduate medical education (GME) is essential for establishing fair and achievable parental leave policies and fostering a culture of support for trainees during GME. A systematic review of the literature was completed. Non-cohort studies, studies completed or published outside of the United States, and studies not published in English were excluded. Studies that addressed the existence of parental leave policies in GME were identified and were the focus of this study. Twenty-eight studies addressed the topic of the existence of formal parental leave policies in GME, which was found to vary across time and ranged between 22 and 90%. Support for such policies persisted across time. Attention to formal leave policies in GME has traditionally been lacking, but may be increasing. Negative attitudes towards parenthood in GME persist. Active awareness of the challenges faced by parent-trainees combined with formal parental leave policy implementation is important in supporting parenthood in GME. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Teaching Medical Ethics in Graduate and Undergraduate Medical Education: A Systematic Review of Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Garza, Santiago; Phuoc, Vania; Throneberry, Steven; Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer; McCullough, Laurence; Coverdale, John

    2017-08-01

    One objective was to identify and review studies on teaching medical ethics to psychiatry residents. In order to gain insights from other disciplines that have published research in this area, a second objective was to identify and review studies on teaching medical ethics to residents across all other specialties of training and on teaching medical students. PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were searched for controlled trials on teaching medical ethics with quantitative outcomes. Search terms included ethics, bioethics, medical ethics, medical students, residents/registrars, teaching, education, outcomes, and controlled trials. Nine studies were found that met inclusion criteria, including five randomized controlled trails and four controlled non-randomized trials. Subjects included medical students (5 studies), surgical residents (2 studies), internal medicine house officers (1 study), and family medicine preceptors and their medical students (1 study). Teaching methods, course content, and outcome measures varied considerably across studies. Common methodological issues included a lack of concealment of allocation, a lack of blinding, and generally low numbers of subjects as learners. One randomized controlled trial which taught surgical residents using a standardized patient was judged to be especially methodologically rigorous. None of the trials incorporated psychiatry residents. Ethics educators should undertake additional rigorously controlled trials in order to secure a strong evidence base for the design of medical ethics curricula. Psychiatry ethics educators can also benefit from the findings of trials in other disciplines and in undergraduate medical education.

  19. Mentoring for first year medical students: humanising medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Arati; Singh, Navjeevan; Dhaliwal, Upreet

    2013-01-01

    New entrants are vulnerable to the challenges of the medical course; mentoring programmes are known to offer support. This paper evaluated the experiences of students and faculty enrolled in a new mentoring programme. After needs analysis of students and faculty, a small-group mentoring programme for new medical students was initiated. Fifty-five volunteer faculty mentors were allocated two-three students each. At year-end, feedback using an open-ended questionnaire, revealed that there was no contact in one-third of the cases; the commonest reasons cited were lack of mentee initiative, time and commitment. Supportive mentors were appreciated. Over 95% of respondents believed that mentoring was a good idea; many believed the mentee benefitted; mentors also reported improved communication and affective skills; 60 (77.0%) mentees wanted to mentor new students the following year. Thus, mentoring of first-year students by faculty was effective, when contact occurred, in making the mentee feel supported. Mentoring may be a means of honing the affective domain and humanitarian instincts of medical faculty and students.

  20. Defining Scholarly Activity in Graduate Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Erin C.; Roise, Adam; Barr, Daniel; Lynch, Douglas; Lee, Katherine Bao-Shian; Daskivich, Timothy; Dhand, Amar; Butler, Paris D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Scholarly activity is a requirement for accreditation by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. There is currently no uniform definition used by all Residency Review Committees (RRCs). A total of 6 of the 27 RRCs currently have a rubric or draft of a rubric to evaluate scholarly activity. Objective To develop a definition of scholarly activity and a set of rubrics to be used in program accreditation to reduce subjectivity of the evaluation of scholarly activity at the level of individual residency programs and across RRCs. Methods We performed a review of the pertinent literature and selected faculty promotion criteria across the United States to develop a structure for a proposed rubric of scholarly activity, drawing on work on scholarship by experts to create a definition of scholarly activity and rubrics for its assessment. Results The literature review showed that academic institutions in the United States place emphasis on all 4 major components of Boyer's definition of scholarship: discovery, integration, application, and teaching. We feel that the assessment of scholarly activity should mirror these findings as set forth in our proposed rubric. Our proposed rubric is intended to ensure a more objective evaluation of these components of scholarship in accreditation reviews, and to address both expectations for scholarly pursuits for core teaching faculty and those for resident and fellow physicians. Conclusion The aim of our proposed rubric is to ensure a more objective evaluation of these components of scholarship in accreditation reviews, and to address expectations for scholarly pursuits for core teaching faculty as well as those for resident and fellow physicians. PMID:24294446

  1. Role of accrediting bodies in providing education leadership in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Leinster

    2014-01-01

    Role of accreditation authorities: If accreditation authorities are to provide leadership in medical education they must undertake regular review of their standards. This should be informed by all stakeholders and include experts in medical education. The format of the standards must provide clear direction to medical schools. Accreditation should take place regularly and should result in the production of a publicly accessible report.

  2. The importance of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education: current attitudes and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Poulton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health advocacy is currently a key component of medical education in North America. In Canada, Health Advocate is one of the seven roles included in the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada’s CanMEDS competency framework. Method: A literature search was undertaken to determine the current state of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education and to identify issues facing educators and learners with regards to health advocacy training. Results:  The literature revealed that the Health Advocate role is considered among the least relevant to clinical practice by educators and learners and among the most challenging to teach and assess. Furthermore learners feel their educational needs are not being met in this area. A number of key barriers affecting health advocacy education were identified including limited published material on the subject, lack of clarity within the role, insufficient explicit role modeling in practice, and lack of a gold standard for assessment. Health advocacy is defined and its importance to medical practice is highlighted, using pediatric emergency medicine as an example. Conclusions: Increased published literature and awareness of the role, along with integration of the new 2015 CanMEDS framework, are important going forward to address concerns regarding the quality of postgraduate health advocacy education in Canada.

  3. Postgraduate medical education: rethinking and integrating a complex landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowton, S Bruce; Stokes, Marie-Louise; Rawstron, Evan J; Pogson, Philip R; Brown, Mark A

    2005-02-21

    A key responsibility of the healthcare system is to develop a sustainable workforce through education and training. The complexity of postgraduate medical education and training in Australia requires: recognition that there are many stakeholders (junior medical officers, registrars, teaching clinicians, health departments, governments, colleges and society) with overlapping but competing interests and responsibilities; a national dialogue to clarify the necessary resource investments and to assign explicit accountabilities; and improved coordination and governance, while maintaining appropriate flexibility. In other countries, stronger mechanisms of governance for oversight of postgraduate medical education have emerged, and Australia can learn from these.

  4. 75 FR 79006 - Council on Graduate Medical Education; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Council on Graduate Medical Education...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Council on Graduate Medical Education... of presentations covering various aspects of graduate medical education, Bureau of Health...

  5. Emotional intelligence as a crucial component to medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Debbi R

    2015-12-06

    The primary focus of this review was to discover what is already known about Emotional Intelligence (EI) and the role it plays within social relationships, as well as its importance in the fields of health care and health care education. This article analyzes the importance of EI in the field of health care and recommends various ways that this important skill can be built into medical programs. Information was gathered using various database searches including EBSCOHOST, Academic Search Premier and ERIC. The search was conducted in English language journals from the last ten years. Descriptors include: Emotional Intelligence, medical students and communication skills, graduate medical education, Emotional Intelligence and graduate medical education, Emotional Intelligence training programs, program evaluation and development. Results of the study show a direct correlation between medical education and emotional intelligence competencies, which makes the field of medical education an ideal one in which to integrate further EI training. The definition of EI as an ability-based skill allows for training in specific competencies that can be directly applied to a specialized field. When EI is conceptualized as an ability that can be taught, learned, and changed, it may be used to address the specific aspects of the clinician-patient relationship that are not working well. For this reason, teaching EI should be a priority in the field of medical education in order to better facilitate this relationship in the future.

  6. Autonomy support for autonomous motivation in medical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi A.; Croiset, Gerda

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical students often study only to fare well in their examinations or pursue a specific specialty, or study only those topics that they perceive to be useful in medical practice. The motivation for study in these cases comes from external or internal pressures or from the desire to obtain rewards. Self-determination theory (SDT) classifies this type of motivation as controlled motivation and the type of motivation that comes from genuine interest or personal value as autonomous motivation. Autonomous motivation, in comparison with controlled motivation, has been associated with better learning, academic success, and less exhaustion. SDT endorses autonomous motivation and suggests that autonomy support is important for autonomous motivation. The meaning of autonomy is misinterpreted by many. This article tries to focus on how to be autonomy-supportive in medical education. Discussion Autonomy support refers to the perception of choice in learning. Some of the ways of supporting autonomy in medical education are small group teaching, problem-based learning, and gradual increase in responsibility of patients. Autonomy-supportive teaching behavior is not a trait and can be learned. Autonomy support in medical education is not limited to bringing in changes in the medical curriculum for students; it is about an overall change in the way of thinking and working in medical schools that foster autonomy among those involved in education. Research into autonomy in medical education is limited. Some topics that need to be investigated are the ideas and perceptions of students and teachers about autonomy in learning. Conclusion Autonomy support in medical education can enhance autonomous motivation of students for medical study and practice and make them autonomy-supportive in their future medical practice and teaching. PMID:25953033

  7. Autonomy support for autonomous motivation in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi A. Kusurkar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical students often study only to fare well in their examinations or pursue a specific specialty, or study only those topics that they perceive to be useful in medical practice. The motivation for study in these cases comes from external or internal pressures or from the desire to obtain rewards. Self-determination theory (SDT classifies this type of motivation as controlled motivation and the type of motivation that comes from genuine interest or personal value as autonomous motivation. Autonomous motivation, in comparison with controlled motivation, has been associated with better learning, academic success, and less exhaustion. SDT endorses autonomous motivation and suggests that autonomy support is important for autonomous motivation. The meaning of autonomy is misinterpreted by many. This article tries to focus on how to be autonomy-supportive in medical education. Discussion: Autonomy support refers to the perception of choice in learning. Some of the ways of supporting autonomy in medical education are small group teaching, problem-based learning, and gradual increase in responsibility of patients. Autonomy-supportive teaching behavior is not a trait and can be learned. Autonomy support in medical education is not limited to bringing in changes in the medical curriculum for students; it is about an overall change in the way of thinking and working in medical schools that foster autonomy among those involved in education. Research into autonomy in medical education is limited. Some topics that need to be investigated are the ideas and perceptions of students and teachers about autonomy in learning. Conclusion: Autonomy support in medical education can enhance autonomous motivation of students for medical study and practice and make them autonomy-supportive in their future medical practice and teaching.

  8. Autonomy support for autonomous motivation in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Croiset, Gerda

    2015-01-01

    Medical students often study only to fare well in their examinations or pursue a specific specialty, or study only those topics that they perceive to be useful in medical practice. The motivation for study in these cases comes from external or internal pressures or from the desire to obtain rewards. Self-determination theory (SDT) classifies this type of motivation as controlled motivation and the type of motivation that comes from genuine interest or personal value as autonomous motivation. Autonomous motivation, in comparison with controlled motivation, has been associated with better learning, academic success, and less exhaustion. SDT endorses autonomous motivation and suggests that autonomy support is important for autonomous motivation. The meaning of autonomy is misinterpreted by many. This article tries to focus on how to be autonomy-supportive in medical education. Autonomy support refers to the perception of choice in learning. Some of the ways of supporting autonomy in medical education are small group teaching, problem-based learning, and gradual increase in responsibility of patients. Autonomy-supportive teaching behavior is not a trait and can be learned. Autonomy support in medical education is not limited to bringing in changes in the medical curriculum for students; it is about an overall change in the way of thinking and working in medical schools that foster autonomy among those involved in education. Research into autonomy in medical education is limited. Some topics that need to be investigated are the ideas and perceptions of students and teachers about autonomy in learning. Autonomy support in medical education can enhance autonomous motivation of students for medical study and practice and make them autonomy-supportive in their future medical practice and teaching.

  9. VR Medical Gamification for Training and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicola, Stelian; Virag, Ioan; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara

    2017-01-01

    The new virtual reality based medical applications is providing a better understanding of healthcare related subjects for both medical students and physicians. The work presented in this paper underlines gamification as a concept and uses VR as a new modality to study the human skeleton. The team proposes a mobile Android platform application based on Unity 5.4 editor and Google VR SDK. The results confirmed that the approach provides a more intuitive user experience during the learning process, concluding that the gamification of classical medical software provides an increased interactivity level for medical students during the study of the human skeleton.

  10. Tips for using mobile audience response systems in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gousseau M

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael Gousseau, Connor Sommerfeld, Adrian Gooi Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada Background: With growing evidence on the benefits of active learning, audience response systems (ARSs have been increasingly used in conferences, business, and education. With the introduction of mobile ARS as an alternative to physical clickers, there are increasing opportunities to use this tool to improve interactivity in medical education. Aim: The aim of this study is to provide strategies on using mobile ARS in medical education by discussing steps for implementation and pitfalls to avoid. Method: The tips presented reflect our commentary of the literature and our experiences using mobile ARS in medical education. Results: This article offers specific strategies for the preparation, implementation, and assessment of medical education teaching sessions using mobile ARS. Conclusion: We hope these tips will help instructors use mobile ARS as a tool to improve student interaction, teaching effectiveness, and participant enjoyment in medical education. Keywords: mobile audience response systems, active learning, medical education, ARS

  11. A history of medical student debt: observations and implications for the future of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greysen, S Ryan; Chen, Candice; Mullan, Fitzhugh

    2011-07-01

    Over the last 50 years, medical student debt has become a problem of national importance, and obtaining medical education in the United States has become a loan-dependent, individual investment. Although this phenomenon must be understood in the general context of U.S. higher education as well as economic and social trends in late-20th-century America, the historical problem of medical student debt requires specific attention for several reasons. First, current mechanisms for students' educational financing may not withstand debt levels above a certain ceiling which is rapidly approaching. Second, there are no standards for costs of medical school attendance, and these can vary dramatically between different schools even within a single city. Third, there is no consensus on the true cost of educating a medical student, which limits accountability to students and society for these costs. Fourth, policy efforts to improve physician workforce diversity and mitigate shortages in the primary care workforce are inhibited by rising levels of medical student indebtedness. Fortunately, the current effort to expand the U.S. physician workforce presents a unique opportunity to confront the unsustainable growth of medical student debt and explore new approaches to the financing of medical students' education.

