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Sample records for facility worker dose

  1. CANISTER HANDLING FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.T. Dexheimer

    2004-02-27

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Canister Handling Facility (CHF) performing operations to receive transportation casks, transfer wastes, prepare waste packages, perform associated equipment maintenance. The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation. The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the CHF and provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application.

  2. TRANSPORTATION CASK RECEIPT AND RETURN FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Arakali

    2005-02-24

    The purpose of this design calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Transportation Cask Receipt and Return Facility (TCRRF) of the repository including the personnel at the security gate and cask staging areas. This calculation is required to support the preclosure safety analysis (PCSA) to ensure that the predicted doses are within the regulatory limits prescribed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The Cask Receipt and Return Facility receives NRC licensed transportation casks loaded with spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The TCRRF operation starts with the receipt, inspection, and survey of the casks at the security gate and the staging areas, and proceeds to the process facilities. The transportation casks arrive at the site via rail cars or trucks under the guidance of the national transportation system. This calculation was developed by the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering organization and is intended solely for the use of Design and Engineering in work regarding facility design. Environmental and Nuclear Engineering personnel should be consulted before using this calculation for purposes other than those stated herein or for use by individuals other than authorized personnel in the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering organization.

  3. Intake risk and dose evaluation methods for workers in radiochemistry labs of a medical cyclotron facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandrino, Riccardo; del Vecchio, Antonella; Savi, Annarita; Todde, Sergio; Belloli, Sara

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the risks and doses for the internal contamination of the radiochemistry staff in a high workload medical cyclotron facility. The doses from internal contamination derive from the inhalation of radioactive gas leakage from the cells by personnel involved in the synthesis processes and are calculated from urine sample measurements. Various models are considered for the calculation of the effective committed dose from the analysis of these urine samples, and the results are compared with data obtained from local environmental measurement of the radioactivity released inside the lab.

  4. SUBSURFACE FACILITY WORKER DOES ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Arakali; E. Faillace; A. Linden

    2004-02-27

    The purpose of this design calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the subsurface facility of the repository performing emplacement, maintenance, and retrieval operations under normal conditions. The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the subsurface facilities and provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application.

  5. SU-E-T-365: Estimation of Neutron Ambient Dose Equivalents for Radioprotection Exposed Workers in Radiotherapy Facilities Based On Characterization Patient Risk Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irazola, L; Terron, J; Sanchez-Doblado, F [Departamento de Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Servicio de Radiofisica, Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Sevilla (Spain); Domingo, C; Romero-Exposito, M [Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Garcia-Fuste, M [Health and Safety Department, ALBA Synchrotron Light Source, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Sanchez-Nieto, B [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Bedogni, R [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) (Italy)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Previous measurements with Bonner spheres{sup 1} showed that normalized neutron spectra are equal for the majority of the existing linacs{sup 2}. This information, in addition to thermal neutron fluences obtained in the characterization procedure{sup 3}3, would allow to estimate neutron doses accidentally received by exposed workers, without the need of an extra experimental measurement. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) simulations demonstrated that the thermal neutron fluence distribution inside the bunker is quite uniform, as a consequence of multiple scatter in the walls{sup 4}. Although inverse square law is approximately valid for the fast component, a more precise calculation could be obtained with a generic fast fluence distribution map around the linac, from MC simulations{sup 4}. Thus, measurements of thermal neutron fluences performed during the characterization procedure{sup 3}, together with a generic unitary spectra{sup 2}, would allow to estimate the total neutron fluences and H*(10) at any point{sup 5}. As an example, we compared estimations with Bonner sphere measurements{sup 1}, for two points in five facilities: 3 Siemens (15–23 MV), Elekta (15 MV) and Varian (15 MV). Results: Thermal neutron fluences obtained from characterization, are within (0.2–1.6×10{sup 6}) cm−{sup 2}•Gy{sup −1} for the five studied facilities. This implies ambient equivalent doses ranging from (0.27–2.01) mSv/Gy 50 cm far from the isocenter and (0.03–0.26) mSv/Gy at detector location with an average deviation of ±12.1% respect to Bonner measurements. Conclusion: The good results obtained demonstrate that neutron fluence and H*(10) can be estimated based on: (a) characterization procedure established for patient risk estimation in each facility, (b) generic unitary neutron spectrum and (c) generic MC map distribution of the fast component. [1] Radiat. Meas (2010) 45: 1391 – 1397; [2] Phys. Med. Biol (2012) 5 7:6167–6191; [3] Med. Phys (2015) 42

  6. Occupational dose estimates for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latkowski, J F

    1999-08-20

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is currently being constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). During peak operation, the NIF will attain D-T fusion yields of 20 MJ in a single experiment and 1200 MJ/y. With such high yields, neutron activation will be important within the NIF Target Bay. The total dose equivalent (dose) will be maintained {<=} 10 person-rem/y with individual doses {<=} 500 mrem/y, and all doses will be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). This work outlines planned maintenance activities, expected dose rates, and the resulting worker dose. Methods for the reduction of this dose are discussed, and a tool for the rapid calculation of the occupational dose is presented.

  7. TSD-DOSE: A radiological dose assessment model for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfingston, M.; Arnish, J.; LePoire, D.; Chen, S.-Y.

    1998-10-14

    Past practices at US Department of Energy (DOE) field facilities resulted in the presence of trace amounts of radioactive materials in some hazardous chemical wastes shipped from these facilities. In May 1991, the DOE Office of Waste Operations issued a nationwide moratorium on shipping all hazardous waste until procedures could be established to ensure that only nonradioactive hazardous waste would be shipped from DOE facilities to commercial treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. To aid in assessing the potential impacts of shipments of mixed radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes, a radiological assessment computer model (or code) was developed on the basis of detailed assessments of potential radiological exposures and doses for eight commercial hazardous waste TSD facilities. The model, called TSD-DOSE, is designed to incorporate waste-specific and site-specific data to estimate potential radiological doses to on-site workers and the off-site public from waste-handling operations at a TSD facility. The code is intended to provide both DOE and commercial TSD facilities with a rapid and cost-effective method for assessing potential human radiation exposures from the processing of chemical wastes contaminated with trace amounts of radionuclides.

  8. Influence of particle size distribution on inhalation doses to workers in the Florida phosphate industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Pyo; Wu, Chang-Yu; Birky, Brian K; Bolch, Wesley E

    2006-07-01

    Previous studies have indicated that inhalation exposures to TENORM aerosols are potentially a major contributor to the annual total effective dose to workers in the Florida phosphate industry. Further research was deemed necessary to characterize the particle size distribution of these aerosols containing various radionuclides of the U decay series. In the present study, individualized assessments of worker committed effective doses are reported in which detailed information is used on the particle size distribution, particle density, particle shape, and radioactivity concentrations from sampled aerosols at 6 different phosphate facilities and at various worker areas within these facilities. Inhalation dose assessments are calculated using the ICRP 66 human respiratory tract model as implemented within the LUDEP and IMBA computer codes. Under the least conservative assumptions of radionuclide-specific lung solubility, the annual total effective doses are shown to be 0.31+/-0.12, 0.27+/-0.07, and 0.22+/-0.02 mSv at granulator, storage, and shipping areas, respectively, and thus all annual doses are below the annual limits to the members of the general public (1 mSv y). In contrast, the most conservative assumptions of lung solubility by radionuclide yield annual total effective doses of 2.24+/-2.53 mSv at granulator areas, 1.26+/-1.19 mSv at storage areas, and 0.56+/-0.36 mSv at shipping areas. In this later case, some 44%, 31%, and 15% of individual dose assessments yield worker doses above the annual dose limit. The study thus demonstrates the importance of facility- and area-specific particle solubility data in dose assessments for regulatory compliance and for making decisions regarding worker respiratory protection.

  9. Radiation dose evaluation based on exposure scenario during the operation of radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hyoun; Kim Chang Lak; Choi, Heui Joo; Park, Joo Wan [Korea Electric Power Corporation, Nuclear Environment Technology Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    Radiation dose to worker in disposal facility was calculated by using point kernel MICROSHIELD V5.02 computer code based on exposure scenarios. An conceptual design model for disposal vaults in disposal facility was used for object of shielding calculation model. Selected radionuclides and their activities among radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants were assumed as radiation sources for the exposure calculation. Annual radiation doses to crane workers and to people working on disposal vaults were calculated according to exposure time and distance from the sources with conservative operation scenarios. The scenarios used for this study were based on assumption for representing disposal activities in a future Korean near surface disposal facility. Calculated exposure rates to worker during normal disposal work were very low comparing with annual allowable limit for radiation worker.

  10. Dose rate of restroon in facilities using radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Gwi [Dept. of uclear Medicine, Inha University hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); An, Seong Min [Dept. of Radiology, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    This study is therefore aimed at measuring the surface dose rate and the spatial dose rate in and outside the radionuclide facility in order to ensure safety of the patients, radiation workers and family care-givers in their use of such equipment and to provide a basic framework for further research on radiation protection. The study was conducted at 4 restrooms in and outside the radionuclide facility of a general hospital in Incheon between May 1 and July 31, 2014. During the study period, the spatial contamination dose rate and the surface contamination dose rate before and after radiation use were measured at the 4 places−thyroid therapy room, PET center, gamma camera room, and outpatient department. According to the restroom use survey by hospitals, restrooms in the radionuclide facility were used not only by patients but also by family care-givers and some of radiation workers. The highest cumulative spatial radiation dose rate was 8.86 mSv/hr at camera room restroom, followed by 7.31 mSv/hr at radioactive iodine therapy room restroom, 2.29 mSv/hr at PET center restroom, and 0.26 mSv/hr at outpatient department restroom, respectively. The surface radiation dose rate measured before and after radiation use was the highest at toilets, which are in direct contact with patient's excretion, followed by the center and the entrance of restrooms. Unsealed radioactive sources used in nuclear medicine are relatively safe due to short half lives and low energy. A patient who received those radioactive sources, however, may become a mobile radioactive source and contaminate areas the patient contacts−camera room, sedation room, and restroom−through secretion and excretion. Therefore, patients administered radionuclides should be advised to drink sufficient amounts of water to efficiently minimize radiation exposure to others by reducing the biological half-life, and members of the public−family care-givers, pregnant women, and children−be as far away from

  11. Application of ALARP to extremity doses for hospital workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C J; Whitby, M [Health Physics Service, Divisional Offices (West), Western Infirmary, Glasgow G11 6NT (United Kingdom)

    2003-12-01

    The implementation of ALARP for hospital workers is considered in relation to extremity doses. Criteria are proposed which could provide guidance in determining strategies for both implementing radiation protection measures and dose monitoring for the extremities. Two groups of hospital workers have been studied, namely interventional radiologists/cardiologists, and radionuclide staff preparing and administering radiopharmaceuticals. The radiology procedures can give high doses to both the hands and legs. Those to the legs can be reduced by the use of lead rubber shields. Study of the distribution of dose across radiologists' hands has identified the ring position on the little finger as the appropriate position for dose monitoring. The variations in dose across the hands of radionuclide workers are greater, with the tip likely to receive the highest dose. The protection strategy will need to be determined for each department, because of the wide range in techniques used in handling radiopharmaceuticals. It is hoped that the criteria could aid balanced decision-making about the appropriate protection strategy and ensure that protection measures are in place where they are required, but avoid their introduction where they are unnecessary.

  12. Dose received by radiation workers in Australia, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, N.D.

    1994-07-01

    Exposure to radiation can cause genetic defects or cancer. People who use sources of radiation as part of their employment are potentially at a greater risk than others owing to the possibility of their being continually exposed to small radiation doses over a long period. In Australia, the National Health and Medical Research Council has established radiation protection standards and set annual effective dose limits for radiation workers in order to minimise the chance of adverse effects occurring. These standards are based on the the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1990). In order to ensure that the prescribed limits are not exceeded and to ensure that doses are kept to a minimum, some sort of monitoring is necessary. The primary purpose of this report is to provide data on the distribution of effective doses for different occupational categories of radiation worker in Australia. The total collective effective dose was found to be of the order of 4.9 Sv for a total of 34750 workers. 9 refs., 16 tabs., 6 figs.

  13. Hypothyroidism among former workers of a nuclear weapons facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavey, Anna; Frank, Arthur L; Pinson, Barbara; Shepherd, Sara; Burstyn, Igor

    2011-12-01

    Ionizing radiation alters thyroid function, and workers at a nuclear weapons facility may be exposed to above environmental levels of radiation. Hypothyroid status was determined for 622 former workers of a nuclear weapons facility located in Texas, using a combination of measured thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and thyroid medication history, as part of an on-going health surveillance program. We classified 916 unique job titles into 35 job categories. According to the most stringent TSH definition used in this study (0.3-3.0 IU/ml), 174 (28.0%) former workers were considered to be hypothyroid; of these 66 (41.8%) were females and 108 (23.3%) were males. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, and smoking status, only having worked as a material handler (n = 18) exhibited an elevated risk of developing hypothyroidism compared to other jobs (OR 3.88, 95% CI 1.43-11.07). This is one of the jobs with suspected exposure to radiation. No excess risk of hypothyroidism was observed for any of the other job categories. There is suggestive evidence that only material handlers at this nuclear weapons facility may have elevated risk of hypothyroidism; further evaluation of thyroid health in this population is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A comparative study of worker and general public risks from nuclear facility operation using MACCS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    East, J.M.; O`Kula, K.R.

    1994-10-01

    Over the last five years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has attempted to establish quantitative risk indices as minimum acceptance criteria for assurance of safe operation of its nuclear facilities. The risk indices serve as aiming points or targets to include consideration of all aspects of operation including normal conditions as well as abnormal, design basis events, and beyond-design basis events. Although initial focus of the application of these safety targets had been on DOE`s reactors, more recent assessments have also considered non-reactor facilities including those encompassing storage and nuclear processing activities. Regardless of the facility`s primary function, accident progression, event tree/fault tree logic models, and probabilistic (dose) consequence assessment model must be implemented to yield a fully integrated analysis of facility operation. The primary tool for probabilistic consequence assessment in the US is the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). In this study, two version of MACCS are applied to representative source terms developed in the safety analysis associated with a waste processing facility at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company`s (WSRC`s) Savannah River Site (SRS). The MACCS versions are used to estimate population dose and subsequent health effects to workers and the general public from the SRS referenced facility operation. When combined with the frequency of occurrence evaluation, the margin of compliance with the safety targets may be quantified.

  15. Brain Cancer in Workers Employed at a Laboratory Research Facility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Collins

    Full Text Available An earlier study of research facility workers found more brain cancer deaths than expected, but no workplace exposures were implicated.Adding four additional years of vital-status follow-up, we reassessed the risk of death from brain cancer in the same workforce, including 5,284 workers employed between 1963, when the facility opened, and 2007. We compared the work histories of the brain cancer decedents in relationship to when they died and their ages at death.As in most other studies of laboratory and research workers, we found low rates of total mortality, total cancers, accidents, suicides, and chronic conditions such as heart disease and diabetes. We found no new brain cancer deaths in the four years of additional follow-up. Our best estimate of the brain cancer standardized mortality ratio (SMR was 1.32 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.66-2.37, but the SMR might have been as high as 1.69. Deaths from benign brain tumors and other non-malignant diseases of the nervous system were at or below expected levels.With the addition of four more years of follow-up and in the absence of any new brain cancers, the updated estimate of the risk of brain cancer death is smaller than in the original study. There was no consistent pattern among the work histories of decedents that indicated a common causative exposure.

  16. Dose equivalent rate constants and barrier transmission data for nuclear medicine facility dose calculations and shielding design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Maggie; Caldwell, Curtis B

    2014-07-01

    A primary goal of nuclear medicine facility design is to keep public and worker radiation doses As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). To estimate dose and shielding requirements, one needs to know both the dose equivalent rate constants for soft tissue and barrier transmission factors (TFs) for all radionuclides of interest. Dose equivalent rate constants are most commonly calculated using published air kerma or exposure rate constants, while transmission factors are most commonly calculated using published tenth-value layers (TVLs). Values can be calculated more accurately using the radionuclide's photon emission spectrum and the physical properties of lead, concrete, and/or tissue at these energies. These calculations may be non-trivial due to the polyenergetic nature of the radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. In this paper, the effects of dose equivalent rate constant and transmission factor on nuclear medicine dose and shielding calculations are investigated, and new values based on up-to-date nuclear data and thresholds specific to nuclear medicine are proposed. To facilitate practical use, transmission curves were fitted to the three-parameter Archer equation. Finally, the results of this work were applied to the design of a sample nuclear medicine facility and compared to doses calculated using common methods to investigate the effects of these values on dose estimates and shielding decisions. Dose equivalent rate constants generally agreed well with those derived from the literature with the exception of those from NCRP 124. Depending on the situation, Archer fit TFs could be significantly more accurate than TVL-based TFs. These results were reflected in the sample shielding problem, with unshielded dose estimates agreeing well, with the exception of those based on NCRP 124, and Archer fit TFs providing a more accurate alternative to TVL TFs and a simpler alternative to full spectral-based calculations. The data provided by this paper should assist

  17. Preliminary assessment of radiological doses in alternative waste management systems without an MRS facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Pelto, P.J.; Daling, P.M.; Lavender, J.C.; Fecht, B.A.

    1986-06-01

    This report presents generic analyses of radiological dose impacts of nine hypothetical changes in the operation of a waste management system without a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. The waste management activities examined in this study include those for handling commercial spent fuel at nuclear power reactors and at the surface facilities of a deep geologic repository, and the transportation of spent fuel by rail and truck between the reactors and the repository. In the reference study system, the radiological doses to the public and to the occupational workers are low, about 170 person-rem/1000 metric ton of uranium (MTU) handled with 70% of the fuel transported by rail and 30% by truck. The radiological doses to the public are almost entirely from transportation, whereas the doses to the occupational workers are highest at the reactors and the repository. Operating alternatives examined included using larger transportation casks, marshaling rail cars into multicar dedicated trains, consolidating spent fuel at the reactors, and wet or dry transfer options of spent fuel from dry storage casks. The largest contribution to radiological doses per unit of spent fuel for both the public and occupational workers would result from use of truck transportation casks, which are smaller than rail casks. Thus, reducing the number of shipments by increasing cask sizes and capacities (which also would reduce the number of casks to be handled at the terminals) would reduce the radiological doses in all cases. Consolidating spent fuel at the reactors would reduce the radiological doses to the public but would increase the doses to the occupational workers at the reactors.

  18. Standard Specification for Nuclear Facility Transient Worker Records

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1995-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers the required content and provides retention requirements for records needed for in-processing of nuclear facility transient workers. 1.2 This specification applies to records to be used for in-processing only. 1.3 This specification is not intended to cover specific skills records (such as equipment operating licenses, ASME inspection qualifications, or welding certifications). 1.4 This specification does not reduce any regulatory requirement for records retention at a licensed nuclear facility. Note 1—Nuclear facilities operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are not licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), nor are other nuclear facilities that may come under the control of the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) or individual agreement states. The references in this specification to licensee, the U.S. NRC Regulatory Guides, and Title 10 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations are to imply appropriate alternative nomenclature with respect to DOE, DOD...

  19. A comparative study of worker and general public risks from nuclear facility operation using MACCS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    East, J.M.; O`Kula, K.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Over the last five years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has attempted to establish quantitative risk indices as minimum acceptance criteria for assurance of safe operation of its nuclear facilities. The risk indices serve as aiming points or targets to include consideration of all aspects of operation including normal conditions as well as abnormal, design basis events, and beyond-design basis events. Although initial focus of the application of these safety targets had been on DOE`s reactors, more recent assessments have also considered non-reactor facilities including those encompassing storage and nuclear processing activities. Regardless of the facility`s primary function, accident progression, event tree/fault tree logic models, and probabilistic (dose) consequence assessment model must be implemented to yield a fully integrated analysis of facility operation. The primary tool for probabilistic consequence assessment in the U.S. is the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). In this study, two version of MACCS are applied to representative source terms developed in the safety analysis associated with a waste processing facility at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company`s (WSRC`s) Savannah River Site (SRS). The MACCS versions are used to estimate population dose and subsequent health effects to workers and the general public from the SRS referenced facility operation. When combined with the frequency of occurrence evaluation, the margin of compliance with the safety targets may be quantified. Additionally, numerical evaluation of the safety targets with the two code versions will serve as an indicator of the impact of the enhancements made to MACCS relative to earlier baseline software.

  20. Spontaneous and radiation-induced micronucleus frequencies in low dose radiation exposed worker's peripheral blood lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hee Kyung; Lee, Hye Jin; Park, Mi Young; Park, Hyun Jin; Kim, Tae Hwan [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ji, Young Hoon; Kim, Ki Sup; Lee, Su Jae; Lee, Yun Sil; Cho, Chul Koo; Choi, Soo Yong; Kang, Chang Mo [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Many studies have been performed to assess the development and application of potentially useful biodosimetry. At present, although chromosome dicentric assay is a sensitive method for dose estimation, it is laborious and requires enough experience for estimation, and without automation its scope for population screening is limited. Therefore, we need an alternative cytogenetic dosimetry to estimate the absorbed dose of victims after low dose exposure such as radiation accidents in hospital workers and workers of radiation related facilities. An alternative and simple cytogenetic technique is the measurement of the micronucleus frequency in cultured human lymphocytes. The reliability of conventional micronucleus (MN) assays is diminished owing to the inclusion of nondividing cells in the estimate, but this problem has been overcome by the development of the cytokinesisblocked (CB) MN assay. The reliable and ease assays of the cytokinesis blocked-approach are obvious advantages in biological monitoring, but there are no developed recognizable and reliable techniques for biological dosimetry of a low dose exposure until recently. Adaptive response is important in determining the biological responses at low doses of radiation and has the potential to impact the shape of the dose-response relationship. We analyzed the frequency of both spontaneous and in vitro {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays-induced MNs to estimate the low dose radiation-exposed workers as a screening test.

  1. Development of internal dose assessment procedure for workers in industries using raw materials containing naturally occurring radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Cheol Kyu; KIm, Yong Geon; Ji, Seung Woo; Kim, Kwang Pyo [College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Bon Cheol; Chang, Byung Uck [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    It is necessary to assess radiation dose to workers due to inhalation of airborne particulates containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) to ensure radiological safety required by the Natural Radiation Safety Management Act. The objective of this study is to develop an internal dose assessment procedure for workers at industries using raw materials containing natural radionuclides. The dose assessment procedure was developed based on harmonization, accuracy, and proportionality. The procedure includes determination of dose assessment necessity, preliminary dose estimation, airborne particulate sampling and characterization, and detailed assessment of radiation dose. The developed dose assessment procedure is as follows. Radioactivity concentration criteria to determine dose assessment necessity are 10 Bq·g-1 for 40K and 1 Bq·g-1 for the other natural radionuclides. The preliminary dose estimation is performed using annual limit on intake (ALI). The estimated doses are classified into 3 groups (<0.1 mSv, 0.1-0.3 mSv, and >0.3 mSv). Air sampling methods are determined based on the dose estimates. Detailed dose assessment is performed using air sampling and particulate characterization. The final dose results are classified into 4 different levels (<0.1 mSv, 0.1-0.3 mSv, 0.3-1 mSv, and >1 mSv). Proper radiation protection measures are suggested according to the dose level. The developed dose assessment procedure was applied for NORM industries in Korea, including coal combustion, phosphate processing, and monazite handing facilities. The developed procedure provides consistent dose assessment results and contributes to the establishment of optimization of radiological protection in NORM industries.

  2. Eye lens dosimetry in workers of a PET radiopharmaceutical production facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, M. C.; Lacerda, M. A. S.; Da Silva, T. A. [Development Center of Nuclear Technology, Posgraduate Course in Science and Technology of Radiations, Minerals and Materials, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Meireles, L. S.; Teles, L. L. D., E-mail: margaretecristinag@gmail.com [Development Center of Nuclear Technology / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: A new regulatory statement was issued concerning the eye lens radiation protection of persons in some planned exposures. A debate was raised on the adequacy of the dosimetric quantity and on its method of measurement. The aim of this work was to establish the dosimetry procedure with the Eye-D{sup TM} holder with a MCP-N LiF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescent chip detector for measuring the personal dose equivalent Hp(3) in workers of the Development Center of Nuclear Technology (DCNT) Positron-Electron Tomography (PET) Radiopharmaceuticals Production Facility (RPF). The eye lens dosimeter was calibrated and its energy response was studied in terms Hp(3) on a ISO standard slab phantom and on a recent suggested cylindrical phantom. Irradiations were carried out at the DCNT Dosimeter Calibration Laboratory in ISO reference radiations of {sup 137}Cs gamma, narrow spectrum series X-ray beams, {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and {sup 85}Kr beta rays. Fifteen workers of the RPF/DCNT were monitored during radiopharmaceutical production activities (e.g. cyclotron operation, quality control tests, radiopharmaceutical production and radioprotection). Considering the predominant exposure to 511 keV photons, the energy dependence of the dosimeter of 30% in energies down to 33 keV should not be a concern. Calibration coefficient of the dosimeter in {sup 137}Cs beam showed that the use of the slab phantom will underestimate the Hp(3) in 8.8% related to the cylindrical phantom. The absorbed dose due to beta radiation exposure seems to be unfeasible to be assessed with the chosen dosimeter. Results showed that the workers responsible for quality control tests received the highest doses and that there is room for optimization. (Author)

  3. Risks of circulatory diseases among Mayak PA workers with radiation doses estimated using the improved Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseeva, Maria B.; Azizova, Tamara V.; Grigoryeva, Evgenia S. [Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI), Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk Region (Russian Federation); Haylock, Richard [Public Health of England, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    The new Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2008 (MWDS-2008) was published in 2013 and supersedes the Doses-2005 dosimetry system for Mayak Production Association (PA) workers. It provides revised external and internal dose estimates based on the updated occupational history data. Using MWDS-2008, a cohort of 18,856 workers first employed at one of the main Mayak PA plants during 1948-1972 and followed up to 2005 was identified. Incidence and mortality risks from ischemic heart disease (IHD) (International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 codes 410-414) and from cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) (ICD-9 codes 430-438) were examined in this cohort and compared with previously published risk estimates in the same cohort based on the Doses-2005 dosimetry system. Significant associations were observed between doses from external gamma-rays and IHD and CVD incidence and also between internal doses from alpha-radiation and IHD mortality and CVD incidence. The estimates of excess relative risk (ERR)/Gy were consistent with those estimates from the previous studies based on Doses-2005 system apart from the relationship between CVD incidence and internal liver dose where the ERR/Gy based on MWDS-2008 was just over three times higher than the corresponding estimate based on Doses-2005 system. Adjustment for smoking status did not show any effect on the estimates of risk from internal alpha-particle exposure. (orig.)

  4. Biological monitoring to determine worker dose in a butadiene processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtold, W.E.; Hayes, R.B. [National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Butadiene (BD) is a reactive gas used extensively in the rubber industry and is also found in combustion products. Although BD is genotoxic and acts as an animal carcinogen, the evidence for carcinogenicity in humans is limited. Extrapolation from animal studies on BD carcinogenicity to risk in humans has been controversial because of uncertainties regarding relative biologic exposure and related effects in humans vs. experimental animals. To reduce this uncertainty, a study was designed to characterize exposure to BD at a polymer production facility and to relate this exposure to mutational and cytogenetic effects. Biological monitoring was used to better assess the internal dose of BD received by the workers. Measurement of 1,2-dihydroxy-4-(N-acetylcysteinyl) butane (M1) in urine served as the biomarker in this study. M1 has been shown to correlate with area monitoring in previous studies. Most studies that relate exposure to a toxic chemical with its biological effects rely on exposure concentration as the dose metric; however, exposure concentration may or may not reflect the actual internal dose of the chemical.

  5. Dosimetry for a study of low-dose radiation cataracts among Chernobyl clean-up workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumak, V V; Worgul, B V; Kundiyev, Y I; Sergiyenko, N M; Vitte, P M; Medvedovsky, C; Bakhanova, E V; Junk, A K; Kyrychenko, O Y; Musijachenko, N V; Sholom, S V; Shylo, S A; Vitte, O P; Xu, S; Xue, X; Shore, R E

    2007-05-01

    A cohort of 8,607 Ukrainian Chernobyl clean-up workers during 1986-1987 was formed to study cataract formation after ionizing radiation exposure. Study eligibility required the availability of sufficient exposure information to permit the reconstruction of doses to the lens of the eye. Eligible groups included civilian workers, such as those who built the "sarcophagus" over the reactor, Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Workers, and military reservists who were conscripted for clean-up work. Many of the official doses for workers were estimates, because only a minority wore radiation badges. For 106 military workers, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements of extracted teeth were compared with the recorded doses as the basis to adjust the recorded gamma-ray doses and provide estimates of uncertainties. Beta-particle doses to the lens were estimated with an algorithm devised to take into account the nature and location of Chernobyl work, time since the accident, and protective measures taken. A Monte Carlo routine generated 500 random estimates for each individual from the uncertainty distributions of the gamma-ray dose and of the ratio of beta-particle to gamma-ray doses. The geometric mean of the 500 combined beta-particle and gamma-ray dose estimates for each individual was used in the data analyses. The median estimated lens dose for the cohort was 123 mGy, while 4.4% received >500 mGy.

  6. Low Prevalence of Chronic Beryllium Disease among Workers at a Nuclear Weapons Research and Development Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arjomandi, M; Seward, J P; Gotway, M B; Nishimura, S; Fulton, G P; Thundiyil, J; King, T E; Harber, P; Balmes, J R

    2010-01-11

    To study the prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in a cohort of workers from a nuclear weapons research and development facility. We evaluated 50 workers with BeS with medical and occupational histories, physical examination, chest imaging with HRCT (N=49), and pulmonary function testing. Forty of these workers also underwent bronchoscopy for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsies. The mean duration of employment at the facility was 18 yrs and the mean latency (from first possible exposure) to time of evaluation was 32 yrs. Five of the workers had CBD at the time of evaluation (based on histology or HRCT); three others had evidence of probable CBD. These workers with BeS, characterized by a long duration of potential Be exposure and a long latency, had a low prevalence of CBD.

  7. Low Prevalence of Chronic Beryllium Disease Among Workers at aNuclearWeaponsResearchandDevelopmentFacility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjomandi, Mehrdad; Seward, James; Gotway, Michael B.; Nishimura, Stephen; Fulton, George P.; Thundiyil, Josef; King, Talmadge E.; Harber, Philip; Balmes, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in a cohort of workers from a nuclear weapons research and development facility. Methods We evaluated 50 workers with BeS with medical and occupational histories, physical examination, chest imaging with high-resolution computed tomography (N = 49), and pulmonary function testing. Forty of these workers also underwent bronchoscopy for bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsies. Results The mean duration of employment at the facility was 18 years and the mean latency (from first possible exposure) to time of evaluation was 32 years. Five of the workers had CBD at the time of evaluation (based on histology or high-resolution computed tomography); three others had evidence of probable CBD. Conclusions These workers with BeS, characterized by a long duration of potential Be exposure and a long latency, had a low prevalence of CBD. PMID:20523233

  8. A comparative analysis of exposure doses between the radiation workers in dental and general hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Nam Hee; Chung, Woon Kwan; Dong, Kyung Rae; Ju, Yong Jin; Song, Ha Jin [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Jin [Dept. of Public Health and Medicine, Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Research and investigation is required for the exposure dose of radiation workers to work in the dental hospital as increasing interest in exposure dose of the dental hospital recently accordingly, study aim to minimize radiation exposure by making a follow-up study of individual exposure doses of radiation workers, analyzing the status on individual radiation exposure management, prediction the radiation disability risk levels by radiation, and alerting the workers to the danger of radiation exposure. Especially given the changes in the dental hospital radiation safety awareness conducted the study in order to minimize radiation exposure. This study performed analyses by a comparison between general and dental hospital, comparing each occupation, with the 116,220 exposure dose data by quarter and year of 5,811 subjects at general and dental hospital across South Korea from January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2012. The following are the results obtained by analyzing average values year and quarter. In term of hospital, average doses were significantly higher in general hospitals than detal ones. In terms of job, average doses were higher in radiological technologists the other workers. Especially, they showed statistically significant differences between radiological technologists than dentists. The above-mentioned results indicate that radiation workers were exposed to radiation for the past 5 years to the extent not exceeding the dose limit (maximum 50 mSv y{sup -1}). The limitation of this study is that radiation workers before 2008 were excluded from the study. Objective evaluation standards did not apply to the work circumstance or condition of each hospital. Therefore, it is deemed necessary to work out analysis criteria that will be used as objective evaluation standard. It will be necessary to study radiation exposure in more precise ways on the basis of objective analysis standard in the future. Should try to minimize the radiation individual dose of

  9. Obliterative bronchiolitis in workers in a coffee-processing facility - Texas, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    Obliterative bronchiolitis, a rare, irreversible form of fixed obstructive lung disease, has been identified in workers exposed to flavoring chemicals while working in the microwave-popcorn and flavoring-manufacturing industries; the occupational risk to workers outside these industries is largely unknown. This report describes two cases of obliterative bronchiolitis identified in workers employed in a small coffee-processing facility. Both patients' illness was misdiagnosed before they received a diagnosis of work-related obliterative bronchiolitis, which had not been identified previously in the coffee-processing industry. These cases reinforce the need for exposure evaluation in all industries in which workers are exposed to flavoring chemicals. Additionally, a high index of suspicion is required when these potentially exposed workers have progressive shortness of breath. If obliterative bronchiolitis is suspected, immediate protection from further exposure is crucial to prevent further deterioration of lung function.

  10. Anticipated Radiological Dose to Worker for Plutonium Stabilization and Handling at PFP - Project W-460

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, E V

    2000-01-01

    This report provides estimates of the expected whole body and extremity radiological dose, expressed as dose equivalent (DE), to workers conducting planned plutonium (Pu) stabilization processes at the Hanford Site Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The report is based on a time and motion dose study commissioned for Project W-460, Plutonium Stabilization and Handling, to provide personnel exposure estimates for construction work in the PFP storage vault area plus operation of stabilization and packaging equipment at PFP.

  11. Radiation Doses to Hanford Workers from Natural Potassium-40

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lynch, Timothy P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weier, Dennis R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The chemical element potassium is an essential mineral in people and is subject to homeostatic regulation. Natural potassium comprises three isotopes, 39K, 40K, and 41K. Potassium-40 is radioactive, with a half life of 1.248 billion years. In most transitions, it emits a β particle with a maximum energy of 0.560 MeV, and sometimes a gamma photon of 1.461 MeV. Because it is ubiquitous, 40K produces radiation dose to all human beings. This report contains the results of new measurements of 40K in 248 adult females and 2,037 adult males performed at the Department of Energy Hanford Site in 2006 and 2007. Potassium concentrations diminish with age, are generally lower in women than in men, and decrease with body mass index (BMI). The average annual effective dose from 40K in the body is 0.149 mSv y-1 for men and 0.123 mSv y-1 women respectively. Averaged over both men and women, the average effective dose per year is 0.136 mSv y-1. Calculated effective doses range from 0.069 to 0.243 mSv y-1 for adult males, and 0.067 to 0.203 mSv y-1 for adult females, a roughly three-fold variation for each gender. The need for dosimetric phantoms with a greater variety of BMI values should be investigated. From our data, it cannot be determined whether the potassium concentration in muscle in people with large BMI values differs from that in people with small BMI values. Similarly, it would be important to know the potassium concentration in other soft tissues, since much of the radiation dose is due to beta radiation, in which the source and target tissues are the same. These uncertainties should be evaluated to determine their consequences for dosimetry.

