WorldWideScience

Sample records for facing american higher

  1. Do Asian American Faculty Face a Glass Ceiling in Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sharon M.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the glass ceiling hypothesis in relation to Asian American faculty using data from the 1993 National Study of Post-Secondary Faculty for 1,019 Asian American faculty members. Data limitations prevent concluding that such faculty do or do not face a glass ceiling; however, baseline findings for future research are established. (SLD)

  2. Do Asian American Faculty Face a Glass Ceiling in Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sharon M.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the glass ceiling hypothesis in relation to Asian American faculty using data from the 1993 National Study of Post-Secondary Faculty for 1,019 Asian American faculty members. Data limitations prevent concluding that such faculty do or do not face a glass ceiling; however, baseline findings for future research are established. (SLD)

  3. History of American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Margaret Cain

    2011-01-01

    "History of American Higher Education" documents the fascinating evolution of American colleges and universities, touching on the historical events that shaped them, from the colonial era through the early twenty-first century. Throughout history, higher education has played an important role in the transmission of cultural identity from one…

  4. History of American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Margaret Cain

    2011-01-01

    "History of American Higher Education" documents the fascinating evolution of American colleges and universities, touching on the historical events that shaped them, from the colonial era through the early twenty-first century. Throughout history, higher education has played an important role in the transmission of cultural identity from…

  5. American Higher Education in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    American higher education is in transition and if there ever was a "golden age" for faculty, it probably is behind us. The best historical data on the composition of faculty is collected annually by the American Mathematical Society. Between 1967 and 2009, the share of full-time faculty with PhDs remained constant at about 90 percent at…

  6. A Comparison of Online and Face-to-Face Approaches to Teaching Introduction to American Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsen, Toby; Evans, Michael; Fleming, Anna McCaghren

    2016-01-01

    This article reports results from a large study comparing four different approaches to teaching Introduction to American Government: (1) traditional, a paper textbook with 100% face-to-face lecture-style teaching; (2) breakout, a paper textbook with 50% face-to-face lecture-style teaching and 50% face-to-face small-group breakout discussion…

  7. Art in American Higher Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Edmund Burke, Ed.

    This volume of 11 articles contains a comprehensive statement about the visual arts as they are encountered in post-secondary education. The articles are: (1) "Art and the Liberal Arts: A Trivial, Artificial, Irrelevant Antagonism" by Albert Bush-Brown; (2) "The Arts in Higher Education: A Question of Priorities" by Lawrence Dennis; (3) "Access to…

  8. A Variety of Diversity: Facing Higher Education's Educational Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Eric L.

    2008-10-01

    First among the many important challenges facing American higher education is the need to improve the effectiveness of our educational programs. Public concern has heightened the sense of urgency for colleges and universities to make progress on improving and measuring educational outcomes, which is made more challenging by the varieties of diversity facing us. Diversity is not just an issue related to student recruitment or experience, but rather it is one that also relates to institutions and their faculties. New educational methods must address such diversity to be effective, and one possible example can be found in ongoing research at the University of Michigan that explores the educational implications of implementing a web-based lecture capture system in large lecture courses. Student use of and reactions to such systems is important, as is the potential to influence course performance for students in general, but also for underrepresented and at-risk student subpopulations. In addition to helping bring our current landscape into focus, this paper will identify effective practices as well as continuing challenges to improving educational practice for undergraduate students.

  9. An overview of American higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Sandy; Kurose, Charles; McPherson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This overview of postsecondary education in the United States reviews the dramatic changes over the past fifty years in the students who go to college, the institutions that produce higher education, and the ways it is financed. The article, by Sandy Baum, Charles Kurose, and Michael McPherson, creates the context for the articles that follow on timely issues facing the higher education community and policy makers. The authors begin by observing that even the meaning of college has changed. The term that once referred primarily to a four-year period of academic study now applies to virtually any postsecondary study--academic or occupational, public or private, two-year or four-year-- that can result in a certificate or degree. They survey the factors underlying the expansion of postsecondary school enrollments; the substantial increases in female, minority, disadvantaged, and older students; the development of public community colleges; and the rise of for-profit colleges. They discuss the changing ways in which federal and state governments help students and schools defray the costs of higher education as well as more recent budget tensions that are now reducing state support to public colleges. And they review the forces that have contributed to the costs of producing higher education and thus rising tuitions. The authors also cite evidence on broad measures of college persistence and outcomes, including low completion rates at community and for-profit colleges, the increasing need for remedial education for poorly prepared high school students, and a growing gap between the earnings of those with a bachelor's degree and those with less education. They disagree with critics who say that investments in higher education, particularly for students at the margin, no longer pay off. A sustained investment in effective education at all levels is vital to the nation's future, they argue. But they caution that the American public no longer seems willing to pay more for

  10. Civil Rights Issues Facing Arab Americans in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.

    This report is a summary statement of the Michigan Advisory Committee's study on civil rights issues facing Arab American communities in Michigan. It is based on information received by the Committee at a community forum held in Dearborn, Michigan, in 1999. Six sections focus on: (1) "Introduction," including Arab American demographics…

  11. Challenges Facing the Arab American Community from a Legal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Quaisi Audi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on contemporary issues facing the Arab population vis-à-vis the American legal system. While Arab Americans enjoy the same basic rights enshrined in the federal and various state Constitutions, some of them have been subjected to various forms of discrimination that have infringed upon these basic rights. I will survey these areas as follows: racial discrimination, hate crimes, civil rights (including racial profiling and immigration, and employment. The paper concludes with a discussion on various means to prevent discriminatory practices with specific recommendations for the classroom.

  12. E-learning challenges faced by academics in higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Nurul; Beer, Martin; Slack, Frances

    2015-01-01

    E-learning has become a necessity in higher education institutions and is being deployed in educational establishments throughout the world. Researchers have made much emphasis on its benefits but not much is discussed on the disadvantages of e-learning technology. This paper references some of the research work on the limitations of e-learning technology, categorises it in five challenges that teachers are faced with and suggestions for a successful e-learning outcome. This paper also discus...

  13. Higher Education and the Early Education of African American Ministers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The education of African American ministers in the United States has been little researched. Numerous books address the profession of ministry and the education of Blacks in general, but most do not specifically address issues pertaining to the professional education of Black ministers. The majority of the hurdles African Americans faced were…

  14. Higher education in the face of social challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Cuevas Jiménez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Higher education refers to the subsequent training to high school education; that is undergraduate and graduate; whose mission is to preserve; develop and disseminate culture. Throughout the history of higher education it has undergone a process of transformation; mainly due to the development of knowledge and the transformation of society. In the process they highlighted two great moments; in the first; which culminated in the mid-twentieth century; it conceived the higher education institution encompassing all knowledge of society; and who graduated was ready to perform professionally throughout life; the second time; after those dates; it is conceivable that knowledge is no longer exclusive to the institution of higher education; and there can be no efficient performance without continuous training and continuous updating of knowledge. The objective of this work is to point out the general goals and some strategies of the students’ formation of superior education; to confront the big challenges that it faces today the society. To define this goals and strategies four challenge levels are considered: a physical; structural and politicalideological challenges; b challenges around the scientifictechnician and of the knowledge advances; c challenges of the internal structure of the formative process and the access to the superior education; and d challenges in the formation of values in the students. 

  15. The Third Era of American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Cyril O.

    1974-01-01

    Past changes are traced and future fundamental changes anticipated in our American universities and colleges. A chief reason for future change will be the difference in relationships of the adult community to post-secondary institutions. (EA)

  16. Cultural Strengths to Persevere: Native American Women in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Stephanie J.; Lindley, Lorinda S.

    2013-01-01

    Beginning with an overview of historical perspectives of Native American women, this article includes some discussion of values and practices of contemporary Native American women, data pertaining to Native American women's participation in higher education, and an introduction of familial cultural capital, community cultural wealth, Native…

  17. A History of Learning Communities within American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, John E.; Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the historical development of learning communities within American higher education. We examine the forces both internal and external to higher education that contributed to and stalled the emergence of learning communities in their contemporary form.

  18. Three Traditions of Democracy in Relation to American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The type of college or university one values most depends, at least in part, upon which of three distinct traditions of democracy in relation to American higher education one espouses. In this article, the author identifies three distinct traditions of democracy in relation to American higher education and suggests that the type of college or…

  19. Three Traditions of Democracy in Relation to American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The type of college or university one values most depends, at least in part, upon which of three distinct traditions of democracy in relation to American higher education one espouses. In this article, the author identifies three distinct traditions of democracy in relation to American higher education and suggests that the type of college or…

  20. The Unrealized Potential of American Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astin, Alexander W.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, higher education policy and practice has become dominated by materialism, individualism, and competitiveness, at the expense of attention to the affective aspect of student development and, in a broader perspective, to the emotional and spiritual divisions that threaten humanity. Higher education can and should be more constructive. (MSE)

  1. The Crisis of American Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, James L.; Valenzuela, Lorena T.

    1996-01-01

    Unless the higher education community itself, primarily students and faculty, responds immediately and forcefully to the issue of underfunding and widespread retrenchment, higher education as we know it will cease to exist. Problems include shrinking state financial and political support and absence of a compelling national security need.…

  2. American Indian Issues in Higher Education. Contemporary American Indian Issues Series, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Los Angeles. American Indian Studies Center.

    A collection of 17 articles on American Indian issues in higher education contains Russell Thornton's introduction, "American Indian Studies as an Academic Discipline: A Revisit," plus five major sections. "Purpose of American Indian Studies" covers relevancy of Indian Studies in higher education (Duchene); an alternative model…

  3. Increasing Anonymity in Peer Assessment by Using Classroom Response Technology within Face-to-Face Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Annelies; Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Peer assessment is becoming more popular in higher education, however it often goes together with undesirable social effects like peer pressure and favoritism, especially when students need to evaluate peers in a face-to-face setting. The present study was set up to investigate increased anonymity in peer assessment to counter these undesirable…

  4. The Supply of American Higher Education Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2001-01-01

    Considers how higher education supply is adapting to an evolving new world and suggests areas where research would shed light on the strategic choices institutions are making and help guide policy decisions. These include effects of tuition levels on state appropriations and out-of-state enrollment, and effects of admissions policies on different…

  5. Vital Signs: The State of African Americans in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Theodore L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents a statistical record of the progress of African Americans in institutions of higher education in the United States. Statistics include trends in black enrollment, library resources in historically black colleges, leading foundation grants, blacks in business schools, and comparative analysis of Asian Americans and blacks in higher…

  6. Higher Education in Hungary: Facing the Political Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Tamas

    1990-01-01

    This article stresses the importance of the integration of Hungary's higher education system into Europe's, in a discussion which covers the Hungarian system's structure and functions; participation in higher education; organization and management; and finance. (DB)

  7. The Hierarchical Face: Higher Rankings Lead to Less Cooperative Looks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Patricia; Myers, Christopher G.; Kopelman, Shirli; Garcia, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    In 3 studies, we tested the hypothesis that the higher ranked an individual's group is, the less cooperative the facial expression of that person is judged to be. Study 1 established this effect among business school deans, with observers rating individuals from higher ranked schools as appearing less cooperative, despite lacking prior knowledge…

  8. Challenges Facing Blended Learning in Higher Education in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Raymond; Tham, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the current stage of development of blended learning in higher education in China, South Korea and Japan, with a comparison to the city state of Singapore. It is noted that blended learning and e-learning are introduced at institutes of higher learning in these countries with varying

  9. Challenges Facing Blended Learning in Higher Education in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Raymond; Tham, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the current stage of development of blended learning in higher education in China, South Korea and Japan, with a comparison to the city state of Singapore. It is noted that blended learning and e-learning are introduced at institutes of higher learning in these countries with varying

  10. Higher education in the face of XXI century challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svyrydenko Denys

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines “order of the day” of higher education modernization processes at the context of two major trends of social transformations at the beginning of ХХІ century – globalization processes and information society establishing ones. It is shown that as an answer to these tendencies higher education sphere is modernized by form in terms of organizational changes (actualization of distance learning ideas, virtual university model; organizational changes to correspond market realities etc. as well as by content (changes of pedagogical practices towards formation of personality of new type, transformation of educational content towards formation tolerant and multicultural world-view of students etc.. The author stands on position that there is a need of deep theoretical surveys used methods of philosophy of education to substantiate modernization processes. Mentioned surveys have potential to find the ways of qualitative incorporation of higher education sphere into complicate social dynamics of present days.

  11. Financing American Higher Education in the Era of Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumeta, William; Breneman, David W.; Callan, Patrick M.; Finney, Joni E.

    2012-01-01

    This ambitious book grows out of the realization that a convergence of economic, demographic, and political forces in the early twenty-first century requires a fundamental reexamination of the financing of American higher education. The authors identify and address basic issues and trends that cut across the sectors of higher education, focusing…

  12. Considering the changing face of social media in higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaree, Blaine A

    2015-08-01

    There is currently much ongoing consideration as to how educators can make use of new technologies to engage students. The prevalence of social media use within both private and professional circles has made these technologies increasingly important for educators. This commentary briefly outlines some of the ways social media has been used in higher education and also some of the primary concerns. Current and future trends are also addressed. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The Difference between Chinese and American Higher Education System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许昕; 解习农

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the differences between the Chinese and American higher education system, and different issues behind these differences along with history and contemporary complexities, and analyzes the reason of its emergence, then how to solve these issues. I studied at Iowa Wesleyan College in America for two and a half years. In order to further understand American higher education system, I interviewed a librarian of Iowa Wesleyan College named Sherril Gibbs. And I have used a lot of data of the department of education USA government from Wikipedia and other sources in my paper. Then this paper finds that Chinese and American higher education system has their own strengths and weaknesses. Both the systems have a need to learn from each other to execute a better education system and to ensure development of all students as per their interest and abilities.

  14. The Impact of Face on Chinese Students' Simulated Negotiation Practices with Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xingsong

    2011-01-01

    Through scrutinizing three simulated negotiation cases of Chinese MBA students in an American business school, the study illustrates how Chinese face ideology functioned to orient and complicate the students' (pseudo-)business communications with Americans. The students' bone-deep sensitivity to maintaining harmony and interrelationships in the…

  15. Overview of Spanish and Latin American Distance Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Garrido, Jose Luis

    1991-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of Spanish and Latin American distance education programs for higher education and describes the three most important institutions: (1) the Spanish UNED (Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia); (2) the Costa Rican UNED (Universidad Estatal a Distancia); and (3) the Venezuelan UNA (Universidad Nacional Abierta).…

  16. Overview of Spanish and Latin American Distance Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Garrido, Jose Luis

    1991-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of Spanish and Latin American distance education programs for higher education and describes the three most important institutions: (1) the Spanish UNED (Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia); (2) the Costa Rican UNED (Universidad Estatal a Distancia); and (3) the Venezuelan UNA (Universidad Nacional Abierta).…

  17. Viewpoint: 12 Inconvenient Truths about American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedder, Richard

    2012-01-01

    On the surface, America has a great higher education system that works beautifully. Our colleges and universities, we are often told, are the best in the world. They consistently dominate the international rankings. A number of Nobel Prize award winners are closely associated with American institutions. Foreign students flock to our country to…

  18. The Hollow University: Disaster Capitalism Befalls American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letizia, Angelo J.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 40 years, American institutions of higher education have been encouraged to align with the private sector by policymakers, think tank experts and businessmen in order to become more efficient and more accountable. In a wider sense, this new partnership may be evidence of what has been termed "disaster capitalism." In…

  19. The Hollow University: Disaster Capitalism Befalls American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letizia, Angelo J.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 40 years, American institutions of higher education have been encouraged to align with the private sector by policymakers, think tank experts and businessmen in order to become more efficient and more accountable. In a wider sense, this new partnership may be evidence of what has been termed "disaster capitalism." In…

  20. The Embedded Librarian Online or Face-to-Face: American University's Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Michael A.; Matsuoka-Motley, Nobue; Mayer, William

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role online communication and tools play in embedded librarianship at American University. Two embedded models of user engagement, traditional and hybrid, are discussed. The librarians operating in each mode share their experiences providing tailored support to the departments of music/performing arts and business. The…

  1. Challenges facing the North American iron ore industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    During the 20th century, the iron ore mining industries of Canada and the United States passed through several periods of transformation. The beginning of the 21st century has seen yet another period of transformation, with the economic failure of a number of steel companies, the acquisition of their facilities by more viable steelmakers, and the consolidation of control within the North American iron ore industry. Changes in Canadian and United States iron ore production and the market control structure involved are analysed. The consolidation of ownership, formation of foreign joint ventures within Nordi America, planned divestitures of upstream activities by steelmakers, and industry changes made to ensure availability of feedstocks will be reviewed. The ttaditional isolation of the Canadian and United States iron ore operations and their strong linkage to downstream steel production will be discussed in the context of a changing global economy. Management-labour conflicts that have taken place and agreements made during 2000 through 2004 will be discussed in the context of the economic environment leading up to these agreements. Cooperative agreements between competing Canadian and United States companies to resolve client needs in processing and blending will be examined. A joint industry-government project designed to use new technology to produce direct reduced iron nuggets of 96 - 98 per cent iron content using non-coking coals will also be assessed. Changes in iron ore transportation methods, ownership and infrastructure will be reviewed for both rail and inland waterway transport between Canadian and United States companies. A brief analysis of social and environmental issues relating to sustainable development of the Canadian-United States iron ore industry will be included.

  2. Considering the Possible Future of American Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Harvey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As with all other social institutions, the pace and complexity of change make it challenging to predict what the future holds for the American higher education enterprise. While the broad mosaic of colleges and universities that comprise this enterprise has collectively been described as the best such conglomeration of its kind in the world (Bowen, Kurzwell &Tobin, 2005; Harvey, 1998 several concerns are now surfacing that must be acknowledged and considered. Literally spread across the broad American landscape is a constellation of two and four-year institutions --public and private; secular and religious; urban, suburban, and rural; large, medium and small colleges and universities -which have generally been regarded as providing access and opportunities for students of all races, ethnicities, ages, and social classes.

  3. What the Face and Body Reveal: In-Group Emotion Effects and Stereotyping of Emotion in African American and European American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuminello, Elizabeth R.; Davidson, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether 3- to 7-year-old African American and European American children's assessment of emotion in face-only, face + body, and body-only photographic stimuli was affected by in-group emotion recognition effects and racial or gender stereotyping of emotion. Evidence for racial in-group effects was found, with European American…

  4. Oxytocin enhances attentional bias for neutral and positive expression faces in individuals with higher autistic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Ma, Xiaole; Zhao, Weihua; Luo, Lizhu; Yao, Shuxia; Kendrick, Keith M

    2015-12-01

    There is considerable interest in the potential therapeutic role of the neuropeptide oxytocin in altering attentional bias towards emotional social stimuli in psychiatric disorders. However, it is still unclear whether oxytocin primarily influences attention towards positive or negative valence social stimuli. Here in a double-blind, placebo controlled, between subject design experiment in 60 healthy male subjects we have used the highly sensitive dual-target rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm to investigate whether intranasal oxytocin (40IU) treatment alters attentional bias for emotional faces. Results show that oxytocin improved recognition accuracy of neutral and happy expression faces presented in the second target position (T2) during the period of reduced attentional capacity following prior presentation of a first neutral face target (T1), but had no effect on recognition of negative expression faces (angry, fearful, sad). Oxytocin also had no effect on recognition of non-social stimuli (digits) in this task. Recognition accuracy for neutral faces at T2 was negatively associated with autism spectrum quotient (ASQ) scores in the placebo group, and oxytocin's facilitatory effects were restricted to a sub-group of subjects with higher ASQ scores. Our results therefore indicate that oxytocin primarily enhances the allocation of attentional resources towards faces expressing neutral or positive emotion and does not influence that towards negative emotion ones or non-social stimuli. This effect of oxytocin is strongest in healthy individuals with higher autistic trait scores, thereby providing further support for its potential therapeutic use in autism spectrum disorder.

  5. Is there a crisis in American Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.; Crawford, L.

    2015-12-01

    According to the Spellings Commission, the answer to the above question is yes. The commission declared that a crisis exists in American higher education. In their report published in 2005, they claim that colleges and universities are becoming less accessible and less accountable. They indicate that colleges and universities are failing to prepare the students to meet the demanding challenges of the present day workforce and are struggling to maintain an international status (Johnson, K. 2013). The Spellings Report called for information about the quality and cost of college degrees. Authors, Richard Arum and Josipa Roksa claim that American students are learning very little during their first two years of college. Higher education in the United States is examined by these two authors. Josipa Roksa is an Associate Professor of Sociology and Education at the University of Virginia. She is currently serving as Special Advisor to the Provost and Associate Director of the Center for Advanced Study of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. Richard Arum is an American sociologist who is currently professor of sociology and education at New York University. Arum is also a senior fellow at the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Their research draws on transcript data, the Collegiate Learning Assessment, and survey responses from more than 2,300 undergraduates at twenty-four institutions in their first semester and again at the end of their second year. The analysis reveals that 45 percent of these students demonstrated no significant improvement in a range of skills--including critical thinking, complex reasoning, and writing--during their first two years of college (Arum and Roksa, 2011). (Co-author: Dr. Mysore Narayanan) References: Johnson, Kristine (2013) "Why Students Don't Write: Educating in the Era of Credentialing: Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses," Conversations on Jesuit Higher Education: Vol. 43, Article 9. Available at: http

  6. Holistic face categorization in higher-level cortical visual areas of the normal and prosopagnosic brain: towards a non-hierarchical view of face perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Rossion

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available How a visual stimulus is initially categorized as a face in a network of human brain areas remains largely unclear. Hierarchical neuro-computational models of face perception assume that the visual stimulus is first decomposed in local parts in lower order visual areas. These parts would then be combined into a global representation in higher order face-sensitive areas of the occipito-temporal cortex. Here we tested this view in fMRI with visual stimuli that are categorized as faces based on their global configuration rather than their local parts (2-tones Mooney figures and Arcimboldo’s facelike paintings. Compared to the same inverted visual stimuli that are not categorized as faces, these stimuli activated the right middle fusiform gyrus (Fusiform face area, FFA and superior temporal sulcus (pSTS, with no significant activation in the posteriorly located inferior occipital gyrus (i.e., no occipital face area, OFA. This observation is strengthened by behavioral and neural evidence for normal face categorization of these stimuli in a brain-damaged prosopagnosic patient (PS whose intact right middle fusiform gyrus and superior temporal sulcus are devoid of any potential face-sensitive inputs from the lesioned right inferior occipital cortex. Together, these observations indicate that face-preferential activation may emerge in higher order visual areas of the right hemisphere without any face-preferential inputs from lower order visual areas, supporting a non-hierarchical view of face perception in the visual cortex.

  7. 76 FR 16743 - Applications for New Awards; Program for North American Mobility in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... Applications for New Awards; Program for North American Mobility in Higher Education AGENCY: Office of... Focus Competition: Program for North American Mobility in Higher Education Notice inviting applications... Program for North American Mobility in Higher Education, CFDA number 84.116N, must be...

  8. Blending Face-to-Face Higher Education with Web-Based Lectures: Comparing Different Didactical Application Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrieux, Hannelore; Vangestel, Sandra; Raes, Annelies; Matthys, Paul; Schellens, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Blended learning as an instructional approach is getting more attention in the educational landscape and has been researched thoroughly. Yet, this study reports the results of an innovation project aiming to gain insight into three different scenarios of applying web-based lectures: as preparation for face-to-face practical exercises, as a…

  9. International Challenges to American Colleges and Universities: Looking Ahead. American Council on Education Series on Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Katharine H., Ed.; Meyerson, Joel W., Ed.

    This book contains 10 papers on critical issues facing colleges and universities seeking to "internationalize" the curriculum and design good programs and services for foreign students in the United States and for American students abroad. An overview by Richard D. Lyman introduces the following papers: (1) "Foreign Student Flows and the…

  10. The Role of Higher Level Adaptive Coding Mechanisms in the Development of Face Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimperton, Hannah; Pellicano, Elizabeth; Jeffery, Linda; Rhodes, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    DevDevelopmental improvements in face identity recognition ability are widely documented, but the source of children's immaturity in face recognition remains unclear. Differences in the way in which children and adults visually represent faces might underlie immaturities in face recognition. Recent evidence of a face identity aftereffect (FIAE),…

  11. The Influence of Pietism on American Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, David Paul

    This master's paper looks at the Pietist movement of German Lutheranism from 1650 to 1750 and its effect on German Universities, the Great Awakening in America, and the founding and early history of important American universities. Pietism was a religious movement that arose from the aftermath of the Thirty Years War in Europe and was particularly…

  12. Perceptions of African American Faculty in Kinesiology-Based Programs at Predominantly White American Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Joe W., Jr.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Hodge, Samuel R.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of African American faculty on their organizational socialization in kinesiology-based (i.e., sport pedagogy, exercise physiology, motor behavior, sport management/history) programs at predominantly White American (1) institutions of higher education (PW-IHE). Participants were 9 African…

  13. Investing in American Higher Education: An Argument for Restructuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Judith S.

    This background paper examines the current state of higher education finance--the scope of the higher education enterprise, challenges to its funding base, and undesirable consequences of current financing practices--and describes what is meant by a "restructuring" of higher education finance. It demonstrates that the structures and practices…

  14. Higher Education and the Discursive Construction of American National Identity, 1946-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmadessa, Allison L.

    2014-01-01

    American institutions of higher education have served as a beacon of American idealism and identity since the foundation of the earliest universities. As the nation developed, higher education matured and continued to maintain a position of importance in the future of the nation. While the university has perpetuated a national cultural identity,…

  15. Asians in the Ivory Tower: Dilemmas of Racial Inequality in American Higher Education. Multicultural Education Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Highly respected scholar Robert Teranishi draws on his vast research to present this timely and compelling examination of the experience of Asian Americans in higher education. "Asians in the Ivory Tower" explores why and how Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) are important to our nation's higher education priorities and places the…

  16. Higher Education Globalization in the Context of American Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidyuk, Natalya

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of globalization impact on higher education system in the United Stated of America. It has been concluded that globalization as a phenomenon has been acquiring much significance in all the spheres, especially in higher education. Different views on the essence of globalization, especially in the context of higher…

  17. Higher Education Globalization in the Context of American Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidyuk, Natalya

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of globalization impact on higher education system in the United Stated of America. It has been concluded that globalization as a phenomenon has been acquiring much significance in all the spheres, especially in higher education. Different views on the essence of globalization, especially in the context of higher…

  18. Challenges Faced in Engaging American Indian Mothers in an Early Childhood Caries Preventive Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Tamanna; Albino, Judith; Batliner, Terrence S

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study explores the challenges faced by the research implementation team in engaging new mothers in a community oral health prevention intervention in an American Indian (AI) reservation community. Methods. Qualitative methods in the form of in-depth interviews were used in the study. Qualitative data were collected from research staff workers at a field site, who were involved in the implementation of a culturally tailored, randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention utilizing Motivational Interviewing (MI). Results. Several challenges were described by the field staff in engaging new mothers, including low priority placed on oral health, lack of knowledge, and distractions that reduced their ability to engage in learning about oral health of their child. Other difficulties faced in engaging the mothers and the AI community at large were distrust related to racial differences and physical and environmental barriers including poor road conditions, lack of transportation and communication, and remoteness of data collection sites. The field staff developed and applied many strategies, including conducting home visits, applying new communication strategies, and interacting with the community at various venues. Conclusion. Prevention interventions for ECC need to target AI mothers. Strategies developed by the field staff were successful for engaging mothers in the study.

  19. Special Issue: Philanthropy and Fundraising in American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drezner, Noah D.

    2011-01-01

    This monograph examines the philanthropic contributions of individuals through the existing literature and proposes future philanthropic and fundraising research that can help fill the theoretical void in the literature, thereby improving future research and fundraising in higher education. It covers the major approaches, topics, and theories…

  20. Public Policies, Prices, and Productivity in American Higher Education. Stretching the Higher Education Dollar. Special Report 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptman, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid increases in what colleges charge and what they spend per student have been and remain one of the most controversial aspects of American higher education. Tuition, fees, and other college charges have increased in both the public and private sectors at more than twice the rate of inflation for over a quarter century. Trends over time in what…

  1. Public Policies, Prices, and Productivity in American Higher Education. Stretching the Higher Education Dollar. Special Report 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptman, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid increases in what colleges charge and what they spend per student have been and remain one of the most controversial aspects of American higher education. Tuition, fees, and other college charges have increased in both the public and private sectors at more than twice the rate of inflation for over a quarter century. Trends over time in what…

  2. Long-Term Exposure to American and European Movies and Television Series Facilitates Caucasian Face Perception in Young Chinese Watchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yamin; Zhou, Lu

    2016-10-01

    Most young Chinese people now learn about Caucasian individuals via media, especially American and European movies and television series (AEMT). The current study aimed to explore whether long-term exposure to AEMT facilitates Caucasian face perception in young Chinese watchers. Before the experiment, we created Chinese, Caucasian, and generic average faces (generic average face was created from both Chinese and Caucasian faces) and tested participants' ability to identify them. In the experiment, we asked AEMT watchers and Chinese movie and television series (CMT) watchers to complete a facial norm detection task. This task was developed recently to detect norms used in facial perception. The results indicated that AEMT watchers coded Caucasian faces relative to a Caucasian face norm better than they did to a generic face norm, whereas no such difference was found among CMT watchers. All watchers coded Chinese faces by referencing a Chinese norm better than they did relative to a generic norm. The results suggested that long-term exposure to AEMT has the same effect as daily other-race face contact in shaping facial perception.

  3. Native American High School Seniors' Perceptions of Higher Education: Motivating and Demotivating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogman, Calvin

    2013-01-01

    For many Native American students, particularly those from reservations, the pursuit of higher education is a formidable concept to grasp. Poverty, rural isolation, and a myriad of social ills all take a role as demotivational factors that act as barriers between Native American students and a college education. On the other hand, family,…

  4. Liberal Arts Colleges in American Higher Education: Challenges and Opportunities. ACLS Occasional Paper, No. 59

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Council of Learned Societies, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS) Occasional Paper presents the proceedings of a conference on "Liberal Arts Colleges in American Higher Education: Challenges and Opportunities" convened by ACLS in November 2003 in Williamstown, Massachusetts with the support of the Oakley Center for the Humanities and Social Sciences at…

  5. To Capture a Face: A Novel Technique for the Analysis and Quantification of Facial Expressions in American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Ruth B.; Kegl, Judy

    2006-01-01

    American Sign Language uses the face to express vital components of grammar in addition to the more universal expressions of emotion. The study of ASL facial expressions has focused mostly on the perception and categorization of various expression types by signing and nonsigning subjects. Only a few studies of the production of ASL facial…

  6. New Directions for Higher Education: Q&A with AGB Prez Richard Legon on Challenges Facing Higher Ed Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSalvio, Philip

    2013-01-01

    In April, the "New England Journal of Higher Education ("NEJHE") launched its "New Directions for Higher Education" series to examine emerging issues, trends and ideas that have an impact on higher education policies, programs and practices. In this installment, Philip DiSalvio interviews Richard Legon, president of the…

  7. Bloom on Literature and Rock Music: The Challenge Facing Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, B.

    1997-01-01

    Disputing Allan Bloom's ("Closing of the American Mind") conviction that the fading of literary culture and growing attachment to rock music signals the decline of American civilization, discussion examines how literature, rock music, film, and critical reflection can be used to engage students intellectually without relinquishing either…

  8. Breastfeeding associated with higher lung function in African American youths with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sam S; Du, Randal; Zeiger, Andrew M; McGarry, Meghan E; Hu, Donglei; Thakur, Neeta; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Galanter, Joshua M; Eng, Celeste; Nishimura, Katherine Keiko; Huntsman, Scott; Farber, Harold J; Meade, Kelley; Avila, Pedro; Serebrisky, Denise; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Lenoir, Michael A; Ford, Jean G; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Thyne, Shannon M; Sen, Saunak; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R; Williams, Keoki; Kumar, Rajesh; Burchard, Esteban G

    2016-12-08

    In the United States, Puerto Ricans and African Americans have lower prevalence of breastfeeding and worse clinical outcomes for asthma compared with other racial/ethnic groups. We hypothesize that the history of breastfeeding is associated with increased forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) % predicted and reduced asthma exacerbations in Latino and African American youths with asthma. As part of the Genes-environments & Admixture in Latino Americans (GALA II) Study and the Study of African Americans, asthma, Genes & Environments (SAGE II), we conducted case-only analyses in children and adolescents aged 8-21 years with asthma from four different racial/ethnic groups: African Americans (n = 426), Mexican Americans (n = 424), mixed/other Latinos (n = 255), and Puerto Ricans (n = 629). We investigated the association between any breastfeeding in infancy and FEV(1)% predicted using multivariable linear regression; Poisson regression was used to determine the association between breastfeeding and asthma exacerbations. Prevalence of breastfeeding was lower in African Americans (59.4%) and Puerto Ricans (54.9%) compared to Mexican Americans (76.2%) and mixed/other Latinos (66.9%; p breastfeeding was associated with a 3.58% point increase in FEV1% predicted (p = 0.01) and a 21% reduction in asthma exacerbations (p = 0.03) in African Americans only. Breastfeeding was associated with higher FEV1% predicted in asthma and reduced number of asthma exacerbations in African American youths, calling attention to continued support for breastfeeding.

  9. Tribal Colleges and Universities in the 21st Century: Native American Female Leadership in Tribal Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitting Crow, Karen Paetz

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of Native American female leadership is becoming a more prevalent topic in the scholarly literature as more educated Native American women become visible in tribal higher education. This qualitative case study explored Native American female leadership, as a growing number of Native American women enter higher education and earn…

  10. The Entrepreneurial Domains of American Higher Education. ASHE Higher Education Report, Volume 34, Number 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Matthew M.; Metcalf, Amy Scott

    2009-01-01

    This volume draws on a diverse set of literatures to represent the various ways in which entrepreneurship is understood in and applied to higher education. It provides a platform for debate for those considering applications of entrepreneurial principles to academic research and practices. Using academic entrepreneurship in the United States as…

  11. Cultural Challenges Faced by American Mission Control Personnel Working with International Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J. L.; Ritsher, J. B.

    2006-01-01

    Operating the International Space Station (ISS) involves an indefinite, continuous series of long-duration international missions, and this requires an unprecedented degree of cooperation across multiple sites, organizations, and nations. Both junior and senior mission control personnel have had to find ways to address the cultural challenges inherent in such work, but neither have had systematic training in how to do so. The goals of this study were to identify and evaluate the major cultural challenges faced by ISS mission control personnel and to highlight the approaches that they have found most effective to surmount these challenges. We pay particular attention to the approaches successfully employed by the senior personnel and the training needs identified by the junior personnel. We also evaluate the extent to which the identified approaches and needs are consistent across the two samples. METHODS: Participants included a sample of 14 senior ISS flight controllers and a contrasting sample of 12 more junior controllers. All participants were mission operations specialists chosen on the basis of having worked extensively with international partners. Data were collected using a semi-structured qualitative interview and content analyzed using an iterative process with multiple coders and consensus meetings to resolve discrepancies. RESULTS: The senior respondents had substantial consensus on several cultural challenges and on key strategies for dealing with them, and they offered a wide range of specific tactics for implementing these strategies. Data from the junior respondents will be presented for the first time at the meeting. DISCUSSION: Although specific to American ISS personnel, our results are consistent with recent management, cultural, and aerospace research on other populations. We aim to use our results to improve training for current and future mission control personnel working in international or multicultural mission operations teams.

  12. Young Children in Immigrant Families Face Higher Risk of Food Insecurity. Research Brief. Publication #2009-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Randy; Horowitz, Allison; Fortuny, Karina; Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Zaslow, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Children in immigrant families are more likely than children in native-born families to face a number of risk factors for poor developmental outcomes, including higher poverty rates, lower household incomes, and linguistic isolation, (for example, when older children and adults in a household have difficulty speaking English). Previous research…

  13. Vital Signs: The Current State of African Americans in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents a statistical record of the progress of African Americans in higher education, offering: the Black-White Higher Education Equality Index; statistics that measure racial inequality; states in which black college enrollments are expected to grow over the next 15 years; and differences among the states in their percentages of low-income…

  14. Rural Americans at Higher Risk of 5 Preventable Causes of Death: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use seatbelts than people who live in urban regions, the study authors said. Rural Americans also have higher rates of poverty, less ... accidental injuries were about 50 percent higher in rural areas than in urban ... 13 issue of the CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report . ...

  15. Stress and Coping in Higher Education: A Case Study of a Haitian American Woman Administrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, Jeff Drayton; West-Olatunji, Cirecie A.; Overton, Jeanine; Shah, Bindi; Coral, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The authors applied Relational-Cultural Theory (RCT) to conduct a case study of an Afro-Caribbean woman administrator to explore her perceptions of stress and coping in higher education. While much has been written about the challenges facing Black faculty and students, this study focused on the experiences of a Black woman administrator in a…

  16. Non-Abelian {SU}{(3)}_{k} anyons: inversion identities for higher rank face models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Holger; Karaiskos, Nikos

    2015-12-01

    The spectral problem for an integrable system of particles satisfying the fusion rules of {SU}{(3)}k is expressed in terms of exact inversion identities satisfied by the commuting transfer matrices of the integrable fused {A}2(1) interaction round a face model of Jimbo, Miwa and Okado. The identities are proven using local properties of the Boltzmann weights, in particular the Yang-Baxter equation and unitarity. They are closely related to the consistency conditions for the construction of eigenvalues obtained in the separation of variables approach to integrable vertex models.

  17. Fighting through Resistance: Challenges Faced by African American Women Principals in Predominately White School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alicia D.

    2013-01-01

    African American women represented a growing proportion within the field of education in attaining leadership roles as school principals. As the numbers continued to rise slowly, African American women principals found themselves leading in diverse or even predominately White school settings. Leading in such settings encouraged African American…

  18. The Changing Faces of Corruption in Georgian Higher Education: Access through Times and Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkodashvili, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comparative-historical analysis of access to higher education in Georgia. It describes the workings of corrupt channels during the Soviet and early post-Soviet periods and the role of standardized tests in fighting corruption in higher education admission processes after introduction of the Unified National Entrance…

  19. The Changing Faces of Corruption in Georgian Higher Education: Access through Times and Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkodashvili, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comparative-historical analysis of access to higher education in Georgia. It describes the workings of corrupt channels during the Soviet and early post-Soviet periods and the role of standardized tests in fighting corruption in higher education admission processes after introduction of the Unified National Entrance…

  20. Two Decades of Progress: African Americans Moving Forward in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, Michael T.; Perna, Laura W.; Freeman, Kimberley Edelin

    This report presents findings of a study on the higher education progress of African Americans in the nation and by region, including both private and public sectors, two-year and four-year colleges and universities, historically black colleges and universities, and traditionally white institutions. Overall findings indicate steady progress by…

  1. Managing Regional Collaboration in Higher Education: The Case of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Manuel

    2000-01-01

    Describes accomplishments in increasing collaboration in higher education within the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Analyzes procedures for determining equivalencies of courses and degrees and for improving transnational mobility of students and professors. Also discusses the role of the private sector in research, education and…

  2. American Higher Education: Behind the Emerald City's Curtain. Hudson Briefing Paper, No. 188.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Chester E., Jr.; Manno, Bruno V.