  12. Perspectives in medical education--1. Reflections on the state of medical education in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, R Harsha

    2006-06-01

    The current shortcomings in Japanese medical education are highlighted by identifying four major areas of concern, based on the author's personal observations at Keio University Hospital. The first of these is a woeful lack of clinical skills among Japanese medical students and residents. This lack springs directly from the complete absence of any bedside clinical instruction, which constitutes the second area of concern. The third is the attitude of faculty towards teaching as a burden that detracts and diverts them from their primary goal of academic advancement through research. Finally, there is no recognition of the value of a problem-based approach to teaching clinical medicine, so that clinical problem-solving skills have atrophied to the point of near-extinction in the current generation of Japanese physicians. The promise of problem-based learning (PBL) provides a crucial starting point for efforts to change the system. PBL emphasizes the importance of an integrated approach to clinical problems, and a reliance on critical thinking--the basis of primary care. This contrasts with the selective and highly specialized approach to disease, and reliance on sophisticated technology, which are hallmarks of specialty care. The effort to reform medical education will fail without visionary leadership and without the willingness to confront the truth, as unpleasant as it may seem to be. Both these crucial elements exist at Keio University at this critical juncture. It is this happy confluence that emboldens the author to hope that the future of reform is in good hands at this august institution.

  13. The cost of postgraduate medical education and continuing medical education: re-examining the status fifty years back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-03-01

    The subject of the cost and value of medical education is becoming increasingly important. However, this subject is not a new one. Fifty years ago, Mr. DH Patey, Dr. OF Davies, and Dr. John Ellis published a report on the state of postgraduate medical education in the UK. The report was wide-ranging, but it made a considerable mention of cost. In this short article, I have presented the documentary research that I conducted on their report. I have analyzed it from a positivist perspective and have concentrated on the subject of cost, as it appears in their report. The authors describe reforms within postgraduate medical education; however, they are clear from the start that the issue of cost can often be a barrier to such reforms. They state the need for basic facilities for medical education, but then outline the financial barriers to their development. The authors then discuss the costs of library services for education. They state that the "annual spending on libraries varies considerably throughout the country." The authors also describe the educational experiences of newly graduated doctors. According to them, the main problem is that these doctors do not have time to attend formal educational events, and that this will not be possible until there is "a more graduated approach to responsible clinical work," something which is not possible without financial investment. While concluding their report, the authors state that the limited money invested in postgraduate medical education and continuing medical education has been well spent, and that this has had a dual effect on improving medical education as well as the standards of medical care.

  14. Reducing oral and maxillofacial surgery resident risk exposure: lessons from graduate medical education reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrow, Suzanne Morse; Buhrow, Jack A

    2013-12-01

    It is estimated that, in the United States, more than 40,000 patients are injured each day because of preventable medical errors. Although numerous studies examine the causes of medical trainee errors and efforts to mitigate patient injuries in this population, little research exists on adverse events experienced by oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) residents or strategies to improve patient safety awareness in OMFS residency programs. The authors conducted a retrospective literature review of contemporary studies on medical trainees' reported risk exposure and the impact of integrating evidence-based patient safety training into residency curricula. A review of the literature suggests that OMFS residents face similar risks as medical trainees in medical, surgical, and anesthesia residency programs and may benefit from integrating competency-based safety training in the OMFS residency curriculum. OMFS trainees face particular challenges when transitioning from dental student to surgical resident, particularly related to their limited clinical exposure to high-reliability organizations, which may place them at higher risk than other medical trainees. OMFS educators should establish resident competence in patient safety principles and system improvement strategies throughout the training period.

  15. Medical students call for national standards in anatomical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farey, John E; Sandeford, Jonathan C; Evans-McKendry, Greg D

    2014-11-01

    The diminishing number of hours dedicated to formal instruction in anatomy has led to a debate within medical education as to the level required for safe clinical practice. We provide a review of the current state of anatomical education in Australian medical schools and state the case for national standards. In light of the review presented, council members of the Australian Medical Students' Association voted to affirm that consideration should be given to developing undergraduate learning goals for anatomy, providing a codified medical student position on the teaching of anatomy in Australian medical schools. Crucially, the position states that time-intensive methods of instruction such as dissection should be a rite of passage for medical students in the absence of evidence demonstrating the superiority of modern teaching methods. We believe the bodies with a vested interest in the quality of medical graduates, namely the Australian Medical Council, Medical Deans Australia & New Zealand, and the postgraduate colleges should collaborate and develop clear guidelines that make explicit the core knowledge of anatomy expected of medical graduates at each stage of their career with a view to safe clinical practice. In addition, Australian universities have a role to play in conducting further research into contemporary learning styles and the most efficacious methods of delivering anatomical education. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  16. Review article: medical education research: an overview of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boet, Sylvain; Sharma, Saroo; Goldman, Joanne; Reeves, Scott

    2012-02-01

    This article provides clinician-teachers with an overview of the process necessary to move from an initial idea to the conceptualization and implementation of an empirical study in the field of medical education. This article will allow clinician-teachers to become familiar with educational research methodology in order to a) critically appraise education research studies and apply evidence-based education more effectively to their practice and b) initiate or collaborate in medical education research. This review uses relevant articles published in the fields of medicine, education, psychology, and sociology before October 2011. The focus of the majority of research in medical education has been on reporting outcomes related to participants. There has been less assessment of patient care outcomes, resulting in informing evidence-based education to only a limited extent. This article explains the process necessary to develop a focused and relevant education research question and emphasizes the importance of theory in medical education research. It describes a range of methodologies, including quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods, and concludes with a discussion of dissemination of research findings. A majority of studies currently use quantitative methods. This article highlights how further use of qualitative methods can provide insight into the nuances and complexities of learning and teaching processes. Research in medical education requires several successive steps, from formulating the correct research question to deciding the method for dissemination. Each approach has advantages and disadvantages and should be chosen according to the question being asked and the specific goal of the study. Well-conducted education research should allow progression towards the important goal of using evidence-based education in our teaching and institutions.

  17. E-learning as new method of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2008-01-01

    NONE DECLARED Distance learning refers to use of technologies based on health care delivered on distance and covers areas such as electronic health, tele-health (e-health), telematics, telemedicine, tele-education, etc. For the need of e-health, telemedicine, tele-education and distance learning there are various technologies and communication systems from standard telephone lines to the system of transmission digitalized signals with modem, optical fiber, satellite links, wireless technologies, etc. Tele-education represents health education on distance, using Information Communication Technologies (ICT), as well as continuous education of a health system beneficiaries and use of electronic libraries, data bases or electronic data with data bases of knowledge. Distance learning (E-learning) as a part of tele-education has gained popularity in the past decade; however, its use is highly variable among medical schools and appears to be more common in basic medical science courses than in clinical education. Distance learning does not preclude traditional learning processes; frequently it is used in conjunction with in-person classroom or professional training procedures and practices. Tele-education has mostly been used in biomedical education as a blended learning method, which combines tele-education technology with traditional instructor-led training, where, for example, a lecture or demonstration is supplemented by an online tutorial. Distance learning is used for self-education, tests, services and for examinations in medicine i.e. in terms of self-education and individual examination services. The possibility of working in the exercise mode with image files and questions is an attractive way of self education. Automated tracking and reporting of learners' activities lessen faculty administrative burden. Moreover, e-learning can be designed to include outcomes assessment to determine whether learning has occurred. This review article evaluates the current

  18. Role and Development of Perceptual Skills in Medical Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka; Balslev, Thomas; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Nyström, Marcus; Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter; Eika, Berit

    2011-01-01

    Jarodzka, H., Balslev, T., Holmqvist, K., Nyström, M., Scheiter, K., Gerjets, P., & Eika, B. (2010, May). Role and Development of Perceptual Skills in Medical Education. The Scandinavian Workshop on Applied Eye-Tracking (SWAET), Lund, Sweden.

  19. Medication education program for Indian children with asthma: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medication education program for Indian children with asthma: A feasibility study. ... Methods: Children with asthma (7.12 years) and their parents were recruited from an ... quality of life, empowered and promoted better self.management skills.

  20. Changes to postgraduate medical education in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mehool

    2016-08-01

    Medicine is a constantly evolving profession, especially with the advent of rapid advances in the scientific base that underpins this vocation. In order to ensure that training in medicine is contemporary with the continuous evolution of the profession, there has been a multitude of changes to postgraduate medical education, particularly in the UK. This article aims to provide an overview of relevant key changes to postgraduate medical education in the UK during the 21st century, including changes to the structure, governance and commissioning of medical education, effects of European Working Time Directive on training, recent recommendations in the Future Hospital Commission report and Shape of training report, and recent requirements for accreditation of medical education trainers. Many of these recommendations will require complex discussions often at organisational levels, hopefully with some realistic and pragmatic solutions for implementation.

  1. The 'medical humanities' in health sciences education in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, S

    2014-02-01

    A new masters-level course, 'Medicine and the Arts" will be offered in 2014 at the University of Cape Town, setting a precedent for interdisciplinary education in the field of medical humanities in South Africa. The humanities and social sciences have always been an implicit part of undergraduate and postgraduate education in the health sciences, but increasingly they are becoming an explicit and essential component of the curriculum, as the importance of graduate attributes and outcomes in the workplace is acknowledged. Traditionally, the medical humanities have included medical ethics, history, literature and anthropology. Less prominent in the literature has been the engagement with medicine of the disciplines of sociology, politics, philosophy, linguistics, education, and law, as well as the creative and expressive arts. The development of the medical humanities in education and research in South Africa is set to expand over the next few years, and it looks as if it will be an exciting inter-disciplinary journey.

  2. Role and Development of Perceptual Skills in Medical Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka; Balslev, Thomas; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Nyström, Marcus; Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter; Eika, Berit

    2011-01-01

    Jarodzka, H., Balslev, T., Holmqvist, K., Nyström, M., Scheiter, K., Gerjets, P., & Eika, B. (2010, May). Role and Development of Perceptual Skills in Medical Education. The Scandinavian Workshop on Applied Eye-Tracking (SWAET), Lund, Sweden.

  3. Online versus Face-to-Face Accounting Education: A Comparison of CPA Exam Outcomes across Matched Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Programmatic-level comparisons are made between the certified public accountant (CPA) exam outcomes of two types of accounting programs: online or distance accounting programs and face-to-face or classroom accounting programs. After matching programs from each group on student selectivity at admission, the two types of programs are compared on CPA…

  4. Monetary Valuations of University Course Delivery: The Case for Face-to-Face Learning Activities in Accounting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taplin, Ross; Kerr, Rosy; Brown, Alistair

    2017-01-01

    Student preferences for delivery options were obtained within a monetary framework by asking students to purchase their ideal course structure. Results show that accounting students prefer to spend more on tutorials but purchase less lecture time; the difference due to the higher cost of tutorials compared to lectures. Face-to-face classes were…

  5. Online versus Face-to-Face Accounting Education: A Comparison of CPA Exam Outcomes across Matched Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Programmatic-level comparisons are made between the certified public accountant (CPA) exam outcomes of two types of accounting programs: online or distance accounting programs and face-to-face or classroom accounting programs. After matching programs from each group on student selectivity at admission, the two types of programs are compared on CPA…

  6. Lack of research aptitude in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Students are attracted towards the medical profession to become a doctor and not to be a researcher. According to a recent study there are about 1,00,000 undergraduate medical students in India at a given point of time, out of them only 0.9% of the students have shown research aptitude. During their training period of graduation in medical sciences, they are so much burdened with the work load of exams, practicals, ward duties and tutorials. In such an over burdened situation very few of them can think about research. A study had shown that training in research methodology received early in medical school helps students to develop a positive attitude towards research. So changes in the undergraduate and postgraduate curriculum are required to promote research among medical students. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 247-248

  7. Computer laboratory in medical education for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercigonja-Szekeres, Mira; Marinović, Darko; Kern, Josipa

    2009-01-01

    Five generations of second year students at the Zagreb University School of Medicine were interviewed through an anonymous questionnaire on their use of personal computers, Internet, computer laboratories and computer-assisted education in general. Results show an advance in students' usage of information and communication technology during the period from 1998/99 to 2002/03. However, their positive opinion about computer laboratory depends on installed capacities: the better the computer laboratory technology, the better the students' acceptance and use of it.

  8. Medical Students’ Attitudes toward Abortion Education: Malaysian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nai-peng Tey; Siew-yong Yew; Wah-yun Low; Lela Su'ut; Prachi Renjhen; Huang, M. S. L.; Wen-ting Tong; Siow-li Lai

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abortion is a serious public health issue, and it poses high risks to the health and life of women. Yet safe abortion services are not readily available because few doctors are trained to provide such services. Many doctors are unaware of laws pertaining to abortion. This article reports survey findings on Malaysian medical students' attitudes toward abortion education and presents a case for including abortion education in medical schools. METHODS AND RESULTS: A survey on knowled...

  9. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Education for Medical Profession: Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Quartey, Nana K.; Ma, Polly H. X.; Vincent C H Chung; Griffiths, Sian M

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To help integrate traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) into health systems, efforts are being made to educate biomedical doctors (BMD) and medical students on TCAM. We systematically evaluated the effect of TCAM education on BMD and medical students' attitude, knowledge, and behavior towards TCAM utilization and integration with biomedical medicine. Methods. Evaluative studies were identified from four databases. Methodological quality was assessed using the Med...

  10. Trust and risk: a model for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Arvin; Shulruf, Boaz; Jones, Philip

    2017-09-01

    Health care delivery, and therefore medical education, is an inherently risky business. Although control mechanisms, such as external audit and accreditation, are designed to manage risk in clinical settings, another approach is 'trust'. The use of entrustable professional activities (EPAs) represents a deliberate way in which this is operationalised as a workplace-based assessment. Once engaged with the concept, clinical teachers and medical educators may have further questions about trust. This narrative overview of the trust literature explores how risk, trust and control intersect with current thinking in medical education, and makes suggestions for potential directions of enquiry. Beyond EPAs, the importance of trust in health care and medical education is reviewed, followed by a brief history of trust research in the wider literature. Interpersonal and organisational levels of trust and a model of trust from the management literature are used to provide the framework with which to decipher trust decisions in health care and medical education, in which risk and vulnerability are inherent. In workplace learning and assessment, the language of 'trust' may offer a more authentic and practical vocabulary than that of 'competency' because clinical and professional risks are explicitly considered. There are many other trust relationships in health care and medical education. At the most basic level, it is helpful to clearly delineate who is the trustor, the trustee, and for what task. Each relationship has interpersonal and organisational elements. Understanding and considered utilisation of trust and control mechanisms in health care and medical education may lead to systems that maturely manage risk while actively encouraging trust and empowerment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  11. Competency-based medical education: the wave of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccia, Nicolette; Nakajima, Amy; Kent, Nancy

    2015-04-01

    Competency-based medical education (CBME) is a new educational paradigm that will enable the medical education community to meet societal, patient, and learner needs of the 21st century. CBME offers a renewed commitment to both clinical and educational outcomes, a new focus on assessment and developmental milestones, a mechanism to promote a true continuum of medical education, and a method to promote learner-centred curricula in the context of accountability. Accountability is central to CBME, ensuring that graduating practitioners are well-rounded and competent to provide safe and effective patient care. The structure of CBME in obstetrics and gynaecology must be rooted in, and reflect, Canadian practice. Its development and implementation require an understanding of the principles that are the foundation of CBME, along with the involvement of the entire community of obstetricians and gynaecologists and other maternity care providers. We provide here an overview of the basic principles of teaching and learning and the theories underpinning CBME.