  12. Dust exposure in workers from grain storage facilities in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Zamora, María G; Medina-Escobar, Lourdes; Mora, Glend; Zock, Jan-Paul; van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Mora, Ana M

    2017-08-01

    About 12 million workers are involved in the production of basic grains in Central America. However, few studies in the region have examined the occupational factors associated with inhalable dust exposure. (i) To assess the exposure to inhalable dust in workers from rice, maize, and wheat storage facilities in Costa Rica; (ii) to examine the occupational factors associated with this exposure; and (iii) to measure concentrations of respirable and thoracic particles in different areas of the storage facilities. We measured inhalable (facilities in Costa Rica. We also measured respirable (facilities. Geometric mean (GM) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) inhalable dust concentrations were 2.0mg/m(3) and 7.8 (range=facilities, and in grain drying (2.3mg/m(3) and 3.1) and unloading (1.5mg/m(3) and 4.8) areas. Operators of grain storage facilities showed elevated inhalable dust concentrations, mostly above international exposure limits. Better engineering and administrative controls are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Ambient and biological monitoring of cokeoven workers: determinants of the internal dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongeneelen, F J; van Leeuwen, F E; Oosterink, S; Anzion, R B; van der Loop, F; Bos, R P; van Veen, H G

    1990-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured in the breathing zone air of 56 battery workers at two cokeovens during three consecutive days. The concentration of total PAH ranged up to 186 micrograms/m3. Preshift and end of shift urine samples were collected to determine 1-hydroxypyrene, a metabolite of pyrene. Control urine samples were available from 44 workers in the shipping yard of a hot rolling mill. The median values of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine of smoking and non-smoking controls were 0.51 and 0.17 mumol/mol creatinine, respectively. Concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene up to 11.2 mumol/mol were found in the urine of the cokeoven workers. At the start of the three day working period after 32 hours off work, the 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were four times higher and at the end of the working period 10 times higher compared with control concentrations. Excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene occurred with a half life of 6-35 hours. Both the ambient air monitoring data and the biological monitoring data showed that the topside workers were the heaviest exposed workers. The relation between air monitoring data and biological monitoring data was not strong. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify determinants of the internal dose. The combination of exposure and smoking amplify each other and the use of a protective airstream helmet decreases the internal dose. An effect of alcohol consumption and the use of medication on the toxicokinetics of pyrene was not found.

  14. Airborne Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds Among Workers in Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbore, David C; Osborn, Linda V; Johnson, Kathleen A; Fayerweather, William E

    2015-01-01

    We studied exposure of 151 workers to polycyclic aromatic compounds and asphalt emissions during the manufacturing of asphalt roofing products-including 64 workers from 10 asphalt plants producing oxidized, straight-run, cutback, and wax- or polymer-modified asphalts, and 87 workers from 11 roofing plants producing asphalt shingles and granulated roll roofing. The facilities were located throughout the United States and used asphalt from many refiners and crude oils. This article helps fill a gap in exposure data for asphalt roofing manufacturing workers by using a fluorescence technique that targets biologically active 4-6 ring polycyclic aromatic compounds and is strongly correlated with carcinogenic activity in animal studies. Worker exposures to polycyclic aromatic compounds were compared between manufacturing plants, at different temperatures and using different raw materials, and to important external benchmarks. High levels of fine limestone particulate in the plant air during roofing manufacturing increased polycyclic aromatic compound exposure, resulting in the hypothesis that the particulate brought adsorbed polycyclic aromatic compounds to the worker breathing zone. Elevated asphalt temperatures increased exposures during the pouring of asphalt. Co-exposures in these workplaces which act as confounders for both the measurement of total organic matter and fluorescence were detected and their influence discussed. Exposures to polycyclic aromatic compounds in asphalt roofing manufacturing facilities were lower than or similar to those reported in hot-mix paving application studies, and much below those reported in studies of hot application of built-up roofing asphalt. These relatively low exposures in manufacturing are primarily attributed to air emission controls in the facilities, and the relatively moderate temperatures, compared to built-up roofing, used in these facilities for oxidized asphalt. The exposure to polycyclic aromatic compounds was a very

  15. 基于统一计算架构的人体受照剂量实时仿真评估方法%Real-time absorbed dose simulation assessment method for the maintenance workers of nuclear facilities based on compute unified device architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨子辉; 王静; 何桃; 宋婧; 龙鹏程

    2015-01-01

    基于统一计算架构(Compute unified device architecture, CUDA),利用GPU的流多处理器和共享显存实现了辐射环境中人体体素级受照剂量的并行计算。通过加速器驱动次临界系统散裂靶质子束窗的维修更换仿真例题的测试,百万量级体素人体受照剂量计算时间降低到10 ms的量级,能够保持与实时维修仿真同步。该方法能够满足维修仿真对维修人员的器官当量剂量和人体有效剂量计算的实时性要求,可应用到维修方案的实时仿真推演,对提高维修方案的设计与验证效率,辅助优化方案和保障人员辐射安全具有重要意义。%The absorbed dose assessment method was developed based on compute unified device architecture parallel architecture and human voxel model, to realize the parallel computing of radiation dose for human body in the radiation environment using the GPU processors and shared memory. The maintenance strategy simulation dose assessment of the spallation target proton beam window for accelerator driven system was tested by this method. The results showed that the computing time can reach 10 ms level with millions of voxel and the dose calculation can synchronize with real-time simulation of maintenance process.This method could realize the requirement of organ equivalent dose and effective dose calculation for maintenance worker. In the simulation deduction of maintenance strategy, this method is of great significance in protecting personnel radiation safety and improving the efficiency for  the design and validation of maintenance scheme.

  16. An assessment of bias and uncertainty in recorded dose from external sources of radiation for workers at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, J.J.; Gilbert, E.S.; Baumgartner, W.V.

    1994-08-01

    Worker dose estimates are used in epidemiologic studies of nuclear workers. A major objective of these studies is to provide a direct assessment of the carcinogenic risk of exposure to ionizing radiation at low doses and dose rates. If dose estimates used in analyses of worker data are biased, then risk estimates expressed per unit of dose will also be biased. In addition, random error in dose estimates may lead to underestimation of risk coefficients and can also distort dose-response analyses. Analyses of data from nuclear worker studies, including Hanford, have typically not been adjusted for biases and uncertainties in dose estimates in part because of the lack of adequate information on the nature and magnitude of these biases and uncertainties. This report describes an approach used to assess bias and uncertainty in radiation dose for Hanford dosimetry systems. The approach can be considered as an elaboration of work conducted by a technical committee appointed by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) used to quantify the bias and uncertainty in estimated doses for personnel exposed to radiation as a result of atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons between 1945 and 1962. In addition, laboratory studies were conducted to measure bias for selected sources of photon radiation resulting from angular response characteristics of Hanford dosimeter systems. An overall assessment is presented of bias and uncertainty for photon radiation greater than 100 keV. This radiation is expected to have caused the vast majority of recorded dose for Hanford workers.

  17. Personal radiation monitoring and assessment of doses received by radiation workers (1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, N.D.

    1996-12-01

    Since late 1986, all persons monitored by the Australian Radiation Laboratory have been registered on a data base which maintains records of the doses received by each individual wearer. At present, the Service regularly monitors approximately 30,000 persons, which is roughly 90 percent of those monitored in Australia, and maintains dose histories of over 75,000 people. The skin dose for occupationally exposed workers can be measured by using one of the five types of monitor issued by the Service: Thermoluminescent Dosemeter (TLD monitor), Finger TLD 3, Neutron Monitor, Special TLD and Environmental monitor. The technical description of the monitors is provided along with the method for calculating the radiation dose. 5 refs., 7 tabs., 5 figs.

  18. Dose Estimation by ESR on Tooth Enamel from Two Workers Exposed to Radiation due to the JCO accident

    OpenAIRE

    Kunio, SHIRAISHI; MIDORI, IWASAKI; Chyuzo, Miyazawa; HIDENORI, YONEHARA; Masaki, MATSUMOTO; Ohu University, School of Dentistry; Radon Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences; Environmental Radiation Protection System Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences

    2002-01-01

    ESR dosimetry is useful to estimate the external dose for the general population as well as for occupational workers in a nuclear emergency. Three teeth were extracted from two exposed workers (A and B) related to the JCO criticality accident. Tooth enamel was carefully separated from other tooth parts and subjected to ESR dosimetry. Doses equivalent to the γ-ray dose of ^Co were estimated as follows: for worker A, the buccal and lingual sides of the eighth tooth in the upper right side, 11.8...

  19. Cold chain management practices of health care workers in primary health care facilities in Southern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogboghodo, Esohe Olivia; Omuemu, Vivian Ossaidiom; Odijie, Oisedebame; Odaman, Ofure Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Vaccination has caused a dramatic reduction in the threat of diseases that were once widespread and often times fatal. The efficient practice of cold chain management is therefore key to ensuring that the benefits of vaccination are sustained. The objective of this study is to assess the practice of cold chain management among health workers in primary health care facilities in Benin City, Edo State. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study design was employed in this study. The study population consisted of registered nurses, auxiliary nurses and community health extension workers in primary health care facilities in Benin City, Edo State. The tool for data collection was pre-tested, structured self-administered questionnaire. Bivariate analysis between socio-demographic variables and practice of cold chain management was done. Binary logistic regression was also done to determine significant predictors of practice of cold chain management. The level of significance was set at p cold chain management. Significant determinants of practice of cold chain management were cold chain management training (p = 0.004), presence of functional refrigerators (p = 0.016), NPI supervision (p cold chain management among respondents was fair. All stakeholders should ensure they work collectively towards ensuring that favorable environments which would improve the practice among health workers are put in place. PMID:28761610

  20. Assessing exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) for workers in the vicinity of a large recycling facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Laurence K; Hawker, Darryl W; Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Mueller, Jochen F

    2013-06-01

    Increased levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) can occur particularly in dust and soil surrounding facilities that recycle products containing PBDEs. This may be the source of increased exposure for nearby workers and residents. To investigate, we measured PBDE levels in soil, office dust and blood of workers at the closest workplace (i.e. within 100m) to a large automotive shredding and metal recycling facility in Brisbane, Australia. The workplace investigated in this study was independent of the automotive shredding facility and was one of approximately 50 businesses of varying types within a relatively large commercial/industrial area surrounding the recycling facility. Concentrations of PBDEs in soils were at least an order of magnitude greater than background levels in the area. Congener profiles were dominated by larger molecular weight congeners; in particular BDE-209. This reflected the profile in outdoor air samples previously collected at this site. Biomonitoring data from blood serum indicated no differential exposure for workers near the recycling facility compared to a reference group of office workers, also in Brisbane. Unlike air, indoor dust and soil sample profiles, serum samples from both worker groups were dominated by congeners BDE-47, BDE-153, BDE-99, BDE-100 and BDE-183 and was similar to the profile previously reported in the general Australian population. Estimated exposures for workers near the industrial point source suggested indoor workers had significantly higher exposure than outdoor workers due to their exposure to indoor dust rather than soil. However, no relationship was observed between blood PBDE levels and different roles and activity patterns of workers on-site. These comparisons of PBDE levels in serum provide additional insight into the inter-individual variability within Australia. Results also indicate congener patterns in the workplace environment did not match blood profiles of workers. This was attributed to

  1. Realistic retrospective dose assessments to members of the public around Spanish nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, M.A., E-mail: majg@csn.es [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), Pedro Justo Dorado Dellmans 11, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Martin-Valdepenas, J.M.; Garcia-Talavera, M.; Martin-Matarranz, J.L.; Salas, M.R.; Serrano, J.I.; Ramos, L.M. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), Pedro Justo Dorado Dellmans 11, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    In the frame of an epidemiological study carried out in the influence areas around the Spanish nuclear facilities (ISCIII-CSN, 2009. Epidemiological Study of The Possible Effect of Ionizing Radiations Deriving from The Operation of Spanish Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities on The Health of The Population Living in Their Vicinity. Final report December 2009. Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear. Madrid. Available from: (http://www.csn.es/images/stories/actualidad{sub d}atos/especiales/epidemiologico/epidemiological{sub s}tudy.pdf)), annual effective doses to public have been assessed by the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) for over 45 years using a retrospective realistic-dose methodology. These values are compared with data from natural radiation exposure. For the affected population, natural radiation effective doses are in average 2300 times higher than effective doses due to the operation of nuclear installations (nuclear power stations and fuel cycle facilities). When considering the impact on the whole Spanish population, effective doses attributable to nuclear facilities represent in average 3.5 x 10{sup -5} mSv/y, in contrast to 1.6 mSv/y from natural radiation or 1.3 mSv/y from medical exposures. - Highlights: > Most comprehensive dose assessment to public by nuclear facilities ever done in Spain. > Dose to public is dominated by liquid effluent pathways for the power stations. > Dose to public is dominated by Rn inhalation for milling and mining facilities. > Average annual doses to public in influence areas are negligible (10 {mu}Sv/y or less). > Doses from facilities average 3.5 x 10{sup -2} {mu}Sv/y per person onto whole Spanish population.

  2. Radioactivity concentration variation with depth and assessment of workers' doses in selected mining sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.U. Nwankwo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mining workers are exposed to radiation in the process of extracting minerals from the earth crust. In this research, activity concentration of the radionuclides in samples collected at different depths in Komu (0–220 ft and Olode (0–30 ft mining sites, Oyo State, Nigeria and the associated workers' radiological risks were assessed. Gemstones from these sites are mined for local and international markets. The radionuclide contents of the samples were determined using Gamma spectroscopy technique. At Komu, 238U and 232Th concentrations, with few exceptions, increased with depth while that of 40K had no defined pattern. At Olode site, 238U and 232Th concentrations decreased with depth while that of 40K was almost constant. Internal hazard indices at Komu in some cases indicated an unacceptable level of risk to workers. Workers' doses would have been underestimated by between 12 and 55% if the activity concentrations of samples in the pit were not included in the calculation.

  3. Job role quality and intention to leave current facility and to leave profession of direct care workers in Japanese residential facilities for elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Miharu; Imai, Hisato

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine job role quality relating to intention to leave current facility and to leave profession among direct care workers in residential facilities for elderly in Japan. Direct care workers completed a paper questionnaire on October 2009. From 746 facilities in three prefectures (Tokyo, Shizuoka, and Yamagata) 6428 direct care workers with complete data were included in the analyses. The Job Role Quality (JRQ) scale was translated into Japanese language to assess job role quality. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that intention to leave current facility was primarily associated with job role quality: poor skill discretion, high job demand, and poor relationship with supervisor. Intention to leave profession was primarily associated with poor skill discretion. The results of the present study imply the strategies to direct care worker retention for each facility and policy efforts. Each facility can implement specific strategies such as enhanced variety of work and opportunity for use of skills, adequate job allocation, and improvement of supervisor-employee relationship in work place. Policy efforts should enhance broader career opportunities in care working such as advanced specialization and authorized medical practice.

  4. Assessment of potential doses to workers during postulated accident conditions at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, M.D.; Farrell, R.F. [DOE, Carlsbad, NM (United States); Newton, G.J.

    1995-12-01

    The recent 1995 WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR) Update provided detailed analyses of potential radiation doses to members of the public at the site boundary during postulated accident scenarios at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The SAR Update addressed the complete spectrum of potential accidents associated with handling and emplacing transuranic waste at WIPP, including damage to waste drums from fires, punctures, drops, and other disruptions. The report focused on the adequacy of the multiple layers of safety practice ({open_quotes}defense-in-depth{close_quotes}) at WIPP, which are designed to (1) reduce the likelihood of accidents and (2) limit the consequences of those accidents. The safeguards which contribute to defense-in-depth at WIPP include a substantial array of inherent design features, engineered controls, and administrative procedures. The SAR Update confirmed that the defense-in-depth at WIPP is adequate to assure the protection of the public and environment. As a supplement to the 1995 SAR Update, we have conducted additional analyses to confirm that these controls will also provide adequate protection to workers at the WIPP. The approaches and results of the worker dose assessment are summarized here. In conformance with the guidance of DOE Standard 3009-94, we emphasize that use of these evaluation guidelines is not intended to imply that these numbers constitute acceptable limits for worker exposures under accident conditions. However, in conjunction with the extensive safety assessment in the 1995 SAR Update, these results indicate that the Carlsbad Area Office strategy for the assessment of hazards and accidents assures the protection of workers, members of the public, and the environment.

  5. Evaluation of cumulative lead dose and longitudinal changes in structural MRI in former organolead workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Brian S.; Caffo, Brian; Stewart, Walter F.; Hedlin, Haley; James, Bryan D.; Yousem, David; Davatzikos, Christos

    2010-01-01

    Objective We evaluated whether tibia lead was associated with longitudinal change in brain volumes and white matter lesions in male former lead workers and population-based controls in whom we have previously reported on the cognitive and structural consequences of cumulative lead dose. Methods We used linear regression to identify predictors of change in brain volumes and white matter lesion grade scores, using two MRIs an average of five years apart. Results On average, total brain volume declined almost 30 cm3, predominantly in gray matter. Increasing age at the first MRI was strongly associated with larger declines in volumes and greater increases in white matter lesion scores. Tibia lead was not associated with change in brain volumes or white matter lesion scores. Conclusions In former lead workers in whom cumulative lead dose was associated with progressive declines in cognitive function decades after occupational exposure had ended, cumulative lead dose was associated with earlier persistent effects on brain structure, but not with additional worsening over five years. PMID:20357679

  6. Measuring three aspects of motivation among health workers at primary level health facilities in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Miho; Maufi, Deogratias; Mwingira, Upendo John; Leshabari, Melkidezek T; Ohnishi, Mayumi; Honda, Sumihisa

    2017-01-01

    The threshold of 2.3 skilled health workers per 1,000 population, published in the World Health Report in 2006, has galvanized resources and efforts to attain high coverage of skilled birth attendance. With the inception of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), a new threshold of 4.45 doctors, nurses, and midwives per 1,000 population has been identified. This SDG index threshold indicates the minimum density to respond to the needs of health workers to deliver a much broader range of health services, such as management of non-communicable diseases to meet the targets under Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all people of all ages. In the United Republic of Tanzania, the density of skilled health workers in 2012 was 0.5 per 1,000 population, which more than doubled from 0.2 per 1,000 in 2002. However, this showed that Tanzania still faced a critical shortage of skilled health workers. While training, deployment, and retention are important, motivation is also necessary for all health workers, particularly those who serve in rural areas. This study measured the motivation of health workers who were posted at government-run rural primary health facilities. We sought to measure three aspects of motivation-Management, Performance, and Individual Aspects-among health workers deployed in rural primary level government health facilities. In addition, we also sought to identify the job-related attributes associated with each of these three aspects. Two regions in Tanzania were selected for our research. In each region, we further selected two districts in which we carried out our investigation. The two regions were Lindi, where we carried out our study in the Nachingwea District and the Ruangwa District, and Mbeya, within which the Mbarali and Rungwe Districts were selected for research. All four districts are considered rural. This cross-sectional study was conducted by administering a two-part questionnaire in the Kiswahili language. The first

  7. Relationship between dose in vivo of ethylene oxide and exposure to ethene studied in exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granath, F; Rohlén, O; Göransson, C; Hansson, L; Magnusson, A L; Törnqvist, M

    1996-10-01

    1. In vivo doses of ethylene oxide, arising from ethene exposure, in plastic industry workers were estimated through hemoglobin adducts. The ethene exposure was assessed through person-worn monitors. The metabolic conversion of ethene to ethylene oxide was estimated from the exposure dose/in vivo dose ratio. 2. Two studies were done: In the first study hemoglobin adducts were determined in samples collected on one occasion in exposed groups and exposure doses were estimated by using exposure data from the hygienic surveillance program. The second study applies a newly developed study design with repeated blood sampling in a few persons combined with a complete personal exposure monitoring during the study period. This makes it possible to relate adduct formation with individual short-time exposure doses, which in theory should overcome the problems with exposure history dependence of the adduct level in a single blood sample. The results of the second study shows that it is possible, through the proposed method, to utilize occupational exposure situations for this kind of studies even if the exposure pattern is irregular and highly variable. Both studies show a metabolic conversion of ethene to ethylene oxide of only 0.5%, which is unexpectedly low. 3. The cancer risk associated with the ethene exposure in the highly exposed group (3.6 p.p.m. 40 h/week) is estimated by applying the radiation-dose-equivalence approach. The result of this evaluation leads to a risk corresponding to a radiation dose of 4 mSv/year which is about a factor 3 below the current dose limit for radiological work recommended by ICRP.

  8. Standard Guide for Absorbed-Dose Mapping in Radiation Processing Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This document provides guidance in determining absorbed-dose distributions in products, materials or substances irradiated in gamma, X-ray (bremsstrahlung) and electron beam facilities. Note 1—For irradiation of food and the radiation sterilization of health care products, other specific ISO and ISO/ASTM standards containing dose mapping requirements exist. For food irradiation, see ISO/ASTM 51204, Practice for Dosimetry in Gamma Irradiation Facilities for Food Processing and ISO/ASTM 51431, Practice for Dosimetry in Electron and Bremsstrahlung Irradiation Facilities for Food Processing. For the radiation sterilization of health care products, see ISO 11137: 1995, Sterilization of Health Care Products Requirements for Validation and Routine Control Radiation Sterilization. In those areas covered by ISO 11137, that standard takes precedence. ISO/ASTM Practice 51608, ISO/ASTM Practice 51649, and ISO/ASTM Practice 51702 also contain dose mapping requirements. 1.2 Methods of analyzing the dose map data ar...

  9. Lack of genotoxic effect in workers exposed to very low doses of 1,3-butadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovreglio, Piero; Bukvic, Nenad; Fustinoni, Silvia; Ballini, Andrea; Drago, Ignazio; Foà, Vito; Guanti, Ginevra; Soleo, Leonardo

    2006-06-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD), a probable carcinogen to humans, has been shown to have an ill-defined genotoxicity in occupationally exposed workers. In the present study, the influence of exposure to very low doses of BD and to cigarette smoking was investigated on some cytogenetic endpoints, namely, sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), chromosomal aberrations (CA) and cells with a high frequency of SCE (HFC), in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Twenty-seven male workers employed in a petrochemical plant and 26 matched controls were included in the study. As regards the airborne BD values, there was a significant difference between exposed (median BD value 1.5, min-max 0.2-69.0 microg/m3) and non-exposed workers (median BD value 0.4, min-max <0.1-3.8 microg/m3). Genotoxic biomarkers were not able to distinguish between the two groups. The frequency of SCE was higher in smokers than in non-smokers (p=0.001), with a positive correlation between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and both SCE (r=0.4; p=0.004) and HFC frequency (r=0.3; p=0.04). Multiple regression analysis confirmed the influence of cigarette smoking on the level of SCE and HFC, while these parameters were not affected by personal exposure to BD. Overall, the biomarkers of genotoxic effect investigated in our study were not able to discriminate between workers with a very low exposure to BD and controls, while it was possible to distinguish between smokers and non-smokers on the basis of SCE.

  10. Healthcare worker and family caregiver hand hygiene in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities: results from the Bangladesh National Hygiene Baseline Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, L M; Unicomb, L; Alam, M-U; Halder, A K; Shoab, A K; Ghosh, P K; Opel, A; Islam, M K; Luby, S P

    2016-11-01

    Healthcare facility hand hygiene impacts patient care, healthcare worker safety, and infection control, but low-income countries have few data to guide interventions. To conduct a nationally representative survey of hand hygiene infrastructure and behaviour in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities to establish baseline data to aid policy. The 2013 Bangladesh National Hygiene Baseline Survey examined water, sanitation, and hand hygiene across households, schools, restaurants and food vendors, traditional birth attendants, and healthcare facilities. We used probability proportional to size sampling to select 100 rural and urban population clusters, and then surveyed hand hygiene infrastructure in 875 inpatient healthcare facilities, observing behaviour in 100 facilities. More than 96% of facilities had 'improved' water sources, but environmental contamination occurred frequently around water sources. Soap was available at 78-92% of handwashing locations for doctors and nurses, but just 4-30% for patients and family. Only 2% of 4676 hand hygiene opportunities resulted in recommended actions: using alcohol sanitizer or washing both hands with soap, then drying by air or clean cloth. Healthcare workers performed recommended hand hygiene in 9% of 919 opportunities: more after patient contact (26%) than before (11%). Family caregivers frequently washed hands with only water (48% of 2751 opportunities), but with little soap (3%). Healthcare workers had more access to hand hygiene materials and performed better hand hygiene than family, but still had low adherence. Increasing hand hygiene materials and behaviour could improve infection control in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, O.; Sánchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodríguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2012-10-01

    Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of "Instituto Nacional de Cancerología" (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are 131I, 18F, 68Ga, 99mTc, 111In and 11C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of "Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares" (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the "Reglamento General de Seguridad Radiológica", México (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the "International Commission on Radiation Protection" (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

  12. Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, O.; Sanchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodriguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico) and Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-542, 04510, DF (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando No.22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000 DF (Mexico) and Unidad de Investigacion Biomedica en Cancer INCan-UNAM, Av. San Fernando No.22 C.P. 4080 (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando No.22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000 DF (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of 'Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia' (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 68}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In and {sup 11}C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of 'Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares' (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the {sup R}eglamento General de Seguridad Radiologica{sup ,} Mexico (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the 'International Commission on Radiation Protection' (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

  13. Mortality from solid cancers other than lung, liver, and bone in relation to external dose among plutonium and non-plutonium workers in the Mayak Worker Cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolnikov, Mikhail [Southern Urals Biophysics Institute, Ozyorsk (Russian Federation); Preston, Dale [Hirosoft International Corporation, Eureka, CA (United States); Stram, Daniel O. [University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Exposure to ionizing radiation has well-documented long-term effects on cancer rates and other health outcomes in humans. While in vitro experimental studies had demonstrated that the nature of some radiation effects depend on both total dose of the radiation and the dose rate (i.e., the pattern of dose distribution over time), the question of whether or not the carcinogenic effect of radiation exposure depends on the dose rate remains unanswered. Another issue of interest concerns whether or not concomitant exposure to external gamma rays and inhaled plutonium aerosols has any effect on the external exposure effects. The analyses of the present paper focus on the risk of solid cancers at sites other than lung, liver, and bone in Mayak workers. Recent findings are reviewed indicating that there is no evidence of plutonium dose response for these cancers in the Mayak worker cohort. Then the evidence for differences in the external dose effects among workers with and without the potential for exposure to alpha particles from inhaled plutonium is examined. It is found that there is no evidence that exposure to plutonium aerosols significantly affects the risk associated with external exposure. While the Mayak external dose risk estimate of an excess relative risk of 0.16 per Gy is somewhat lower than an appropriately normalized risk estimate from the Life Span Study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors, the uncertainties in these estimates preclude concluding that the external dose excess relative risks of this group of solid cancers differ in the two cohorts. (orig.)

  14. Integrated doses calculation in evacuation scenarios of the neutron generator facility at Missouri S&T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manish K.; Alajo, Ayodeji B.

    2016-08-01

    Any source of ionizing radiations could lead to considerable dose acquisition to individuals in a nuclear facility. Evacuation may be required when elevated levels of radiation is detected within a facility. In this situation, individuals are more likely to take the closest exit. This may not be the most expedient decision as it may lead to higher dose acquisition. The strategy followed in preventing large dose acquisitions should be predicated on the path that offers least dose acquisition. In this work, the neutron generator facility at Missouri University of Science and Technology was analyzed. The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code was used to model the entire floor of the generator's building. The simulated dose rates in the hallways were used to estimate the integrated doses for different paths leading to exits. It was shown that shortest path did not always lead to minimum dose acquisition and the approach was successful in predicting the expedient path as opposed to the approach of taking the nearest exit.

  15. Integrated doses calculation in evacuation scenarios of the neutron generator facility at Missouri S&T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Manish K.; Alajo, Ayodeji B., E-mail: alajoa@mst.edu

    2016-08-11

    Any source of ionizing radiations could lead to considerable dose acquisition to individuals in a nuclear facility. Evacuation may be required when elevated levels of radiation is detected within a facility. In this situation, individuals are more likely to take the closest exit. This may not be the most expedient decision as it may lead to higher dose acquisition. The strategy followed in preventing large dose acquisitions should be predicated on the path that offers least dose acquisition. In this work, the neutron generator facility at Missouri University of Science and Technology was analyzed. The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code was used to model the entire floor of the generator's building. The simulated dose rates in the hallways were used to estimate the integrated doses for different paths leading to exits. It was shown that shortest path did not always lead to minimum dose acquisition and the approach was successful in predicting the expedient path as opposed to the approach of taking the nearest exit.

  16. Procedure for the training of workers of facilities of service of the trade retailer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Ivón Sosa Ibarra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The benefit of the services transforms quickly. To improve this activity is vital to reach the excellence and a fundamental element is the human factor that should be motivated and highly qualified to satisfy the necessities of the clients, of there the importance of its superación. In this investigation a training procedure is designed for workers of facilities of service of the trade that it facilitates, starting from an appropriate detection of the training necessities, to execute actions to achieve an improvement in the benefit of the services. These transformations in the superación of the workers impact significantly in their conceptions, in order to achieve the formation of a professional of the sector from the much more competent and adjusted services to the demands that it demands the current moment. The procedure is feasible of applying in all the establishments of the commercial net and it contemplates four moments: diagnostic, projection, execution and the control. It constitutes a novel experience, to the being a proposal of change and innovation in the environment of the training and the benefit of the services in the sector of the trade and it can favor the development of work values.

  17. Independent dose per monitor unit review of eight U.S.A. proton treatment facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyers, M. F., E-mail: MFMoyers@roadrunner.com [Colton, California 92354 (United States); Ibbott, G. S.; Grant, R. L.; Summers, P. A.; Followill, D. S. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas – M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Compare the dose per monitor unit at different proton treatment facilities using three different dosimetry methods. Methods: Measurements of dose per monitor unit were performed by a single group at eight facilities using 11 test beams and up to six different clinical portal treatment sites. These measurements were compared to the facility reported dose per monitor unit values. Results: Agreement between the measured and reported doses was similar using any of the three dosimetry methods. Use of the ICRU 59 N{sub D,w} based method gave results approximately 3% higher than both the ICRU 59 N{sub X} and ICRU 78 (TRS-398) N{sub D,w} based methods. Conclusions: Any single dosimetry method could be used for multi-institution trials with similar conformity between facilities. A multi-institutional trial could support facilities using both the ICRU 59 N{sub X} based and ICRU 78 (TRS-398) N{sub D,w} based methods but use of the ICRU 59 N{sub D,w} based method should not be allowed simultaneously with the other two until the difference is resolved.

  18. Independent dose per monitor unit review of eight U.S.A. proton treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, M F; Ibbott, G S; Grant, R L; Summers, P A; Followill, D S

    2014-01-01

    Compare the dose per monitor unit at different proton treatment facilities using three different dosimetry methods. Measurements of dose per monitor unit were performed by a single group at eight facilities using 11 test beams and up to six different clinical portal treatment sites. These measurements were compared to the facility reported dose per monitor unit values. Agreement between the measured and reported doses was similar using any of the three dosimetry methods. Use of the ICRU 59 ND,w based method gave results approximately 3% higher than both the ICRU 59 NX and ICRU 78 (TRS-398) ND,w based methods. Any single dosimetry method could be used for multi-institution trials with similar conformity between facilities. A multi-institutional trial could support facilities using both the ICRU 59 NX based and ICRU 78 (TRS-398) ND,w based methods but use of the ICRU 59 ND,w based method should not be allowed simultaneously with the other two until the difference is resolved.

  19. Intercomparison and calibration of dose calibrators used in nuclear medicine facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, A M D

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to establish a working standard for intercomparison and calibration of dose calibrators used in most of nuclear medicine facilities for the determination of the activity of radionuclides administered to patients in specific examinations or therapeutic procedures. A commercial dose calibrator, a set of standard radioactive sources, and syringes, vials and ampoules with radionuclide solutions used in nuclear medicine were utilized in this work. The commercial dose calibrator was calibrated for radionuclide solutions used in nuclear medicine. Simple instrument tests, such as linearity response and variation response with the source volume at a constant source activity concentration were performed. This instrument may be used as a reference system for intercomparison and calibration of other activity meters, as a method of quality control of dose calibrators utilized in nuclear medicine facilities.

  20. Realistic retrospective dose assessments to members of the public around Spanish nuclear facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, M A; Martín-Valdepeñas, J M; García-Talavera, M; Martín-Matarranz, J L; Salas, M R; Serrano, J I; Ramos, L M

    2011-11-01

    In the frame of an epidemiological study carried out in the influence areas around the Spanish nuclear facilities (ISCIII-CSN, 2009. Epidemiological Study of The Possible Effect of Ionizing Radiations Deriving from The Operation of Spanish Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities on The Health of The Population Living in Their Vicinity. Final report December 2009. Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear. Madrid. Available from: http://www.csn.es/images/stories/actualidad_datos/especiales/epidemiologico/epidemiological_study.pdf), annual effective doses to public have been assessed by the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) for over 45 years using a retrospective realistic-dose methodology. These values are compared with data from natural radiation exposure. For the affected population, natural radiation effective doses are in average 2300 times higher than effective doses due to the operation of nuclear installations (nuclear power stations and fuel cycle facilities). When considering the impact on the whole Spanish population, effective doses attributable to nuclear facilities represent in average 3.5×10(-5)mSv/y, in contrast to 1.6mSv/y from natural radiation or 1.3mSv/y from medical exposures.

  1. Evaluation of the effective dose during BNCT at TRR thermal column epithermal facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarahi, Hossein; Kasesaz, Yaser; Saleh-Koutahi, Seyed Mohsen

    2016-04-01

    An epithermal neutron beam has been designed for Boron neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at the thermal column of Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) recently. In this paper the whole body effective dose, as well as the equivalent doses of several organs have been calculated in this facility using MCNP4C Monte Carlo code. The effective dose has been calculated by using the absorbed doses determined for each individual organ, taking into account the radiation and tissue weighting factors. The ICRP 110 whole body male phantom has been used as a patient model. It was found that the effective dose during BNCT of a brain tumor is equal to 0.90Sv. This effective dose may induce a 4% secondary cancer risk.

  2. Analysis of the mortality experience amongst U.S. nuclear power industry workers after chronic low-dose exposure to ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Geoffrey R; Zablotska, Lydia B; Fix, Jack J; Egel, John; Buchanan, Jeff

    2004-11-01

    Workers employed in 15 utilities that generate nuclear power in the United States have been followed for up to 18 years between 1979 and 1997. Their cumulative dose from whole body ionizing radiation has been determined from the dose records maintained by the facilities themselves and the REIRS and REMS systems maintained by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy, respectively. Mortality in the cohort from a number of causes has been analyzed with respect to individual radiation doses. The cohort displays a very substantial healthy worker effect, i.e. considerably lower cancer and noncancer mortality than the general population. Based on 26 and 368 deaths, respectively, positive though statistically nonsignificant associations were seen for mortality from leukemia (excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia) and all solid cancers combined, with excess relative risks per sievert of 5.67 [95% confidence interval (CI) -2.56, 30.4] and 0.506 (95% CI -2.01, 4.64), respectively. These estimates are very similar to those from the atomic bomb survivors study, though the wide confidence intervals are also consistent with lower or higher risk estimates. A strong positive and statistically significant association between radiation dose and deaths from arteriosclerotic heart disease including coronary heart disease was also observed in the cohort, with an ERR of 8.78 (95% CI 2.10, 20.0). While associations with heart disease have been reported in some other occupational studies, the magnitude of the present association is not consistent with them and therefore needs cautious interpretation and merits further attention. At present, the relatively small number of deaths and the young age of the cohort (mean age at end of follow-up is 45 years) limit the power of the study, but further follow-up and the inclusion of the present data in an ongoing IARC combined analysis of nuclear workers from 15 countries will have greater power for testing the main hypotheses

  3. Analysis of the Mortality Experience amongst U.S. Nuclear Power Industry Workers after Chronic Low-Dose Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, Geoffrey R.; Zablotska, Lydia B.; Fix, Jack J.; Egel, John N.; Buchanan, Jeffrey A.