    During the last 50 years, American higher education has steadily grown in scale, wealth, and, stature. Despite its current status as the world's education superpower, however, it has begun to encounter public disapproval and consumer resistance. Colleges and universities have been able to ignore productivity concerns because a college education…

  3. Empowerment of African American Women Leaders in Higher Education: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Sharon L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the perspectives on empowerment held by African American women who work in executive positions within higher educational settings. This study also seeks to provide other women with a deeper level of awareness regarding the journey towards executive leadership. Current literature explores…

  4. Native American Students in U.S. Higher Education: A Look from Attachment Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simi, Demi; Matusitz, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the behavioral patterns of Native American college students in U.S. higher education. Attachment theory is the theoretical framework used in this analysis. Developed by Bowlby ("Attachment and loss: Separation, anxiety and anger," 1973), attachment theory postulates that behaviors can be predicted based on one's…

  5. African American Faculty Women Experiences of Underrepresentation in Computer Technology Positions in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    African American women are underrepresented in computer technology disciplines in institutions of higher education throughout the United States. Although equitable gender representation is progressing in most fields, much less information is available on why institutions are still lagging in workforce diversity, a problem which can be lessened by…

  6. Transitioning Normalcy: Organizational Culture, African American Administrators, and Diversity Leadership in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Brandon L.; Dilworth, Paulette Patterson

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present findings from a review and synthesis of historical and contemporary research to examine the concept of diversity leadership in higher education as it pertains to African American administrators at predominantly White colleges and universities. Through the use of critical race theory, we first argue that to understand…

  7. Illuminating the Experiences of African-American Nursing Faculty Seeking Employment in Higher Education in Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    This study explored and described the experience of female African-American nursing faculty seeking employment in higher education in nursing. The lack of diversity in the nursing workforce has been attributed as a major underlying cause of disparity in healthcare in the United States. The importance of increasing the number of minority nursing…

  8. Degrees of Inequality: Culture, Class, and Gender in American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Ann L.

    2010-01-01

    "Degrees of Inequality" reveals the powerful patterns of social inequality in American higher education by analyzing how the social background of students shapes nearly every facet of the college experience. Even as the most prestigious institutions claim to open their doors to students from diverse backgrounds, class disparities remain. Just two…

  9. Analyzing the Anglo-American Hegemony in the "Times Higher Education" Rankings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Amadu Jacky

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the 2009 "Times Higher Education"-QS top 200 universities in the world. Based on this analysis the study claims that the THS reflects the phenomenon of Anglo American hegemony. The United States with 54 universities and the United Kingdom with 29 dominated the THS. In addition, six out of every ten universities on the…

  10. Facing the Giant: Higher Education Access and Financial Assistance for Undocumented Students in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the experiences of a Hispanic undocumented high school graduate in Texas (USA) that did not attend a higher education institution in spite of her desire to do. Using qualitative research and narrative analysis, the researcher conducted three interview levels with the participant and developed an emplotted…

  11. The "Virtual Face" of Planning: How to Use Higher Education Web Sites to Assess Competitive Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Katrina A.; Wilson, Jeffery L.

    2010-01-01

    The research presented in this article demonstrates how to investigate the competitive position of an institution's academic programs or services through an analysis of the Web sites of other higher education institutions. By using information from research/doctoral, master's, baccalaureate, and community colleges across 40 states, this study…

  12. The Changing Face of Higher Education: Why More Administrators Are Wearing Lipstick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Barbara R.; Credille, Ronda O.

    2004-01-01

    During the 150 years women have participated in higher education, they have made tremendous strides. At many postsecondary institutions, women were not accepted as students until the second half of the 20th century. In 2004, women serve in the upper echelons of power at some of the nation's oldest and most prestigious universities. This inquiry…

  13. Then and Now: Technology and the Changing Face of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Eric A.; Buboltz, Walter C., Jr.; Wilkinson, Lamar

    This project examines the impact of technology on the process of higher education and the impact of these advances on both students and faculty. Student demographics and academic achievement from 30 years ago are compared to those of modern students as reported by veteran and new faculty members. The impact of technology on the modern student is…

  14. The "Virtual Face" of Planning: How to Use Higher Education Web Sites to Assess Competitive Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Katrina A.; Wilson, Jeffery L.

    2010-01-01

    The research presented in this article demonstrates how to investigate the competitive position of an institution's academic programs or services through an analysis of the Web sites of other higher education institutions. By using information from research/doctoral, master's, baccalaureate, and community colleges across 40 states, this study…

  15. E-Learning Challenges Faced by Academics in Higher Education: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nurul; Beer, Martin; Slack, Frances

    2015-01-01

    E-learning has become a necessity in higher education institutions and is being deployed in educational establishments throughout the world. Researchers have made much emphasis on its benefits but not much is discussed on the disadvantages of e-learning technology. This paper references some of the research work on the limitations of e-learning…

  16. ON SOME TRENDS OF THE NORDIC HIGHER EDUCATION FACING THE CONTEMPORARY SOCIAL CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Musial

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with changes taking place in the modern Nordic societies there is a change in values that have constituted a foundation of the development of higher education systems in this part of Europe. The author’s intention is to investigate to what extent the traditional values that had evolved within the framework of the peasant and industrial societies have a chance to survive, or have to change, within the knowledge-based post-industrial regime. The paper presents an image of the current societal change and investigates whether we currently witness an evolution or withering away of the traditionally Nordic values in higher education. A particular attention is paid to the changes in the social democratic model of education and research and the emergence of neoliberal elements in it. The changes are illustrated by examples of the transition taking place from industrial to post-industrial society, from collectivism to individualism and from egalitarianism to elitism.

  17. Sister to Sister: Dynamics of Mentoring Relationships among African American Women in Leadership and Nonleadership Positions within Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiff, MaNesha M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the dynamics of mentoring relationships among African American women within the higher education profession. Utilizing a phenomenological research design, this researcher conducted in-depth interviews with 10 African American women who are mentors and/or mentees of an African American woman in the higher…

  18. Postsecondary Educators' Cultural and Institutional Awareness of Issues Faced by African American Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becton, Alicia B.; Foster, Amanda L.; Chen, Roy K.

    2016-01-01

    Being a part of an ethnic minority group and a student with a disability (SWD) often presents as a barrier to college retention and graduation rates among members of this marginalized group. Purpose: To examine educators' awareness of racial and institutional influences that impact African American SWD. Method: Data for this study were gathered…

  19. The Retention of Mexican American Students in Higher Education with Special Reference to Bicultural and Bilingual Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Manuel H.; And Others

    The problem of retaining Mexican American students in institutions of higher education is reviewed in these 5 papers: "The Retention of Mexican American Students in Higher Education with Special Reference to Bicultural and Bilingual Problems" by Manuel H. Guerra; "Mexicanismo vs. Retention: Implications of Retaining Mexican American…

  20. Spirituality in Leadership: How Male African American Leaders in Higher Education Perceive the Influence of Spirituality in Their Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Dale S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand how male African American leaders in higher education perceive the influence of spirituality on their leadership decision making. This phenomenological study provided the opportunity for seven male African American leaders in higher education to explain in their own words how they perceive the…

  1. Before We Were Chicanas/os: The Mexican American Experience in California Higher Education, 1848-1945

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudico, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Mexican American students have a long and proud history of enrolling in colleges and universities across the state of California for nearly 160 years, since shortly after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. Yet, inexplicably, historians of higher education have virtually ignored the Mexican American experience in California higher education.…

  2. How the American, Degree-Granting For-Profit Higher Education Sector Manages the Regulatory Environment: An Intrinsic Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Caulyne Nichole

    2013-01-01

    This intrinsic case study examined the context of the American, degree-granting for-profit higher education sector between 2009 and 2012, applying institutional theory and resource dependency theory to develop an understanding of how the degree-granting for-profit sector of American higher education manages regulatory pressures. The study examines…

  3. The changing face of phenomenological research: traditional and American phenomenology in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caelli, K

    2000-05-01

    In recent years, phenomenological researchers in nursing have become concerned about the differences between traditional European phenomenology and the way phenomenology is frequently conducted in nursing. Indeed, Crotty asserts that much of the phenomenology conducted by nurses cannot be phenomenology because it does not espouse the constructionist epistemological position regarded by Husserl as essential to phenomenology. This article explores the differences between traditional European and American phenomenology and argues that the latter approach extends the phenomenological project in valuable and meaningful ways that are particularly appropriate for the health sciences.

  4. Education Innovation: Case Studies in e-Learning and Face-to-Face Teaching in Higher Education: What is the Best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, J. A.

    Education innovation is here to stay. This chapter gives the results of a study of the application of information and communication technology to advanced teaching and learning activities. It is strategically important that the technology opens up new ways of teaching and learning. The purpose of this chapter is firstly to identify the typical advanced teaching and learning activities/functions that can be applied in e-Learning and face-to-face teaching and learning. Case studies were selected from a group of teachers who have already been involved in both teaching modes for some years and thus have experience in blended teaching and learning. A number of teaching activities/functions were seen as positive in their application in the e-Learning situation. Those that stand out are peer review and collaboration, promotion of reflection and stimulation of critical and creative thinking, team teaching, promotion of discovery/extension of knowledge, and problematization of the curriculum. In face-to-face teaching and learning, inviting engagement, how to come to know, involving metaphors and analogies, teaching that connects to learning, inspire change, promote understanding, and others stand out. As seen by the teachers in the case studies, both e-Learning and face-to-face teaching and learning are seen as complementary to each other. We define this view as blended teaching and learning.

  5. Personal Efficacy and Factors of Effective Learning Environment in Higher Education: Croatian and American Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Vidaček - Hainš

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Successful learning in higher education incorporates various factors related to knowledge, skills, habits, and motivation. Additionally, students’ personalities and self-efficacy may contribute to their adjustment, planning of activities, and achieving success. The objective of this paper is to analyze students’ needs for support services, which enhance the effectiveness of their learning environment at higher education institutions. Answers received from a sample of undergraduate freshmen at one American University and one Croatian University were analyzed and compared. The students from both countries agree that there is a need for developing self-reliance and personal responsibility in using support services, as well as for the timely and accurate information on availability of these services. Students’ suggestions and their desire to enhance effectiveness of their learning environment may be used in creating and improving support services in higher education institutions as well as training their staff.

  6. Culture- and Immigration-Related Stress Faced by Chinese American Families with a Patient Having Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Winnie W

    2016-07-01

    The impact of culture and immigration on the experience of Chinese American families with a member having schizophrenia is explored within the frameworks of family systems and stress and coping. This qualitative study was conducted within an intervention study of family psychoeducation using therapists' session notes from 103 family sessions and 13 relatives' group sessions from nine patients and 19 relatives. The high stigma attached to mental illness leading to social isolation, and families' devotion to caregiving exacerbated caregiver burden. Taboo against discussing dating and sexuality and the consideration of arranged marriages caused unique stress. The insecurity as immigrants and shortage of bilingual services were related to greater enmeshment within these families. Implications on research methodology and practice are discussed.

  7. Higher food prices may threaten food security status among American low-income households with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Jones, Sonya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Andrews, Margaret

    2013-10-01

    Children in food-insecure households are more likely to experience poorer health function and worse academic achievement. To investigate the relation between economic environmental factors and food insecurity among children, we examined the relation between general and specific food prices (fast food, fruits and vegetables, beverages) and risk of low (LFS) and very low food security (VLFS) status among low-income American households with children. Using information for 27,900 child-year observations from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 linked with food prices obtained from the Cost of Living Data of the Council for Community and Economic Research, formerly known as the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers' Association, fixed effects models were estimated within stratified income groups. Higher overall food prices were associated with increased risk of LFS and VLFS (coefficient = 0.617; P effect on food security status, even when controlling for general food prices. Thus, although food price changes were strongly related to food security status among low-income American households with children, the effects were not uniform across types of food. These relations should be accounted for when implementing policies that change specific food prices.

  8. Facing a changing world: Thermal physiology of American pikas (Ochotona princeps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Hans W; Wilson, James A; Beever, Erik

    2015-01-01

    American pikas (Ochotona princeps) are of concern with respect to warming montane temperatures; however, little information exists regarding their physiological ability to adapt to warming temperatures. Previous studies have shown that pikas have high metabolism and low thermal conductance, which allow survival during cold winters. It has been hypothesized that these characteristics may be detrimental, given the recent warming trends observed in montane ecosystems. We examined resting metabolic rate, surface activity, and den and ambient temperatures (Ta) of pikas in late summer (August 2011 and 2012) at 2 locations in the Rocky Mountains. Resting metabolic rate was calculated to be 2.02 mL O2 · g-1h-1, with a lower critical temperature (LCT) of 28.1 ± 0.2 °C. No upper critical temperature (UCT) could be determined from our data; therefore, the estimated thermoneutral zone (TNZ) was 28.1 °C to at least 35.0 °C (upper experimental temperature). Pikas in this study showed the same bimodal above-talus activity patterns reported in previous studies. Den temperatures in Colorado were correlated with, but consistently lower than, current ambient temperatures. Wyoming den temperatures showed a weak correlation with Ta 20 min prior to the current den temperature. This study is one of few to present data on the physiological response pikas may have to current warming conditions, and the first to perform metabolic measurements in situ. Our data support conclusions of previous studies, specifically MacArthur and Wang (1973, 1974) and Smith (1974), which indicated American pikas may not have the physiological ability to cope with high Ta. Our results also highlight the importance of shaded regions below the talus rocks for behavioral thermoregulation by pikas.

  9. Bully University? The Cost of Workplace Bullying and Employee Disengagement in American Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah P. Hollis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Workplace bullying has a detrimental effect on employees, yet few studies have examined its impact on personnel in American higher education administration. Therefore, two central research questions guided this study: (a What is the extent of workplace bullying in higher education administration? and (b What is the cost of workplace bullying specifically to higher education administration? Participants from 175 four-year colleges and universities were surveyed to reveal that 62% of higher education administrators had experienced or witnessed workplace bullying in the 18 months prior to the study. Race and gender were not parameters considered in the sample. A total of 401 (n = 401 higher education respondents completed the instrument from various departments on a campus: academic affairs, student affairs, athletics, development/advancement, admissions/financial aid, information technology, arts faculty, sciences faculty, and executives. Employment disengagement served as the theoretical lens to analyze the financial cost to higher education when employees mentally disengage from organizational missions and objectives. With this lens, the study examined staff hours lost through employee disengagement and the associated costs.

  10. The Face Perspective between the Chinese and American Business Culture%中美商务文化面子观比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐赛颖

    2016-01-01

    The differences of face perspectives between Chinese business culture and American business culture are demonstrated by two aspects, i.e, language about face and logic of face. The paper finds that there exist the differences of the face-related communication patterns between Chinese and American business cultures which are embodied by low-context communication and high context communication and the types of communication patterns.%中美商务文化面子观差异主要表现在面子的语言表达和面子逻辑观的不同;中美商务文化中与面子有关的交际模式也存在巨大差异,主要体现在低语境交际和高语境交际以及交际模式类型。

  11. In the face of contradictory evidence: report of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hite, Adele H; Feinman, Richard David; Guzman, Gabriel E; Satin, Morton; Schoenfeld, Pamela A; Wood, Richard J

    2010-10-01

    Concerns that were raised with the first dietary recommendations 30 y ago have yet to be adequately addressed. The initial Dietary Goals for Americans (1977) proposed increases in carbohydrate intake and decreases in fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and salt consumption that are carried further in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC) Report. Important aspects of these recommendations remain unproven, yet a dietary shift in this direction has already taken place even as overweight/obesity and diabetes have increased. Although appealing to an evidence-based methodology, the DGAC Report demonstrates several critical weaknesses, including use of an incomplete body of relevant science; inaccurately representing, interpreting, or summarizing the literature; and drawing conclusions and/or making recommendations that do not reflect the limitations or controversies in the science. An objective assessment of evidence in the DGAC Report does not suggest a conclusive proscription against low-carbohydrate diets. The DGAC Report does not provide sufficient evidence to conclude that increases in whole grain and fiber and decreases in dietary saturated fat, salt, and animal protein will lead to positive health outcomes. Lack of supporting evidence limits the value of the proposed recommendations as guidance for consumers or as the basis for public health policy. It is time to reexamine how US dietary guidelines are created and ask whether the current process is still appropriate for our needs.

  12. Racial discrimination associated with higher diastolic blood pressure in a sample of American Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Zaneta M; Blair, Irene V; Buchwald, Dedra S; Manson, Spero M

    2017-05-01

    Hypertension prevalence is high among American Indians (AIs). AIs experience a substantial burden of interpersonal racial discrimination, which in other populations has been associated with higher blood pressure. The purpose of this study is to understand whether racial discrimination experiences are associated with higher blood pressure in AIs. We used the Everyday Discrimination Scale to evaluate the relationship between discrimination and measured blood pressure among 77 AIs from two reservation communities in the Northern Plains. We used multivariate linear regression to evaluate the association of racial discrimination with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. Racial discrimination, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were analyzed as continuous variables. All analyses adjusted for sex, waist circumference, age, posttraumatic stress disorder status, and education. We found that 61% of participants experienced discrimination that they attributed to their race or ancestry. Racial discrimination was associated with significantly higher diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.22, SE = 0.09, p = .02), and with a similar non-significant trend toward higher systolic blood pressure (β = 0.25, SE = 0.15, p = .09). The results of this analysis suggest that racial discrimination may contribute to higher diastolic blood pressure within Native communities. These findings highlight one pathway through which the social environment can shape patterns of biology and health in AI and other socially and politically marginalized groups. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Perceptions & Experiences in Higher Education: A National Study of Multiracial Asian American and Latino/a Students in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tara D.; Maton, Kenneth I.

    2014-01-01

    Demographic trends suggest increasing numbers of multiple racial heritage students attending US campuses and universities, a change reflected within psychology. However, there is little empirical investigation into the educational experiences and needs of multiracials. The current study (the second in a series of studies to utilize data from a national survey of psychology graduate and undergraduate students) compared two multiracial groups, Asian American/European American and Latino/a/European Americans, to their single heritage counterparts on several variables of interest – academic supports and barriers; linkage between barriers faced and ethnicity; and perceived cultural diversity. Results indicated that multiracial groups reported more of a link between academic barriers experienced and their ethnicity than European American students, but less of a link than their monoracial minority peers. No differences between groups were found related to academic supports, academic barriers, and perceived cultural diversity. Study limitations, future research and implications are discussed. PMID:25111546

  14. Exaggerated insulin secretion in Pima Indians and African-Americans but higher insulin resistance in Pima Indians compared to African-Americans and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, N; Stumvoll, M; Weyer, C; Bogardus, C; Tataranni, P A; Pratley, R E

    2004-10-01

    African-Americans have a higher prevalence of Type 2 diabetes than Caucasians, but a lower prevalence than Pima Indians. Studies suggest that both African-Americans and Pima Indians are more insulin resistant and have higher acute insulin secretory responses to glucose than Caucasians; however, a direct comparison between these three populations is lacking. We measured insulin secretory responses to intravenous glucose (acute insulin response, AIR, 25 g ivGTT); insulin action at physiological (M-low) and supra-physiological (M-high) levels of hyperinsulinaemia (2-step hyperinsulinaemic clamp); basal and insulin-suppressed endogenous glucose production in 30 African-Americans, 30 Pima Indians and 30 Caucasians with normal glucose tolerance who were carefully matched for age, sex, and body fat (hydrodensitometry or DEXA). A subgroup of 24 subjects from each group additionally underwent a standardized mixed meal test. M-low was lower in Pima Indians (0.50 +/- 0.03) compared to Caucasians (0.59 +/- 0.02, P = 0.02) and African-Americans [0.58 +/- 0.03 mg/kgEMBS/min, log10 (means +/- SE), P = 0.03] but was not different between African-Americans and Caucasians. Basal endogenous glucose production was lower in Pima Indians (2.43 +/- 0.06) compared to African-Americans (2.70 +/- 0.06, P = 0.02) and was not different between Pima Indians and Caucasians (2.59 +/- 0.09 mg/kgEMBS/min) or African-Americans and Caucasians (all P > 0.18). Insulin-suppressed endogenous glucose production during the clamp was not different among the groups (all P > 0.40). AIR was higher in both African-Americans (13.51 +/- 0.26) and Pima Indians (13.72 +/- 0.27) compared to Caucasians (12.33 +/- 0.25 pM, log10, both P < 0.01). The areas under the curve for glucose in response to the oral glucose tolerance test and mixed meal test were higher in Pima Indians compared to African-Americans (P = 0.03 and P = 0.03, respectively) and Caucasians (P = 0.01, mixed meal test), but not different between

  15. Understanding the Role of Identity and the Retention of Mexican American Students in Higher Education: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, Juan, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative ethnographic narrative inquiry explored the role of identity and the retention of Mexican American students in higher education. Leadership identity, a dimension of identity, was explored using narratives provided by 13 Mexican American students, attending a university in the northwest United States. Interview data was compiled,…

  16. Workforce Diversity in Higher Education: Career Support Factors Influencing Ascendancy of African American Women to Senior-Level Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Tondelaya K.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study was how knowledge of the barriers to advancement for African American women (AAW) and key career support factors (KCSFs) influence the career advancement of African American women (AAW) to senior-level positions in higher education. The research method for this study consisted of the triangulation of evidence from multiple…

  17. Body image and face image in Asian American and white women: Examining associations with surveillance, construal of self, perfectionism, and sociocultural pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; Kelly, Mackenzie C; Latner, Janet D; Sandhu, Gaganjyot; Tsong, Yuying

    2016-03-01

    Asian American women experience sociocultural pressures that could place them at increased risk for experiencing body and face dissatisfaction. Asian American and White women completed measures of appearance evaluation, overweight preoccupation, face satisfaction, face dissatisfaction frequency, perfectionism, surveillance, interdependent and independent self-construal, and perceived sociocultural pressures. In Study 1 (N=182), Asian American women were more likely than White women to report low appearance evaluation (24% vs. 12%; d=-0.50) and to be sometimes-always dissatisfied with the appearance of their eyes (38% vs. 6%; d=0.90) and face overall (59% vs. 34%; d=0.41). In Study 2 (N=488), they were more likely to report low appearance evaluation (36% vs. 23%; d=-0.31) and were less likely to report high eye appearance satisfaction (59% vs. 88%; d=-0.84). The findings highlight the importance of considering ethnic differences when assessing body and face image. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Critical Review of the Model Minority Myth in Selected Literature on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, OiYan; Squire, Dian; Kodama, Corinne; Byrd, Ajani; Chan, Jason; Manzano, Lester; Furr, Sara; Bishundat, Devita

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a critical review of 112 works of research on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) in higher education. It focuses on ways previous scholarship framed AAPIs in higher education, and specifically on how those works engaged in a sustained project of countering the model minority myth (MMM). Many publications on AAPIs…

  19. An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement: Current Challenges Facing Research and Therapeutic Advances in Airway Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Y S; Halayko, Andrew J; Gosens, Reinoud; Panettieri, Reynold A; Camoretti-Mercado, Blanca; Penn, Raymond B

    2017-01-15

    Airway remodeling (AR) is a prominent feature of asthma and other obstructive lung diseases that is minimally affected by current treatments. The goals of this Official American Thoracic Society (ATS) Research Statement are to discuss the scientific, technological, economic, and regulatory issues that deter progress of AR research and development of therapeutics targeting AR and to propose approaches and solutions to these specific problems. This Statement is not intended to provide clinical practice recommendations on any disease in which AR is observed and/or plays a role. An international multidisciplinary group from within academia, industry, and the National Institutes of Health, with expertise in multimodal approaches to the study of airway structure and function, pulmonary research and clinical practice in obstructive lung disease, and drug discovery platforms was invited to participate in one internet-based and one face-to-face meeting to address the above-stated goals. Although the majority of the analysis related to AR was in asthma, AR in other diseases was also discussed and considered in the recommendations. A literature search of PubMed was performed to support conclusions. The search was not a systematic review of the evidence. Multiple conceptual, logistical, economic, and regulatory deterrents were identified that limit the performance of AR research and impede accelerated, intensive development of AR-focused therapeutics. Complementary solutions that leverage expertise of academia and industry were proposed to address them. To date, numerous factors related to the intrinsic difficulty in performing AR research, and economic forces that are disincentives for the pursuit of AR treatments, have thwarted the ability to understand AR pathology and mechanisms and to address it clinically. This ATS Research Statement identifies potential solutions for each of these factors and emphasizes the importance of educating the global research community as to the

  20. Red notoginseng: higher ginsenoside content and stronger anticancer potential than Asian and American ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shi; Qi, Lian-Wen; Du, Guang-Jian; Mehendale, Sangeeta R; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2011-04-15

    A systematic comparison of the ginsenosides and anticancer activities was performed among white (air-dried) and red (steamed) roots of notoginseng (NG, Panax notoginseng), Asian ginseng (AG, P. ginseng), and American ginseng (AmG, P. quinquefolius). Chemical profiles of different ginseng species were characterized, through simultaneous quantification of nineteen major ginsenosides, by HPLC-UV at 202 nm. The antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on human colorectal cancer cells were determined by MTS method and flow cytometry, respectively. Chemical analysis indicated that white NG possessed the most abundant ginsenosides, i.e., two- and five-fold higher than white AmG and AG. During the steaming process, extensive conversion of the original polar ginsenosides in white ginseng to new, less polar, degradation compounds in red ginseng was observed. White ginsengs produced weak antiproliferative effects, while red ginsengs exhibited a significant increase in antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects (both P ginseng). Among the three red ginsengs, red NG showed the best anticancer activity. Due to the low cost of NG and high bioactivity of red NG, the red NG is promising to be a useful botanical product in cancer chemoprevention.

  1. Work–Family Trajectories and the Higher Cardiovascular Risk of American Women Relative to Women in 13 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hedel, Karen; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Avendaño, Mauricio; Sabbath, Erika L.; Berkman, Lisa F.; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate whether less-healthy work–family life histories contribute to the higher cardiovascular disease prevalence in older American compared with European women. Methods. We used sequence analysis to identify distinct work–family typologies for women born between 1935 and 1956 in the United States and 13 European countries. Data came from the US Health and Retirement Study (1992–2006) and the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe (2004–2009). Results. Work–family typologies were similarly distributed in the United States and Europe. Being a lone working mother predicted a higher risk of heart disease, stroke, and smoking among American women, and smoking for European women. Lone working motherhood was more common and had a marginally stronger association with stroke in the United States than in Europe. Simulations indicated that the higher stroke risk among American women would only be marginally reduced if American women had experienced the same work–family trajectories as European women. Conclusions. Combining work and lone motherhood was more common in the United States, but differences in work–family trajectories explained only a small fraction of the higher cardiovascular risk of American relative to European women. PMID:27310346

  2. Native American Mascots in Contemporary Higher Education: Part 1--Politically Acceptable or Ethnically Objectionable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamey, Becky Avery

    2009-01-01

    The battle of the Little Big Horn in 1876 was one of the last great wars fought by Native Americans on a grassy battlefield. The battle was fought over territory and the right to live in the Dakota and Montana territories. The Native Americans won the battle of Little Big Horn but eventually lost the war and were forced to live on a reservation…

  3. Perceptions and experiences in higher education: a national study of multiracial Asian American and Latino/a students in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tara D; Maton, Kenneth I

    2015-01-01

    Demographic trends suggest increasing numbers of multiple racial heritage students attending U.S. campuses and universities, a change reflected within psychology. However, there is little empirical investigation into the educational experiences and needs of multiracials. The current study (the second in a series of studies to use data from a national survey of psychology graduate and undergraduate students) compared 2 multiracial groups, Asian American/European American and Latino/a/European Americans, with their single-heritage counterparts on several variables of interest-academic supports and barriers, linkage between barriers faced and ethnicity, and perceived cultural diversity. Results indicated that multiracial groups reported more of a link between academic barriers experienced and their ethnicity than European American students, but less of a link than their monoracial minority peers. No differences between groups were found related to academic supports, academic barriers, and perceived cultural diversity. Study limitations, future research, and implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. The Origins of Christian Liberal Arts Higher Education in Russia: A Case Study of the Russian-American Christian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarchuk, Victor N.

    2011-01-01

    This is a case study of the historical development of a private Christian faith-based school of higher education in post-Soviet Russia from its conception in 1990 until 2010. This binational school was founded as Russian-American Christian University (RACU) in 1996. In 2003, business and economics as well as social work undergraduate academic…

  5. Take the Bull by the Horns: Structural Approach to Minimize Workplace Bullying for Women in American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Leah P.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the extent of workplace bullying in American higher education; however, a 2015 study confirmed that 62% of respondents (n = 401) were affected by workplace bullying 18 months prior to the study (Hollis 2015). A closer examination of the women respondents (n = 281) revealed that 71% of the women in this subset faced…

  6. Native American  student perspectives of challenges in natural resource higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breanna Gervais; Chase R. Voirin; Chris Beatty; Grace Bulltail; Stephanie Cowherd; Shawn Defrance; Breana Dorame; Raymond Gutteriez; Jessica Lackey; Candy Lupe; April B. Negrette; Natalya C. Robbins Sherman; Ruth Swaney; Kevin Tso; Marvin Victor; Royale Wilson; Kimberly Yazzie; Jonathan W. Long; Serra J. Hoagland

    2017-01-01

    Native Americans have vital interests in promoting forest management decisions based on sound science and consistent with cultural values to sustain and conserve tribal natural resources. Advancing the next generation of natural resource professionals into key positions is essential to advance the self-determination of tribes; yet, there are unique challenges Native...

  7. Survey of Biology Capstone Courses in American and Canadian Higher Education: Requirement, Content, and Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haave, Neil C.

    2015-01-01

    Capstone experiences have high educational impact with various approaches available for biology. However, no information exists regarding the pervasiveness of capstone courses in Canadian and American biology programs. This study surveyed the prevalence and character of biology capstone courses in the USA and Canada. The survey included a majority…

  8. Cross-National Online Discussions: International Learning Experiences with American and Chinese Students in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commander, Nannette; Zhao, Yali; Gallagher, Peggy; You, Yongheng

    2016-01-01

    Universities are seeking techniques that encourage students to become more globalised in their perspectives. One method of fostering globalisation is to incorporate cross-national asynchronous online discussions with students from different countries within courses. The purpose of this study was to explore if participation by American and Chinese…

  9. Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Academic Adjustment among African American Women Attending Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Deneia M.; Love, Keisha M.; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Tyler, Keneth M.; Brown, Carrie Lynn; Garriott, Patton O.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among self-efficacy beliefs, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and academic adjustment among 111 African American women in college. Results revealed that self-efficacy beliefs predicted Motivation to Know, Externally Regulated motivation, Identified motivation, and academic adjustment. Furthermore,…

  10. Sub-Saharan African Students and Their Experiences in American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osikomaiya, Olujide

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research project is to study the experiences of Sub-Saharan African students, who have earned professional degrees from American institutions and are currently living in the United States. Acculturative stressors have been identified by researchers as predictors of loneliness, depression, homesickness, and poor mental health…

  11. Do Expenditures Other than Instructional Expenditures Affect Graduation and Persistence Rates in American Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Douglas A.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2010-01-01

    During the last two decades, median instructional spending per full-time equivalent (FTE) student at American 4-year colleges and universities has grown at a slower rate than median spending per FTE student in a number of other expenditure categories, including academic support, student services and research. Our paper uses institutional level…

  12. New Directions for Higher Education: Q&A with Richard Ekman on Challenges, Misconceptions Facing Independent Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSalvio, Philip

    2014-01-01

    In April 2013, "NEJHE" launched its "New Directions for Higher Education series" to examine emerging issues, trends and ideas that have an impact on higher education policies, programs and practices. In this installment, DiSalvio interviews Richard Ekman, president of the Council of Independent Colleges (CIC), an association of…

  13. New Directions for Higher Education: Q&A with Richard Ekman on Challenges, Misconceptions Facing Independent Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSalvio, Philip

    2014-01-01

    In April 2013, "NEJHE" launched its "New Directions for Higher Education series" to examine emerging issues, trends and ideas that have an impact on higher education policies, programs and practices. In this installment, DiSalvio interviews Richard Ekman, president of the Council of Independent Colleges (CIC), an association of…

  14. From recreational to functional drug use: the evolution of drugs in American higher education, 1960–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of so-called cognitive-enhancing drugs is well documented in American higher education. There has been little historical analysis, however, specifically exploring the role of postsecondary institutions in this evolving drug narrative. This paper traces substance use and research trends in American higher education over the past half-century, divided into three eras defined by their disparate approaches to drug policy and public health. Contextualised by historic events, shifting policies and epidemiological data, this multidisciplinary analysis contends that functional, academically oriented drug use is likely to continue rising on US campuses, while recreational drug use will evolve and persist. As history provides a useful lens for understanding the involvement of academe in the first era of drug concern in America, ongoing innovations in medical and social science may be instructive to help ensure that institutions respond judiciously in the present era of new drug synthesis and drug policy recession. PMID:27499559

  15. From recreational to functional drug use: the evolution of drugs in American higher education, 1960-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikins, Ross D

    The increasing prevalence of so-called cognitive-enhancing drugs is well documented in American higher education. There has been little historical analysis, however, specifically exploring the role of postsecondary institutions in this evolving drug narrative. This paper traces substance use and research trends in American higher education over the past half-century, divided into three eras defined by their disparate approaches to drug policy and public health. Contextualised by historic events, shifting policies and epidemiological data, this multidisciplinary analysis contends that functional, academically oriented drug use is likely to continue rising on US campuses, while recreational drug use will evolve and persist. As history provides a useful lens for understanding the involvement of academe in the first era of drug concern in America, ongoing innovations in medical and social science may be instructive to help ensure that institutions respond judiciously in the present era of new drug synthesis and drug policy recession.

  16. Leading at the Coal-Face: The World as Experienced by Subject Coordinators in Australian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Dale; Cohen, Lynne; Campbell-Evans, Glenda; Chang, Paul; Macdonald, Ian; McDonald, Jacquie

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on nationally funded research into the role, capabilities, challenges and professional development needs of subject coordinators in Australian higher education. The second of three data collection phases involved a multi-institutional survey of staff in the role of subject coordinator with the aim of understanding the role…

  17. Training needs of general library workers:Part I (challenges facing educators in South African institutions of higher learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester W.J. Meyer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent survey by Meyer (2009 on the need for the training of general library workers revealed that employers in library services are often not aware of the conditions affecting the ability of library and information science (LIS educators at South African tertiary institutions to deliver ‘work ready’ general workers to the LIS industry. Simultaneously, LIS educators are not aware of the extent to which changes to learning programmes can affect the appointment and promotions of library staff in practice. The objectives of the study were to determine the need for a formal learning programme for general library workers and how existing study material can be adapted to develop a formal learning programme suitable for general library workers countrywide. Data was collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire directed at supervisory staff of provincial and municipal libraries in South Africa, interviews with supervisors, and consultation of relevant internal documentation on job descriptions and legislation. The findings revealed that there is a definite need for training general library workers, whether formally or informally. This article, the first of two parts, considers the challenges facing LIS educators of which employers in the LIS industry are seldom aware of. The discussion is based on a literature study regarding training of general library workers in South Africa, as well as personal experience of the impact of various conditions on the relevant learning programmes of the Department of Information Science, University of South Africa before and after merging with the former Technikon SA. It considers the implementation of legislation and policies with regard to LIS training and how LIS educators, involved in open distance learning (ODL cope with the specific challenges for delivering ‘work ready’ general library workers. Part two will deal with aspects concerning the types of task general workers perform, and the

  18. The "Redirecting" of International Students: American Higher Education Policy Hindrances and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Hugo A.; Villarreal, María de Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    International student mobility in higher education has gained currency as an important topic in today's global, political, and economic environment. United States postsecondary institutions are working to expand their international student population to increase revenue and diversity. The current higher education and economic context has produced…

  19. Exclusion Factors in Latin American Higher Education: A Preliminary Analyze From University Governing Board Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Diego; Rodríguez-Gómez, David; Gairín, Joaquín

    2017-01-01

    Access to higher education has increased substantially in Latin America, but inequalities in access to and completion of higher education still remain. In this regard, identifying vulnerable groups and exclusion factors is a priority in Latin America's university systems. The aim of this article is to understand in depth governing board…

  20. Between Citizens and the State: The Politics of American Higher Education in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    This book tracks the dramatic outcomes of the federal government's growing involvement in higher education between World War I and the 1970s, and the conservative backlash against that involvement from the 1980s onward. Using cutting-edge analysis, Christopher Loss recovers higher education's central importance to the larger social and political…

  1. Do Expenditures Other than Instructional Expenditures Affect Graduation and Persistence Rates in American Higher Education. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Douglas A.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2010-01-01

    Rates of tuition increases in both private and public higher education that continually exceed inflation, coupled with the fact that the United States no longer leads the world in terms of the fraction of young adults who have college degrees, have focused attention on why costs keep increasing in higher education and what categories of higher…

  2. An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement : Current Challenges Facing Research and Therapeutic Advances in Airway Remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakash, Y S; Halayko, Andrew J; Gosens, Reinoud; Panettieri Jr., Reynold A; Camoretti-Mercado, Blanca; Penn, Raymond B; Burgess, Janette K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Airway remodeling (AR) is a prominent feature of asthma and other obstructive lung diseases that is minimally affected by current treatments. The goals of this Official American Thoracic Society (ATS) Research Statement are to discuss the scientific, technological, economic, and

  3. An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement : Current Challenges Facing Research and Therapeutic Advances in Airway Remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakash, Y S; Halayko, Andrew J; Gosens, Reinoud; Panettieri Jr., Reynold A; Camoretti-Mercado, Blanca; Penn, Raymond B; Burgess, Janette K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Airway remodeling (AR) is a prominent feature of asthma and other obstructive lung diseases that is minimally affected by current treatments. The goals of this Official American Thoracic Society (ATS) Research Statement are to discuss the scientific, technological, economic, and regulato

  4. Indigenous Peoples, States and Higher Education. Lessons from Latin American experiences and their potential for ongoing processes in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mato

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades a significant number of indigenous and/or intercultural universities and other higher education institutions (HEIs have been created in several Latin American countries. Additionally, “conventional” universities and other HEIs have established degrees, diplomas, and various types of special programs aimed at the inclusion of indigenous people. Some of these educational modalities have been created by indigenous peoples’ organizations and /or leaders, others by universities and other “conventional” HEIs, sometimes through partnerships between these types of institutions and indigenous organizations, while other initiatives have been driven by States. In Argentina these processes are comparatively newer than in several other countries in the region. This article presents an overview of the types of experiences being developed in several Latin American countries, highlights their main achievements and challenges, and suggests some potentially useful lessons for ongoing processes in Argentina.

  5. International Responsibility of the Colombian State Facing the Inter-American Court on Human Rights for the Ineffectiveness of Internal Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Mestizo Sosa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently the international responsibility of the Colombian State facing the Inter-American Court of human rights, shows an increase in violations of standards contemplated by the international law of human rights, which expose a complex situation at the internal justice in a missing procedural dynamic that improves the process instruction and clarifies the circumstances and responsibilities required. A pattern of solution proportional to each stage of the administration of Justice is identified, corresponding to inquiry and research and providing an orientation method based on the balance of matrix models, efficient when formulating a clear and evident justice, which means having the ability to identify the simple from the complex facing the ineffectiveness of the internal justice. The methodology used was analytical, documentary and explanatory, having as main support the American Convention on human rights. In conclusion, the Colombian State must generate monitoring and control mechanisms with transparency, objectivity and independence criteria in the macro and micro processes of the administration of Justice. In addition, proper and efficient implementation of a ranked legal strategy, that provides a true legal evolution.