  12. Medical education for obstetricians and gynecologists should incorporate environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinney, Veronica A; Paulson, Jerome A; Bathgate, Susanne L; Larsen, John W

    2015-02-01

    Obstetricians-gynecologists can protect the reproductive health of women, men, and their offspring from environmental hazards through preconception and prenatal counseling and encouraging patients to take actions to reduce environmental exposures. Although obstetricians-gynecologists are well positioned to prevent hazardous exposures, education on environmental health in medical education is limited. The Mid-Atlantic Center for Children's Health and the Environment and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of George Washington University convened a meeting to begin integration of environmental health topics into medical education for obstetricians-gynecologists. Several avenues were identified to incorporate environmental health topics into medical education including continuing education requirements, inclusion of environmental health questions on board certification examinations and the creation of a curriculum on environmental health specific to obstetrics-gynecology.

  13. Problems and Challenges in Medical Education in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Sribas; Sahai, Manjari

    2015-01-01

    As India marches towards an exciting new future of growth and progress, medical education will play a pivotal role in crafting a sustained development agenda. The idea of creating a healthy society is no longer a debatable luxury; its significance has been grasped by policy shapers worldwide. In a developing nation like India, medical services…

  14. Medical Education In Uganda -A Critique Edward Kigonya. East and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Consequently the medical students have become the losers. ... the role of our medical schools in producing the doctors of tomorrow capable of ... committed to teaching are undermined by the ... understanding what these facts mean. ... One of the factors that motivate clinicians to pursue ... by educating the community.

  15. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Sexual Dysfunction in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Sallie; Wittmann, Daniela; Balon, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Addressing sexual health concerns in medical practice has been an emerging concept for the past two decades. However, there have been very few educational opportunities in medical training that would prepare future physicians for such a responsibility. Since assessing and treating sexual problems requires knowledge that encompasses many…

  16. The Significance of Scientific Capital in UK Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Caragh

    2011-01-01

    For decades, debates over medical curriculum reform have centred on the role of science in medical education, but the meaning of "science" in this domain is vague and the persistence of the debate has not been explained. Following Bourdieu, this paper examines struggles over legitimate knowledge and the forms of capital associated with science in…

  17. The Shortcomings of Medical Education Highlighted through Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Pranav

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this report are to highlight the shortcomings in medical education. To use a student made short film as an example of how issues that cause medical student distress can be displayed. To show that the process of film-making is a useful tool in reflection. To display that film is an effective device in raising awareness. (Contains 3…

  18. Medicine for Somewhere: The Emergence of Place in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Brian M.; Daynard, Kim; Greenwood, David

    2014-01-01

    Until recently medical education has been largely silent on those aspects of the physician's life, both professional and unprofessional, that differ from place to place. This has contributed to health inequity through an undersupply of health care workers to many communities. A growing movement for social accountability in medical education…

  19. Rasch Analysis of Professional Behavior in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, R.; Verhulst, S. J.; Roberts, N. K.; Dorsey, J. K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of students' "consumer feedback" to assess faculty behavior and improve the process of medical education is a significant challenge. We used quantitative Rasch measurement to analyze pre-categorized student comments listed by 385 graduating medical students. We found that students differed little with respect to the number of…

  20. Transforming Vietnam's Medical Education through E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churton, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The costs for providing medical school education and services in Vietnam's universities continue to increase. Through a collaborative project between the Government of the Netherlands and Vietnam's Ministry of Health, a five year experimental program to develop in-country capacity and reduce the dependence upon a foreign medical service delivery…

  1. Trends in Medical Education in the South: Enrollments and Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbeler, Evangeline L.

    Enrollment and financial trends in Southern medical schools are examined and comparisons are made to national trends. Statistical tables and supporting text cover trends and current status of undergraduate (preparation for the M.D. degree) and graduate (training of resident physicians) medical education enrollment, graduation, and financing.…

  2. What Influences Mental Illness? Discrepancies Between Medical Education and Conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Hy Einstein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This preliminary study examined the differences between what was taught during a formal medical education and medical students’ and psychiatry residents’ conceptions of notions regarding the causes and determinants of mental illness. Methods: The authors surveyed 74 medical students and 11 residents via convenience sampling. The survey contained 18 statements which were rated twice based on truthfulness in terms of a participant’s formal education and conception, respectively. Descriptive statistics and a Wilcoxon signed rank test determined differences between education and conception. Results: Results showed that students were less likely to perceive a neurotransmitter imbalance to cause mental illness, as opposed to what was emphasized during a formal medical education. Students and residents also understood the importance of factors such as systemic racism and socioeconomic status in the development of mental illness, which were factors that did not receive heavy emphasis during medical education. Furthermore, students and residents believed that not only did mental illnesses have nonuniform pathologies, but that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders also had the propensity to sometimes arbitrarily categorize individuals with potentially negative consequences. Conclusions: If these notions are therefore part of students’ and residents’ conceptions, as well as documented in the literature, then it seems appropriate for medical education to be further developed to emphasize these ideas.

  3. More than four decades of medical informatics education for medical students in Germany. New recommendations published.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, A; Hilgers, R-D; Hofestädt, R; Knaup-Gregori, P; Ose, C; Trimmer, A

    2013-01-01

    The publication of German competency-based learning objectives "Medical Informatics" for undergraduate medical education gives reason to report on more publications of the German journal GMS Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology ( MIBE ) in Methods. The publications in focus deal with support of medical education by health and biomedical informatics, hospital information systems and their relation to medical devices, transinstitutional health information systems and the need of national eHealth strategies, epidemiological research on predicting high consumption of resources, and with the interaction of epidemiologists and medical statisticians in examining mortality risks in diabetes, in genome wide association studies and in dealing with limits and thresholds. This report is the beginning of an annual series intending to support better international cooperation to achieve good information as a basis for good medicine and good healthcare.

  4. Introduction of a virtual workstation into radiology medical student education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Colin D; Lowry, Peter A; Petersen, Brian D; Jesse, Mary K

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. This article describes the creation of a virtual workstation for use by medical students and implementation of that workstation in the reading room. CONCLUSION. A radiology virtual workstation for medical students was created using OsiriX imaging software to authentically simulate the experience of interacting with cases selected to cover important musculoskeletal imaging diagnoses. A workstation that allows the manipulation and interpretation of complete anonymized DICOM images may enhance the educational experience of medical students.

  5. Improving Education in Medical Statistics: Implementing a Blended Learning Model in the Existing Curriculum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa M Milic

    Full Text Available Although recent studies report on the benefits of blended learning in improving medical student education, there is still no empirical evidence on the relative effectiveness of blended over traditional learning approaches in medical statistics. We implemented blended along with on-site (i.e. face-to-face learning to further assess the potential value of web-based learning in medical statistics.This was a prospective study conducted with third year medical undergraduate students attending the Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, who passed (440 of 545 the final exam of the obligatory introductory statistics course during 2013-14. Student statistics achievements were stratified based on the two methods of education delivery: blended learning and on-site learning. Blended learning included a combination of face-to-face and distance learning methodologies integrated into a single course.Mean exam scores for the blended learning student group were higher than for the on-site student group for both final statistics score (89.36±6.60 vs. 86.06±8.48; p = 0.001 and knowledge test score (7.88±1.30 vs. 7.51±1.36; p = 0.023 with a medium effect size. There were no differences in sex or study duration between the groups. Current grade point average (GPA was higher in the blended group. In a multivariable regression model, current GPA and knowledge test scores were associated with the final statistics score after adjusting for study duration and learning modality (p<0.001.This study provides empirical evidence to support educator decisions to implement different learning environments for teaching medical statistics to undergraduate medical students. Blended and on-site training formats led to similar knowledge acquisition; however, students with higher GPA preferred the technology assisted learning format. Implementation of blended learning approaches can be considered an attractive, cost-effective, and efficient alternative to traditional

  6. Students’ medical ethics rounds: a combinatorial program for medical ethics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigy, Maani; Pishgahi, Ghasem; Moghaddas, Fateme; Maghbouli, Nastaran; Shirbache, Kamran; Asghari, Fariba; Abolfat-h Zadeh, Navid

    2016-01-01

    It has long been a common goal for both medical educators and ethicists to develop effective methods or programs for medical ethics education. The current lecture-based courses of medical ethics programs in medical schools are demonstrated as insufficient models for training “good doctors’’. In this study, we introduce an innovative program for medical ethics education in an extra-curricular student-based design named Students’ Medical Ethics Rounds (SMER). In SMER, a combination of educational methods, including theater-based case presentation, large group discussion, expert opinions, role playing and role modeling were employed. The pretest-posttest experimental design was used to assess the impact of interventions on the participants’ knowledge and attitude regarding selected ethical topics. A total of 335 students participated in this study and 86.57% of them filled the pretest and posttest forms. We observed significant improvements in the knowledge (P attitude (P < 0.0001) of participants. Interestingly, 89.8% of participants declared that their confidence regarding how to deal with the ethical problems outlined in the sessions was increased. All of the applied educational methods were reported as helpful. We found that SMER might be an effective method of teaching medical ethics. We highly recommend the investigation of the advantages of SMER in larger studies and interdisciplinary settings. PMID:27471586

  7. Research in medical education: pratical impact on medical training and future challenges [

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] Medical education research has changed over the years from merely descriptive studies towards justification or curriculum comparison studies and, nowadays, towards a slow introduction of more clarification studies. In clarification studies quantitative and qualitative methods are used to explain why or how educational interventions work or do not work. This shift is described in this paper. In addition, it is explained how research into workplace learning and assessment has impacted developments in educational practice. Finally, it is argued that the participation of teachers within the medical domain in conducting and disseminating research should be cherished, because they play a crucial role in ensuring that medical education research is applied in educational practice.

  8. What are the implications of implementation science for medical education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Price

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Derived from multiple disciplines and established in industries outside of medicine, Implementation Science (IS seeks to move evidence-based approaches into widespread use to enable improved outcomes to be realized as quickly as possible by as many as possible. Methods: This review highlights selected IS theories and models, chosen based on the experience of the authors, that could be used to plan and deliver medical education activities to help learners better implement and sustain new knowledge and skills in their work settings. Results: IS models, theories and approaches can help medical educators promote and determine their success in achieving desired learner outcomes. We discuss the importance of incorporating IS into the training of individuals, teams, and organizations, and employing IS across the medical education continuum. Challenges and specific strategies for the application of IS in educational settings are also discussed. Conclusions: Utilizing IS in medical education can help us better achieve changes in competence, performance, and patient outcomes. IS should be incorporated into curricula across disciplines and across the continuum of medical education to facilitate implementation of learning. Educators should start by selecting, applying, and evaluating the teaching and patient care impact one or two IS strategies in their work.

  9. Educational Multimedia Materials in Academic Medical Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barbara Kołodziejczak; Magdalena Roszak; Wojciech Kowalewski; Anna Ren-Kurc

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an overview of generally available applications for creating multimedia and interactive educational materials, such as presentations, instructional videos, self-tests and interactive repetitions...

  10. Problem based learning in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, D I; Kayastha, S R; Makaju, R; Dongol, M

    2012-01-01

    Problem based learning, originally introduced in the Medical School at Mc-Master University in Canada in the late 1960s, and is now being used as a learning method in many medical schools in the United Kingdom and worldwide. Problem based learning have been adapted in many medical colleges of Nepal be used either as the mainstay of an entire curriculum or for the delivery of individual courses. Institution of Medicine, Tribhuvan University in 1980, BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences at Dharan in 1999, KUSMS with the great support of faculties from Harvard University in 2001, Patan Academy of Health Sciences (PAHS), and lately all the affiliated medical colleges of Kathmandu University have adapted Problem based learning.

  11. Learner-centred medical education: Improved learning or increased stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Michelle; Gibbs, Trevor J

    2009-12-01

    Globally, as medical education undergoes significant reform towards more "learner-centred" approaches, specific implications arise for medical educators and learners. Although this learner-centredness is grounded in educational theory, a point of discussion would be whether the application and practice of these new curricula alleviate or exacerbate student difficulties and levels of stress. This commentary will argue that while this reform in medical education is laudable, with positive implications for learning, medical educators may not have understood or perhaps not embraced "learner-centredness" in its entirety. During their training, medical students are expected to be "patient-centred". They are asked to apply a biopsychosocial model, which takes cognisance of all aspects of a patient's well-being. While many medical schools profess that their curricula reflect these principles, in reality, many may not always practice what they preach. Medical training all too often remains grounded in the biomedical model, with the cognitive domain overshadowing the psychosocial development and needs of learners. Entrusted by parents and society with the education and training of future healthcare professionals, medical education needs to move to a "learner-centred philosophy", in which the "whole" student is acknowledged. As undergraduate and post-graduate students increasingly apply their skills in an international arena, this learner-centredness should equally encapsulate the gender, cultural and religious diversity of both patients and students. Appropriate support structures, role models and faculty development are required to develop skills, attitudes and professional behaviour that will allow our graduates to become caring and sensitive healthcare providers.

  12. Cultural minority students' experiences with intercultural competency in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyerzapf, Hannah; Abma, Tineke

    2017-05-01

    Medical schools increasingly value and focus on teaching students intercultural competency within present-day multicultural society. Little is known about the experiences of cultural minority students in intercultural competence activities. This article discusses the intercultural competence activities of medical education in a Dutch university from the perspective of cultural minority students. We will formulate recommendations for how to stimulate intercultural competency in, as well as inclusiveness of, medical education. A qualitative evaluation was performed within a medical school in the Netherlands. Data were collected through interviews (n = 23), a focus group (six participants) and participant observations (20 hours). Thematic analysis was performed. Cultural minority students experienced a lack of respect and understanding by cultural majority students and teachers. Education activities intended to transfer intercultural knowledge, address personal prejudice and stimulate intercultural sensitivity were perceived as stigmatising and as creating an unsafe climate for cultural minority students. Cultural minority and majority students on campus seemed segregated and the intercultural awareness of minority students was not integrated in intercultural competence activities. As cultural minority students were confronted with microaggressions, the medical school did not succeed in creating a safe education environment for all students. Contrary to their aims and intentions, intercultural competence activities had limited effect and seemed to support the polarisation of cultural minority and majority students and teachers. This can be seen as pointing towards a hidden curriculum privileging majority over minority students. For structural integration of intercultural competency in medical education, the focus must penetrate beyond curricular activities towards the critical addressing of the culture and structure of medical school. Collective commitment to

  13. The effect of intervention through both face to face training and educational pamphlets on separation and recycling of solid waste in the Kalaleh City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Karimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Collection and disposal of waste has an important role in public health. Isolation and separation procedures at the origin is considered as one of the most important and least costly methods of isolation and separation of waste. This study was aimed to culture and educate those involved in recycling and waste reduction in the Kalaeh City using two educational methods. . Materials and Methods:  This semi-experimental study was conducted in Kalaleh City. In the social and cultural context,   Kalaleh was divided into six regions. Using cluster sampling, regions were selected randomly. In each area, 120 samples were used. The first group was face-to-face trained and the second group received training through the training package. Waste collection period was 60 days. After this time, the questionnaires were again filled up  and the impact of teaching methods were investigated. Results: Face-to-face training resulted in increasing waste separation from 70.8 (before training to 95%. Whereas, this figure in the group receiving training package increased from 57.5 (before training to 86.7%. Waste recycling rate was between 0.6 to 1 Kg per person per week. These wastes included paper, glass, plastic, and metal containers. On average, the waste recycled in face-to-face training group and training package group was  91 and 83 Kg per week. Conclusion: Knowledge, attitude and cooperation in waste separation increased after training in both groups. However, in the face-to-face training group, the knowledge and participation in waste separation was more compared with training package group. Continuous training and organizing waste separators could be helpful to re-use waste. It causes less pollution of the environment, reduce the transmission of diseases associated with non-systematic disposal of solid waste, reduce costs and increase awareness about the problems and issues of solid waste, and reduce the solid waste volume.