    2004-11-01

    Workers employed in 15 utilities that generate nuclear power in the United States have been followed for up to 18 years between 1979 and 1997. Their cumulative dose from whole-body ionizing radiation has been determined from the dose records maintained by the facilities themselves and the REIRS and REMS systems maintained by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy, respectively. Mortality in the cohort from a number of causes has been analyzed with respect to individual radiation doses. The cohort displays a very substantial healthy worker effect, i.e. considerably lower cancer and noncancer mortality than the general population. Based on 26 and 368 deaths, respectively, positive though statistically nonsignificant associations were seen for mortality from leukemia (excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia) and all solid cancers combined, with excess relative risks per sievert of 5.67 (95% confidence interval (CI) -2.56, 30.4) and 0.596 (95% CI -2.01, 4.64), respectively. These estimates are very similar to those from the atomic bomb survivors study, though the wide confidence intervals are also consistent with lower or higher risk estimates. A strong positive and statistically significant association between radiation dose and deaths from arteriosclerotic heart disease including coronary heart disease was also observed in the cohort, with an ERR of 8.78 (95% CI 2.10, 20.0). While associations with heart disease have been reported in some other occupational studies, the magnitude of the present association is not consistent with them and therefore needs cautious interpretation and merits further attention. At present, the relatively small number of deaths and the young age of the cohort (mean age at end of follow-up is 45 years) limit the power of the study, but further follow-up and the inclusion of the present data in an ongoing IARC combined analysis of nuclear workers from 15 countries will have greater power for testing the main hypotheses

  4. Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2008 (MWDS-2008): assessment of internal dose from measurement results of plutonium activity in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhryakov, Victor V; Khokhryakov, Valentin F; Suslova, Klara G; Vostrotin, Vadim V; Vvedensky, Vladimir E; Sokolova, Alexandra B; Krahenbuhl, Melinda P; Birchall, Alan; Miller, Scott C; Schadilov, Anatoly E; Ephimov, Alexander V

    2013-04-01

    A new modification of the prior human lung compartment plutonium model, Doses-2005, has been described. The modified model was named "Mayak Worker Dosimetry System-2008" (MWDS-2008). In contrast to earlier models developed for workers at the Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA), the new model more correctly describes plutonium biokinetics and metabolism in pulmonary lymph nodes. The MWDS-2008 also provides two sets of doses estimates: one based on bioassay data and the other based on autopsy data, where available. The algorithm of internal dose calculation from autopsy data will be described in a separate paper. Results of comparative analyses of Doses-2005 and MWDS-2008 are provided. Perspectives on the further development of plutonium dosimetry are discussed.

  5. The mortality and cancer morbidity experience of workers at the Springfields uranium production facility, 1946-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGeoghegan, D. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd, The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3LN (United Kingdom). E-mail: david.mcgeoghegan at westlakes.ac.uk; Binks, K. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd, The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3LN (United Kingdom)

    2000-06-01

    The results presented here are from the follow-up of the cohort of workers ever employed at the Springfields site of British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) between 1946 and 1995. The main activity of the site is uranium fuel fabrication and uranium hexafluoride production. The study cohort consists of 19 454 current and former employees, 13 960 of which were classified as radiation workers, and contains 479 146 person-years of follow-up. The mean follow-up period is 24.6 years. To the end of 1995 there have been 4832 deaths recorded for this cohort, 3476 of which were amongst radiation workers and 1356 were amongst non-radiation workers. The standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for all causes were 84 and 98 for radiation workers and non-radiation workers respectively. For all cancers the SMRs were 86 and 96 respectively. For cancer morbidity the standardised registration ratios (SRRs) for all cancers were 81 and 81 respectively. Significant associations were noted for both mortality and morbidity due to Hodgkin's disease and cumulative external dose. A strong association was also noted for morbidity, but not mortality, due to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. These associations, however, are unlikely to be causal. The excess relative risk estimates for cancer other than leukaemia and for leukaemia excluding chronic lymphatic leukaemia are consistent with other occupationally exposed cohorts and estimates from the high-dose studies. (author)

  6. Radiological Dose Calculations And Supplemental Dose Assessment Data For Neshap Compliance For SNL Nevada Facilities 1996.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-05-01

    Operations of Sandia National Laboratories, Nevada (SNL/NV) at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) resulted in no planned point radiological releases during 1996. Other releases from SNL/NV included diffuse transuranic sources consisting of the three Clean Slate sites. Air emissions from these sources result from wind resuspension of near-surface transuranic contaminated soil particulates. The total area of contamination has been estimated to exceed 20 million square meters. Soil contamination was documented in an aerial survey program in 1977 (EG&G 1979). Surface contamination levels were generally found to be below 400 pCi/g of combined plutonium-238, plutonium-239, plutonium-240, and americium-241 (i.e., transuranic) activity. Hot spot areas contain up to 43,000 pCi/g of transuranic activity. Recent measurements confirm the presence of significant levels of transuranic activity in the surface soil. An annual diffuse source term of 0.39 Ci of transuranic material was calculated for the cumulative release from all three Clean Slate sites. A maximally exposed individual dose of 1.1 mrem/yr at the TTR airport area was estimated based on the 1996 diffuse source release amounts and site-specific meteorological data. A population dose of 0.86 person-rem/yr was calculated for the local residents. Both dose values were attributable to inhalation of transuranic contaminated dust.

  7. Methodology for calculation of radiation doses in the environs from nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldat, J.K.

    1976-08-01

    Comparison of the impacts of various nuclear fuel cycle alternatives includes the evaluation of the radiological impacts. To evaluate the radiological impacts of fuel cycle alternatives, exposure to man must first be identified. The pathways of consequence by which man can be exposed to radiation from a nuclear facility are listed and are grouped into those associated with gaseous effluents, those associated with liquid effluents, and those involving exposure to direct radiation from the facility or from transportation of radioactive materials to or from the facility. Calculations for each pathway were made for those selected organs which could potentially receive the highest radiation dose. Some of the programs developed for calculating radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment are described. (CH)

  8. Natural radioactivities in iron and nickel ores imported into Japan and the dose assessment for workers handling them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Tagami, Keiko; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2010-09-01

    Japan imports Fe and Ni ores from abroad for use as industrial raw materials in the manufacture of industrial products like stainless steel. Some of these ores might contain high levels of radioactivity, and then workers handling them would be exposed to radiation without being aware of it. Activity concentrations in these ores should be measured to evaluate the radiation exposure of workers. In this study, Fe and Ni ores used as industrial raw materials were collected from iron and steel companies, and the activity concentrations of the (238)U series, the (232)Th series and (40)K in these ores were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gamma ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of the (238)U series, the (232)Th series and (40)K in these ores samples were lower than the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) values. The doses to workers handling these ores were estimated using methods for dose assessment given in a report by the European Commission. In each scenario, a maximum value of the annual effective dose to workers was estimated to be about 6.8 × 10(-6) Sv, which was lower than intervention exemption levels (annual dose 1.0 × 10(-3) Sv) given in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 82.

  9. Natural radioactivities in iron and nickel ores imported into Japan and the dose assessment for workers handling them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Tagami, Keiko; Yonehara, Hidenori, E-mail: iwaoka@nirs.go.j [Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2010-09-15

    Japan imports Fe and Ni ores from abroad for use as industrial raw materials in the manufacture of industrial products like stainless steel. Some of these ores might contain high levels of radioactivity, and then workers handling them would be exposed to radiation without being aware of it. Activity concentrations in these ores should be measured to evaluate the radiation exposure of workers. In this study, Fe and Ni ores used as industrial raw materials were collected from iron and steel companies, and the activity concentrations of the {sup 238}U series, the {sup 232}Th series and {sup 40}K in these ores were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gamma ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of the {sup 238}U series, the {sup 232}Th series and {sup 40}K in these ores samples were lower than the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) values. The doses to workers handling these ores were estimated using methods for dose assessment given in a report by the European Commission. In each scenario, a maximum value of the annual effective dose to workers was estimated to be about 6.8 x 10{sup -6} Sv, which was lower than intervention exemption levels (annual dose 1.0 x 10{sup -3} Sv) given in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 82. (note)

  10. Dose estimation by ESR on tooth enamel from two workers exposed to radiation due to the JCO accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Kunio; Iwasaki, Midori; Miyazawa, Chyuzo; Yonehara, Hidenori; Matsumoto, Masaki

    2002-09-01

    ESR dosimetry is useful to estimate the external dose for the general population as well as for occupational workers in a nuclear emergency. Three teeth were extracted from two exposed workers (A and B) related to the JCO criticality accident. Tooth enamel was carefully separated from other tooth parts and subjected to ESR dosimetry. Doses equivalent to the gamma-ray dose of 60Co were estimated as follows: for worker A, the buccal and lingual sides of the eighth tooth in the upper right side, 11.8 +/- 3.6 and 12.0 +/- 3.6 Gy, respectively; for worker B, the buccal and lingual sides of the fourth tooth in the upper right side and the fifth tooth in the upper left side, 11.3 +/- 3.4 and 10.8 +/- 3.3 Gy, 11.7 +/- 3.5 and 11.4 +/- 3.4 Gy, respectively. The estimated doses were found to be similar and not dependent on the tooth positions, whether the buccal or lingual sides in each tooth.

  11. Epidemiologic Investigation of Hornet and Paper Wasp Stings in Forest Workers and Electrical Facility Field Workers in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumeko Hayashih

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions:: 21% of FWs and 14% of EFFWs had experienced systemic reactions to Hymenoptera stings with a higher frequency compared with office workers in the same area. 40% of FWs and 30% of EFFWs had sera that were sIgE positive to Hymenoptera venom.

  12. Effective dose to staff members in a positron emission tomography/CT facility using zirconium-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Positron emission tomography (PET) using zirconium-89 (89Zr) is complicated by its complex decay scheme. In this study, we quantified the effective dose from 89Zr and compared it with fluorine-18 fludeoxyglucose (18F-FDG). Methods: Effective dose distribution in a PET/CT facility in Riyadh was calculated by Monte Carlo simulations using MCNPX. The positron bremsstrahlung, the annihilation photons, the delayed gammas from 89Zr and those emissions from 18F-FDG were modelled in the simulations but low-energy characteristic X-rays were ignored. Results: On the basis of injected activity, the dose from 89Zr was higher than that of 18F-FDG. However, the dose per scan from 89Zr became less than that from 18F-FDG near the patient, owing to the difference in injected activities. In the corridor and control rooms, the 89Zr dose was much higher than 18F-FDG, owing to the difference in attenuation by the shielding materials. Conclusion: The presence of the high-energy photons from 89Zr-labelled immuno-PET radiopharmaceuticals causes a significantly higher effective dose than 18F-FDG to the staff outside the patient room. Conversely, despite the low administered activity of 89Zr, it gives rise to a comparable or even lower dose than 18F-FDG to the staff near the patient. This interesting result raises apparently contradictory implications in the radiation protection considerations of a PET/CT facility. Advances in knowledge: To the best of our knowledge, radiation exposure to staff and public in the PET/CT unit using 89Zr has not been investigated. The ultimate output of this study will lead to the optimal design of the facility for routine use of 89Zr. PMID:23934963

  13. Evaluation of the space scattered dose according to the position of the radiation workers in mammography room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Yeon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Dongnam Inst. of Radiological and Medical Science, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Inje University Heaundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the dose of the space to the controller located within the mammography room conducted a research on ways to the reduction exposure to the radiation workers. Results, the dose of 6.18 mGy/year was measured when there is no difference in the hilar area of the controller position, the dose of 2.35E-11 mGy/year was measured when installing the Shielding door. In addition, when the direction of the X-ray tube anode be heading this direction controller, low average level measured was 0.30 mGy/year. Based on this study, the mammography should be considered when installing the anode and cathod directions. And, by installing the shielding door, it must be able to completely separate shooting space and control room. This is the best way radiation protection method in radiation workers.

  14. Assessment of radiation doses due to normal operation, incidents and accidents of the final disposal facility; Kaeytetyn ydinpolttoaineen loppusijoituslaitoksen normaalikaeytoen, kaeyttoehaeirioeiden ja onnettomuustilanteiden aiheuttamien saeteilyannosten arviointi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, J.; Raiko, H.; Suolanen, V.; Ilvonen, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-03-01

    Radiation doses for workers of the encapsulation and disposal facility and for inhabitants in the environment caused by the facility during its operation were considered. The study covers both the normal operation of the plant and some hypothetical incidents and accidents. Occupational radiation doses inside the plant during normal operation are based on the design basis, assuming that highest permitted dose levels are prevailing in control rooms during fuel transfer and encapsulation processes. Release through the ventilation stack is assumed to be filtered both in normal operation and in hypothetical incident and accident cases. Calculation of the offsite doses from normal operation is based on the hypothesis that one fuel pin per 100 fuel bundles for all batches of spent fuel transported to the encapsulation facility is leaking. The release magnitude in incidents and accidents is based on the event chains, which lead to loss of fuel pin tightness followed by a discharge of radionuclides into the handling chamber and to some degree through the ventilation stack into atmosphere. The weather data measured at the Olkiluoto meteorological mast was employed for calculating of offsite doses. Therefore doses could be calculated in a large amount of different dispersion conditions, the statistical frequencies of which have, been measured. Finally doses were combined into cumulative distributions, from which a dose value representing the 99.5 % confidence level, is presented. The dose values represent the exposure of a critical group, which is assumed to live at the distance of 200 meters from the encapsulation and disposal plant and thus it will receive the largest doses in most dispersion conditions. Exposure pathways considered were: cloudsnine, inhalation, groundshine and nutrition (milk of cow, meat of cow, green vegetables, grain and root vegetables). Nordic seasonal variation is included in ingestion dose models. The results obtained indicate that offsite doses

  15. Annual report, August 1976--July 1977 Radiation dose to construction workers at operating nuclear power plant sites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endres, G.W.R.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation exposures received by most construction workers at nuclear power plant sites have not been measured routinely because field surveys have indicated exposure levels below the point for which monitoring is required. As a consequence, the dose to individuals and groups of workers is not known to the degree desired for adequate environmental impact assessment. This study was developed to measure and evaluate radiation exposure and exposure rates received by construction workers at various reactor sites where one or more reactors are operating while construction is proceeding on one or more additional reactors. This study is providing a data base from which a realistic assessment of radiological impact can be made for the construction workers of proposed multiunit nuclear power plants and to help arrive at a decision as to whether increased control of the radiation exposure of these workers is warranted. Four nuclear sites were included in this study after receiving approval of the operating utilities. Data from thermoluminescent personnel dosimeters and environmental dosimeters showed that the construction workers receive very little exposure above background.

  16. Prediction analysis of dose equivalent responses of neutron dosemeters used at a MOX fuel facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, N; Yoshida, T; Takada, C

    2011-07-01

    To predict how accurately neutron dosemeters can measure the neutron dose equivalent (rate) in MOX fuel fabrication facility work environments, the dose equivalent responses of neutron dosemeters were calculated by the spectral folding method. The dosemeters selected included two types of personal dosemeter, namely a thermoluminescent albedo neutron dosemeter and an electronic neutron dosemeter, three moderator-based neutron survey meters, and one special instrument called an H(p)(10) monitor. The calculations revealed the energy dependences of the responses expected within the entire range of neutron spectral variations observed in neutron fields at workplaces.

  17. Isodose distributions and dose uniformity in the Portuguese gamma irradiation facility calculated using the MCNP code

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, C

    2001-01-01

    A systematic study of isodose distributions and dose uniformity in sample carriers of the Portuguese Gamma Irradiation Facility was carried out using the MCNP code. The absorbed dose rate, gamma flux per energy interval and average gamma energy were calculated. For comparison purposes, boxes filled with air and 'dummy' boxes loaded with layers of folded and crumpled newspapers to achieve a given value of density were used. The magnitude of various contributions to the total photon spectra, including source-dependent factors, irradiator structures, sample material and other origins were also calculated.

  18. Development of a dose-adjustable α-particle irradiation facility for radiobiological studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Bu-Rong; WU Jie-Feng; HAN Wei; WANG Xu-Fei; WU Li-Jun; YU Zeng-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Bystander effects induced by low-dose or low dose-rate radiation have put a great challenge to the traditional model for radiation protection. In order to get a better assessment of the adverse effects of radiation, especially the low-dose radiation risk in environment, a radioactive irradiation facility, by which the dose and dose-rate to the biological targets can be controlled by rotating the sample bracket and changing the space between the radioactive source and the targets, was developed. The energy of our α-radioactive source (241Am) is measured averagely 3.5MeV at the position of the irradiated sample. The dose rate was measured by using a silicon surface barrier detector and a CR39 particle track detector. A dose rate ranging from 0.045 cGy/s to 1.07 cGy/s can be obtained by changing the space length from the radioactive source to the sample dish.

  19. Dose estimation based on a behavior survey of residents around the JCO facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, K; Yonehara, H; Yamaguchi, Y; Endo, A

    2001-09-01

    The NIRS staff interviewed the residents in the evacuated zone around the JCO facility in Tokai-mura on 19 and 20 November, 1999, to obtain the following parameters every 30 minutes starting from 10:35 A.M. on 30 September to 6:15 A.M. on 1 October: the distance from the precipitation tank, the type of the house, positions in the house, wall materials and their thickness in order to estimate individual doses due to the accident. The ambient dose equivalents were obtained based on monitoring data during the accident. In addition, computer calculations were conducted to evaluate the conversion factor from ambient dose equivalent to effective dose equivalent as well as the shielding effect of the house or factory to estimate the effective dose equivalent to the residents. The estimated individual doses based on the behavior survey were in the range from zero to 21 mSv. The individual doses were reported to the residents during the second visit to each house and factory at the end of January, 2000.

  20. Impact of environmental microbiota on human microbiota of workers in academic mouse research facilities: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Peggy S; Allen, Joseph G; Hutchinson, Diane S; Ajami, Nadim J; Petrosino, Joseph F; Winters, Thomas; Hug, Christopher; Wartenberg, Gary R; Vallarino, Jose; Christiani, David C

    2017-01-01

    To characterize the microbial environment of workers in academic mouse research facilities using endotoxin, 16S qPCR, and 16S amplicon sequencing. To determine whether the work microbiome contributes to the human microbiome of workers. We performed area air sampling from the animal rooms, dirty, middle, and setup cage wash locations in four academic mouse research facilities. 10 workers in the dirty cage wash area underwent personal air sampling as well as repeated collection of nasal, oral, and skin samples before and after the work shift. Environmental samples underwent measurement of endotoxin, mouse allergen, bacteria copy number via 16S qPCR, and microbial identification via 16S rDNA sequencing. 16S rDNA sequencing was also performed on human samples before and after the work shift. SourceTracker was used to identify the contribution of the work microbiome to the human microbiome. Median endotoxin levels ranged from undetectable to 1.0 EU/m3. Significant differences in mouse allergen levels, bacterial copy number, microbial richness, and microbial community structure were identified between animal, dirty, middle, and setup cage wash locations. Endotoxin levels had only a moderate correlation with microbial composition. Location within a facility was a stronger predictor of microbial community composition (R2 = 0.41, p = 0.002) than facility. The contribution of the work microbiome to the pre-shift human microbiome of workers was estimated to be 0.1 ± 0.1% for the oral microbiome; 3.1 ± 1.9% for the nasal microbiome; and 3.0 ± 1.5% for the skin microbiome. The microbial environment of academic animal care facilities varies significantly by location rather than facility. Endotoxin is not a proxy for assessment of environmental microbial exposures using 16S qPCR or 16S rDNA sequencing. The work microbiome contributes to the composition of the nasal and skin microbiome of workers; the clinical implications of this observation should be further studied.

  1. Health effects of low doses at low dose rates: dose-response relationship modeling in a cohort of workers of the nuclear industry; Effets sanitaires des faibles doses a faibles debits de dose: modelisation de la relation dose-reponse dans une cohorte de travailleurs du nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz-Flamant, Camille

    2011-09-19

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of the health effects of chronic external low doses of ionising radiation. This work is based on the French cohort of CEA-AREVA NC nuclear workers. The mains stages of this thesis were (1) conducting a review of epidemiological studies on nuclear workers, (2) completing the database and performing a descriptive analysis of the cohort, (3) quantifying risk by different statistical methods and (4) modelling the exposure-time-risk relationship. The cohort includes monitored workers employed more than one year between 1950 and 1994 at CEA or AREVA NC companies. Individual annual external exposure, history of work, vital status and causes of death were reconstructed for each worker. Standardized mortality ratios using French national mortality rates as external reference were computed. Exposure-risk analysis was conducted in the cohort using the linear excess relative risk model, based on both Poisson regression and Cox model. Time dependent modifying factors were investigated by adding an interaction term in the model or by using exposure time windows. The cohort includes 36, 769 workers, followed-up until age 60 in average. During the 1968- 2004 period, 5, 443 deaths, 2, 213 cancers, 62 leukemia and 1, 314 cardiovascular diseases were recorded. Among the 57% exposed workers, the mean cumulative dose was 21.5 milli-sieverts (mSv). A strong Healthy Worker Effect is observed in the cohort. Significant elevated risks of pleura cancer and melanoma deaths were observed in the cohort but not associated with dose. No significant association was observed with solid cancers, lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. A significant dose-response relationship was observed for leukemia excluding chronic lymphatic leukemia, mainly for doses received less than 15 years before and for yearly dose rates higher than 10 mSv. This PhD work contributes to the evaluation of risks associated to chronic external radiation

  2. Dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides by workers: Coefficients for radionuclides not listed in ICRP Publication 68

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Akira; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-12-01

    Dose coefficients, the committed effective dose per unit intake, have been calculated for 149 radionuclides with half-lives {>=} 10 min that are not listed in ICRP Publication 68 (Publ. 68). Effective dose rates for inert gas have been calculated for 2 radionuclides. The dose coefficients were calculated with the computer program LUDEP that calculates internal doses using the respiratory tract model of ICRP Publ. 66 and the biokinetic models of Publ. 30. Nuclear decay data used for the calculation were newly compiled from decay data sets of the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). In the calculation of the effective dose rates, external irradiation from the surrounding cloud and irradiation of the lung from the gas within it were considered. The calculated results are presented in tables, which are the same forms as those in Publ. 68. The range of the differences in the dose coefficients due to the biokinetic models and nuclear decay data employed was also discussed by comparing the dose coefficients between LUDEP and Publ. 68. The dose coefficients and the effective dose rates will be used for dose calculation for radionuclides produced in high-energy proton accelerator and fusion reactor facilities. (author)

  3. Low Dose of Ionizing Radiation Effect on the Professionally Exposure Worker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spasojevic, V.; Joksic, T. G.; Pavelkic, V.

    2004-07-01

    This paper shows the comparative medical results of the peripheral blood hematological biochemical analysis as well as chromosome aberration in the lymphocytes of the peripheral blood of the people professionally exposed to the small doses of the ionizing radiation.Selected group is formed of 54 x-rays radiotherapy technicians (22 male and 32 female) and 38 radio-diagnosis technicians (20 male, 18 female). The ophthalmology and occupational medical specialists medically examined them. The changes on eye-lenses such as cataract have not been confirmed in any of the examined group. In regard to the TLD-dosimeter's results, there were no oversteps in the allowed annual doses. The middle value of the exposed work experience (EWE) at x-ray radiotherapy technicians was 13 years and radio-diagnosis technician a 10 years. The middle value of the red blood cells (RBC) was 4.74? 1012/1 at radiodiagnosis and 4.93? 1012/1 at radio therapist while the middle values of hemoglobin (Hgb) were 13.91 g/l and 14.3 g/l respectively. The middle value of white blood cells (WBC) at a radiotherapy technician was 6.96 ? 1091 (granulocyte 66.34% and lymphocyte 27.39%), at radiodiagnosis technician 6.92? 109/l (granulocyte 63.94% and lymphocyte 28.17%). Analysis confirmed hematological biochemical changes at 4 radio diagnostics technicians (2 anemia, leucopenia and leucocytosis). the chromosome confirmed aberration analysis in white blood cells of peripheral blood that 16 technicians do have the changes of the dicenteric type and acentric fragment up to 14 technicians of the radio-diagnosis and at 2 radiotherapy technicians. At 3 radio diagnostic technician found lowered value of leukocytes followed by the changes of dicentric type of chromosomes but the results of one person showed that the while blood cells were essentially raised level 11.6? 109/l followed as well as with the changes on the chromosomes. All the examined workers that showed positive to any changes were subjectively

  4. Violence towards health care workers in a Public Health Care Facility in Italy: a repeated cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnavita Nicola

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence at work is one of the major concerns in health care activities. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of physical and non-physical violence in a general health care facility in Italy and to assess the relationship between violence and psychosocial factors, thereby providing a basis for appropriate intervention. Methods All health care workers from a public health care facility were invited to complete a questionnaire containing questions on workplace violence. Three questionnaire-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted. The response rate was 75 % in 2005, 71 % in 2007, and 94 % in 2009. The 2009 questionnaire contained the VIF (Violent Incident Form for reporting violent incidents, the DCS (demand/control/support model for job strain, the Colquitt 20 item questionnaire for perceived organizational justice, and the GHQ-12 General Health Questionnaire for the assessment of mental health. Results One out of ten workers reported physical assault, and one out of three exposure to non-physical violence in the workplace in the previous year. Nurses and physicians were the most exposed occupational categories, whereas the psychiatric and emergency departments were the services at greatest risk of violence. Workers exposed to non-physical violence were subject to high job strain, low support, low perceived organizational justice, and high psychological distress. Conclusion Our study shows that health care workers in an Italian local health care facility are exposed to violence. Workplace violence was associated with high demand and psychological disorders, while job control, social support and organizational justice were protective factors.

  5. Retrospective cohort mortality study of workers at an aircraft maintenance facility. I. Epidemiological results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirtas, R; Stewart, P A; Lee, J S; Marano, D E; Forbes, C D; Grauman, D J; Pettigrew, H M; Blair, A; Hoover, R N; Cohen, J L

    1991-08-01

    A retrospective cohort study of 14,457 workers at an aircraft maintenance facility was undertaken to evaluate mortality associated with exposures in their workplace. The purpose was to determine whether working with solvents, particularly trichloroethylene, posed any excess risk of mortality. The study group consisted of all civilian employees who worked for at least one year at Hill Air Force Base, Utah, between 1 January 1952 and 31 December 1956. Work histories were obtained from records at the National Personnel Records Centre, St. Louis, Missouri, and the cohort was followed up for ascertainment of vital state until 31 December 1982. Observed deaths among white people were compared with the expected number of deaths, based on the Utah white population, and adjusted for age, sex, and calendar period. Significant deficits occurred for mortality from all causes (SMR 92, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 90-95), all malignant neoplasms (SMR 90, 95% CI 83-97), ischaemic heart disease (SMR 93, 95% CI 88-98), non-malignant respiratory disease (SMR 87, 95% CI 76-98), and accidents (SMR 61, 95% CI 52-70). Mortality was raised for multiple myeloma (MM) in white women (SMR 236, 95% CI 87-514), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in white women (SMR 212, 95% CI 102-390), and cancer of the biliary passages and liver in white men dying after 1980 (SMR 358, 95% CI 116-836). Detailed analysis of the 6929 employees occupationally exposed to trichloroethylene, the most widely used solvent at the base during the 1950s and 1960s, did not show any significant or persuasive association between several measures of exposure to trichloroethylene and any excess of cancer. Women employed in departments in which fabric cleaning and parachute repair operations were performed had more deaths than expected from MM and NHL. The inconsistent mortality patterns by sex, multiple and overlapping exposures, and small numbers made it difficult to ascribe these excesses to any particular substance

  6. Effect of Low-Dose Vitamin D Supplementation on Serum 25(OH)D in School Children and White-Collar Workers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ronghua Zhang; Xiamusiye Muyiduli; Danting Su; Biao Zhou; Yueqiang Fang; Shuying Jiang; Shuojia Wang; Lichun Huang; Minjia Mo; Minchao Li; Bule Shao; Yunxian Yu

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Our study aimed to investigate the nutritional vitamin D status of school children aged 9-15 years and white-collar workers in Zhejiang province, and evaluate the efficacy of low-dose-oral vitamin D...

  7. HealtH facility and HealtH worker readiness to deliver new national ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-05-01

    May 1, 2008 ... six months, presence of al wall charts, health worker's exposure to ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 85 No. ... and development, Boston university school of public health, 85 East concord street, 5th floor, Boston, Ma 02118,.

  8. Increased respiratory disease mortality at a microwave popcorn production facility with worker risk of bronchiolitis obliterans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara N Halldin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis obliterans, an irreversible lung disease, was first associated with inhalation of butter flavorings (diacetyl in workers at a microwave popcorn company. Excess rates of lung-function abnormalities were related to cumulative diacetyl exposure. Because information on potential excess mortality would support development of permissible exposure limits for diacetyl, we investigated respiratory-associated mortality during 2000-2011 among current and former workers at this company who had exposure to flavorings and participated in cross-sectional surveys conducted between 2000-2003. METHODS: We ascertained workers' vital status through a Social Security Administration search. Causes of death were abstracted from death certificates. Because bronchiolitis obliterans is not coded in the International Classification of Disease 10(th revision (ICD-10, we identified respiratory mortality decedents with ICD-10 codes J40-J44 which encompass bronchitis (J40, simple and mucopurulent chronic bronchitis (J41, unspecified chronic bronchitis (J42, emphysema (J43, and other chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (J44. We calculated expected number of deaths and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs with 95% confidence intervals (CI to determine if workers exposed to diacetyl experienced greater respiratory mortality than expected. RESULTS: We identified 15 deaths among 511 workers. Based on U.S. population estimates, 17.39 deaths were expected among these workers (SMR = 0.86; CI:0.48-1.42. Causes of death were available for 14 decedents. Four deaths among production and flavor mixing workers were documented to have a multiple cause of 'other COPD' (J44, while 0.98 'other COPD'-associated deaths were expected (SMR = 4.10; CI:1.12-10.49. Three of the 4 'other COPD'-associated deaths occurred among former workers and workers employed before the company implemented interventions reducing diacetyl exposure in 2001. CONCLUSION: Workers

  9. External radiation dose and cancer mortality among French nuclear workers. Considering potential confounding by internal radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, L.; Laurent, O.; Samson, E.; Caer-Lorho, S.; Laurier, D.; Leuraud, K. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Fontenay aux Roses (France). Ionizing Radiation Epidemiology Lab.; Laroche, P. [AREVA, Paris (France); Le Guen, B. [EDF, Saint Denis (France)

    2016-11-15

    French nuclear workers have detailed records of their occupational exposure to external radiation that have been used to examine associations with subsequent cancer mortality. However, some workers were also exposed to internal contamination by radionuclides. This study aims to assess the potential for bias due to confounding by internal contamination of estimates of associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality. A cohort of 59,004 workers employed for at least 1 year between 1950 and 1994 by CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique), AREVA NC, or EDF (Electricite de France) and badge-monitored for external radiation exposure were followed through 2004 to assess vital status and cause of death. A flag based on a workstation-exposure matrix defined four levels of potential for internal contamination. Standardized mortality ratios were assessed for each level of the internal contamination indicator. Poisson regression was used to quantify associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality, adjusting for potential internal contamination. For solid cancer, the mortality deficit tended to decrease as the levels of potential for internal contamination increased. For solid cancer and leukemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia, adjusting the dose-response analysis on the internal contamination indicator did not markedly change the excess relative risk per Sievert of external radiation dose. This study suggests that in this cohort, neglecting information on internal dosimetry while studying the association between external dose and cancer mortality does not generate a substantial bias. To investigate more specifically the health effects of internal contamination, an effort is underway to estimate organ doses due to internal contamination.

  10. External radiation dose and cancer mortality among French nuclear workers: considering potential confounding by internal radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, L; Laurent, O; Samson, E; Caër-Lorho, S; Laroche, P; Le Guen, B; Laurier, D; Leuraud, K

    2016-11-01

    French nuclear workers have detailed records of their occupational exposure to external radiation that have been used to examine associations with subsequent cancer mortality. However, some workers were also exposed to internal contamination by radionuclides. This study aims to assess the potential for bias due to confounding by internal contamination of estimates of associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality. A cohort of 59,004 workers employed for at least 1 year between 1950 and 1994 by CEA (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique), AREVA NC, or EDF (Electricité de France) and badge-monitored for external radiation exposure were followed through 2004 to assess vital status and cause of death. A flag based on a workstation-exposure matrix defined four levels of potential for internal contamination. Standardized mortality ratios were assessed for each level of the internal contamination indicator. Poisson regression was used to quantify associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality, adjusting for potential internal contamination. For solid cancer, the mortality deficit tended to decrease as the levels of potential for internal contamination increased. For solid cancer and leukemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia, adjusting the dose-response analysis on the internal contamination indicator did not markedly change the excess relative risk per Sievert of external radiation dose. This study suggests that in this cohort, neglecting information on internal dosimetry while studying the association between external dose and cancer mortality does not generate a substantial bias. To investigate more specifically the health effects of internal contamination, an effort is underway to estimate organ doses due to internal contamination.

  11. Glutathione transferases and glutathionylated hemoglobin in workers exposed to low doses of 1,3-butadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavera, Alessandra; Fustinoni, Silvia; Biroccio, Antonino; Ballerini, Sabrina; Urbani, Andrea; Bernardini, Sergio; Federici, Giorgio; Capucci, Enrico; Manno, Maurizio; Lo Bello, Mario

    2008-11-01

    We evaluated glutathione transferase (GST) activities and the levels of glutathionylated hemoglobin in the RBC of 42 workers exposed to 1,3-butadiene in a petrochemical plant, using 43 workers not exposed to 1,3-butadiene and 82 foresters as internal and external controls, respectively. Median 1,3-butadiene exposure levels were 1.5, 0.4, and 0.1 microg/m3 in 1,3-butadiene-exposed workers, in workers not directly exposed to 1,3-butadiene, and in foresters, respectively. In addition, we determined in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of the same individuals the presence of GST polymorphic genes GSTT1 and GSTM1 and the distribution of GSTP1 allelic variants. Comparing the mean values observed in petrochemical workers with those of control foresters, we found a marked decrease of GST enzymatic activity and a significant increase of glutathionylated hemoglobin in the petrochemical workers. A weak but significant negative correlation was found between levels of 1,3-butadiene exposure and GST activity, whereas a positive correlation was found between 1,3-butadiene exposure and glutathionylated hemoglobin. A negative correlation was also observed between GST activity and glutathionylated hemoglobin. No influence of confounders was observed. Using a multiple linear regression model, up to 50.6% and 41.9% of the variability observed in glutathionylated hemoglobin and GST activity, respectively, were explained by 1,3-butadiene exposure, working setting, and GSTT1 genotype. These results indicate that occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene induces an oxidative stress that impairs the GST balance in RBC, and suggest that GST activity and glutathionylated hemoglobin could be recommended as promising biomarkers of effect in petrochemical workers.

  12. Measurement and research of the exposure doses of the animal guardians and radiation workers in the animal hospital in Gwangju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ji Seung; Yun, Seon Yeong; Yeo, Hwa Yeon [Dept. of Radiology, Nambu University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Dept. of of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    In modern society, having companion animals as family members is getting popular. According to the data from National Statistical Office, the population of people with companion animals and pets is now over 10 million. The increase of companion animals led to an increase of animal hospitals. Accordingly, radiation generating devices for diagnosis are being used frequently. In addition, as animal hospitals are increasingly using radiation generating devices, in order to protect the related workers and promote animal cares, the government enacted the regulations relating to operations and installations of the devices at animal hospitals. Therefore, this study handles the radiation safety management related stuffs by measuring and assessing radiation dose to the animal guardians and radiation workers in the animal hospitals in Gwangju.

  13. Risk of solid cancer in the offspring of female workers of the Mayak nuclear facility in the Southern Urals, Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsareva, Y; Deltour, I; Sokolnikov, M; Okatenko, P; Vostrotin, V V; Schonfeld, S J; Schüz, J

    2016-08-01

    Studies of cancer risk following in utero exposure to ionizing radiation are limited in number, particularly for adult-onset cancers, and the evidence is unclear. In the present study, the risk of solid cancer incidence following in utero radiation exposure is examined among 8466 offspring of female nuclear workers at one of the largest nuclear facilities (Mayak Production Association) in the Russian Federation. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks (ERRs) per Gray (Gy). Mother's uterine gamma dose served as a surrogate for fetal gamma dose. During 277,002 person-years of follow-up (1948-2009), there were 177 first primary solid cancers excluding non-melanoma skin cancers. Estimated in utero gamma and plutonium doses exceeded zero for 41 and 23 % of offspring, respectively. Of the 177 solid cancers, 66 occurred among individuals with some in utero exposure to gamma radiation and 53 among those with estimated plutonium exposures. There was no indication of a statistically significantly increased risk of solid cancer incidence from in utero gamma exposure (linear ERR/Gy -1.0; upper 95 % confidence limit 0.5). This result was unchanged after accounting for subsequent occupational exposure. Plutonium doses were estimated but were too low to obtain meaningful risk estimates. Thus, in this cohort in utero radiation exposure was not associated with solid cancer risk. This is consistent with an earlier report of mortality in the cohort, but is based on twice as many cases and less susceptible to biases inherent in mortality analyses. Given the relatively young age of the cohort with respect to cancer, continued follow-up should be done as the number of cancer cases increases.