  6. Profiles of Change in Motivation for Teaching in Higher Education at an American Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunersel, Adalet B.; Kaplan, Avi; Barnett, Pamela; Etienne, Mary; Ponnock, Annette R.

    2016-01-01

    The current study employed an emergent theoretical model of teaching role identity and motivation to investigate the change in conception of and motivation for teaching in higher education of research graduate students who teach in the United States. Fifteen participants took a graduate-level seminar as part of a two-course teaching professional…

  7. What Would Liz and Larry Say? Performing Critical Approaches to Choreographic Mentorship in American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that Liz Lerman's and Larry Lavender's approaches to mentoring student choreographers denote a shift in the philosophy of choreographic mentorship in higher education, because they reflect current concerns in critical pedagogy. My particular interest is in the relationship established between student artist and educator when a…

  8. The Status of Adult and Continuing Education within American Institutions of Higher Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, David M.; Bowker, Lee H.

    Data gathered from a national survey on the status of adult and continuing education in the United States are presented. Chapters cover: continuing education in 410 institutions of higher education (description of the sample, relationships among institutional characteristics, staffing patterns, and support for grants acquisition); the continuing…

  9. Educational Fund Raising: Principles and Practice. American Council on Education Series on Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Michael J., Ed.

    This volume offers 36 papers on higher education fundraising. Major topics treated are the development function, foundations of fund raising, annual giving, major gifts, campaigns, corporate and foundation support, special constituencies, managing development programs, special considerations for institutions, and special considerations for the…

  10. "More Aware of Everything": Exploring the Returnee Experience in American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, David

    2013-01-01

    At the intersection of the topics of migration and diversity in higher education lies the experience of people who grow up overseas, or who go overseas for education or military service, and then return as college students. This article addresses their experience, drawing from a series of exploratory interviews conducted--as part of a broader…

  11. On the Cutting Edge (of Torpor): Innovation and the Pace of Change in American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    This article considers the pace of innovation and technology adoption in higher education and suggests that the rate of change on 21st century campuses is remarkably similar to earlier centuries when it may have taken over 30 years to introduce "modern" inventions like the telescope, microscope, and barometer to students. The literature shows that…

  12. The Attrition Tradition in American Higher Education: Connecting Past and Present. Working Paper 2010-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin, John R.

    2010-01-01

    In July 2009, President Barack Obama set out a bold higher education agenda for his administration and promised that the U.S. would once again lead the world in college degree attainment. Given the nation's current level of college completion, it is reasonable to wonder whether such ambitions are feasible. While there is a sense that the country…

  13. Educational Fund Raising: Principles and Practice. American Council on Education Series on Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Michael J., Ed.

    This volume offers 36 papers on higher education fundraising. Major topics treated are the development function, foundations of fund raising, annual giving, major gifts, campaigns, corporate and foundation support, special constituencies, managing development programs, special considerations for institutions, and special considerations for the…

  14. Signature Concepts of Key Researchers in North American Higher Education Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandlbinder, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Universities in the English-speaking world share a common ancestry that extends back to medieval times. From these beginnings universities quickly developed distinctive qualities as they became integrated within different social and cultural systems of their home societies. A number of comparisons of higher education research have shown major…

  15. On the Importance of African-American Faculty in Higher Education: Implications and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madyun, Na'im; Williams, Sheneka M.; McGee, Ebony O.; Milner, H. Richard, IV

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the presence, influence, and contributions of faculty of Color can help higher education students achieve intercultural competence. The authors define intercultural competence as "people's ability to communicate and function effectively across varying cultures." The question guiding this article…

  16. Signature Concepts of Key Researchers in North American Higher Education Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandlbinder, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Universities in the English-speaking world share a common ancestry that extends back to medieval times. From these beginnings universities quickly developed distinctive qualities as they became integrated within different social and cultural systems of their home societies. A number of comparisons of higher education research have shown major…

  17. Quantified Faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette-Marie Zacher

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The article presents three contemporary art projects that, in various ways, thematise questions regarding numerical representation of the human face in relation to the identification of faces, for example through the use of biometric video analysis software, or DNA technology. The Dutch...... and critically examine bias in surveillance technologies, as well as scientific investigations, regarding the stereotyping mode of the human gaze. The American artist Heather Dewey-Hagborg creates three-dimensional portraits of persons she has “identified” from their garbage. Her project from 2013 entitled....... The three works are analysed with perspectives to historical physiognomy and Francis Galton's composite portraits from the 1800s. It is argued that, rather than being a statistical compression like the historical composites, contemporary statistical visual portraits (composites) are irreversible...

  18. The Politics of Identity: Re-Examining the Appetite for Affirmative Action Policies in Higher Education among African-Americans in a Post-Racial Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Tarsha D.

    2014-01-01

    Broad inferences have been made that the election of a Black American President indicates that America now functions in a post-racist society. This optimism has fueled a major discussion for changes in American policies which directly affect minorities; in particular, those related to affirmative action in higher education are under attack. Due to…

  19. 埃及高等教育所面临的挑战及应对之策%The Challenges Facing Egyptian Higher Education and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武慧杰

    2009-01-01

    Egypt which has more advanced higher education in the Arab world has cultivated several Nobel Prize winners. The last century in the late 1980s, Egypt had early realized higher education popularity while many serious problems and challenges are facing its higher education system. Such as the contradiction between centralized management system of higher education and University autonomy, as well as the confusion and inequality which are brought about by two paralleling education system: the secular system and the religious ,or Al-Azhar system. Facing its history and current situation of higher education, Egyptian government persists in implementing the education development strategy to explore the way to cope with and get rid of dilemma. However, it is still a difficult problem for Egyptian government to realize the coordination between education and economy society.%埃及是阿拉伯世界高等教育比较发达的国家,相继培养出多位诺贝尔奖获得者.20世纪八十年代中后期,在埃及较早进入高等教育大众化阶段的同时,其高等教育系统也面临着许多严重的问题与挑战,如高等教育中央集权管理体制与大学自治的矛盾,以世俗教育和宗教教育为中心的双轨教育体制所带来的不平等和混乱等.针对其高等教育的历史与现状,埃及政府坚持实施教育兴国的现代化发展战略,积极探索应对之道,努力摆脱困境.但如何使教育和经济社会协调发展,依然是摆在埃及政府面前的一道难题.

  20. Trends and changes in the system of higher education in the United States for African-Americans and Hispanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattie Golubov

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Using a wide variety of statistical sources, particularly those created by government agencies in the United States of America (USA, this article offers a descriptive overview of the insertion of ethnic and racial minorities in the USA higher education system. This process illustrates more profound and general changes within USA society, which have a specific though not exclusive origin in the social transformations that began in the 1960’s and were consolidated in the 1970’s. These changes gave rise to a new polítical, social and cultural space for African-Americans, who waged a powerful battle to gain political and civil rights, which were then extended to the Hispanic population.

  1. The influence of the digital divide on face preferences in El Salvador: people without internet access prefer more feminine men, more masculine women, and women with higher adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batres, Carlota; Perrett, David I

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on face preferences have found that online and laboratory experiments yield similar results with samples from developed countries, where the majority of the population has internet access. No study has yet explored whether the same holds true in developing countries, where the majority of the population does not have internet access. This gap in the literature has become increasingly important given that several online studies are now using cross-country comparisons. We therefore sought to determine if an online sample is representative of the population in the developing country of El Salvador. In studies of Hispanic men and women aged 18-25, we tested facial masculinity and adiposity preferences by collecting data in person as well as online. Our results showed that there were no differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access, whether they were tested online or in person. This provides evidence that testing style does not bias preferences among the same population. On the other hand, our results showed multiple differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access and people who reported not having internet access. More specifically, we found that people without internet access preferred more feminine men, more masculine women, and women with higher adiposity than people with internet access. We also found that people without internet access had fewer resources (e.g. running water) than people with internet access, suggesting that harshness in the environment may be influencing face preferences. These findings suggest that online studies may provide a distorted perspective of the populations in developing countries.

  2. The influence of the digital divide on face preferences in El Salvador: people without internet access prefer more feminine men, more masculine women, and women with higher adiposity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlota Batres

    Full Text Available Previous studies on face preferences have found that online and laboratory experiments yield similar results with samples from developed countries, where the majority of the population has internet access. No study has yet explored whether the same holds true in developing countries, where the majority of the population does not have internet access. This gap in the literature has become increasingly important given that several online studies are now using cross-country comparisons. We therefore sought to determine if an online sample is representative of the population in the developing country of El Salvador. In studies of Hispanic men and women aged 18-25, we tested facial masculinity and adiposity preferences by collecting data in person as well as online. Our results showed that there were no differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access, whether they were tested online or in person. This provides evidence that testing style does not bias preferences among the same population. On the other hand, our results showed multiple differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access and people who reported not having internet access. More specifically, we found that people without internet access preferred more feminine men, more masculine women, and women with higher adiposity than people with internet access. We also found that people without internet access had fewer resources (e.g. running water than people with internet access, suggesting that harshness in the environment may be influencing face preferences. These findings suggest that online studies may provide a distorted perspective of the populations in developing countries.

  3. La educación superior frente a las tendencias sociales del contexto Higher education, facing the social tendencies of the context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Enrique Escorcia Caballero

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo se constituye en elemento importante para reflexionar y problematizar los procesos curriculares en la educación superior, a la luz de las grandes tendencias de la sociedad contemporánea y los retos y desafíos planteados para la educación en el mundo globalizado, competitivo, dinámico y cambiante. En este sentido, se presentan las principales tendencias educativas desarrolladas a partir de los proyectos internacionales, Tuning y 6X4 UEALC, y, a nivel nacional, el proyecto de modernización curricular y los procesos de formación basada en competencias, internacionalización del currículo, pertinencia curricular y de la formación en la educación superior, en el marco de una visión integral de la persona humana. Así mismo, se plantean algunas propuestas de desarrollo curricular basadas en competencias, el papel del docente y la incidencia de este modelo de formación en el desarrollo humano de la sociedad.This article comprises important elements to reflect and discuss about the different curricular processes in higher education facing the current tendencies of contemporary society and the challenges proposed for education in a globalised, competitive, dynamic and ever-changing world. Following these principles new educative tendencies have been introduced taking into consideration some international projects: Tuning, and 6x4 UEALC and at a national level, the project of curricular modernization, the processes based on competences, the internationalization of the curriculum, curricular pertinence and the educative processes in higher education framed in an integral vision of the human being. Correspondingly, some proposals for curricular development based on competences, the role of the teacher, and the relevance of this model of education in the human development of society are presented.

  4. Mexican Americans in Higher Education: Cultural Adaptation and Marginalization as Predictors of College Persistence Intentions and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Lizette; Castillo, Linda G.; Rosales Meza, Rocío; Piña-Watson, Brandy

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how college persistence intentions and life satisfaction influenced by acculturation, enculturation, White marginalization, and Mexican American marginalization among 515 Mexican American college students. The utility of a path analysis model was supported. Enculturation positively predicted persistence and life satisfaction.…

  5. The Continuing Significance of Racism in the Lives of Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Museus, Samuel D.; Park, Julie J.

    2015-01-01

    Asian Americans are one of the most misunderstood populations in higher education, and more research on this population is warranted. In this investigation, authors sought to understand the range of ways that Asian American students experience racism on a daily basis in college. They analyzed data from 46 individual, face-to-face qualitative…

  6. Pathways to success in science: A phenomenological study, examining the life experiences of African-American women in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giscombe, Claudette Leanora

    This study is a qualitative investigation in which five African American women science faculty, in higher education, within the age range of 45--60, were the participants. The data that was collected, over twelve months, was primarily obtained from the in-depth phenomenological interviewing method (Seidman, 1991). The interpretation of the data was the result of ongoing cross analysis of the participants' life experiences, perceptions, and beliefs of the how they navigated and negotiated pathways to careers in the natural sciences, and the meanings they attach to these experiences. The software Ethnograph (V5.0) was used to organize the participants' responses into patterns and emergent themes. The Black women in this study articulated several themes that were critical determinants of their successes and achievements in science careers. From the analysis of the data set, four major findings were identified: (1) "Black Intentional Communities" acted as social agencies for the positive development of the participants; (2) "My World Reality" which was described by the participants as their acceptance of their segregated worlds, not being victims of inequities and injustices, but being resilient and determined to forge on to early academic successes. Early academic successes were identified as precursors and external motivational stimuli to their interests and achievements in science; (3) Their experiences of "Tensions and Double Consciousness" from race and gender negative images and career stereotypes, required the women to make "intra-cultural deviations" from stereotypic career roles and to develop "pragmatic coping strategies" to achieve in science careers and; (4) "Meaning-making"---Significant to the meaning of their journey was the fact that the participants grounded their experiences in a social context rather than in a scientific context and that they ended their journey with expressions of personal satisfactions about their journey and their unique drive and

  7. California Agribusiness Representatives' Perceptions of the North American Free Trade Agreement with Implications for Globalizing Academic Programs in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, M.

    1997-01-01

    A majority of 56 California agribusiness representatives surveyed were optimistic about the short-term impact of the North American Free Trade Act on agriculture. They remained concerned about trade barriers with Mexico, where little business was being conducted as yet. (SK)

  8. Student Satisfaction with Canadian Music Programmes: The Application of the American Customer Satisfaction Model in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serenko, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to empirically investigate several antecedents and consequences of student satisfaction (SS) with Canadian university music programmes as well as to measure students' level of programme satisfaction. For this, the American Customer Satisfaction Model was tested through a survey of 276 current Canadian music students.…

  9. Student Satisfaction with Canadian Music Programmes: The Application of the American Customer Satisfaction Model in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serenko, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to empirically investigate several antecedents and consequences of student satisfaction (SS) with Canadian university music programmes as well as to measure students' level of programme satisfaction. For this, the American Customer Satisfaction Model was tested through a survey of 276 current Canadian music students.…

  10. Do Expenditures Other Than Instructional Expenditures Affect Graduation and Persistence Rates in American Higher Education. NBER Working Paper No. 15216

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Douglas A.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2009-01-01

    During the last two decades, median instructional spending per full-time equivalent (FTE) student at American 4-year colleges and universities has grown at a slower rate than median spending per FTE student in a number of other expenditure categories including academic support, student services and research. Our paper uses institutional level…

  11. The Evaluation Mechanism of Entrepreneurship in American Higher Education%美国高校创业教育的评价机制探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何洋

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship education is one of the important subjects in American higher education , whose emerged results makes entrepreneurship education accumulated rich experience .Evaluation of entrepreneurship ed-ucation is an effective management tool , which to implement it in American high education .This paper takes , the current situation of American entrepreneurship education as background , discusses the evaluation subjects and eval-uation content of entrepreneurship education and summarizes its characteristics and problems of American higher education .%创业教育是美国高校的重要教学科目之一,其成果的相继涌现使美国高校创业教育积累了丰富的经验。对创业教育的评价是将美国高校创业教育落到实处的有效管理手段。文章以美国高校创业教育的现状为背景,对美国高校创业教育的评价主体和评价内容展开论述,总结了美国高校创业教育评价的特点和问题。

  12. Facing Up to Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Elizabeth Kubler

    1972-01-01

    Doctor urges that Americans accept death as a part of life and suggests ways of helping dying patients and their families face reality calmly, with peace. Dying children and their siblings, as well as children's feelings about relatives' deaths, are also discussed. (PD)

  13. Facing Up to Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Elizabeth Kubler

    1972-01-01

    Doctor urges that Americans accept death as a part of life and suggests ways of helping dying patients and their families face reality calmly, with peace. Dying children and their siblings, as well as children's feelings about relatives' deaths, are also discussed. (PD)

  14. Face pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... begin in other places in the body. Abscessed tooth (ongoing throbbing pain on one side of the lower face that ... face, and aggravated by eating. Call a dentist. Pain is persistent, ... by other unexplained symptoms. Call your primary provider.

  15. Facing Diabetes: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Facing Diabetes: What You Need to Know Past Issues / Fall ... your loved ones. Photos: AP The Faces of Diabetes Diabetes strikes millions of Americans, young and old, ...

  16. La Politique audiovisuelle en Irlande et au Canada face à l’impérialisme culturel américain Broadcasting Policies in Ireland and Canada in Response to American Cultural Imperialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Slaby

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ireland and Canada face the common challenge of having to protect their cultural production which is a cornerstone of their national identity from American attempts at breaking down any barrier preventing the free circulation of goods and services, including culture. Canada—and especially Québec—has developed a tradition of loud and vocal opposition to what is perceived as American cultural imperialism. On the other hand, Ireland is less critical of the occupation of its audiovisual space by American productions on the strength of its historical ties with the United States. In Ireland, broadcasting comes under the control auspices of a government department which is not otherwise related to cultural issues. The ruling party Fianna Fáil has adopted a purely liberal approach to its national broadcaster, whereas, on the other side of the Atlantic, Canadian official discourse on the matter has grown closer to the European notion of a cultural exception or exemption in favour of culture in order to preserve the core of national identities in the face of globalization.

  17. Part-Time Students and Part-Time Study in Higher Education in the UK: Strand 2--A Survey of the Issues Facing Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorman, Susan; Brown, Nigel; Payne, Philip; Ramsden, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This is the report on part-time study in UK higher education institutions (HEIs) for Universities UK and GuildHE (previously SCOP) from Nigel Brown Associates. It forms Strand 2 of the wider research into part-time higher education commissioned by Universities UK and GuildHE using quantitative data not available from published sources and…

  18. Beyond mean-field dynamics of ultra-cold bosonic atoms in higher dimensions: facing the challenges with a multi-configurational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bolsinger, V; Schmelcher, P

    2016-01-01

    Exploring the impact of dimensionality on the quantum dynamics of interacting bosons in traps including particle correlations is an interesting but challenging task. Due to the different participating length scales the modelling of the short-range interactions in three dimensions plays a special role. We review different approaches for the latter and elaborate that for multi-configurational computational strategies finite range potentials are adequate resulting in the need of large grids to resolve the relevant length scales. This results in computational challenges which include also the exponential scaling of complexity with the number of atoms. We show that the recently developed ab-initio Multi-Layer Multi-Configurational Time- Dependent Hartee method for Bosons (ML-MCTDHB) [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 134103 (2013)] can face both numerical challenges and present an efficient numerical implementation of ML-MCTDHB in three spatial dimensions, particularly suited to describe the quantum dynamics for elongated traps...

  19. "Sisters of Nia": A Social Justice Advocacy Intervention for School Counselors in Their Work with Adolescent African American Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Lee Edmondson; Haizlip, Breyan; Rogers, Tiffany; Brown, Kimberly D.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent African American females face multiple obstacles that hinder their educational success. High school completion and college attendance rates remain lower for African American females than those for other racial and gender groups, while pregnancy rates for African American teens are higher. Group work holds promise for meeting the…

  20. THE ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN HIGHER EDUCATION: THE MULTIDISCIPLINARY CONTRIBUTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING FACE TO NEEDED FOR SUSTAINABILITY = A TEMÁTICA AMBIENTAL NO ENSINO SUPERIOR: A CONTRIBUIÇÃO MULTIDISCIPLINAR DA ENGENHARIA AMBIENTAL FACE À BUSCA PELA SUSTENTABILIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Cardoso de Souza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues began to be addressed by universities from the 60s, however, quite so departmentalized by traditional undergraduate courses. In the 90s there was an explosion of higher education courses related to that area with varied titles and assignments. The number of higher education courses in the environmental area increased from 284 in 2004 to 610 in 2011, particularly in the area of engineering interface with the environment. In this scenario, environmental engineering arises in 1992, based on the integration between some lines of research and, consequently, multidisciplinary cooperation. Thus, the present study aimed to examine the contribution of environmental engineering as an emerging science in the wake of the environmental crisis presents a literature review that part of the integration of environmental issues in higher education and contextualizes the contribution of environmental engineering from a global and national scene. Additionally, there was a survey from the National Institute for Educational Studies Teixeira (INEP in order to analyze the development of this area over the years. At the end of 2013, there was the record of 702 courses: undergraduate (351, technological (343 and sequential (8. = A questão ambiental começou a ser tratada pelas universidades a partir dos anos 1960, embora, de forma bastante departamentalizada por alguns cursos de graduação. Na década de 1990, houve uma verdadeira explosão de cursos superiores ligados à referida área, com as mais variadas titulações e atribuições. O número de cursos superiores na área ambiental elevou-se de 284 em 2004 para 610 em 2011, com destaque para a área das engenharias com interface em meio ambiente. Neste cenário, a engenharia ambiental surge em 1992, baseada na integração entre algumas linhas de pesquisa e, consequentemente, na necessidade de uma cooperação multidisciplinar. Desse modo, o presente trabalho, com o objetivo de analisar a

  1. Beyond mean-field dynamics of ultra-cold bosonic atoms in higher dimensions: facing the challenges with a multi-configurational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsinger, V. J.; Krönke, S.; Schmelcher, P.

    2017-02-01

    Exploring the impact of dimensionality on the quantum dynamics of interacting bosons in traps including particle correlations is an interesting but challenging task. Due to the different participating length scales, the modelling of the short-range interactions in three dimensions plays a special role. We review different approaches for the latter and elaborate that for multi-configurational computational strategies, finite-range potentials are adequate resulting in the need for large grids to resolve the relevant length scales. This results in computational challenges, which include the exponential scaling of complexity with the number of atoms. We show that the recently developed ab initio multi-layer multi-configurational time-dependent Hartee method for bosons (ML-MCTDHB) (2013 J. Chem. Phys. 139 134103) can face both numerical challenges and present an efficient numerical implementation of ML-MCTDHB in three spatial dimensions, particularly suited to describe the quantum dynamics for elongated traps. The beneficial scaling of our approach is demonstrated by studying the tunnelling dynamics of bosonic ensembles in a double well. Comparing three-dimensional with quasi-one dimensional simulations, we find dimensionality-induced effects in the density. Furthermore, we study the crossover from weak transversal confinement, where a mean-field description of the system is sufficient, towards tight transversal confinement, where particle correlations and beyond mean-field effects are pronounced.

  2. Creating the Connected Institution: Toward Realizing Benjamin Franklin and Ernest Boyer's Revolutionary Vision for American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkavy, Ira

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Ira Harkavy points to the beliefs that education and schooling significantly determine the character of a society, and that higher education has broad societal impacts, including helping to shape the rest of the schooling system. It is this core idea that unites the work of Benjamin Franklin and Ernest Boyer and serves as the…

  3. Fondness and Frustration: The Impact of American Higher Education on Foreign Students with Special Reference to the Case of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Craufurd D.; Nacht, Michael

    The effects of U.S. higher education on foreign students from Brazil were investigated in 1982. Attention was directed to: changes in attitudes toward the U.S. and Brazilian economies, and especially economic relations with the United States; ongoing ties of foreign alumni to the United States and to the colleges attended; and the impact of…

  4. Class, Capital, and Competing Academic Discourse: A Critical Analysis of the Mission/s of American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, Amy Elizabeth; Reeves, Todd D.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we critically analyze institutional mission statements as discursive texts replete with symbolic meaning, as we believe these texts reveal a great deal about the ways in which higher education remains increasingly stratified. We argue that beneath the generalized rhetoric of institutional mission statements, lie powerful messages…

  5. Challenges to Affirmative Action Race Conscious College Admissions Policies Affecting the Affordability of Higher Education for African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sky Lark, Taj'ullah

    2012-01-01

    The instability of the U.S. economy and its competitiveness in the global market has lead to increase request for investment in Higher Education programs. There exists a rising awareness among scholars of how inextricably education is tied to the strength of the economy, the well being of its populace, as well as the importance of a diversified…

  6. The diverse strategies of american electricity companies in the face of de-monopolization of the electricity market; La diversite des strategies des entreprises electriques americaines face a la liberalisation du marche electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finon, D.; Serrato, G. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France). Institut d' Economie et de Politique de l' Energie, IEPE

    2000-01-01

    The electricity boards in the United States of America have adopted new strategies clearly influenced by anterior regulations and by de-monopolization. Numerous mergers are only the most spectacular of these strategies, enabling the start-up handicap of size in face of new competition to be surmounted, and offering the advantage of bringing together the supply of gas and electricity. Two principal means of adaptation for the gas and electricity boards are their development in non-regulated production (equipment sharing, setting up of merchant plants), and their involvement in bulk trade and competitive retail sales; moreover some choose to specialize in electronuclear production on transport. Lastly, internationalization and diversification towards telecommunications are more frequent there than elsewhere. The purpose of this article is to characterize these strategies in comparison with those of the European electricity companies.

  7. Can Face-to-Face Mobilization Boost Student Voter Turnout? Results of a Campus Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David; Lachelier, Paul

    2014-01-01

    American colleges and universities have an expanding role to play in nurturing political engagement as more youth attend college. Given low voter turnout among college students yet growing experimental evidence that face-to-face mobilization can boost turnout, the experiment reported in this article examined the impact of a face-to-face college…

  8. Accreditation of Prior Experiential Learning in higher education: A European-North American comparison based on the French-Mexican cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Yves Sanséau

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors examine the specificity of a new process for obtaining qualifications in a French higher education, based on the recognition of professional experience (APEL or VAE in French and the potential of its replication to other countries Firstly, the purpose focuses on the pertinence of the notion of "competence" in accreditation of prior (experiential learning (AP(EL. Although APEL approaches in the French higher education system tend to lean toward the notion of "knowledge", it appears that an approach structured by competences and based on specific frames of reference, offers great potential. Secondly, the question of the replication of APEL process in the North American context is raised with a study of the Mexican case. If educational systems of both countries don't differ much, it appears that the transfer of the APEL process could be hazardous considering the cultural and social contexts and the difficulties associated to foreign educational transfers.

  9. LULAC v. Richards: The Class Action Lawsuit That Prompted the South Texas Border Initiative and Enhanced Access to Higher Education for Mexican Americans Living along the South Texas Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortegon, Ricardo Ray

    2014-01-01

    This case study examined the trials and tribulations a predominantly Mexican-American community in South Texas went through to obtain higher education opportunities for its residents. This study focuses on the "LULAC v. Richards" lawsuit and the South Texas Border Initiative. In 1987, the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational…

  10. Do First Generation Immigrant Adolescents Face Higher Rates of Bullying, Violence and Suicidal Behaviours Than Do Third Generation and Native Born?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottie, Kevin; Dahal, Govinda; Georgiades, Katholiki; Premji, Kamila; Hassan, Ghayda

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a systematic review to examine first generation immigrant adolescents' likelihood of experiencing bullying, violence, and suicidal behaviours compared to their later-generation and native born counterparts, and to identify factors that may underlie these risks. Eighteen studies met full inclusion criteria. First generation immigrant adolescents experience higher rate of bullying and peer aggression compared to third generation and native counterparts. Refugee status and advanced parental age were associated with increased parent to child aggression among South East Asians. Family cohesion was associated with lower rates of violence. Suicidal ideation was lower across most immigrant adolescents' ethnicities, with the exception of Turkish and South Asian Surinamese female adolescents in the Netherlands. Bullying and peer aggression of immigrant children and adolescents and potential mitigating factors such as family cohesion warrant research and program attention by policymakers, teachers and parents.

  11. 美国高等教育层次结构变迁及影响因素分析%Hierarchical Structural Changes in American Higher Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩梦洁

    2014-01-01

    高等教育层次结构是指授予高等教育学位(学历)层次及其对应的机构组成。美国内战前高等教育结构只是体现为以古典教育为主并授予学士学位的学院特征,内战后才逐渐出现了授予硕士乃至博士学位的现代研究型大学,世纪之交美国又产生了授予副学士学位的初级学院,至此美国高等教育系统基本形成了可以授予副学士、学士、硕士和博士学位的层次结构特征,为二战后高等教育的规模扩张与质量提升提供了结构框架与制度保障。在市场、政府与高校三因素作用下,美国高等教育层次结构变迁是从政府不干涉主义的自由市场模式发展到政府宏观调控下的理性市场模式。%The hierarchical structure of higher education system refers to the organization of institutions that confer degrees of different levels ,such as doctoral ,master’s ,bachelor’s and associate degree .Before the Civil War ,American higher education system is only composed by the undergraduate colleges .After the Civil War , a complicated hierarchical structure emerges in American higher education system with the rise of Land-grant colleges ,modern universities and community colleges .Under the influences of the market ,government and ac-ademic institutions ,the hierarchical structure of American higher education has changed from a free-market model without interference of government to a rational market with macro-regulation of the government .

  12. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Skip to Content Menu Closed (Tap to Open) Home Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All ... What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search ...

  13. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All Videos PTSD Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? ... Watch Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All Videos Learn More PTSD Basics PTSD Treatment What ...

  14. B lymphocyte stimulator levels in systemic lupus erythematosus: higher circulating levels in African American patients and increased production after influenza vaccination in patients with low baseline levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterhouse, Lauren L; Crowe, Sherry R; Niewold, Timothy B; Merrill, Joan T; Roberts, Virginia C; Dedeke, Amy B; Neas, Barbara R; Thompson, Linda F; Guthridge, Joel M; James, Judith A

    2011-12-01

    To examine the relationship between circulating B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) levels and humoral responses to influenza vaccination in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, as well as the effect of vaccination on BLyS levels, and to investigate clinical and serologic features of SLE that are associated with elevated BLyS levels. Clinical history, disease activity measurements, and blood specimens were collected from 60 SLE patients at baseline and after influenza vaccination. Sera were tested for BLyS levels, lupus-associated autoantibodies, serum interferon-α (IFNα) activity, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), and humoral responses to influenza vaccination. Thirty percent of the SLE patients had elevated BLyS levels, with African American patients having higher BLyS levels than white patients (P = 0.006). Baseline BLyS levels in patients were not correlated with humoral responses to influenza vaccination (P = 0.863), and BLyS levels increased postvaccination only in the subset of patients with BLyS levels in the lowest quartile (P = 0.0003). Elevated BLyS levels were associated with increased disease activity, as measured by the SLE Disease Activity Index, physician's global assessment, and Systemic Lupus Activity Measure in white patients (P = 0.035, P = 0.016, and P = 0.018, respectively), but not in African Americans. Elevated BLyS levels were also associated with anti-nuclear RNP (P = 0.0003) and decreased 25(OH)D (P = 0.018). Serum IFNα activity was a significant predictor of elevated BLyS in a multivariate analysis (P = 0.002). Our findings indicate that African American patients with SLE have higher BLyS levels regardless of disease activity. Humoral response to influenza vaccination is not correlated with baseline BLyS levels in SLE patients, and only those patients with low baseline BLyS levels demonstrate an increased BLyS response after vaccination. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  15. Face Forward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Last November, surgeons in France successfully performed the world's first face transplant surgery. Ten days later, Chen Huanran in Beijing began soliciting patients who were ready to accept a face transplant, searching for China's first such patient through an advertisement on his website and other channels. Chen, chief orthopedic surgeon at the Plastic Surgery Hospital under the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, has conducted more than 300 transsexual operations and was considered one of the top com...

  16. Support and Service System in American Higher Education for the Deaf%美国聋人高等教育支持与服务体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁毅光

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the support and service system of America high education for the deaf, this paper analyzes the ways of offering the deaf guarantee for accepting higher education by American society and providing support and service system for the deaf's learning at school by America higher education, hoping to give references for support and service system of China's higher education system for the deaf, and providing theoretical and practical references for constructing and perfecting higher education support and service system for the deaf in our country.%以美国聋人高等教育支持服务体系为切入点,分析了美国社会如何为聋人接受高等教育提供保障及美国高等教育对聋人在校学习的支持与服务方式,旨在对我国聋人高等教育的支持服务体系有所借鉴,为构建和完善我国聋人高等教育支持服务体系提供理论和实践参考。

  17. A Problematic Family Reunion of a Chinese-American in China: Issues of Face Abstract: As one of the heated topics in the intercultural communication studies, face issues have aroused world-wide attention in the academic field. This paper analyses thr...%ract: As one of the heated topics in the intercultural communication studies, face issues have aroused world-wide attention in the academic field. This paper analyses three critical incidents based on two face theories proposed by Brown and Levinson ...

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹凤琴

    2012-01-01

    As one of the heated topics in the intercultural communication studies, face issues have aroused world-wide attention in the academic field. This paper analyses three critical incidents based on two face theories proposed by Brown and Levinson (1987) and Ting-Toomey and Kurogi(1998) respectively. Lastly, by focusing on the relationship between the rapport-threatening behavior and the face, this paper intends to cultivate our awareness of face and highlight the harmonious interpersonal relationship between different cultures.

  18. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In these videos, Veterans, family members, and ... to hear what they have to say. What is PTSD? → How does PTSD affect loved ones? → Am ...

  19. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... traumatic event — like combat, an assault, or a disaster — it's normal to feel scared, keyed up, or sad at first. But if it's been months or years since the trauma and you're not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In ...

  20. Decentralization and Shared Governance of American Higher Education%美国高等教育的分权与共治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左崇良; 胡劲松

    2013-01-01

    The decentralization and shared governance are the features of American higher education management. The decentralization has four presentations: echelon decentralization, level decentralization, form decentralization and type decentralization. The shared governance of the higher education can be divided into four types: the macroscopic, microscopic shared governance, cross and flexible shared governance. Through scientific and rational distribution of power and responsibility, it has reached the interest balance of multi-parties achieved the goal of multicultural shared governance, guaranteed the quality of higher education, enhanced the flexibility and adaptability of higher education system.%美国高等教育管理的特色是分权与共治。其高等教育分权具有四种呈现方式:梯次分权、水平分权、形式分权和类型分权。其高等教育共治按照权力交织的特点可分为宏观共治、微观共治、交叉共治和弹性共治。通过科学合理的权力分配和责任分担,美国高等教育达成了多元利益主体的平衡,实现了多元共治的目标,保障了高等教育质量,增强了高等学校的灵活性和适应性。

  1. Academic Advising Based on Diversity Student Demands in American Higher Institutions%美国高校基于学生多样性的学业指导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋春燕

    2015-01-01

    Student diversity is one of the most important characteristics of American higher education , which includes race and ethnic group,international students,student with disabilities,adult students,LGBT student,student athletes. Student diversity demands multiple advising. Based on the multiple needs, multiple and individual advising is delivered in American colleges and universities. Targeted strategies are used, which include creating school environment to support the diversity, providing multiculture education and so on. Full range of academic advising is contributed to promoting students to develop academic and career well and obtain success.%学生多样性是美国高等教育多样性的主要表现之一.基于人口统计意义上的美国高校学生多样性具体包括少数民族和种族学生、国际学生、残疾学生、成人学生、性取向不同学生、学生运动员等.多样性的学生必然有多元的学业指导需求.美国高校根据多样性学生的特点和多元指导需求,采取多种具有针对性的学业指导策略,创造支持多样性的校园环境,实行多元文化教育,提供全方位、多形式和个性化的学业指导帮助,促进学生的学业和生涯发展,使学生最终成为一个成功的学习者.

  2. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova

    It has long been argued that perceptual processing of faces and words is largely independent, highly specialised and strongly lateralised. Studies of patients with either pure alexia or prosopagnosia have strongly contributed to this view. The aim of our study was to investigate how visual...

  3. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova

    performed within normal range on at least one test of visual categorisation, strongly suggesting that their abnormal performance with words and faces does not represent a generalised visuo-perceptual deficit. Our results suggest that posterior areas in both hemispheres may be critical for both reading...

  4. The Many Faces of the Still-Face Paradigm: A Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesman, Judi; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2009-01-01

    The Still-Face Paradigm (SFP) designed by Tronick, Als, Adamson, Wise, and Brazelton (Tronick, E., Als, H., Adamson, L., Wise, S., & Brazelton, T. B. (1978). Infants response to entrapment between contradictory messages in face-to-face interaction. "Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 17", 1-13) has been used for…

  5. The Many Faces of the Still-Face Paradigm: A Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesman, Judi; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2009-01-01

    The Still-Face Paradigm (SFP) designed by Tronick, Als, Adamson, Wise, and Brazelton (Tronick, E., Als, H., Adamson, L., Wise, S., & Brazelton, T. B. (1978). Infants response to entrapment between contradictory messages in face-to-face interaction. "Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 17", 1-13) has been used for…

  6. Risky food safety behaviors are associated with higher BMI and lower healthy eating self-efficacy and intentions among African American churchgoers in Baltimore [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Anderson Steeves

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are an estimated 9.4 million cases of foodborne illness each year. Consumers have a key role in preventing foodborne illness, but differences in the practice of food safety behaviors exist, increasing risk for certain groups in the population. Identifying groups who are more likely to practice risky food safety behaviors can assist in development of interventions to reduce the disease burden of foodborne illnesses. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships of health indicators and psychosocial factors with self-reported food safety behaviors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data were collected via questionnaire from 153 African Americans who attend churches in Baltimore City. Individuals reported high overall concern with food safety (mean score: 0.80±0.49 on a scale of -1 to +1 and practiced food safety behaviors with moderate overall frequency (mean score: 5.26±4.01 on a scale of -12 to +12, with considerable variation in reported frequencies depending on the food safety behavior. After adjusting for demographic variables, food safety behaviors were significantly associated with BMI and psychosocial variables. Riskier food safety behaviors were associated with higher body mass index (BMI (β = -0.141 95%CI (-0.237, -0.044, p = 0.004. Self-efficacy for healthy eating (standard β [std. β] = 0.250, p = 0.005 and healthy eating intentions (std. β = 0.178, p = 0.041 were associated with better food safety behaviors scores. CONCLUSIONS: These results show important relationships between weight-related health indicators, psychosocial factors and food safety behaviors that have not previously been studied. Interventions tailored to higher-risk populations have the potential to reduce the burden of food-related illnesses. Additional studies are needed to further investigate these relationships with larger and more diverse samples.

  7. Professional Development of Continuing Higher Education Unit Leaders: A Need for a Competency-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacheler, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of professional development experiences on the career competencies of continuing higher education unit leaders (CHEULs). In the American system of higher education, a CHEUL manages an administrative unit that offers educational programs to adult learners (Cranton, 1996). To face the challenges…

  8. Face Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackinney-Valentin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Through five cases from high-end fashion brands, this article explores the use of models in contemporary fashion marketing. The models represent subversive beauty ideals, and the aim of the analysis is to determine whether these ‘faces’ are intended to challenge stereotypes concerning age, gender......, body and sexuality or whether they are examples of marketing absorbing consumer behaviour to appeal to contemporary consumers. The research is based on fashion campaigns and runway shows in mainly luxury fashion brands in the Euro-American market in the period 2009–2012. The article concludes...

  9. FACE RECOGNITION FROM FRONT-VIEW FACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuLifang; ShenLansun

    2003-01-01

    This letter presents a face normalization algorithm based on 2-D face model to rec-ognize faces with variant postures from front-view face.A 2-D face mesh model can be extracted from faces with rotation to left or right and the corresponding front-view mesh model can be estimated according to facial symmetry.Then based on the relationship between the two mesh models,the nrmalized front-view face is formed by gray level mapping.Finally,the face recognition will be finished based on Principal Component Analysis(PCA).Experiments show that better face recognition performance is achieved in this way.

  10. FACE RECOGNITION FROM FRONT-VIEW FACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Lifang; Shen Lansun

    2003-01-01

    This letter presents a face normalization algorithm based on 2-D face model to recognize faces with variant postures from front-view face. A 2-D face mesh model can be extracted from faces with rotation to left or right and the corresponding front-view mesh model can be estimated according to the facial symmetry. Then based on the inner relationship between the two mesh models, the normalized front-view face is formed by gray level mapping. Finally, the face recognition will be finished based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Experiments show that better face recognition performance is achieved in this way.