  14. Creating equal opportunities: the social accountability of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Trevor; McLean, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    As new developments in medical education move inexorably forward, medical schools are being encouraged to revisit their curricula to ensure quality graduates and match their outcomes against defined standards. These standards may eventually be transferred into global accreditation standards, which allow 'safe passage' of graduates from one country to another [Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG) 2010. Requiring medical school accreditation for ECFMG certification--moving accreditation forward. Available from: http://www.ecfmg.org/accreditation/rationale.pdf]. Gaining much attention is the important standard of social accountability--ensuring that graduates' competencies are shaped by the health and social needs of the local, national and even international communities in which they will serve. But, in today's 'global village', if medical schools address the needs of their immediate community, who should address the needs of the wider global community? Should medical educators and their associations be looking beyond national borders into a world of very unequal opportunities in terms of human and financial resources; a world in which distant countries and populations are very quickly affected by medical and social disasters; a world in which the global playing field of medical education is far from level? With medical schools striving to produce fit-for-purpose graduates who will hopefully address the health needs of their country, is it now time for the medical education fraternity to extend their roles of social accountability to level this unlevel playing field? We believe so: the time has come for the profession to embrace a global accountability model and those responsible for all aspects of healthcare professional development to recognise their place within the wider global community.

  15. An online interactive simulation system for medical imaging education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Aditya; Wu, Dawei; Wu, Chunyan; Zhao, Weizhao

    2005-09-01

    This report presents a recently developed web-based medical imaging simulation system for teaching students or other trainees who plan to work in the medical imaging field. The increased importance of computer and information technology widely applied to different imaging techniques in clinics and medical research necessitates a comprehensive medical imaging education program. A complete tutorial of simulations introducing popular imaging modalities, such as X-ray, MRI, CT, ultrasound and PET, forms an essential component of such an education. Internet technologies provide a vehicle to carry medical imaging education online. There exist a number of internet-based medical imaging hyper-books or online documentations. However, there are few providing interactive computational simulations. We focus on delivering knowledge of the physical principles and engineering implementation of medical imaging techniques through an interactive website environment. The online medical imaging simulation system presented in this report outlines basic principles underlying different imaging techniques and image processing algorithms and offers trainees an interactive virtual laboratory. For education purposes, this system aims to provide general understanding of each imaging modality with comprehensive explanations, ample illustrations and copious references as its thrust, rather than complex physics or detailed math. This report specifically describes the development of the tutorial for commonly used medical imaging modalities. An internet-accessible interface is used to simulate various imaging algorithms with user-adjustable parameters. The tutorial is under the MATLAB Web Server environment. Macromedia Director MX is used to develop interactive animations integrating theory with graphic-oriented simulations. HTML and JavaScript are used to enable a user to explore these modules online in a web browser. Numerous multiple choice questions, links and references for advanced study are

  16. "Teaching as a Competency": competencies for medical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Malathi; Li, Su-Ting T; Meyers, Fredrick J; Pratt, Daniel D; Collins, John B; Braddock, Clarence; Skeff, Kelley M; West, Daniel C; Henderson, Mark; Hales, Robert E; Hilty, Donald M

    2011-10-01

    Most medical faculty receive little or no training about how to be effective teachers, even when they assume major educational leadership roles. To identify the competencies required of an effective teacher in medical education, the authors developed a comprehensive conceptual model. After conducting a literature search, the authors met at a two-day conference (2006) with 16 medical and nonmedical educators from 10 different U.S. and Canadian organizations and developed an initial draft of the "Teaching as a Competency" conceptual model. Conference participants used the physician competencies (from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education [ACGME]) and the roles (from the Royal College's Canadian Medical Education Directives for Specialists [CanMEDS]) to define critical skills for medical educators. The authors then refined this initial framework through national/regional conference presentations (2007, 2008), an additional literature review, and expert input. Four core values grounded this framework: learner engagement, learner-centeredness, adaptability, and self-reflection. The authors identified six core competencies, based on the ACGME competencies framework: medical (or content) knowledge; learner- centeredness; interpersonal and communication skills; professionalism and role modeling; practice-based reflection; and systems-based practice. They also included four specialized competencies for educators with additional programmatic roles: program design/implementation, evaluation/scholarship, leadership, and mentorship. The authors then cross-referenced the competencies with educator roles, drawing from CanMEDS, to recognize role-specific skills. The authors have explored their framework's strengths, limitations, and applications, which include targeted faculty development, evaluation, and resource allocation. The Teaching as a Competency framework promotes a culture of effective teaching and learning.

  17. Doctors or technicians: assessing quality of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Tayyab

    2010-01-01

    Medical education institutions usually adapt industrial quality management models that measure the quality of the process of a program but not the quality of the product. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of industrial quality management models on medical education and students, and to highlight the importance of introducing a proper educational quality management model. Industrial quality management models can measure the training component in terms of competencies, but they lack the educational component measurement. These models use performance indicators to assess their process improvement efforts. Researchers suggest that the performance indicators used in educational institutions may only measure their fiscal efficiency without measuring the quality of the educational experience of the students. In most of the institutions, where industrial models are used for quality assurance, students are considered as customers and are provided with the maximum services and facilities possible. Institutions are required to fulfill a list of recommendations from the quality control agencies in order to enhance student satisfaction and to guarantee standard services. Quality of medical education should be assessed by measuring the impact of the educational program and quality improvement procedures in terms of knowledge base development, behavioral change, and patient care. Industrial quality models may focus on academic support services and processes, but educational quality models should be introduced in parallel to focus on educational standards and products.

  18. [The medical provision of schoolchildren in the children educational institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernaia, N L; Ivanova, I V; Dadaeva, O B; Shtaniuk, M G

    2008-01-01

    The major issues of the medical follow-up in the children educational institutions are discussed. The data related to the need of the development and enhancement of preventive course is presented. The main possible ways to resolve the existing problems are enumerated. The necessity of implementing the new screening diagnostical technologies during the procedure of preventive examinations is proved. The using of the efficient diet and the physical education, the development of the dominant of healthy life style and the targeted preventive activities among children of medical social, medical psychological and biological risk groups is substantiated.

  19. EFSUMB Statement on Medical Student Education in Ultrasound [long version

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantisani, V; Dietrich, C F; Badea, R

    2016-01-01

    The European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) recommends that ultrasound should be used systematically as an easy accessible and instructive educational tool in the curriculum of modern medical schools. Medical students should acquire theoretical knowledge...... of the modality and hands-on training should be implemented and adhere to evidence-based principles. In this paper we report EFSUMB policy statements on medical student education in ultrasound that in a short version is already published in Ultraschall in der Medizin 1....

  20. From Cases to Projects in Problem-Based Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentoft, Diana; Duroux, Meg; Fink, Trine; Emmersen, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) based on patient cases has become a well-established worldwide educational approach in medical education. Recent studies indicate that case-based PBL when used throughout an entire curriculum may develop into a counter-productive routine for students as well as teachers. Consequently, there is a need to develop PBL…

  1. Competency-based medical education : theory to practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, Jason R.; Snell, Linda S.; Ten Cate, Olle; Holmboe, Eric S.; Carraccio, Carol; Swing, Susan R.; Harris, Peter; Glasgow, Nicholas J.; Campbell, Craig; Dath, Deepak; Harden, Ronald M.; Iobst, William; Long, Donlin M.; Mungroo, Rani; Richardson, Denyse L.; Sherbino, Jonathan; Silver, Ivan; Taber, Sarah; Talbot, Martin; Harris, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Although competency-based medical education (CBME) has attracted renewed interest in recent years among educators and policy-makers in the health care professions, there is little agreement on many aspects of this paradigm. We convened a unique partnership - the International CBME Collaborators - to

  2. Assessment in Medical Education; What Are We Trying to Achieve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Helena; O'Flynn, Dermot

    2015-01-01

    Within the arena of medical education, it is generally acknowledged that assessment drives learning. Assessment is one of the most significant influences on a student's experience of higher education and improving assessment has a huge impact on the quality of learning (Liu, N. and Carless, D, 2006). Ideally we want to enhance student's capacity…

  3. "Portfolios" as a method of assessment in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldane, Thea

    2014-01-01

    Portfolios are increasingly used in postgraduate medical education and in gastroenterology training as an assessment tool, as documentation of competence, a database of procedure experience (for example endoscopy experience) and for revalidation purposes. In this paper the educational theory behind their use is described and the evidence for their use is discussed.

  4. The Role of Self-Concept in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Li, Bingyi; Wilson, Ian; Craven, Rhonda G.

    2014-01-01

    Much research has acknowledged the importance of self-concept for adolescents' academic behaviour, motivation and aspiration, but little is known about the role of self-concept underpinning the motivation and aspiration of higher education students in a specialised field such as medical education. This article draws upon a programme of…

  5. Students' Emotions in Simulation-Based Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskitalo, Tuulikki; Ruokamo, Heli

    2017-01-01

    Medical education is emotionally charged for many reasons, especially the fact that simulation-based learning is designed to generate emotional experiences. However, there are very few studies that concentrate on learning and emotions, despite widespread interest in the topic, especially within healthcare education. The aim of this research is to…

  6. Implications of the Hospitalist Model for Medical Students' Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Karen E.; Wachter, Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes a research agenda to investigate the educational impact for medical students of the hospitalist model, suggests strategies to mitigate the limitations in students' exposures to subspecialty faculty, and recommends professional development in teaching for hospitalists to ensure that student education thrives in this new environment of…

  7. Perceived Benefits and Barriers to Family Planning Education among Third Year Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly G. Smith, MD, MS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to explore third- year medical students’ interest in learning about family planning, exposure to family planning (contraception and abortion and perceived barriers and benefits to family planning education in their obstetrics and gynecology rotation.Method: We conducted four focus groups with 27 third-year medical students near the end of their rotation in obstetrics and gynecology.Results: Students desired education in family planning but perceived limited exposure during their rotation. Most students were aware of abortion but lacked factual information and abortion procedural skills. They felt systemic and faculty-related barriers contributed to limited exposure. Students discussed issues such as lack of time for coverage of contraception and abortion in the curricula and rotation itself. Perceived benefits of clinical instruction in family planning included increased knowledge of contraceptive management and abortion the ability to care for and relate to patients, opportunity for values clarification, and positive changes in attitudes towards family planning.Conclusions: Medical students who desire full education in family planning during their obstetrics and gynecology rotation may face barriers to obtaining that education. Given that many medical students will eventually care for reproductive-age women, greater promotion of opportunities for exposure to family planning within obstetrics and gynecology rotations is warranted.

  8. Medical Asepsis, Research, and Continuing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussell, Patricia M.; Crow, Sue

    1977-01-01

    Emphasizes the need that continuing education programs for nurses in hospitals orient newly employed graduate nurses specifically to infection control measures as carried out in that institution and then to reinforce these learnings by regular planned programs. Points out ways that those responsible for inservice nursing education can facilitate…

  9. Development and implementation of a comprehensive strategic plan for medical education at an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzstein, Richard M; Huang, Grace C; Coughlin, Christine M

    2008-06-01

    Despite their vital contributions to the training of future physicians, many academic teaching hospitals have grown operationally and financially distinct from affiliated medical schools because of divergent missions, contributing to the erosion of clinical training. Some institutions have responded by building hybrid organizations; others by creating large health care networks with variable relationships with the affiliated medical school. In this case, the authors wished to establish the future educational mission of their medical center as a core element of the institution by creating data-driven recommendations for reorganization, programs, and financing. They conducted a self-study of all constituents, the results of which confirmed the importance of education at their institution but also revealed the insufficiency of incentives for teaching. They underwent an external review by a committee of prominent educators, and they involved administrators at the hospital and the medical school. Together, these inputs composed an informed assessment of medical education at their teaching hospital, from which they developed and actualized an institution-wide strategic plan for education. Over the course of three years, they centralized the administrative structure for education, implemented programs that cross departments and reinforce the UME-GME continuum, and created transparency in the financing of medical education. The plan was purposefully aligned with the clinical and research strategic plans by supporting patient safety in programs and the professional development of faculty. The application of a rigorous strategic planning process to medical education at an academic teaching hospital can focus the mission, invigorate faculty, and lead to innovative programs.

  10. STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF ASPECTS AFFECTING MEDICAL EDUCATION QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Peeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The student is the main subject in the education process. The goal of the study is to examine the relative weight of the components of learning process in the students’ evaluation assessment for quality of higher medical education. Direct individual inquiry with rank answers for 541 medical students was completed. Logistic regression analysis was done to create predictive models and derive relationships between quality of education factors and its dependents: assessment of quality and students' progress. Tolerance and respectfulness (OR = 13.1, high general culture (OR = 18.4, clearand accessiblecontemporaryteaching (OR = 9.2, engagement of the audience (OR = 3.4, are the teacher characteristics in the model. Application ofnew technologiesinlearning (OR = 4.2,discussion (OR = 5.9, patients observations and live contact (OR = 5.6 are educational methods determine the qualityof education. Accordinginterns quality of education isdetermined mainly by clinical facilities, quality lectures,solving clinical cases, and practical work. 