  14. Risk of solid cancer in the offspring of female workers of the Mayak nuclear facility in the Southern Urals, Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsareva, Y.; Sokolnikov, M.; Okatenko, P. [Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI), Epidemiology Laboratory, Ozyorsk (Russian Federation); Deltour, I.; Schonfeld, S.J.; Schuez, J. [International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Section of Environment and Radiation, Lyon Cedex 08 (France); Vostrotin, V.V. [Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI), Laboratory of Radiation Safety, Ozyorsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    Studies of cancer risk following in utero exposure to ionizing radiation are limited in number, particularly for adult-onset cancers, and the evidence is unclear. In the present study, the risk of solid cancer incidence following in utero radiation exposure is examined among 8466 offspring of female nuclear workers at one of the largest nuclear facilities (Mayak Production Association) in the Russian Federation. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks (ERRs) per Gray (Gy). Mother's uterine gamma dose served as a surrogate for fetal gamma dose. During 277,002 person-years of follow-up (1948-2009), there were 177 first primary solid cancers excluding non-melanoma skin cancers. Estimated in utero gamma and plutonium doses exceeded zero for 41 and 23 % of offspring, respectively. Of the 177 solid cancers, 66 occurred among individuals with some in utero exposure to gamma radiation and 53 among those with estimated plutonium exposures. There was no indication of a statistically significantly increased risk of solid cancer incidence from in utero gamma exposure (linear ERR/Gy -1.0; upper 95 % confidence limit 0.5). This result was unchanged after accounting for subsequent occupational exposure. Plutonium doses were estimated but were too low to obtain meaningful risk estimates. Thus, in this cohort in utero radiation exposure was not associated with solid cancer risk. This is consistent with an earlier report of mortality in the cohort, but is based on twice as many cases and less susceptible to biases inherent in mortality analyses. Given the relatively young age of the cohort with respect to cancer, continued follow-up should be done as the number of cancer cases increases. (orig.)

  15. [Modifications of hepatic transaminases in workers exposed to low doses of isopropanol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, I; Fontana, L; Iavicoli, S

    2007-01-01

    Isopropanol (IPA) is a volatile solvent that is used in many industrial process. The major symptoms of acute isopropanol toxicity include dizziness, incoordination, headache, hypothermia, eye ataxia, irritation of upper respiratory tract and shortness of breath. Vomiting, hematemesis, diarrhoea and hypotension may occur following accidental ingestion of IPA. No data regarding subchronic or chronic toxicity of IPA were identified. The aim of this study was to measure the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and of gamma-glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT) of the last five years in 40 printer workers after the removal of IPA from the industry. The serum levels of ALT, AST and gamma-GT were higher in the exposed workers than in non exposed. In conclusion, the results of this study show that the removal of IPA from the industry had a positive health effect improving the hepatic function of the workers.

  16. Dental erosion in workers exposed to sulfuric acid in lead storage battery manufacturing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Yuji; Takaku, Satoru; Okawa, Yoshikazu; Matsukubo, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Dental erosion, and specifically its symptoms, has long been studied in Japan as an occupational dental disease. However, in recent years, few studies have investigated the development of this disease or labor hygiene management aimed at its prevention. As a result, interest in dental erosion is comparatively low, even among dental professionals. Our investigation at a lead storage battery factory in 1991 found that the work environmental sulfuric acid density was above the tolerable range (1.0mg/m(3)) and that longterm workers had dental erosion. Therefore, workers handling sulfuric acid were given an oral examination and rates of dental erosion by tooth type, rates of erosion by number of working years and rates of erosion by sulfuric acid density in the work environment investigated. Where dental erosion was diagnosed, degree of erosion was identified according to a diagnostic criterion. No development of dental erosion was detected in the maxillary teeth, and erosion was concentrated in the anterior mandibular teeth. Its prevalence was as high as 20%. Rates of dental erosion rose precipitously after 10 working years. The percentages of workers with dental erosion were 42.9% for 10-14 years, 57.1% for 15-19 years and 66.7% for over 20 years with 22.5% for total number of workers. The percentages of workers with dental erosion rose in proportion to work environmental sulfuric acid density: 17.9% at 0.5-1.0, 25.0% at 1.0-4.0 and 50.0% at 4.0-8.0mg/m(3). This suggests that it is necessary to evaluate not only years of exposure to sulfuric acid but also sulfuric acid density in the air in factory workers.

  17. Calibration and intercomparison methods of dose calibrators used in nuclear medicine facilities; Metodos de calibracao e de intercomparacao de calibradores de dose utilizados em servicos de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Alessandro Martins da

    1999-07-01

    Dose calibrators are used in most of the nuclear medicine facilities to determine the amount of radioactivity administered to a patient in a particular investigation or therapeutic procedure. It is therefore of vital importance that the equipment used presents good performance and is regular;y calibrated at a authorized laboratory. This occurs of adequate quality assurance procedures are carried out. Such quality control tests should be performed daily, other biannually or yearly, testing, for example, its accuracy and precision, the reproducibility and response linearity. In this work a commercial dose calibrator was calibrated with solution of radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. Simple instrument tests, such as response linearity and the response variation of the source volume increase at a constant source activity concentration, were performed. This instrument can now be used as a working standard for calibration of other dose calibrators/ An intercomparison procedure was proposed as a method of quality control of dose calibrators used in nuclear medicine facilities. (author)

  18. Performance of general health workers in leprosy control activities at public health facilities in Amhara and Oromia States, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeje, Tadiye; Negera, Edessa; Kebede, Eshetu; Hailu, Tsegaye; Hassen, Ismaile; Lema, Tsehainesh; Yamuah, Lawrence; Shiguti, Birru; Fenta, Melkamu; Negasa, Megersa; Beyene, Demissew; Bobosha, Kidist; Aseffa, Abraham

    2016-04-07

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease of public health importance and one of the leading causes of permanent physical disability. Nevertheless, the drop in prevalence following multidrug therapy has resulted in the neglect of leprosy. The annual incidence of leprosy has remained the same in Ethiopia since decades with more than 76% of the reported new cases coming from Oromia and Amhara Regional States. This study was aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and skill of general health workers in leprosy control activities at public health facilities in Oromia and Amhara Regional States. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2011 to February 2012 at different public health facilities in selected eight zones in Oromia and Amhara Regional States. A multistage sampling method was used to obtain representative samples. High and low endemic zones for leprosy were included in the study in both regional states. Data were collected from general health workers through a structured self-administered questionnaire and at on-site assessment of their performance. Baseline socio-demographic data, health workers' attitude towards leprosy and their knowledge and skill in the management of leprosy were assessed. Bloom's cut off point was used to describe the knowledge and practical skills of the respondents while Likert's scale was used for attitude assessment. A total of 601 general health workers responsible for leprosy control activities at public health facilities were included in knowledge and attitude assessment and 83 of them were subjected to practical evaluation, with on-site observation of how they handle leprosy patients. These included medical doctors (4%), health officers and nurses with Bachelor degree in Science (27%), clinical nurses with diploma (66%) and health assistants (2.8%). The median age of the respondents was 26.0 years and females made up of 45%. Generally the knowledge and skills of the respondents were found to be poor while attitude

  19. Guidance for the assessment of a chronic intake of workers in a nuclear fuel facility in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo, A.M.; Spinella, M.R. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires - Republica Argentina (Argentina); Gomez Parada, I. [Sociedad Argentina de Radioproteccio, Buenos Aires - Republica Argentina (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    Todays trend for the design of internal dose monitoring programmes of workers applying the ICRP respiratory tract model requires taking into account the specific absorption parameters of the compounds and the physical data of the workplace aerosols. The aim of this analysis is to determine the specific ALIs and to establish reference levels for the assessment of chronic intake of workers, using the data from individual monitoring (pulmonary burden and urinary and fecal excretion) for natural uranium and uranium with 3.5 % and 20 % enrichment. In this paper the I.M.B.A. and AIDE software were used applying the respiratory tract model and the uranium biokinetic model published by ICRP taking into consideration the specific parameters of the uranium compounds. On the basis of this analysis, the relevance of lung, urine and faeces measurements in the individual monitoring of workers for internal dosimetry purposes is discussed It is concluded that these monitoring methods are useful for confirming that ALIs have not been exceeded and to assure that daily intakes are below the toxicological limits (2 mg/d) but it is necessary considering practical limitations of each method. (authors)

  20. Estimation of benchmark dose as the threshold amount of alcohol consumption for blood pressure in Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwazono, Yasushi; Sakata, Kouichi; Oishi, Mitsuhiro; Okubo, Yasushi; Dochi, Mirei; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Kido, Teruhiko; Nogawa, Koji

    2007-12-01

    In order to determine the threshold amount of alcohol consumption for blood pressure, we calculated the benchmark dose (BMD) of alcohol consumption and its 95% lower confidence interval (BMDL) in Japanese workers. The subjects consisted of 4,383 males and 387 females in a Japanese steel company. The target variables were systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures. The effects of other potential covariates such as age and body mass index were adjusted by including these covariates in the multiple linear regression models. In male workers, BMD/BMDL for alcohol consumption (g/week) at which the probability of an adverse response was estimated to increase by 5% relative to no alcohol consumption, were 396/315 (systolic blood pressure), 321/265 (diastolic blood pressure), and 326/269 (mean arterial pressures). These values were based on significant regression coefficients of alcohol consumption. In female workers, BMD/BMDL for alcohol consumption based on insignificant regression coefficients were 693/134 (systolic blood pressure), 199/90 (diastolic blood pressure), and 267/77 (mean arterial pressure). Therefore, BMDs/BMDLs in males were more informative than those in females as there was no significant relationship between alcohol and blood pressure in females. The threshold amount of alcohol consumption determined in this study provides valuable information for preventing alcohol-induced hypertension.

  1. ALL-PATHWAYS DOSE ANALYSIS FOR THE PORTSMOUTH ON-SITE WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.; Phifer, M.

    2014-04-10

    A Portsmouth On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF) All-Pathways analysis has been conducted that considers the radiological impacts to a resident farmer. It is assumed that the resident farmer utilizes a farm pond contaminated by the OSWDF to irrigate a garden and pasture and water livestock from which food for the resident farmer is obtained, and that the farmer utilizes groundwater from the Berea sandstone aquifer for domestic purposes (i.e. drinking water and showering). As described by FBP 2014b the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model (Schroeder et al. 1994) and the Surface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) model (White and Oostrom 2000, 2006) were used to model the flow and transport from the OSWDF to the Points of Assessment (POAs) associated with the 680-ft elevation sandstone layer (680 SSL) and the Berea sandstone aquifer. From this modeling the activity concentrations radionuclides were projected over time at the POAs. The activity concentrations were utilized as input to a GoldSimTM (GTG 2010) dose model, described herein, in order to project the dose to a resident farmer over time. A base case and five sensitivity cases were analyzed. The sensitivity cases included an evaluation of the impacts of using a conservative inventory, an uncased well to the Berea sandstone aquifer, a low waste zone uranium distribution coefficient (Kd), different transfer factors, and reference person exposure parameters (i.e. at 95 percentile). The maximum base case dose within the 1,000 year assessment period was projected to be 1.5E-14 mrem/yr, and the maximum base case dose at any time less than 10,000 years was projected to be 0.002 mrem/yr. The maximum projected dose of any sensitivity case was approximately 2.6 mrem/yr associated with the use of an uncased well to the Berea sandstone aquifer. This sensitivity case is considered very unlikely because it assumes leakage from the location of greatest concentration in the 680 SSL in to the

  2. Health worker perspectives on the possible use of intramuscular artesunate for the treatment of severe malaria at lower-level health facilities in settings with poor access to referral facilities in Nigeria: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesoro, Olatunde; Shumba, Constance; Kpamor, John; Achan, Jane; Kivumbi, Harriet; Dada, John; Maxwell, Kolawole; Tibenderana, James; Marasciulo, Madeline; Hamade, Prudence; Oresanya, Olusola; Nankabirwa, Joanita; Baba, Ebenezer

    2016-10-12

    Innovative strategies are needed to reduce malaria mortality in high burden countries like Nigeria. Given that one of the important reasons for this high malaria mortality is delay in receiving effective treatment, improved access to such treatment is critical. Intramuscular artesunate could be used at lower-level facilities given its proven efficacy, ease of use and excellent safety profile. The objective of this study was therefore to explore health workers' perspectives on the possible use of intramuscular artesunate as definitive treatment for severe malaria at lower-level facilities, especially when access to referral facilities is challenging. The study was to provide insight as a formative step into the conduct of future experimental studies to ascertain the feasibility of the use of intramuscular artesunate for definitive treatment of severe malaria in lower level facilities where access to referral care is limited. This qualitative study was done across three southern States in Nigeria (Oyo, Cross River and Enugu). Key informant interviews were conducted over a period of three months between October and December 2014 among 90 purposively selected health workers with different roles in malaria case management from primary care to policy level. A thematic content analysis was used to analyse data. Overall, most of health workers and other key informant groups thought that the use of intramuscular artesunate for definitive treatment of severe malaria at lower-level facilities was possible. They however reported human resource and infrastructure constraints as factors affecting the feasibility of intramuscular artesunate use as definitive treatment for severe malaria in lower-level facilities.. Specifically identified barriers included limited numbers of skilled health workers available to manage potential complications of severe malaria and poorly equipped facilities for supportive treatment. Intramuscular artesunate was considered easy to administer and the

  3. Ant larvae regulate worker foraging behavior and ovarian activity in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Yuko; Burns, Dominic; Libbrecht, Romain; Kronauer, Daniel J C

    2016-07-01

    Division of labor in insect societies relies on simple behavioral rules, whereby individual colony members respond to dynamic signals indicating the need for certain tasks to be performed. This in turn gives rise to colony-level phenotypes. However, empirical studies quantifying colony-level signal-response dynamics are lacking. Here, we make use of the unusual biology and experimental amenability of the queenless clonal raider ant Cerapachys biroi, to jointly quantify the behavioral and physiological responses of workers to a social signal emitted by larvae. Using automated behavioral quantification and oocyte size measurements in colonies of different sizes and with different worker to larvae ratios, we show that the workers in a colony respond to larvae by increasing foraging activity and inhibiting ovarian activation in a progressive manner, and that these responses are stronger in smaller colonies. This work adds to our knowledge of the processes that link plastic individual behavioral/physiological responses to colony-level phenotypes in social insect colonies.

  4. Interpretation of the results from individual monitoring of workers at the Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Facility, Brazil; Interpretacao de resultados de monitoracao individual interna da Fabrica de Combustivel Nuclear - FCN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Marcelo Xavier de

    2005-07-01

    In nuclear fuel fabrication facilities, workers are exposed to different compounds of enriched uranium. Although in this kind of facility the main route of intake is inhalation, ingestion may occur in some situations, and also a mixture of both. The interpretation of the bioassay data is very complex, since it is necessary taking into account all the different parameters, which is a big challenge. Due to the high cost of the individual monitoring programme for internal dose assessment in the routine monitoring programmes, usually only one type of measurement is assigned. In complex situations like the one described in this study, where several parameters can compromise the accuracy of the bioassay interpretation it is need to have a combination of techniques to evaluate the internal dose. According to ICRP 78 (1997), the general order of preference of measurement methodologies in terms of accuracy of interpretation is: body activity measurement, excreta analysis and personal air sampling. Results of monitoring of working environment may provide information that assists in the interpretation on particle size, chemical form, solubility and date of intake. A group of fifteen workers from controlled area of the studied nuclear fuel fabrication facility was selected to evaluate the internal dose using all different available techniques during a certain period. The workers were monitored for determination of uranium content in the daily urinary and faecal excretion (collected over a period of 3 consecutive days), chest counting and personal air sampling. The results have shown that at least two types of sensitivity techniques must be used, since there are some sources of uncertainties on the bioassay interpretation, like mixture of uranium compounds intake and different routes of intake. The combination of urine and faeces analysis has shown to be the more appropriate methodology for assessing internal dose in this situation. The chest counting methodology has not shown

  5. Dose estimation and shielding calculation for X-ray hazard at high intensity laser facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Rui; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Bo; James, C. Liu; Sayed, H. Rokni; Michael, B. Woods; Li, Jun-Li

    2014-12-01

    An ionizing radiation hazard produced from the interaction between high intensity lasers and solid targets has been observed. Laser-plasma interactions create “hot” electrons, which generate bremsstrahlung X-rays when they interact with ions in the target. However, up to now only limited studies have been conducted on this laser-induced radiological protection issue. In this paper, the physical process and characteristics of the interaction between high intensity lasers and solid targets are analyzed. The parameters of the radiation sources are discussed, including the energy conversion efficiency from laser to hot electrons, hot electron energy spectrum and electron temperature, and the bremsstrahlung X-ray energy spectrum produced by hot electrons. Based on this information, the X-ray dose generated with high-Z targets for laser intensities between 1014 and 1020 W/cm2 is estimated. The shielding effects of common shielding items such as the glass view port, aluminum chamber wall and concrete wall are also studied using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. This study provides a reference for the dose estimation and the shielding design of high intensity laser facilities.

  6. NIOSH field studies team assessment: Worker exposure to aerosolized metal oxide nanoparticles in a semiconductor fabrication facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Sara A; Neu-Baker, Nicole M; Eastlake, Adrienne C; Beaucham, Catherine C; Geraci, Charles L

    2016-11-01

    The ubiquitous use of engineered nanomaterials-particulate materials measuring approximately 1-100 nanometers (nm) on their smallest axis, intentionally engineered to express novel properties-in semiconductor fabrication poses unique issues for protecting worker health and safety. Use of new substances or substances in a new form may present hazards that have yet to be characterized for their acute or chronic health effects. Uncharacterized or emerging occupational health hazards may exist when there is insufficient validated hazard data available to make a decision on potential hazard and risk to exposed workers under condition of use. To advance the knowledge of potential worker exposure to engineered nanomaterials, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Nanotechnology Field Studies Team conducted an on-site field evaluation in collaboration with on-site researchers at a semiconductor research and development facility on April 18-21, 2011. The Nanomaterial Exposure Assessment Technique (2.0) was used to perform a complete exposure assessment. A combination of filter-based sampling and direct-reading instruments was used to identify, characterize, and quantify the potential for worker inhalation exposure to airborne alumina and amorphous silica nanoparticles associated with th e chemical mechanical planarization wafer polishing process. Engineering controls and work practices were evaluated to characterize tasks that might contribute to potential exposures and to assess existing engineering controls. Metal oxide structures were identified in all sampling areas, as individual nanoparticles and agglomerates ranging in size from 60 nm to >1,000 nm, with varying structure morphology, from long and narrow to compact. Filter-based samples indicated very little aerosolized material in task areas or worker breathing zone. Direct-reading instrument data indicated increased particle counts relative to background in the wastewater treatment area; however

  7. NIOSH Field Studies Team Assessment: Worker Exposure to Aerosolized Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in a Semiconductor Fabrication Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Sara A.; Neu-Baker, Nicole M.; Eastlake, Adrienne C.; Beaucham, Catherine C.; Geraci, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitous use of engineered nanomaterials – particulate materials measuring approximately 1–100 nanometers (nm) on their smallest axis, intentionally engineered to express novel properties – in semiconductor fabrication poses unique issues for protecting worker health and safety. Use of new substances or substances in a new form may present hazards that have yet to be characterized for their acute or chronic health effects. Uncharacterized or emerging occupational health hazards may exist when there is insufficient validated hazard data available to make a decision on potential hazard and risk to exposed workers under condition of use. To advance the knowledge of potential worker exposure to engineered nanomaterials, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Nanotechnology Field Studies Team conducted an on-site field evaluation in collaboration with on-site researchers at a semiconductor research and development facility on April 18–21, 2011. The Nanomaterial Exposure Assessment Technique (2.0) was used to perform a complete exposure assessment. A combination of filter-based sampling and direct-reading instruments was used to identify, characterize, and quantify the potential for worker inhalation exposure to airborne alumina and amorphous silica nanoparticles associated with the chemical mechanical planarization wafer polishing process. Engineering controls and work practices were evaluated to characterize tasks that might contribute to potential exposures and to assess existing engineering controls. Metal oxide structures were identified in all sampling areas, as individual nanoparticles and agglomerates ranging in size from 60nm to >1,000nm, with varying structure morphology, from long and narrow to compact. Filter-based samples indicated very little aerosolized material in task areas or worker breathing zone. Direct-reading instrument data indicated increased particle counts relative to background in the wastewater treatment area

  8. Perception and prevalence of work-related health hazards among health care workers in public health facilities in southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, Arasi; Anandh, Balasubramanian; Jayachandran, Palsamy; Thangavel, Gurusamy; Josephin, Diana; Yamini, Ravindran; Kalpana, Balakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health care workers (HCWs) are exposed to occupational related health hazards. Measuring worker perception and the prevalence of these hazards can help facilitate better risk management for HCWs, as these workers are envisaged to be the first point of contact, especially in resource poor settings. Objective: To describe the perception of occupational health hazards and self-reported exposure prevalence among HCWs in Southern India. Methods: We used cross sectional design with stratified random sampling of HCWs from different levels of health facilities and categories in a randomly selected district in Southern India. Data on perception and exposure prevalence were collected using a structured interview schedule developed by occupational health experts and administered by trained investigators. Results: A total of 482 HCWs participated. Thirty nine percent did not recognize work-related health hazards, but reported exposure to at least one hazard upon further probing. Among the 81·5% who reported exposure to biological hazard, 93·9% had direct skin contact with infectious materials. Among HCWs reporting needle stick injury, 70·5% had at least one in the previous three months. Ergonomic hazards included lifting heavy objects (42%) and standing for long hours (37%). Psychological hazards included negative feelings (20·3%) and verbal or physical abuse during work (20·5%). Conclusion: More than a third of HCWs failed to recognize work-related health hazards. Despite training in handling infectious materials, HCWs reported direct skin contact with infectious materials and needle stick injuries. Results indicate the need for training oriented toward behavioral change and provision of occupational health services. PMID:25482656

  9. Internal dose assessment data management system for a large population of Pu workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertelli, L.; Miller, G.; Little, T.; Guilmette, R.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS G761, RP-2, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Glasser, S.M. [LogiCreativity, Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) dose assessment (DA) data system. Dose calculations for the most important radionuclides at LANL, namely plutonium, americium, uranium and tritium, are performed through the Microsoft Access DA database. DA includes specially developed forms and macros that perform a variety of tasks, such as retrieving bioassay data, launching the FORTRAN internal dosimetry applications and displaying dose results in the form of text summaries and plots. The DA software involves the following major processes: (1) downloading of bioassay data from a remote data source, (2) editing local and remote databases, (3) setting up and carrying out internal dose calculations using the UF code or the ID code, (3) importing results of the dose calculations into local results databases, (4) producing a secondary database of 'official results' and (5) automatically creating and e-mailing reports. The software also provides summary status and reports of the pending DAs, which are useful for managing the cases in process. (authors)

  10. Determination of effective dose for workers hemodynamics service using double dosimetry; Determinacion de la dosis efectiva para los trabajadores del servicio de hemodinamica usando doble dosimetria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Lopez, M. A.; Lobato Munoz, M.; Jodar Lopez, C. A.; Ramirez Ros, J. C.; Jerez Sainz, M. I.; Pamos Urena, M.; Carrasco Rodriguez, J. L.

    2013-07-01

    The use of an additional dosimeter at the level of the neck above the lead apron we can provide an indication of the dose in the head (the Crystal dose). In addition, it is possible to combine the two readings of the dosimeter to provide an improved estimate of the effective dose. In the hemodynamics service of our Hospital we have maintained a worker for 3 years with the double dosimetry read monthly. With the readings from these dosimeters will do following algorithms, several estimates of the effective dose to see if, with working conditions that occur in this service, it would be necessary to extend this practice to the rest of the workers to get a better estimation of effective dose. (Author)

  11. Healthcare worker influenza vaccination in Oregon nursing homes: correlates of facility characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lauren J.; Li, Qinghua; Li, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Nursing home (NH) employee influenza vaccination is associated with reductions in morbidity and mortality among residents. Little is known regarding associations between NH characteristics and employee influenza vaccination rates (EVRs). This study identifies NH characteristics that may be associated with EVRs. Design Data on employee vaccination rates and programs were gathered from Office for Oregon Health Policy and Research reports for three influenza seasons from 2009–2012 and merged with Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting files, from which facility characteristics were obtained. Market controls were obtained from the 2010 Area Health Resource File. Multivariate linear and logistic regression were used to model relationships between facility characteristics and EVR per facility per year, whether formal education for employees was conducted, and whether 2010, 2015, and 2020 Healthy People targets were met. Setting Oregon nursing homes from 2009–2012. Participants NHs reporting sufficient data to calculate an EVR were included. Based on information obtained from 2009–10, 2010–11, and 2011–12 surveys, EVRs were calculated for 113/140, 129/141, and 137/140 (81%, 91%, and 98% of) NHs, respectively. Measurements Dependent variables were EVR per facility per year, whether formal education for employees was conducted, and whether 2010, 2015, and 2020 Healthy People targets were met. Independent variables included facility characteristics and market controls. Results On average, chain-affiliated NHs had 9% higher EVRs (P=0.01) and 73% higher odds of achieving 60% EVR (2010 target, P=0.05) than free-standing NHs. For-profit NHs had, on average, 8% lower EVRs (P=0.04) than not-for-profit NHs. Surprisingly, a 10% increase in proportion of Medicaid residents was associated with a 2% increase in EVR (P=0.01) and higher odds of achieving 60% (OR=1.20, P=0.004) and 70% (2015 target, OR=1.14, P=0.05) EVR. Conclusion Given that NHs generally have

  12. The problems of individual monitoring for internal exposure of monazite storage facility workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekidin, A.; Kirdin, I.; Yarmoshenko, I.; Zhukovsky, M. [Institute of Industrial Ecology of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg, (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    traditionally two situations of internal inhalation exposure by alpha emitting nuclides are considered in radiological protection: occupational exposure due to inhalation of plutonium aerosols; inhalation exposure by {sup 222}Rn daughters in working places and in home. for these situations the problems of radioactive aerosols intake, nuclide dynamics in human body, internal dosimetry, nuclide excretion, monitoring of internal exposure have been investigated in details especially for plutonium inhalation exposure. The results of these studies are presented in details in ICRP Publications and UNSCEAR reports. However there is very specific case in which the special analysis of internal inhalation exposure is need. it is the working places with anomalous, extremely high concentration of thoron ({sup 220}Rn) daughters. The problems of internal radiation exposure of workers in such working place are the main topic of this publication. (authors)

  13. An analysis of exposure dose on hands of radiation workers using a Monte Carlo simulation in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Dong Gun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences Cancer Center, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, SeSik; Kim, Jung Hoon; KIm, Chang Soo [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Workers in nuclear medicine have performed various tasks such as production, distribution, preparation and injection of radioisotope. This process could cause high radiation exposure to workers’ hand. The purpose of this study was to investigate shielding effect for r-rays of 140 and 511 keV by using Monte-Carlo simulation. As a result, it was effective, regardless of lead thickness for radiation shielding in 140 keV r-ray. However, it was effective in shielding material with thickness of more than only 1.1 mm in 511 keV r-ray. And also it doesn’t effective in less than 1.1 mm due to secondary scatter ray and exposure dose was rather increased. Consequently, energy of radionuclide and thickness of shielding materials should be considered to reduce radiation exposure.

  14. Predictors of the quality of health worker treatment practices for uncomplicated malaria at government health facilities in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurovac, D; Rowe, A K; Ochola, S A; Noor, A M; Midia, B; English, M; Snow, R W

    2004-10-01

    When replacing failing drugs for malaria with more effective drugs, an important step towards reducing the malaria burden is that health workers (HW) prescribe drugs according to evidence-based guidelines. Past studies have shown that HW commonly do not follow guidelines, yet few studies have explored with appropriate methods why such practices occur. We analysed data from a survey of government health facilities in four Kenyan districts in which HW consultations were observed, caretakers and HW were interviewed, and health facility assessments were performed. The analysis was limited to children 2-59 months old with uncomplicated malaria. Treatment was defined as recommended (antimalarial recommended by national guidelines), a minor error (effective, but non-recommended antimalarial), or inappropriate (no effective antimalarial). We evaluated 1006 consultations performed by 135 HW at 81 facilities: 567 children received recommended treatment, 314 had minor errors, and 125 received inappropriate treatment (weighted percentages: 56.9%, 30.4%, and 12.7%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that programmatic interventions such as in-service malaria training, provision of guidelines and wall charts, and more frequent supervision were significantly associated with better treatment quality. However, neither in-service training nor possession of the guideline document showed an effect by itself. More qualified HW made more errors: both major and minor errors (but generally more minor errors) when second-line drugs were in stock, and more major errors when second-line drugs were not in stock. Child factors such as age and a main complaint of fever were also associated with treatment quality. Our results support the use of several programmatic strategies that can redress HW deficiencies in malaria treatment. Targeted cost-effectiveness trials would help refine these strategies and provide more precise guidance on affordable and effective ways to strengthen

  15. Application of virtual reality procedures in radiation protection and dose estimation for workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blunck, C.; Becker, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Radiation Research; Urban, M. [WAK GmbH Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe, Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs-GmbH, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    When people need to work in an environment where radiation fields are present, one has to think about the operation procedure in respect of radiation protection. This is valid for routine as well as for special work situations where radiation protection precautions are necessary. In order to give an advice about the safest way of operation and adequate shielding measures, it is necessary to analyse the radiation field and possible dose exposures at relevant positions in the working area. Since the field can be very inhomogeneous, extensive measurements could be needed for this purpose. In addition it is possible, that the field is not present before the time of work and a measurement could be troublesome or not possible at all. In this case, a simulation of the specific scenario could be an efficient way to analyse the radiation fields and determine possible exposures at different places. If an adequate phantom is used, it is even possible to determine personal doses like H{sub p}(10) or H{sub p}(0.07). However in most work situations, exposure is not a static scenario. The radiation field varies if the source or its surrounding objects change place. Furthermore people or parts of their bodies are usually in motion. Hence simulations of movements in inhomogeneous time and space variant radiation fields are desirable for dose assessment. In such a ''virtual reality'' working procedures could be trained or analysed without any exposure. We present an approach of simulating hand movements in inhomogeneous beta and photon radiation fields by means of an articulated hand phantom. As an example application, the hand phantom is used to simulate the handling of a Y-90 source. (orig.)

  16. Measurement of the radon concentration in an underground public facility and dose assessment. Fukuoka Tenjin Shopping Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narazaki, Yukinori [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Dazaifu (Japan); Tokonami, Shinji; Sanada, Tetsuya; Kanno, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Yuji

    2000-12-01

    Radon concentrations were measured with a passive radon detector from April 1998 through June 1999 in the Fukuoka Tenjin Underground Shopping Center to assess the dose affecting workers because of radon progeny inhalation. The radon concentration during the period was distributed from a range of 1.9 to 13.6 Bq/m{sup 3}. The arithmetic average concentration was estimated to be 6.9{+-}2.4 Bq/{sup 3}. The radon level was lower than that in dwellings in Japan and other countries. No spatial distribution of radon concentration was found in that area. From continuous measurement, the radon concentration was found to be high from midnight to noon and low in the afternoon. Little difference was noted between the daily average radon concentration and that during working hours. There was no seasonal variation. The equilibrium factor of 0.21{+-}0.10 was obtained during working hours. The activity-weighted size distribution of radon progeny was evaluated by using the number distribution of ambient aerosols and the classical attachment theory. Consequently, the activity median diameter was 150 nm. The unattached fraction of radon progeny was estimated to be 0.025 with an empirical equation. The annual effective dose of workers at the Tenjin center was calculated with the dose conversion factor from the UNSCEAR 1993 report and estimated to be 0.024 mSv/y. (author)

  17. Assessing the Impact of Community Engagement Interventions on Health Worker Motivation and Experiences with Clients in Primary Health Facilities in Ghana: A Randomized Cluster Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kaba Alhassan

    Full Text Available Health worker density per 1000 population in Ghana is one of the lowest in the world estimated to be 2.3, below the global average of 9.3. Low health worker motivation induced by poor working conditions partly explain this challenge. Albeit the wage bill for public sector health workers is about 90% of domestic government expenditure on health in countries such as Ghana, staff motivation and performance output remain a challenge, suggesting the need to complement financial incentives with non-financial incentives through a community-based approach. In this study, a systematic community engagement (SCE intervention was implemented to engage community groups in healthcare quality assessment to promote mutual collaboration between clients and healthcare providers, and enhance health worker motivation levels. SCE involves structured use of existing community groups and associations to assess healthcare quality in health facilities. Identified quality gaps are discussed with healthcare providers, improvements made and rewards given to best performing facilities for closing quality care gaps.To evaluate the effect of SCE interventions on health worker motivation and experiences with clients.The study is a cluster randomized trial involving health workers in private (n = 38 and public (n = 26 primary healthcare facilities in two administrative regions in Ghana. Out of 324 clinical and non-clinical staff randomly interviewed at baseline, 234 (72% were successfully followed at end-line and interviewed on workplace motivation factors and personal experiences with clients. Propensity score matching and difference-in-difference estimations were used to estimate treatment effect of the interventions on staff motivation.Intrinsic (non-financial work incentives including cordiality with clients and perceived career prospects appeared to be prime sources of motivation for health staff interviewed in intervention health facilities while financial incentives were

  18. Assessing the Impact of Community Engagement Interventions on Health Worker Motivation and Experiences with Clients in Primary Health Facilities in Ghana: A Randomized Cluster Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Spieker, Nicole; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F

    2016-01-01

    Health worker density per 1000 population in Ghana is one of the lowest in the world estimated to be 2.3, below the global average of 9.3. Low health worker motivation induced by poor working conditions partly explain this challenge. Albeit the wage bill for public sector health workers is about 90% of domestic government expenditure on health in countries such as Ghana, staff motivation and performance output remain a challenge, suggesting the need to complement financial incentives with non-financial incentives through a community-based approach. In this study, a systematic community engagement (SCE) intervention was implemented to engage community groups in healthcare quality assessment to promote mutual collaboration between clients and healthcare providers, and enhance health worker motivation levels. SCE involves structured use of existing community groups and associations to assess healthcare quality in health facilities. Identified quality gaps are discussed with healthcare providers, improvements made and rewards given to best performing facilities for closing quality care gaps. To evaluate the effect of SCE interventions on health worker motivation and experiences with clients. The study is a cluster randomized trial involving health workers in private (n = 38) and public (n = 26) primary healthcare facilities in two administrative regions in Ghana. Out of 324 clinical and non-clinical staff randomly interviewed at baseline, 234 (72%) were successfully followed at end-line and interviewed on workplace motivation factors and personal experiences with clients. Propensity score matching and difference-in-difference estimations were used to estimate treatment effect of the interventions on staff motivation. Intrinsic (non-financial) work incentives including cordiality with clients and perceived career prospects appeared to be prime sources of motivation for health staff interviewed in intervention health facilities while financial incentives were ranked

  19. Programme level implementation of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs use: outcomes and cost of training health workers at lower level health care facilities in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyabayinze Daniel J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The training of health workers in the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs is an important component of a wider strategy to improve parasite-based malaria diagnosis at lower level health care facilities (LLHFs where microscopy is not readily available for all patients with suspected malaria. This study describes the process and cost of training to attain competence of lower level health workers to perform malaria RDTs in a public health system setting in eastern Uganda. Methods Health workers from 21 health facilities in Uganda were given a one-day central training on the use of RDTs in malaria case management, including practical skills on how to perform read and interpret the test results. Successful trainees subsequently integrated the use of RDTs into their routine care for febrile patients at their LLHFs and transferred their acquired skills to colleagues (cascade training model. A cross-sectional evaluation of the health workers’ competence in performing RDTs was conducted six weeks following the training, incorporating observation, in-depth interviews with health workers and the review of health facility records relating to tests offered and antimalarial drug (AMD prescriptions pre and post training. The direct costs relating to the training processes were also documented. Results Overall, 135 health workers were trained including 63 (47% nursing assistants, a group of care providers without formal medical training. All trainees passed the post-training concordance test with ≥ 80% except 12 that required re-training. Six weeks after the one-day training, 51/64 (80% of the health workers accurately performed the critical steps in performing the RDT. The performance was similar among the 10 (16% participants who were peer-trained by their trained colleagues. Only 9 (14% did not draw the appropriate amount of blood using pipette. The average cost of the one-day training was US$ 101 (range $92-$112, with the

  20. MCNPX calculations of dose rate distribution inside samples treated in the research gamma irradiating facility at CTEx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusin, Tiago; Rebello, Wilson F.; Vellozo, Sergio O.; Gomes, Renato G., E-mail: tiagorusin@ime.eb.b, E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.b, E-mail: vellozo@cbpf.b, E-mail: renatoguedes@ime.eb.b [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Vital, Helio C., E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.b [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    A cavity-type cesium-137 research irradiating facility at CTEx has been modeled by using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX. The irradiator has been daily used in experiments to optimize the use of ionizing radiation for conservation of many kinds of food and to improve materials properties. In order to correlate the effects of the treatment, average doses have been calculated for each irradiated sample, accounting for the measured dose rate distribution in the irradiating chambers. However that approach is only approximate, being subject to significant systematic errors due to the heterogeneous internal structure of most samples that can lead to large anisotropy in attenuation and Compton scattering properties across the media. Thus this work is aimed at further investigating such uncertainties by calculating the dose rate distribution inside the items treated such that a more accurate and representative estimate of the total absorbed dose can be determined for later use in the effects-versus-dose correlation curves. Samples of different simplified geometries and densities (spheres, cylinders, and parallelepipeds), have been modeled to evaluate internal dose rate distributions within the volume of the samples and the overall effect on the average dose. (author)

  1. Tennessee Valley region study: potential year 2000 radiological dose to population resulting from nuclear facility operations. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    A companion report, DOE/ET-0064/1, presents a geographic, cultural, and demographic profile of the Tennessee Valley Region study area. This report describes the calculations of radionuclide release and transport and of the resultant dose to the regional population, assuming a projected installed capacity of 220,000 MW in the year 2000, of which 144,000 MW would be nuclear. All elements of the fuel cycle were assumed to be in operation. The radiological dose was calculated as a one-year dose based on ingestion of 35 different food types as well as for nine non-food pathways, and was reported as dose to the total body and for six specific organs for each of four age groups (infant, child, teen, and adult). Results indicate that the average individual would receive an incremental dose of 7 x 10/sup -4/ millirems in the year 2000 from the operation of nuclear facilities within and adjacent to the region, five orders of magnitude smaller than the dose from naturally occurring radiation in the area. The major contributor to dose was found to be tritium, and the most significant pathways were immersion in air, inhalation of air, transpiration of tritium (absorption through the skin), and exposure radionuclide-containing soil. 60 references.