  11. Pharmacologic Treatment of Hypertension in Adults Aged 60 Years or Older to Higher Versus Lower Blood Pressure Targets: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American College of Physicians and the American Academy of Family Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaseem, Amir; Wilt, Timothy J; Rich, Robert; Humphrey, Linda L; Frost, Jennifer; Forciea, Mary Ann

    2017-03-21

    The American College of Physicians (ACP) and the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) jointly developed this guideline to present the evidence and provide clinical recommendations based on the benefits and harms of higher versus lower blood pressure targets for the treatment of hypertension in adults aged 60 years or older. This guideline is based on a systematic review of published randomized, controlled trials for primary outcomes and observational studies for harms only (identified through EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, and ClinicalTrials.gov), from database inception through January 2015. The MEDLINE search was updated through September 2016. Evaluated outcomes included all-cause mortality, morbidity and mortality related to stroke, major cardiac events (fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death), and harms. This guideline grades the evidence and recommendations using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) method. The target audience for this guideline includes all clinicians, and the target patient population includes all adults aged 60 years or older with hypertension. ACP and AAFP recommend that clinicians initiate treatment in adults aged 60 years or older with systolic blood pressure persistently at or above 150 mm Hg to achieve a target systolic blood pressure of less than 150 mm Hg to reduce the risk for mortality, stroke, and cardiac events. (Grade: strong recommendation, high-quality evidence). ACP and AAFP recommend that clinicians select the treatment goals for adults aged 60 years or older based on a periodic discussion of the benefits and harms of specific blood pressure targets with the patient. ACP and AAFP recommend that clinicians consider initiating or intensifying pharmacologic treatment in adults aged 60 years or older with a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack to achieve a target systolic blood pressure of less than 140 mm Hg to

  12. An Analysis of the Face Issues in The Wedding Banquet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yan-ni

    2015-01-01

    After a review of current studies both home&abroad about face issue, the thesis analyzes the face issues in the movie The Wedding Banquet from four perspectives with face theory to show the different degrees of concern, understanding, and views of face between Chinese and American.

  13. Famous face recognition, face matching, and extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Karen; Poyarekar, Siddhi

    2015-01-01

    It has been previously established that extraverts who are skilled at interpersonal interaction perform significantly better than introverts on a face-specific recognition memory task. In our experiment we further investigate the relationship between extraversion and face recognition, focusing on famous face recognition and face matching. Results indicate that more extraverted individuals perform significantly better on an upright famous face recognition task and show significantly larger face inversion effects. However, our results did not find an effect of extraversion on face matching or inverted famous face recognition.

  14. Face-to-face: Perceived personal relevance amplifies face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublatzky, Florian; Pittig, Andre; Schupp, Harald T; Alpers, Georg W

    2017-05-01

    The human face conveys emotional and social information, but it is not well understood how these two aspects influence face perception. In order to model a group situation, two faces displaying happy, neutral or angry expressions were presented. Importantly, faces were either facing the observer, or they were presented in profile view directed towards, or looking away from each other. In Experiment 1 (n = 64), face pairs were rated regarding perceived relevance, wish-to-interact, and displayed interactivity, as well as valence and arousal. All variables revealed main effects of facial expression (emotional > neutral), face orientation (facing observer > towards > away) and interactions showed that evaluation of emotional faces strongly varies with their orientation. Experiment 2 (n = 33) examined the temporal dynamics of perceptual-attentional processing of these face constellations with event-related potentials. Processing of emotional and neutral faces differed significantly in N170 amplitudes, early posterior negativity (EPN), and sustained positive potentials. Importantly, selective emotional face processing varied as a function of face orientation, indicating early emotion-specific (N170, EPN) and late threat-specific effects (LPP, sustained positivity). Taken together, perceived personal relevance to the observer-conveyed by facial expression and face direction-amplifies emotional face processing within triadic group situations. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Dermatologic Features of Classic Movie Villains: The Face of Evil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croley, Julie Amthor; Reese, Vail; Wagner, Richard F

    2017-06-01

    Dichotomous dermatologic depictions of heroes and villains in movies have been used since the silent film age. To evaluate the hero-villain skin dichotomy in film by (1) identifying dermatologic findings of the all-time top 10 American film villains, (2) comparing these dermatologic findings to the all-time top 10 American film heroes quantitatively and qualitatively, and (3) analyzing dermatologic portrayals of film villains in depth. In this cross-sectional study, dermatologic findings for film heroes and villains in mainstream media were identified and compared quantitatively using a χ2 test with α dermatologic findings of the top 10 film villains and of the top 10 film heroes. Six (60%) of the all-time top 10 American film villains have dermatologic findings, including cosmetically significant alopecia (30%), periorbital hyperpigmentation (30%), deep rhytides on the face (20%), multiple facial scars (20%), verruca vulgaris on the face (20%), and rhinophyma (10%). The top 10 villains have a higher incidence of significant dermatologic findings than the top 10 heroes (60% vs 0%; P = .03). Dermatologic findings of the all-time top 10 American villains are used in film to highlight the dichotomy of good and evil, which may foster a tendency toward prejudice in our society directed at those with skin disease.

  16. Face to Face or E-Learning in Turkish EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Ekrem; Cakir, Recep

    2014-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to understand e-learners and face to face learners' views towards learning English through e-learning in vocational higher school context and to determine the role of academic achievement and gender in e-learning and face to face learning. This study was conducted at a state-run university in 2012-2013 academic year…

  17. AMERICAN HIGHER EDUCATION AND THE "COLLEGIATE WAY OF LIVING"%美国高等教育和“学院制生活”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert O' Hara; 田阳(翻译)

    2011-01-01

    Institutions of higher education in the United States are remarkably diverse in their educational purposes,their organizational structure,and their architectural styles.But underlying all this diversity are two distinct historical models:the decentralized British "collegiate" model of university education,and the centralized Germanic university model.Early American higher education grew out of the British collegiate tradition and emphasized the comprehensive development of students' intellect and character,while the Germanic university tradition,introduced in the late 1800s,shifted the focus to technical scholarship and research.The Germanic university model held sway for much of the twentieth century,but there is now a widespread renewal of interest in the older decentralized British collegiate model,and in universities across the United States and around the world,small "residential colleges" like those at Oxford and Cambridge are now being planned and built.These residential colleges or "houses" (as they are sometimes called) provide small,stable,faculty-led,home-like environments for a few hundred students each,and their social and architectural design seeks to counteract the impersonal bureaucratic experience that students often have in large Germanic-style universities.This revival of the collegiate model of university organization is one of the most important trends in the design of educational communities in the world today.%美国高等教育机构就其教育宗旨、组织结构和建筑风格而言,具有可观的多样性。但是,在所有多样性的背后,有两个鲜明的传统模式:去中心化的英国学院制模式和中心化的德国大学模式。早期美国高等教育缘自于英国学院制传统,强调学生智力性格的综合培养。而19世纪后期引入的德国大学传统,将大学的关注点转移到技术性的学术研究。尽管德国大学模式在20世纪的大部分时间具有支配地位,但

  18. Mercantilização do ensino superior: os desafios da universidade diante do atual cenário educacional = The commodification of higher education: the challenges of university education in face of the present scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Bechi

    2011-01-01

    education from the process of globalization, urbanization, the prevalence of knowledge and internationalization of education. With the passage from the “society of work” to the “knowledge society”, influenced by the development of information technology, started in the mid-twentieth century, knowledge has become a highly marketable commodity. Since then, higher education majors began to be created from the perspective of the market. The opening of the educational market got support in the 1990s, after the implementation of neoliberal educational policies. These initiatives have provided a significant increase in the number of private or private/ commercial HEIs. By understanding this new dynamic that shapes the contemporary world and the influence of public policies in education, this work presents the consequences of the process of commodification of higher education and the challenges faced by universities.

  19. Learning to Discriminate Face Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although visual feature leaning has been well studied, we still know little about the mechanisms of perceptual learning of complex object. Here, human perceptual learning in discrimination of in-depth orientation of face view was studied using psychophysics, EEG and fMRI. We trained subjects to discriminate face orientations around a face view (i.e. 30° over eight daily sessions, which resulted in a significant improvement in sensitivity to the face view orientation. This improved sensitivity was highly specific to the trained orientation and persisted up to six months. Different from perceptual learning of simple visual features, this orientation-specific learning effect could completely transfer across changes in face size, visual field and face identity. A complete transfer also occurred between two partial face images that were mutually exclusive but constituted a complete face. However, the transfer of the learning effect between upright and inverted faces and between a face and a paperclip object was very weak. Before and after training, we measured EEG and fMRI BOLD signals responding to both the trained and the untrained face views. Analyses of ERPs and induced gamma activity showed that face view discrimination training led to a larger reduction of N170 latency at the left occipital-temporal area and a concurrent larger decrease of induced gamma activity at the left frontal area with the trained face view, compared with the untrained ones. BOLD signal amplitude and MVPA analyses showed that, in face-selective cortical areas, training did not lead to a significant amplitude change, but induced a more reliable spatial pattern of neural activity in the left FFA. These results suggest that the visual system had learned how to compute face orientation from face configural information more accurately and that a large amount of plastic changes took place at a level of higher visual processing where size-, location-, and identity

  20. 院校分层与学生隔离:美国高等教育不公平现象剖析%Stratification in Higher Education and Students' Segregation: An Analysis of the Unjust Phenomenon in American Higher Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟景迅

    2012-01-01

    In recent years,many American scholars have pointed out that the stratification in higher education and the students' segregation and their inter-penetration had become an important feature of the unfair phenomena in the American higher education field.The disparity of achieving higher education opportunity,specially the disparity of achieving high quality higher education among different races,social classes,and to some extent different students' gender,is one of the most unjust phenomena in American higher education.In the process of China's higher education massification,we should pay close attention to the unfair phenomena in the American higher education and its change characteristics.%近年来许多美国学者的研究均指出,院校分层和学生隔离及其相互渗透已成为美国高等教育领域不公平现象的重要特征。基于不同种族、社会阶层,以及在某种程度上不同性别的学生在获得高等教育机会,尤其是在获得优质高等教育机会上存在着差别,是美国高等教育中存在的最不公平的现象之一。在我国高等教育日益大众化的今天,美国高等教育中存在的不公平现象及其变化特征值得我们关注和重视。

  1. The improved relative entropy for face recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qi Rong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative entropy is least sensitive to noise. In this paper, we propose the improved relative entropy for face recognition (IRE. The IRE method of recognition rate is far higher than the LDA, LPP method, by experimental results on CMU PIE face database and YALE B face database.

  2. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  3. Reflections and Inspirations on Chinese Higher Education:Experience of Reading "American Higher Education" by ;Hutchins%对我国高等教育的反思和启示--读赫钦斯《美国高等教育》有感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莉

    2014-01-01

    The book "American Higher Educaiton" by Hutchins is a criticism of the status quo of American higher education in the first half of the 20th century. Reading it carefully, the writer is profoundly inspired. It seems that the problems of American higher education at that time are equivalent to those of Chinese higher education at the present stage, which arouses the writer's reflections on Chinese higher education.%赫钦斯的《美国高等教育。一书是对20世纪上半叶美国高等教育现状的一种批判,今天细细读来,依旧发人深省,似乎当时美国高等教育中出现的问题对应了现阶段我国高等教育出现的弊端,让笔者不禁对我国高等教育产生了反思。

  4. European cinema: face to face with Hollywood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Elsaesser

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different debate

  5. Mapping Teacher-Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Deleuze and Guattari's concept of faciality to analyse the teacher's face. According to Deleuze and Guattari, the teacher-face is a special type of face because it is an "overcoded" face produced in specific landscapes. This paper suggests four limit-faces for teacher faciality that actualise different mixes of significance and…

  6. "Speak to the eyes, as well as the understanding": The pedagogy of science in Early American higher education, 1750--1830

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicher, Nicholas

    This dissertation describes the teaching methods and educational philosophies of natural philosophy instructors at several of the colleges in colonial and early national North America. It finds two distinct approaches: the demonstrative, in which the instructor centers the course on visually engaging lecture-demonstrations, and the catechetical, in which the course objective is to master a set of facts and definitions through memorization and repetition. The roots of the demonstrative approach lay in the culture of public lecture-demonstrations that emerged in western Europe during the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment. The catechism, while having a much longer history as a religious teaching tool, gained new currency in the period through the concern for moral education. Ultimately, both approaches were intimately tied to European Enlightenment ideas about the place of science in the public sphere and the means by which the human mind learns new information. Individual schools, and even individual instructors, had great discretion in choosing which approach, or combination of approaches, to use. Instructors could present lecture-demonstrations as part of the social training of students, who as citizens would be expected to attend lectures and participate in scientifically-informed discussion. Catechetical lessons, however, would be more useful to instructors who favored keeping natural philosophy similar in appearance to other subjects. The catechism, with its systematic presentation and familiar format, was more readily adapted to examinations. Two instructors in particular---William Smith and John Ewing, both at the University of Pennsylvania---serve as exemplars of the demonstrative and catechetical methods, respectively. The recognition of these two approaches, and the larger recognition of the prominence of natural philosophy in the North American curriculum, has implications for the received narratives of both early American science and early American

  7. Carbon-Type Analysis and Comparison of Original and Reblended FACE Diesel Fuels (FACE 2, FACE 4, and FACE 7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.; O' Hagan, Molly J.

    2012-10-01

    This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel blends, FD-2B, FD 4B, and FD-7B, and makes comparison of the new blends with the original FACE diesel blends, FD 2A, FD 4A, and FD-7A, respectively. Generally, FD-2A and FD-2B are more similar than the A and B blends of FD-4 and FD-7. The aromatic carbon content is roughly equivalent, although the new FACE blends have decreased monoaromatic content and increased di- and tri-cycloaromatic content, as well as a higher overall aromatic content, than the original FACE blends. The aromatic components of the new FACE blends generally have a higher alkyl substitution with longer alkyl substituents. The naphthenic and paraffinic contents remained relatively consistent. Based on aliphatic methyl and methylene carbon ratios, cetane numbers for FD-2A and -2B, and FD-7A and -7B are predicted to be consistent, while the cetane number for FD-4B is predicted to be higher than FD-4A. Overall, the new FACE fuel blends are fairly consistent with the original FACE fuel blends, but there are observable differences. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information on reformulated FACE diesel blends, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of the team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in the use of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

  8. India's Higher Education Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream universities…

  9. India's Higher Education Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream universities…

  10. Family Involvement in Current American Higher education:Context,Impact and Institutional Strategies%当代美国高等教育发展中的家庭参与:背景、影响及领导力策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨启光

    2015-01-01

    自20世纪80年代至今,由于美国“千禧代”大学生人口特质变化与家庭结构关系的变迁、高等教育的社会角色转型以及现代网络信息通信技术发展等社会因素的综合作用,美国家庭参与到大学校园的现象呈现日益增长的态势,使高等院校与家庭的关系面临一种新的文化转型。家庭参与在促进大学生身心健康发展、获得可靠的学术成功、确保平等的高等教育机会以及推进高等教育管理变革等方面发挥了积极影响。美国高等院校正重塑家庭参与的院校精神与管理哲学,提供家庭参与的专业支持,优化与完善家庭参与项目,不断主动强化院校的家长领导力策略建设。%Since the 1980s,there has been a growing family involvement in American higher edu-cation.This is the combined result of the following factors:(a)the demographic changes in“Millen-nium Generation”college students;(b)transformation of family structures;(c)the new social role of higher education and (d)the development of modern information and communication technologies. The relationship between the higher education institution and the family is facing a new cultural trans-formation.Family involvement in higher education has contributed to the academic success of college students,obtaining reliable and equal educational opportunity and promoting the reform of higher ed-ucation management.American higher education institutions are reshaping the ethos and philosophy of their management by providing professional support for family involvement and improving different parental programs services so as to strengthen the institutional leadership.

  11. Covert Face Recognition without Prosopagnosia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Ellis

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment is reported where subjects were presented with familiar or unfamiliar faces for supraliminal durations or for durations individually assessed as being below the threshold for recognition. Their electrodermal responses to each stimulus were measured and the results showed higher peak amplitude skin conductance responses for familiar than for unfamiliar faces, regardless of whether they had been displayed supraliminally or subliminally. A parallel is drawn between elevated skin conductance responses to subliminal stimuli and findings of covert recognition of familiar faces in prosopagnosic patients, some of whom show increased electrodermal activity (EDA to previously familiar faces. The supraliminal presentation data also served to replicate similar work by Tranel et al (1985. The results are considered alongside other data indicating the relation between non-conscious, “automatic” aspects of normal visual information processing and abilities which can be found to be preserved without awareness after brain injury.

  12. Panel workload assessment in US primary care: accounting for non-face-to-face panel management activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Brian; Tuan, Wen-Jan; White, Jennifer; Schumacher, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    activities in primary care. The non-face-to-face workload was an important contributor to overall PCP workload for all patients regardless of overall health status. This is an important consideration for PCP workload assessment given the changing nature of primary care that requires more non-face-to-face effort, resulting in an overall increase in PCP workload. © Copyright 2014 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  13. Face-Lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Face-lift By Mayo Clinic Staff A face-lift (rhytidectomy) is a cosmetic surgical procedure to improve the look of your face and neck. During a face-lift, facial soft tissues are lifted, excess skin is ...

  14. Increased N250 amplitudes for other-race faces reflect more effortful processing at the individual level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzmann, Grit

    2016-07-01

    The N250 and N250r (r for repetition, signaling a difference measure of priming) has been proposed to reflect the activation of perceptual memory representations for individual faces. Increased N250r and N250 amplitudes have been associated with higher levels of familiarity and expertise, respectively. In contrast to these observations, the N250 amplitude has been found to be larger for other-race than own-race faces in recognition memory tasks. This study investigated if these findings were due to increased identity-specific processing demands for other-race relative to own-race faces and whether or not similar results would be obtained for the N250 in a repetition priming paradigm. Only Caucasian participants were available for testing and completed two tasks with Caucasian, African-American, and Chinese faces. In a repetition priming task, participants decided whether or not sequentially presented faces were of the same identity (individuation task) or same race (categorization task). Increased N250 amplitudes were found for African-American and Chinese faces relative to Caucasian faces, replicating previous results in recognition memory tasks. Contrary to the expectation that increased N250 amplitudes for other-race face would be confined to the individuation task, both tasks showed similar results. This could be due to the fact that face identity information needed to be maintained across the sequential presentation of prime and target in both tasks. Increased N250 amplitudes for other-race faces are taken to represent increased neural demands on the identity-specific processing of other-race faces, which are typically processed less holistically and less on the level of the individual.

  15. Robust Face Image Matching under Illumination Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chyuan-Huei Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Face image matching is an essential step for face recognition and face verification. It is difficult to achieve robust face matching under various image acquisition conditions. In this paper, a novel face image matching algorithm robust against illumination variations is proposed. The proposed image matching algorithm is motivated by the characteristics of high image gradient along the face contours. We define a new consistency measure as the inner product between two normalized gradient vectors at the corresponding locations in two images. The normalized gradient is obtained by dividing the computed gradient vector by the corresponding locally maximal gradient magnitude. Then we compute the average consistency measures for all pairs of the corresponding face contour pixels to be the robust matching measure between two face images. To alleviate the problem due to shadow and intensity saturation, we introduce an intensity weighting function for each individual consistency measure to form a weighted average of the consistency measure. This robust consistency measure is further extended to integrate multiple face images of the same person captured under different illumination conditions, thus making our robust face matching algorithm. Experimental results of applying the proposed face image matching algorithm on some well-known face datasets are given in comparison with some existing face recognition methods. The results show that the proposed algorithm consistently outperforms other methods and achieves higher than 93% recognition rate with three reference images for different datasets under different lighting conditions.

  16. Human faces are slower than chimpanzee faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Burrows

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While humans (like other primates communicate with facial expressions, the evolution of speech added a new function to the facial muscles (facial expression muscles. The evolution of speech required the development of a coordinated action between visual (movement of the lips and auditory signals in a rhythmic fashion to produce "visemes" (visual movements of the lips that correspond to specific sounds. Visemes depend upon facial muscles to regulate shape of the lips, which themselves act as speech articulators. This movement necessitates a more controlled, sustained muscle contraction than that produced during spontaneous facial expressions which occur rapidly and last only a short period of time. Recently, it was found that human tongue musculature contains a higher proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers than in rhesus macaques, which is related to the slower, more controlled movements of the human tongue in the production of speech. Are there similar unique, evolutionary physiologic biases found in human facial musculature related to the evolution of speech? METHODOLOGY/PRINICIPAL FINDINGS: Using myosin immunohistochemistry, we tested the hypothesis that human facial musculature has a higher percentage of slow-twitch myosin fibers relative to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. We sampled the orbicularis oris and zygomaticus major muscles from three cadavers of each species and compared proportions of fiber-types. Results confirmed our hypothesis: humans had the highest proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers while chimpanzees had the highest proportion of fast-twitch fibers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that the human face is slower than that of rhesus macaques and our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. They also support the assertion that human facial musculature and speech co-evolved. Further, these results suggest a unique set of evolutionary selective pressures on

  17. "The Higher the Satellite, the Lower the Culture"? African American Studies in East-Central and Southeastern Europe: The Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Antoszek

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the current position of African American studies in Poland, with Poland serving as an exemplar of similar changes taking place in other countries of East-Central and Southeastern Europe. In doing so, the paper highlights the nature of cultural representations or appropriations of blackness outside the United States, which, removed from their roots, start living their own independent lives. The omnipresence of hip-hop, basketball, and, to a lesser extent, black movies and literature has a direct influence on many cultures in which blackness is assigned a superior status. The foundations of this elevated position are often sustained by popular culture's hunger for the new and flashy, which grants the new forms a very peculiar and simulacral character. However, the paper recognizes that the far-reaching appeal of many black voices would likely be impossible without the aid of global channels of communication. The paper also examines a number of examples of black culture translated into and appropriated by various indigenous productions. It does so not only to show the somewhat naïve and even humorous aspects of many such "trans-nations" but also to demonstrate black culture's inspiring role for various local voices.

  18. "The Higher the Satellite, the Lower the Culture"? African American Studies in East-Central and Southeastern Europe: The Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Antoszek

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper examines the current position of African American studies in Poland, with Poland serving as an exemplar of similar changes taking place in other countries of East-Central and Southeastern Europe. In doing so, the paper highlights the nature of cultural representations or appropriations of blackness outside the United States, which, removed from their roots, start living their own independent lives. The omnipresence of hip-hop, basketball, and, to a lesser extent, black movies and literature has a direct influence on many cultures in which blackness is assigned a superior status. The foundations of this elevated position are often sustained by popular culture's hunger for the new and flashy, which grants the new forms a very peculiar and simulacral character. However, the paper recognizes that the far-reaching appeal of many black voices would likely be impossible without the aid of global channels of communication. The paper also examines a number of examples of black culture translated into and appropriated by various indigenous productions. It does so not only to show the somewhat naïve and even humorous aspects of many such "trans-nations" but also to demonstrate black culture's inspiring role for various local voices.

  19. 英美文化在高职英语教学中的运用研究%Application of British and American culture in higher vocational English teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕾蕾

    2015-01-01

    文章通过对英美文化教学的含义和作用的阐述,认为应该把英美文化教学渗透到高职院校的英语教学中,并阐述了几点做法:即正确了解英美文化价值取向、适当运用视频资料、注重师生的交流互动以及定期邀请专家讲授英美文化。%Through the meaning and function of British and American culture teaching, the author thinks that we should put the culture teaching into English teaching in higher vocational colleges and some practices are also discussed:understanding the British and American cultural value orientation, the proper use of video data, paying attention to the interaction between teachers and students and regularly inviting some experts to teach British and American culture.

  20. Higher Education in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeao, Jose Raymundo Martins

    2003-01-01

    Presents an analysis of, and proposals for, international cooperation in higher education. Focuses on Latin American higher education, its current situation, and the expected transformation of the goals of higher education in the context of international cooperation. Describes the challenges that globalization poses to Latin American higher…

  1. Farming Chicago: Prospects for Higher Education Support of Sustainable Urban Food Systems in the U.S. Heartland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosing, Howard; Block, Daniel R.

    2017-01-01

    The article highlights recent food policies in Chicago with the goal of exploring how higher education institutions can contribute to development of sustainable food resources for residents of North American cities. Thousands of Chicago residents face daily challenges accessing fresh food due to income constraints and/or lack of proximity to food…

  2. Reimagining Christian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, E. Eileen; Groom, David E., Jr.; Heltzel, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The challenges facing higher education continue to mount. The shifting of the U.S. ethnic and racial demographics, the proliferation of advanced digital technologies and data, and the move from traditional degrees to continuous learning platforms have created an unstable environment to which Christian higher education must adapt in order to remain…

  3. Higher Education in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Higher education enhances Californians' lives and contributes to the state's economic growth. But population and education trends suggest that California is facing a large shortfall of college graduates. Addressing this short­fall will require strong gains for groups that have been historically under­represented in higher education. Substantial…

  4. 英美高等教育应对财政危机的异同与启示%Similarities and Differences between British and American Higher Education in Response to Financial Crisis and their Enlightenment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕蒙蒙

    2015-01-01

    Global financial crisis has a profound impact on the reformation and development of higher education in countries around the world. In the case of less government funding on higher education, both Britain and the United States have taken positive measures according to their national circumstances, and have widened the financial channels for higher education in response to the challenges of the financial crisis. These effective measures have not only alleviated the Britain and the United States financial dilem-ma of higher education, but also expanded the sources of higher education finance and maintained their status as world-class higher ed-ucation. Comparing the similarities and differences between British and American higher education in response to the financial crisis can provide a reference and inspiration to Chinese higher education which based on national conditions.%全球性的经济危机对世界各国高等教育的改革与发展都产生了深刻的影响.在政府减少对高等教育拨款的情况下,英美两国都根据各国国情采取了积极的措施,拓宽高等教育的筹资渠道,应对财政危机的挑战.这些卓有成效的举措,既缓解了英美高等教育财政困境,又拓宽了高等教育的财政来源,维持了其世界一流大学的地位.比较英美高等教育应对财政危机的异同,对我国高等教育依据国情办学与治理提供了借鉴与启示.

  5. About (above) a face - a face

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This text intents to unfold some considerations regardind the perception of the image of the Lóri’s face, from the book Uma aprendizagem ou o livro dos prazeres, published by Clarice Lispector in 1969. For that, will be studied the politicians devices who involve the apprehension of the face as a qualifying of the subject and, at the same time, its relation with the lenguage.

  6. About (above a face - a face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Cervelin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This text intents to unfold some considerations regardind the perception of the image of the Lóri’s face, from the book Uma aprendizagem ou o livro dos prazeres, published by Clarice Lispector in 1969. For that, will be studied the politicians devices who involve the apprehension of the face as a qualifying of the subject and, at the same time, its relation with the lenguage.

  7. A survey of real face modeling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyue; Dai, Yugang; He, Xiangzhen; Wan, Fucheng

    2017-09-01

    The face model has always been a research challenge in computer graphics, which involves the coordination of multiple organs in faces. This article explained two kinds of face modeling method which is based on the data driven and based on parameter control, analyzed its content and background, summarized their advantages and disadvantages, and concluded muscle model which is based on the anatomy of the principle has higher veracity and easy to drive.

  8. A Comparison of Learning Outcomes in Skills-Based Courses: Online versus Face-to-Face Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Ronda Roberts; Love, Mary Sue

    2016-01-01

    In comparing the learning outcomes of online versus face-to-face courses, skills-based forms of instruction have received little attention. This study asks the question "Can skills-based courses taught online achieve the same outcomes as face-to-face courses in which the instructor and students interacting in real time may have higher levels…

  9. Arab American Women Negotiating Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Oraib

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the literature available on other ethnic groups in the United States, there is very little information about school experiences of Arab Americans (Nieto, 2003). This study examines the ways that Arab American women reported positioning themselves when faced with difficult situations related to stereotypical images of Arabs and Arab…

  10. 美国高校法务会计教育现状考察%Study on Current Forensic Accounting in American Higher Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秧秧

    2012-01-01

    The investigation and litigation services provided by forensic accounting are two key complements to traditional auditing.In order to cultivate qualified professionals,the forensic accounting education in U.S.colleges have evolved from offering one single curriculum to various types of certificate or degree education.The model curriculum in fraud and forensic accounting offered by West Virginia University has accumulated plenty of experience,and can provide valuable insights to higher education of forensic accounting.%法务会计提供的调查与诉讼服务构成对传统审计的重要补充。为了培养合格的法务会计人才,美国高校法务会计教育已从单一课程设置向学历与学位教育等多类型系统范式演进。西弗吉尼亚大学主持的全美欺诈与法务会计课程标准化运动积累了丰富经验,可为法务会计高等教育的发展提供借鉴。

  11. 美国大学战略管理发展及启示——读《大学战略与规划:美国高等教育管理革命》%Development and Revelation of American Strategic Management of Universities——Reading the Book "Academic Strategy: the Management Revolution in American Higher Education"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雄鹰

    2011-01-01

    American higher education has been into a dilemma of development in the 1980s.However,in the process of dealing with the dilemma,American universities and academies successfully introduce the strategic management into higher education,and explore the successful experience of university implementing the strategic management,which is imitated by universities of countries in the world.Through reading a book of American strategic management of universities,we know the developing process and characteristics of American strategic management of universities,which contributes to knowing the essence of strategic management and researching the current strategic management of universities in China.%美国高等教育在20世纪80年代陷入发展困境,但就是在应对困境的过程中,美国大学和学院成功地将战略管理引用到高等教育领域,探索出了大学实施战略管理的成功经验,被世界各国大学效仿。通过读美国大学战略管理方面的著作,了解美国大学战略管理的发展历程及特点,有助于我们了解战略管理的实质,也有助于研究我国当前的大学战略管理。

  12. The composite face illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jennifer; Gray, Katie L H; Cook, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Few findings in cognitive science have proved as influential as the composite face effect. When the top half of one face is aligned with the bottom half of another, and presented upright, the resulting composite arrangement induces a compelling percept of a novel facial configuration. Findings obtained using composite face procedures have contributed significantly to our understanding of holistic face processing, the detrimental effects of face inversion, the development of face perception, and aberrant face perception in clinical populations. Composite paradigms continue to advance our knowledge of face perception, as exemplified by their recent use for investigating the perceptual mechanisms underlying dynamic face processing. However, the paradigm has been the subject of intense scrutiny, particularly over the last decade, and there is a growing sense that the composite face illusion, whilst easy to illustrate, is deceptively difficult to measure and interpret. In this review, we provide a focussed overview of the existing composite face literature, and identify six priorities for future research. Addressing these gaps in our knowledge will aid the evaluation and refinement of theoretical accounts of the illusion.

  13. The higher prevalence of truncal obesity and diabetes in American than Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C might contribute to more rapid progression to advanced liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, H; Wu, E; Fu, S; Yang, M; Feng, B; Lin, A; Fei, R; Fontana, R J; Lok, A S; Wei, L

    2017-08-22

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the leading cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the United States (US) and an emerging cause in China. To compare the clinical characteristics of hepatitis C patients in the US and China, and factors influencing disease stage. Prospective study of 2 cohorts of HCV patients recruited at 1 site in the US and 3 sites in China. Standardised questionnaire on risk factors and medical history were used and diagnosis of cirrhosis and HCC was based on pre-defined criteria. One thousand nine hundred and fifty seven patients (1000 US and 957 China) were enrolled. US patients were more likely to be men (61.4% vs 48.5%), older (median age 57 vs 53 years), obese (38.4% vs 16.8%) and diabetic (21.8% vs 10.8%). A significantly higher per cent of US patients had cirrhosis (38.2% vs 16.0%) and HCC (14.1% vs 2.7%). Investigator estimated time at infection in US was 10 years earlier than in Chinese patients but US patients were more likely to have advanced disease even after stratifying for duration of infection. Study site in the US, older age, truncal obesity, diabetes and prior HCV treatment were significant predictors of advanced disease on multivariate analysis. HCV patients in the US had more advanced liver disease than those in China. We speculate that underlying fatty liver disease may be a major contributor to this difference, and management of glycometabolic abnormalities should occur in parallel with anti-viral therapy to achieve optimal outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. 美国高校推动公民教育发展的策略及启示%The Promotion on Civic Education of American Higher Education and Its Enlightenment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘香东

    2011-01-01

    美国高校公民教育在历史上曾经走过一段弯路,现今通过在高校教育理念、课程与教学改革、公民教育研究上的不断推动,美国高校正在重新恢复其公民教育的使命。借鉴美国高校公民教育的发展策略,将对我国高校公民教育发展带来有益的启发。%American higher education had walked the wrong path on civic education in the history. Today they promote civic education through new education idea,reformation of cumculum and teaching,and more research. Their strategy will bring helpful inspiration for

  15. Increasing Reading Engagement in African American Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husband, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written concerning the challenges many teachers face in engaging African American males in reading practices. While much of this extant scholarship focuses on African American males at the pre-adolescent stage of development and beyond, little has been written regarding increasing reading engagement in African American boys in P-5…

  16. Oracle ADF Faces cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gawish, Amr

    2014-01-01

    This is a cookbook that covers more than 80 different recipes to teach you about different aspects of Oracle ADF Faces. It follows a practical approach and covers how to build your components for reuse in different applications. This book will also help you in tuning the performance of your ADF Faces application. If you are an ADF developer who wants to harness the power of Oracle ADF Faces to create exceptional user interfaces and reactive applications, this book will provide you with the recipes needed to do just that. You will not need to be familiar with Oracle ADF Faces, but you should be

  17. American Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜

    2008-01-01

    It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.

  18. Generalization of affective learning about faces to perceptually similar faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verosky, Sara C; Todorov, Alexander

    2010-06-01

    Different individuals have different (and different-looking) significant others, friends, and foes. The objective of this study was to investigate whether these social face environments can shape individual face preferences. First, participants learned to associate faces with positive, neutral, or negative behaviors. Then, they evaluated morphs combining novel faces with the learned faces. The morphs (65% and 80% novel faces) were within the categorical boundary of the novel faces: They were perceived as those faces in a preliminary study. Moreover, a second preliminary study showed that following the learning, the morphs' categorization as similar to the learned faces was indistinguishable from the categorization of actual novel faces. Nevertheless, in the main experiment, participants evaluated morphs of "positive" faces more positively than morphs of "negative" faces. This learning generalization effect increased as a function of the similarity of the novel faces to the learned faces. The findings suggest that general learning mechanisms based on similarity can account for idiosyncratic face preferences.

  19. Social judgments from faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Alexander; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Dotsch, Ron

    2013-06-01

    People make rapid and consequential social judgments from minimal (non-emotional) facial cues. There has been rapid progress in identifying the perceptual basis of these judgments using data-driven, computational models. In contrast, our understanding of the neural underpinnings of these judgments is rather limited. Meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies find a wide range of seemingly inconsistent responses in the amygdala that co-vary with social judgments from faces. Guided by computational models of social judgments, these responses can be accounted by positing that the amygdala (and posterior face selective regions) tracks face typicality. Atypical faces, whether positively or negatively evaluated, elicit stronger responses in the amygdala. We conclude with the promise of data-driven methods for modeling neural responses to social judgments from faces.

  20. The Asian-American variant of human papillomavirus type 16 exhibits higher activation of MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, transformation, migration and invasion of primary human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochmann, Jimena; Sobrinho, João S; Villa, Luisa L; Sichero, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Asian-American (AA) HPV-16 variants are associated with higher risk of cancer. Abnormal activation of intracellular signaling play a critical role in cancer development and progression. Our aim was to elucidate mechanisms underlying the higher oncogenic potential attributed to AA variant. We evaluated activation of MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways in primary human keratinocytes (PHKs) transduced with E6/E7 of three HPV-16 variants: E-P, AA, E-350G. Phenotypes examined included migration, anchorage independent growth and invasion. AA PHKs presented the highest levels of active proteins involved in all cascades analyzed: MAPK-ERK, MAPK-p38 and PI3K-AKT. AA PHKs were more efficient in promoting anchorage independent growth, and in stimulating cell migration and invasion. MEK1 inhibition decreased migration. The mesenchymal phenotype marker vimentin was increased in AA PHKs. Our results suggest that MEK1, ERK2, AKT2 hyperactivation influence cellular behavior by means of GSK-3b inactivation and EMT induction prompting AA immortalized PHKs to more efficiently surpass carcinogenesis steps.

  1. Appearance is a function of the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Gregory L; Rankin, Marlene K

    2010-03-01

    Increasingly, third-party insurers deny coverage to patients with posttraumatic and congenital facial deformities because these are not seen as "functional." Recent facial transplants have demonstrated that severely deformed patients are willing to undergo potentially life-threatening surgery in search of a normal physiognomy. Scant quantitative research exists that objectively documents appearance as a primary "function" of the face. This study was designed to establish a population-based definition of the functions of the human face, rank importance of the face among various anatomical areas, and determine the risk value the average person places on a normal appearance. Voluntary adult subjects (n = 210) in three states aged 18 to 75 years were recruited using a quota sampling technique. Subjects completed study questionnaires of demography and bias using the Gamble Chance of Death Questionnaire and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The face ranked as the most important anatomical area for functional reconstruction. Appearance was the fifth most important function of the face, after breathing, sight, speech, and eating. Normal facial appearance was rated as very important for one to be a functioning member of American society (p = 0.01) by 49 percent. One in seven subjects (13 percent) would accept a 30 to 45 percent risk of death to obtain a "normal" face. Normal appearance is a primary function of the face, based on a large, culturally diverse population sample across the lifespan. Normal appearance ranks above smell and expression as a function. Restoration of facial appearance is ranked the most important anatomical area for repair. Normal facial appearance is very important for one to be a functional member of American society.

  2. Childhood fever management program for Korean pediatric nurses: A comparison between blended and face-to-face learning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yong Sun; Kim, Jin Sun

    2014-01-01

    A blended learning can be a useful learning strategy to improve the quality of fever and fever management education for pediatric nurses. This study compared the effects of a blended and face-to-face learning program on pediatric nurses' childhood fever management, using theory of planned behavior. A nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. A fever management education program using blended learning (combining face-to-face and online learning components) was offered to 30 pediatric nurses, and 29 pediatric nurses received face-to-face education. Learning outcomes did not significantly differ between the two groups. However, learners' satisfaction was higher for the blended learning program than the face-to-face learning program. A blended learning pediatric fever management program was as effective as a traditional face-to-face learning program. Therefore, a blended learning pediatric fever management-learning program could be a useful and flexible learning method for pediatric nurses.