  11. Blunting Occam's razor: aligning medical education with studies of complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Alan

    2010-08-01

    Clinical effectiveness and efficiency in medicine for patient benefit should be grounded in the quality of medical education. In turn, the quality of medical education should be informed by contemporary learning theory that offers high explanatory, exploratory and predictive power. Multiple team-based health care interventions and associated policy are now routinely explored and explained through complexity theory. Yet medical education--how medical students learn to become doctors and how doctors learn to become clinical specialists or primary care generalists--continues to refuse contemporary, work-based social learning theories that have deep resonance with models of complexity. This can be explained ideologically, where medicine is grounded in a tradition of heroic individualism and knowledge is treated as private capital. In contrast, social learning theories resonating with complexity theory emphasize adaptation through collaboration, where knowledge is commonly owned. The new era of clinical teamwork demands, however, that we challenge the tradition of autonomy, bringing social learning theories in from the cold, to reveal their affinities with complexity science and demonstrate their powers of illumination. Social learning theories informed by complexity science can act as a democratizing force in medical education, helping practitioners to work more effectively in non-linear, complex, dynamic systems through inter-professionalism, shared tolerance of ambiguity and distributed cognition. Taking complexity science seriously and applying its insights demands a shift in cultural mindset in medical education. Inevitably, patterns of resistance will arise to frustrate such potential innovation.

  12. Two concepts of medical ethics and their implications for medical ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Rosamond

    2002-08-01

    People who discuss medical ethics or bioethics come to very different conclusions about the levels of agreement in the field and the implications of consensus among health care professionals. In this paper I argue that these disagreements turn on a confusion of two distinct senses of medical ethics. I differentiate (1) medical ethics as a subject in applied ethics from (2) medical ethics as the professional moral commitments of health care professions. I then use the distinction to explain its significant implications for medical ethics education. Drawing on the recent work of John Rawls, I also show the centrality of philosophy in medical ethics by illustrating how contemporary philosophy can be used to construct an ethical framework for the medical professions.

  13. To the point: medical education, technology, and the millennial learner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Laura; Hampton, Brittany S; Abbott, Jodi F; Buery-Joyner, Samantha D; Craig, LaTasha B; Dalrymple, John L; Forstein, David A; Graziano, Scott C; McKenzie, Margaret L; Pradham, Archana; Wolf, Abigail; Page-Ramsey, Sarah M

    2017-06-28

    This article, from the "To The Point" series that was prepared by the Association of Professors of Gynecology and Obstetrics Undergraduate Medical Education Committee, provides an overview of the characteristics of millennials and describes how medical educators can customize and reframe their curricula and teaching methods to maximize millennial learning. A literature search was performed to identify articles on generational learning. We summarize the importance of understanding the attitudes, ideas, and priorities of millennials to tailor educational methods to stimulate and enhance learning. Where relevant, a special focus on the obstetrics and gynecology curriculum is highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Doctors or technicians: assessing quality of medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyab Hasan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tayyab HasanPAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, University Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, BruneiAbstract: Medical education institutions usually adapt industrial quality management models that measure the quality of the process of a program but not the quality of the product. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of industrial quality management models on medical education and students, and to highlight the importance of introducing a proper educational quality management model. Industrial quality management models can measure the training component in terms of competencies, but they lack the educational component measurement. These models use performance indicators to assess their process improvement efforts. Researchers suggest that the performance indicators used in educational institutions may only measure their fiscal efficiency without measuring the quality of the educational experience of the students. In most of the institutions, where industrial models are used for quality assurance, students are considered as customers and are provided with the maximum services and facilities possible. Institutions are required to fulfill a list of recommendations from the quality control agencies in order to enhance student satisfaction and to guarantee standard services. Quality of medical education should be assessed by measuring the impact of the educational program and quality improvement procedures in terms of knowledge base development, behavioral change, and patient care. Industrial quality models may focus on academic support services and processes, but educational quality models should be introduced in parallel to focus on educational standards and products.Keywords: educational quality, medical education, quality control, quality assessment, quality management models

  15. From gender bias to gender awareness in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne W M; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; Lagro-Janssen, Toine L M

    2009-03-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was 'gender blind' by not considering gender whenever relevant. Secondly, medicine is said to be 'male biased' because the largest body of knowledge on health and illness is about men and their health. Thirdly, gender role ideology negatively influences treatment and health outcomes. Finally, gender inequality has been overlooked as a determinant of health and illness. The uptake of gender issues in medical education brings about specific challenges for several reasons. For instance, the political-ideological connotations of gender issues create resistance especially in traditionalists in medical schools. Secondly, it is necessary to clarify which gender issues must be integrated in which domains. Also, some are interdisciplinary issues and as such more difficult to integrate. Finally, schools need assistance with implementation. The integration of psychosocial issues along with biomedical ones in clinical cases, the dissemination of literature and education material, staff education, and efforts towards structural embedding of gender in curricula are determining factors for successful implementation. Gender equity is not a spontaneous process. Medical education provides specific opportunities that may contribute to transformation for medical schools educate future doctors for future patients in future settings. Consequently, future benefits legitimize the integration of gender as a qualitative investment in medical education.

  16. Educational climate seems unrelated to leadership skills of clinical consultants responsible of postgraduate medical education in clinical departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Bente Vigh; Mortensen, Lene S.; Scherpbier, Albert J J;

    2010-01-01

    The educational climate is crucial in postgraduate medical education. Although leaders are in the position to influence the educational climate, the relationship between leadership skills and educational climate is unknown. This study investigates the relationship between the educational climate...

  17. Fungal native pulmonary valve endocarditis: facing both medical and surgical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouabdallaoui, Nadia; Demondion, Pierre; Lebreton, Guillaume; Leprince, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Fungal isolated native pulmonary valve endocarditis is extremely uncommon. Data are scarce and report high mortality and recurrence rates. Recommended management combines both medical and surgical approaches. We report herein a rare case of isolated pulmonary valve endocarditis caused by Candida albicans The patient did not display prior heart disease. Medical management was unsuccessful. Pulmonary valve replacement allowed rapid improvement. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  18. Learning the law: practical proposals for UK medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margetts, J K

    2016-02-01

    Ongoing serious breaches in medical professionalism might be avoided if UK doctors rethink their approach to law. UK medical education has a role in creating a climate of change by re-examining how law is taught to medical students. Adopting a more insightful approach in the UK to the impact of The Human Rights Act and learning to manipulate legal concepts, such as conflict of interest, need to be taught to medical students now if UK doctors are to manage complex decision-making in the NHS of the future. The literature is reviewed from a unique personal perspective of a doctor and lawyer, and practical proposals for developing medical education in law in the UK are suggested.

  19. EDUCATION AND TRAINING OF THE MEDICAL LIBRARIAN IN GREAT BRITAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RUSSELL, M P

    1964-01-01

    This paper describes the education of the librarians under whose care the medical libraries of Great Britain have flourished and the way junior assistants now move toward higher qualification. It expresses the hope that the changed Library Association syllabus gives the medical library assistant an earlier chance of using his knowledge of medical library practice in the papers presented; that the inclusion of medical material in the examination will encourage library schools to provide appropriate instruction in this field, thus achieving a system like that in the United States. For its encouragement of continuing education for the senior librarian, our debt is acknowledged to the Medical Section or Group of the Library Association, which through its meetings gives opportunity for cooperation and discussion of suggestions for further improvement.

  20. Competency-based Medical Education, Entrustment and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Jyoti Nath; Gupta, Piyush; Singh, Tejinder

    2015-05-01

    The realization that medical graduates are failing to serve the health needs of the society has compelled the medical educationists and regulatory authorities worldwide to review the medical training. A medical curriculum oriented towards developing the key competencies that enable a fresh graduate to be delivering socially responsive health care is seen as a promising step towards alleviating this problem. This calls for a departure from the traditional approach of organizing the curricular components around educational objectives, to a competency-based approach for planning the curriculum. The present article discusses the concept of competency-based medical education in Indian context, the steps in planning and implementing such a curriculum, and the key aspects of assessment for its effective implementation.

  1. Medical education and training in Nepal: SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, H; Marahatta, S B

    2008-01-01

    To analyse the impact of the medical colleges that have been set up within the last two decades by production of the doctors and the effect on the health of the people. SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunities and threats) analysis of medical education in Nepal has been done by reviewing medical manpower produced by the different institutions in the undergraduate and postgraduate (PG) categories, their registration with the Nepal Medical Council in terms of the existing health scenario of the country. Shows severe shortage of basic sciences teachers. In the clinical areas ophthalmic manpower and services provided are exemplary. There are shortages and shortcomings in all areas if standard health care is to be provided to the Nepalese. There is a long way to go to provide the expected educational and medical services to foreigners prepared to pay more to avail of this in Nepal.

  2. Medical education in late antiquity from Alexandria to Montpellier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pormann, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The training of medical students reflects current medical trends and has grave repercussions on the future development of the medical art. This is as true today as it was in Antiquity. There was, however, one period and place at the crossroads of civilisations and cultures in which the educational trends were to have a particularly important influence on how medicine evolved. This was Alexandria in Late Antiquity. In a climate where medicine and philosophy were heavily intertwined, teachers used formal philosophical concepts in order to organise medical knowledge. Their educational techniques provided the tools with which Islamic authors during the medieval period such as Avicenna (Ibn Sinā, d. 1037) arranged their great medical encyclopaedias. These works in Latin translation later became the core curriculum in the nascent universities of Europe.

  3. Modifying the culture of medical education: the first three years of the RWJ Generalist Physician Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwill, J M; Perkoff, G T; Blake, R L; Paden, C; Beachler, M

    1997-09-01

    The Generalist Physician Initiative (GPI) was created by The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to help medical schools increase the number of predoctoral and residency graduates entering generalist careers. The underlying assumption of the GPI is that more medical graduates will become generalists if schools select candidates whose personal characteristics are compatible with generalist careers and if schools provide for them an educational environment that values generalist careers in the same manner it has valued specialist careers. In essence, the GPI is helping schools modify the culture in which medical education occurs so that they may increase their production of generalists. Fourteen grants for six years of support were made to 16 U.S. medical schools in 1994. These schools are developing institution-wide efforts that span the continuum from the recruitment and selection of students through their medical school and residency education to their entry into practice, and include support of the practice. Most schools have developed external partners (e.g., state legislatures, managed care organizations, area health education centers) to assist in achieving their goals. The project is now (1997) at its halfway mark. This article describes the conceptual bases for the program (e.g., changes in admission criteria to favor applicants oriented to generalism), identifies common approaches to intervention chosen by the participating schools (e.g., establishing longitudinal, generalist-oriented clinical experiences throughout the four years of medical school), and explores issues being faced by the schools as they implement change (e.g., difficulties in decentralizing clinical education to include community physicians as teachers and role models).

  4. Relationship among Medical Student Resilience, Educational Environment and Quality of Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Tempski

    Full Text Available Resilience is a capacity to face and overcome adversities, with personal transformation and growth. In medical education, it is critical to understand the determinants of a positive, developmental reaction in the face of stressful, emotionally demanding situations. We studied the association among resilience, quality of life (QoL and educational environment perceptions in medical students.We evaluated data from a random sample of 1,350 medical students from 22 Brazilian medical schools. Information from participants included the Wagnild and Young's resilience scale (RS-14, the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM, the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire - short form (WHOQOL-BREF, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI.Full multiple linear regression models were adjusted for sex, age, year of medical course, presence of a BDI score ≥ 14 and STAI state or anxiety scores ≥ 50. Compared to those with very high resilience levels, individuals with very low resilience had worse QoL, measured by overall (β=-0.89; 95% confidence interval =-1.21 to -0.56 and medical-school related (β=-0.85; 95%CI=-1.25 to -0.45 QoL scores, environment (β=-6.48; 95%CI=-10.01 to -2.95, psychological (β=-22.89; 95%CI=-25.70 to -20.07, social relationships (β=-14.28; 95%CI=-19.07 to -9.49, and physical health (β=-10.74; 95%CI=-14.07 to -7.42 WHOQOL-BREF domain scores. They also had a worse educational environment perception, measured by global DREEM score (β=-31.42; 95%CI=-37.86 to -24.98, learning (β=-7.32; 95%CI=-9.23 to -5.41, teachers (β=-5.37; 95%CI=-7.16 to -3.58, academic self-perception (β=-7.33; 95%CI=-8.53 to -6.12, atmosphere (β=-8.29; 95%CI=-10.13 to -6.44 and social self-perception (β=-3.12; 95%CI=-4.11 to -2.12 DREEM domain scores. We also observed a dose-response pattern across resilience level groups for most measurements.Medical students with higher resilience levels

  5. Teaching interprofessional teamwork in medical and nursing education in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aase, Ingunn; Aase, Karina; Dieckmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The notions of interprofessional education and interprofessional teamwork have attained widespread acceptance, partly because lack of teamwork has been tentatively linked to adverse incidents in healthcare. By analyzing data from 32 educational institutions, this study identifies the status...... of interprofessional teamwork in all nursing and medical education in Norway. The study programs issued by the 32 educational institutions were subject to content analysis, distilling the ambitions and goals for teaching interprofessional teamwork. Study program coordinators were approached and asked to what degree...... interprofessional teamwork was actually introduced in lecturing and clinical training. Results indicate that the medical and nursing schools clearly aspire to teach interprofessional teamwork and that this has largely been achieved when it comes to theoretical teaching. Although three of the four medical programs...

  6. Needles and Haystacks: Finding Funding for Medical Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppen, Larry D; Durning, Steven J

    2016-04-01

    Medical education research suffers from a significant and persistent lack of funding. Although adequate funding has been shown to improve the quality of research, there are a number of factors that continue to limit it. The competitive environment for medical education research funding makes it essential to understand strategies for improving the search for funding sources and the preparation of proposals. This article offers a number of resources, strategies, and suggestions for finding funding. Investigators must be able to frame their research in the context of significant issues and principles in education. They must set their proposed work in the context of prior work and demonstrate its potential for significant new contributions. Because there are few funding sources earmarked for medical education research, researchers much also be creative, flexible, and adaptive as they seek to present their ideas in ways that are appealing and relevant to the goals of funders. Above all, the search for funding requires persistence and perseverance.

  7. Twelve tips for effective body language for medical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Andrew J; Freed, Jason; Ricotta, Daniel; Farris, Grace; Smith, C Christopher

    2017-09-01

    A significant proportion of human communication is nonverbal. Although the fields of business and psychology have significant literature on effectively using body language in a variety of situations, there is limited literature on effective body language for medical educators. To provide 12 tips to highlight effective body language strategies and techniques for medical educators. The tips provided are based on our experiences and reflections as clinician-educators and the available literature. The 12 tips presented offer specific strategies to engage learners, balance learner participation, and bring energy and passion to teaching. Medical educators seeking to maximize their effectiveness would benefit from an understanding of how body language affects a learning environment and how body language techniques can be used to engage audiences, maintain attention, control challenging learners, and convey passion for a topic. Understanding and using body language effectively is an important instructional skill.