  2. Fetus dose estimate of a pregnant worker; Estimacion de la dosis equivalente en feto durante la exposicion ocupacional de trabajadores gestantes en radiologia intervencionista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, P.; Espana, M.L.; Sevillano, D.; Minguez, C.; Ferrer, C.; Lopez Franco, P.

    2006-07-01

    A female employee working in diagnostic radiology should take additional controls to protect the unborn child from ionizing radiations. The fetus is particularly sensitive to the effects of x-rays and, so, the determination of the equivalent dose to the unborn child is of interest for risk estimates from occupational exposures of the pregnant workers. The ian of this study is to develop a method for fetus dose estimate of a pregnant worker who participates in interventional radiology procedures. Factors for converting dosemeter readings to equivalent dose to the fetus have been measured using thermoluminescence dosimetry. Equivalent dose to the uterus is used to simulate the equivalent dose to the fetus during the first two months of pregnancy. Measurements at different depths are made to consider the variations in the position of the uterus between pregnant women. The normalized doses obtained are dependent on the beam quality. Accurate estimation of fetus doses due to occupational exposures can be made using the data provided in the current study. (Author)

  3. A dose-dependent perturbation in cardiac energy metabolism is linked to radiation-induced ischemic heart disease in Mayak nuclear workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimzadeh, Omid; Azizova, Tamara; Merl-Pham, Juliane; Subramanian, Vikram; Bakshi, Mayur V; Moseeva, Maria; Zubkova, Olga; Hauck, Stefanie M; Anastasov, Nataša; Atkinson, Michael J; Tapio, Soile

    2017-02-07

    Epidemiological studies show a significant increase in ischemic heart disease (IHD) incidence associated with total external gamma-ray dose among Mayak plutonium enrichment plant workers. Our previous studies using mouse models suggest that persistent alteration of heart metabolism due to the inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha accompanies cardiac damage after high doses of ionising radiation. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism of radiation-induced IHD in humans. The cardiac proteome response to irradiation was analysed in Mayak workers who were exposed only to external doses of gamma rays. All participants were diagnosed during their lifetime with IHD that also was the cause of death. Label-free quantitative proteomics analysis was performed on tissue samples from the cardiac left ventricles of individuals stratified into four radiation dose groups (0 Gy, 500 mGy). The groups could be separated using principal component analysis based on all proteomics features. Proteome profiling showed a dose-dependent increase in the number of downregulated mitochondrial and structural proteins. Both proteomics and immunoblotting showed decreased expression of several oxidative stress responsive proteins in the irradiated hearts. The phosphorylation of transcription factor PPAR alpha was increased in a dose-dependent manner, which is indicative of a reduction in transcriptional activity with increased radiation dose. These data suggest that chronic external radiation enhances the risk for IHD by inhibiting PPAR alpha and altering the expression of mitochondrial, structural, and antioxidant components of the heart.

  4. Dose reduction and optimization studies (ALARA) at nuclear power facilities. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, J.W.; Meinhold, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has been commissioned by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to study dose-reduction techniques and effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) planning at LWR plants. These studies have the following objectives: identify high-dose maintenance tasks; identify dose-reduction techniques; examine incentives for dose reduction; evaluate cost-effectiveness and optimization of dose-reduction techniques; and compile an ALARA handbook on data, engineering modifications, cost-effectiveness calculations, and other information of interest to ALARA practioners.

  5. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA; Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Promoting the exchange of information related to implementation of the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) philosophy is a continuing objective for the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center for the DOE Office of Health. It contains the fifth in a series of bibliographies on dose reduction at DOE facilities. The BNL ALARA Center was originally established in 1983 under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor dose-reduction research and ALARA activities at nuclear power plants. This effort was expanded in 1988 by the DOE`s Office of Environment, Safety and Health, to include DOE nuclear facilities. This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose-reduction activities, with a specific focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and accelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts.

  6. Dosimetric measurements and Monte Carlo simulation for achieving uniform surface dose in pulsed electron beam irradiation facility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V C Petwal; J N Rao; Jishnu Dwivedi; V K Senecha; K V Subbaiah

    2010-03-01

    A prototype pulsed electron beam irradiation facility for radiation processing of food and medical products is being commissioned at our centre in Indore, India. Analysis of surface dose and uniformity for a pulsed beam facility is of crucial importance because it is influenced by various operating parameters such as beam current, pulse repetition rate (PRR), scanning current profile and frequency, scanning width and product conveying speed. A large number of experiments are required to determine the harmonized setting of these operating parameters for achieving uniform dose. Since there is no readily available tool to set these parameters, use of Monte Carlo methods and computational tools can prove to be the most viable and time saving technique to support the assessment of the dose distribution. In the present study, Monte Carlo code, MCNP, is used to simulate the transport of 10 MeV electron beam through various mediums coming into the beam path and generate an equivalent dose profile in a polystyrene phantom for stationary state. These results have been verified with experimentally measured dose profile, showing that results are in good agreement within 4%. The Monte Carlo simulation further has been used to optimize the overlapping between the successive pulses of a scan to achieve ± 5% dose uniformity along the scanning direction. A mathematical model, which uses the stationary state data, is developed to include the effect of conveyor speed. The algorithm of the model is discussed and the results are compared with the experimentally measured values, which show that the agreement is better than 15%. Finally, harmonized setting for operating parameters of the accelerator are derived to deliver uniform surface dose in the range of 1–13 kGy/pass.

  7. The Tanzania Connect Project: a cluster-randomized trial of the child survival impact of adding paid community health workers to an existing facility-focused health system

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsey, Kate; Hingora,Ahmed; Kante, Malick; Jackson, Elizabeth; Exavery, Amon; Pemba, Senga; Manzi, Fatuma; Baynes, Colin; Helleringer, Stephane; Phillips, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tanzania has been a pioneer in establishing community-level services, yet challenges remain in sustaining these systems and ensuring adequate human resource strategies. In particular, the added value of a cadre of professional community health workers is under debate. While Tanzania has the highest density of primary health care facilities in Africa, equitable access and quality of care remain a challenge. Utilization for many services proven to reduce child and maternal mortality ...

  8. An assessment of the secondary neutron dose in the passive scattering proton beam facility of the national cancer center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Eun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Gyuseong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Se Byeong [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to assess the additional neutron effective dose during passive scattering proton therapy. Monte Carlo code (Monte Carlo N-Particle 6) simulation was conducted based on a precise modeling of the National Cancer Center's proton therapy facility. A three-dimensional neutron effective dose profile of the interior of the treatment room was acquired via a computer simulation of the 217.8-MeV proton beam. Measurements were taken with a 3He neutron detector to support the simulation results, which were lower than the simulation results by 16% on average. The secondary photon dose was about 0.8% of the neutron dose. The dominant neutron source was deduced based on flux calculation. The secondary neutron effective dose per proton absorbed dose ranged from 4.942 ± 0.031 mSv/Gy at the end of the field to 0.324 ± 0.006 mSv/Gy at 150 cm in axial distance.

  9. MONITORING OF INDIVIDUAL DOSES FOR MEDICAL WORKERS OF DENTAL POLYCLINIC’S X-RAY ROOMS IN DUSHANBE, THE REPUBLIC OF TADJIKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. U. Hakimova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the data and analyses of personnel’s average annual external exposure doses monitoring via the thermoluminescent dosimetry method used for X-ray radiological personnel in dental polyclinics of Dushanbe, Tadjikistan Republic over a 5-year period ( 2010–2014 . Out of 42 registered medical institutions dental polyclinics amounted up to only just 14%. For this work thermoluminescent dosimeters were used ( with LiF: Mg, Ti with the thermoluminescent dosimetric installation “ Harshaw – 4500” as the reader device. Monitoring results comparison of individual dose equivalent Hp ( 10 values was conducted for two groups of medical workers: medical doctors and X-ray lab technicians. It is demonstrated that radiological technicians’ professional exposure doses are on the average by 23% higher than those for medical doctors.The average individual exposure doses over the above indicated period amount to 0,93 mSv and 1,3 mSv for doctors and X-ray lab technicians, respectively, and are in the range from 0,45 mSv to 2,39 mSv. The doses include contribution from the natural background. The values of doses recorded for the personnel in dental polyclinic correspond to those recorded for the workers in the routine X-ray rooms.

  10. Elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in hair from workers at an electronic waste recycling facility in Eastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jing [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Applied Radiation Institute, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, P.O. Box 144, Shanghai 200444 (China); Cheng Jinping; Wang Wenhua [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Kunisue, Tatsuya [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Wu Minghong [Applied Radiation Institute, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, P.O. Box 144, Shanghai 200444 (China); Kannan, Kurunthachalam, E-mail: kkannan@wadsworth.org [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2011-02-28

    Hair samples collected from e-waste recycling workers (n = 23 males, n = 4 females) were analyzed to assess occupational exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) at a large e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, eastern China. Hair samples from a reference population composed of residents of Shanghai (n = 11) were analyzed for comparison. The mean concentration of {Sigma}PBDEs (range, 22.8-1020 ng/g dw; mean, 157 ng/g dw) found in hair samples from e-waste recycling workers was approximately 3 times higher than the mean determined for the reference samples. The congener profiles of PBDEs in hair from e-waste recycling workers were dominated by BDE 209, whereas the profiles in the reference-population samples showed comparable levels of BDE 47 and BDE 209. Total PCDD/F concentrations in hair from e-waste workers (range, 126-5820 pg/g dw; mean, 1670 pg/g dw) were approximately 18-fold greater than the concentrations measured in hair from the reference population. Concentrations of PCDFs were greater than concentrations of PCDDs, in all of the hair samples analyzed (samples from e-waste and non-e-waste sites). Tetrachlorodibenzofurans (TCDFs) were the major homologues in hair samples. Overall, e-waste recycling workers had elevated concentrations of both PBDEs and PCDD/Fs, indicating that they are exposed to high levels of multiple persistent organic pollutants.

  11. Elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in hair from workers at an electronic waste recycling facility in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Cheng, Jinping; Wang, Wenhua; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Wu, Minghong; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2011-02-28

    Hair samples collected from e-waste recycling workers (n=23 males, n=4 females) were analyzed to assess occupational exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) at a large e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, eastern China. Hair samples from a reference population composed of residents of Shanghai (n=11) were analyzed for comparison. The mean concentration of ∑PBDEs (range, 22.8-1020 ng/g dw; mean, 157 ng/g dw) found in hair samples from e-waste recycling workers was approximately 3 times higher than the mean determined for the reference samples. The congener profiles of PBDEs in hair from e-waste recycling workers were dominated by BDE 209, whereas the profiles in the reference-population samples showed comparable levels of BDE 47 and BDE 209. Total PCDD/F concentrations in hair from e-waste workers (range, 126-5820 pg/g dw; mean, 1670 pg/g dw) were approximately 18-fold greater than the concentrations measured in hair from the reference population. Concentrations of PCDFs were greater than concentrations of PCDDs, in all of the hair samples analyzed (samples from e-waste and non-e-waste sites). Tetrachlorodibenzofurans (TCDFs) were the major homologues in hair samples. Overall, e-waste recycling workers had elevated concentrations of both PBDEs and PCDD/Fs, indicating that they are exposed to high levels of multiple persistent organic pollutants.

  12. Persistence of immunologic memory in long-term hemodialysis patients and healthcare workers given hepatitis B vaccine: role of a booster dose on antibody response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R; Laurés, A S

    2001-10-01

    Hepatitis B (HB) vaccine is effective in producing protection against HB virus infection, but the persistence of immunity remains largely unknown. Seventy-six hemodialysis (HD) patients (60 after primary HB vaccination and 16 with natural immunity) and 46 healthcare workers (32 after primary HB vaccination and 14 with natural immunity) were followed up for 10 years to evaluate the persistence of immunity. Ten years after vaccination, the analysis showed a lower seroconversion rate (38 vs. 75%, p < 0.001) in HD patients as compared with healthcare workers. In the follow-up period, the protective immunity developed through HB virus infection also showed a lower seroconversion rate (44 vs. 86%, p < 0.025) in HD patients as compared with healthcare workers. To assess the status of immunologic memory, we administered a booster dose of HB vaccine 3-12 years (mean 6.7 +/- 0.6 years) after primary vaccination in a selected group of 37 HD patients who presented a decline of their antibodies or were nonresponders. In another group of 12 healthcare workers who had a decline of their antibodies, we also administered a booster dose of HB vaccine 5-8 years (mean 5.8 +/- 0.3 years) after primary vaccination. Nineteen of the 37 HD patients (51%) presented an anamnestic response to the booster dose, and 15 of these (40%) were high responders. All of the healthcare workers responded to the booster dose with a high antibody response. We conclude that patients undergoing HD not only have lower rates of immunization to HB than healthy adults, but also that these are frequently transient. Booster doses after a primary course of vaccine are effective in about the half of HD patients who presented a decline of their antibodies or were nonresponders but whether they are necessary is unclear. The majority of healthcare workers continue to have high levels of protective HBs antibody for at least 10 years and routine boosters are not required. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Dose evaluation for workers employed in an industry involving enamel paints containing zirconium silicate; Valutazione di dose per i lavoratori occupati in una industria che utilizza vernici a smalto contenenti silicato di zirconio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, C.M.; Berico, M.; De Zaiacomo, T.; Formignani, M.; Ianni, A.; Nobili, C.; Sandri, S.; Vasselli, R. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    In the frame of the European Recommendations for radiological protection, an evaluation of the annual dose has been made for workers employed in an industry for the production of sanitary equipment involving the use of enamel paints containing zirconium silicate. [Italian] Nella prospettiva dell'applicazione della direttiva europea relativa alla protezione radiologica dei lavoratori, vengono presentati i risultati relativi alla valutazione di dose annuale complessiva per i lavoratori occupati in una industria per la produzione di articoli igienico-sanitari che utilizza vernici a smalto contenenti silicato di zirconio. Il fine e' la valutazione del problema radioprotezionistico per gli addetti a causa delle impurezza radioattive presenti nei materiali utlizzati.

  14. Findings from a hepatitis B birth dose assessment in health facilities in the Philippines: opportunities to engage the private sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal K.; Capeding, Rosario Z.; Ducusin, Joyce U.; de Quiroz Castro, Maricel; Garcia, Luzviminda C.; Hennessey, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B vaccination in the Philippines was introduced in 1992 to reduce the high burden of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the population; in 2007, a birth dose (HepB-BD) was introduced to decrease perinatal HBV transmission. Timely HepB-BD coverage, defined as doses given within 24 hours of birth, was 40% nationally in 2011. A first step in improving timely HepB-BD coverage is to ensure that all newborns born in health facilities are vaccinated. Methods In order to assess ways of improving the Philippines’ HepB-BD program, we evaluated knowledge, attitudes, and practices surrounding HepB-BD administration in health facilities. Teams visited selected government clinics, government hospitals, and private hospitals in regions with low reported HepB-BD coverage and interviewed immunization and maternity staff. HepB-BD coverage was calculated in each facility for a 3 month period in 2011. Results Of the 142 health facilities visited, 12 (8%) did not provide HepB-BD; seven were private hospitals and five were government hospitals. Median timely HepB-BD coverage was 90% (IQR 80%–100%) among government clinics, 87% (IQR 50%–97%) among government hospitals, and 50% (IQR 0%–90%) among private hospitals (p=0.02). The private hospitals were least likely to receive supervision (53% versus 6%–31%, p=0.0005) and to report vaccination data to the national Expanded Programme on Immunization (36% vs. 96%–100%, p<0.0001). Conclusions Private sector hospitals in the Philippines, which deliver 18% of newborns, had the lowest timely HepB-BD coverage. Multiple avenues exist to engage the private sector in hepatitis B prevention including through existing laws, newborn health initiatives, hospital accreditation processes, and raising awareness of the government’s free vaccine program. PMID:24361121

  15. Computer-assisted resilience training to prepare healthcare workers for pandemic influenza: a randomized trial of the optimal dose of training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Leslie

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Working in a hospital during an extraordinary infectious disease outbreak can cause significant stress and contribute to healthcare workers choosing to reduce patient contact. Psychological training of healthcare workers prior to an influenza pandemic may reduce stress-related absenteeism, however, established training methods that change behavior and attitudes are too resource-intensive for widespread use. This study tests the feasibility and effectiveness of a less expensive alternative - an interactive, computer-assisted training course designed to build resilience to the stresses of working during a pandemic. Methods A "dose-finding" study compared pre-post changes in three different durations of training. We measured variables that are likely to mediate stress-responses in a pandemic before and after training: confidence in support and training, pandemic-related self-efficacy, coping style and interpersonal problems. Results 158 hospital workers took the course and were randomly assigned to the short (7 sessions, median cumulative duration 111 minutes, medium (12 sessions, 158 minutes or long (17 sessions, 223 minutes version. Using an intention-to-treat analysis, the course was associated with significant improvements in confidence in support and training, pandemic self-efficacy and interpersonal problems. Participants who under-utilized coping via problem-solving or seeking support or over-utilized escape-avoidance experienced improved coping. Comparison of doses showed improved interpersonal problems in the medium and long course but not in the short course. There was a trend towards higher drop-out rates with longer duration of training. Conclusions Computer-assisted resilience training in healthcare workers appears to be of significant benefit and merits further study under pandemic conditions. Comparing three "doses" of the course suggested that the medium course was optimal.

  16. Determination of Absorbed and Effective Dose from Natural Background Radiation around a Nuclear Research Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Musa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study presents result of outdoor absorbed dose rate and estimated effective dose from the naturally occurring radionuclides 232Th and 238U series 40K, around a Nuclear Research Reactor at the Centre for Energy Research and Training (CERT, Zaria, Nigeria. Approach: A high-resolution in situ ?-ray spectrometry was used to carry out the study. CERT houses a 30Kw Research Reactor and other neutron and gamma sources for Research and Training. Results: The values of absorbed dose rate in air for 232Th, 238U and 40K range from 8.2 ± 2.5-24.5 ± 3.6 nGy h?1, 1.9 ± 1.2-4.6 ± 2.5 nGy h?1 and 12.2 ± 5-38 ± 6.7n Gy h?1 respectively . The estimated total annual effective dose outdoor for the sites range from 27.3-79.9 ?Sv y?1.Conclusions: This showed that radiation exposure level for the public is lower than the recommended value of 1 mSv y?1.Hence, the extensive usage of radioactive materials within and around CERT does not appear to have any impact on the radiation burden of the environment.

  17. Ionizing radiation dose control for workers in a nuclear plant working with unsealed sources; Controle da dose de radiacao ionizante para trabalhadores em uma instalacao radiativa com fontes nao seladas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerulis, Eduardo

    2006-07-01

    With the liberation of the use of the nuclear energy for peaceful applications, International Commission Radiological Protection, ICRP, founded in 1928, created a system of protection of the undesirable doses of ionizing radiation in 1958. This has been received by workers, members of the public and environment and hence it became possible for the introduction of these applications. This protection system is adopted by the International Agency of Energy Atomic, IAEA, that publishes recommendations in safety series, 88 and by the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, CNEN, which publishes these regulations. The international recommendations and national regulations were adapted and they need to be applied in this way. The present paper uses recommendations of the publication 75 from ICRP, of the publication 115 from 88 and regulations of the regulation NN 3.01 from CNEN to present, through radiological protection measures, the ionizing radiation dose control for workers in a nuclear plant that works in the research, production, division and packing of unsealed sources to be used in clinical applications. In that way it is possible to prevent appropriately the undesirable doses and to confirm the received doses. (author)

  18. Evaluation of the impact of a simple hand-washing and water-treatment intervention in rural health facilities on hygiene knowledge and reported behaviours of health workers and their clients, Nyanza Province, Kenya, 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sreenivasan, N; Gotestrand, S A; Ombeki, S

    2015-01-01

    Many clinics in rural western Kenya lack access to safe water and hand-washing facilities. To address this problem, in 2005 a programme was initiated to install water stations for hand washing and drinking water in 109 health facilities, train health workers on water treatment and hygiene...

  19. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1993-12-01

    This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose reduction activities, with a focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and aocelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts. An author index and a subject index are provided to facilitate use. Both indices contain the abstract numbers from previous volumes, as well as the current volume. Information that the reader feels might be included in the next volume of this bibliography should be submitted to the BNL ALARA Center.

  20. Assessment of fusion facility dose rate map using mesh adaptivity enhancements of hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Ahmad M., E-mail: ibrahimam@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Wilson, Paul P. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Sawan, Mohamed E., E-mail: sawan@engr.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Mosher, Scott W.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Grove, Robert E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •Calculate the prompt dose rate everywhere throughout the entire fusion energy facility. •Utilize FW-CADIS to accurately perform difficult neutronics calculations for fusion energy systems. •Develop three mesh adaptivity algorithms to enhance FW-CADIS efficiency in fusion-neutronics calculations. -- Abstract: Three mesh adaptivity algorithms were developed to facilitate and expedite the use of the CADIS and FW-CADIS hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic techniques in accurate full-scale neutronics simulations of fusion energy systems with immense sizes and complicated geometries. First, a macromaterial approach enhances the fidelity of the deterministic models without changing the mesh. Second, a deterministic mesh refinement algorithm generates meshes that capture as much geometric detail as possible without exceeding a specified maximum number of mesh elements. Finally, a weight window coarsening algorithm decouples the weight window mesh and energy bins from the mesh and energy group structure of the deterministic calculations in order to remove the memory constraint of the weight window map from the deterministic mesh resolution. The three algorithms were used to enhance an FW-CADIS calculation of the prompt dose rate throughout the ITER experimental facility and resulted in a 23.3% increase in the number of mesh tally elements in which the dose rates were calculated in a 10-day Monte Carlo calculation. Additionally, because of the significant increase in the efficiency of FW-CADIS simulations, the three algorithms enabled this difficult calculation to be accurately solved on a regular computer cluster, eliminating the need for a world-class super computer.

  1. The dose-response decrease in heart rate variability: any association with the metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coke oven workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohai Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been associated with an increased risk of cardiopulmonary mortality and decreased heart rate variability (HRV. However, it is unclear whether coke oven emissions (COEs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are associated with HRV. OBJECTIVES: Our goal in the present study was to investigate the association of exposure to COEs and the urinary metabolite profiles of PAHs with HRV of coke oven workers. METHODS: We measured benzene soluble matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, particulate matters, and PAHs at different workplaces of a coke oven plant. We determined 10 urinary PAH metabolites and HRV indices of 1333 workers using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and a 3-channel digital Holter monitor, respectively. RESULTS: Our results showed that there was a significant COEs-related dose-dependent decrease in HRV, and an inverse relationship between the quartiles of urinary 2-hydroxynaphthalene and five HRV indices (p(trend<0.01 for all. After adjustment for potential confounders, elevation per interquartile range (IQR (1.81 µg/mmol creatinine of urinary 2-hydroxynaphthalene was associated with a 5.46% (95% CI, 2.50-8.32 decrease in standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN. As workers worked more years, SDNN gradually declined in the same quartiles of 2-hydroxynaphthalene levels (p(trend = 1.40×10(-4, especially in workers with the highest levels of 2-hydroxynaphthalene. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational exposure to COEs is associated with a dose-response decrease in HRV. In particular, increased exposure to 2-hydroxynaphthalene is associated with significantly decreased HRV. Increase of working years and exposure levels has resulted in a gradual decline of HRV.

  2. HASCAL -- A system for estimating contamination and doses from incidents at worldwide nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoreen, A.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computing Applications Div.; Sykes, R.I. [Titan/ARAP, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The Hazard Assessment System for Consequence Analysis (HASCAL) is being developed to support the analysis of radiological incidents anywhere in the world for the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA). HASCAL is a component of the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC), which is a comprehensive nuclear, biological, and chemical hazard effects planning and forecasting modeling system that is being developed by DNA. HASCAL computes best-guess estimates of the consequences of radiological incidents. HASCAL estimates the amount of radioactivity released, its atmospheric transport and deposition, and the resulting radiological doses.

  3. HASCAL: A system for estimating contamination and doses from incidents at worldwide radiological facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoreen, A.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Sykes, R.I. [Titan/ARAP, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    HASCAL (Hazard Assessment System for Consequence Analysis), Version 0.1, is being developed to support analysis of radiological incidents anywhere in the world for Defense Nuclear Agency. HASCAL is a component of HPAC (Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability), a comprehensive nuclear, biological, and chemical hazard effects planning and forecasting modeling system. HASCAL estimates the amount of radioactivity released, its atmospheric transport, and the resulting radiological doses for a variety of radiological incident scenarios. HASCAL is based on RASCAL (Radiological assessment System Consquence Analysis), which was developed for US NRC for analysis of US power reactor accidents. HASCAL contains addtions of an atmospheric transport model (SCIPUFF) and of a database of all power reactors in the world. Enhancements to HASCAL are planned.

  4. Maximum dose angle for oblique incidence on primary beam protective barriers in the design of medical radiation therapy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondevila, Damián; Arbiser, Silvio; Sansogne, Rosana; Brunetto, Mónica; Dosoretz, Bernardo

    2008-05-01

    Primary barrier determinations for the shielding of medical radiation therapy facilities are generally made assuming normal beam incidence on the barrier, since this is geometrically the most unfavorable condition for that shielding barrier whenever the occupation line is allowed to run along the barrier. However, when the occupation line (for example, the wall of an adjacent building) runs perpendicular to the barrier (especially roof barrier), then two opposing factors come in to play: increasing obliquity angle with respect to the barrier increases the attenuation, while the distance to the calculation point decreases, hence, increasing the dose. As a result, there exists an angle (alpha(max)) for which the equivalent dose results in a maximum, constituting the most unfavorable geometric condition for that shielding barrier. Based on the usual NCRP Report No. 151 model, this article presents a simple formula for obtaining alpha(max), which is a function of the thickness of the barrier (t(E)) and the equilibrium tenth-value layer (TVL(e)) of the shielding material for the nominal energy of the beam. It can be seen that alpha(max) increases for increasing TVL(e) (hence, beam energy) and decreases for increasing t(E), with a range of variation that goes from 13 to 40 deg for concrete barriers thicknesses in the range of 50-300 cm and most commercially available teletherapy machines. This parameter has not been calculated in the existing literature for radiotherapy facilities design and has practical applications, as in calculating the required unoccupied roof shielding for the protection of a nearby building located in the plane of the primary beam rotation.

  5. Effect of Low-Dose Vitamin D Supplementation on Serum 25(OH)D in School Children and White-Collar Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ronghua; Muyiduli, Xiamusiye; Su, Danting; Zhou, Biao; Fang, Yueqiang; Jiang, Shuying; Wang, Shuojia; Huang, Lichun; Mo, Minjia; Li, Minchao; Shao, Bule; Yu, Yunxian

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Our study aimed to investigate the nutritional vitamin D status of school children aged 9–15 years and white-collar workers in Zhejiang province, and evaluate the efficacy of low-dose-oral vitamin D supplementation in both populations. Methods: We conducted a prospective controlled trial during March 2014 to November 2015, comparing the efficacy of vitamin D supplements (400 IU/day) with non-intervention for 18 months in school children aged 9–15 years. Meanwhile, a before-after study was conducted among white-collar workers for 1 year. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was measured at baseline and after vitamin D supplementation, respectively. Results: At the baseline, 95% of school children and 84% of adult participants had vitamin D deficiency (D concentrations of the school children intervention group, school children control group and white-collar workers were 12.77 ± 3.01 ng/mL, 14.17 ± 3.59 ng/mL and 16.58 ± 3.66 ng/mL at baseline and increased to 17.34 ± 3.78 ng/mL, 18.04 ± 4.01 ng/mL and 17.75 ± 5.36 ng/mL after vitamin D supplementation, respectively. Although, after adjusting for potential confounders, the 400 IU oral vitamin D supplementation increased serum 25(OH)D concentration in school children (β = 0.81, p = 0.0426) as well as in white-collar workers (p = 0.0839), the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was still very high among school children (79.23% in intervention group and 72.38% in control group) and white-collar workers (76.00%). Conclusions: High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was common in these two study populations. Daily doses of 400 IU oral vitamin D supplementation was not able to adequately increase serum 25(OH)D concentrations. A suitable recommendation regarding the level of vitamin D supplementation is required for this Chinese population. PMID:28513555

  6. The development of wireless radiation dose monitoring using smart phone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Woo; Jeong, Gyo Seong; Lee, Yun Jong [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chong Yeal [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chai Wan [REMTECH, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Radiation workers at a nuclear facility or radiation working area should hold personal dosimeters. some types of dosimeters have functions to generate audible or visible alarms to radiation workers. However, such devices used in radiation fields these days have no functions to communicate with other equipment or the responsible personnel. our project aims at the development of a remote wireless radiation dose monitoring system that can be utilized to monitor the radiation dose for radiation workers and to notify the radiation protection manager of the dose information in real time. We use a commercial survey meter for personal radiation measurement and a smart phone for a mobile wireless communication tool and a Beacon for position detection of radiation workers using Blue tooth communication. In this report, the developed wireless dose monitoring of cellular phone is introduced.

  7. Evaluation of the impact of a simple hand-washing and water-treatment intervention in rural health facilities on hygiene knowledge and reported behaviours of health workers and their clients, Nyanza Province, Kenya, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, N; Gotestrand, S A; Ombeki, S; Oluoch, G; Fischer, T K; Quick, R

    2015-03-01

    Many clinics in rural western Kenya lack access to safe water and hand-washing facilities. To address this problem, in 2005 a programme was initiated to install water stations for hand washing and drinking water in 109 health facilities, train health workers on water treatment and hygiene, and motivate clients to adopt these practices. In 2008, we evaluated this intervention's impact by conducting observations at facilities, and interviewing staff and clients about water treatment and hygiene. Of 30 randomly selected facilities, 97% had water stations in use. Chlorine residuals were detectable in at least one container at 59% of facilities. Of 164 interviewed staff, 79% knew the recommended water-treatment procedure. Of 298 clients, 45% had received training on water treatment at a facility; of these, 68% knew the recommended water-treatment procedure. Use of water stations, water treatment, and client training were sustained in some facilities for up to 3 years.

  8. Estimation of effective dose caused by stray radiations of photons, electrons and positrons around a small storage ring for a synchrotron radiation facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Y.; Oki, S.; Sugiyama, H.; Kobayakawa, H.

    2005-10-01

    The spatial distribution of the effective dose of photons, electrons and positrons caused by beam loss around a small electron storage ring in a synchrotron radiation source is calculated. We propose a simple formula applicable to calculate the effective dose for storage rings for beam energies ranging from 200 MeV to 5 GeV. The formula is derived from Monte Carlo calculations of radiation flux using the simulation code EGS4. We apply the formula to estimate the effective dose distribution in a small synchrotron radiation facility planned by the Nagoya University.

  9. Leukaemia and low dose radiation. Is there an association between leukaemia and cumulative external dose amongst the British Nuclear Fuel plc. (BNFL) workers?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGeoghegan, D.; Binks, K. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-01

    A detailed examination of the BNFL leukaemia data is presented, for the period 1941-1995, using the recently assembled company wide BNFL epidemiological database and the BNFL leukaemia case-control data set. The association of this occupationally exposed cohort is examined with respect to both leukaemia mortality and leukaemia morbidity. The excess relative risk for total leukaemia excluding chronic lymphatic leukaemia amongst the BNFL radiation workers was found to be 3.64 Sv{sup -1} (90% CI -0.13-11.22); for Sellafield and Springfields this figure was 7.99 Sv{sup -1} (90% CI 1.50-29.5) and -1.97 Sv{sup -1} (90% CI<-2.23-6.11) respectively. A 14-20% increase in risk is noted when dosimetry adjusted for measurement error, is used to determine the excess relative risk. The association between leukaemia and cumulative external radiation is found to be particularly associated with the Sellafield plant; the Springfields plant gave consistently negative risk estimates. (author)

  10. Dose reduction of scattered photons from concrete walls lined with lead: Implications for improvement in design of megavoltage radiation therapy facility mazes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Affan, I. A. M., E-mail: info@medphys-environment.co.uk; Hugtenburg, R. P.; Piliero, M. [Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Bari, D. S. [Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, United Kingdom and University of Zakho, Duhok (Iraq); Al-Saleh, W. M. [Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, United Kingdom and King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Science, Hofuf (Saudi Arabia); Evans, S. [Department of Medical Physics and Clinical Engineering, Singleton Hospital, Swansea SA2 8QA (United Kingdom); Al-Hasan, M.; Al-Zughul, B. [College of Sciences, Zarqa University, Zarqa (Jordan); Al-Kharouf, S. [The Royal Scientific Society, Amman (Jordan); Ghaith, A. [Association of Arab Universities, Amman (Jordan)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: This study explores the possibility of using lead to cover part of the radiation therapy facility maze walls in order to absorb low energy photons and reduce the total dose at the maze entrance of radiation therapy rooms. Methods: Experiments and Monte Carlo simulations were utilized to establish the possibility of using high-Z materials to cover the concrete walls of the maze in order to reduce the dose of the scattered photons at the maze entrance. The dose of the backscattered photons from a concrete wall was measured for various scattering angles. The dose was also calculated by the FLUKA and EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes. The FLUKA code was also used to simulate an existing radiotherapy room to study the effect of multiple scattering when adding lead to cover the concrete walls of the maze. Monoenergetic photons were used to represent the main components of the x ray spectrum up to 10 MV. Results: It was observed that when the concrete wall was covered with just 2 mm of lead, the measured dose rate at all backscattering angles was reduced by 20% for photons of energy comparable to Co-60 emissions and 70% for Cs-137 emissions. The simulations with FLUKA and EGS showed that the reduction in the dose was potentially even higher when lead was added. One explanation for the reduction is the increased absorption of backscattered photons due to the photoelectric interaction in lead. The results also showed that adding 2 mm lead to the concrete walls and floor of the maze reduced the dose at the maze entrance by up to 90%. Conclusions: This novel proposal of covering part or the entire maze walls with a few millimeters of lead would have a direct implication for the design of radiation therapy facilities and would assist in upgrading the design of some mazes, especially those in facilities with limited space where the maze length cannot be extended to sufficiently reduce the dose.