  3. Handbook of Face Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Stan Z

    2011-01-01

    This highly anticipated new edition provides a comprehensive account of face recognition research and technology, spanning the full range of topics needed for designing operational face recognition systems. After a thorough introductory chapter, each of the following chapters focus on a specific topic, reviewing background information, up-to-date techniques, and recent results, as well as offering challenges and future directions. Features: fully updated, revised and expanded, covering the entire spectrum of concepts, methods, and algorithms for automated face detection and recognition systems

  4. Face Search at Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dayong; Otto, Charles; Jain, Anil K

    2016-06-20

    rsons of interest among the billions of shared photos on these websites. Despite significant progress in face recognition, searching a large collection of unconstrained face images remains a difficult problem. To address this challenge, we propose a face search system which combines a fast search procedure, coupled with a state-of-the-art commercial off the shelf (COTS) matcher, in a cascaded framework. Given a probe face, we first filter the large gallery of photos to find the top-k most similar faces using features learned by a convolutional neural network. The k retrieved candidates are re-ranked by combining similarities based on deep features and those output by the COTS matcher. We evaluate the proposed face search system on a gallery containing 80 million web-downloaded face images. Experimental results demonstrate that while the deep features perform worse than the COTS matcher on a mugshot dataset (93.7% vs. 98.6% TAR@FAR of 0.01%), fusing the deep features with the COTS matcher improves the overall performance (99.5% TAR@FAR of 0.01%). This shows that the learned deep features provide complementary information over representations used in state-of-the-art face matchers. On the unconstrained face image benchmarks, the performance of the learned deep features is competitive with reported accuracies. LFW database: 98.20% accuracy under the standard protocol and 88.03% TAR@FAR of 0.1% under the BLUFR protocol; IJB-A benchmark: 51.0% TAR@FAR of 0.1% (verification), rank 1 retrieval of 82.2% (closed-set search), 61.5% FNIR@FAR of 1% (open-set search). The proposed face search system offers an excellent trade-off between accuracy and scalability on galleries with millions of images. Additionally, in a face search experiment involving photos of the Tsarnaev brothers, convicted of the Boston Marathon bombing, the proposed cascade face search system could find the younger brother's (Dzhokhar Tsarnaev) photo at rank 1 in 1 second on a 5M gallery and at rank 8 in 7

  5. Financing Public Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Walter

    1977-01-01

    Argues that, contrary to popular belief, the demand for higher education in the United States has not declined, and suggests that if such a decline does occur, it will be a result of social and political priorities, rather than a result of natural and inexorable forces. Available from: Secretary, The American Economic Association, 1313 21st…

  6. Unraveling Higher Education's Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gus; Charles, Maria

    1998-01-01

    The activity-based costing (ABC) method of analyzing institutional costs in higher education involves four procedures: determining the various discrete activities of the organization; calculating the cost of each; determining the cost drivers; tracing cost to the cost objective or consumer of each activity. Few American institutions have used the…

  7. Low dimensional representation of face space by face-selective inferior temporal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Sina; Dehaqani, Mohammad-Reza A; Esteky, Hossein

    2017-05-01

    The representation of visual objects in primate brain is distributed and multiple neurons are involved in encoding each object. One way to understand the neural basis of object representation is to estimate the number of neural dimensions that are needed for veridical representation of object categories. In this study, the characteristics of the match between physical-shape and neural representational spaces in monkey inferior temporal (IT) cortex were evaluated. Specifically, we examined how the number of neural dimensions, stimulus behavioral saliency and stimulus category selectivity of neurons affected the correlation between shape and neural representational spaces in IT cortex. Single-unit recordings from monkey IT cortex revealed that there was a significant match between face space and its neural representation at lower neural dimensions, whereas the optimal match for the non-face objects was observed at higher neural dimensions. There was a statistically significant match between the face and neural spaces only in the face-selective neurons, whereas a significant match was observed for non-face objects in all neurons regardless of their category selectivity. Interestingly, the face neurons showed a higher match for the non-face objects than for the faces at higher neural dimensions. The optimal representation of face space in the responses of the face neurons was a low dimensional map that emerged early (~150 ms post-stimulus onset) and was followed by a high dimensional and relatively late (~300 ms) map for the non-face stimuli. These results support a multiplexing function for the face neurons in the representation of very similar shape spaces, but with different dimensionality and timing scales. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Course design via Equivalency Theory supports equivalent student grades and satisfaction in online and face-to-face psychology classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eGarratt-Reed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been a recent rapid growth in the number of psychology courses offered online through institutions of higher education. The American Psychological Association (APA has highlighted the importance of ensuring the effectiveness of online psychology courses. Despite this, there have been inconsistent findings regarding student grades, satisfaction, and retention in online psychology units. Equivalency Theory posits that online and classroom-based learners will attain equivalent learning outcomes when equivalent learning experiences are provided. We present a case study of an online introductory psychology unit designed to provide equivalent learning experiences to the pre-existing face-to-face version of the unit. Academic performance, student feedback, and retention data from 866 Australian undergraduate psychology students were examined to assess whether the online unit produced comparable outcomes to the ‘traditional’ unit delivered face-to-face. Student grades did not significantly differ between modes of delivery, except for a group-work based assessment where online students performed more poorly. Student satisfaction was generally high in both modes of the unit, with group-work the key source of dissatisfaction in the online unit. The results provide partial support for Equivalency Theory. The group-work based assessment did not provide an equivalent learning experience for students in the online unit highlighting the need for further research to determine effective methods of engaging students in online group activities. Consistent with previous research, retention rates were significantly lower in the online unit, indicating the need to develop effective strategies to increase online retention rates. While this study demonstrates successes in presenting online students with an equivalent learning experience, we recommend that future research investigates means of successfully facilitating collaborative group-work assessment

  9. Grades, Student Satisfaction and Retention in Online and Face-to-Face Introductory Psychology Units: A Test of Equivalency Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt-Reed, David; Roberts, Lynne D.; Heritage, Brody

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent rapid growth in the number of psychology courses offered online through institutions of higher education. The American Psychological Association has highlighted the importance of ensuring the effectiveness of online psychology courses (Halonen et al., 2013). Despite this, there have been inconsistent findings regarding student grades, satisfaction, and retention in online psychology units. Equivalency Theory (Simonson, 1999; Simonson et al., 1999) posits that online and classroom-based learners will attain equivalent learning outcomes when equivalent learning experiences are provided. We present a study of an online introductory psychology unit designed to provide equivalent learning experiences to the pre-existing face-to-face version of the unit. Using quasi-experimental methods, academic performance, student feedback, and retention data from 866 Australian undergraduate psychology students were examined to assess whether the online unit developed to provide equivalent learning experiences produced comparable outcomes to the ‘traditional’ unit delivered face-to-face. Student grades did not significantly differ between modes of delivery, except for a group-work based assessment where online students performed more poorly. Student satisfaction was generally high in both modes of the unit, with group-work the key source of dissatisfaction in the online unit. The results provide partial support for Equivalency Theory. The group-work based assessment did not provide an equivalent learning experience for students in the online unit highlighting the need for further research to determine effective methods of engaging students in online group activities. Consistent with previous research, retention rates were significantly lower in the online unit, indicating the need to develop effective strategies to increase online retention rates. While this study demonstrates successes in presenting students with an equivalent learning experience, we

  10. Grades, Student Satisfaction and Retention in Online and Face-to-Face Introductory Psychology Units: A Test of Equivalency Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt-Reed, David; Roberts, Lynne D; Heritage, Brody

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent rapid growth in the number of psychology courses offered online through institutions of higher education. The American Psychological Association has highlighted the importance of ensuring the effectiveness of online psychology courses (Halonen et al., 2013). Despite this, there have been inconsistent findings regarding student grades, satisfaction, and retention in online psychology units. Equivalency Theory (Simonson, 1999; Simonson et al., 1999) posits that online and classroom-based learners will attain equivalent learning outcomes when equivalent learning experiences are provided. We present a study of an online introductory psychology unit designed to provide equivalent learning experiences to the pre-existing face-to-face version of the unit. Using quasi-experimental methods, academic performance, student feedback, and retention data from 866 Australian undergraduate psychology students were examined to assess whether the online unit developed to provide equivalent learning experiences produced comparable outcomes to the 'traditional' unit delivered face-to-face. Student grades did not significantly differ between modes of delivery, except for a group-work based assessment where online students performed more poorly. Student satisfaction was generally high in both modes of the unit, with group-work the key source of dissatisfaction in the online unit. The results provide partial support for Equivalency Theory. The group-work based assessment did not provide an equivalent learning experience for students in the online unit highlighting the need for further research to determine effective methods of engaging students in online group activities. Consistent with previous research, retention rates were significantly lower in the online unit, indicating the need to develop effective strategies to increase online retention rates. While this study demonstrates successes in presenting students with an equivalent learning experience, we

  11. ONLINE TRAINING FOR FACE RECOGNITION SYSTEM USING IMPROVED PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widodo Budiharto

    2011-11-01

    where the tested images are captured real-time from camera. Varying illumination in tested images will increase the accuracy using ITS face database which its accuracy is 95.5 %, higher than ATT face databases as 95.4% and Indian face databases as 72%. The results from this experiment are still evaluated to be improved in the future.

  12. Discipline behaviors of Chinese American and European American mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulei, Elaine; Zevenbergen, Andrea A; Jacobs, Sue C

    2006-09-01

    In any society, parenting beliefs are a reflection of that society's cultural values and traditions (J. U. Ogbu, 1981). Verbosity, a parenting behavior considered dysfunctional in European American culture, may not be problematic in Chinese culture. The authors recruited 31 Chinese American and 30 European American mothers and used questionnaires to measure parenting behaviors and child behavior problems. The Chinese American mothers also completed a questionnaire assessing their acculturation level. The Chinese American mothers had higher levels of verbosity than did the European American mothers; however, there were no differences between the groups in child behavior problems. The results also revealed higher levels of laxness in the Chinese American mothers compared to the European American mothers. Acculturation level did not predict verbosity or laxness levels. Results suggest that the effectiveness of a parenting style should be defined relative to cultural context.

  13. Comparison of face Recognition Algorithms on Dummy Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruni Singh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the age of rising crime face recognition is enormously important in the contexts of computer vision, psychology, surveillance, fraud detection, pattern recognition, neural network, content based video processing, etc. Face is a non intrusive strong biometrics for identification and hence criminals always try to hide their facial organs by different artificial means such as plastic surgery, disguise and dummy. The availability of a comprehensive face database is crucial to test the performance of these face recognition algorithms. However, while existing publicly-available face databases contain face images with a wide variety of poses, illumination, gestures and face occlusions but there is no dummy face database is available in public domain. The contributions of this research paper are: i Preparation of dummy face database of 110 subjects ii Comparison of some texture based, feature based and holistic face recognition algorithms on that dummy face database, iii Critical analysis of these types of algorithms on dummy face database.

  14. 美国大学服务学习对中国高等教育的启示%The Student Service-Based Learning Developed in American Universities and Its Inspiration for China Higher Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟可心

    2012-01-01

    摘要:美国大学除了具备教学和科研基础功能外,服务社会已成为其第三大核心功能。而在美国大学的服务学习作为一种教育方法,能够帮助和促进学生的学习和成长,在培养具有知识和技能、分析能力和合作水平以及社会责任感的合格公民方面发挥着重要的作用。美国大学服务学习对中国大学毕业生就业、课堂教学,以及对高等学校思想政治教育提供了借鉴作用和有益启示。%Abstract: In America, apart from basic teaching and research functions, service-based learning has become the third core function of its higher education. Service-based learning, as a method of teaching and learning can assist students with learning and promote their growth. Also, the service-based learning plays an important role in cultivating the eligible citizens with knowledge, skill, analytic ability, cooperative spirit and a sense of social responsibility. Moreover, the service-based learning developed in American universities is thought to be possessed of referable value for the current Chinese higher education reform and able to inspire the work done by the Chinese universities, such as graduate employment, classroom teaching, ideological and political education, etc.

  15. Is Face Distinctiveness Gender Based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Gallay, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to study the role of gender category in evaluations of face distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, participants had to evaluate the distinctiveness and the femininity-masculinity of real or artificial composite faces. The composite faces were created by blending either faces of the same gender (sexed composite faces,…

  16. Impaired face recognition is associated with social inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Suzanne N; VanDerKlok, Ross M; Heckers, Stephan; Blackford, Jennifer U

    2016-02-28

    Face recognition is fundamental to successful social interaction. Individuals with deficits in face recognition are likely to have social functioning impairments that may lead to heightened risk for social anxiety. A critical component of social interaction is how quickly a face is learned during initial exposure to a new individual. Here, we used a novel Repeated Faces task to assess how quickly memory for faces is established. Face recognition was measured over multiple exposures in 52 young adults ranging from low to high in social inhibition, a core dimension of social anxiety. High social inhibition was associated with a smaller slope of change in recognition memory over repeated face exposure, indicating participants with higher social inhibition showed smaller improvements in recognition memory after seeing faces multiple times. We propose that impaired face learning is an important mechanism underlying social inhibition and may contribute to, or maintain, social anxiety.

  17. An exploration into pedagogic frailty: Transitioning from face-to-face to online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Niculescu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pedagogic frailty and concept mapping can simultaneously encourage personal and organisational change by supporting critical reflection and resilience. These ideas are nascent within higher education institutions and currently, at the University of Surrey, are only developed through face-to-face sessions. This revealed the need for a scalable intervention which engages academics with the discourse on introspective and professional development practices. In response, we have created the design for a blended programme of online foundation for concept mapping leading to face-to-face workshops to explore the pedagogic frailty model. This paper will discuss some significant challenges arising from transitioning self-reflective practices from face-to-face to online spaces. In the process, we will consider ways in which learning design can take the learner context into account.

  18. Effectiveness of link prediction for face-to-face behavioral networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Tsugawa

    Full Text Available Research on link prediction for social networks has been actively pursued. In link prediction for a given social network obtained from time-windowed observation, new link formation in the network is predicted from the topology of the obtained network. In contrast, recent advances in sensing technology have made it possible to obtain face-to-face behavioral networks, which are social networks representing face-to-face interactions among people. However, the effectiveness of link prediction techniques for face-to-face behavioral networks has not yet been explored in depth. To clarify this point, here we investigate the accuracy of conventional link prediction techniques for networks obtained from the history of face-to-face interactions among participants at an academic conference. Our findings were (1 that conventional link prediction techniques predict new link formation with a precision of 0.30-0.45 and a recall of 0.10-0.20, (2 that prolonged observation of social networks often degrades the prediction accuracy, (3 that the proposed decaying weight method leads to higher prediction accuracy than can be achieved by observing all records of communication and simply using them unmodified, and (4 that the prediction accuracy for face-to-face behavioral networks is relatively high compared to that for non-social networks, but not as high as for other types of social networks.

  19. Urban America and Crucial Issues Facing Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert L.

    Today's university is an active, political force within our society which must actively commit its resources to the eradication of urban problems such as racism, poverty, health care, infant mortality, drug abuse, inferior housing, unemployment, education, transportation, and so on. First and foremost, the "white mask" of the university must be…

  20. Who Owns Higher Education? The Changing Face of Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazerson, Marvin

    1997-01-01

    Discusses activism among college and university trustees, characterized by assertion of authority in administrative matters, often in direct conflict with academic leaders. Suggests a parallel with investor capitalism, in which corporate owners may become active in organizational governance, and warns that constituent passivity in these…

  1. Teens with ADHD Face a Higher Crash Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health News on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Motor Vehicle Safety Teen Health Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Motor Vehicle Safety Teen Health About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer ...

  2. Alternatives to Suspending African American High School Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. KIRIAKIDIS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research site was one high school in the southern United States where African American males were suspended at greater rates than their counterparts. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the perspectives of high school administrators and teachers regarding alternatives to suspending African American males in one southern high school within a public school district. Guided by the social learning theory, the research question focused on the suspensions of these students. Data were collected through in-depth, semi structured, face-to-face interviews with a purposive sample of 6 high school teachers and 2 administrators, and coded and analyzed for emergent themes. The findings revealed that African American high school males might benefit from education programs such as character education programs to develop social, academic, and discipline skills. The findings of this study may be used for professional development for teachers and administrators regarding strategies to reduce suspensions of African American high school males, which might facilitate their graduation from high school and subsequent entry into higher education or the workforce.lications to display the level of psychological strain and workplace stressors among nurses as part of the postmodern organizational problems. Classification-JEL: A23

  3. Facing Aggression: Cues Differ for Female versus Male Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniole, Shawn N.; Keyes, Amanda E.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Carré, Justin M.; McCormick, Cheryl M.

    2012-01-01

    The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F1,36 = 7.43, p = 0.01). In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait) and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively) and masculinity (negatively) ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as “honest signals”. PMID:22276184

  4. Facing Sound - Voicing Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audienc......´s interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics and phenomenology and inspired by newer writings on sound, voice and listening....

  5. Conjunction Faces Alter Confidence-Accuracy Relations for Old Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinitz, Mark Tippens; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    The authors used a state-trace methodology to investigate the informational dimensions used to recognize old and conjunction faces (made by combining parts of separately studied faces). Participants in 3 experiments saw faces presented for 1 s each. They then received a recognition test; faces were presented for varying brief durations and…

  6. Pedagogical Characteristics of Online and Face-to-Face Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuensch, Karl; Aziz, Shahnaz; Ozan, Erol; Kishore, Masao; Tabrizi, M. H. Nassehzadeh

    2008-01-01

    Currently, many students have had experience with both face-to-face and online classes. We asked such students at 46 different universities in the United States to evaluate the pedagogical characteristics of their most recently completed face-to-face class and their most recently completed online class. The results show that students rate online…

  7. Bayesian Face Recognition and Perceptual Narrowing in Face-Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    During the first year of life, infants' face recognition abilities are subject to "perceptual narrowing", the end result of which is that observers lose the ability to distinguish previously discriminable faces (e.g. other-race faces) from one another. Perceptual narrowing has been reported for faces of different species and different races, in…

  8. Faces with light makeup are better recognized than faces with heavy makeup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko eTagai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many women wear facial makeup to accentuate their appeal and attractiveness. Makeup may vary from natural (light to glamorous (heavy, depending of the context of interpersonal situations, an emphasis on femininity, and current societal makeup trends. This study examined how light makeup and heavy makeup influenced attractiveness ratings and facial recognition. In a rating task, 38 Japanese women assigned attractiveness ratings to 36 Japanese female faces with no makeup, light makeup, and heavy makeup (12 each. In a subsequent recognition task, the participants were presented with 36 old and 36 new faces. Results indicated that attractiveness was rated highest for the light makeup faces and lowest for the no makeup faces. In contrast, recognition performance was higher for the no makeup and light make up faces than for the heavy makeup faces. Faces with heavy makeup produced a higher rate of false recognition than did other faces, possibly because heavy makeup creates an impression of the style of makeup itself, rather than the individual wearing the makeup. The present study suggests that light makeup is preferable to heavy makeup in that light makeup does not interfere with individual recognition and gives beholders positive impressions.

  9. Faces with Light Makeup Are Better Recognized than Faces with Heavy Makeup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagai, Keiko; Ohtaka, Hitomi; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Many women wear facial makeup to accentuate their appeal and attractiveness. Makeup may vary from natural (light) to glamorous (heavy), depending of the context of interpersonal situations, an emphasis on femininity, and current societal makeup trends. This study examined how light makeup and heavy makeup influenced attractiveness ratings and facial recognition. In a rating task, 38 Japanese women assigned attractiveness ratings to 36 Japanese female faces with no makeup, light makeup, and heavy makeup (12 each). In a subsequent recognition task, the participants were presented with 36 old and 36 new faces. Results indicated that attractiveness was rated highest for the light makeup faces and lowest for the no makeup faces. In contrast, recognition performance was higher for the no makeup and light make up faces than for the heavy makeup faces. Faces with heavy makeup produced a higher rate of false recognition than did other faces, possibly because heavy makeup creates an impression of the style of makeup itself, rather than the individual wearing the makeup. The present study suggests that light makeup is preferable to heavy makeup in that light makeup does not interfere with individual recognition and gives beholders positive impressions.

  10. LA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR CENTROAMERICANA EN CONTEXTO DE CONSTRUCCIÓN DE ESPACIOS COMUNES DEL CONOCIMIENTO (THE CENTRAL AMERICAN HIGHER EDUCATION IN CONTEXT OF CONSTRUCTION OF COMMON SPACES OF KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González García Yamileth

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El presente artículo ha sido elaborado como ponencia para el II Encuentro de Rectores de la Red de Universidades Iberoamericanas UNIVERSIA, realizado en Guadalajara, México, los días 31 de mayo y 1 de junio de 2010. Este es un artículo de investigación bibliográfica en torno a aspectos centrales de la educación superior centroamericana, en contexto de globalización y de sociedad del conocimiento, con apoyo igualmente en diversas fuentes teóricas. La investigación realizada se hizo con la finalidad de identificar los problemas, desafíos y oportunidades que la educación superior pública centroamericana tiene ante sí y que ha venido afrontando durante los últimos años. De igual manera, se identifican algunas de las principales acciones desplegadas por estas instituciones, en calidad de respuesta institucional e interinstitucional, a escala nacional y regional. Tras la elaboración del artículo, este fue abierto a debate mediante su colocación en la página Web de UNIVERSIA; debate en el cual participaron académicos de universidades de España y de distintos países de América Latina. Las valoraciones hechas por estas personas fueron tomadas en cuenta para la elaboración de la versión definitiva del artículo. Se concluye que la incorporación de las universidades públicas de Centroamérica a los espacios comunes del conocimiento, ahora en perspectiva de construcción extrarregional, requiere una heurística de relaciones interinstitucionales solidarias y basadas en la reciprocidad de iniciativas de colaboración conjunta.Abstract:This article has been prepared as a proposal for the II meeting of Rectors of the Latin American Universities UNIVERSIA, held in Guadalajara, Mexico, last May 31st and June 1st, 2010. It is a bibliographic research on the core aspects of the superior education in Central America, in the context of globalization and society knowledge, with the support as well of different theoretical sources

  11. Real Time Face Quality Assessment for Face Log Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal, Nasrollahi; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Summarizing a long surveillance video to just a few best quality face images of each subject, a face-log, is of great importance in surveillance systems. Face quality assessment is the back-bone for face log generation and improving the quality assessment makes the face logs more reliable....... Developing a real time face quality assessment system using the most important facial features and employing it for face logs generation are the concerns of this paper. Extensive tests using four databases are carried out to validate the usability of the system....

  12. Face recognition system and method using face pattern words and face pattern bytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2014-12-23

    The present invention provides a novel system and method for identifying individuals and for face recognition utilizing facial features for face identification. The system and method of the invention comprise creating facial features or face patterns called face pattern words and face pattern bytes for face identification. The invention also provides for pattern recognitions for identification other than face recognition. The invention further provides a means for identifying individuals based on visible and/or thermal images of those individuals by utilizing computer software implemented by instructions on a computer or computer system and a computer readable medium containing instructions on a computer system for face recognition and identification.

  13. Multibiometrics for face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond; Deravi, Farzin; Tao, Qian

    2008-01-01

    Fusion is a popular practice to combine multiple sources of biometric information to achieve systems with greater performance and flexibility. In this paper various approaches to fusion within a multibiometrics context are considered and an application to the fusion of 2D and 3D face information is

  14. Multibiometrics for face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Deravi, Farzin; Tao, Q.

    Fusion is a popular practice to combine multiple sources of biometric information to achieve systems with greater performance and flexibility. In this paper various approaches to fusion within a multibiometrics context are considered and an application to the fusion of 2D and 3D face information is

  15. Two Faces of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Conger, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the inconsistency between Japanese exploitation of world natural resources and gestures to provide leadership in ecologically innovative technology. Explores Japanese culture, power structure, population trends, environmental ethics, industrialism, and international business practices as they relate to the philosophical face of…

  16. Bayesian Face Sketch Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nannan; Gao, Xinbo; Sun, Leiyu; Li, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Exemplar-based face sketch synthesis has been widely applied to both digital entertainment and law enforcement. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian framework for face sketch synthesis, which provides a systematic interpretation for understanding the common properties and intrinsic difference in different methods from the perspective of probabilistic graphical models. The proposed Bayesian framework consists of two parts: the neighbor selection model and the weight computation model. Within the proposed framework, we further propose a Bayesian face sketch synthesis method. The essential rationale behind the proposed Bayesian method is that we take the spatial neighboring constraint between adjacent image patches into consideration for both aforementioned models, while the state-of-the-art methods neglect the constraint either in the neighbor selection model or in the weight computation model. Extensive experiments on the Chinese University of Hong Kong face sketch database demonstrate that the proposed Bayesian method could achieve superior performance compared with the state-of-the-art methods in terms of both subjective perceptions and objective evaluations.

  17. Autonomous Face Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    and Rhea Diamond. "From Piecemeal to Configurational Repre- sentation of Faces," Science, 195:312-314 (Jan 1977). 3. Damasio , Antonio R...34Prosopagnosia," Trends in Neuroscience, 8:132-135 (1985). 4. Damasio , Antonio R. and others. "Prosopagnosia: Anatomic Basis and Behav- ioral Mechanisms

  18. PrimeFaces blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Jonna, Sudheer

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with experience of frontend UI development, and want to take the plunge to develop stunning UI applications with the most popular JSF framework, PrimeFaces, then this book is for you. For those with entrepreneurial aspirations, this book will provide valuable insights into how to utilize successful business models.

  19. Gifted Asian American Adolescent Males: Portraits of Cultural Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chen-yao; Hebert, Thomas P.

    2006-01-01

    Many gifted Asian American adolescent males face cultural issues that may impact their success. This article presents important cultural dilemmas faced by 2 gifted Asian American young men. Through a qualitative approach, the acculturation experiences of John and Matt, gifted Taiwanese, second generation immigrants, are described.…

  20. African-American Press Coverage of Clarence Thomas Nomination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearn-Banks, Kathleen

    1994-01-01

    Examines pressures facing the African American press by focusing on its coverage of the 1991 nomination of Clarence Thomas to the United States Supreme Court. Discusses the dilemma these newspapers faced in choosing between supporting African Americans and supporting civil rights, with their mixed coverage of the story reflecting this dilemma. (SR)

  1. Age-Dependent Face Detection and Face Categorization Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Claus-Christian Carbon; Martina Grüter; Thomas Grüter

    2013-01-01

    Empirical studies on the development of face processing skills with age show inconsistent patterns concerning qualitative vs. quantitative changes over time or the age range for peak cognitive performance. In the present study, we tested the proficiency in face detection and face categorization with a large sample of participants (N = 312; age range: 2-88 yrs). As test objects, we used so-called Mooney faces, two-tone (black and white) images of faces lacking critical information of a local, ...

  2. Face aftereffects predict individual differences in face recognition ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Hugh W; McKone, Elinor; Edwards, Mark; Susilo, Tirta

    2012-01-01

    Face aftereffects are widely studied on the assumption that they provide a useful tool for investigating face-space coding of identity. However, a long-standing issue concerns the extent to which face aftereffects originate in face-level processes as opposed to earlier stages of visual processing. For example, some recent studies failed to find atypical face aftereffects in individuals with clinically poor face recognition. We show that in individuals within the normal range of face recognition abilities, there is an association between face memory ability and a figural face aftereffect that is argued to reflect the steepness of broadband-opponent neural response functions in underlying face-space. We further show that this correlation arises from face-level processing, by reporting results of tests of nonface memory and nonface aftereffects. We conclude that face aftereffects can tap high-level face-space, and that face-space coding differs in quality between individuals and contributes to face recognition ability.

  3. Autism and emotional face-viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åsberg Johnels, Jakob; Hovey, Daniel; Zürcher, Nicole; Hippolyte, Loyse; Lemonnier, Eric; Gillberg, Christopher; Hadjikhani, Nouchine

    2016-11-28

    Atypical patterns of face-scanning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may contribute to difficulties in social interactions, but there is little agreement regarding what exactly characterizes face-viewing in ASD. In addition, little research has examined how face-viewing is modulated by the emotional expression of the stimuli, in individuals with or without ASD. We used eye-tracking to explore viewing patterns during perception of dynamic emotional facial expressions in relatively large groups of individuals with (n = 57) and without ASD (n = 58) and examined diagnostic- and age-related effects, after subgrouping children and adolescents (≤18 years), on the one hand, and adults (>18 years), on the other. Results showed that children/adolescents with ASD fixated the mouth of happy and angry faces less than their typically developing (TD) peers, and conversely looked more to the eyes of happy faces. Moreover, while all groups fixated the mouth in happy faces more than in other expressions, children/adolescents with ASD did relatively less so. Correlation analysis showed a similar lack of relative orientation toward the mouth of smiling faces in TD children/adolescents with high autistic traits, as measured by the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Among adults, participants with ASD attended less to the eyes only for neutral faces. Our study shows that the emotional content of a face influences gaze behavior, and that this effect is not fully developed in children/adolescents with ASD. Interestingly, this lack of differentiation observed in the younger ASD group was also seen in younger TD individuals with higher AQ scores. Autism Res 2016. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A retrospective look at replacing face-to-face embryology instruction with online lectures in a human anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Elmus G; Tarwater, Patrick M; Lee, Vaughan H

    2014-01-01

    Embryology is integrated into the Clinically Oriented Anatomy course at the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine. Before 2008, the same instructor presented embryology in 13 face-to-face lectures distributed by organ systems throughout the course. For the 2008 and 2009 offerings of the course, a hybrid embryology instruction model with four face-to-face classes that supplemented online recorded lectures was used. One instructor delivered the lectures face-to-face in 2007 and by online videos in 2008-2009, while a second instructor provided the supplemental face-to-face classes in 2008-2009. The same embryology learning objectives and selected examination questions were used for each of the three years. This allowed direct comparison of learning outcomes, as measured by examination performance, for students receiving only face-to-face embryology instruction versus the hybrid approach. Comparison of the face-to-face lectures to the hybrid approach showed no difference in overall class performance on embryology questions that were used all three years. Moreover, there was no differential effect of the delivery method on the examination scores for bottom quartile students. Students completed an end-of-course survey to assess their opinions. They rated the two forms of delivery similarly on a six-point Likert scale and reported that face-to-face lectures have the advantage of allowing them to interact with the instructor, whereas online lectures could be paused, replayed, and viewed at any time. These experiences suggest the need for well-designed prospective studies to determine whether online lectures can be used to enhance the efficacy of embryology instruction. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. Cross-border ties and Arab American mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties--attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans. Copyright © 2016

  6. The new face of innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Erich

    2000-05-01

    The rapid changes in technology, the changes in the national and global economy and the emergence of many new nations that acquire an increasing competence to innovate is presenting us with new issues and opportunities. In particular, it affects the innovation system of the country, namely the scientific and technological infrastructure, the workforce and the policy environment in which government, industry, and academia operates. From a sequential or serial model we are moving or have moved to a dynamic, interactive one that encompasses more stakeholders in a realtime way. Of late, the work of the Council on Competitiveness has focused on the capacity for innovation as a pre-requisite for national competitiveness. This talk will discuss the results from its report "Going Global: The New Shape of American Innovation" and its "Findings from the Innovation Index" and assess the forces that affect the future. The main conclusion will be that the changes we have and will be facing are irreversible and require the active and positive participation of the technical professional and technical institutions. It also requires new relationships between the main participants of the innovation system.

  7. Judging Normality and Attractiveness in Faces: Direct Evidence of a More Refined Representation for Own-Race, Young Adult Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaomei; Short, Lindsey A; Chan, Harmonie S J; Mondloch, Catherine J

    2016-09-01

    Young and older adults are more sensitive to deviations from normality in young than older adult faces, suggesting that the dimensions of face space are optimized for young adult faces. Here, we extend these findings to own-race faces and provide converging evidence using an attractiveness rating task. In Experiment 1, Caucasian and Chinese adults were shown own- and other-race face pairs; one member was undistorted and the other had compressed or expanded features. Participants indicated which member of each pair was more normal (a task that requires referencing a norm) and which was more expanded (a task that simply requires discrimination). Participants showed an own-race advantage in the normality task but not the discrimination task. In Experiment 2, participants rated the facial attractiveness of own- and other-race faces (Experiment 2a) or young and older adult faces (Experiment 2b). Between-rater variability in ratings of individual faces was higher for other-race and older adult faces; reduced consensus in attractiveness judgments reflects a less refined face space. Collectively, these results provide direct evidence that the dimensions of face space are optimized for own-race and young adult faces, which may underlie face race- and age-based deficits in recognition.

  8. Automated Face Recognition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    atestfOl.feature-vectjJ -averageljJ); for(j=l; <num-coefsj++) for(i= 5 num-train-faces;i++) sdlQjI -(btrainhil.feaure..vecU1- veagU (btraintil.feature- vecU ... vecU ])* (atest(O1.feature-vecUJ - btrain[iI.feature- vecU ]) + temp; btrain(ii.distance = sqrt ( (double) temp); I**** Store the k-nearest neighbors rank

  9. Auto Industry Faces Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A number of indicators show that China's auto industry is facing a new round of large-scale restructuring. When the global auto industry was undergoing reorganization 10 years ago, China's auto industry was in its early stages, acting in a relatively closed market, and thus it missed out on that important event. However, the situation is different today. In the past decade, China's auto industry has grown at a rapid pace. While the world's major transnational companies are

  10. Thermoregulation, Fluid Balance, and Sweat Losses in American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jon K; Baker, Lindsay B; Barnes, Kelly; Ungaro, Corey; Stofan, John

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies have reported on the thermoregulation and hydration challenges athletes face in team and individual sports during exercise in the heat. Comparatively less research, however, has been conducted on the American Football player. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review data collected in laboratory and field studies and discuss the thermoregulation, fluid balance, and sweat losses of American Football players. American Football presents a unique challenge to thermoregulation compared with other sports because of the encapsulating nature of the required protective equipment, large body size of players, and preseason practice occurring during the hottest time of year. Epidemiological studies report disproportionately higher rates of exertional heat illness and heat stroke in American Football compared with other sports. Specifically, larger players (e.g., linemen) are at increased risk for heat ailments compared with smaller players (e.g., backs) because of greater body mass index, increased body fat, lower surface area to body mass ratio, lower aerobic capacity, and the stationary nature of the position, which can reduce heat dissipation. A consistent finding across studies is that larger players exhibit higher sweating rates than smaller players. Mean sweating rates from 1.0 to 2.9 L/h have been reported for college and professional American Football players, with several studies reporting 3.0 L/h or more in some larger players. Sweat sodium concentration of American Football players does not seem to differ from that of athletes in other sports; however, given the high volume of sweat loss, the potential for sodium loss is higher in American Football than in other sports. Despite high sweating rates with American Football players, the observed disturbances in fluid balance have generally been mild (mean body mass loss ≤2 %). The majority of field-based studies have been conducted in the northeastern part of the United States, with limited

  11. Decoding of faces and face components in face-sensitive human visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F Nichols

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A great challenge to the field of visual neuroscience is to understand how faces are encoded and represented within the human brain. Here we show evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI for spatially distributed processing of the whole face and its components in face-sensitive human visual cortex. We used multi-class linear pattern classifiers constructed with a leave-one-scan-out verification procedure to discriminate brain activation patterns elicited by whole faces, the internal features alone, and the external head outline alone. Furthermore, our results suggest that whole faces are represented disproportionately in the fusiform cortex (FFA whereas the building blocks of faces are represented disproportionately in occipitotemporal cortex (OFA. Faces and face components may therefore be organized with functional clustering within both the FFA and OFA, but with specialization for face components in the OFA and the whole face in the FFA.

  12. Community in Online Higher Education: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasaratnam-Smith, Lily A.; Northcote, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Exploring the challenges and opportunities associated with the concepts of community and communication in online higher education, this paper reconsiders the intention to replicate face-to-face learning and teaching strategies in online learning environments. Rather than beginning with the assumption that face-to-face education is the prototype…

  13. The neural code for face orientation in the human fusiform face area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Fernando M; Cichy, Radoslaw M; Allefeld, Carsten; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2014-09-01

    Humans recognize faces and objects with high speed and accuracy regardless of their orientation. Recent studies have proposed that orientation invariance in face recognition involves an intermediate representation where neural responses are similar for mirror-symmetric views. Here, we used fMRI, multivariate pattern analysis, and computational modeling to investigate the neural encoding of faces and vehicles at different rotational angles. Corroborating previous studies, we demonstrate a representation of face orientation in the fusiform face-selective area (FFA). We go beyond these studies by showing that this representation is category-selective and tolerant to retinal translation. Critically, by controlling for low-level confounds, we found the representation of orientation in FFA to be compatible with a linear angle code. Aspects of mirror-symmetric coding cannot be ruled out when FFA mean activity levels are considered as a dimension of coding. Finally, we used a parametric family of computational models, involving a biased sampling of view-tuned neuronal clusters, to compare different face angle encoding models. The best fitting model exhibited a predominance of neuronal clusters tuned to frontal views of faces. In sum, our findings suggest a category-selective and monotonic code of face orientation in the human FFA, in line with primate electrophysiology studies that observed mirror-symmetric tuning of neural responses at higher stages of the visual system, beyond the putative homolog of human FFA.

  14. Face-space: A unifying concept in face recognition research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Tim; Lewis, Michael B; Hills, Peter J

    2016-10-01

    The concept of a multidimensional psychological space, in which faces can be represented according to their perceived properties, is fundamental to the modern theorist in face processing. Yet the idea was not clearly expressed until 1991. The background that led to the development of face-space is explained, and its continuing influence on theories of face processing is discussed. Research that has explored the properties of the face-space and sought to understand caricature, including facial adaptation paradigms, is reviewed. Face-space as a theoretical framework for understanding the effect of ethnicity and the development of face recognition is evaluated. Finally, two applications of face-space in the forensic setting are discussed. From initially being presented as a model to explain distinctiveness, inversion, and the effect of ethnicity, face-space has become a central pillar in many aspects of face processing. It is currently being developed to help us understand adaptation effects with faces. While being in principle a simple concept, face-space has shaped, and continues to shape, our understanding of face perception.

  15. Facing the Knowledge Society: Mexico's Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Petito, Gonzalo

    2010-01-01

    Public higher education in Mexico faces major challenges vis-a-vis its position within the modern knowledge society, sparking concern among educational authorities. In the second half of the 20th century Mexican universities ceased to be selective, elitist schools, becoming, instead, massive institutions that reflect social and intellectual…

  16. Biased allocation of faces to social categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniël H J; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2011-06-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features--a stereotypical negative trait--to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if they were prejudiced. On the contrary, the stereotype-irrelevant negative trait stupid did not lead to overallocation to the Moroccan category. In Study 3, using the stigmatized category homosexual, the previously used negative trait criminal--irrelevant to the homosexual stereotype--did not lead to overallocation, but the stereotype-relevant positive trait femininity did. These results demonstrate that normative fit is higher for faces with stereotype-relevant features regardless of valence. Moreover, individual differences in implicit prejudice predicted the extent to which stereotype-relevant traits elicited overallocation: Whereas more negatively prejudiced people showed greater overallocation of faces associated with negative stereotype-relevant traits, they showed less overallocation of faces associated with positive stereotype-relevant traits. These results support our normative fit hypothesis: In general, normative fit is better for faces with stereotypical features. Moreover, normative fit is enhanced for prejudiced individuals when these features are evaluatively congruent. Social categorization thus may be biased in itself.