  8. Comparing alternative and traditional dissemination metrics in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amath, Aysah; Ambacher, Kristin; Leddy, John J; Wood, Timothy J; Ramnanan, Christopher J

    2017-09-01

    The impact of academic scholarship has traditionally been measured using citation-based metrics. However, citations may not be the only measure of impact. In recent years, other platforms (e.g. Twitter) have provided new tools for promoting scholarship to both academic and non-academic audiences. Alternative metrics (altmetrics) can capture non-traditional dissemination data such as attention generated on social media platforms. The aims of this exploratory study were to characterise the relationships among altmetrics, access counts and citations in an international and pre-eminent medical education journal, and to clarify the roles of these metrics in assessing the impact of medical education academic scholarship. A database study was performed (September 2015) for all papers published in Medical Education in 2012 (n = 236) and 2013 (n = 246). Citation, altmetric and access (HTML views and PDF downloads) data were obtained from Scopus, the Altmetric Bookmarklet tool and the journal Medical Education, respectively. Pearson coefficients (r-values) between metrics of interest were then determined. Twitter and Mendeley (an academic bibliography tool) were the only altmetric-tracked platforms frequently (> 50%) utilised in the dissemination of articles. Altmetric scores (composite measures of all online attention) were driven by Twitter mentions. For short and full-length articles in 2012 and 2013, both access counts and citation counts were most strongly correlated with one another, as well as with Mendeley downloads. By comparison, Twitter metrics and altmetric scores demonstrated weak to moderate correlations with both access and citation counts. Whereas most altmetrics showed limited correlations with readership (access counts) and impact (citations), Mendeley downloads correlated strongly with both readership and impact indices for articles published in the journal Medical Education and may therefore have potential use that is complementary to that of citations in

  9. Research and academic education in medical sexology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchera, A; Jannini, E A; Lenzi, A

    2003-01-01

    Advances in sexual pharmacology have stimulated the development of new analytical instruments in the management of sexual dysfunction, with increasing research in the area of basic mechanisms of human sexual response. However, the public is greatly interested and eager for new discoveries and pharmacological treatments to enhance sexual performance and relationships, and cure common sexual dysfunctions and symptoms. The need for sexology--in this case, a new "medical" sexology--to utilize scientific tools and be taught in medical schools is therefore evident.

  10. [Medical education and quality of decision-making: Is there an evidence-based relationship?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nendaz, M

    2011-07-01

    A medical decision when facing a clinical problem is the result of a complex process involving clinical reasoning and decision-making components. Several biases and external factors may influence this process. Educational interventions may be helpful to modify some of those factors and enhance the quality of decision-making, such as the training of clinical reasoning, making physicians aware of potential biases, or training them to use some tools brought by the evidence-based medicine movement. However, the impact of such interventions remains difficult to quantify because high-quality data are lacking and few studies really assess patient outcomes. This article reviews the available evidence of interventions aiming at improving the quality of decision-making and stresses the importance of involving clinician teachers in medical education research. Copyright © 2010 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Perception of educational value in clinical rotations by medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandiah DA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available David A Kandiah School of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia Aim: Clinical teaching in Australian medical schools has changed to meet the needs of substantially increased medical student cohorts. As such, formal feedback from these student cohorts is needed about the value they place on the educational input from each clinical rotation. This study aims to determine which aspects of clinical placements are most educationally useful to medical students.Methods: In this study, final year medical students from the University of Western Australia (UWA were surveyed via an anonymous online questionnaire, identifying which clinical placements were found to be the most and the least useful to their learning and the positive aspects of these placements. Two focus groups were conducted prior to the design of the questionnaire to determine the key areas of focus important to medical students. Ethics approval for this study was obtained from the UWA Human Research Ethics Committee.Results: Our focus groups were consistent in finding that students enjoyed placements where they were included as a part of the medical team and played a role in patient care. This was consistent with the concept that inclusiveness and participation in the clinical setting are important in developing competence in tasks and skills. The ratio of students to doctors was crucial, with a low ratio given a higher rating as seen in the rural clinical school.Conclusion: The results of this project could benefit both the local and national medical curricula in identifying the most effective clinical attachments for learning and preparation for prevocational training. This is relevant especially due to the limited number of clinical placements and growing cohort of medical students. The results of this study can also be extrapolated to international medical education. Keywords

  12. Applying multimedia design principles enhances learning in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Nabil; Schuller, Mary; Santacaterina, Susan; Shapiro, Michael; Wang, Edward; Mayer, Richard E; DaRosa, Debra A

    2011-08-01

    The Association of American Medical Colleges' Institute for Improving Medical Education's report entitled 'Effective Use of Educational Technology' called on researchers to study the effectiveness of multimedia design principles. These principles were empirically shown to result in superior learning when used with college students in laboratory studies, but have not been studied with undergraduate medical students as participants. A pre-test/post-test control group design was used, in which the traditional-learning group received a lecture on shock using traditionally designed slides and the modified-design group received the same lecture using slides modified in accord with Mayer's principles of multimedia design. Participants included Year 3 medical students at a private, midwestern medical school progressing through their surgery clerkship during the academic year 2009-2010. The medical school divides students into four groups; each group attends the surgery clerkship during one of the four quarters of the academic year. Students in the second and third quarters served as the modified-design group (n=91) and students in the fourth-quarter clerkship served as the traditional-design group (n=39). Both student cohorts had similar levels of pre-lecture knowledge. Both groups showed significant improvements in retention (pdesign compared with those instructed using the traditional design. Multimedia design principles are easy to implement and result in improved short-term retention among medical students, but empirical research is still needed to determine how these principles affect transfer of learning. Further research on applying the principles of multimedia design to medical education is needed to verify the impact it has on the long-term learning of medical students, as well as its impact on other forms of multimedia instructional programmes used in the education of medical students. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  13. Transfer of Student Learning in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vimla L.; Cranton, Patricia A.

    1983-01-01

    Transfer of learning among the cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains and among three clinical disciplines (medicine, pediatrics, and surgery) was examined in the final year of a medical student clerkship program. A model based on ethnographic analysis followed by performance measurement was used. (Author/MLW)

  14. Archives of Medical Education; 1876 - 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This bibliography of the archives of the Association of Medical Colleges includes: general history entries (1876-1971); AMA history publications (1904-1970); other history publications (1934-1962); biomedical research policy publications (1955-1971); reports of conferences, seminars, institutes, workshops, and special studies (1910-1971); Council…

  15. Medical Emergency Education in Dental Hygiene Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stach, Donna J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 169 dental hygiene training programs investigated the curriculum content and instruction concerning medical emergency treatment, related clinical practice, and program policy. Several trends are noted: increased curriculum hours devoted to emergency care; shift in course content to more than life-support care; and increased emergency…

  16. The Use of Narrative in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjmand, Susan

    2012-01-01

    A course was designed for medical students in which literature and writing exercises were used to promote reflection on cross-cultural patient encounters. Students were encouraged to consider Kleinman's principles of open-ended questioning as the basis for enhancing these patient conversations and were prompted to develop skills in close reading…

  17. Clinical education stressors in medical trainees in Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momayyezi, Mahdieh; Fallahzadeh, Hossein; Momayyezi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Stress is an important factor in the educational process. Teaching and learning are stressful processes. This stress can affect one's ability and change his/her performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate stressors of clinical education from the perspective of medical students in Yazd University of Medical Sciences. This descriptive-analytic study was conducted in Yazd University of Medical Science during year 2014-2015. The sample size was 170 medical students who were selected randomly. The data were collected by a questionnaire including four components: interpersonal relationship, educational environment, clinical experience and the unpleasant emotions. A significance level of 0.05 was considered for analysis. The statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, ANOVA and T-tests, using SPSS software, version 14. The results showed that the highest domain score belonged to interpersonal relationship (3.33±0.3) followed by unpleasant emotions domain (3.3±0.3). The lowest domain score of clinical education stressors was educational environment (3.12±0.1). The results showed that the mean score of interpersonal relationship domain was more in women than in men (peffective factor in all dimensions of clinical education stressors. So proper measures such as the promotion of scientific awareness of teachers and educational staff about factors that lead to stress and the best way to communicate with students should be taken to reduce the students' stress.

  18. Transforming educational accountability in medical ethics and humanities education toward professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, David J; Kirch, Darrell G; Brigham, Timothy P; Barzansky, Barbara M; Wear, Stephen; Carrese, Joseph A; Fins, Joseph J; Lederer, Susan E

    2015-06-01

    Effectively developing professionalism requires a programmatic view on how medical ethics and humanities should be incorporated into an educational continuum that begins in premedical studies, stretches across medical school and residency, and is sustained throughout one's practice. The Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education National Conference on Medical Ethics and Humanities in Medical Education (May 2012) invited representatives from the three major medical education and accreditation organizations to engage with an expert panel of nationally known medical educators in ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. This article, based on the views of these representatives and their respondents, offers a future-tense account of how professionalism can be incorporated into medical education.The themes that are emphasized herein include the need to respond to four issues. The first theme highlights how ethics and humanities can provide a response to the dissonance that occurs in current health care delivery. The second theme focuses on how to facilitate preprofessional readiness for applicants through reform of the medical school admission process. The third theme emphasizes the importance of integrating ethics and humanities into the medical school administrative structure. The fourth theme underscores how outcomes-based assessment should reflect developmental milestones for professional attributes and conduct. The participants emphasized that ethics and humanities-based knowledge, skills, and conduct that promote professionalism should be taught with accountability, flexibility, and the premise that all these traits are essential to the formation of a modern professional physician.

  19. Private medical education--the doctor's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Hamid, A K

    2000-08-01

    The Government's decision to drastically and speedily increase the number of doctors in the country needs to be reviewed. The standard and quality of health care does not depend on the number of doctors, but on the improvement of the health care infrastructure. Increasing the number of government medical schools and increasing the intake of students should be done on a need-to basis, with the above perspective in mind. The selection criteria of candidates must not be compromised and the teaching staff must be adequate and experienced. The number of doctors should be gradually increased over the years in tandem with the development of the health care infrastructure and the deployment of doctors must be directed at providing equitable care to the people at all economic levels and geographic locations. The strength of academic staff in existing government medical schools must be upgraded to provide high level of teaching and research, perhaps reinforced with the recruitment of suitably qualified and experienced foreign teachers. The infrastructure of existing government medical schools must be upgraded to cater for the gradual increasing demand for more doctors as the country develops. The selection of candidates for the government medical schools must be based on merit and without undue emphasis on ethnic considerations, for it is only in the arena of fair competitiveness that excellence can be born. The considerations of merit in selection must include assessment of attitude, self-development, moral ethics and reasoning. If the above perspectives are fully appreciated, then there is really no requirement for private medical colleges in Malaysia.

  20. Continuing Medical Education Reform for Competency-Based Education and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahrwold, David L.

    2005-01-01

    The development of competency-based education and evaluation for residents and practicing physicians by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS), respectively, includes the competency of practice-based learning and improvement. Efforts to implement this and the other competencies…

  1. He who pays the piper: foundations, the medical profession, and medical education reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E R

    1980-01-01

    The development of modern medical education was shaped by the medical profession's own reform strategies and by material and ideological support from the corporate class. This article examines how the Rockefeller medical philanthropies, the largest single source of funds for medical education reform from 1910 through the 1930s, forced the adoption of a specific reform--full-time clinical faculty--to make medicine serve the needs of capitalist society rather than the interests of the medical profession. Memorandums and letters from archival files demonstrate that foundation leaders believed the full-time plan would separate medical schools from the grip of practitioner-dominated medical societies, bringing all medical faculty under the control of foundations and university boards of trustees. This policy was to be a first step in rationalizing medical care and distributing the technical benefits and social-control functions of medicine to all segments of the population. The author traces the development of the full-time plan, its adoption as foundation policy, and the struggle over its implementation.

  2. [Medical education: why and how to innovate it].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensini, Gian Franco; Conti, Andrea Alberto; Conti, Antonio

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents an analysis of some innovative educational perspectives regarding the figure of the physician, on the basis of the awareness that the cultural formation of the medical class represents a major strategy in achieving a high quality medical standard and an effective evidence-based health care. Quality education, both during the graduate curriculum and in the post-graduate phase (today including Decision Making, Knowledge Management, Health Economics, General Practice Medicine, Evidence Based Medicine and Evidence Based History of Medicine, as in the Florence Medical School), is essential for the training of updated health professionals, as well as being geared to life-long learning. The classical medical education paradigm involved knowing, knowing how to do and knowing how to be; today this model should be enriched by other key competences for practicing medicine, among them knowing how to make other people do things and knowing how to continue with self-education. With specific reference to making others carry out tasks, the current need for team work renders it necessary for physicians to reconstruct their competences continuously in the light of the essential integration with the competence of non-medical colleagues with whom they work in an inter-disciplinary pattern. With regard to knowing how to continue with self-education, this is possibly the most relevant current and future challenge, not only for health systems but also for physicians.

  3. Challenges Faced by International Medical Students Due to Changes in Canadian Entrance Exam Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pishoy Gouda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Medical Council of Canada has set new eligibility criteria for examinations that are required in order to apply to postgraduate training. This is to facilitate the establishment of the National Assessment Collaboration Objective Structured Clinical Examination. These changes result in increased hardships on Canadians studying abroad who are wishing to apply for postgraduate training in Canada. While these exams are crucial to protect medical standards and the quality of healthcare in Canada, slight modifications of the examination timelines may alleviate some of the burdens caused by these exams.

  4. Community-based distributive medical education: Advantaging society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy J. Farnsworth

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a narrative summary of an increasingly important trend in medical education by addressing the merits of community-based distributive medical education (CBDME. This is a relatively new and compelling model for teaching and training physicians in a manner that may better meet societal needs and expectations. Issues and trends regarding the growing shortage and imbalanced distribution of physicians in the USA are addressed, including the role of international medical graduates. A historical overview of costs and funding sources for medical education is presented, as well as initiatives to increase the training and placement of physicians cost-effectively through new and expanded medical schools, two- and four-year regional or branch campuses and CBDME. Our research confirms that although medical schools have responded to Association of American Medical Colleges calls for higher student enrollment and societal concerns about the distribution and placement of physicians, significant opportunities for improvement remain. Finally, the authors recommend further research be conducted to guide policy on incentives for physicians to locate in underserved communities, and determine the cost-effectiveness of the CBDME model in both the near and long terms.

  5. Realizing the promise of competency-based medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmboe, Eric S

    2015-04-01

    Competency-based medical education (CBME) places a premium on both educational and clinical outcomes. The Milestones component of the Next Accreditation System represents a fundamental change in medical education in the United States and is part of the drive to realize the full promise of CBME. The Milestones framework provides a descriptive blueprint in each specialty to guide curriculum development and assessment practices. From the beginning of the Outcomes project in 1999, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the larger medical education community recognized the importance of improving their approach to assessment. Work-based assessments, which rely heavily on the observations and judgments of clinical faculty, are central to a competency-based approach. The direct observation of learners and the provision of robust feedback have always been recognized as critical components of medical education, but CBME systems further elevate their importance. Without effective and frequent direct observation, coaching, and feedback, the full potential of CBME and the Milestones cannot be achieved. Furthermore, simply using the Milestones as end-of-rotation evaluations to "check the box" to meet requirements undermines the intent of an outcomes-based accreditation system. In this Commentary, the author explores these challenges, addressing the concerns raised by Williams and colleagues in their Commentary. Meeting the assessment challenges of the Milestones will require a renewed commitment from institutions to meet the profession's "special obligations" to patients and learners. All stakeholders in graduate medical education must commit to a professional system of self-regulation to prepare highly competent physicians to fulfill this social contract.