  11. Radiological controls and worker and public health and safety: An independent safety assessment of Department of Energy nuclear reactor facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tew, J.L.; Miles, M.E.; Knuth, D.; Boyd, R.

    1981-02-01

    DOE has formed a Nuclear Facilities Personnel Qualification and Training (NFPQT) Committee to assess the implications of the Report of the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island that are applicable to DOE's nuclear reactor operations. Thirteen DOE nuclear reactors were reviewed by the Committee. This report was prepared to provide a measure of how the radiological control and environmental practices at the 13 individual DOE reactor facilities measure up to (1) the recommendations contained in the Report of the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island, (2) the requirements and guidelines contained, and (3) the requirements of the applicable Title and Part of the Code of Federal Regulations.

  12. Exposure estimates for workers in a facility expanding Libby vermiculite: updated values and comparison with original 1980 values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borton, Eric K; Lemasters, Grace K; Hilbert, Timothy J; Lockey, James E; Dunning, Kari K; Rice, Carol H

    2012-11-01

    Low cumulative fiber exposure (CFE) has been associated with health effects in a cohort exposed to Libby vermiculite. This study refines the original 1980 exposure estimates and compares the CFE results. Cumulative fiber exposure estimates were developed using three times more industrial hygiene measurements and long-term workers' input. New adjustments included vermiculite ore source, seasonal overtime hours, time spent in various tasks, and recollection of historical dustiness. The overall mean (95% confidence interval) CFE (n = 513) in 1980 (0.80 [0.69 to 0.93]) was statistically similar to the overall mean (95% confidence interval) CFE in 2010 (0.74 [0.61 to 0.90]). The mean CFE in the lowest exposure category (CFE estimate extended the upper bound of the range of previous estimates from 28.10 to 106.31 fiber-years/cm. The range of CFE values was expanded. These estimates may impact the understanding of Libby vermiculite health outcomes.

  13. Effect of dosimeter's position on occupational radiation extremity dose measurement for nuclear medicine workers during (18)F-FDG preparation for PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salesses, Fabien; Perez, Paul; Maillard, Aline E; Blanchard, Julie; Mallard, Sabine; Bordenave, Laurence

    2016-12-01

    The recent spread of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) poses extremity dosimetry challenges. The question arose whether the radiation dose measured by the ring thermoluminescent dosimeter usually worn on the proximal phalanx (P1) of the index finger measures doses that are representative of the true doses received by the upper extremities of the operators. A prospective individual dosimetry study was performed in which the personal equivalent dose Hp (0.07) received during a specific 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) manual dose-dispensing procedure was measured in a paired design by two operational personal electronic dosimeters fitted on the palm side of the index finger, namely in the P1 and distal phalanx (P3) positions. The study participants were ten nuclear medicine technologists working in two nuclear medicine departments. The personal equivalent radiation doses received by the palm side of the proximal phalanx of the index finger [Hp (0.07)P1] and that received by the distal phalanx [Hp (0.07)P3] were compared. The median Hp (0.07)P3/Hp (0.07)P1 ratio per participant varied between 1.0 and 2.5 (based on 23 to 31 measurements per participant). The 271 paired measurements revealed a crude Hp (0.07)P3/Hp (0.07)P1 ratio of 1.67, significantly different from 1 (p = 0.0004, 95 % CI [1.35-2.07]). When adjusted on participant's gender and mother vial activity, the ratio was similar (1.53, p = 0.003, 95 % CI [1.22-1.92]). The study demonstrated a significant disparity that may exist between the radiation doses measured in the P1 and P3 positions of operators during (18)F-FDG manipulation. These findings emphasize the importance of performing workplace dosimetry studies adapted to each radiopharmaceutical and manipulation thereof, aiming to guarantee optimal workers' dosimetry monitoring schemes. Hospital Nursing and Paramedical Research Program (PHRIP, 2011-2013) from the French Ministry of Health (DGOS), http

  14. Assessment of exposure of workers to ionizing radiation from radioiodine and technetium in nuclear medicine departmental facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Krajewska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to its use of ionising radiation, the field of nuclear medicine is a unique and significant part of medical diagnostics and patient treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the internal exposure of nuclear medicine employees to radioiodine 131I and technetium 99mTc as well as to assess the external exposure doses. Material and Methods: The radioiodine 131I and technetium 99mTc contents in the thyroid of staff members (about 100 persons dealing with these radionuclides have been measured in four departments of nuclear medicine. The measurements were conducted with a portable detection unit for in situ measurements of radioiodine and technetium. High sensitivity environmental thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD were used to measure the external exposure dose. Results: The average values and ranges of radioiodine 131I activity measured in the thyroids of all of the medical units' employees were: 83 Bq (range: 70-250 Bq, 280 Bq (range: 70-4000 Bq, 275 Bq (range: 70-1000 Bq for technical staff, nuclear medicine staff and hospital services staff, respectively. The mean value of technetium 99mTc content in the thyroids of nuclear medicine staff was approximately 1500 Bq (range: 50- -1800 Bq. External exposure dose rates were in the range of 0.5-10 μGy/h. Conclusions: The calculated average effective dose for particular person caused by the inhalation of radioiodine 131I is below 5% of 20 mSv/year (occupational exposure limit. Med Pr 2013;64(5:625–630

  15. Use of international data sets to evaluate and validate pathway assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities. Progress report, August 1993--January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, S.M. [ed.] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hoffman, F.O. [Senes Oak Ridge, Inc., TN (United States). Center for Risk Analysis

    1994-03-01

    This project, ``Use of International Data Sets to Evaluate and Validate Pathway Assessment Models Applicable to Exposure and Dose Reconstruction at DOE Facilities,`` grew out of several activities being conducted by the Principal Investigator Dr. F Owen Hoffman. One activity was originally part of the Chernobyl Studies Project and began as Task 7.1D, ``Internal Dose From Direct Contamination of Terrestrial Food Sources.`` The objective of Task 7.1D was to (1) establish a collaborative US USSR effort to improve and validate our methods of forecasting doses and dose commitments from the direct contamination of food sources, and (2) perform experiments and validation studies to improve our ability to predict rapidly and accurately the long-term internal dose from the contamination of agricultural soil. The latter was to include the consideration of remedial measures to block contamination of food grown on contaminated soil. The current objective of this project is to evaluate and validate pathway-assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities through use of international data sets. This project incorporates the activity of Task 7.1D into a multinational effort to evaluate data used for the prediction of radionuclide transfer through agricultural and aquatic systems to humans. It also includes participation in two multinational studies, BIOMOVS (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) with the Swedish National Institute for Radiation Protection and VAMP (VAlidation of Model Predictions) with the International Atomic Energy Agency, that address testing the performance of models of radionuclide transport through foodchains.

  16. Characterization of the neutron irradiation system for use in the Low-Dose-Rate Irradiation Facility at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Manuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize the neutron irradiation system consisting of americium-241 beryllium (241AmBe) neutron sources placed in a polyethylene shielding for use at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Low Dose Rate Irradiation Facility (LDRIF). With a total activity of 0.3 TBq (9 Ci), the source consisted of three recycled 241AmBe sources of different activities that had been combined into a single source. The source in its polyethylene shielding will be used in neutron irradiation testing of components. The characterization of the source-shielding system was necessary to evaluate the radiation environment for future experiments. Characterization of the source was also necessary because the documentation for the three component sources and their relative alignment within the Special Form Capsule (SFC) was inadequate. The system consisting of the source and shielding was modeled using Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP). The model was validated by benchmarking it against measurements using multiple techniques. To characterize the radiation fields over the full spatial geometry of the irradiation system, it was necessary to use a number of instruments of varying sensitivities. First, the computed photon radiography assisted in determining orientation of the component sources. With the capsule properly oriented inside the shielding, the neutron spectra were measured using a variety of techniques. A N-probe Microspec and a neutron Bubble Dosimeter Spectrometer (BDS) set were used to characterize the neutron spectra/field in several locations. In the third technique, neutron foil activation was used to ascertain the neutron spectra. A high purity germanium (HPGe) detector was used to characterize the photon spectrum. The experimentally measured spectra and the MCNP results compared well. Once the MCNP model was validated to an adequate level of confidence, parametric analyses was performed on the model to optimize for potential

  17. Knowledge about childhood autism and opinion among healthcare workers on availability of facilities and law caring for the needs and rights of children with childhood autism and other developmental disorders in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igwe Monday N

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In designing programs to raise the community level of awareness about childhood autism in sub-Saharan Africa, it is logical to use the primary healthcare workers as contact point for education of the general public. Tertiary healthcare workers could play the role of trainers on childhood autism at primary healthcare level. Assessing their baseline knowledge about childhood autism to detect areas of knowledge gap is an essential ingredient in starting off such programs that would be aimed at early diagnosis and interventions. Knowledge of the healthcare workers on availability of facilities and law that would promote the required interventions is also important. This study assessed the baseline knowledge about childhood autism and opinion among Nigerian healthcare workers on availability of facilities and law caring for the needs and rights of children with childhood autism and other developmental disorders. Method A total of one hundred and thirty four (134 consented healthcare workers working in tertiary healthcare facilities located in south east and south-south regions of Nigeria were interviewed with Socio-demographic, Knowledge about Childhood Autism among Health Workers (KCAHW and Opinion on availability of Facilities and Law caring for the needs and rights of children with Childhood Autism and other developmental disorders (OFLCA questionnaires. Results The total mean score of participated healthcare workers on KCAHW questionnaire was 12.35 ± 4.40 out of a total score of 19 possible. Knowledge gap was found to be higher in domain 3 (symptoms of obsessive and repetitive pattern of behavior, followed by domains 1 (symptoms of impairments in social interaction, 4 (type of disorder autism is and associated co-morbidity and 2 (symptoms of communication impairments of KCAHW respectively among the healthcare workers. Knowledge about childhood autism (KCA as measured by scores on KCAHW questionnaire was significantly

  18. Radon and Thoron Measured in Petrol and Gas-oil Exhaust Fumes by Using CR-39 and LR-115 II Nuclear Track Detectors: Radiation Doses to the Respiratory Tract of Mechanic Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misdaq, M A; Chaouqi, A; Ouguidi, J; Touti, R; Mortassim, A

    2015-06-01

    Mechanic workers are exposed to exhaust fumes when controlling vehicle engines in motion inside repair shops. To assess radiation doses due to radon short-lived progeny from the inhalation of exhaust fumes by mechanic workers, concentrations of these radionuclides were measured in petrol (gasoline) and gas-oil exhaust fumes by evaluating mean critical angles of etching of the CR-39 and LR-115 type II SSNTDs for alpha particles emitted by the radon and thoron decay series. Committed effective doses due to ²¹⁸Po and ²¹⁴Po short-lived radon decay products from the inhalation of petrol and gas-oil exhaust fumes by workers were evaluated. A maximum value of 1.35 mSv y⁻¹ due to radon short-lived decay products from the inhalation of gas-oil exhaust fumes by mechanic workers was found, which is lower than the (3-10 mSv y⁻¹) dose limit interval for workers.

  19. Evaluation of neutron dose and gamma dose at thermal facility of Peruvian research reactor RP-10; Evaluacion de la dosis gamma y de neutrones en la facilidad termica del reactor peruano de investigacion RP-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Javier; Miranda, Hector; Aparicio, Claudia; Lazaro, Gerardo [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (IPEN), Lima (Peru). Dept. de Calculo, Analisis y Seguridad (CASE)]. E-mail: hmcmiranda@hotmail.com; jjgb76@yahoo.com; caparicio@scientist.com; glazaro@ipen.gob.pe; Zuniga, Agustin [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (IPEN), Lima (Peru). Direccion General de Instalaciones (DGI)]. E-mail: azuniga@ipen.gob.pe

    2005-07-01

    One of main lines of work in the Peruvian nuclear reactor RP-10, is a complex systems simulation by mean of Monte Carlo technique, oriented in particular to characterization of irradiation facilities. In this work it is presented the comparison of experimental measurements, based in measure of thermal, epithermal and fast neutron flux distribution, neutron dose and gamma dose at thermal facility of RP-10, with the MCNP4B compute code, being observed a good agreement between both results. The neutron flux measures were carried out by irradiation of gold, indium and nickel metallic monitors; then it were measured the activities using a gamma spectrometry chain based on a hyperpure germanium (HPGe) detector. With these results the neutron dose was determined, and it was also measured, using a equipment based on a boron trifluoride detector (BF3, NRC-RemRad). A device based on Geiger Mueller detector (FAG-FH40FE) was used for the gamma dose rate measurement. Finally there were measured both gamma and neutron dose rate using TLD-600 and TLD-700 thermoluminescent dosimeters, which were previously characterized. (author)

  20. Measurement of 238U and 232Th in Petrol, Gas-oil and Lubricant Samples by Using Nuclear Track Detectors and Resulting Radiation Doses to the Skin of Mechanic Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misdaq, M A; Chaouqi, A; Ouguidi, J; Touti, R; Mortassim, A

    2015-10-01

    Workers in repair shops of vehicles (cars, buses, truck, etc.) clean carburetors, check fuel distribution, and perform oil changes and greasing. To explore the exposure pathway of (238)U and (232)Th and its decay products to the skin of mechanic workers, these radionuclides were measured inside petrol, gas-oil, and lubricant material samples by means of CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs), and corresponding annual committed equivalent doses to skin were determined. The maximum total equivalent effective dose to skin due to the (238)U and (232)Th series from the application of different petrol, gas-oil, and lubricant samples by mechanic workers was found equal to 1.2 mSv y(-1) cm(-2).

  1. Absorbed dose distributions in a tissue-equivalent absorber for Bremsstrahlung produced at the beamlines of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Pisharody, M; Berkvens, P; Colomp, P

    2000-01-01

    The absorbed-dose distributions for Bremsstrahlung, incident on a tissue-equivalent phantom, were measured with LiF : Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosimeters at two insertion device beamlines of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). The measurements were carried out for two different electron beam energies of 4 and 6 GeV. The corresponding Bremsstrahlung spectra and power were measured using a high-resolution lead glass total absorption calorimeter. The results are compared with similar measurements carried out at other facilities. The normalized Bremsstrahlung absorbed dose in a cross-sectional area of 100 mm sup sup 2 , at a depth of 150 mm of the phantom, was measured as 6.1 and 3.6 kGy h sup sup - sup sup 1 W sup sup - sup sup 1 for the corresponding Bremsstrahlung spectra of 4 and 6 GeV.

  2. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the K-Basins (see K-Basins link) in Hanford's 100 Area is a facility called the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF).Between 2000 and 2004, workers at the...

  3. Dose coefficients for radionuclides produced in high energy proton accelerator facilities. Coefficients for radionuclides not listed in ICRP publications

    CERN Document Server

    Kawai, K; Noguchi, H

    2002-01-01

    Effective dose coefficients, the committed effective dose per unit intake, by inhalation and ingestion have been calculated for 304 nuclides, including (1) 230 nuclides with half-lives >= 10 min and their daughters that are not listed in ICRP Publications and (2) 74 nuclides with half-lives < 10 min that are produced in a spallation target. Effective dose coefficients for inhalation of soluble or reactive gases have been calculated for 21 nuclides, and effective dose rates for inert gases have been calculated for 9 nuclides. Dose calculation was carried out using a general-purpose nuclear decay database DECDC developed at JAERI and a decay data library newly compiled from the ENSDF for the nuclides abundantly produced in a spallation target. The dose coefficients were calculated with the computer code DOCAP based on the respiratory tract model and biokinetic model of ICRP. The effective dose rates were calculated by considering both external irradiation from the surrounding cloud and irradiation of the lun...

  4. Estimate of radiation doses to workers in underground mines of coal and fluorite in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina and considerations on the optimisation of radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Carlos Eduardo Lima dos; Vignol, Maria Lidia; Conceicao, Rommulo Vieira [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias], e-mail: carlos.lima@ufrgs.br; Xavier, Ana Maria; Gouvea, Vandir; Macacini, Jose Flavio [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN/RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: axavier@cnen.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The inhalation of radon present in underground mines can imply in the deposition of its descendants in the lungs, which may cause harm to the lungs tissues and induce cancer. Concentrations of radon in the environment of underground mines above 1000 - 1500 Bq/m{sup 3} are internationally considered to require protective measures for the miners. The objectives of the present work were to determine the concentrations of radon in air, as well as the resulting doses due to the presence of this radionuclide in three underground mines of fluorite and three underground mines of coal in the State of Santa Catarina. The concentration of radon was measured employing two types of detectors of nuclear tracks (SSNTD), the LEXAN and the CR-39. This detection method consisted in counting, with the help of a microscope, tracks resulting from the interaction of alpha particles with the film, due to the penetration of Rn-222 in the interior of the detector chamber and its decaying process. The average dose to the workers of the coal mines was estimated as 0.7 mSv/a, value inferior to the limit of 1 mSv/a established by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) for members of the public. On the other hand, the fluorite mines showed much higher concentrations of radon and superior to 1000 Bq/m{sup 3}. The inefficiency of the ventilation system and the liberation of radon during the various explosions may have contributed to the high concentrations of radon in these mines since the concentration of radium in the rocks (normal and weathered granites) and in the minerals (green and purple fluorides) that compose the mining environment are not high. The modification of the ventilation system of one of the fluorite mines was sufficient to reduce the radon concentration to levels of the order of 500 Bq/m{sup 3}. The weathered granite contributes more significantly to the increase of the concentration of Rn-222 in the air than the other rocks here studied, i.e. normal granite as well as

  5. Dosimetric impact of the low-dose envelope of scanned proton beams at a ProBeam facility: comparison of measurements with TPS and MC calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würl, M.; Englbrecht, F.; Parodi, K.; Hillbrand, M.

    2016-01-01

    Due to the low-dose envelope of scanned proton beams, the dose output depends on the size of the irradiated field or volume. While this field size dependence has already been extensively investigated by measurements and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for single pencil beams or monoenergetic fields, reports on the relevance of this effect for analytical dose calculation models are limited. Previous studies on this topic only exist for specific beamline designs. However, the amount of large-angle scattered primary and long-range secondary particles and thus the relevance of the low-dose envelope can considerably be influenced by the particular design of the treatment nozzle. In this work, we therefore addressed the field size dependence of the dose output at the commercially available ProBeam® beamline, which is being built in several facilities worldwide. We compared treatment planning dose calculations with ionization chamber (IC) measurements and MC simulations, using an experimentally validated FLUKA MC model of the scanning beamline. To this aim, monoenergetic square fields of three energies, as well as spherical target volumes were studied, including the investigation on the influence of the lateral spot spacing on the field size dependence. For the spherical target volumes, MC as well as analytical dose calculation were found in excellent agreement with the measurements in the center of the spread-out Bragg peak. In the plateau region, the treatment planning system (TPS) tended to overestimate the dose compared to MC calculations and IC measurements by up to almost 5% for the smallest investigated sphere and for small monoenergetic square fields. Narrower spot spacing slightly enhanced the field size dependence of the dose output. The deviations in the plateau dose were found to go in the clinically safe direction, i.e. the actual deposited dose outside the target was found to be lower than predicted by the TPS. Thus, the moderate overestimation of dose to

  6. Dose evaluation in occupationally exposed workers through dosimeters ring and wrist type with an anthropomorphic phantom; Evaluacion de la dosis en trabajadores ocupacionalmente expuestos a traves de dosimetros tipo anillo y de muneca con un fantoma antropomorfico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, R.; Gastelo, E. [Univesidad Nacional Pedro Ruiz Gallo, Huamachuco, Lambayeque (Peru); Paucar, R.; Tolentino, D.; Herrera, J. [Complejo Hospitalario San Pablo, Lima (Peru); Armas, D., E-mail: fispalma@hotmail.com [Consorcio Proxtronics del Pacifico S. A. C., Cal. Manuela Estacio Mza. D1-2 Lote 13, San Miguel, Lima (Peru)

    2014-08-15

    In the Nuclear Medicine service of the Clinica San Pablo (Peru), the occupationally exposed workers carried out the preparation and administration of radiopharmaceuticals to patients, so it is vital to measure the equivalent dose to the hands during the procedures in order to optimize the exposure to the ionizing radiation and execute the Radiological Safety Regulation (D.S. No. 009-97-Em) and the standard IR 002.2012 of radiation protection and safety in nuclear medicine. In this paper was designed and built a hand anthropomorphic phantom made of paraffin following the description given for the standard man, later were placed dosimeters ring and wrist type UD-807 model, Panasonic brand. Then we proceeded to irradiate using vial containers of Tc-99 and I-131. The obtained results showed the difference between the equivalent dose obtained among the ring and wrist dosimeter also getting a dose of 153 mSv /year when working with {sup 99m}Tc and of 61 mSv /year when working with iodine-131. Was also demonstrated that the ring dosimeter shows the average dose received in the hand with less dispersion. It was found that under the national regulation on Requirements of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety in Medicine article 63, indicates that higher doses of 150 mSv /year the occupationally exposed workers should have hand dosimetry. Finally the individual dose limit of 500 mSv /year in extremities can be overcome if adequate radiation protection standards do not apply. (author)

  7. Cataract incidence in the cohort of occupationally exposed workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Bragin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess cataract incidence in the cohort of workers occupationally exposed to prolonged radiation. Material and Methods: Cataract incidence was studied in the cohort of workers of the first Russian nuclear enterprise — the Mayak, who were firstly employed at one of the main facilities (reactors, radiochemical and plutonium production plants in 1948‑1958 and followed up to the end of 2008 (12210 persons. Total of 3100 cataract cases were registered in the study cohort. All cataract cases were reviewed and verified by experts; the study included only confirmed senile cataracts. All workers of the study cohort were exposed to external gamma-rays; mean cumulative dose from external gamma-rays was 0.91±0.01 Gy in males and 0.65±0.01 Gy in females. Statistical analysis provided non-standardized and standardized incidence rates per 100 000 workers. Standardization by sex and age was performed by indirect method using internal reference.Results: 2523 cases of senile cataract were included in the study. Mean age of cataract diagnosis was 62.88±0.26 years in males and 64.88±0.28 years in females. Standardized incidence rates of cataract in females were significantly higher as compared to males and increased with workers age. Comparison between the subcohorts of workers with / without diagnosed cataracts demonstrated that among workers with cataracts the proportions of the following groups of workers were significantly higher: workers employed before 1954; workers employed at reactors; smoking workers; workers with the smoking index exceeding 20 pack*years; workers who consumed alcohol; workers with excessive body weight; workers with glaucoma and arterial hypertension. Moreover the mean cumulative dose from external gamma-rays and / or neutron exposure was significantly higher in the subcohort of workers diagnosed with cataracts than that in the subcohort of workers free of the disease. The highest cataract incidence

  8. Dose-response relationship of dicentric chromosomes in human lymphocytes obtained for the fission neutron therapy facility MEDAPP at the research reactor FRM II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, E; Wagner, F M; Romm, H; Walsh, L; Roos, H

    2009-02-01

    The biological effectiveness of neutrons from the neutron therapy facility MEDAPP (mean neutron energy 1.9 MeV) at the new research reactor FRM II at Garching, Germany, has been analyzed, at different depths in a polyethylene phantom. Whole blood samples were exposed to the MEDAPP beam in special irradiation chambers to total doses of 0.14-3.52 Gy at 2-cm depth, and 0.18-3.04 Gy at 6-cm depth of the phantom. The neutron and gamma-ray absorbed dose rates were measured to be 0.55 Gy min(-1) and 0.27 Gy min(-1) at 2-cm depth, while they were 0.28 and 0.25 Gy min(-1) at 6-cm depth. Although the irradiation conditions at the MEDAPP beam and the RENT beam of the former FRM I research reactor were not identical, neutrons from both facilities gave a similar linear-quadratic dose-response relationship for dicentric chromosomes at a depth of 2 cm. Different dose-response curves for dicentrics were obtained for the MEDAPP beam at 2 and 6 cm depth, suggesting a significantly lower biological effectiveness of the radiation with increasing depth. No obvious differences in the dose-response curves for dicentric chromosomes estimated under interactive or additive prediction between neutrons or gamma-rays and the experimentally obtained dose-response curves could be determined. Relative to (60)Co gamma-rays, the values for the relative biological effectiveness at the MEDAPP beam decrease from 5.9 at 0.14 Gy to 1.6 at 3.52 Gy at 2-cm depth, and from 4.1 at 0.18 Gy to 1.5 at 3.04 Gy at 6-cm depth. Using the best possible conditions of consistency, i.e., using blood samples from the same donor and the same measurement techniques for about two decades, avoiding the inter-individual variations in sensitivity or the differences in methodology usually associated with inter-laboratory comparisons, a linear-quadratic dose-response relationship for the mixed neutron and gamma-ray MEDAPP field as well as for its fission neutron part was obtained. Therefore, the debate on whether the fission

  9. Glandular dose and image quality control in mammography facilities with computerized radiography systems; Dose glandular e controle de qualidade da imagem em servicos de mamografia com sistema de radiografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Marcelino Vicente de Almeida

    2010-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and early detection is critical to its diagnosis and treatment. To date, the most effective method for early detection of breast cancer has been x-ray mammography for which the screen/film (SF) technique has been the gold standard. However, even though SF combinations have been improved and optimized over the years for breast imaging, there are some critical limitations, including a narrow exposure range, image artifacts, film processing problems, and inflexibility in image processing and film management. In recent years, digital mammography has been introduced in cancer screening programmes with the screen/film techniques gradually being phased out. Computed radiography (CR), also commonly known as photostimulable phosphor (PSP) imaging or storage phosphor, employs reusable imaging plates and associated hardware and software to acquire and to display digital projection radiographs. In this work, a protocol model was tested for performing image quality control and average glandular dose (AGD) evaluation in 19 institutions with computed radiography systems for mammography. The protocol was validated through tests at the Laboratorio de Radioprotecao Aplicada a Mamografia (LARAM) from the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN). The image quality visual evaluation of CDMAM phantom showed that 53% of the facilities were able to produce images of excellent quality. Furthermore, the automated evaluation of image quality, using the analyze software cdcom.exe, showed that 57% of the images were considered to be of good quality. The detector linearity test showed that the CR response is very linear, where 95% of facilities evaluated were considered to be compliant. For the image noise was found that only 20% of facilities are in agreement with the parameters established for this test. The average glandular doses, which patients may be getting to perform an examination, were below the action levels

  10. Controllability of depth dose distribution for neutron capture therapy at the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of Kyoto University Research Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Tooru

    2002-10-01

    The updating construction of the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of the Kyoto University Research Reactor has been performed from November 1995 to March 1996 mainly for the improvement in neutron capture therapy. On the performance, the neutron irradiation modes with the variable energy spectra from almost pure thermal to epi-thermal neutrons became available by the control of the heavy-water thickness in the spectrum shifter and by the open-and-close of the cadmium and boral thermal neutron filters. The depth distributions of thermal, epi-thermal and fast neutron fluxes were measured by activation method using gold and indium, and the depth distributions of gamma-ray absorbed dose rate were measured using thermo-luminescent dosimeter of beryllium oxide for the several irradiation modes. From these measured data, the controllability of the depth dose distribution using the spectrum shifter and the thermal neutron filters was confirmed.

  11. Influences of mechanical exposure biographies on physical capabilities of workers from automotive industry - a study on possible dose-response relationships and consequences for short and long term job rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademacher, Holger; Bruder, Ralph; Sinn-Behrendt, Andrea; Landau, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a field study in production areas of a vehicle manufacturing plant, where 106 male workers (aged from 20 to 63 years) were examined and interviewed by the authors. Aim of study was to identify relationships between specific physical worker capabilities and doses of mechanical exposures using self-developed standardized questionnaires as well as a battery of work-specific tests. The dependent variables are different "physical capabilities", classified using a five-point rating scale with regard to the grade of limitation of the respective capability. Independent variables are "age" and specific "mechanical exposures". Several exposures were combined and multiplied with their respective durations in order to determine doses on three different body regions - back, shoulder-neck and upper limbs. There are significant positive correlations between "age" and "dose of mechanical exposure on back/shoulder-neck/upper limbs region". The analysis of the relationship between dose of exposure and different capabilities to lift or reposition loads (with variable weight) shows weak significant correlations for all three body regions. Data analysis shows no significant correlations between any dose of mechanical exposure and capabilities to work in awkward body postures.These results should be considered in age management programs when scheduling future employee assignments to workplaces, especially for production systems where manual handling tasks are dominant.

  12. Two dose-estimation models CSA-N288.1 and Nureg 1.109, 1.113 - compared for chronic aquatic releases from nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, S.C. [ECOMatters Inc., Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada); Klukas, M.H. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Peterson, S.-R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, California (United States)

    2000-04-01

    Both the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US-NRC) have published guidelines for the calculation of doses to the public due to emissions from nuclear facilities. In the sale of CANDU reactors overseas, either of these guidelines may be used as part of the approval process in the recipient country. This study compares the aquatic exposure pathways described in the guidelines. These include direct consumption of contaminated water and food, and exposure to contaminated sediments. The CSA and US-NRC guidelines for estimating dilution of aquatic emissions are of a general nature and the choice of model used to quantify dilution is left to the user. The models prescribed for the different exposure pathways by these two regulatory guides are similar in many attributes. Many of the recommended parameter values are identical and many of the formulations are either identical, or become identical under general conditions. However, despite these similarities, there is substantial variation between dose estimates for a common case. These differences are limited to certain nuclides and exposure pathways and are primarily due to differences in parameter values prescribed by the guidelines. The total dose from all pathways and from all nuclides for the case considered is within a factor of 1.3 for the two models. The convergence in results for the total dose for all radionuclides largely reflects the similarity in the way the models deal with the dominant dose contributor, tritium. Considering the results for each radionuclide, however, the models differ more and on average the CSA model estimates a 20-fold higher dose. (author)

  13. Frequency and quality of radiation monitoring of construction workers at two gaseous diffusion plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Eula; Ringen, Knut; Dement, John; Cameron, Wilfrid; McGowan, William; Welch, Laura; Quinn, Patricia

    2006-09-01

    Construction workers were and are considered temporary workers at many construction sites. Since World War II, large numbers of construction workers were employed at U.S. Department of Energy nuclear weapons sites for periods ranging from a few days to over 30 years. These workers performed tasks during new construction and maintenance, repair, renovation, and demolition of existing facilities. Such tasks may involve emergency situations, and may entail opportunities for significant radiation exposures. This paper provides data from interviews with more than 750 construction workers at two gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) at Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio regarding radiation monitoring practices. The aim was to determine the extent to which workers believed they were monitored during tasks involving potential radiation exposures. The adequacy of monitoring practices is important for two reasons: (a) Protecting workers from exposures: Construction workers were employed by sub-contractors, and may frequently been excluded from safety and health programs provided to permanent employees; and (b) Supporting claims for compensation: The Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act (EEOICPA) requires dose reconstruction of radiation exposures for most workers who file a claim regarding cancer. The use of monitoring data for radiation to qualify a worker means that there should be valid and complete monitoring during the work time at the various nuclear plants or workers may be unfairly denied compensation. The worker interviews from Paducah and Portsmouth were considered especially useful because these sites were designated as Special Exposure Cohorts (SECs) and the workers did not have to have a dose reconstruction to qualify for compensation for most cancers. Therefore, their responses were less likely to be affected by compensation concerns. Interview questions included asking for information regarding whether monitoring was performed, how

  14. Development of posture-specific computational phantoms using motion capture technology and application to radiation dose-reconstruction for the 1999 Tokai-Mura nuclear criticality accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Justin A.; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2014-09-01

    The majority of existing computational phantoms are designed to represent workers in typical standing anatomical postures with fixed arm and leg positions. However, workers found in accident-related scenarios often assume varied postures. This paper describes the development and application of two phantoms with adjusted postures specified by data acquired from a motion capture system to simulate unique human postures found in a 1999 criticality accident that took place at a JCO facility in Tokai-Mura, Japan. In the course of this accident, two workers were fatally exposed to extremely high levels of radiation. Implementation of the emergent techniques discussed produced more accurate and more detailed dose estimates for the two workers than were reported in previous studies. A total-body dose of 6.43 and 26.38 Gy was estimated for the two workers, who assumed a crouching and a standing posture, respectively. Additionally, organ-specific dose estimates were determined, including a 7.93 Gy dose to the thyroid and 6.11 Gy dose to the stomach for the crouching worker and a 41.71 Gy dose to the liver and a 37.26 Gy dose to the stomach for the standing worker. Implications for the medical prognosis of the workers are discussed, and the results of this study were found to correlate better with the patient outcome than previous estimates, suggesting potential future applications of such methods for improved epidemiological studies involving next-generation computational phantom tools.

  15. Current and historical individual data about exposure of workers in the rayon industry to carbon disulfide and their validity in calculating the cumulative dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göen, Thomas; Schramm, Axel; Baumeister, Thomas; Uter, Wolfgang; Drexler, Hans

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate how exposure to carbon disulfide (CS2) in a rayon-manufacturing plant has changed within two decades and whether it is possible to calculate valid data for the individual cumulative exposure. The data for CS2 concentration in air and biological exposure monitoring (2-thio-1,3-thiaxolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA) in urine) from two cross-sectional studies, performed in 1992 (n = 362) and 2009 (n = 212) in a German rayon-manufacturing plant, were compared to data obtained from company-internal measurements between the studies. Using the data from the cross-sectional studies and company-internal data, cumulative external exposure and the cumulative internal exposure were calculated for each worker. External and internal CS2 exposure of the employees decreased from 1992 (medians 4.0 ppm and 1.63 mgTTCA/g creatinine) to 2009 (medians 2.5 ppm and 0.86 mg/g). However, company-internal CS2 data do not show a straight trend for this period. The annual medians of the company-internal measurement of external exposure to CS2 have varied between 2.7 and 8.4 ppm, in which median values exceeded 5 ppm generally since 2000. The annual medians for the company-internal biomonitoring assessment ranged between 1.2 and 2.8 mg/g creatinine. The cumulative CS2 exposure ranged from 8.5 to 869.5 ppm years for external exposure and between 1.30 and 176.2 mg/g creatinine years for the internal exposure. Significant correlations were found between the current air pollution and the internal exposure in 2009 but also between the cumulative external and internal CS2 exposure. Current exposure data, usually collected in cross-sectional studies, rarely allow a reliable statement on the cumulative dose, because of higher exposure in the past and of fluctuating courses of exposure. On the other hand, company-internal exposure data may be affected by non-representative measurement strategies. Some verification of the reliability of

  16. Diagnostic assessment to estimate and minimize neutron dose rates received by occupationally exposed individuals at cyclotron facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reina, L.C. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Caixa Postal 68550, Cidade Universitaria, CEP: 21941-906 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: reina@ien.gov.br; Silva, A.X. [PEN/COPPE-DNC/Escola Politecnica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitaria, CEP: 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Suita, J.C.; Souza, M.I.S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Caixa Postal 68550, Cidade Universitaria, CEP: 21941-906 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Facure, A. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear Rua General Severiano, 90-Botafogo, CEP: 22290-901 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva, J.C.P.; Furlanetto, J.A.D. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Caixa Postal 68550, Cidade Universitaria, CEP: 21941-906 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rebello, W. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Ministerio da Defesa Praca General Tiburcio, 80-Praia Vermelha, CEP: 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    Since 2003, radiopharmaceuticals for medical diagnostic purposes have been produced at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, in Brazil, using two cyclotron accelerators - CV-28 and RDS111. As a result of the ever increasing production, a diagnostic assessment to reduce neutron dose rates received by occupationally exposed individuals during irradiation processes has been developed. The purpose of this work is to present this assessment, which is currently being applied to both the Fluorine and Iodine targets of CV-28 and RDS111 cyclotron accelerators.