  17. Narcolepsy in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Makoto; O'Hara, Ruth; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    Although narcolepsy affects 0.02-0.05% of individuals in various ethnic groups, clinical presentation in different ethnicities has never been fully characterized. Our goal was to study phenotypic expression across ethnicities in the United States. Cases of narcolepsy from 1992 to 2013 were identified from searches of the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Research database. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition diagnosis criteria for type 1 and type 2 narcolepsy were used for inclusion, but subjects were separated as with and without cataplexy for the purpose of data presentation. Information extracted included demographics, ethnicity and clinical data, HLA-DQB1*06:02, polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) data, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 level. 182 African-Americans, 839 Caucasians, 35 Asians, and 41 Latinos with narcolepsy. Sex ratio, PSG, and MSLT findings did not differ across ethnicities. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was higher and age of onset of sleepiness earlier in African Americans compared with other ethnicities. HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity was higher in African Americans (91.0%) versus others (76.6% in Caucasians, 80.0% in Asians, and 65.0% in Latinos). CSF hypocretin-1 level, obtained in 222 patients, was more frequently low (≤ 110 pg/ml) in African Americans (93.9%) versus Caucasians (61.5%), Asians (85.7%) and Latinos (75.0%). In subjects with low CSF hypocretin-1, African Americans (28.3%) were 4.5 fold more likely to be without cataplexy when compared with Caucasians (8.1%). Narcolepsy in African Americans is characterized by earlier symptom onset, higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, higher HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity, and low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level in the absence of cataplexy. In African Americans, more subjects without cataplexy have type 1 narcolepsy. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  18. American Gothic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a new curriculum which explores a disturbing side of the Progressive Era. The national education program Facing History and Ourselves is a 25-year-old organization best known for its trenchant examination of the Holocaust and other genocide campaigns. Facing History discovered in the course of that work that many of the…

  19. Age-dependent face detection and face categorization performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Grüter, Martina; Grüter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Empirical studies on the development of face processing skills with age show inconsistent patterns concerning qualitative vs. quantitative changes over time or the age range for peak cognitive performance. In the present study, we tested the proficiency in face detection and face categorization with a large sample of participants (N = 312; age range: 2-88 yrs). As test objects, we used so-called Mooney faces, two-tone (black and white) images of faces lacking critical information of a local, featural and relational nature, reflecting difficult real world face processing conditions. We found that performance in the assessment of gender and age from Mooney faces increases up to about age 15, and decreases from 65 years on. The implications of these findings are discussed in the light of classic and recent findings from face development literature.

  20. A comparative study of face processing using scrambled faces

    OpenAIRE

    Taubert, Jessica; Aagten-Murphy, David; Parr, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    It is a widespread assumption that all primate species process faces in the same way because the species are closely related and they engage in similar social interactions. However, this approach ignores potentially interesting and informative differences that may exist between species. This paper describes a comparative study of holistic face processing. Twelve subjects (six chimpanzees Pan troglodytes and six rhesus monkeys Macaca mulatta) were trained to discriminate whole faces (faces wit...

  1. Emotional Expressions of Old Faces Are Perceived as More Positive and Less Negative than Young Faces in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norah C Hass

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Interpreting the emotions of others through their facial expressions can provide important social information, yet the way in which we judge an emotion is subject to psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that the age of a face would bias how the emotional expressions are judged, with older faces generally more likely to be viewed as having more positive and less negative expressions than younger faces. Using two-alternative forced-choice perceptual decision tasks, participants sorted young and old faces of which emotional expressions were gradually morphed into one of two categories - neutral vs. happy and neutral vs. angry. The results indicated that old faces were more frequently perceived as having a happy expression at the lower emotional intensity levels, and less frequently perceived as having an angry expression at the higher emotional intensity levels than younger faces in young adults. Critically, the perceptual decision threshold at which old faces were judged as happy was lower than for young faces, and higher for angry old faces compared to young faces. These findings suggest that the age of the face influences how its emotional expression is interpreted in social interactions.

  2. Emotional expressions of old faces are perceived as more positive and less negative than young faces in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Norah C; Schneider, Erik J S; Lim, Seung-Lark

    2015-01-01

    Interpreting the emotions of others through their facial expressions can provide important social information, yet the way in which we judge an emotion is subject to psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that the age of a face would bias how the emotional expressions are judged, with older faces generally more likely to be viewed as having more positive and less negative expressions than younger faces. Using two-alternative forced-choice perceptual decision tasks, participants sorted young and old faces of which emotional expressions were gradually morphed into one of two categories-"neutral vs. happy" and "neutral vs. angry." The results indicated that old faces were more frequently perceived as having a happy expression at the lower emotional intensity levels, and less frequently perceived as having an angry expression at the higher emotional intensity levels than younger faces in young adults. Critically, the perceptual decision threshold at which old faces were judged as happy was lower than for young faces, and higher for angry old faces compared to young faces. These findings suggest that the age of the face influences how its emotional expression is interpreted in social interactions.

  3. Prevalence of face recognition deficits in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetts, Rachel J; Murray, Ebony; Boyce, Tian; Bate, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    Approximately 2-2.5% of the adult population is believed to show severe difficulties with face recognition, in the absence of any neurological injury-a condition known as developmental prosopagnosia (DP). However, to date no research has attempted to estimate the prevalence of face recognition deficits in children, possibly because there are very few child-friendly, well-validated tests of face recognition. In the current study, we examined face and object recognition in a group of primary school children (aged 5-11 years), to establish whether our tests were suitable for children and to provide an estimate of face recognition difficulties in children. In Experiment 1 (n = 184), children completed a pre-existing test of child face memory, the Cambridge Face Memory Test-Kids (CFMT-K), and a bicycle test with the same format. In Experiment 2 (n = 413), children completed three-alternative forced-choice matching tasks with faces and bicycles. All tests showed good psychometric properties. The face and bicycle tests were well matched for difficulty and showed a similar developmental trajectory. Neither the memory nor the matching tests were suitable to detect impairments in the youngest groups of children, but both tests appear suitable to screen for face recognition problems in middle childhood. In the current sample, 1.2-5.2% of children showed difficulties with face recognition; 1.2-4% showed face-specific difficulties-that is, poor face recognition with typical object recognition abilities. This is somewhat higher than previous adult estimates: It is possible that face matching tests overestimate the prevalence of face recognition difficulties in children; alternatively, some children may "outgrow" face recognition difficulties.

  4. Face-to-Face Interference in Typical and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Deborah M.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Visual communication cues facilitate interpersonal communication. It is important that we look at faces to retrieve and subsequently process such cues. It is also important that we sometimes look away from faces as they increase cognitive load that may interfere with online processing. Indeed, when typically developing individuals hold face gaze…

  5. Challenges facing production grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  6. Many Faces of Migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Antić Gaber

    2013-12-01

    The title “Many faces of migration”, connecting contributions in this special issue, is borrowed from the already mentioned Gallup Institute’s report on global migration (Esipova, 2011. The guiding principle in the selection of the contributions has been their diversity, reflected also in the list of disciplines represented by the authors: sociology, geography, ethnology and cultural anthropology, history, art history, modern Mediterranean studies, gender studies and media studies. Such an approach necessarily leads not only to a diverse, but at least seemingly also incompatib

  7. Faced with a dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Christiansen, Anne Hjøllund; Petersson, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    's legal right to choose TOP and considerations about the foetus' right to live were suppressed. Midwives experienced a dilemma when faced with aborted foetuses that looked like newborns and when aborted foetuses showed signs of life after a termination. Furthermore, they were critical of how physicians...... counsel women/couples after prenatal diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The midwives' practice in relation to late TOP was characterised by an acknowledgement of the growing ethical status of the foetus and the emotional reactions of the women/couples going through late TOP. Other professions as well as structural...

  8. The role of the amygdala in face perception and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Alexander

    2012-03-01

    Faces are one of the most significant social stimuli and the processes underlying face perception are at the intersection of cognition, affect, and motivation. Vision scientists have had a tremendous success of mapping the regions for perceptual analysis of faces in posterior cortex. Based on evidence from (a) single unit recording studies in monkeys and humans; (b) human functional localizer studies; and (c) meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies, I argue that faces automatically evoke responses not only in these regions but also in the amygdala. I also argue that (a) a key property of faces represented in the amygdala is their typicality; and (b) one of the functions of the amygdala is to bias attention to atypical faces, which are associated with higher uncertainty. This framework is consistent with a number of other amygdala findings not involving faces, suggesting a general account for the role of the amygdala in perception.

  9. Examplers based image fusion features for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    James, Alex Pappachen

    2012-01-01

    Examplers of a face are formed from multiple gallery images of a person and are used in the process of classification of a test image. We incorporate such examplers in forming a biologically inspired local binary decisions on similarity based face recognition method. As opposed to single model approaches such as face averages the exampler based approach results in higher recognition accu- racies and stability. Using multiple training samples per person, the method shows the following recognition accuracies: 99.0% on AR, 99.5% on FERET, 99.5% on ORL, 99.3% on EYALE, 100.0% on YALE and 100.0% on CALTECH face databases. In addition to face recognition, the method also detects the natural variability in the face images which can find application in automatic tagging of face images.

  10. Challenges facing the North American iron ore industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    Summary: This report is derived from a presentation the author presented in late September at the Iron Ore 2005 Conference sponsored by The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy and held in Fremantle, Western Australia. Some slight revisions have been made for the new audience.

  11. Charter Schools: Today. Changing the Face of American Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Education Reform, Washington, DC.

    This progress report reviews comprehensive research on the impact of the nation's charter schools on education and the education system. Chapter 1 looks at the "ripple effect" charter schools have on public schools. Charter schools' efforts to improve public education create new choices for parents. The competition causes public schools…

  12. Comings and Goings: The Multiple Faces of Latin American Diasporas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert V. Kemper

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available – Displacements and Diasporas: Asians in the Americas, edited by Wanni W. Anderson and Robert G. Lee. New Brunswick, NJ and London: Rutgers University Press, 2005. – Indigenous Mexican Migrants in the United States, edited by Jonathan Fox and Gaspar Rivera-Salgado. Distributed by Lynn Rienner Publishers for the Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies, UCSD, and the Center for Comparative Immigration Studies, UCSD, 2004. – Diáspora michoacana, edited by Gustavo López Castro. Zamora: El Colegio de Michoacán y el Gobierno del Estado de Michoacán, 2003. – The Japanese in Latin America, by Daniel M. Masterson (with Sayaka FunadaClassen. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2004. – Jewish Diaspora in Latin America and the Caribbean: Fragments of Memory, edited by Kristin Ruggiero. Brighton, East Sussex: Sussex Academic Press, 2005.

  13. 49 CFR 213.355 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.355... Higher § 213.355 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs... distance between the gage line of a frog to the guard line 1 of its guard rail or guarding face,...

  14. The American Chicle Youth Poll: A Landmark Study on the Attitudes of American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper Organization, Inc., New York, NY.

    Presented are findings of a 1986 national survey of 1000 American students between the ages of 8 and 17 years. Face-to-face interviews focused on youths' perceptions of their families, their schools, and major social issues confronting them. After a preview highlighting important findings, in-depth results and commentary are offered with…

  15. Aging changes in the face

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004004.htm Aging changes in the face To use the sharing ... face with age References Brodie SE, Francis JH. Aging and disorders of the eye. In: Fillit HM, ...

  16. FaceID: A face detection and recognition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, M.B.; Rao, N.S.V.; Olman, V.; Uberbacher, E.C.; Mann, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    A face detection system that automatically locates faces in gray-level images is described. Also described is a system which matches a given face image with faces in a database. Face detection in an Image is performed by template matching using templates derived from a selected set of normalized faces. Instead of using original gray level images, vertical gradient images were calculated and used to make the system more robust against variations in lighting conditions and skin color. Faces of different sizes are detected by processing the image at several scales. Further, a coarse-to-fine strategy is used to speed up the processing, and a combination of whole face and face component templates are used to ensure low false detection rates. The input to the face recognition system is a normalized vertical gradient image of a face, which is compared against a database using a set of pretrained feedforward neural networks with a winner-take-all fuser. The training is performed by using an adaptation of the backpropagation algorithm. This system has been developed and tested using images from the FERET database and a set of images obtained from Rowley, et al and Sung and Poggio.

  17. A novel thermal face recognition approach using face pattern words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2010-04-01

    A reliable thermal face recognition system can enhance the national security applications such as prevention against terrorism, surveillance, monitoring and tracking, especially at nighttime. The system can be applied at airports, customs or high-alert facilities (e.g., nuclear power plant) for 24 hours a day. In this paper, we propose a novel face recognition approach utilizing thermal (long wave infrared) face images that can automatically identify a subject at both daytime and nighttime. With a properly acquired thermal image (as a query image) in monitoring zone, the following processes will be employed: normalization and denoising, face detection, face alignment, face masking, Gabor wavelet transform, face pattern words (FPWs) creation, face identification by similarity measure (Hamming distance). If eyeglasses are present on a subject's face, an eyeglasses mask will be automatically extracted from the querying face image, and then masked with all comparing FPWs (no more transforms). A high identification rate (97.44% with Top-1 match) has been achieved upon our preliminary face dataset (of 39 subjects) from the proposed approach regardless operating time and glasses-wearing condition.e

  18. Enabling dynamics in face analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dibeklioğlu, H.

    2014-01-01

    Most of the approaches in automatic face analysis rely solely on static appearance. However, temporal analysis of expressions reveals interesting patterns. For a better understanding of the human face, this thesis focuses on temporal changes in the face, and dynamic patterns of expressions. In addit

  19. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Luuk; Veldhuis, Raymond; Quaglia, Adamo; Epifano, Calogera M.

    2012-01-01

    The improvements of automatic face recognition during the last 2 decades have disclosed new applications like border control and camera surveillance. A new application field is forensic face recognition. Traditionally, face recognition by human experts has been used in forensics, but now there is a

  20. Spatial Location in Brief, Free-Viewing Face Encoding Modulates Contextual Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima M. Felisberti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the spatial location of faces in the visual field during brief, free-viewing encoding in subsequent face recognition is not known. This study addressed this question by tagging three groups of faces with cheating, cooperating or neutral behaviours and presenting them for encoding in two visual hemifields (upper vs. lower or left vs. right. Participants then had to indicate if a centrally presented face had been seen before or not. Head and eye movements were free in all phases. Findings showed that the overall recognition of cooperators was significantly better than cheaters, and it was better for faces encoded in the upper hemifield than in the lower hemifield, both in terms of a higher d' and faster reaction time (RT. The d' for any given behaviour in the left and right hemifields was similar. The RT in the left hemifield did not vary with tagged behaviour, whereas the RT in the right hemifield was longer for cheaters than for cooperators. The results showed that memory biases in contextual face recognition were modulated by the spatial location of briefly encoded faces and are discussed in terms of scanning reading habits, top-left bias in lighting preference and peripersonal space.

  1. Neural markers of opposite-sex bias in face processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mado eProverbio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Some behavioral and neuroimaging studies suggest that adults prefer to view attractive faces of the opposite sex more than attractive faces of the same sex. However, unlike the other-race face effect (ORE; Caldara et al., 2004, little is known regarding the existence of an opposite-/same-sex bias in face processing. In this study, the faces of 130 attractive male and female adults were foveally presented to 40 heterosexual university students (20 men and 20 women who were engaged in a secondary perceptual task (landscape detection. The automatic processing of face gender was investigated by recording ERPs from 128 scalp sites. Neural markers of opposite- vs. same-sex bias in face processing included larger and earlier centro-parietal N400s in response to faces of the opposite sex and a larger late positivity (LP to same-sex faces. Analysis of intra-cortical neural generators (swLORETA showed that facial processing-related (FG, BA37, BA20/21 and emotion-related brain areas (the right parahippocampal gyrus, BA35; uncus, BA36/38; and the cingulate gyrus, BA24 had higher activations in response to opposite- than same-sex faces. The results of this analysis, along with data obtained from ERP recordings, support the hypothesis that both genders process opposite-sex faces differently than same-sex faces. The data also suggest a hemispheric asymmetry in the processing of opposite-/same-sex faces, with the right hemisphere involved in processing same-sex faces and the left hemisphere involved in processing faces of the opposite sex. The data support previous literature suggesting a right lateralization for the representation of self-image and body awareness.

  2. Face to Face Talk——Chinese and American Scholars Discuss Tibetan Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In early 2002,Zhu Xiaoming(Vice-President of the China World Ethnic Society),Huo Zhongquanand Hong Tao(both research fellows with the China Ethics Research Center)met with Americanexperts on China with the Research Office ot the US Congress and the US Think Tank,includingKerry B.Dumbaugh,Alfred D.Wilhelm Jr,David G.Brown and Thomas G.Lum.They held talkson issues of common concern.Following are excerps of their talk on the Tibetan issue.

  3. Face Processing: Models For Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Matthew A.; Pentland, Alexander P.

    1990-03-01

    The human ability to process faces is remarkable. We can identify perhaps thousands of faces learned throughout our lifetime and read facial expression to understand such subtle qualities as emotion. These skills are quite robust, despite sometimes large changes in the visual stimulus due to expression, aging, and distractions such as glasses or changes in hairstyle or facial hair. Computers which model and recognize faces will be useful in a variety of applications, including criminal identification, human-computer interface, and animation. We discuss models for representing faces and their applicability to the task of recognition, and present techniques for identifying faces and detecting eye blinks.

  4. Facing the Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai

    2014-01-01

    China's rise signifies a gradual transformation of the international system from unipolarity to a non-unipolar world. ,4s an organization of small and middle powers, ASEAN faces strategic uncertainties brought about by the power transition in the system. Deepening economic interdependence between...... ASEAN and China has amplified the economic cost for the ASEAN states to use traditional military means to deal with China s rise. Applying institutional balancing theory, this paper examines how ASEAN has adopted various institutional instruments, such as the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), the East Asia...... Summit (EAS), the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), and the ASEAN Community, to constrain and shape China's behaviour in the region in the post-Cold War era. It argues that due to globalization and economic interdependence, the power transition in the 21st century is different from...

  5. Préface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Mendell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available C’est avec grand plaisir que je contribue la préface de ce numéro d’Interventions économiques dédié à la pertinence de la pensée de Karl Polanyi au début du 21ème siècle. Je suis très reconnaissante aux éditeurs, Diane Gabrielle Tremblay, Jean-Marc Fontan et Jean Louis Laville d’avoir pris l’initiative de préparer ce numéro pour le 11ème colloque international de l’Institut Karl Polanyi, qui correspond aussi au 20ème anniversaire de l’Institut, établi à l’Université Concordia en 1988. Interve...

  6. [Comparative studies of face recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  7. Politicas y Gobierno de la Educacion Superior En American Latina. (Policies and Governance of Higher Education in Latin America). Texas Papers on Latin America. Paper No. 99-02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiel, Hugo Casanova

    Higher education is undergoing a complex process of transformation at the international level. This transformation is based especially in the fields of policies and governance of higher education institutions. In Latin America this trend has been growing since the 1980s, and higher education is undergoing a strong modification in its processes and…

  8. African American girls and the challenges ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L

    2002-01-01

    The research on the psychosocial development of African American girls is limited. Information that is available focuses on teen pregnancy and health issues such as nutrition and physical activity. African American girls are facing challenges, including poverty, crime, poor self-esteem, and peer pressure. Despite some of the negative characteristics attributed to African American girls, many are achieving some success. Policy makers and service providers need to recognize the resiliency and unique needs of African American girls and develop services that ensure their needs are being fully met.

  9. American ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and inflammation of the lining of the stomach (gastritis). American ginseng is also used for low iron ... Anemia. Bleeding disorders. Digestive disorders. Dizziness. Fever. Fibromyalgia. Gastritis. Hangover symptoms. Headaches. HIV/AIDS. Impotence. Insomnia. Memory ...

  10. Supercomplexity in Higher Education Kinesiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Betty A.; Estes, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This article employs Barnett's (2004) specifications of the aspects that describe the times of "supercomplexity." This term characterizes the challenges universities are facing regarding the expanding and competing forces that are affecting higher education, particularly in the West. Outside forces related to globalization, digital technologies,…

  11. Effectiveness of Integrating Case Studies in Online and Face-to-Face Instruction of Pathophysiology: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Suha M.; Asi, Yara M.; Hamed, Kastro M.

    2013-01-01

    Due to growing demand from students and facilitated by innovations in educational technology, institutions of higher learning are increasingly offering online courses. Subjects in the hard sciences, such as pathophysiology, have traditionally been taught in the face-to-face format, but growing demand for preclinical science courses has compelled…

  12. MBTI Personality Type and Other Factors that Relate to Preference for Online versus Face-to-Face Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Rick; Loffredo, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Online college classes are being offered at a rate that far exceeds the growth of overall higher education classes. However, much can still be learned about how to create a better online classroom environment by determining why a large percentage of students continue to prefer face-to-face classes. One factor among many that may have an influence…

  13. Effectiveness of Integrating Case Studies in Online and Face-to-Face Instruction of Pathophysiology: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Suha M.; Asi, Yara M.; Hamed, Kastro M.

    2013-01-01

    Due to growing demand from students and facilitated by innovations in educational technology, institutions of higher learning are increasingly offering online courses. Subjects in the hard sciences, such as pathophysiology, have traditionally been taught in the face-to-face format, but growing demand for preclinical science courses has compelled…

  14. Monetary Valuations of University Course Delivery: The Case for Face-to-Face Learning Activities in Accounting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taplin, Ross; Kerr, Rosy; Brown, Alistair

    2017-01-01

    Student preferences for delivery options were obtained within a monetary framework by asking students to purchase their ideal course structure. Results show that accounting students prefer to spend more on tutorials but purchase less lecture time; the difference due to the higher cost of tutorials compared to lectures. Face-to-face classes were…

  15. Accuracy of Answers Provided by Digital/Face-to-Face Reference Services in Japanese Public Libraries and Q & A Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Keita; To, Haruna; Hara, Atsuyuki

    2011-01-01

    We asked the same 60 questions using DRS (digital reference services) in Japanese public libraries, face-to-face reference services and Q & A (question and answer) sites. It was found that: (1) The correct answer ratio of DRS is higher than that of Q & A sites; (2) DRS takes longer to provide answers as compared to Q & A sites; and (3)…

  16. Comparing Face Detection and Recognition Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Korra, Jyothi

    2016-01-01

    This paper implements and compares different techniques for face detection and recognition. One is find where the face is located in the images that is face detection and second is face recognition that is identifying the person. We study three techniques in this paper: Face detection using self organizing map (SOM), Face recognition by projection and nearest neighbor and Face recognition using SVM.

  17. Elektronická komunikace vs. komunikace face to face

    OpenAIRE

    Pipková, Zuzana

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with new forms of communication particularly electronic ones. The main goal is to distinguish electronic communication from face to face communication in a way that differs from traditional media theories. By using examples of the most important medium in electronic communication, Internet, it is shown that nowadays we have such forms of electronic communication that surpass the traditional classification of oral/written communication, immediate/mediate communication, face t...

  18. Holistic crowding of Mooney faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzin, Faraz; Rivera, Susan M; Whitney, David

    2009-06-29

    An object or feature is generally more difficult to identify when other objects are presented nearby, an effect referred to as crowding. Here, we used Mooney faces to examine whether crowding can also occur within and between holistic face representations (C. M. Mooney, 1957). Mooney faces are ideal stimuli for this test because no cues exist to distinguish facial features in a Mooney face; to find any facial feature, such as an eye or a nose, one must first holistically perceive the image as a face. Through a series of six experiments we tested the effect of crowding on Mooney face recognition. Our results demonstrate crowding between and within Mooney faces and fulfill the diagnostic criteria for crowding, including eccentricity dependence and lack of crowding in the fovea, critical flanker spacing consistent with less than half the eccentricity of the target, and inner-outer flanker asymmetry. Further, our results show that recognition of an upright Mooney face is more strongly impaired by upright Mooney face flankers than inverted ones. Taken together, these results suggest crowding can occur selectively between high-level representations of faces and that crowding must occur at multiple levels in the visual system.

  19. [A review of face illusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, Akiyoshi

    2012-07-01

    A variety of "face illusions," including the gaze illusion, face inversion effects, geometrical illusions, reversible figures, and other interesting phenomena related to face perception, are reviewed in the present report, with many sample images. The "gaze illusion" or the illusion of eye direction includes the Wollaston illusion, the luminance-induced gaze shift, the Bogart illusion, the eye-shadow-dependent gaze illusion, the Mona Lisa effect, etc. "Face inversion effects" refer to the Thatcher illusion, the fat face-thin illusion, underestimation of the upright face, the nose-shortening illusion of the inverted face, etc. "Geometrical illusions" include the Lee-Freire illusion, Yang's iris illusion, overestimation of the farther eye, the eye-shadow-dependent eye-size illusion, etc. "Reversible figures" contain the whole-part reversible figure, Rubin's vase-face illusion, or hybrid images. "Other interesting phenomena" include the flashed face distortion effect, the presidential illusion, predominance of the mouth or eyebrows over eye expression, the eye direction aftereffect, etc. It is suggested that some of these phenomena are highly specific to face perception.

  20. The effect of familiarity on face adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Face adaptation techniques have been used extensively to investigate how faces are processed. It has even been suggested that face adaptation is functional in calibrating the visual system to the diet of faces to which an observer is exposed. Yet most adaptation studies to date have used unfamiliar faces: few have used faces with real world familiarity. Familiar faces have more abstractive representations than unfamiliar faces. The experiments in this thesis therefore examined face adaptation...

  1. Competition and Performance in European Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teixeira, Pedro; Biscaia, Ricardo; Rocha, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Higher education institutions face today a demanding and complex context in which they are asked to fulfill multiple roles. Many of these challenges have to be faced in a complex financial context in which traditional modes of funding have been transformed and public sources are not as generous a...

  2. Adaptation improves face trustworthiness discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, B. D.; Dzhelyova, M.; Perrett, D. I.; Barraclough, N. E.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation to facial characteristics, such as gender and viewpoint, has been shown to both bias our perception of faces and improve facial discrimination. In this study, we examined whether adapting to two levels of face trustworthiness improved sensitivity around the adapted level. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated by morphing between trustworthy and untrustworthy prototypes, each generated by morphing eight trustworthy and eight untrustworthy faces, respectively. In the first experiment, just-noticeable differences (JNDs) were calculated for an untrustworthy face after participants adapted to an untrustworthy face, a trustworthy face, or did not adapt. In the second experiment, the three conditions were identical, except that JNDs were calculated for a trustworthy face. In the third experiment we examined whether adapting to an untrustworthy male face improved discrimination to an untrustworthy female face. In all experiments, participants completed a two-interval forced-choice (2-IFC) adaptive staircase procedure, in which they judged which face was more untrustworthy. JNDs were derived from a psychometric function fitted to the data. Adaptation improved sensitivity to faces conveying the same level of trustworthiness when compared to no adaptation. When adapting to and discriminating around a different level of face trustworthiness there was no improvement in sensitivity and JNDs were equivalent to those in the no adaptation condition. The improvement in sensitivity was found to occur even when adapting to a face with different gender and identity. These results suggest that adaptation to facial trustworthiness can selectively enhance mechanisms underlying the coding of facial trustworthiness to improve perceptual sensitivity. These findings have implications for the role of our visual experience in the decisions we make about the trustworthiness of other individuals. PMID:23801979

  3. Adaptation improves face trustworthiness discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, B D; Dzhelyova, M; Perrett, D I; Barraclough, N E

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation to facial characteristics, such as gender and viewpoint, has been shown to both bias our perception of faces and improve facial discrimination. In this study, we examined whether adapting to two levels of face trustworthiness improved sensitivity around the adapted level. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated by morphing between trustworthy and untrustworthy prototypes, each generated by morphing eight trustworthy and eight untrustworthy faces, respectively. In the first experiment, just-noticeable differences (JNDs) were calculated for an untrustworthy face after participants adapted to an untrustworthy face, a trustworthy face, or did not adapt. In the second experiment, the three conditions were identical, except that JNDs were calculated for a trustworthy face. In the third experiment we examined whether adapting to an untrustworthy male face improved discrimination to an untrustworthy female face. In all experiments, participants completed a two-interval forced-choice (2-IFC) adaptive staircase procedure, in which they judged which face was more untrustworthy. JNDs were derived from a psychometric function fitted to the data. Adaptation improved sensitivity to faces conveying the same level of trustworthiness when compared to no adaptation. When adapting to and discriminating around a different level of face trustworthiness there was no improvement in sensitivity and JNDs were equivalent to those in the no adaptation condition. The improvement in sensitivity was found to occur even when adapting to a face with different gender and identity. These results suggest that adaptation to facial trustworthiness can selectively enhance mechanisms underlying the coding of facial trustworthiness to improve perceptual sensitivity. These findings have implications for the role of our visual experience in the decisions we make about the trustworthiness of other individuals.

  4. Adaptation improves face trustworthiness discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce D Keefe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to facial characteristics, such as gender and viewpoint, has been shown to both bias our perception of faces and improve facial discrimination. In this study, we examined whether adapting to two levels of face trustworthiness improved sensitivity around the adapted level. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated by morphing between trustworthy and untrustworthy prototypes, each generated by morphing eight trustworthy and eight untrustworthy faces respectively. In the first experiment, just-noticeable differences (JNDs were calculated for an untrustworthy face after participants adapted to an untrustworthy face, a trustworthy face, or did not adapt. In the second experiment, the three conditions were identical, except that JNDs were calculated for a trustworthy face. In the third experiment we examined whether adapting to an untrustworthy male face improved discrimination to an untrustworthy female face. In all experiments, participants completed a two-interval forced-choice adaptive staircase procedure, in which they judged which face was more untrustworthy. JNDs were derived from a psychometric function fitted to the data. Adaptation improved sensitivity to faces conveying the same level of trustworthiness when compared to no adaptation. When adapting to and discriminating around a different level of face trustworthiness there was no improvement in sensitivity and JNDs were equivalent to those in the no adaptation condition. The improvement in sensitivity was found to occur even when adapting to a face with different gender and identity. These results suggest that adaptation to facial trustworthiness can selectively enhance mechanisms underlying the coding of facial trustworthiness to improve perceptual sensitivity. These findings have implications for the role of our visual experience in the decisions we make about the trustworthiness of other individuals.

  5. Centennial inventory: the changing face of orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafari, Joseph G

    2015-11-01

    The American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics celebrates its centennial, safeguarded by the nearly 115-year-old American Association of Orthodontists. This journey witnessed the rise and demise of various developments, concepts, and procedures, while basic knowledge is still needed. Various periods can be defined in the past century, but the goals remain to obtain more accurate diagnosis through precise anatomic imaging, more controlled and faster tooth movement, more discreet appliances, and the balance of esthetics, function, and stability. The most recent technologic advances have buttressed these goals. Cone-beam computed tomography has brought 3-dimensional assessment to daily usage, albeit the original enthusiasm is tempered by the risk of additional radiation. Temporary anchorage devices or miniscrews have revolutionized orthodontic practice and loom as a solid cornerstone of orthodontic science. Decortication and microperforation promise to speed up tooth displacement by stimulating vascularization. The concept of the regional acceleratory phenomenon has touched upon even the timing of orthognathic surgery. The burden of esthetic appliances remains, with the demand for "cosmetic" appliances and clear aligners. Have these developments changed the face of orthodontics? Have we engaged in another turn wherein certain treatment modalities may fade, while others join mainstream applications? These questions are addressed in this essay on the challenges, promises, and limitations of current orthodontic technology, enhancement of biologic response, and personalized treatment approaches. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Face-n-Food: Gender Differences in Tuning to Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Scheffler, Klaus; Sokolov, Alexander N.

    2015-01-01

    Faces represent valuable signals for social cognition and non-verbal communication. A wealth of research indicates that women tend to excel in recognition of facial expressions. However, it remains unclear whether females are better tuned to faces. We presented healthy adult females and males with a set of newly created food-plate images resembling faces (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). In a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Females not only more readily recognized the images as a face (they reported resembling a face on images, on which males still did not), but gave on overall more face responses. The findings are discussed in the light of gender differences in deficient face perception. As most neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and psychosomatic disorders characterized by social brain abnormalities are sex specific, the task may serve as a valuable tool for uncovering impairments in visual face processing. PMID:26154177

  7. Adherence to Internet-based and face-to-face cognitive behavioural therapy for depression: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter van Ballegooijen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT is an effective and acceptable treatment for depression, especially when it includes guidance, but its treatment adherence has not yet been systematically studied. We conducted a meta-analysis, comparing the adherence to guided iCBT with the adherence to individual face-to-face CBT. METHODS: Studies were selected from a database of trials that investigate treatment for adult depression (see www.evidencebasedpsychotherapies.org, updated to January 2013. We identified 24 studies describing 26 treatment conditions (14 face-to-face CBT, 12 guided iCBT, by means of these inclusion criteria: targeting depressed adults, no comorbid somatic disorder or substance abuse, community recruitment, published in the year 2000 or later. The main outcome measure was the percentage of completed sessions. We also coded the percentage of treatment completers (separately coding for 100% or at least 80% of treatment completed. RESULTS: We did not find studies that compared guided iCBT and face-to-face CBT in a single trial that met our inclusion criteria. Face-to-face CBT treatments ranged from 12 to 28 sessions, guided iCBT interventions consisted of 5 to 9 sessions. Participants in face-to-face CBT completed on average 83.9% of their treatment, which did not differ significantly from participants in guided iCBT (80.8%, P  =  .59. The percentage of completers (total intervention was significantly higher in face-to-face CBT (84.7% than in guided iCBT (65.1%, P < .001, as was the percentage of completers of 80% or more of the intervention (face-to-face CBT: 85.2%, guided iCBT: 67.5%, P  =  .003. Non-completers of face-to-face CBT completed on average 24.5% of their treatment, while non-completers of guided iCBT completed on average 42.1% of their treatment. CONCLUSION: We did not find studies that compared guided iCBT and face-to-face CBT in a single trial. Adherence to guided iCBT appears to be

  8. The Forgotten Tribe in ODL Systems: Challenges Faced by Visually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Faced by Visually Impaired Students in Institutions of Higher Learning. ... CH Tichauya, CR Alexander, M Paul, D Emanuel ... Data was collected through student interviews and questionnaires for lecturers and thematically analysed.

  9. Facing the Crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Baker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Timely, provocative, and theoretically sophisticated, the essays comprising In the Face of Crises: Anglophone Literature in the Postmodern World situate their work amid several critical global concerns: the devastation wreaked by global capitalism following the worldwide financial crash, the financial sector’s totalizing grip upon the world economy, the challenge to traditional definitions of “human nature” and identity posed by technologies of the body and of warfare, the quest of indigenous communities for healing from the continuing traumatic effects of colonization, and the increasing corporatization of the academy as an apparatus of the neo-liberal state – to specify only a few. Edited by Professors Ljubica Matek and Jasna Poljak Rehlicki, these essays deploy a broad range of contemporary theories, representing recent developments in cultural studies, the new economic criticism, postcolonial film studies, feminism and gender studies, and the new historicism. The eleven essays selected by Matek and Rehlicki offer convincing support for their claim that humanistic research delving into Anglophone literature, far from being a “non-profitable” pursuit in an increasingly technologized society, affords clarifying insights into contemporary “economic, cultural, and social processes in the globalizing and globalized culture of the West” (ix.

  10. Face au risque

    CERN Document Server

    Grosse, Christian; November, Valérie

    2007-01-01

    Ce volume collectif sur le risque inaugure la collection L'ÉQUINOXE. Ancré dans l'histoire pour mesurer les continuités et les ruptures, il illustre la manière dont les sciences humaines évaluent et mesurent les enjeux collectifs du risque sur les plans politiques, scientifiques, énergétiques, juridiques et éthiques. Puisse-t-il nourrir la réflexion sur la culture et la prévention du risque. Ses formes épidémiques, écologiques, sociales, terroristes et militaires nourrissent les peurs actuelles, structurent les projets sécuritaires et constituent - sans doute - les défis majeurs à notre modernité. Dans la foulée de la richesse scientifique d'Equinoxe, L'ÉQUINOXE hérite de son esprit en prenant à son tour le pari de contribuer - non sans risque - à enrichir en Suisse romande et ailleurs le champ éditorial des sciences humaines dont notre société a besoin pour forger ses repères. Après Face au risque suivra cet automne Du sens des Lumières. (MICHEL PORRET Professeur Ordinaire à la F...

  11. Retinotopy versus face selectivity in macaque visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajimehr, Reza; Bilenko, Natalia Y; Vanduffel, Wim; Tootell, Roger B H

    2014-12-01

    Retinotopic organization is a ubiquitous property of lower-tier visual cortical areas in human and nonhuman primates. In macaque visual cortex, the retinotopic maps extend to higher-order areas in the ventral visual pathway, including area TEO in the inferior temporal (IT) cortex. Distinct regions within IT cortex are also selective to specific object categories such as faces. Here we tested the topographic relationship between retinotopic maps and face-selective patches in macaque visual cortex using high-resolution fMRI and retinotopic face stimuli. Distinct subregions within face-selective patches showed either (1) a coarse retinotopic map of eccentricity and polar angle, (2) a retinotopic bias to a specific location of visual field, or (3) nonretinotopic selectivity. In general, regions along the lateral convexity of IT cortex showed more overlap between retinotopic maps and face selectivity, compared with regions within the STS. Thus, face patches in macaques can be subdivided into smaller patches with distinguishable retinotopic properties.

  12. Face adaptation improves gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Shen, Jianhong; Chen, Juan; Fang, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation to a visual pattern can alter the sensitivities of neuronal populations encoding the pattern. However, the functional roles of adaptation, especially in high-level vision, are still equivocal. In the present study, we performed three experiments to investigate if face gender adaptation could affect gender discrimination. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that adapting to a male/female face could selectively enhance discrimination for male/female faces. Experiment 3 showed that the discrimination enhancement induced by face adaptation could transfer across a substantial change in three-dimensional face viewpoint. These results provide further evidence suggesting that, similar to low-level vision, adaptation in high-level vision could calibrate the visual system to current inputs of complex shapes (i.e. face) and improve discrimination at the adapted characteristic.

  13. Understanding face perception by means of prosopagnosia and neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossion, Bruno

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the human neuro-anatomy of face recognition is a long-standing goal of Cognitive Neuroscience. Studies of patients with face recognition impairment following brain damage (i.e., acquired prosopagnosia) have revealed the specificity of face recognition, the importance and nature of holistic/configural perception of individual faces, and the distribution of this function in the ventral occipito-temporal (VOT) cortex, with a right hemispheric dominance. Yet, neuroimaging studies in this field have essentially focused on a single face-selective area of the VOT and underestimated the right hemisphere superiority. Findings in these studies have also been taken as supporting a hierarchical view of face perception, according to which a face is decomposed into parts in early face-selective areas, these parts being subsequently integrated into a whole representation in higher-order areas. This review takes a historical and current perspective on the study of acquired prosopagnosia and neuroimaging that challenges this latter view. It argues for a combination of these methods, an approach suggesting a coarse-to-fine emergence of the holistic face percept in a non-hierarchical network of cortical face-selective areas.

  14. Passing the Totem: Successful High School Graduation of Native American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Cherie T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine obstacles Native American students, of American Indian ancestry, faced while they were attending high school and how they were able to overcome those obstacles. Eight Native American students, four male and four female, who attended schools on or near a Native American tribal reservation in Washington…

  15. Holistic face training enhances face processing in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGutis, Joseph; Cohan, Sarah; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-06-01

    Prosopagnosia has largely been regarded as an untreatable disorder. However, recent case studies using cognitive training have shown that it is possible to enhance face recognition abilities in individuals with developmental prosopagnosia. Our goal was to determine if this approach could be effective in a larger population of developmental prosopagnosics. We trained 24 developmental prosopagnosics using a 3-week online face-training program targeting holistic face processing. Twelve subjects with developmental prosopagnosia were assessed before and after training, and the other 12 were assessed before and after a waiting period, they then performed the training, and were then assessed again. The assessments included measures of front-view face discrimination, face discrimination with view-point changes, measures of holistic face processing, and a 5-day diary to quantify potential real-world improvements. Compared with the waiting period, developmental prosopagnosics showed moderate but significant overall training-related improvements on measures of front-view face discrimination. Those who reached the more difficult levels of training ('better' trainees) showed the strongest improvements in front-view face discrimination and showed significantly increased holistic face processing to the point of being similar to that of unimpaired control subjects. Despite challenges in characterizing developmental prosopagnosics' everyday face recognition and potential biases in self-report, results also showed modest but consistent self-reported diary improvements. In summary, we demonstrate that by using cognitive training that targets holistic processing, it is possible to enhance face perception across a group of developmental prosopagnosics and further suggest that those who improved the most on the training task received the greatest benefits.