  6. The moral development of medical students: a pilot study of the possible influence of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, D J; Schrader, D E; Baldwin, D C; Wolinsky, F D

    1993-01-01

    Medicine endorses a code of ethics and encourages a high moral character among doctors. This study examines the influence of medical education on the moral reasoning and development of medical students. Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview was given to a sample of 20 medical students (41.7% of students in that class). The students were tested at the beginning and at the end of their medical course to determine whether their moral reasoning scores had increased to the same extent as other people who extend their formal education. It was found that normally expected increases in moral reasoning scores did not occur over the 4 years of medical education for these students, suggesting that their educational experience somehow inhibited their moral reasoning ability rather than facilitating it. With a range of moral reasoning scores between 315 and 482, the finding of a mean increase from first year to fourth year of 18.5 points was not statistically significant at the P moral reasoning scores and age, gender, Medical College Admission Test scores, or grade point average scores. Along with a brief description of Kohlberg's cognitive moral development theory, some interpretations and explanations are given for the findings of the study.

  7. Electronic health communication: an educational application for this principle of the Patient-centered Medical Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Amber; Lausen, Harald; Smith, Tracey; Lopp, Lauri

    2010-05-01

    The Patient-centered Medical Home (PCMH) relies on comprehensive, consistent, and accessible communication for the patient with all members of their health care team. "E-medicine" and health information technology (HIT) create many new possibilities in addition to standard face-to-face encounters. There is interest by both physicians and patients for enhanced access through electronic communication. However, there is little published literature regarding specific educational programs for medical professionals using electronic communication with patients. Faculty in a required 6-week family medicine clerkship developed, implemented, and evaluated an electronic health communication curriculum. This curriculum consists of a didactic session on electronic health communication including anticipated errors of communication and common clinical pitfalls. Each clerkship student receives a weekly e-mail from a standardized patient centered on a clinical question. Additionally, each e-mail contains a different communication challenge or predicted error. Students receive feedback each week on the e-mails and are evaluated with an objective structured clinical exam (OSCE) during the final week. The results of the weekly e-mails and the final OSCE show that students improve overall but continue to make predicted errors in communication despite didactic instruction and actual practice. These results reinforce the need for medical student education on electronic health communication with patients.

  8. Satisfaction of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences\\' alumni about the quality of medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Mirmohammadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to achieve acceptable quality in educations, the quality of learning should be assessed. opinion of alumni in assessment of the quality of education is important, This study aims to assess the quality of medical education in basic and clinical sciences according to the opinion of alumni of Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences during 2008-2012 Method: This cross-sectional study conducted on alumni graduated from 2008-2012. Data was collected using a questionnaire which validity and reliability was confirmed. The questions were asked from 183 individuals were interviewed by telephone in 2012. Results: Mean satisfaction score of quality of education was 3.86/5 and 3.18/5 for basic and clinical sciences, respectively. The average satisfaction score for regular presence of faculty members in classes was 4.11/5 and 3.98/5 for basic and clinical sciences, respectively. The difference between the two groups regarding the satisfaction from quality of education was not diufferent (P=0.237. However, this difference was significant for satisfaction from regular presence in classes and time spent for education (P<0.001. Conclusion: The condition of education in Yazd University of Medical Sciences was satisfactory from the alumni viewpoint and the satisfaction level was higher for basic sciences than clinical science education.

  9. Training of Leadership Skills in Medical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Kiesewetter, Jan; Schmidt-Huber, Marion; Netzel, Janine; Krohn, Alexandra C.; Angstwurm, Matthias; Fischer, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Effective team performance is essential in the delivery of high-quality health-care. Leadership skills therefore are an important part of physicians’ everyday clinical life. To date, the development of leadership skills are underrepresented in medical curricula. Appropriate training methods for equipping doctors with these leadership skills are highly desirable. Objective: The review aims to summarize the findings in the current literature regarding training in leadership skills i...

  10. Changing the culture of medical training: An important step toward the implementation of competency-based medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Peter C; Caverzagie, Kelly J; Nousiainen, Markku T; Snell, Linda

    2017-06-01

    The current medical education system is steeped in tradition and has been shaped by many long-held beliefs and convictions about the essential components of training. The objective of this article is to propose initiatives to overcome biases against competency-based medical education (CBME) in the culture of medical education. At a retreat of the International Competency Based Medical Education (ICBME) Collaborators group, an intensive brainstorming session was held to determine potential barriers to adoption of CBME in the culture of medical education. This was supplemented with a review of the literature on the topic. There continues to exist significant key barriers to the widespread adoption of CBME. Change in educational culture must be embraced by all components of the medical education hierarchy. Research is essential to provide convincing evidence of the benefit of CBME. The widespread adoption of CBME will require a change in the professional, institutional, and organizational culture surrounding the training of medical professionals.

  11. A management plan for hospitals and medical centers facing radiation incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, Fereshteh; Zahed, Arash

    2015-09-01

    Nowadays, application of nuclear technology in different industries has largely expanded worldwide. Proportionately, the risk of nuclear incidents and the resulting injuries have, therefore, increased in recent years. Preparedness is an important part of the crisis management cycle; therefore efficient preplanning seems crucial to any crisis management plan. Equipped with facilities and experienced personnel, hospitals naturally engage with the response to disasters. The main purpose of our study was to present a practical management pattern for hospitals and medical centers in case they encounter a nuclear emergency. In this descriptive qualitative study, data were collected through experimental observations, sources like Safety manuals released by the International Atomic Energy Agency and interviews with experts to gather their ideas along with Delphi method for polling, and brainstorming. In addition, the 45 experts were interviewed on three targeted using brainstorming and Delphi method. We finally proposed a management plan along with a set of practicality standards for hospitals and medical centers to optimally respond to nuclear medical emergencies when a radiation incident happens nearby. With respect to the great importance of preparedness against nuclear incidents adoption and regular practice of nuclear crisis management codes for hospitals and medical centers seems quite necessary.

  12. Finding Medical Care for Colorectal Cancer Symptoms: Experiences among Those Facing Financial Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Maria D.; Siminoff, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Financial barriers can substantially delay medical care seeking. Using patient narratives provided by 252 colorectal cancer patients, we explored the experience of financial barriers to care seeking. Of the 252 patients interviewed, 84 identified financial barriers as a significant hurdle to obtaining health care for their colorectal cancer…

  13. Asian/Pacific Islander women in medical education: personal and professional challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, D

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify the complex issues facing Asian/Pacific Islander (API) women students at one Midwestern medical school as they subjectively experience their medical training. Of particular interest was how students navigated family influences, career planning, and ethnic and gender stereotypes. Sixty-five percent of the students reported that their parents exerted various degrees of encouragement or pressure to enter medicine. The remaining students said that the decision was entirely theirs (20%) or that the decision had been made for them (15%). Many reported the larger Asian "community" as a source of influence. A slight majority of students thought they were perceived by faculty as being "quiet," often too quiet. With only 1 exception, all of the students believed that their cultural identity influenced their specialty choice. Stressors reported by students centered on competition, achievement, and formation of intimate relationships (i.e., dating). Medical educators who provide personal and professional support for API women students should be keenly aware of the career, gender, and family issues that emerge at the intersection of API and Euro-American cultures. Faculty development should include an educational component on issues of concern to API students, men and women. Faculty also need to wrestle with the cultural values of "modesty, respect for authority, public self-consciousness, and other directness" as they intersect with assertion as a primary value found in Euro-American culture in general and in medical education in particular.

  14. 78 FR 9899 - National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education, U.S. Department of Education, National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation... Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation (NCFMEA). Parts of this meeting will be open to the...

  15. 77 FR 13312 - National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation AGENCY: National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation, Office of Postsecondary Education, U.S. Department of Education... Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation (NCFMEA). Parts of this meeting will be open to the...

  16. 77 FR 49788 - National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education, U.S. Department of Education, National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation... Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation (NCFMEA). Parts of this meeting will be open to the...

  17. Social Media Tips to Enhance Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vikas; Kotsenas, Amy L

    2017-02-20

    In this article, we describe how social media can supplement traditional education, articulate the advantages and disadvantages of various social media platforms for both teachers and learners, discuss best practices to maintain confidentiality of protected health information, and provide tips for implementing social media-based teaching into the training curriculum.

  18. A Framework for Web-Based Interprofessional Education for Midwifery and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Pamela J; Faser, Karl; Davis, Marquietta

    2015-01-01

    Scheduling interprofessional team-based activities for health sciences students who are geographically dispersed, with divergent and often competing schedules, can be challenging. The use of Web-based technologies such as 3-dimensional (3D) virtual learning environments in interprofessional education is a relatively new phenomenon, which offers promise in helping students come together in online teams when face-to-face encounters are not possible. The purpose of this article is to present the experience of a nurse-midwifery education program in a Southeastern US university in delivering Web-based interprofessional education for nurse-midwifery and third-year medical students utilizing the Virtual Community Clinic Learning Environment (VCCLE). The VCCLE is a 3D, Web-based, asynchronous, immersive clinic environment into which students enter to meet and interact with instructor-controlled virtual patient and virtual preceptor avatars and then move through a classic diagnostic sequence in arriving at a plan of care for women throughout the lifespan. By participating in the problem-based management of virtual patients within the VCCLE, students learn both clinical competencies and competencies for interprofessional collaborative practice, as described by the Interprofessional Education Collaborative Core Competencies for Interprofessional Collaborative Practice. This article is part of a special series of articles that address midwifery innovations in clinical practice, education, interprofessional collaboration, health policy, and global health. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  19. Development and Validation of the Scan of Postgraduate Educational Environment Domains (SPEED: A Brief Instrument to Assess the Educational Environment in Postgraduate Medical Education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Schönrock-Adema

    Full Text Available Current instruments to evaluate the postgraduate medical educational environment lack theoretical frameworks and are relatively long, which may reduce response rates. We aimed to develop and validate a brief instrument that, based on a solid theoretical framework for educational environments, solicits resident feedback to screen the postgraduate medical educational environment quality.Stepwise, we developed a screening instrument, using existing instruments to assess educational environment quality and adopting a theoretical framework that defines three educational environment domains: content, atmosphere and organization. First, items from relevant existing instruments were collected and, after deleting duplicates and items not specifically addressing educational environment, grouped into the three domains. In a Delphi procedure, the item list was reduced to a set of items considered most important and comprehensively covering the three domains. These items were triangulated against the results of semi-structured interviews with 26 residents from three teaching hospitals to achieve face validity. This draft version of the Scan of Postgraduate Educational Environment Domains (SPEED was administered to residents in a general and university hospital and further reduced and validated based on the data collected.Two hundred twenty-three residents completed the 43-item draft SPEED. We used half of the dataset for item reduction, and the other half for validating the resulting SPEED (15 items, 5 per domain. Internal consistencies were high. Correlations between domain scores in the draft and brief versions of SPEED were high (>0.85 and highly significant (p<0.001. Domain score variance of the draft instrument was explained for ≥80% by the items representing the domains in the final SPEED.The SPEED comprehensively covers the three educational environment domains defined in the theoretical framework. Because of its validity and brevity, the SPEED is

  20. Medical student attitudes toward video games and related new media technologies in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, Frederick W; Gjerde, Craig L; Sen, Ananda; Fetters, Michael D

    2010-06-24

    Studies in K-12 and college students show that their learning preferences have been strongly shaped by new media technologies like video games, virtual reality environments, the Internet, and social networks. However, there is no known research on medical students' game experiences or attitudes towards new media technologies in medical education. This investigation seeks to elucidate medical student experiences and attitudes, to see whether they warrant the development of new media teaching methods in medicine. Medical students from two American universities participated. An anonymous, 30-item, cross-sectional survey addressed demographics, game play experience and attitudes on using new media technologies in medical education. Statistical analysis identified: 1) demographic characteristics; 2) differences between the two universities; 3) how video game play differs across gender, age, degree program and familiarity with computers; and 4) characteristics of students who play most frequently. 217 medical students participated. About half were female (53%). Respondents liked the idea of using technology to enhance healthcare education (98%), felt that education should make better use of new media technologies (96%), and believed that video games can have educational value (80%). A majority (77%) would use a multiplayer online healthcare simulation on their own time, provided that it helped them to accomplish an important goal. Men and women agreed that they were most inclined to use multiplayer simulations if they were fun (97%), and if they helped to develop skill in patient interactions (90%). However, there was significant gender dissonance over types of favorite games, the educational value of video games, and the desire to participate in games that realistically replicated the experience of clinical practice. Overall, medical student respondents, including many who do not play video games, held highly favorable views about the use of video games and related new

  1. Medical student attitudes toward video games and related new media technologies in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kron Frederick W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in K-12 and college students show that their learning preferences have been strongly shaped by new media technologies like video games, virtual reality environments, the Internet, and social networks. However, there is no known research on medical students' game experiences or attitudes towards new media technologies in medical education. This investigation seeks to elucidate medical student experiences and attitudes, to see whether they warrant the development of new media teaching methods in medicine. Methods Medical students from two American universities participated. An anonymous, 30-item, cross-sectional survey addressed demographics, game play experience and attitudes on using new media technologies in medical education. Statistical analysis identified: 1 demographic characteristics; 2 differences between the two universities; 3 how video game play differs across gender, age, degree program and familiarity with computers; and 4 characteristics of students who play most frequently. Results 217 medical students participated. About half were female (53%. Respondents liked the idea of using technology to enhance healthcare education (98%, felt that education should make better use of new media technologies (96%, and believed that video games can have educational value (80%. A majority (77% would use a multiplayer online healthcare simulation on their own time, provided that it helped them to accomplish an important goal. Men and women agreed that they were most inclined to use multiplayer simulations if they were fun (97%, and if they helped to develop skill in patient interactions (90%. However, there was significant gender dissonance over types of favorite games, the educational value of video games, and the desire to participate in games that realistically replicated the experience of clinical practice. Conclusions Overall, medical student respondents, including many who do not play video games, held highly

  2. 78 FR 52537 - Council on Graduate Medical Education; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Council on Graduate Medical Education...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Council on Graduate Medical Education... education training, and the development of performance measures and longitudinal evaluation of...

  3. Commentary: ambiguity and uncertainty: neglected elements of medical education curricula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Vera P; Crandall, Sonia J

    2011-07-01

    Despite significant advances in scientific knowledge and technology, ambiguity and uncertainty are still intrinsic aspects of contemporary medicine. To practice confidently and competently, a physician must learn rational approaches to complex and ambiguous clinical scenarios and must possess a certain degree of tolerance of ambiguity. In this commentary, the authors discuss the role that ambiguity and uncertainty play in medicine and emphasize why openly addressing these topics in the formal medical education curriculum is critical. They discuss key points from original research by Wayne and colleagues and their implications for medical education. Finally, the authors offer recommendations for increasing medical student tolerance of ambiguity and uncertainty, including dedicating time to attend candidly to ambiguity and uncertainty as a formal part of every medical school curriculum.