  17. Evaluation of dose equivalent by the electronic personal dosemeter for neutron 'Saphydose-N' at different workplaces of nuclear facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Q; Lahaye, T

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements made with the electronic personal neutron Saphydose-N during the four campaigns of the European contract EVIDOS (EValuation of Individual DOSimetry in mixed neutron and photon radiation fields). These measurements were performed at Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) in France (C0), at the Krümmel Nuclear Power Plant in Germany (C1), at the VENUS Research Reactor and the Belgonucléaire fuel processing plant in Belgium (C2) and at the Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant in Sweden (C3). The results for Saphydose-N are compared with reference values for dose equivalent.

  18. Representative Doses to Members of the Public from Atmospheric Releases of 131I at the Mayak Production Association Facilities from 1948 through 1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Napier, Bruce A.; Anspaugh, Lynn R.

    2014-04-03

    Scoping epidemiologic studies performed by researchers from the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute revealed an excess prevalence of thyroid nodules and an increased incidence of thyroid cancer among residents of Ozersk, Russia, who were born in the early 1950s. Ozersk is located about 5 km from the facilities where the Mayak Production Association produced nuclear materials for the Russian weapons program. Reactor operations began in June 1948 and chemical separation of plutonium from irradiated fuel began in February 1949. The U.S.–Russia Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research conducted a series of projects over a 10-year period to assess the radiation risks in the Southern Urals. This paper uses data collected under Committee projects to reconstruct individual time-dependent thyroid doses to reference individuals living in Ozersk from 131I released to the atmosphere. Between 3.22×1016 and 4.31×1016 Bq of 131I released may have been released during the 1948–1972 time period, and a best estimate is 3.76×1016 Bq. A child born in 1947 is estimated to have received a cumulative thyroid dose of 2.3 Gy for 1948–1972, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.51–7.3 Gy. Annual doses were the highest in 1949 and a child who was 5 years old in 1949 is estimated to have a received an annual thyroid dose of 0.93 Gy with a 95% confidence interval of 0.19–3.5 Gy.

  19. Two dose-estimation models CSA-N288.1 and Nureg 1.109, 1.113 - compared for chronic aquatic releases from nuclear facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Sheppard, S C; Peterson, S R

    2000-01-01

    Both the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US-NRC) have published guidelines for the calculation of doses to the public due to emissions from nuclear facilities. In the sale of CANDU reactors overseas, either of these guidelines may be used as part of the approval process in the recipient country. This study compares the aquatic exposure pathways described in the guidelines. These include direct consumption of contaminated water and food, and exposure to contaminated sediments. The CSA and US-NRC guidelines for estimating dilution of aquatic emissions are of a general nature and the choice of model used to quantify dilution is left to the user. The models prescribed for the different exposure pathways by these two regulatory guides are similar in many attributes. Many of the recommended parameter values are identical and many of the formulations are either identical, or become identical under general conditions. However, despite these similarities, there...

  20. A detailed urinary excretion time course study of captan and folpet biomarkers in workers for the estimation of dose, main route-of-entry and most appropriate sampling and analysis strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthet, Aurélie; Heredia-Ortiz, Roberto; Vernez, David; Danuser, Brigitta; Bouchard, Michèle

    2012-08-01

    Captan and folpet are two fungicides largely used in agriculture, but biomonitoring data are mostly limited to measurements of captan metabolite concentrations in spot urine samples of workers, which complicate interpretation of results in terms of internal dose estimation, daily variations according to tasks performed, and most plausible routes of exposure. This study aimed at performing repeated biological measurements of exposure to captan and folpet in field workers (i) to better assess internal dose along with main routes-of-entry according to tasks and (ii) to establish most appropriate sampling and analysis strategies. The detailed urinary excretion time courses of specific and non-specific biomarkers of exposure to captan and folpet were established in tree farmers (n = 2) and grape growers (n = 3) over a typical workweek (seven consecutive days), including spraying and harvest activities. The impact of the expression of urinary measurements [excretion rate values adjusted or not for creatinine or cumulative amounts over given time periods (8, 12, and 24 h)] was evaluated. Absorbed doses and main routes-of-entry were then estimated from the 24-h cumulative urinary amounts through the use of a kinetic model. The time courses showed that exposure levels were higher during spraying than harvest activities. Model simulations also suggest a limited absorption in the studied workers and an exposure mostly through the dermal route. It further pointed out the advantage of expressing biomarker values in terms of body weight-adjusted amounts in repeated 24-h urine collections as compared to concentrations or excretion rates in spot samples, without the necessity for creatinine corrections.

  1. X-Ray facilities for medical diagnosis in Spain; Las instalaciones de rayos X con fines de diagnostico medico en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, C.

    2002-07-01

    This report is concerned with existing X-rays facilities for medical diagnosis in Spain and describes the legalization process of these facilities. Likewise, it indicators the measures for radiation protection applicable to equipment manufacture, design, distribution and proper facilities security during operation. Finally, data of the evolution of average worker dose in this sector, corresponding to the last seven years, are collected from The National Dosimetry Bank. (Author) 9 refs.

  2. 压水堆乏燃料运输容器对工作人员的辐射剂量计算%Dose Calculation of Worker Who Irradiated By Spent Fuel Transport Container

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小华; 罗雯丹

    2014-01-01

    Based on the basic parameter of NAC-STC spent fuel transport container, the model of spent fuel transport container , 17 ×17 spent fuel component of pressurized water reactor and simple mannequin, is con-structed by MCNP code, and the equivalent dose of motorman and worker is calculated respectively.Results show that equivalent dose of motorman whose distance from spent fuel transport container impact limiter to him-self is one meter is 1.82 mSv/a, that equivalent dose of worker whose distance from spent fuel transport con-tainer center to himself is two meters is 1 .78 mSv/a, which is smaller than the limit of dose level 20 mSv/a which stipulate by ( GB18871 -2002 ) Ionization Radiation Protect and Radioactive Source Basic Standard. Therefore, NAC-STC spent fuel transport container can meet the requirement of radiation shield and safety. The calculated results will provide a reference for radiated dose evaluation of worker who irradiated by artificial radioactive source.%根据NAC-STC型乏燃料运输容器基本参数,用MCNP程序构建乏燃料运输容器、17×17压水堆乏燃料组件和简单人体模型;分别对乏燃料运输容器卡车司机和侧旁工作人员的当量剂量进行计算。计算结果表明:距乏燃料运输容器前端木质减震器1 m处的司机当量剂量为1.82 mSv/a,距乏燃料运输容器侧面2米处侧旁工作人员的当量剂量为1.78 mSv/a,均小于(GB18871-2002)《电离辐射防护与辐射源安全基本标准》规定的放射性工作人员剂量水平限值20 mSv/a,乏燃料运输容器能够满足辐射屏蔽与安全的要求。计算结果将为受人工放射源照射的工人辐射剂量评估提供参考。

  3. Improving the knowledge of environment around French nuclear facilities for better dose assessment and post-accidental management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parache, V.; Renaud, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    The consequences of an industrial pollution for the population and the environment depend not only on the nature and extent of the pollution, but also of the characteristics of concerned environment: the use that man made of it, and of the man's habits, notably food practices. To improve the consideration of the specificities of territories in its evaluations and its recommendations, in normal operation or in accident and post-accident situations, the Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety characterizes the environment of the nuclear installations. This standardised measurement of the environmental and population characteristics will be useful in risk assessment and management, and in all the operational stages of a nuclear installation. This characterization concerns the inventory of the main agricultural productions (vegetable and animal), the important agricultural dates (seeding, harvest) and the practices and eating habits of animals, the industry and the local food-processing, as well as on the food practices of the persons which live around the French nuclear power plant. National surveys have identified the major characteristics of French eating habits. Above and beyond the fact that these surveys do not consider local specificities, the use of their results for dosimetric assessments has certain drawbacks: the categories of foodstuffs most vulnerable to contamination in post-accident situations (fresh fruit and vegetables, fresh milk and cheeses) are very rarely described in detail; representation of the eating habits of an 'average' population does not give us as the behaviors of the most sensitive groups. The prime objective of local studies is to describe eating habits (rations and local production rates) of potentially most exposed population around nuclear facilities which may cultivate various foodstuffs. These comparative studies highlighted the important variability of the particular eating habits of the French population

  4. Development of decommissioning management system for nuclear fuel cycle facilities (DECMAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Ryuichirou; Ishijima, Noboru; Tanimoto, Ken-ichi [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1999-04-01

    In making a plan of decommissioning of nuclear fuel facilities, it is important to optimize the plan on the standpoint of a few viewpoints, that is, the amount of working days, workers, radioactive waste, exposure dose of worker, and cost (they are called evaluation indexes). In the midst of decommissioning, the decommissioning plan would be modified suitably to optimize the evaluation indexes adjusting to progress of the decommissioning. The decommissioning management code (DECMAN), that is support system on computer, has been developed to assist the decommissioning planning. The system calculates the evaluation indexes quantitatively. The system consists of three fundamental codes, facility information database code, technical know-how database code and index evaluation code, they are composed using Oracle' database and 'G2' expert system. The functions of the system are as follows. (1) Facility information database code. Information of decommissioning facility and its rooms, machines and pipes in the code. (2) Technical know-how database code. Technical Information of tools to use in decommissioning work, cutting, dose measure, and decontamination are there. (3) Index evaluation code. User build decommissioning program using above two database codes. The code evaluates five indexes, the amount of working days, workers, radioactive waste, exposure dose of worker, and cost, on planning decommissioning program. Results of calculation are shown in table, chart, and etc. (author)

  5. The development of remote wireless radiation dose monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin-woo [KAERI - Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongup-si (Korea, Republic of); Chonbuk National University, Jeonjoo-Si (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Kyu-hwan [KINS - Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon-Si (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-il [Chonbuk National University, Jeonjoo-Si (Korea, Republic of); Im, Chae-wan [REMTECH, Seoul-Si (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    Internet of things (IoT) technology has recently shown a large flow of IT trends in human life. In particular, our lives are now becoming integrated with a lot of items around the 'smart-phone' with IoT, including Bluetooth, Near Field Communication (NFC), Beacons, WiFi, and Global Positioning System (GPS). Our project focuses on the interconnection of radiation dosimetry and IoT technology. The radiation workers at a nuclear facility should hold personal dosimeters such as a Thermo-Luminescence Dosimeter (TLD), an Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dosimeter (OSL), pocket ionization chamber dosimeters, an Electronic Personal Dosimeter (EPD), or an alarm dosimeter on their body. Some of them have functions that generate audible or visible alarms to radiation workers in a real working area. However, such devices used in radiation fields these days have no functions for communicating with other areas or the responsible personnel in real time. In particular, when conducting a particular task in a high dose area, or a number of repair works within a radiation field, radiation dose monitoring is important for the health of the workers and the work efficiency. Our project aims at the development of a remote wireless radiation dose monitoring system (RWRD) that can be used to monitor the radiation dose in a nuclear facility for radiation workers and a radiation protection program In this project, a radiation dosimeter is the detection device for personal radiation dose, a smart phone is the mobile wireless communication tool, and, Beacon is the wireless starter for the detection, communication, and position of the worker using BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy). In this report, we report the design of the RWRD and a demonstration case in a real radiation field. (authors)

  6. Determination of the Neutron and Photon Dose Equivalent at Work Places in Nuclear Facilities of Sweden. An SSI - EURADOS comparison exercise. Part 1: Measurements and Data Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, H.; Lindborg, L. [eds.

    1995-08-01

    A large-scaled measurement program of neutron and photon dose equivalent rates was organized in 1992 and 1993 at the nuclear power plant at Ringhals and at the Swedish Central Interim Storage Facility for spent fuel elements at Oskarshamn. The aim was to evaluate the uncertainty in these kinds of measurements in realistic radiation fields. For that purpose, groups experienced with different techniques and - in some cases - several groups with a particular technique, were invited to take part. Besides traditional rem counters, the following categories of instruments were involved: Bonner spheres systems, proton recoil detectors, tissue equivalent proportional counters, super heated drop detectors, GM counters and different types of personal dosemeters. Part I reports all initial results as presented by the individual participants as well as a first compilation of the results. A later report, Part II, will give detailed analysis of the results. The conclusions will be published in the journal Radiation Protection Dosimetry. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all 14 papers.

  7. The 2017 Academic College of Emergency Experts and Academy of Family Physicians of India position statement on preventing violence against health-care workers and vandalization of health-care facilities in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Vivek; Galwankar, Sagar; Kumar, Raman; Raina, Sunil Kumar; Aggarwal, Praveen; Agrawal, Naman; Krishnan, S Vimal; Bhoi, Sanjeev; Kalra, O P; Soans, Santosh T; Aggarwal, Vandana; Kubendra, Mohan; Bijayraj, R; Datta, Sumana; Srivastava, R P

    2017-01-01

    There have been multiple incidents where doctors have been assaulted by patient relatives and hospital facilities have been vandalized. This has led to mass agitations by Physicians across India. Violence and vandalism against health-care workers (HCWs) is one of the biggest public health and patient care challenge in India. The sheer intensity of emotional hijack and the stress levels in both practicing HCWs and patient relative's needs immediate and detail attention. The suffering of HCWs who are hurt, the damage to hospital facilities and the reactionary agitation which affects patients who need care are all together doing everything to damage the delivery of health care and relationship between a doctor and a patient. This is detrimental to India where illnesses and Injuries continue to be the biggest challenge to its growth curve. The expert group set by The Academic College of Emergency Experts and The Academy of Family Physicians of India makes an effort to study this Public Health and Patient Care Challenge and provide recommendations to solve it.

  8. Contingent workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrina, Ryan T; Burns, Candace M; Conlon, Helen

    2011-03-01

    Contingent workers compose a large portion of the U.S. work force. Contingent workers include temporary employees, contracted employees, day laborers, and freelancers. The skill level and educational requirements for their jobs vary from basic to highly advanced. Construction, housekeeping, engineering, and nursing have such positions. U.S. contingent workers are more likely to engage in occupations associated with increased risk of injury, and a variety of factors increase their risk of work injuries, particularly those leading to death. This article focuses on select occupational health and safety issues affecting contingent workers and their implications for occupational health nurses. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Dose-response relationship between steady noise and hearing loss in exposed workers%稳态噪声作业工人听力损失与噪声接触的剂量-反应关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭慧; 朱益民; 夏予勇

    2001-01-01

    Objective To understand the incidence of hearing loss in the workers exposed to steady noise and its risk factors.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 481 employees exposed to steady noise for one year or more without any ear disorder.Their age,sex and hearing were investigated and noise level in the workplace were monitored.Results Incidence of hearing loss was 11.9% in the workers exposed to noise.There was significant difference in noise level between the workplaces where those with and without hearing loss worked and in length of exposure to noise and index of exposure to noise between workers with and without hearing loss(P<0.05),in a dose-response pattern.Conclusions Noise level,length of exposure to noise and index of noise exposure are major factors causing hearing loss in the workers exposed to noise,and especially the index of noise exposure can be used to reflect the level of their exposure in a more perfect way.%目的研究稳态噪声作业工人的听力损失发生状况以及影响因素。方法采用横断面研究方法,以参加稳态噪声作业一年或一年以上的无耳病史的481名工人为研究对象,调查年龄、性别、噪声作业的工龄、听力损失情况和作业场所噪声强度。结果作业工人听力损失的发生率为11.9%(按人数计)。听力损失者与非听力损失者噪声强度、接噪工龄和接噪指数的分布差别有显著意义(P均小于0.05)。而且与听力损失的危险性存在剂量-反应关系。结论噪声强度、接噪工龄和接噪指数是影响作业工人听力的主要因素,特别是接噪指数能较全面反映作业工人噪声接触水平。

  10. Criticality prompt gamma and neutron dose equations validated by Monte Carlo analyses and compared to known criticality accident doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhalter, Eugene

    The United States (US) Department of Energy [DOE] and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission [NRC] have provided the nuclear industry with requirements, goals, and objectives for the preparation of safety analysis and the finalization of that safety analysis in the form of a documented safety analysis (DSA) and technical safety requirements (TSRs). The deterministic guidance provided by the NRC in Regulatory Guide (RG) 3.33 for calculating the prompt gamma and neutron doses from a criticality has a number of potential issues associated with the semi-empirical equations, which make these equations potentially out dated. The NRC guidance for estimating the prompt gamma and neutron doses to a facility worker due to an accidental criticality was withdrawn without newer deterministic guidance being issued. This research project determined the original basis for the RG prompt gamma and neutron equations, evaluated the potential issues associated with the RG 3.33 prompt gamma and neutron equations, and modified the RG 3.33 point source prompt gamma and neutron equations to calculate the doses for the selected set of criticality accidents. The criticality accidents addressed by this dissertation include: 1. U-235, Pu-239, and Pu-241 point source criticality, 2. U-235, Pu-239, and Pu-241 sphere source criticality, 3. Uranyl nitrate and plutonium nitrate solutions in a cylindrical process vessel and 4. Low level waste in 55-gallon and 30-gallon drums. The prompt gamma and neutron equation doses (RG 3.33/3.34/3.35) are compared to actual nuclear industry criticality accident worker doses to assess the conservatism of the RG equations. Finally, the RG 3.33 prompt gamma and neutron dose equations are compared to MCNP5 results to investigate consistency with respect to the modified prompt gamma and neutron dose equations and the representative dose estimates for each of the criticality configurations (point source, spherical source, and cylindrical source). Knowledge and accurate

  11. Analysis of personal dose of radiation workers in a hospital during 2008-2010%某医院2008-2010年从事放射工作人员个人剂量检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永刚; 冯子良; 陈宏; 刘均; 袁贵红; 刘跃; 林旭; 李英华

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the real recived dose of the radiological workers by analysising the result of the personal dosimeter. Methods: Obtaining the personal dose by investigating the dose data of the workers who worked in the radiological department or involved in the radiological work in hospital during 2008 -2010. Results; A department of nuclear medicine personnel's dose was higher than 50mSv in 2008,accounted for 1.12% (1/89). And there were 3 workers higher in amount in 2010,they were all Cardiac Department of Internal Medicine Operation personnel, accounted for 2. 67% (3/112). There were 2 people in 2008,4 in 2009, and 4 in 2010, whose personal dose was higher than 20mSv and less than 50mSv,respectively accounted for 2.25% (2/89) ,4. 12% (4/97)and 3. 57% (4/112). Nine worked in Cardiac Department of Internal Medicine,the other one was in the Department of Orthopedics. We ensured that there were 4 distortions in the personal dose beyond 50mSv, testing and simulation experiment, as a matter of fact,a nuclear medicine put the personal dosimeter by the source - storage cans,and two Cardiac Department of Internal Medicine workers wear the personal dosimeter out of the lead clothing, making the data distorted. Ruled out the distortions,the average of the personal dose were 2.5mSv,3.5mSv and 3.76mSv in 2008,2009 and 2010 respectively. Conclusion: Test organization and management department can make sure the data is reliable by strengthening the radiation protection knowledge training and regulatory, and also the involved workers should improve work proficiency to reduce the contact time or make a more reasonable work schedule to protect themselves.%目的:分析个人剂量计检测结果,了解放射工作人员个人受量真实情况.方法:选择某医院2008-2010年从事放射或介入放射工作人员的个人剂量计检测结果,分析个人受量情况.结果:个人剂量超过50mSv 2008年1人,为核医学科人员,占当年检测人数的1.12%(1

  12. 1-溴丙烷对接触工人神经毒性的剂量-效应关系%Exposure to 1-bromopropane causes dose-dependent neurological abnormalities in workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫华; 王强毅; 市原学; 竹内康浩; 丁训诚; 周志俊

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the dose-effect relationship between 1-bromopropane (1-BP) exposure and health effects in workers. Methods Occupational field investigations were conducted in 1-BP factories. Ambient 1-BP concentrations were detected with detection tube, and the 8 h time-weighted average individual exposure levels (TWA-8 h) were measured by passive sampler. Workers underwent questionnaire survey, neurological examination, nerve conduction velocity examination, vibration sensation test, routine blood test as well as blood biochemical test. According to TWA values or TWA × duration values, workers were divided into three dose groups for dose-effect relationship analysis. USEPA BMDS 2.1 software was applied to calculate 1-BP benchmark dose (BMD) and its 95% lower limit (BMDL). Results The TWA-8h concentrations ranged from 0.35 to 535.19 mg/m3 (geo-mean 14.08 mg/m3). Dose-dependent analysis showed that the motor nerve distal latency (linear regression coefficient was 0.066 6), vibration sensation of toes (linear regression coefficient were 0.157 2 and 0.193 9), creatine kinase (linear regression coefficient was-1.05) and thyroid stimulating hormone levels (linear regression coefficient was 0.102 4) of 1-BP exposed workers changed in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). BMD calculation based on DL as 1-BP toxic effect endpoint showed that TWA-8h of the BMD values and BMDL values were 50.55 mg/m3 and 30.78 mg/m3, respectively. Conclusion 1-BP causes dose-dependent changes in tibial nerve DL, vibration sensation, CK and TSH levels.%目的 探索1-溴丙烷(1-BP)对接触工人神经毒性的剂量-效应关系.方法 对国内1-BP生产工厂进行职业卫生现场调查.按1:1比例选取年龄配对的接触组和对照组女工各71人.作业环境中1-BP的浓度用直读式检气管测定,工人的8 h时间加权平均(TWA)浓度用个体采样器测定.对工人进行问卷调查、神经内科检查、神经传导速度检查、振动觉检查、血常规和血

  13. 238Pu: accumulation, tissue distribution, and excretion in Mayak workers after exposure to plutonium aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslova, Klara G; Sokolova, Alexandra B; Khokhryakov, Viktor V; Miller, Scott C

    2012-03-01

    The alpha spectrometry measurements of specific activity of 238Pu and 239Pu in urine from bioassay examinations of 1,013 workers employed at the radiochemical and plutonium production facilities of the Mayak Production Association and in autopsy specimens of lung, liver, and skeleton from 85 former nuclear workers who died between 1974-2009, are summarized.The accumulation fraction of 238Pu in the body and excreta has not changed with time in workers involved in production of weapons-grade plutonium production (e.g., the plutonium production facility and the former radiochemical facility). The accumulation fraction of 238Pu in individuals exposed to plutonium isotopes at the newer Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant ranged from 0.13% up to 27.5% based on the autopsy data. No statistically significant differences between 238Pu and 239Pu in distribution by the main organs of plutonium deposition were found in the Mayak workers. Based on the bioassay data,the fraction of 238Pu activity in urine is on average 38-69% of the total activity of 238Pu and 239Pu, which correlates with the isotopic composition in workplace air sampled at the Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant. In view of the higher specific activity of 238Pu, the contribution of 238Pu to the total internal dose, particularly in the skeleton and liver, might be expected to continue to increase, and continued surveillance is recommended.

  14. Assessment of inhalation dose sensitivity by physicochemical properties of airborne particulates containing naturally occurring radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Si Young; Choi, Cheol Kyu; Kim, Yong Geon; Choi, Won Chul; Kim, Kwang Pyo [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Facilities processing raw materials containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) may give rise to enhanced radiation dose to workers due to chronic inhalation of airborne particulates. Internal radiation dose due to particulate inhalation varies depending on particulate properties, including size, shape, density, and absorption type. The objective of the present study was to assess inhalation dose sensitivity to physicochemical properties of airborne particulates. Committed effective doses to workers resulting from inhalation of airborne particulates were calculated based on International Commission on Radiological Protection 66 human respiratory tract model. Inhalation dose generally increased with decreasing particulate size. Committed effective doses due to inhalation of 0.01μm sized particulates were higher than doses due to 100μm sized particulates by factors of about 100 and 50 for {sup 238}U and {sup 230}Th, respectively. Inhalation dose increased with decreasing shape factor. Shape factors of 1 and 2 resulted in dose difference by about 18 %. Inhalation dose increased with particulate mass density. Particulate mass densities of 11 g·cm{sup -3} and 0.7 g·cm{sup -3} resulted in dose difference by about 60 %. For {sup 238}U, inhalation doses were higher for absorption type of S, M, and F in that sequence. Committed effective dose for absorption type S of {sup 238}U was about 9 times higher than dose for absorption F. For {sup 230}Th, inhalation doses were higher for absorption type of F, M, and S in that sequence. Committed effective dose for absorption type F of {sup 230}Th was about 16 times higher than dose for absorption S. Consequently, use of default values for particulate properties without consideration of site specific physiochemical properties may potentially skew radiation dose estimates to unrealistic values up to 1-2 orders of magnitude. For this reason, it is highly recommended to consider site specific working materials and

  15. Food irradiation facilities: Requirements and technical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorfer, Josef

    2016-12-01

    This survey presents some aspects and requirement for food irradiation facilities. Topics like radiation source, dose ranges and dose rate are discussed, together with logistics and operational considerations

  16. Solvent-associated decrements in olfactory function in paint manufacturing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, B S; Ford, D P; Bolla, K I; Agnew, J; Rothman, N; Bleecker, M L

    1990-01-01

    To assess the effects of low-level organic solvent exposure on olfactory function, a cross-sectional study in paint manufacturing workers was undertaken. Workers in two paint manufacturing facilities (N = 187) were tested using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), a standardized, quantitative test of olfactory function. Industrial hygiene air samples over the past 13-15 years revealed that average solvent exposures in these plants were 2-40% of the existing threshold limit values for the three chemicals measured. Stratification by smoking status revealed evidence of dose-related decrements in olfactory function (p = .01) only in non-smokers. Furthermore, those nonsmoking workers in the highest exposure category had UPSIT scores below the fifth percentile for their age. These results suggest that solvents may cause nervous system dysfunction at lower levels than previously suspected, and that the olfactory system may be a critical target organ for the neurotoxic effects of solvents and other chemicals.

  17. Radiation Protection Of Outside Workers: Implementation Of The EC Council Directive 90/641/EURATOM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannsens, A.; Schnuer, K.; Naegele, J. [European Commission, DG Energy and Transport B. EUROFORUM, 4455, L-2920 (Luxembourg); Lefaure, C.; Vaillant, L. [Nuclear Protection Evaluation Centre (CEPN) Batiment Expansion 10000, 28 rue de la Redoute, 92263 Fontenay-aux- Roses (France)

    2006-07-01

    In the beginning of the 1980's, the problem of radiological protection of workers belonging to contracted companies (undertakings) within nuclear facilities was raised. In most of the nuclear facilities, the so-called outside workers received 80% (and even more) of the collective dose, and quite often higher individual doses than workers permanently employed by the nuclear operators. Since the outside workers radiation protection issue was not explicitly taken into account by the 1980 European Basic Safety Standards Directive, there was a need for an additional piece of European radiation protection legislation. In this context, the European Union adopted in 1990 the Council Directive 90/641/EURATOM on the radiological protection of outside workers. This Directive shall ensure at European Union level that the radiological protection situation for the outside workers is equivalent to that offered to those workers permanently employed by the operators of nuclear facilities. Since the adoption of the Directive in 1990 the geographical situation of the European Union has changed significantly. At the same time, an evolution took place in the industrial structures of the nuclear industry followed by changes of employment conditions. Furthermore, new European radiation protection requirements were issued considering scientific and technical developments in the radiological protection field and laid down in the new radiation Protection Basic Safety Standards Directive 96/29/EURATOM. Taking into account these aspects the Radiation Protection Unit of the European Commission Directorate General for Energy and Transport decided to investigate the current situation and the future status of the Outside Workers Directive 90/641/EURATOM. The European Commission Radiation Protection Unit thus awarded the CEPN with a contract in order to evaluate through a survey the level of regulatory, administrative and operational implementation of Directive 90/641/EURATOM into Member

  18. Teaching and Cultivating Workers of the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiko, I.

    1972-01-01

    The Donetsk Vocational-Technical School No. 1 began in 1963 training specialist workers in the mining industry with a secondary education. The school has facilities for general education along with vocational training thereby encouraging a combination of education and labor development and future party workers. (Author/SM)

  19. Are genetic polymorphisms in OGG1, XRCC1 and XRCC3 genes predictive for the DNA strand break repair phenotype and genotoxicity in workers exposed to low dose ionising radiations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aka, Peter [Laboratory for Cell Genetics, Department of Biology, Free University of Brussels, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: paka@vub.ac.be; Mateuca, Raluca [Laboratory for Cell Genetics, Department of Biology, Free University of Brussels, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Buchet, Jean-Pierre [Unit of Industrial Toxicology and Occupational Medicine, Catholic University of Louvain, Clos Chapelle, Aux-Champs, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium); Thierens, Hubert [Department of Biomedical Physics and Radiation Protection, University of Ghent, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Kirsch-Volders, Micheline [Laboratory for Cell Genetics, Department of Biology, Free University of Brussels, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2004-11-22

    Identification of higher risk individuals carrying genetic polymorphisms responsible for reduced DNA repair capacity has substantial preventive implications as these individuals could be targeted for cancer prevention. We have conducted a study to assess the predictivity of the OGG1, XRCC1 and XRCC3 genotypes and the in vitro single strand break repair phenotype for the induction of genotoxic effects. At the population level, a significant contribution of the OGG1 genotypes to the in vitro DNA strand break repair capacity was found. At an individual level, the OGG1 variants Ser/Cys and Cys/Cys genotypes showed a slower in vitro DNA repair than the Ser/Ser OGG1genotype. A multivariate analysis performed with genotypes, age, cumulative dose, exposure status and smoking as independent variables indicated that in the control population, repair capacity is influenced by age and OGG1 polymorphisms. In the exposed population, DNA damage is greater in older men and in smokers. Repair capacity is slower in individuals with Ser/Cys or Cys/Cys OGG1 genotypes compared to those with the Ser/Ser OGG1 genotype. Micronuclei (MN) frequencies increased with age and the cumulative dose of {gamma}-rays. Analysis of the total population revealed that genetic polymorphisms in XRCC1 resulted in higher residual DNA (RDNA) values and the Met/Met variant of XRCC3 resulted in an increased frequency of micronuclei. The analysis confirms that MN frequencies are reliable biomarkers for the assessment of genetic effects in workers exposed to ionising radiation (IR). A combined analysis of the three genotypes, OGG1, XRCC1 and XRCC3 polymorphisms is advised in order to assess individual susceptibility to ionising radiation. As an alternative or complement, the in vitro DNA strand break repair phenotype which integrates several repair pathways is recommended. Smokers with OGG1 polymorphisms who are exposed to ionising radiation represent a specific population requiring closer medical surveillance

  20. Recommended Vaccines for Healthcare Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Those Vaccinating HCWs Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk for exposure to serious, and sometimes deadly, diseases. If you ... about these diseases and the benefits and potential risks associated with the vaccines, read the ... hospital inpatients, and developmentally disabled facility residents; search for ...

  1. Radiation management during restoration works after fire and explosion accident of Asphalt Solidification Facility (ASP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyabe, Kenjiro; Ninomiya, Kazushige; Imakuma, Yoshikazu (and others)

    1999-04-01

    A fire broke out at 10:06 a.m. March 11 in 1997 in asphalt filling up room of Asphalt Solidification Processing Facility (ASP) in Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), and an explosion occurred at 8:04 p.m. on the same day. A large number of installations and equipment in the facility were damaged by the accident. As the containment function of the facility were lost, radioactive materials were released to outside of the facility. Thirty seven workers (thirty four workers inside the ASP building at fire, and three workers near the ASP at explosion) suffered internal exposures. Effective dose equivalent for each worker which was estimated based on the intake of radioactive materials, was below the record level for internal exposure management (2msv). Restoration works of the ASP including repairs of broken windows, shutters, doors, ventilation exhaust systems, radiation control and management equipment, and decontamination, were completed on July 31 in 1998. The radiation management during the restoration are described in this report. (Suetake, M.)

  2. 29 CFR 500.70 - Scope of worker protections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) General. The Act provides protections for migrant and seasonal agricultural workers irrespective of... property which is used as housing for any migrant agricultural workers must ensure that the facility or... of migrant or seasonal agricultural workers. As stated in these regulations, the...

  3. The 15-Country Collaborative Study of Cancer Risk Among Radiation Workers in the Nuclear Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, M; Cardis, E; Blettner, M

    2007-01-01

    Radiation protection standards are based mainly on risk estimates from studies of atomic bomb survivors in Japan. The validity of extrapolations from the relatively high-dose acute exposures in this population to the low-dose, protracted or fractionated environmental and occupational exposures...... effect was observed in most countries. This study provides the largest body of direct evidence to date on the effects of low-dose protracted exposures to external photon radiation....... of primary public health concern has long been the subject of controversy. A collaborative retrospective cohort study was conducted to provide direct estimates of cancer risk after low-dose protracted exposures. The study included nearly 600,000 workers employed in 154 facilities in 15 countries. This paper...

  4. Radiological worker training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance.

  5. Older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema,J.F.; Giesen, F.

    2014-01-01

    Due to an ageing population and global economic competition, there is a societal need for people to extend their working lives while maintaining high work productivity. This article presents an overview of the labour participation, job performance, and job characteristics of older workers in the Eur

  6. The evaluation of neutron and gamma ray dose equivalent distributions in patients and the effectiveness of shield materials for high energy photons radiotherapy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghassoun, J., E-mail: ghassoun@ucam.ac.ma [EPRA, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, PO Box: 2390, 40000 Marrakech (Morocco); Senhou, N. [EPRA, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, PO Box: 2390, 40000 Marrakech (Morocco)

    2012-04-15

    In this study, the MCNP5 code was used to model radiotherapy room of a medical linear accelerator operating at 18 MV and to evaluate the neutron and the secondary gamma ray fluences, the energy spectra and the dose equivalent distributions inside a liquid tissue-equivalent (TE) phantom. The obtained results were compared with measured data published in the literature. Moreover, the shielding effects of various neutron material shields on the radiotherapy room wall were also investigated. Our simulation results showed that paraffin wax containing boron carbide presents enough effectiveness to reduce both neutron and secondary gamma ray doses. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Monte Carlo method has been used to model radiotherapy room of a 18 MV linear accelerator. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The neutron and the gamma ray dose equivalent distributions inside a liquid (TE) phantom were evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The radiotherapy room shielding performance has been also investigated.

  7. Risk of lower extremity arterial disease in a cohort of workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation over a prolonged period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizova, Tamara V.; Bannikova, Maria V.; Grigorieva, Evgenia S.; Bagaeva, Yaroslava P.; Azizova, Elena V. [Southern Urals Biophysics Institute, Ozyorsk Chelyabinsk Region (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    In this study the incidence risk of lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD; international classification of diseases version 9 code 440.2) was assessed in a cohort of workers occupationally exposed to radiation over a prolonged period. The study cohort includes 22,377 workers of the Mayak Production Association (25 % of whom are females) first employed at one of the main facilities in 1948-1982 and followed up to the end of 2008. Dose estimates used in the study are provided by Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2008. The mean total dose from external gamma-rays is 0.54 Gy for males and 0.44 Gy for females. The mean absorbed liver dose from internal alpha-radiation due to incorporated plutonium is 0.23 Gy in males and 0.44 Gy in females. Relative risks and excess relative risks per unit dose (ERR/Gy) are calculated based on maximum likelihood. A total of 943 cases of LEAD are registered in the study cohort during the follow-up of 512,801 person-years. A significant association of LEAD incidence with total dose from external gamma-rays (based on a linear model) was revealed, and the ERR/Gy is 0.27 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.11; 0.48). It turned out that a linear-exponential model provides a better fit of the data (∇AIC = 9.957). Inclusion of an adjustment for internal alpha-radiation dose resulted in the reduction of the ERR/Gy to 0.19 (95 % CI 0.05; 0.39), but the risk remains significant. No association of LEAD incidence with dose from internal alpha-radiation was found in the study worker cohort. It is concluded that this study provides evidence for an association of LEAD incidence with dose from external gamma-rays taking non-radiation factors into account. (orig.)

  8. The evaluation of neutron and gamma ray dose equivalent distributions in patients and the effectiveness of shield materials for high energy photons radiotherapy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassoun, J; Senhou, N

    2012-04-01

    In this study, the MCNP5 code was used to model radiotherapy room of a medical linear accelerator operating at 18 MV and to evaluate the neutron and the secondary gamma ray fluences, the energy spectra and the dose equivalent distributions inside a liquid tissue-equivalent (TE) phantom. The obtained results were compared with measured data published in the literature. Moreover, the shielding effects of various neutron material shields on the radiotherapy room wall were also investigated. Our simulation results showed that paraffin wax containing boron carbide presents enough effectiveness to reduce both neutron and secondary gamma ray doses.