  16. Do people have insight into their face recognition abilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Romina; Rossion, Bruno; Rhodes, Gillian; Laguesse, Renaud; Tez, Tolga; Hall, Bronwyn; Albonico, Andrea; Malaspina, Manuela; Daini, Roberta; Irons, Jessica; Al-Janabi, Shahd; Taylor, Libby C; Rivolta, Davide; McKone, Elinor

    2017-02-01

    Diagnosis of developmental or congenital prosopagnosia (CP) involves self-report of everyday face recognition difficulties, which are corroborated with poor performance on behavioural tests. This approach requires accurate self-evaluation. We examine the extent to which typical adults have insight into their face recognition abilities across four experiments involving nearly 300 participants. The experiments used five tests of face recognition ability: two that tap into the ability to learn and recognize previously unfamiliar faces [the Cambridge Face Memory Test, CFMT; Duchaine, B., & Nakayama, K. (2006). The Cambridge Face Memory Test: Results for neurologically intact individuals and an investigation of its validity using inverted face stimuli and prosopagnosic participants. Neuropsychologia, 44(4), 576-585. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2005.07.001; and a newly devised test based on the CFMT but where the study phases involve watching short movies rather than viewing static faces-the CFMT-Films] and three that tap face matching [Benton Facial Recognition Test, BFRT; Benton, A., Sivan, A., Hamsher, K., Varney, N., & Spreen, O. (1983). Contribution to neuropsychological assessment. New York: Oxford University Press; and two recently devised sequential face matching tests]. Self-reported ability was measured with the 15-item Kennerknecht et al. questionnaire [Kennerknecht, I., Ho, N. Y., & Wong, V. C. (2008). Prevalence of hereditary prosopagnosia (HPA) in Hong Kong Chinese population. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, 146A(22), 2863-2870. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.32552]; two single-item questions assessing face recognition ability; and a new 77-item meta-cognition questionnaire. Overall, we find that adults with typical face recognition abilities have only modest insight into their ability to recognize faces on behavioural tests. In a fifth experiment, we assess self-reported face recognition ability in people with CP and find that some people who expect to

  17. The PCR-based detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in the faeces of Triatoma infestans fed on patients with chronic American trypanosomiasis gives higher sensitivity and a quicker result than routine xenodiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulantay, I; Apt, W; Gil, L C; Rocha, C; Mundaca, K; Solari, A; Sánchez, G; Rodriguez, C; Martínez, G; De Pablos, L M; Sandoval, L; Rodríguez, J; Vilchez, S; Osuna, A

    2007-12-01

    In the xenodiagnosis (XD) of American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease), Trypanosoma cruzi in the triatomine bugs fed on the patient can now be detected using PCR (XD-PCR) as well as by microscopy (XD-M). In a study to compare XD-PCR with XD-M, triatomine bugs were fed on 50 cases of chronic American trypanosomiasis, of whom only 25 were ever found positive by XD-M. Overall, the bugs fed on 34 of the patients (all 25 cases found positive by XD-M and nine of the other patients) were found PCR-positive, giving a 330-bp fragment corresponding to part of the hyper variable region of the kinetoplast DNA of T. cruzi. Of the 25 patients who were ever found positive by XD-M, 20 gave bugs that were smear-positive on day 90 and a similar number (24; P=0.125) gave bugs that were PCR-positive at this time. On day 30, however, the bugs fed on only 11 of these 25 patients were found positive by microscopy, whereas 23 of these patients were found positive by XD-PCR (P=0.0016). Thus, not only was XD-PCR more sensitive than XD-M but it was also quicker, revealing more cases within 30 days than detected using XD-M over a period of 90 days.

  18. Holistic processing predicts face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer J; Cheung, Olivia S; Gauthier, Isabel

    2011-04-01

    The concept of holistic processing is a cornerstone of face-recognition research. In the study reported here, we demonstrated that holistic processing predicts face-recognition abilities on the Cambridge Face Memory Test and on a perceptual face-identification task. Our findings validate a large body of work that relies on the assumption that holistic processing is related to face recognition. These findings also reconcile the study of face recognition with the perceptual-expertise work it inspired; such work links holistic processing of objects with people's ability to individuate them. Our results differ from those of a recent study showing no link between holistic processing and face recognition. This discrepancy can be attributed to the use in prior research of a popular but flawed measure of holistic processing. Our findings salvage the central role of holistic processing in face recognition and cast doubt on a subset of the face-perception literature that relies on a problematic measure of holistic processing.

  19. Winning Faces Vary By Ideology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Lasse; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2016-01-01

    for others. Utilizing research on ideological stereotypes and the determinants of facial preferences, we focus on the relationship between the facial dominance of the source and the ideology of the receiver. Across five studies, we demonstrate that a dominant face is a winning face when the audience...... is conservative but backfires and decreases success when the audience is liberal. On the other hand, a non-dominant face constitutes a winning face among liberal audiences but backfires among conservatives. These effects seemingly stem from deep-seated psychological responses and shape both the election...

  20. Study of Face Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Kaushik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of both face recognition and detection techniques is carried out using the algorithms like Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and Line Edge Map (LEM. These algorithms show different rates of accuracy under different conditions. The automatic recognition of human faces presents a challenge to the pattern recognition community. Typically, human faces are different in shapes with minor similarity from person to person. Furthermore, lighting condition changes, facial expressions and pose variations further complicate the face recognition task as one of the difficult problems in pattern analysis.

  1. ARE YOU A DREAM COME TRUE OR A NIGHTMARE? DESIRED CHARACTERISTICS IN THE FACE TO FACE AND ONLINE INSTRUCTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barba Aldis PATTON

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available All instructors would all like to be a “Dream Come True” but unfortunately many come across to their students as a ‘nightmare’. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics in effective and successful online and/or face-to-face instructors. Characteristics as perceived by pre-service teachers in each setting were investigated in the survey. Results reveled that students in both types of learning environments desire and appear to need communication (or contact with the instructor in order to be considered effective and successful in their studies. However, students held face-to-face instructors to higher standards on their knowledge than the online instructors. Survey information was divided into five categories and provided very different information. Although this was a limited study, it provided valuable information that instructors cannot view teaching both online and face to face classes as one-fits all type approach.

  2. Teaching On-Line versus Face-to-Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Glenn Gordon; Ferguson, David; Caris, Mieke

    2002-01-01

    Investigates and describes the current instructor experience of teaching college courses over the Web versus in face-to-face formats in terms of teaching strategies, social issues, and media effects. Discusses communication styles, relationship between students and instructors, instructor workload, and discussion patterns, and proposes a model…

  3. Effects of aging on face identification and holistic face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, Yaroslav; Bennett, Patrick J; Sekuler, Allison B

    2013-08-09

    Several studies have shown that face identification accuracy is lower in older than younger adults. This effect of aging might be due to age differences in holistic processing, which is thought to be an important component of human face processing. Currently, however, there is conflicting evidence as to whether holistic face processing is impaired in older adults. The current study therefore re-examined this issue by measuring response accuracy in a 1-of-4 face identification task and the composite face effect (CFE), a common index of holistic processing, in older adults. Consistent with previous reports, we found that face identification accuracy was lower in older adults than in younger adults tested in the same task. We also found a significant CFE in older adults that was similar in magnitude to the CFE measured in younger subjects with the same task. Finally, we found that there was a significant positive correlation between the CFE and face identification accuracy. This last result differs from the results obtained in a previous study that used the same tasks and which found no evidence of an association between the CFE and face identification accuracy in younger adults. Furthermore, the age difference was found with subtraction-, regression-, and ratio-based estimates of the CFE. The current findings are consistent with previous claims that older adults rely more heavily on holistic processing to identify objects in conditions of limited processing resources.

  4. Registration of 3D Face Scans with Average Face Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salah, A.A.; Alyuz, N.; Akarun, L.

    2008-01-01

    The accuracy of a 3D face recognition system depends on a correct registration that aligns the facial surfaces and makes a comparison possible. The best results obtained so far use a costly one-to-all registration approach, which requires the registration of each facial surface to all faces in the g

  5. Addressee Identification In Face-to-Face Meetings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jovanovic, N.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Nijholt, Antinus; McCarthy, D.; Wintner, S.

    We present results on addressee identification in four-participants face-to-face meetings using Bayesian Network and Naive Bayes classifiers. First, we investigate how well the addressee of a dialogue act can be predicted based on gaze, utterance and conversational context features. Then, we explore

  6. Cyber- and Face-to-Face Bullying: Who Crosses Over?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hwayeon Helene; Braithwaite, Valerie; Ahmed, Eliza

    2016-01-01

    A total of 3956 children aged 12-13 years who completed the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC Wave 5) were studied about their experiences of traditional face-to-face bullying and cyberbullying in the last month. In terms of prevalence, sixty percent of the sample had been involved in traditional bullying as the victim and/or the…

  7. Finding Hope in the Face-to-Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgoose, Jennifer Y C; Edgoose, Julian M

    2017-05-01

    What does it mean to look into the face of a patient who looks back? Face-to-face encounters are at the heart of the patient-clinician relationship but their singular significance is often lost amid the demands of today's high-tech, metric-driven health care systems. Using the framework provided by the philosopher and Holocaust survivor Emmanuel Levinas, the authors explore the unique responsibility and potential for hope found only in face-to-face encounters. Revisiting this most fundamental attribute of medicine is likely our greatest chance to reclaim who we are as clinicians and why we do what we do. © 2017 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  8. The Development of Legalization of Student Management in American Public Universities and Its Revelation:From the Perspective of In Loco Parentis Extinction%Journal of Higher Education Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂敏

    2016-01-01

    The doctrine of In Loco Parentis was the dominant doctrine in the legal history of the rela-tionship between American universities & colleges and students for a long time.Until 1960s this doc-trine moves to demise gradually.In this paper,the author briefly describes the history of In Loco Pa-rentis,uses typical cases to analyze the process of judicial review intervention of student management in American public universities,and finds that judicial review will not violate the autonomy of univer-sity necessarily,whereas limited judicial review can help student management become more constitu-tional and rational,and thus protect students′rights more effectively.In this paper,the author also generalizes the experience of student management in American public universities and provides advice to complete relative laws in China.%在美国高校与学生的法律关系史上“代理父母地位说”长期处于主导地位,直到20世纪60年代其地位才发生了动摇,并走向衰亡。文章从“代理父母地位说”发展历史入手,选取典型案例,对司法审查介入美国公立大学的学生管理程序进行分析,认为司法审查并不必然破坏大学的自治权,有限的司法监督可以帮助大学的治理程序合理合宪,有效保障学生权利。同时文章通过总结美国公立大学学生管理的有效经验,进而为我国完善相关立法提供一定的借鉴。

  9. American Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2015-01-01

    The Danish artist Thomas Bang spent his early years in the USA. The works he created in this formative period were thus profoundly shaped by the contemporary movements in American art of the 1960s and 1970s when sculpture, or to be more precise, three-dimensional work became a hotbed of expansive...... experiments. This article traces how Bang made a radical move from painting to sculpture, which was characteristic of that time, and how he developed his artistic idiom by taking an active part in some of the seminal new departures in American art, in particular process art and post-minimalism. By leaping...... to the lasting impact of Bang's American period, which remains the key to understanding his works....

  10. The Relationship between Native American Ancestry, Body Mass Index and Diabetes Risk among Mexican-Americans: e0141260

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hao Hu; Chad D Huff; Yuko Yamamura; Xifeng Wu; Sara S Strom

    2015-01-01

      Higher body mass index (BMI) is a well-established risk factor for type 2 diabetes, and rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes are substantially higher among Mexican-Americans relative to non-Hispanic European Americans...

  11. American Dream in Early American Literatuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈彩娥; 李小玺

    2008-01-01

    American dream has often been closely rehted to American literature.Many say that the American literary history can be seen as the history of American dreams.In most periods in history,writers,whose dreams have been infused in a variety of characters create the American literature.While in Early American literature,American dream had been presented in a dif-ferent way.

  12. India's Higher Education Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream…

  13. Guidelines for Planning in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kenneth E.; Acero, Herman D.

    Guidelines for planning in higher education (which might have an application in Colombia) are described. Chapter 1 provides an expanded definition of higher education that includes noncollege channels to lifelong education and embraces all viable postsecondary education. Chapter 2 addresses current problems facing higher education, such as lack of…

  14. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Veldhuis, Raymond; Spreeuwers, Luuk

    2010-01-01

    Beside a few papers which focus on the forensic aspects of automatic face recognition, there is not much published about it in contrast to the literature on developing new techniques and methodologies for biometric face recognition. In this report, we review forensic facial identification which is t

  15. Age-invariant face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Unsang; Tong, Yiying; Jain, Anil K

    2010-05-01

    One of the challenges in automatic face recognition is to achieve temporal invariance. In other words, the goal is to come up with a representation and matching scheme that is robust to changes due to facial aging. Facial aging is a complex process that affects both the 3D shape of the face and its texture (e.g., wrinkles). These shape and texture changes degrade the performance of automatic face recognition systems. However, facial aging has not received substantial attention compared to other facial variations due to pose, lighting, and expression. We propose a 3D aging modeling technique and show how it can be used to compensate for the age variations to improve the face recognition performance. The aging modeling technique adapts view-invariant 3D face models to the given 2D face aging database. The proposed approach is evaluated on three different databases (i.g., FG-NET, MORPH, and BROWNS) using FaceVACS, a state-of-the-art commercial face recognition engine.

  16. Newborns' Mooney-Face Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Irene; Simion, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether newborns detect a face on the basis of a Gestalt representation based on first-order relational information (i.e., the basic arrangement of face features) by using Mooney stimuli. The incomplete 2-tone Mooney stimuli were used because they preclude focusing both on the local features (i.e., the fine…

  17. PrimeFaces beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, K Siva Prasad

    2013-01-01

    A guide for beginner's with step-by-step instructions and an easy-to-follow approach.PrimeFaces Beginners Guide is a simple and effective guide for beginners, wanting to learn and implement PrimeFaces in their JSF-based applications. Some basic JSF and jQuery skills are required before you start working through the book.

  18. Parallel Processing in Face Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Ulla; Leuthold, Hartmut; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined face perception models with regard to the functional and temporal organization of facial identity and expression analysis. Participants performed a manual 2-choice go/no-go task to classify faces, where response hand depended on facial familiarity (famous vs. unfamiliar) and response execution depended on facial expression…

  19. Side-View Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, Pinar; Spreeuwers, Luuk J.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Biggelaar , van den Olivier

    2011-01-01

    As a widely used biometrics, face recognition has many advantages such as being non-intrusive, natural and passive. On the other hand, in real-life scenarios with uncontrolled environment, pose variation up to side-view positions makes face recognition a challenging work. In this paper we discuss th

  20. Modeling Social Perception of Faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todorov, A.T.; Oosterhof, N.N.

    2011-01-01

    The face is our primary source of visual information for identifying people and reading their emotional and mental states. With the exception of prosopagnosics (who are unable to recognize faces) and those suffering from such disorders of social cognition as autism, people are extremely adept at the

  1. Priming with threatening faces modulates the self-face advantage by enhancing the other-face processing rather than suppressing the self-face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Lili; Qi, Mingming; Li, Haijiang; Hitchman, Glenn; Yang, Juan; Liu, Yijun

    2015-05-22

    Social emotional information influences self-processing in everyday activities, but few researchers have investigated this process. The current ERP study adopted a prime paradigm to investigate how socially threatening faces impact on the self-face processing advantage. After being primed with emotional faces (happy, angry or neutral), participants judged whether the target face (self, friend, and stranger) was familiar or unfamiliar. Results showed an interaction effect between the prime face and the target face at posterior P3, suggesting that after priming with happy and neutral faces, self-faces elicited larger P3 amplitudes than friend-faces and stranger-faces; however, after priming with angry faces, the P3 amplitudes were not significantly different between self-face and friend-face. Moreover, the P3 amplitudes of self-faces did not differ between priming with angry and neutral faces; however, the P3 amplitude of both friend-faces and stranger-faces showed enhanced responses after priming with angry faces compared to priming with neutral faces. We suggest that the self-face processing advantage (self vs. friend) could be weakened by priming with threatening faces, through enhancement of the other-faces processing rather than suppression of self-faces processing in angry vs. neutral face prime.

  2. Saving Face: Inclusive Communication With College Students With Disabilities Using Politeness And Face Negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Myers

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Have I offended anyone today? Have I been insensitive? Creating welcoming inclusive environments for students with and without disabilities is a higher education imperative. The academy strives to create diverse and welcoming atmospheres for students and educators and employ social justice and face saving measures to encourage respectful communication and discourage discriminatory behaviors. With the increase of college students with disabilities, professionals need to be comfortable and confident in their communication tactics. Applying politeness and face-negotiation theories to the communication preferences and behaviors of college students with disabilities, this article offers practice-oriented applications for respectful inclusive communication.

  3. Market strategies for Central American dry beans.

    OpenAIRE

    Mertínez, Lourdes; Bernsten, Richard; Zamora, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    In the past few years, the dry bean sub-sector in CentralAmerica has witnessed many dynamic changes. Unless wefind ways to increase the competitiveness of the regionalbean sub-sector, Central American countries will likelyexperience significant negative social and economic impacts,especially since these countries are facing the challenge ofadjusting to new open markets, such as the Central AmericanFree Trade Agreement (CAFTA). Bean traders, retailers, andknowledgeable government official in C...

  4. 75 FR 67907 - National Native American Heritage Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... communities face stark realities, including disproportionately high rates of poverty, unemployment, crime, and... improve health care for 1.9 million American Indians and Alaska Natives. To combat the high rates of crime...

  5. Emotion-independent face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Liyanage C.; Esther, Kho G. P.

    2000-12-01

    Current face recognition techniques tend to work well when recognizing faces under small variations in lighting, facial expression and pose, but deteriorate under more extreme conditions. In this paper, a face recognition system to recognize faces of known individuals, despite variations in facial expression due to different emotions, is developed. The eigenface approach is used for feature extraction. Classification methods include Euclidean distance, back propagation neural network and generalized regression neural network. These methods yield 100% recognition accuracy when the training database is representative, containing one image representing the peak expression for each emotion of each person apart from the neutral expression. The feature vectors used for comparison in the Euclidean distance method and for training the neural network must be all the feature vectors of the training set. These results are obtained for a face database consisting of only four persons.

  6. Effective indexing for face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochenkov, I.; Sochenkova, A.; Vokhmintsev, A.; Makovetskii, A.; Melnikov, A.

    2016-09-01

    Face recognition is one of the most important tasks in computer vision and pattern recognition. Face recognition is useful for security systems to provide safety. In some situations it is necessary to identify the person among many others. In this case this work presents new approach in data indexing, which provides fast retrieval in big image collections. Data indexing in this research consists of five steps. First, we detect the area containing face, second we align face, and then we detect areas containing eyes and eyebrows, nose, mouth. After that we find key points of each area using different descriptors and finally index these descriptors with help of quantization procedure. The experimental analysis of this method is performed. This paper shows that performing method has results at the level of state-of-the-art face recognition methods, but it is also gives results fast that is important for the systems that provide safety.

  7. Genetic specificity of face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Plomin, Robert

    2015-10-13

    Specific cognitive abilities in diverse domains are typically found to be highly heritable and substantially correlated with general cognitive ability (g), both phenotypically and genetically. Recent twin studies have found the ability to memorize and recognize faces to be an exception, being similarly heritable but phenotypically substantially uncorrelated both with g and with general object recognition. However, the genetic relationships between face recognition and other abilities (the extent to which they share a common genetic etiology) cannot be determined from phenotypic associations. In this, to our knowledge, first study of the genetic associations between face recognition and other domains, 2,000 18- and 19-year-old United Kingdom twins completed tests assessing their face recognition, object recognition, and general cognitive abilities. Results confirmed the substantial heritability of face recognition (61%), and multivariate genetic analyses found that most of this genetic influence is unique and not shared with other cognitive abilities.

  8. Horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism-collectivism: a comparison of African Americans and European Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarraju, Meera; Cokley, Kevin O

    2008-10-01

    The current study examined ethnic differences in horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism among 96 African American and 149 European American college students. Participants completed the 32-item Singelis et al. (1995) Individualism/Collectivism Scale. Multivariate analyses of variance results yielded a main effect for ethnicity, with African Americans being significantly higher on horizontal individualism and European Americans being higher on horizontal collectivism and vertical individualism. A moderated multiple regression analysis indicated that ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between individualism and collectivism. Individualism and collectivism were significantly and positively associated among African Americans, but not associated among European Americans. In addition, collectivism was related to grade point average for African Americans but not for European Americans. Contrary to the prevailing view of individualism-collectivism being unipolar, orthogonal dimensions, results provide support for individualism-collectivism to be considered as unipolar, related dimensions for African Americans.

  9. Learning faces: similar comparator faces do not improve performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott P Jones

    Full Text Available Recent evidence indicates that comparison of two similar faces can aid subsequent discrimination between them. However, the fact that discrimination between two faces is facilitated by comparing them directly does not demonstrate that comparison produces a general improvement in the processing of faces. It remains an open question whether the opportunity to compare a "target" face to similar faces can facilitate the discrimination of the exposed target face from other nonexposed faces. In Experiment 1, selection of a target face from an array of novel foils was not facilitated by intermixed exposure to the target and comparators of the same sex. Experiment 2 also found no advantage for similar comparators (morphed towards the target over unmorphed same sex comparators, or over repeated target exposure alone. But all repeated exposure conditions produced better performance than a single brief presentation of the target. Experiment 3 again demonstrated that repeated exposure produced equivalent learning in same sex and different sex comparator conditions, and also showed that increasing the number of same sex or different sex comparators failed to improve identification. In all three experiments, exposure to a target alongside similar comparators failed to support selection of the target from novel test stimuli to a greater degree than exposure alongside dissimilar comparators or repeated target exposure alone. The current results suggest that the facilitatory effects of comparison during exposure may be limited to improving discrimination between exposed stimuli, and thus our results do not support the idea that providing the opportunity for comparison is a practical means for improving face identification.

  10. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦华

    2004-01-01

    American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television,A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage out of sight.

  11. Image preprocessing study on KPCA-based face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Li, Dehua

    2015-12-01

    Face recognition as an important biometric identification method, with its friendly, natural, convenient advantages, has obtained more and more attention. This paper intends to research a face recognition system including face detection, feature extraction and face recognition, mainly through researching on related theory and the key technology of various preprocessing methods in face detection process, using KPCA method, focuses on the different recognition results in different preprocessing methods. In this paper, we choose YCbCr color space for skin segmentation and choose integral projection for face location. We use erosion and dilation of the opening and closing operation and illumination compensation method to preprocess face images, and then use the face recognition method based on kernel principal component analysis method for analysis and research, and the experiments were carried out using the typical face database. The algorithms experiment on MATLAB platform. Experimental results show that integration of the kernel method based on PCA algorithm under certain conditions make the extracted features represent the original image information better for using nonlinear feature extraction method, which can obtain higher recognition rate. In the image preprocessing stage, we found that images under various operations may appear different results, so as to obtain different recognition rate in recognition stage. At the same time, in the process of the kernel principal component analysis, the value of the power of the polynomial function can affect the recognition result.

  12. American Culture Reflected in American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华芳

    2013-01-01

    Language is a vehicle for culture. It is also a key component of culture. It not only reflects culture but also influences culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words and expressions can reflect American culture from many aspects. This paper studies some typical traits of American culture reflected in words and expressions of American Eng-lish.

  13. Get Your Education: Family Support for African-American College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sledge, Lanita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available On predominately Caucasian campuses, African Americans face the common hardships of college life and the strain of racism and discrimination. Often these students have fewer support systems that encourage them to accomplish their higher education goals. When issues arise for these students, turning to family members they trust is usually the first response. This literature review offers an examination of current research on family socioeconomic status, structure, emotional, financial, social, and academic support for African American students in a four-year college/university. Ultimately, family involvement throughout the student’s life and constant support during higher education increases the chances of persistence, while strengthening the student’s resolve to help others in the community.

  14. Understanding the Correlates of Face-to-Face and Cyberbullying Victimization Among U.S. Adolescents: A Social-Ecological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung; Lee, Jungup; Espelage, Dorothy L; Hunter, Simon C; Patton, Desmond Upton; Rivers, Tyrone

    2016-01-01

    Using a national sample of 7,533 U.S. adolescents in grades 6-10, this study compares the social-ecological correlates of face-to-face and cyberbullying victimization. Results indicate that younger age, male sex, hours spent on social media, family socioeconomic status (SES; individual context), parental monitoring (family context), positive feelings about school, and perceived peer support in school (school context) were negatively associated with both forms of victimization. European American race, Hispanic/Latino race (individual), and family satisfaction (family context) were all significantly associated with less face-to-face victimization only, and school pressure (school context) was significantly associated with more face-to-face bullying. Peer groups accepted by parents (family context) were related to less cyberbullying victimization, and calling/texting friends were related to more cyberbullying victimization. Research and practice implications are discussed.

  15. A comparison of online versus face-to-face teaching delivery in statistics instruction for undergraduate health science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fletcher; Lemonde, Manon

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess if online teaching delivery produces comparable student test performance as the traditional face-to-face approach irrespective of academic aptitude. This study involves a quasi-experimental comparison of student performance in an undergraduate health science statistics course partitioned in two ways. The first partition involves one group of students taught with a traditional face-to-face classroom approach and the other through a completely online instructional approach. The second partition of the subjects categorized the academic aptitude of the students into groups of higher and lower academically performing based on their assignment grades during the course. Controls that were placed on the study to reduce the possibility of confounding variables were: the same instructor taught both groups covering the same subject information, using the same assessment methods and delivered over the same period of time. The results of this study indicate that online teaching delivery is as effective as a traditional face-to-face approach in terms of producing comparable student test performance but only if the student is academically higher performing. For academically lower performing students, the online delivery method produced significantly poorer student test results compared to those lower performing students taught in a traditional face-to-face environment.

  16. Modeling human dynamics of face-to-face interaction networks

    CERN Document Server

    Starnini, Michele; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2013-01-01

    Face-to-face interaction networks describe social interactions in human gatherings, and are the substrate for processes such as epidemic spreading and gossip propagation. The bursty nature of human behavior characterizes many aspects of empirical data, such as the distribution of conversation lengths, of conversations per person, or of inter-conversation times. Despite several recent attempts, a general theoretical understanding of the global picture emerging from data is still lacking. Here we present a simple model that reproduces quantitatively most of the relevant features of empirical face-to-face interaction networks. The model describes agents which perform a random walk in a two dimensional space and are characterized by an attractiveness whose effect is to slow down the motion of people around them. The proposed framework sheds light on the dynamics of human interactions and can improve the modeling of dynamical processes taking place on the ensuing dynamical social networks.

  17. Temporal networks of face-to-face human interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Barrat, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The ever increasing adoption of mobile technologies and ubiquitous services allows to sense human behavior at unprecedented levels of details and scale. Wearable sensors are opening up a new window on human mobility and proximity at the finest resolution of face-to-face proximity. As a consequence, empirical data describing social and behavioral networks are acquiring a longitudinal dimension that brings forth new challenges for analysis and modeling. Here we review recent work on the representation and analysis of temporal networks of face-to-face human proximity, based on large-scale datasets collected in the context of the SocioPatterns collaboration. We show that the raw behavioral data can be studied at various levels of coarse-graining, which turn out to be complementary to one another, with each level exposing different features of the underlying system. We briefly review a generative model of temporal contact networks that reproduces some statistical observables. Then, we shift our focus from surface ...

  18. Ethical considerations in face transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles S; Gander, Brian; Cunningham, Michael; Furr, Allen; Vasilic, Dalibor; Wiggins, Osborne; Banis, Joseph C; Vossen, Marieke; Maldonado, Claudio; Perez-Abadia, Gustavo; Barker, John H

    2007-10-01

    Human face transplantation is now a clinical reality. The surgical techniques necessary to perform these procedures have been used routinely in reconstructive microsurgery for many years. From an immunological standpoint since face and hand contain mostly the same tissues it is reasonable to assume that the same immunosuppressive regimen found to be effective in human hand transplants should also work in face transplantation. It is the ethical issues associated with the risks and benefits of performing facial transplantation that have posed the greatest challenges leading up to performing this new procedure. In this editorial, we will review some of the main events that have led to the recently performed human face transplants, specifically focusing on the key ethical issues at the center of this debate. We will discuss how the research and clinical experience in human hand transplantation laid the foundation for performing face transplantation and describe the research and the ethical guidelines upon which a team at the University of Louisville based their position "to move ahead" in spite of much criticism. Finally we will outline some of the key arguments against face transplantation, and conclude with a discussion on what comes next now that the first human face transplants have been performed.

  19. Multithread Face Recognition in Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakshina Ranjan Kisku

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Faces are highly challenging and dynamic objects that are employed as biometrics evidence in identity verification. Recently, biometrics systems have proven to be an essential security tools, in which bulk matching of enrolled people and watch lists is performed every day. To facilitate this process, organizations with large computing facilities need to maintain these facilities. To minimize the burden of maintaining these costly facilities for enrollment and recognition, multinational companies can transfer this responsibility to third-party vendors who can maintain cloud computing infrastructures for recognition. In this paper, we showcase cloud computing-enabled face recognition, which utilizes PCA-characterized face instances and reduces the number of invariant SIFT points that are extracted from each face. To achieve high interclass and low intraclass variances, a set of six PCA-characterized face instances is computed on columns of each face image by varying the number of principal components. Extracted SIFT keypoints are fused using sum and max fusion rules. A novel cohort selection technique is applied to increase the total performance. The proposed protomodel is tested on BioID and FEI face databases, and the efficacy of the system is proven based on the obtained results. We also compare the proposed method with other well-known methods.

  20. Childhood Fever Management Program for Korean Paediatric Nurses: A Comparison between Blended and Face-to-Face Learning Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yong Sun; Kim, Jin Sun

    2014-11-28

    Abstract Background: A blended learning can be a useful learning strategy to improve the quality of fever and fever management education for paediatric nurses. Aim: This study compared the effects of a blended and face-to-face learning program on paediatric nurses' childhood fever management, using Theory of Planned Behavior. Methods/Design: A nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. A fevermanagement education program using blended learning (combining face-to-face and online learning components) was offered to 30 paediatric nurses, and 29 paediatric nurses received face-to-face training. Results/Findings: Learning outcomes did not significantly differ between the two groups. However, learners' satisfaction was higher for the blended learning program than the face-toface learning program. Conclusion: A blended-learning paediatric fever management program was as effective as a traditional face-to-face learning program. Therefore, a blended-learning paediatric fever management-learning program could be a useful and flexible learning method for paediatric nurses.

  1. American Nations, Latin States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nelson Ahumada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The nation, as artifact of modernity, assumes particularities in America such as the colonization and genocide of original peoples which still weighs as a never ending comeback. Nevertheless, capital, with its overwhelming force, destroyed peoples, cultures, traditions and landscapes. Latin America faces the challenge of uniting beyond the necessities of capital, and beyond two languages, spanish and portuguese. All of which has full validity at present with the blocks UNASUR and ALBA. Ethnocentricity is postulated as the exclusive condition of all possible humanity and, as programme, racism without races; Latin American miscegenation, as the potential for unity and the strength of emancipation as a project. Our intellectuals, who constructed a unique and superlative literature, are the lighthouses in the development of a nationalism without races. Anthropology in debate with psychoanalysis can become a compass in rethinking our America.

  2. Face Detection under Complex Background and Illumination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-Dong Lv; Yong-Duan Song; Mei Xu; Cong-Ying Huang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract⎯For face detection under complex background and illumination, a detection method that combines the skin color segmentation and cost-sensitive Adaboost algorithm is proposed in this paper. First, by using the characteristic of human skin color clustering in the color space, the skin color area inYCbCr color space is extracted and a large number of irrelevant backgrounds are excluded; then for remedyingthe deficiencies of Adaboost algorithm, the cost-sensitive function is introduced into the Adaboost algorithm; finally the skin color segmentation and cost-sensitive Adaboost algorithm are combined for the face detection. Experimental results show that the proposed detection method has a higher detection rate and detection speed, which can more adapt to the actual field environment.

  3. Distance Adaptive Tensor Discriminative Geometry Preserving Projection for Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqiang Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in dimensionality reduction techniques for face recognition, however, the traditional dimensionality reduction algorithms often transform the input face image data into vectors before embedding. Such vectorization often ignores the underlying data structure and leads to higher computational complexity. To effectively cope with these problems, a novel dimensionality reduction algorithm termed distance adaptive tensor discriminative geometry preserving projection (DATDGPP is proposed in this paper. The key idea of DATDGPP is as follows: first, the face image data are directly encoded in high‐order tensor structure so that the relationships among the face image data can be preserved; second, the data‐adaptive tensor distance is adopted to model the correlation among different coordinates of tensor data; third, the transformation matrix which can preserve discrimination and local geometry information is obtained by an iteration algorithm. Experimental results on three face databases show that the proposed algorithm outperforms other representative dimensionality reduction algorithms.

  4. American Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2015-01-01

    The Danish artist Thomas Bang spent his early years in the USA. The works he created in this formative period were thus profoundly shaped by the contemporary movements in American art of the 1960s and 1970s when sculpture, or to be more precise, three-dimensional work became a hotbed of expansive...... experiments. This article traces how Bang made a radical move from painting to sculpture, which was characteristic of that time, and how he developed his artistic idiom by taking an active part in some of the seminal new departures in American art, in particular process art and post-minimalism. By leaping...... forward to Bang's later works produced after his return to Denmark, the article also demonstrates how the sculptural syntax and working principles developed in the early works still underlie and structure the artist's more allegorical sculptures and installations from the 2000s, thus testifying...

  5. Community Violence Exposure of Southeast Asian American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Joyce

    2008-01-01

    Southeast Asian adolescents in the United States face the daily challenge of adjusting to the American culture and their culture of origin. However, little is known about how the patterns of their bicultural adjustment influence psychological symptoms, especially when faced with other challenges such as community violence and negative life events.…

  6. Audiences and Outcomes in Online and Traditional American Government Classes Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsch, Robert E.; Botsch, Carol S.

    2012-01-01

    In 1997 we first offered American government classes online as well as face-to-face classes. We administered pre- and posttests to our students to measure their general knowledge of American government, political attitudes, demographics, and some behaviors. Following an initial report in 2001, we continued to gather data for 10 more years; this…

  7. Jumping through Hoops: College Choice Experiences of African American Male Community College Club Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kimberly Carlotta

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to learn what factors influenced the college choice decision-making process of African American male club basketball players in the community college. To understand how the participants determined their educational path, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 African American male students who were enrolled in at least six…

  8. Are sports overemphasized in the socialization process of African American males? A qualitative analysis of former collegiate athletes' perception of sport socialization .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamon, Krystal K

    2010-01-01

    Scholars have noted that an elevated level of sports socialization in the family, neighborhood, and media exists within the African American community, creating an overrepresentation of African American males in certain sports. As a result, African American males may face consequences that are distinctly different from the consequences of those who are not socialized as intensively toward athletics, such as lower levels of academic achievement, higher expectations for professional sports careers as a means to upward mobility, and lower levels of career maturity. This study examines the sport socialization of African American male former collegiate athletes through in-depth ethnographic interviews. The results show that the respondents' perceptions were that their socializing agents and socializing environment emphasized athletics above other roles, other talents, and the development of other skills.

  9. Bracing Zonohedra With Special Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Gyula

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of simpler preliminary design gives useful input for more complicated three-dimensional building frame structure. A zonohedron, as a preliminary structure of design, is a convex polyhedron for which each face possesses central symmetry. We considered zonohedron as a special framework with the special assumption that the polygonal faces can be deformed in such a way that faces remain planar and centrally symmetric, moreover the length of all edges remains unchanged. Introducing some diagonal braces we got a new mechanism. This paper deals with the flexibility of this kind of mechanisms, and investigates the rigidity of the braced framework. The flexibility of the framework can be characterized by some vectors, which represent equivalence classes of the edges. A necessary and sufficient condition for the rigidity of the braced rhombic face zonohedra is posed. A real mechanical construction, based on two simple elements, provides a CAD prototype of these new mechanisms.

  10. Face Recognition using Curvelet Transform

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Rami

    2011-01-01

    Face recognition has been studied extensively for more than 20 years now. Since the beginning of 90s the subject has became a major issue. This technology is used in many important real-world applications, such as video surveillance, smart cards, database security, internet and intranet access. This report reviews recent two algorithms for face recognition which take advantage of a relatively new multiscale geometric analysis tool - Curvelet transform, for facial processing and feature extraction. This transform proves to be efficient especially due to its good ability to detect curves and lines, which characterize the human's face. An algorithm which is based on the two algorithms mentioned above is proposed, and its performance is evaluated on three data bases of faces: AT&T (ORL), Essex Grimace and Georgia-Tech. k-nearest neighbour (k-NN) and Support vector machine (SVM) classifiers are used, along with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for dimensionality reduction. This algorithm shows good results, ...

  11. Face Recognition in Various Illuminations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh D. Parmar,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Face Recognition (FR under various illuminations is very challenging. Normalization technique is useful for removing the dimness and shadow from the facial image which reduces the effect of illumination variations still retaining the necessary information of the face. The robust local feature extractor which is the gray-scale invariant texture called Local Binary Pattern (LBP is helpful for feature extraction. K-Nearest Neighbor classifier is utilized for the purpose of classification and to match the face images from the database. Experimental results were based on Yale-B database with three different sub categories. The proposed method has been tested to robust face recognition in various illumination conditions. Extensive experiment shows that the proposed system can achieve very encouraging performance in various illumination environments.

  12. Similarity measures for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vezzetti, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition has several applications, including security, such as (authentication and identification of device users and criminal suspects), and in medicine (corrective surgery and diagnosis). Facial recognition programs rely on algorithms that can compare and compute the similarity between two sets of images. This eBook explains some of the similarity measures used in facial recognition systems in a single volume. Readers will learn about various measures including Minkowski distances, Mahalanobis distances, Hansdorff distances, cosine-based distances, among other methods. The book also summarizes errors that may occur in face recognition methods. Computer scientists "facing face" and looking to select and test different methods of computing similarities will benefit from this book. The book is also useful tool for students undertaking computer vision courses.

  13. More Than a Pretty Face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The various facial make up designs in the Sichuan Opera are Chinese art treasures With the flick of a wrist,the intricate patterns painted on the opera performer’s face magically shift;the audience,awed

  14. Face recognition using Krawtchouk moment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Sheeba Rani; D Devaraj

    2012-08-01

    Feature extraction is one of the important tasks in face recognition. Moments are widely used feature extractor due to their superior discriminatory power and geometrical invariance. Moments generally capture the global features of the image. This paper proposes Krawtchouk moment for feature extraction in face recognition system, which has the ability to extract local features from any region of interest. Krawtchouk moment is used to extract both local features and global features of the face. The extracted features are fused using summed normalized distance strategy. Nearest neighbour classifier is employed to classify the faces. The proposed method is tested using ORL and Yale databases. Experimental results show that the proposed method is able to recognize images correctly, even if the images are corrupted with noise and possess change in facial expression and tilt.