  4. E-learning Portal Tools for Medical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roszak Magdalena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessary prerequisites for efficiently pursuing distance learning include carefully planned organization of work and resource management tools, typically found in an internet application – a distance learning portal. The portal application must meet a number of capacity and functionality requirements. Learning goals are pursued through implementation of appropriate tools available in the portal. In the article that follows, the authors attempt to analyze this aspect of medical education as utilized by blended learning and e-learning classes. The article presents a proposal for a set of tools to organize classes in an e-learning portal at a medical school. In addition, the article presents the opinions of students of the Poznan University of Medical Sciences and the Medical University of Bialystok who took part in distance education classes.

  5. Toward a shared language for competency-based medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, Robert; Frank, Jason R; Carraccio, Carol; Sherbino, Jonathan; Ross, Shelley; Snell, Linda

    2017-06-01

    The paradigm shift brought about by the advent of competency-based medical education (CBME) can be characterized as an adaptive change. Currently, its development and implementation suffer from the lack of a lingua franca. A shared language is needed to support collaboration and dissemination across the world community of medical educators. The International CBME Collaborators held a second summit in 2013 to explore this and other contemporary CBME issues. We present the resulting International CBME Collaborator's glossary of CBME terms. Particular attention is given to the terms competency, entrustable professional activity (EPA), and milestone and their interrelationships. Medical education scholars and enthusiasts of the competency-based approach are encouraged to adopt these terms and definitions, although no doubt the vocabulary of CBME will continue to evolve.

  6. Improving medical education in Kenya: an international collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Alexa

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes a partnership between the University of Nairobi College of Health Sciences (CHS) Library and the University of Maryland Health Sciences and Human Services Library (HS/HSL). The libraries are collaborating to develop best practices for the CHS Library as it meets the challenge of changing medical education information needs in a digital environment. The collaboration is part of a Medical Education Partnership Initiative. The library project has several components: an assessment of the CHS Library, learning visits in the United States and Kenya, development of recommendations to enhance the CHS Library, and ongoing evaluation of the program's progress. Development of new services and expertise at the CHS Library is critical to the project's success. A productive collaboration between the HS/HSL and CHS Library is ongoing. A successful program to improve the quality of medical education will have a beneficial impact on health outcomes in Kenya.

  7. Commentary: On regulation and medical education: sociology, learning, and accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durning, Steven J; Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric

    2009-05-01

    The topic of regulation is commonplace in society, yet it seems to receive little explicit consideration in discussions on undergraduate medical education. The accompanying articles by Hauer and colleagues, White and colleagues, and Bloodgood and colleagues approach the topic of regulation from several different viewpoints. In this commentary, we too approach the topic of regulation from several different viewpoints: sociology, learning (self-regulated learning), and accountability. In this commentary, we present both theoretical and practical issues with the aim of initiating an open, scholarly discussion in the field of medical education. Ultimately, we hope other medical educators will seriously contemplate the questions raised and, more importantly, will consider employing these theoretical perspectives into future research efforts.

  8. A medical education as an investment: financial food for thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroghazi, Robert M; Alpert, Joseph S

    2014-01-01

    Every year that the training period can be shortened increases the value of a medical education. Tuition covers only a fraction of the cost of medical education, making the societal investment in older students less financially robust. Shortening training periods would immediately solve the shortage of residency training positions. With a few exceptions, a medical education is a good investment for women. We are skeptical of the proposals to address the skyrocketing student debt because they do not confront the primary problem. The best way to minimize debt is thrift, and the best way to make a career in medicine more desirable is to shorten the training time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Current efforts in medical education to incorporate national health priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Manisha; Fellmeth, Gracia

    2017-08-03

    As a reflection on the Edinburgh Declaration, this conceptual synthesis presents six important challenges in relation to the role of medical education in meeting current national health priorities. This paper presents a conceptual synthesis of current efforts in medical education to incorporate national health priorities as a reflection on how the field has evolved since the Edinburgh Declaration. Considering that health needs vary from country to country, our paper focuses on three broad and cross-cutting themes: health equity, health systems strengthening, and changing patterns of disease. Considering the complexity of this topic, we conducted a targeted search to broadly sample and critically review the literature in two phases. Phase 1: within each theme, we assessed the current challenges in the field of medical education to meet the health priority. Phase 2: a search for various strategies in undergraduate and postgraduate education that have been tested in an effort to address the identified challenges. We conducted a qualitative synthesis of the literature followed by mapping of the identified challenges within each of the three themes with targeted efforts. We identified six important challenges: (i) mismatch between the need for generalist models of health care and medical education curricula's specialist focus; (ii) attitudes of health care providers contributing to disparities in health care; (iii) the lack of a universal approach in preparing medical students for 21st century health systems; (iv) the inability of medical education to keep up with the abundance of new health care technologies; (v) a mismatch between educational requirements for integrated care and poorly integrated, specialised health care systems; and (vi) development of a globally interdependent education system to meet global health challenges. Examples of efforts being made to address these challenges are offered. Although strategies for combatting these challenges exist, the

  10. Telelearning standards and their application in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplaga, Mariusz; Juszkiewicz, Krzysztof; Leszczuk, Mikolaj

    2004-01-01

    Medial education, both on the graduate and postgraduate levels, has become a real challenge nowadays. The volume of information in medical sciences grows so rapidly that many health professionals experience essential problems in keeping track of the state of the art in this domain. e-learning offers important advantages to medical education continuation due to its universal availability and opportunity for implementation of flexible patterns of training. An important trace of medical education is developing practical skills. Some examples of standardization efforts include: the CEN/ISSS Workshop on Learning Technology (WSLT), the Advanced Learning Infrastructure Consortium (ALIC), Education Network Australia (EdNA) and PROmoting Multimedia access to Education and Training in European Society (PROMETEUS). Sun Microsystems' support (Sun ONE, iPlanetTM ) for many of the above-mentioned standards is described as well. Development of a medical digital video library with recordings of invasive procedures incorporating additional information and commentary may improve the efficiency of the training process in interventional medicine. A digital video library enabling access to videos of interventional procedures performed in the area of thoracic medicine may be a valuable element for developing practical skills. The library has been filled with video resources recorded at the Department of Interventional Pulmonology; it enhances training options for pulmonologists and thoracic surgeons. The main focus was put on demonstration of bronchofiberoscopic and videothoracoscopic procedures. The opportunity to browse video recordings of procedures performed in the specific field also considerably enhances the options for training in other medical specialties. In the era of growing health consumer awareness, patients are also perceived as the target audience for medical digital libraries. As a case study of Computer-Based Training systems, the Medical Digital Video Library is

  11. Students' Perception of Educational Environment of Medical Colleges in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurun Nahar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Students' perceptions of their educational environment are a useful basis for modifying and improving the quality of educational environment. Educational environment is one of the most important factors determining the success of an effective curriculum. The quality of educational environment has been identified to be crucial for effective learning. Identifying the weakness of educational environment and understanding how students perceive the environment will help the institute to facilitate learning and to achieve better learning outcome. Objective: To explore students' perceptions of their educational environment and to find out gender differences in perception. Methods: It was a cross sectional descriptive study. Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM inventory was administered to 1903 medical students (studying in 3rd, 4th and 5th year MBBS course in 15 medical colleges of Bangladesh adopting purposive sampling. Results: The total mean score for all students was found positive (110/200. Students' perceptions of learning was positive (28/48, perceptions of teachers was moving in right direction (24/44, students academic self perception was positive (19.5/32. Students' perceptions of atmosphere was expressed as many issues need to change (24/48 and social self perceptions was not a nice place (14/28. Female students’ perceptions were significantly higher than male students. Conclusion: Remedial measure should be needed in the subscales of students’ perceptions of atmosphere and social self perceptions for further improvement. Findings from this study may give guideline to curricular planner and faculties/administrators of medical college for further improvement of educational environment. Key words: perception; educational environment; medical college  DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v3i2.7060BSMMU J 2010; 3(2: 97-102

  12. Human Dissection in Medical Education: More than Just Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Rehkämper, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    The dissection course is an essential component of the medical curriculum. Nonetheless, the time expenditure and intensity of supervising the students in this course has been diminishing since the 1970s. That endangers not only the transmission of fundamental knowledge of anatomy. It also concerns key concepts such as establishing values, the concept of humans , and physician competencies , because medical education must be seen not merely as fact-directed instruction but instead should be...

  13. Human Dissection in Medical Education: More than Just Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehkämper, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    The dissection course is an essential component of the medical curriculum. Nonetheless, the time expenditure and intensity of supervising the students in this course has been diminishing since the 1970s. That endangers not only the transmission of fundamental knowledge of anatomy. It also concerns key concepts such as establishing values, the concept of humans, and physician competencies, because medical education must be seen not merely as fact-directed instruction but instead should be connected with a mission for professional acculturation.

  14. Facing Dilemmas: Teacher-Educators' Ways of Constructing a Pedagogy of Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillema, Harm; Kremer-Hayon, Lya

    2005-01-01

    Teacher-educators' conceptions of teaching may influence their teaching practice in a variety of ways. The concept of dilemma may provide an adequate framework to disclose how teacher-educators realise their conceptions of teaching in actual teaching practice. In our view, dilemmas constitute a powerful conceptualisation to find out about the…

  15. Students' Reasons for Studying Special Needs Education: Challenges Facing Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausstatter, Rune Sarromaa

    2007-01-01

    This article attempts to clarify some of the problems and challenges currently met by the teaching profession in special education, in particular those relating to why students choose to study special needs education and what they expect to learn. There are two major reasons why students choose to become a "special needs" teacher: to…

  16. Adding Live-Streaming to Recorded Lectures in a Non-Distributed Pre-Clerkship Medical Education Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Amanjot; Fliker, Aviva; Leitao, Darren; Jones, Jodi; Gooi, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Live-streaming video has had increasing uses in medical education, especially in distributed education models. The literature on the impact of live-streaming in non-distributed education models, however, is scarce. To determine the attitudes towards live-streaming and recorded lectures as a resource to pre-clerkship medical students in a non-distributed medical education model. First and second year medical students were sent a voluntary cross-sectional survey by email, and were asked questions on live-streaming, recorded lectures and in person lectures using a 5-point Likert and open answers. Of the 118 responses (54% response rate), the data suggested that both watching recorded lectures (Likert 4.55) and live-streaming lectures (4.09) were perceived to be more educationally valuable than face-to-face attendance of lectures (3.60). While responses indicated a statistically significant increase in anticipated classroom attendance if both live-streaming and recorded lectures were removed (from 63% attendance to 76%, p =0.002), there was no significant difference in attendance if live-streaming lectures were removed but recorded lectures were maintained (from 63% to 66%, p=0.76). The addition of live-streaming lectures in the pre-clerkship setting was perceived to be value added to the students. The data also suggests that the removal of live-streaming lectures would not lead to a statistically significant increase in classroom attendance by pre-clerkship students.

  17. On-campus physicians witnessing changes in medical problems faced by university students.

    OpenAIRE

    Thorne, S

    1996-01-01

    Most Canadian universities offer on-campus health services for their students. Ten years ago minor health problems such as infections, cuts and bruises were the common causes of visits to student health centres, but today medical staff report that students are seeking help for more serious problems such as sexually transmitted diseases, stress, sports injuries, eating disorders and asthma and allergies. Many are also seeking psychiatric counselling.

  18. International medical education and future directions: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Ronald M

    2006-12-01

    Internationalization, one of the most important forces in higher education today, presents a powerful challenge and an opportunity for medical schools. Factors encouraging internationalization include (1) globalization of health care delivery, (2) governmental pressures, (3) improved communication channels, (4) development of a common vocabulary, (5) outcome-based education and standards, (6) staff development initiatives, and (7) competitiveness and commercialization. A three-dimensional model--based on the student (local or international), the teacher (local or international), and the curriculum (local, imported, or international)-offers a range of perspectives for international medical education. In the traditional approach to teaching and learning medicine, local students and local teachers use a local curriculum. In the international medical graduate or overseas student model, students from one country pursue in another country a curriculum taught and developed by teachers in the latter. In the branch-campus model, students, usually local, have an imported curriculum taught jointly by international and local teachers. The future of medical education, facilitated by the new learning technologies and pedagogies, lies in a move from such international interconnected approaches, which emphasize the mobility of students, teachers, and curriculum across the boundaries of two countries, to a transnational approach in which internationalization is integrated and embedded within a curriculum and involves collaboration between a number of schools in different countries. In this approach, the study of medicine is exemplified in the global context rather than the context of a single country. The International Virtual Medical School serves as an example in this regard.

  19. The integrated curriculum in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 96.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, David G; Ferguson, Kristi J

    2015-04-01

    The popularity of the term "integrated curriculum" has grown immensely in medical education over the last two decades, but what does this term mean and how do we go about its design, implementation, and evaluation? Definitions and application of the term vary greatly in the literature, spanning from the integration of content within a single lecture to the integration of a medical school's comprehensive curriculum. Taking into account the integrated curriculum's historic and evolving base of knowledge and theory, its support from many national medical education organizations, and the ever-increasing body of published examples, we deem it necessary to present a guide to review and promote further development of the integrated curriculum movement in medical education with an international perspective. We introduce the history and theory behind integration and provide theoretical models alongside published examples of common variations of an integrated curriculum. In addition, we identify three areas of particular need when developing an ideal integrated curriculum, leading us to propose the use of a new, clarified definition of "integrated curriculum", and offer a review of strategies to evaluate the impact of an integrated curriculum on the learner. This Guide is presented to assist educators in the design, implementation, and evaluation of a thoroughly integrated medical school curriculum.

  20. From cases to projects in problem-based medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Stentoft

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Problem-based learning (PBL based on patient cases has become a well-established worldwide educational approach in medical education. Recent studies indicate that case-based PBL when used throughout an entire curriculum may develop into a counter-productive routine for students as well as teachers. Consequently, there is a need to develop PBL approaches further allowing students to work with more ill-defined problems and alternative learning structures. In this paper, we argue that this can be realised by introducing project-PBL into the medical curriculum, as in the medical education at Aalborg University, Denmark. We outline organisations of case- and project- PBL in the medical curriculum and present an explorative study of 116 first and second year students’ experiences working in the two settings of PBL. Results reveal that students generally rate their PBL experiences positively however, project-PBL is rated more positively than case-PBL on all parameters studied. These results invite further consideration of the differences in working with cases and projects. Two central differences are discussed; the nature of the problem as the trigger of learning and students' possibilities for directing their own learning processes. The study demonstrates that introducing project-PBL may contribute significantly in problem-based medical education. However, the need for extensive research into advantages and limitations of the combined use of case- and project-PBL is also emphasised.