  15. 3D Face Apperance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Astrom, K

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations......We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations...

  16. 3D Face Appearance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Åström, Kalle

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}......We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}...

  17. Career Maturity and Personality Preferences of Mexican-American and Anglo-American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, David J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Comparison of 167 Anglo-American and 122 Mexican-American ninth graders showed that the former had much greater knowledge of career decision making and greater career awareness and occupational knowledge. Mexican Americans scored higher on Sensing and Thinking and lower on Perceiving scales of the Myers Briggs Type Indicator. (SK)

  18. A comparison of the effectiveness of a game informed online learning activity and face to face teaching in increasing knowledge about managing aggression in health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Karen

    2013-12-01

    The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to significantly greater increases in knowledge but was equivalent in terms of confidence. Both forms of teaching were rated positively, but face to face teaching received significantly higher ratings than the online activity. The study suggests that short online game informed learning activities may offer an effective alternative for health professional training where face to face training is not possible. Further research is needed on the longer term impact of both types of training on practice.

  19. Face activated neurodynamic cortical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susac, Ana; Ilmoniemi, Risto J; Ranken, Doug; Supek, Selma

    2011-05-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that complex visual stimuli, such as faces, activate multiple brain regions, yet little is known on the dynamics and complexity of the activated cortical networks during the entire measurable evoked response. In this study, we used simulated and face-evoked empirical MEG data from an oddball study to investigate the feasibility of accurate, efficient, and reliable spatio-temporal tracking of cortical pathways over prolonged time intervals. We applied a data-driven, semiautomated approach to spatio-temporal source localization with no prior assumptions on active cortical regions to explore non-invasively face-processing dynamics and their modulation by task. Simulations demonstrated that the use of multi-start downhill simplex and data-driven selections of time intervals submitted to the Calibrated Start Spatio-Temporal (CSST) algorithm resulted in improved accuracy of the source localization and the estimation of the onset of their activity. Locations and dynamics of the identified sources indicated a distributed cortical network involved in face processing whose complexity was task dependent. This MEG study provided the first non-invasive demonstration, agreeing with intracranial recordings, of an early onset of the activity in the fusiform face gyrus (FFG), and that frontal activation preceded parietal for responses elicited by target faces.

  20. The Relationship between Native American Ancestry, Body Mass Index and Diabetes Risk among Mexican-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Huff, Chad D; Yamamura, Yuko; Wu, Xifeng; Strom, Sara S

    2015-01-01

    Higher body mass index (BMI) is a well-established risk factor for type 2 diabetes, and rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes are substantially higher among Mexican-Americans relative to non-Hispanic European Americans. Mexican-Americans are genetically diverse, with a highly variable distribution of Native American, European, and African ancestries. Here, we evaluate the role of Native American ancestry on BMI and diabetes risk in a well-defined Mexican-American population. Participants were randomly selected among individuals residing in the Houston area who are enrolled in the Mexican-American Cohort study. Using a custom Illumina GoldenGate Panel, we genotyped DNA from 4,662 cohort participants for 87 Ancestry-Informative Markers. On average, the participants were of 50.2% Native American ancestry, 42.7% European ancestry and 7.1% African ancestry. Using multivariate linear regression, we found BMI and Native American ancestry were inversely correlated; individuals with 80% Native American ancestry. Furthermore, we demonstrated an interaction between BMI and Native American ancestry in diabetes risk among women; Native American ancestry was a strong risk factor for diabetes only among overweight and obese women (OR = 1.190 for each 10% increase in Native American ancestry). This study offers new insight into the complex relationship between obesity, genetic ancestry, and their respective effects on diabetes risk. Findings from this study may improve the diabetes risk prediction among Mexican-American individuals thereby facilitating targeted prevention strategies.

  1. Comic Strategies and the American Covenant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses how speeches delivered at a 1960 dinner by then presidential candidates John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon changed the face of political campaign rhetoric. Argues that both men used comic strategies to create a more inclusive American covenant, and emphasizes the importance of examining pragmatic and cultural implications of presidential…

  2. African American Women Counselors, Wellness, and Spirituality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.

    2011-01-01

    Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…

  3. Honoring Their Way: Counseling American Indian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayle, Andrea Dixon; Chee, Christine; Sand, Jennifer K.

    2006-01-01

    The authors review current literature on issues facing American Indian (AI) women and discuss implications for providing culturally sensitive counseling with these women. A case study of a Dine (Navajo) woman living within mainstream society and holding true to her traditional cultural beliefs illustrates how a culturally responsive approach to…

  4. Virtual Commuters? The American Transnational Academic Exchangee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niehues, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available International student exchange in times of globalization faces numerous challenges. The Internet - making the world shrink to a global village - is often named one of them. How does the Internet affect the daily lives of American exchange students in Germany. Do they become virtual commuters?

  5. 77 FR 66527 - National Native American Heritage Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... marred by violence and tragic mistreatment. For centuries, Native Americans faced cruelty, injustice, and... opportunities for Native American students. It aims to preserve Native languages, cultures, and histories while offering a competitive education that prepares young people to succeed in college and careers. And...

  6. Parenting African American Children in the Context of Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Angela W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Middleton, Melissa; Black, Corey L.

    2015-01-01

    The legacy of slavery in the United States has impacted generations of African Americans, especially parents who must prepare their children to face the challenges associated with being a person of color in this country. The authors explore aspects of racism, White privilege, racial socialization, and African American parents' fears as they equip…

  7. Adventure Therapy with American Indian Youth. AEE White Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for Experiential Education (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Indian population is a young one; the median age is 28.0, with 34% under 18 years old. In contrast, the median age for the overall U.S. population is 35.3, with 26% younger than 18 (Hawkins, Cummins, & Marlatt, 2004). It is difficult to avoid resorting to statistical hyperbole when describing the problems facing American Indian and…

  8. Parenting African American Children in the Context of Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Angela W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Middleton, Melissa; Black, Corey L.

    2015-01-01

    The legacy of slavery in the United States has impacted generations of African Americans, especially parents who must prepare their children to face the challenges associated with being a person of color in this country. The authors explore aspects of racism, White privilege, racial socialization, and African American parents' fears as they equip…

  9. Among the Missing: The Experience of Vietnamese American Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilby, Mary Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Non-traditional nursing students, including Vietnamese Americans often face challenges that differ from those of their white counterparts. These challenges have significant impact on academic success and contribute to underrepresentation of minorities in nursing. This study explored the lived experience of 12 Vietnamese American undergraduate…

  10. Statistical Model-Based Face Pose Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Xinliang; YANG Jie; LI Feng; WANG Huahua

    2007-01-01

    A robust face pose estimation approach is proposed by using face shape statistical model approach and pose parameters are represented by trigonometric functions. The face shape statistical model is firstly built by analyzing the face shapes from different people under varying poses. The shape alignment is vital in the process of building the statistical model. Then, six trigonometric functions are employed to represent the face pose parameters. Lastly, the mapping function is constructed between face image and face pose by linearly relating different parameters. The proposed approach is able to estimate different face poses using a few face training samples. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate its efficiency and accuracy.

  11. Cross-correlation in face discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simpson, William A.; Loffler, Gunter; Tucha, Lara

    2013-01-01

    An extensive body of literature suggests that face perception depends critically upon specialised face processing mechanisms. Although it seems clear that specialised face processing is required to explain face recognition, face discrimination is a simpler task that could possibly be solved with a g

  12. Differences in motivation and adherence to a prescribed assignment after face-to-face and online psychoeducation: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsson, Sven; Johansson, Karin; Uddling, Jonas; Hursti, Timo

    2017-01-26

    Adherence to treatment homework is associated with positive outcomes in behavioral psychotherapy but compliance to assignments is still often moderate. Whether adherence can be predicted by different types of motivation for the task and whether motivation plays different roles in face-to-face compared to online psychotherapy is unknown. If models of motivation, such as Self-determination theory, can be used to predict patients' behavior, it may facilitate further research into homework promotion. The aims of this study were, therefore, to investigate whether motivation variables could predict adherence to a prescribed assignment in face-to-face and online interventions using a psychotherapy analog model. A total of 100 participants were included in this study and randomized to either a face-to-face or online intervention. Participants in both groups received a psychoeducation session and were given an assignment for the subsequent week. The main outcome measurements were self-reported motivation and adherence to the assignment. Participant in the face-to-face condition reported significantly higher levels of motivation and showed higher levels of adherence compared to participants in the online condition. Adherence to the assignment was positively associated with intrinsic motivation and intervention credibility in the whole sample and especially in the online group. This study shows that intrinsic motivation and intervention credibility are strong predictors of adherence to assignments, especially in online interventions. The results indicate that intrinsic motivation may be partly substituted with face-to-face contact with a therapist. It may also be possible to identify patients with low motivation in online interventions who are at risk of dropping out. Methods for making online interventions more intrinsically motivating without increasing external pressure are needed. clinicaltrials.gov NCT02895308 . Retrospectively registered 30 August 2016.

  13. A Conceptual Model of Cultural Predictors of Anxiety among Japanese American and Part-Japanese American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John Kino Yamaguchi; Goebert, Deborah; Hishinuma, Earl; Miyamoto, Robin; Anzai, Neal; Izutsu, Satoru; Yanagida, Evelyn; Nishimura, Stephanie; Andrade, Naleen; Baker, F. M.

    2002-01-01

    Develops and assesses a model integrating Japanese ethnicity, cultural identity, and anxiety in Japanese American and part-Japanese American high school seniors. Japanese American adolescents scored higher on the scale and reported fewer anxiety symptoms than part-Japanese American adolescents. The model had a good overall fit, suggesting that…

  14. Competition and Performance in European Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teixeira, Pedro; Biscaia, Ricardo; Rocha, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Higher education institutions face today a demanding and complex context in which they are asked to fulfill multiple roles. Many of these challenges have to be faced in a complex financial context in which traditional modes of funding have been transformed and public sources are not as generous....... In this paper we will analyse the major trends in higher education funding in Europe and underline to what extent the current debates about higher education and its funding have been significantly influenced by economic considerations. We will identify some of the main issues that dominate the current debate...

  15. Separated Same Rectangle Feature for Face Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-hee HONG; Hwan-ik CHUNG; Hern-soo HAHN

    2010-01-01

    The paper proposes a new method of "Separated Same Rectangle Feature (SSRF)" for face detection.Generally,Haar-Like feature is used to make an Adaboost training algorithm with strong classifier.Haar-like feature is composed of two or more attached same rectangles,Inefficiency of the Haar-like feature often results from two or more attached same rectangles.But the proposed SSRF are composed of two separated same rectangles.So,it is very flexible and detailed.Therefore it creates more accuate strong classifier than Haar-Like feature.SSRF uses integral image to reduce executive time.Haar-Iike feature calculates the sum of intensities of pixels on two or more rectangles.But SSRF always calculates the sum of in-tensities of pixels on only two rectangles.The weak classifier of Ada-boost algorithm based on SSRF is faster than one based an Haar-likefeature.In the experiment,we use 1 000 face images and 1 000non-face images for Adaboost training.The proposed SSRF shows about 0,9% higher accuracy than Haar-Iike features.

  16. A Case Study of American and Chinese College Students' Motivation Differences in Online Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunjuan; Mei, Zongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Motivating students has been a key challenge facing instructors in non-face-to-face instructional contexts. Existing researches into motivation in online learning environment have revealed that there are learning motivation differences among students from different cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this study is to identify whether American and…

  17. Ethnicity identification from face images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoguang; Jain, Anil K.

    2004-08-01

    Human facial images provide the demographic information, such as ethnicity and gender. Conversely, ethnicity and gender also play an important role in face-related applications. Image-based ethnicity identification problem is addressed in a machine learning framework. The Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) based scheme is presented for the two-class (Asian vs. non-Asian) ethnicity classification task. Multiscale analysis is applied to the input facial images. An ensemble framework, which integrates the LDA analysis for the input face images at different scales, is proposed to further improve the classification performance. The product rule is used as the combination strategy in the ensemble. Experimental results based on a face database containing 263 subjects (2,630 face images, with equal balance between the two classes) are promising, indicating that LDA and the proposed ensemble framework have sufficient discriminative power for the ethnicity classification problem. The normalized ethnicity classification scores can be helpful in the facial identity recognition. Useful as a "soft" biometric, face matching scores can be updated based on the output of ethnicity classification module. In other words, ethnicity classifier does not have to be perfect to be useful in practice.

  18. Atypical face gaze in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepagnier, Cheryl; Sebrechts, Marc M; Peterson, Rebecca

    2002-06-01

    An eye-tracking study of face and object recognition was conducted to clarify the character of face gaze in autistic spectrum disorders. Experimental participants were a group of individuals diagnosed with Asperger's disorder or high-functioning autistic disorder according to their medical records and confirmed by the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). Controls were selected on the basis of age, gender, and educational level to be comparable to the experimental group. In order to maintain attentional focus, stereoscopic images were presented in a virtual reality (VR) headset in which the eye-tracking system was installed. Preliminary analyses show impairment in face recognition, in contrast with equivalent and even superior performance in object recognition among participants with autism-related diagnoses, relative to controls. Experimental participants displayed less fixation on the central face than did control-group participants. The findings, within the limitations of the small number of subjects and technical difficulties encountered in utilizing the helmet-mounted display, suggest an impairment in face processing on the part of the individuals in the experimental group. This is consistent with the hypothesis of disruption in the first months of life, a period that may be critical to typical social and cognitive development, and has important implications for selection of appropriate targets of intervention.

  19. Impaired face detection may explain some but not all cases of developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, Kirsten A; Duchaine, Brad

    2016-05-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is defined by severe face recognition difficulties due to the failure to develop the visual mechanisms for processing faces. The two-process theory of face recognition (Morton & Johnson, 1991) implies that DP could result from a failure of an innate face detection system; this failure could prevent an individual from then tuning higher-level processes for face recognition (Johnson, 2005). Work with adults indicates that some individuals with DP have normal face detection whereas others are impaired. However, face detection has not been addressed in children with DP, even though their results may be especially informative because they have had less opportunity to develop strategies that could mask detection deficits. We tested the face detection abilities of seven children with DP. Four were impaired at face detection to some degree (i.e. abnormally slow, or failed to find faces) while the remaining three children had normal face detection. Hence, the cases with impaired detection are consistent with the two-process account suggesting that DP could result from a failure of face detection. However, the cases with normal detection implicate a higher-level origin. The dissociation between normal face detection and impaired identity perception also indicates that these abilities depend on different neurocognitive processes.

  20. A note on skill formation in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humburg, M.; van der Velden, R.K.W.; Glass, A.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is facing many challenges, including increased student enrolments, diversification of the student population and decreasing budgets. Meeting the demands of the labour market is another of the major challenges faced by higher education. In the area of meeting demands of the labour

  1. A note on skill formation in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humburg, M.; van der Velden, R.K.W.; Glass, A.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is facing many challenges, including increased student enrolments, diversification of the student population and decreasing budgets. Meeting the demands of the labour market is another of the major challenges faced by higher education. In the area of meeting demands of the labour ma

  2. Adapting American Policymaking to Overcome American Exceptionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    missions, and of military operations spanning administrations. In conclusion, an apologist posture to defend American foreign policies is not called...military operations spanning administrations. In conclusion, an apologist posture to defend American foreign policies is not called for. However, a deep...and brings to light the tension between American ideals and American practices and policies. V/ hen exposed, this tension opens the door for American

  3. Optimizing Face Recognition Using PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Abdullah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Principle Component Analysis PCA is a classical feature extraction and data representation technique widely used in pattern recognition. It is one of the most successful techniques in face recognition. But it has drawback of high computational especially for big size database. This paper conducts a study to optimize the time complexity of PCA (eigenfaces that does not affects the recognition performance. The authors minimize the participated eigenvectors which consequently decreases the computational time. A comparison is done to compare the differences between the recognition time in the original algorithm and in the enhanced algorithm. The performance of the original and the enhanced proposed algorithm is tested on face94 face database. Experimental results show that the recognition time is reduced by 35% by applying our proposed enhanced algorithm. DET Curves are used to illustrate the experimental results.

  4. Optimizing Face Recognition Using PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Abdullah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Principle Component Analysis PCA is a classical feature extraction and data representation technique widely used in pattern recognition. It is one of the most successful techniques in face recognition. But it has drawback of high computational especially for big size database. This paper conducts a study to optimize the time complexity of PCA (eigenfaces that does not affects the recognition performance. The authorsminimize the participated eigenvectors which consequently decreases the computational time. A comparison is done to compare the differences between the recognition time in the original algorithm and in the enhanced algorithm. The performance of the original and the enhanced proposed algorithm is tested on face94 face database. Experimental results show that the recognition time is reduced by 35% by applying our proposed enhanced algorithm. DET Curves are used to illustrate the experimental results.

  5. Face shield design against blast-induced head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Long Bin; Tse, Kwong Ming; Tan, Yuan Hong; Sapingi, Mohamad Ali Bin; Tan, Vincent Beng Chye; Lee, Heow Pueh

    2017-03-22

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury has been on the rise in recent years because of the increasing use of improvised explosive devices in conflict zones. Our study investigates the response of a helmeted human head subjected to a blast of 1 atm peak overpressure, for cases with and without a standard polycarbonate (PC) face shield and for face shields comprising of composite PC and aerogel materials and with lateral edge extension. The novel introduction of aerogel into the laminate face shield is explored and its wave-structure interaction mechanics and performance in blast mitigation is analysed. Our numerical results show that the face shield prevented direct exposure of the blast wave to the face and help delays the transmission of the blast to reduce the intracranial pressures (ICPs) at the parietal lobe. However, the blast wave can diffract and enter the midface region at the bottom and side edges of the face shield, resulting in traumatic brain injury. This suggests that the bottom and sides of the face shield are important regions to focus on to reduce wave ingress. The laminated PC/aerogel/PC face shield yielded higher peak positive and negative ICPs at the frontal lobe, than the original PC one. For the occipital and temporal brain regions, the laminated face shield performed better than the original. The composite face shield with extended edges reduced ICP at the temporal lobe but increases ICP significantly at the parietal lobe, which suggests that a greater coverage may not lead to better mitigating effects. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. [Neural basis of self-face recognition: social aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Motoaki

    2012-07-01

    Considering the importance of the face in social survival and evidence from evolutionary psychology of visual self-recognition, it is reasonable that we expect neural mechanisms for higher social-cognitive processes to underlie self-face recognition. A decade of neuroimaging studies so far has, however, not provided an encouraging finding in this respect. Self-face specific activation has typically been reported in the areas for sensory-motor integration in the right lateral cortices. This observation appears to reflect the physical nature of the self-face which representation is developed via the detection of contingency between one's own action and sensory feedback. We have recently revealed that the medial prefrontal cortex, implicated in socially nuanced self-referential process, is activated during self-face recognition under a rich social context where multiple other faces are available for reference. The posterior cingulate cortex has also exhibited this activation modulation, and in the separate experiment showed a response to attractively manipulated self-face suggesting its relevance to positive self-value. Furthermore, the regions in the right lateral cortices typically showing self-face-specific activation have responded also to the face of one's close friend under the rich social context. This observation is potentially explained by the fact that the contingency detection for physical self-recognition also plays a role in physical social interaction, which characterizes the representation of personally familiar people. These findings demonstrate that neuroscientific exploration reveals multiple facets of the relationship between self-face recognition and social-cognitive process, and that technically the manipulation of social context is key to its success.

  7. Eye-tracking analysis of face observing and face recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Iskra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Images are one of the key elements of the content of the World Wide Web. One group of web images are also photos of people. When various institutions (universities, research organizations, companies, associations, etc. present their staff, they should include photos of people for the purpose of more informative presentation. The fact is, that there are many specifies how people see face images and how do they remember them. Several methods to investigate person’s behavior during use of web content can be performed and one of the most reliable method among them is eye tracking. It is very common technique, particularly when it comes to observing web images. Our research focused on behavior of observing face images in process of memorizing them. Test participants were presented with face images shown at different time scale. We focused on three main face elements: eyes, mouth and nose. The results of our analysis can help not only in web presentation, which are, in principle, not limited by time observation, but especially in public presentations (conferences, symposia, and meetings.

  8. Saving Face and Group Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Mao, Lei; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    2015-01-01

    their self- but also other group members' image. This behavior is frequent even in the absence of group identity. When group identity is more salient, individuals help regardless of whether the least performer is an in-group or an out-group. This suggests that saving others' face is a strong social norm.......Are people willing to sacrifice resources to save one's and others' face? In a laboratory experiment, we study whether individuals forego resources to avoid the public exposure of the least performer in their group. We show that a majority of individuals are willing to pay to preserve not only...

  9. Embedded Face Detection and Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göksel Günlü

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The need to increase security in open or public spaces has in turn given rise to the requirement to monitor these spaces and analyse those images on‐site and on‐time. At this point, the use of smart cameras ‐ of which the popularity has been increasing ‐ is one step ahead. With sensors and Digital Signal Processors (DSPs, smart cameras generate ad hoc results by analysing the numeric images transmitted from the sensor by means of a variety of image‐processing algorithms. Since the images are not transmitted to a distance processing unit but rather are processed inside the camera, it does not necessitate high‐ bandwidth networks or high processor powered systems; it can instantaneously decide on the required access. Nonetheless, on account of restricted memory, processing power and overall power, image processing algorithms need to be developed and optimized for embedded processors. Among these algorithms, one of the most important is for face detection and recognition. A number of face detection and recognition methods have been proposed recently and many of these methods have been tested on general‐purpose processors. In smart cameras ‐ which are real‐life applications of such methods ‐ the widest use is on DSPs. In the present study, the Viola‐Jones face detection method ‐ which was reported to run faster on PCs ‐ was optimized for DSPs; the face recognition method was combined with the developed sub‐region and mask‐based DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform. As the employed DSP is a fixed‐point processor, the processes were performed with integers insofar as it was possible. To enable face recognition, the image was divided into sub‐ regions and from each sub‐region the robust coefficients against disruptive elements ‐ like face expression, illumination, etc. ‐ were selected as the features. The discrimination of the selected features was enhanced via LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis and then employed for

  10. [Endoscopy and face-lift].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardour, J C; Abbou, R

    2017-08-02

    For many years, the face-lift has not been the only intervention for facial rejuvenation. It is necessary today to specify the type of face-lift, cervico-facial lifting, frontal lifting or facelift. We will consider in this article the frontal lift and centro-facial lift and its possible execution assisted by endoscopy with therefore minimal scars, hidden in the scalp. We will consider successively its technique, its indications and its results highlighting a very long hold over time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Instant PrimeFaces starter

    CERN Document Server

    Hlavats, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Primefaces Starter is a fast-paced, introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start using Primfaces, instantly.Instant PrimeFaces Starter is great for developers looking to get started quickly with PrimeFaces. It's assumed that you have some JSF experience already, as well as familiarity with other Java technologies such as CDI and JPA and an understanding of MVC principles, object-relational mapping (ORM),

  12. Face Recognition in Uncontrolled Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhey Shyam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method of facial image representation for face recognition in uncontrolled environment. It is named as augmented local binary patterns (A-LBP that works on both, uniform and non-uniform patterns. It replaces the central non-uniform pattern with a majority value of the neighbouring uniform patterns obtained after processing all neighbouring non-uniform patterns. These patterns are finally combined with the neighbouring uniform patterns, in order to extract discriminatory information from the local descriptors. The experimental results indicate the vitality of the proposed method on particular face datasets, where the images are prone to extreme variations of illumination.

  13. A Survey: Face Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sharif

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the existing techniques of face recognition are to be encountered along with their pros and cons to conduct a brief survey. The most general methods include Eigenface (Eigenfeatures, Hidden Markov Model (HMM, geometric based and template matching approaches. This survey actually performs analysis on these approaches in order to constitute face representations which will be discussed as under. In the second phase of the survey, factors affecting the recognition rates and processes are also discussed along with the solutions provided by different authors.

  14. Embedded Face Detection and Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göksel Günlü

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The need to increase security in open or public spaces has in turn given rise to the requirement to monitor these spaces and analyse those images on-site and on-time. At this point, the use of smart cameras – of which the popularity has been increasing – is one step ahead. With sensors and Digital Signal Processors (DSPs, smart cameras generate ad hoc results by analysing the numeric images transmitted from the sensor by means of a variety of image-processing algorithms. Since the images are not transmitted to a distance processing unit but rather are processed inside the camera, it does not necessitate high-bandwidth networks or high processor powered systems; it can instantaneously decide on the required access. Nonetheless, on account of restricted memory, processing power and overall power, image processing algorithms need to be developed and optimized for embedded processors. Among these algorithms, one of the most important is for face detection and recognition. A number of face detection and recognition methods have been proposed recently and many of these methods have been tested on general-purpose processors. In smart cameras – which are real-life applications of such methods – the widest use is on DSPs. In the present study, the Viola-Jones face detection method – which was reported to run faster on PCs – was optimized for DSPs; the face recognition method was combined with the developed sub-region and mask-based DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform. As the employed DSP is a fixed-point processor, the processes were performed with integers insofar as it was possible. To enable face recognition, the image was divided into sub-regions and from each sub-region the robust coefficients against disruptive elements – like face expression, illumination, etc. – were selected as the features. The discrimination of the selected features was enhanced via LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis and then employed for recognition. Thanks to its

  15. An Analysis on Student Learning Outcomes Assessment in American Higher Education%透视美国高等教育中的学生学习结课评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊耕

    2012-01-01

    The traditional assessment in the US higher education focuses on input resources ,while student learning outcomes assessment emphasizes learning outcomes of the students. It assesses knowledge, abilities, skills, values, and attributes of students after their college experiences. The reasons for student learning outcomes assessment becoming a movement are the national demand for high-level skilled labors, the accountability from the governments and the requirement of the accrediting organizations. The assessment is carried on at multi levels: government,institution,program and course. It is characterized as student-centered, widely participated and using various approaches.%学生学习结果评价是美国高等教育评价由关注资源输入到全面注重受教育者学习结果的一次转变。它侧重评价学生学习后所获得的各方面知识、能力和品质。该评价成为一场运动的主要原因是培养高技能劳动力的需求、政府问责的加强以及认证组织的推动。学生学习结果评价的实施在政府、高校以及专业、课堂等众多层面展开,并表现出以学生为中心的价值取向、评价参与者广泛以及评价方法灵活多样等特点。

  16. Cash incentives improve participation rate in a face-to-face survey: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Lei, Han; Li, Ge; Huang, Wei; Mu, Lihong

    2015-02-01

    Our study examined the effect of a ChinaYuan (CNY) 10 cash incentive on the participation rate in a face-to-face health survey among the general Chinese population. Subjects older than 15 years of age and had been living in the two selected districts for more than 6 months were selected using multistage random sampling. Participants from only one district received a cash incentive (CNY 10) for completing the survey. The participation rates in the nonincentive and incentive groups were 39.9% and 61.2%, respectively, P rate (54.4%); no significant difference was found between men (39.4%) and women (40.5%), P = 0.59. In the incentive group, the highest participation rate was observed in the ≥75 years (78.1%) age group. The cost for a completed interview was CNY 34.5 in the incentive group and CNY 35.8 in the nonincentive group. Cash incentives might increase participation rates in face-to-face surveys in China. The absolute cost was higher for the incentive group, whereas cost for a completed interview was actually the lowest. Furthermore, participation rate did not differ between men and women, but elders were more likely to participate in health surveys. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. High-resolution measurements of face-to-face contact patterns in a primary school

    CERN Document Server

    Stehlé, J; Barrat, A; Cattuto, C; Isella, L; Pinton, J -F; Quaggiotto, M; Broeck, W Van den; Régis, C; Lina, B; Vanhems, P; 10.1371/journal.pone.0023176

    2011-01-01

    Little quantitative information is available on the mixing patterns of children in school environments. Describing and understanding contacts between children at school would help quantify the transmission opportunities of respiratory infections and identify situations within schools where the risk of transmission is higher. We report on measurements carried out in a French school (6-12 years children), where we collected data on the time-resolved face-to-face proximity of children and teachers using a proximity-sensing infrastructure based on radio frequency identification devices. Data on face-to-face interactions were collected on October 1st and 2nd, 2009. We recorded 77,602 contact events between 242 individuals. Each child has on average 323 contacts per day with 47 other children, leading to an average daily interaction time of 176 minutes. Most contacts are brief, but long contacts are also observed. Contacts occur mostly within each class, and each child spends on average three times more time in con...

  18. Incorporating Online Discussion in Face to Face Classroom Learning: A New Blended Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenli; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses an innovative blended learning strategy which incorporates online discussion in both in-class face to face, and off-classroom settings. Online discussion in a face to face class is compared with its two counterparts, off-class online discussion as well as in-class, face to face oral discussion, to examine the advantages and…

  19. Scientific collaboratories in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Li, Bin

    2003-01-01

    their development. We conducted a repeated-measures study that provided data regarding social interaction learning styles and perceptions of a scientific collaboratory system from 40 university science students working face-to-face and remotely. Students with a strong competitive learning style preference or who......Scientific collaboratories hold the promise of providing students access to specialized scientific instruments, data and experts, enabling learning opportunities perhaps otherwise not available. However, evaluation of scientific collaboratories in higher education has lagged behind...... worked with a student with a strong competitive learning style reported a slightly more positive perception of the relative advantage, compatibility and complexity of the collaboratory system. Students with a strong individualistic learning style preference or who worked with a student with a strong...

  20. Infidelity in Dating Relationships: Gender-Specific Correlates of Face-to-Face and Online Extradyadic Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Alexandra; Pereira, Marco; Andrade, Rita; Dattilio, Frank M; Narciso, Isabel; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the gender-specific correlates of face-to-face and online extradyadic involvement (EDI) in dating relationships. The sample consisted of 561 women (M age = 23.19 years) and 222 men (M age = 23.97 years), all of whom reported being in an exclusive dating relationship for an average of 35 months. Participants completed the following self-report measures: Extradyadic Behavior Inventory, Attitudes toward Infidelity Scale, and Investment Model Scale. During the current relationship, men were more likely than women to report engagement in face-to-face physical/sexual EDI (23.4 vs. 15.5 %) and online sexual EDI (15.3 vs. 4.6 %). Both men and women with a history of infidelity in a prior relationship were more likely to engage in EDI. More positive attitudes toward infidelity, lower relationship satisfaction, lower commitment, and higher quality of alternatives were significantly associated with EDI, regardless of gender. Women reporting infidelity of a partner in a prior relationship were more likely to engage in face-to-face and online emotional EDI; a longer relationship and a younger age at the first sexual encounter were significant correlates of the engagement in face-to-face emotional EDI. Women with higher education were approximately three times more likely to engage in online sexual EDI. Although men and women are converging in terms of overall EDI, men still report higher engagement in physical/sexual extradyadic behaviors, and the correlates of sexual and emotional EDI vary according to gender. This study contributes to a comprehensive approach of factors influencing the likelihood of EDI and encourages future research in this area.

  1. "It's Different Lives": A Guatemalan American Adolescent's Construction of Ethnic and Gender Identities across Educational Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Lucila D.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from a multiyear ethnography and a longitudinal case study, this article examines how one Guatemalan American teenager negotiates the multiple socializations to ethnic and gender identities in her home, her Pentecostal church, and her high school. She must face processes of Americanization and Mexicanization. Americanization's thrust is to…

  2. Artificial faces are harder to remember.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin; Pacella, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    Observers interact with artificial faces in a range of different settings and in many cases must remember and identify computer-generated faces. In general, however, most adults have heavily biased experience favoring real faces over synthetic faces. It is well known that face recognition abilities are affected by experience such that faces belonging to "out-groups" defined by race or age are more poorly remembered and harder to discriminate from one another than faces belonging to the "in-group." Here, we examine the extent to which artificial faces form an "out-group" in this sense when other perceptual categories are matched. We rendered synthetic faces using photographs of real human faces and compared performance in a memory task and a discrimination task across real and artificial versions of the same faces. We found that real faces were easier to remember, but only slightly more discriminable than artificial faces. Artificial faces were also equally susceptible to the well-known face inversion effect, suggesting that while these patterns are still processed by the human visual system in a face-like manner, artificial appearance does compromise the efficiency of face processing.

  3. Face recognition, a landmarks tale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumer, Gerrit Maarten

    2009-01-01

    Face recognition is a technology that appeals to the imagination of many people. This is particularly reflected in the popularity of science-fiction films and forensic detective series such as CSI, CSI New York, CSI Miami, Bones and NCIS. Although these series tend to be set in the present, their a

  4. Interpretative challenges in face analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Oliveira, Sandi Michele; Hernández-Flores, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    In current research on face analysis questions of who and what should be interpreted, as well as how, are of central interest. In English language research, this question has led to a debate on the concepts of P1 (laypersons, representing the “emic” perspective) and P2 (researchers, representing ...

  5. Saving Face and Group Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Mao, Lei; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    2015-01-01

    Are people willing to sacrifice resources to save one's and others' face? In a laboratory experiment, we study whether individuals forego resources to avoid the public exposure of the least performer in their group. We show that a majority of individuals are willing to pay to preserve not only th...

  6. Face-Sealing Butterfly Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervo, John N.

    1992-01-01

    Valve plate made to translate as well as rotate. Valve opened and closed by turning shaft and lever. Interactions among lever, spring, valve plate, and face seal cause plate to undergo combination of translation and rotation so valve plate clears seal during parts of opening and closing motions.

  7. Facing a dark winter. Albania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truijen, A.

    2007-11-15

    Albania is once again facing a dark winter. The country has already been suffering power cuts lasting a couple of hours a day for the past seventeen years, Drought, increased power consumption and political maladministration are the factors underlying the electricity problems that have now mushroomed into a national crisis.

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Face Symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, Abraham

    2015-06-01

    The major objective of this article was to report quantitatively the degree of human face symmetry for reported images taken from the Internet. From the original image of a certain person that appears in the center of each triplet, 2 symmetric combinations were constructed that are based on the left part of the image and its mirror image (left-left) and on the right part of the image and its mirror image (right-right). By applying a computer software that enables to determine length, surface area, and perimeter of any geometric shape, the following measurements were obtained for each triplet: face perimeter and area; distance between the pupils; mouth length; its perimeter and area; nose length and face length, usually below the ears; as well as the area and perimeter of the pupils. Then, for each of the above measurements, the value C, which characterizes the degree of symmetry of the real image with respect to the combinations right-right and left-left, was calculated. C appears on the right-hand side below each image. A high value of C indicates a low symmetry, and as the value is decreasing, the symmetry is increasing. The magnitude on the left relates to the pupils and compares the difference between the area and perimeter of the 2 pupils. The major conclusion arrived at here is that the human face is asymmetric to some degree; the degree of asymmetry is reported quantitatively under each portrait.

  9. Face recognition, a landmarks tale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumer, G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Face recognition is a technology that appeals to the imagination of many people. This is particularly reflected in the popularity of science-fiction films and forensic detective series such as CSI, CSI New York, CSI Miami, Bones and NCIS. Although these series tend to be set in the present, their ap

  10. The Face of the Moon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张保

    2001-01-01

    Have you ever seen the man in the moon?If you look closelyat the moon on some nights, you can see the face of the man in themoon. Some people say that they can see an old man carryingsticks. Others see a girl reading a book. These pictures are madeby the mountains (山脉) and plains (平原) of the moon.

  11. Repetition priming from moving faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Karen; Bruce, Vicki

    2004-06-01

    Recent experiments have suggested that seeing a familiar face move provides additional dynamic information to the viewer, useful in the recognition of identity. In four experiments, repetition priming was used to investigate whether dynamic information is intrinsic to the underlying face representations. The results suggest that a moving image primes more effectively than a static image, even when the same static image is shown in the prime and the test phases (Experiment 1). Furthermore, when moving images are presented in the test phase (Experiment 2), there is an advantage for moving prime images. The most priming advantage is found with naturally moving faces, rather than with those shown in slow motion (Experiment 3). Finally, showing the same moving sequence at prime and test produced more priming than that found when different moving sequences were shown (Experiment 4). The results suggest that dynamic information is intrinsic to the face representations and that there is an advantage to viewing the same moving sequence at prime and test.

  12. Continuing Education: Facing the Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Marianne

    1986-01-01

    Examines a number of issues facing the Australian library and information services community in the area of continuing education, including recommendations of the Library Association of Australia, the cost of continuing education activities, the role and responsibility of schools of library and information studies, and notions of coordination.…

  13. Towards automatic forensic face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Luuk; Veldhuis, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology and experimental results for evidence evaluation in the context of forensic face recognition. In forensic applications, the matching score (hereafter referred to as similarity score) from a biometric system must be represented as a Likelihood Ratio (LR). In our

  14. The Two Faces of Micropolitics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Demystifies the two "faces" of micropolitics. "Policy micropolitics" distinguishes between micropolitics and management and focuses on the relationship between school micropolitics and the wider macropolitical context. "Management micropolitics" makes no clear micropolitics/management distinction and focuses on educators' strategies to pursue…

  15. Cool Styles for Your Face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    GLASSES are a part of modern fashion. The right spectacle frames can not only add some demureness to you, but also perfect your face. To choose suitable frames for yourself, you must first know your own features. Comb all your hair backwards to show your entire features clearly in front of the

  16. Face Recognition With Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Ninth Annual Cognitive Science Society Conference, Volume unknown:461-473 (1987). 8. Damasio , Antonio R. "Prosopagnosia," Trends in Neuroscience, 8:132...is also supported by the work of J. C. Meadows and A. R. Damasio in their studies of individuals who have lost the ability to recognize faces, a

  17. Interpretative challenges in face analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Oliveira, Sandi Michele; Hernández-Flores, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    In current research on face analysis questions of who and what should be interpreted, as well as how, are of central interest. In English language research, this question has led to a debate on the concepts of P1 (laypersons, representing the “emic” perspective) and P2 (researchers, representing ...

  18. Higher Education Tarred with a Harvard Brush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachtenberg, Stephen Joel

    1987-01-01

    The Secretary of Education Bennett and Michael Kinsley in an article in the Wall Street Journal claim that colleges are wasteful and ineffective, but the picture they paint of American higher education is essentially mythical. Higher education is seen as a scapegoat for politicians in an election year. (MLW)

  19. Higher Education Tarred with a Harvard Brush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachtenberg, Stephen Joel

    1987-01-01

    The Secretary of Education Bennett and Michael Kinsley in an article in the Wall Street Journal claim that colleges are wasteful and ineffective, but the picture they paint of American higher education is essentially mythical. Higher education is seen as a scapegoat for politicians in an election year. (MLW)

  20. Mild test anxiety influences neurocognitive performance among African Americans and European Americans: identifying interfering and facilitating sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thames, April D; Panos, Stella E; Arentoft, Alyssa; Byrd, Desiree A; Hinkin, Charles H; Arbid, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined ethnic/racial differences in test-related anxiety and its relationship to neurocognitive performance in a community sample of African American (n = 40) and European American (n = 36) adults. The authors hypothesized the following: (a) Test-anxiety related to negative performance evaluation would be associated with lower neurocognitive performance, whereas anxiety unrelated to negative evaluation would be associated with higher neurocognitive performance. (b) African American participants would report higher levels of anxiety about negative performance evaluation than European Americans. (c) European Americans would report higher levels of anxiety unrelated to negative performance evaluation. The first two hypotheses were supported: Ethnic/racial differences in test-taking anxiety emerged such that African Americans reported significantly higher levels of negative performance evaluation, which was associated with lower cognitive performance. The third hypothesis was not supported: African Americans and European Americans reported similar levels of test-anxiety unrelated to negative evaluation.