  9. Implementation of artemether-lumefantrine treatment policy for malaria at health facilities in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugoyela V

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available V Mugoyela1, O Minzi21Department of Medicinal Chemistry, 2Unit of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar Es Salaam, TanzaniaBackground: The purpose of this study was to compare knowledge on the part of health workers in public and private health facilities about prescribing and dispensing of an artemether-lumefantrine combination, 3 years after moving from sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine to artemether-lumefantrine as a first-line treatment for nonsevere malaria in Tanzania.Methods: A cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 306 dispensaries and pharmacies was conducted in Dar Es Salaam and the Coast region of Tanzania. Of these, 122 were community pharmacies, 143 were private dispensaries, and 41 were public dispensaries. Specific outcome measures were health workers’ knowledge of the new malaria treatment guidelines, recommended doses of artemether-lumefantrine, and food requirements.Results: A total of 489 health workers were included in the study. The respondents were prescribers in private dispensaries, public dispensaries, and community pharmacies. Participants included medical officers (3.7%, clinical officers (38%, pharmacists (5.7%, and pharmaceutical technicians (3.9%. Nearly all workers in the public dispensaries and about 50% of workers in private dispensaries and community pharmacies were aware of recommended first-line malaria treatment. The difference in the proportion of health workers with adequate knowledge about the new recommended antimalarial medicine in public and private dispensaries was statistically significant (P < 0.0001. There was a higher proportion of workers in public dispensaries who had adequate knowledge about doses of artemether-lumefantrine for adults compared with workers in private dispensaries (P = 0.001. Only 58.0% of respondents were able to state correctly the recommended doses in private dispensaries as compared with 77.0% in public

  10. Analysis of the results for the AECL cohort in the IARC study on the radiogenic cancer risk among nuclear industry workers in fifteen countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashmore, J.P. [Ponsonby and Associates, Manotick, Ontario (Canada); Gentner, N.E. [Consultant, Petawawa, Ontario (Canada); Osborne, R.V. [Ranasara Consultants Inc., Deep River, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-03-31

    Over the last two decades there have been attempts to estimate the risks from occupational exposure in the nuclear industry by epidemiological assessments on cohorts of workers. However, generally low doses and relatively small worker populations have limited the precision of such studies. In 1995 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) completed a study that involved workers from facilities in the USA, UK and AECL. In 2005, IARC completed a further study involving nuclear workers from 15 countries including Canada. Surprisingly, the risk ascribed to the Canadian cohort for all cancers excluding leukaemia, driven by the AECL component, was significantly higher than the cohort as a whole. The work described in this report is an attempt to unravel what might have accounted for the divergence between the results for the AECL cohort and the others.

  11. Assessment of airborne release methodology for tritium from US DOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Kula, K.R.; East, J.M.; Murphy, C.E. Jr. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    There are numerous nonreactor facilities in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex that contain and/or process large inventories of tritium. The primary safety analysis context for these facilities above key threshold quantities of tritium is the safety analysis report (SAR) format. As a means of identifying safe operating margins and ensuring low levels of risk to on-site workers and the general public, a licensing process analogous to a commercial reactor format is followed. The ultimate goal of this process is a DOE-approved SAR, developed in the framework contained in DOE Order 5480.23. The SAR for the particular DOE facility in question addresses dose consequences and subsequent health effects caused by the release of tritium under normal, abnormal, and accident conditions. Dose assessment codes are thus critical to the completion of the overall safety evaluation.

  12. Personal dose monitoring of employees at the institute of modern physics, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G; Li, S; Yao, N; Zhu, X; Li, Z; Zheng, H

    2001-01-01

    The radiation field at the accelerator facility consists of radiation produced immediately and of secondary radiation induced by activation etc. As the accelerator building and the experimental hall are closed and inaccessible during accelerator operation, the exposure received by the employees at the IMP (Institute of Modern Physics) comes almost totally from the induced radiation. The methods and the results of personal dose monitoring from 1986 to 1999 at the IMP are presented. During the period, the total number of monitored individuals was 1960, and the average annual effective dose was 0.10 mSv. The number recording less than 0.1 mSv of effective dose was 1471 individuals. amounting to 77% of the total. Only six individuals had received effective doses between 5.0 mSv and 10 mSv. The maximum effective dose of 10 mSv was received by workers repairing the accelerator.

  13. Dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photon and electron radiation from radionuclides occurring in routine releases from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. [Conversion factors are given for dose rates to 21 organs from 240 different radionuclides for 3 different modes of exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1979-02-01

    Dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photon and electron radiation have been calculated for 240 radionuclides of potential importance in routine releases from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Dose-rate conversion factors for immersion in contaminated air, immersion in contaminated water, and exposure to a contaminated ground surface are estimated for tissue-equivalent material at the body surface of an exposed individual. For each exposure mode, photon dose-rate conversion factors are also estimated for 22 body organs. The calculations assume that the contaminated air, water, and ground surface are infinite in extent and that the radionuclide concentration is uniform. Dose-rate conversion factors for immersion in contaminated air and water are based on the requirement that all energy emitted in the decay of a radionuclide is absorbed in the infinite medium. Dose-rate conversion factors for ground-surface exposure are calculated for a height of 1 m using the point-kernel integration method and known specific absorbed fractions for photons and electrons in air. The computer code DOSFACTER written to perform the calculations is described and documented.

  14. Medical surveillance of occupationally exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-05-15

    The guide covers medical surveillance of workers engaged in radiation work and their fitness for this work, protection of the foetus and infant during the worker's pregnancy or breastfeeding, and medical surveillance measures to be taken when the dose limit has been exceeded. The guide also covers recognition of practitioners responsible for medical surveillance of category A workers, medical certificates to be issued to workers, and preservation and transfer of medical records. The medical surveillance requirements specified in this Guide cover the use of radiation and nuclear energy. The guide also applies to exposure to natural radiation in accordance with section 28 of the Finnish Radiation Decree

  15. 32 CFR 220.13 - Special rules for workers' compensation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commutation of future benefits. If a lump-sum worker's compensation award stipulates that the amount paid is... disability benefits paid under workers' compensation by releasing the employer or workers' compensation... possibility of future payment or workers' compensation benefits, medical expenses incurred by a facility of...

  16. Determination of the neutron and photon dose equivalent at work places in nuclear facilities of Sweden. An SSI - EURADOS comparison exercise. Part 2: Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, D. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom); Drake, P. [Vattenfall AB, Vaeroebacka (Sweden); Lindborg, L. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Klein, H. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Schmitz, Th. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Tichy, M

    1999-06-01

    Various mixed neutron-photon fields at workplaces in the containment of pressurised water reactors and in the vicinity of transport containers with spent fuel elements were investigated with spectrometers and dosimeters. The spectral neutron fluences evaluated from measurements with multisphere systems were recommended to be used for the calculation of dosimetric reference values for comparison with the readings of the dosemeters applied simultaneously. It turned out that most of the moderator based area dosemeters overestimated, while the TEPC systems generally underestimated the ambient dose equivalent (DE) values of the rather soft neutron fields encountered at these workplaces. The discrepancies can, however, be explained on the basis of energy dependent responses of the instruments used. The ambient DE values obtained with recently developed area dosemeters based on superheated drop detectors and with track etch based personal dosemeters on phantoms, however, were in satisfying agreement with the reference data. Sets of personal dosemeters simultaneously irradiated on a phantom allowed to roughly estimate the directional dependence of the neutron fluence. Hence, personal and limiting dose equivalent quantities could also be calculated. The personal and ambient DE values were always conservative estimates of the limiting quantities. Unexpectedly, discrepancies were observed for photon DE data measured with GM counters and TEPC systems. The up to 50 % higher readings of the GM counters may be explained by a considerable contribution of high energy photons to the total photon dose equivalent, but photon spectrometry is necessary for final clarification.

  17. Sci—Fri PM: Topics — 07: Monte Carlo Simulation of Primary Dose and PET Isotope Production for the TRIUMF Proton Therapy Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, C; Jirasek, A [University of Victoria (Australia); Blackmore, E; Hoehr, C; Schaffer, P; Trinczek, M [TRIUMF (Canada); Sossi, V [University of British Columbia (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Uveal melanoma is a rare and deadly tumour of the eye with primary metastases in the liver resulting in an 8% 2-year survival rate upon detection. Large growths, or those in close proximity to the optic nerve, pose a particular challenge to the commonly employed eye-sparing technique of eye-plaque brachytherapy. In these cases external beam charged particle therapy offers improved odds in avoiding catastrophic side effects such as neuropathy or blindness. Since 1995, the British Columbia Cancer Agency in partnership with the TRIUMF national laboratory have offered proton therapy in the treatment of difficult ocular tumors. Having seen 175 patients, yielding 80% globe preservation and 82% metastasis free survival as of 2010, this modality has proven to be highly effective. Despite this success, there have been few studies into the use of the world's largest cyclotron in patient care. Here we describe first efforts of modeling the TRIUMF dose delivery system using the FLUKA Monte Carlo package. Details on geometry, estimating beam parameters, measurement of primary dose and simulation of PET isotope production are discussed. Proton depth dose in both modulated and pristine beams is successfully simulated to sub-millimeter precision in range (within limits of measurement) and 2% agreement to measurement within in a treatment volume. With the goal of using PET signals for in vivo dosimetry (alignment), a first look at PET isotope depth distribution is presented — comparing favourably to a naive method of approximating simulated PET slice activity in a Lucite phantom.

  18. Effective dose in the manufacturing process of rutile covered welding electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, M; Rozas, S; Pérez, C; Idoeta, R; Núñez-Lagos, R; Legarda, F

    2013-03-01

    Shielded metal arc welding using covered electrodes is the most common welding process. Sometimes the covering contains naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs). In Spain the most used electrodes are those covered with rutile mixed with other materials. Rutile contains some detectable natural radionuclides, so it can be considered a NORM. This paper mainly focuses on the use of MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code) as a predictive tool to obtain doses in a factory which produces this type of electrode and assess the radiological impact in a specific facility after estimating the internal dose.To do this, in the facility, areas of highest radiation and positions of workers were identified, radioactive content of rutile and rutile covered electrodes was measured, and, considering a worst possible scenario, external dose at working points has been calculated using MCNP. This procedure has been validated comparing the results obtained with those from a pressurised ionisation chamber and TLD dosimeters. The internal dose has been calculated using DCAL (dose and risk calculation). The doses range between 8.8 and 394 μSv yr(-1), always lower than the effective dose limit for the public, 1 mSv yr(-1). The highest dose corresponds to the mixing area.

  19. DETERMINATION OF IN-VITRO LUNG SOLUBILITY AND INTAKE-TO-DOSE CONVERSION FACTOR FOR TRITIATED LANTHANUM NICKEL ALUMINUM ALLOY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Labone, T.; Staack, G.; Cheng, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Varallo, T.

    2011-11-11

    A sample of tritiated lanthanum nickel aluminum alloy (LaNi4.25Al0.75 or LANA.75) similar to that used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facilities was analyzed to estimate the particle size distribution of this metal tritide powder and the rate, at which this material dissolves in the human respiratory tract after it is inhaled. This information is used to calculate the committed effective dose received by a worker after inhaling the material. These doses, which were calculated using the same methodology given in the DOE Tritium Handbook, are presented as inhalation intake-to-dose conversion factors (DCF). The DCF for this metal tritide is less than the DCF for tritiated water and radiation worker bioassay programs designed for tritiated water are adequate to monitor for intakes of this material.

  20. Lung cancer risks from plutonium: an updated analysis of data from the Mayak worker cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, E S; Sokolnikov, M E; Preston, D L; Schonfeld, S J; Schadilov, A E; Vasilenko, E K; Koshurnikova, N A

    2013-03-01

    Workers at the Mayak nuclear facility in the Russian Federation offer a unique opportunity to evaluate health risks from exposure to inhaled plutonium. Risks of mortality from lung cancer, the most serious carcinogenic effect of plutonium, were evaluated in 14,621 Mayak workers who were hired in the period from 1948-1982, followed for at least 5 years, and either monitored for plutonium or never worked with plutonium. Over the follow-up period from 1953-2008, there were 486 deaths from lung cancer, 446 of them in men. In analyses that were adjusted for external radiation dose and smoking, the plutonium excess relative risk (ERR) per Gy declined with attained age and was higher for females than for males. The ERR per Gy for males at age 60 was 7.4 (95% CI: 5.0-11) while that for females was 24 (95% CI: 11-56). When analyses were restricted to plutonium doses plutonium exposure and 29 (6%) to external exposure. Analyses of the 12,708 workers with information on smoking indicated that the relationship of plutonium exposure and smoking was likely sub-multiplicative (P = 0.011) and strongly indicated that it was super-additive (P plutonium dose estimates in this cohort, they are nevertheless subject to large uncertainties. Large bioassay measurement errors alone are likely to have resulted in serious underestimation of risks, whereas other sources of uncertainty may have biased results in ways that are difficult to predict.

  1. 78 FR 24353 - Provisions for Fees Related to Hazardous Materials Endorsements and Transportation Worker...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... merchant mariners, port facility employees, longshore workers, truck drivers, and others requiring.... TSA also conducts a survey to capture worker overall satisfaction with the enrollment process; this... Order 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs and benefits, reducing...

  2. Use of international data sets to evaluate and validate pathway assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities. Monthly progress reports and final report, October--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, F.O. [Senes Oak Ridge, Inc., TN (United States). Center for Risk Analysis

    1995-04-01

    The objective of Task 7.lD was to (1) establish a collaborative US-USSR effort to improve and validate our methods of forecasting doses and dose commitments from the direct contamination of food sources, and (2) perform experiments and validation studies to improve our ability to predict rapidly and accurately the long-term internal dose from the contamination of agricultural soil. At early times following an accident, the direct contamination of pasture and food stuffs, particularly leafy vegetation and grain, can be of great importance. This situation has been modeled extensively. However, models employed then to predict the deposition, retention and transport of radionuclides in terrestrial environments employed concepts and data bases that were more than a decade old. The extent to which these models have been tested with independent data sets was limited. The data gathered in the former-USSR (and elsewhere throughout the Northern Hemisphere) offered a unique opportunity to test model predictions of wet and dry deposition, agricultural foodchain bioaccumulation, and short- and long-term retention, redistribution, and resuspension of radionuclides from a variety of natural and artificial surfaces. The current objective of this project is to evaluate and validate pathway-assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities through use of international data sets. This project incorporates the activity of Task 7.lD into a multinational effort to evaluate models and data used for the prediction of radionuclide transfer through agricultural and aquatic systems to humans. It also includes participation in two studies, BIOMOVS (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) with the Swedish National Institute for Radiation Protection and VAMP (VAlidation of Model Predictions) with the International Atomic Energy Agency, that address testing the performance of models of radionuclide transport through foodchains.

  3. Knowledge about childhood autism and opinion among healthcare workers on availability of facilities and law caring for the needs and rights of children with childhood autism and other developmental disorders in Nigeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bakare, Muideen O; Ebigbo, Peter O; Agomoh, Ahamefule O; Eaton, Julian; Onyeama, Gabriel M; Okonkwo, Kevin O; Onwukwe, Jojo U; Igwe, Monday N; Orovwigho, Andrew O; Aguocha, Chinyere M

    2009-01-01

    In designing programs to raise the community level of awareness about childhood autism in sub-Saharan Africa, it is logical to use the primary healthcare workers as contact point for education of the general public...

  4. Individual internal monitoring of workers of Fabrica de Combustivel Nuclear - FCN; Monitoracao individual interna de trabalhadores da Fabrica de Combustivel Nuclear - FCN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Marcelo X. [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil). Fabrica de Combustivel Nuclear]. E-mail: marcelo@inb.gov.br; Melo, Dunstana R.; Cunha, Kenia D. da; Juliao, Ligia Q.C.; Santos, Maristela S.; Fernandes, Paulo C.; Lucena, E.A.; Dantas, Ana L.; Dantas, Bernardo M.; Godoy, Maria L. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: dunstana@ird.gov.br

    2005-07-01

    In nuclear fuel fabrication facilities, workers are exposed to different compounds of enriched uranium. Due to the high cost of the individual monitoring programme for internal dose assessment in the routine monitoring programmes, usually only one type of measurement is assigned. In complex situations like the one described in this paper, where several parameters can compromise the accuracy of the bioassay interpretation it is need to have a combination of techniques to evaluate the internal dose. According to ICRP 78 (1997), the general order of preference in terms of accuracy of interpretation is: body activity measurement, excreta analysis and personal air sampling. A group of fifteen workers from controlled area of the fuel fabrication facility was selected to evaluate the internal dose using all different available techniques during a certain period. The workers were monitored for determination of uranium content in the daily urinary excretion, faecal excretion, chest counting and personal air sampling (PAS). The results have shown that at least two types of sensitivity techniques must be used, since there are some sources of uncertainties on the bioassay interpretation, like mixture of uranium compounds intake and different routes of intake. The combination of urine and faeces analysis has shown be the more appropriate methodology for assessing internal dose in this situation. (author)

  5. Contact Dermatitis In Automobile Repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi M P

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Automobile repair workers are at risk of developing skin morbidity including occupational dermatoses because of their exposure to mineral oils, petroleum products and its derivatives and lubricating oil. This cross- sectional study was carried out at Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation workshops in Nagpur city to investigate prevalence of skin morbidity including contact dermatitis in automobile repair workers. The study included 288 (49.9% automobile repair workers 180 (31.3% workshop office staff and 109 (18.8% divisional office employees. Dermatitis was the commonest skin morbidity in all the study subjects and it was significantly more prevalent in automobile repair workers. Folliculitis was detected in 13.2% of auto â€" repair workers and was not seen in the other two groups. Increasing trend of skin morbidity was correlated with the length of service of employees. Proper protective measures along with suitable washing facilities should be provided

  6. Dose estimate for effective internal contamination in the occupationally exposed workers(OEW) that handling open sources for thyroid therapy using {sup 131} I (3779); Estimacion de la dosis efectiva por contaminacion interna en los trabajadores ocupacionalmente expuestos (TOE) que manipulan fuentes abiertas para el tratamiento de tiroides con {sup 131}I (3779)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecuna, J.A.; Carrizales, L.I., E-mail: jj1211g@yahoo.com, E-mail: lcarriza@ivic.gob.ve [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Dantas, B.M., E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    Handling of a variety of unsealed sources in Nuclear Medicine has led a significant risk of internal exposure of workers. {sup 131}I stands out among the radionuclides of frequent use due its wide application in diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases. The increasing radionuclide use for medical purposes and treatment of diseases creates a need for capable methodologies of controlling the internal contamination of work. Currently, in Venezuela, there are about 17 Nuclear Medicine Services between public and private, of which 5 are operating; however, individual monitoring is still limited in the control of internal exposure. This work presents the development of bioassay techniques 'in vivo', in order to quantify the incorporation of {sup 131}I used in Nuclear Medicine. It also presents the research results of internal exposure of a group of workers involved in handling of therapeutic dose of {sup 131}I . The 'in vivo' detection system was calibrated with the thyroid simulator developed at the Institute of Radiologic Protection and Dosimetry (IRD, Rio de Janeiro - Brazil) and which also has the UTN-IVIC (Caracas - Venezuela). The results showed that the bioassay method developed in this work has sufficient sensitivity for its use in routine intake survey of workers in Nuclear Medicine. Between the two workers controlled in this study, both had measurable results in terms of incorporation. Therefore, it is important to keep control of it and also gives us the possibility to evaluate the incorporations in suspected accident. The highest estimate of the effective dose was 1,28x10{sup -5} Sv by inhalation and 1,27x10{sup -5} Sv by ingestion.

  7. The LLNL Heavy Element Facility -- Facility Management, Authorization Basis, and Readiness Assessment Lessons Learned in the Heavy Element Facility (B251) Transition from Category II Nuclear Facility to Radiological Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, M; Anderson, B; Brown, E; Gray, L

    2006-04-10

    This paper presents Facility Management, Readiness Assessment, and Authorization Basis experience gained and lessons learned during the Heavy Element Facility Risk Reduction Program (RRP). The RRP was tasked with removing contaminated glove boxes, radioactive inventory, and contaminated ventilation systems from the Heavy Element Facility (B251) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The RRP was successful in its goal in April 2005 with the successful downgrade of B251 from a Category II Nuclear Facility to a Radiological Facility. The expertise gained and the lessons learned during the planning and conduct of the RRP included development of unique approaches in work planning/work control (''Expect the unexpected and confirm the expected'') and facility management. These approaches minimized worker dose and resulted in significant safety improvements and operational efficiencies. These lessons learned can help similar operational and management activities at other sites, including facilities restarting operations or new facility startup. B251 was constructed at LLNL to provide research areas for conducting experiments in radiochemistry using transuranic elements. Activities at B251 once included the preparation of tracer sets associated with the underground testing of nuclear devices and basic research devoted to a better understanding of the chemical and nuclear behavior of the transuranic elements. Due to the age of the facility, even with preventative maintenance, facility safety and experimental systems were deteriorating. A variety of seismic standards were used in the facility design and construction, which encompassed eight building increments constructed over a period of 26 years. The cost to bring the facility into compliance with the current seismic and other requirements was prohibitive, and simply maintaining B251 as a Category II nuclear facility posed serious cost considerations under a changing regulatory environment

  8. Facilities & Leadership

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The facilities web service provides VA facility information. The VA facilities locator is a feature that is available across the enterprise, on any webpage, for the...

  9. Dose Reduction Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  10. Biochemistry Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Biochemistry Facility provides expert services and consultation in biochemical enzyme assays and protein purification. The facility currently features 1) Liquid...

  11. Virtual reality technology used to estimate radiation doses in nuclear installations; Utilizacao de ambientes virtuais na estimativa de dose de radiacao em instalacoes nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, Silas Cordeiro

    2008-03-15

    The physical integrity of people when walking in places subjected to radiation can be preserved by following some rules. Among these rules are safe limits of radiation level, proximity of radiation sources, time of exposition to radiation sources, and a combination of these factors. In this way, previous training and simulations of operation proceedings to be executed in places subjected to radiation help to better prepare the course in such places, minimizing the absorbed dose. On the other hand, virtual reality is a technology applicable in several areas, enabling the training and simulation of real places and hypothetical scenarios, with a good level of realism, but without danger if compared to the same activities in the real world. As a virtual environment does not presents any health risks, it is possible to train workers beforehand to several operation or maintenance scenarios. In this virtual environment, the dose tax distribution can be visualized, and the dose absorbed by the worker, represented and simulated in the virtual environment by a virtual character (avatar) can be shown. Therefore, the tasks to be done can be better planned, evaluating the workers actions and the performance so to reduce failures and health risks. Finally, this work presents a tool to build and navigate in virtual environments, enabling the training of activities in nuclear facilities. To that end is proposed a methodology to modify and adapt a free game engine. (author)

  12. Facility decontamination technology workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    Purpose of the meeting was to provide a record of experience at nuclear facilities, other than TMI-2, of events and incidents which have required decontamination and dose reduction activities, and to furnish GPU and others involved in the TMI-2 cleanup with the results of that decontamination and dose reduction technology. Separate abstracts were prepared for 24 of the 25 papers; the remaining paper had been previously abstracted. (DLC)

  13. Time-Dependent Neutron and Photon Dose-Field Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooten, Hasani Omar [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2005-08-01

    A unique tool is developed that allows the user to model physical representations of complicated glovebox facilities in two dimensions and determine neutral-particle flux and ambient dose-equivalent fields throughout that geometry. The Pandemonium code, originally designed to determine flux and dose-rates only, is improved to include realistic glovebox geometries, time-dependent source and detector positions, time-dependent shielding thickness calculations, time-integrated doses, a representative criticality accident scenario based on time-dependent reactor kinetics, and more rigorous photon treatment. A primary benefit of this work has been an extensive analysis and improvement of the photon model that is not limited to the application described in this thesis. The photon model has been extended in energy range to 10 MeV to include photons from fission and new photon buildup factors have been included that account for the effects of photon buildup at slant-path thicknesses as a function of angle, where the mean free path thickness has been preserved. The overall system of codes is user-friendly and it is directly applicable to facilities such as the plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, where high-intensity neutron and photon emitters are regularly used. The codes may be used to determine a priori doses for given work scenarios in an effort to supply dose information to process models which will in turn assist decision makers on ensuring as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) compliance. In addition, coupling the computational results of these tools with the process model visualization tools will help to increase worker safety and radiological safety awareness.

  14. Multiple Methods for Assessing the Dose to Skin Exposed to Radioactive Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubeau, J; Heinmiller, B E; Corrigan, M

    2017-04-28

    There is the possibility for a worker at a nuclear installation, such as a nuclear power reactor, a fuel production facility or a medical facility, to come in contact with radioactive contaminants. When such an event occurs, the first order of business is to care for the worker by promptly initiating a decontamination process. Usually, the radiation protection personnel performs a G-M pancake probe measurement of the contamination in situ and collects part or all of the radioactive contamination for further laboratory analysis. The health physicist on duty must then perform, using the available information, a skin dose assessment that will go into the worker's permanent dose record. The contamination situations are often complex and the dose assessment can be laborious. This article compares five dose assessment methods that involve analysis, new technologies and new software. The five methods are applied to 13 actual contamination incidents consisting of direct skin contact, contamination on clothing and contamination on clothing in the presence of an air gap between the clothing and the skin. This work shows that, for the cases studied, the methods provided dose estimates that were usually within 12% (1σ) of each other, for those cases where absolute activity information for every radionuclide was available. One method, which relies simply on a G-M pancake probe measurement, appeared to be particularly useful in situations where a contamination sample could not be recovered for laboratory analysis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Instrumentation for the individual dosimetry of workers

    CERN Document Server

    Thévenin, J C

    2003-01-01

    The control of the radiation dose exposure of workers and personnel exposed to ionizing radiations (nuclear industry, nuclear medicine, army, university laboratories etc..) is ensured by individual dosemeters. This dosimetry is mandatory for all workers susceptible to be exposed to more than 30% of the regulatory dose limit. dosemeters are worn on the chest and in some particular cases, on the finger (dosemeter rings) or on the wrist. Passive dosemeters allow to measure the dose a posteriori, while electronic dosemeters allow a direct reading and recording of the dose. This article presents successively: 1 - the general principles of individual dosimetry: situations of exposure, radiation detection, operational data, standardization, calibration and quality assurance, measurement uncertainties; 2 - goals and regulatory framework of individual dosimetry: regulation and recommendations, optimization, respect of dose limits, accidental situations; 3 - passive dosemeters: film, thermoluminescent, radio-photolumin...

  16. Workers' Well-Being and Productivity: The Role of Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jean

    1983-01-01

    Bargaining that makes available facilities for satisfaction of workers' basic needs can contribute to increased productivity, which in turn enhances competitiveness. Such bargaining can be an effective means of extending and reinforcing national economic planning. (SK)

  17. Occupational exposures of nuclear power plant workers in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm-Lytz, K; Riihiluoma, V; Hyvönen, H

    2001-01-01

    In Finland, the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) maintains a central dose register where all occupational doses of radiation workers are recorded. The computerised register enables easy control of personal doses, including annual, 5 year and lifetime doses. The type of radiation work is also recorded in the dose register. Finland was one of the first countries in the world to introduce dose limits based on the recommendations of ICRP 60. In this article, the radiation dose data of the Finnish nuclear power plant workers are analysed. The majority of the radiation doses are received during the maintenance outages. The trend of the 5 year doses and their distribution are presented. Doses received during different work assignments were averaged over the years 1996-1999 and they are also discussed in this article.

  18. Worker participation - the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwantes, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Worker participation relates to the involvement of workers in the management decision-making processes. In this article attention is focused on worker participation related to occupational safety and health in the Netherlands. Worker participation can refer either to direct or indirect participation

  19. Reconstructive dosimetry and radiation doses evaluation of members of the public due to radiological accident in industrial radiography; Dosimetria reconstrutiva e avaliacao de dose de individuos do publico devido a acidente radiologico em radiografia industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Camila Moreira Araujo de

    2016-07-01

    Radiological accidents have occurred mainly in the practices recognized as high risk radiological and classified by the IAEA as Categories 1 and 2, and highlighted the radiotherapy, industrial irradiators and industrial radiography. In Brazil, since there were five major cases in industrial radiography, which involved 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public, causing localized radiation lesions on the hands and fingers. One of these accidents will be the focus of this work. In this accident, a {sup 192}Ir radioactive source was exposed for more than 8 hours in the workplace inside a company, exposing radiation workers, individuals of the public and people from the surrounding facilities, including children of a school. The radioactive source was also handled by a security worker causing severe radiation injuries in the hand and fingers. In this paper, the most relevant and used techniques of reconstructive dosimetry internationally are presented. To estimate the radiation doses received by exposed individuals in various scenarios of radiological accident in focus, the following computer codes were used: Visual Monte Carlo Dose Calculation (VMC), Virtual Environment for Radiological and Nuclear Accidents Simulation (AVSAR) and RADPRO Calculator. Through these codes some radiation doses were estimated, such as, 33.90 Gy in security worker's finger, 4.47 mSv in children in the school and 55 to 160 mSv for workers in the company during the whole day work. It is intended that this work will contribute to the improvement of dose reconstruction methodology for radiological accidents, having then more realist radiation doses. (author)

  20. Radon exposure at a radioactive waste storage facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manocchi, F H; Campos, M P; Dellamano, J C; Silva, G M

    2014-06-01

    The Waste Management Department of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN) is responsible for the safety management of the waste generated at all internal research centers and that of other waste producers such as industry, medical facilities, and universities in Brazil. These waste materials, after treatment, are placed in an interim storage facility. Among them are (226)Ra needles used in radiotherapy, siliceous cake arising from conversion processes, and several other classes of waste from the nuclear fuel cycle, which contain Ra-226 producing (222)Rn gas daughter.In order to estimate the effective dose for workers due to radon inhalation, the radon concentration at the storage facility has been assessed within this study. Radon measurements have been carried out through the passive method with solid-state nuclear track detectors (CR-39) over a period of nine months, changing detectors every month in order to determine the long-term average levels of indoor radon concentrations. The radon concentration results, covering the period from June 2012 to March 2013, varied from 0.55 ± 0.05 to 5.19 ± 0.45 kBq m(-3). The effective dose due to (222)Rn inhalation was further assessed following ICRP Publication 65.

  1. Testing hot cell shielding in the fuel conditioning facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, J C; Klann, R T

    1997-01-01

    A comprehensive shield test program for a hot cell complex, the Fuel Conditioning Facility at Argonne National Laboratory, has been completed with minimum radiation exposure to participants. The recently modified shielding design for two hot cells and their associated transfer paths for irradiated materials was analyzed and tested for attenuating gamma rays from mixed fission product sources. Testing was accomplished using 0.37 TBq (10 Ci) and 518 TBq (14,000 Ci) 60Co sources. Of specific concern were radiation levels around wall penetrations and the interface between transport casks and the cell floor. Detailed measurements were made for surfaces that bound the hot cells, a transfer tunnel between the two cells, and storage pits that extend below the floors of both cells. In addition to surface measurements, dose equivalent rates in adjacent corridors were determined when the larger source was exposed. Results indicate that with some administrative controls, the facility shields are adequate to meet the design criterion that limits annual dose to less than 10 mSv (1 rem) for facility workers.

  2. Optimization of radiation protection in gamma radiography facilities; Otimizacao do sistema de radioprotecao nas instalacoes radiograficas de gamagrafia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio Filho, Joao

    1999-07-01

    To determine optimized dose limits for workers, a study of optimization of radiation protection was undertaken in gamma radiography facilities closed, using the Technique Multiple Attributes Utility Analysis. A total of 217 protection options, distributed in 34 irradiation scenarios for tree facility types ( fixed open, moveable and closed (bunker) were analyzed. In the determination of the optimized limit dose, the following attributes were considered; costs of the protection barriers, costs attributed to the biological detriment for different alpha (the reference value of unit collective dose), size of the isolation area, constrained limits dose of annual individual equivalent doses and collective dose. The variables studied in the evaluation included: effective work load, type and activity of the sources of radiation ({sup 192}Ir and {sup 60}Co), source-operator distance related to the characteristic of the length of the command cable and the guide tube, type and thickness of the materials used in the protection barriers (concrete, barite, ceramic, lead, steel alloy and tungsten). The optimal analytic solutions obtained in the optimization process that resulted in the indication of the optimized dose limit were determined by means of a sensitivity analysis and by direct and logic evaluations, thus, independent of the values of the monetary coefficient attributed to the biological detriment, of the annual interest rate applied to the protection cost and of the type of installation studied, it was concluded that the primary limit of annual equivalent dose for workers (now 50 mSv) can be easily reduced to an optimized annual dose limit of 5 mSv. (author)

  3. Operational safety analysis of the Olkiluoto encapsulation plant and disposal facility; Olkiluodon kapselointi- ja loppusijoituslaitoksen kaeyttoeturvallisuusanalyysi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, J.; Suolanen, V. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    Radiation doses for workers of the facility, for inhabitants in the environment and for terrestrial ecosystem possibly caused by the encapsulation and disposal facilities to be built at Olkiluoto during its operation were considered in the study. The study covers both the normal operation of the plant and some hypothetical incidents and accidents. Release through the ventilation stack is assumed to be filtered both in normal operation and in hypothetical abnormal fault and accident cases. In addition the results for unfiltered releases are also presented. This research is limited to the deterministic analysis. During about 30 operation years of our four nuclear power plant units there have been found 58 broken fuel pins. Roughly estimating there has been one fuel leakage per year in a facility (includes two units). Based on this and adopting a conservative approach, it is estimated that one fuel pin per year could leak in normal operation during encapsulation process. The release magnitude in incidents and accidents is based on the event chains, which lead to loss of fuel pin tightness followed by a discharge of radionuclides into the handling space and to some degree to the atmosphere through the ventilation stack equipped with redundant filters. The most exposed group of inhabitants is conservatively assumed to live at the distance of 200 meters from the encapsulation and disposal plant and it will receive the largest doses in most dispersion conditions. The dose value to a member of the most exposed group was calculated on the basis of the weather data in such a way that greater dose than obtained here is caused only in 0.5 percent of dispersion conditions. The results obtained indicate that during normal operation the doses to workers remain small and the dose to the member of the most exposed group is less than 0.001 mSv per year. In the case of hypothetical fault and accident releases the offsite doses do not exceed either the limit values set by the safety

  4. AMONG HOSPITAL WORKERS IN ABUJA, NIGERIA '

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “morning after contraception“ or “post-coital contraception “are methods used to ... pregnancies and can decrease the need for induced abortion'. The combine ... hospital workers, a survey of staff of a tertiary health care facility in the Federal ...

  5. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of absorbed dose in teeth from citizens of Ozyorsk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieser, A.; Semiochkina, N. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Vasilenko, E.; Aladova, E.; Smetanin, M. [Southern Urals Biophysics Institute, Ozyorsk (Russian Federation); Fattibene, P. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    In 1945, within the frame of the Uranium Project for the production of nuclear weapons, the Mayak nuclear facilities were constructed at the Lake Irtyash in the Southern Urals, Russia. The nuclear workers of the Mayak Production Association (MPA), who lived in the city of Ozyorsk, are the focus of epidemiological studies for the assessment of health risks due to protracted exposure to ionising radiation. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of absorbed dose in tooth enamel have already been used in the past, in an effort to validate occupational external doses that were evaluated in the Mayak Worker Dosimetry System. In the present study, 229 teeth of Ozyorsk citizens not employed at MPA were investigated for the assessment of external background exposure in Ozyorsk. The annually absorbed dose in tooth enamel from natural background radiation was estimated to be (0.7 ± 0.3) mGy. For citizens living in Ozyorsk during the time of routine noble gas releases of the MPA, which peaked in 1953, the average excess absorbed dose in enamel above natural background was (36 ± 29) mGy, which is consistent with the gamma dose obtained by model calculations. In addition, there were indications of possible accidental gaseous MPA releases that affected the population of Ozyorsk, during the early and late MPA operation periods, before 1951 and after 1960. (orig.)

  6. Establishing bounding internal dose estimates for thorium activities at Rocky Flats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulsh, Brant A; Rich, Bryce L; Chew, Melton H; Morris, Robert L; Sharfi, Mutty; Rolfes, Mark R

    2008-07-01

    As part of an evaluation of a Special Exposure Cohort petition filed on behalf of workers at the Rocky Flats Plant, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was required to demonstrate that bounding values could be established for radiation doses due to the potential intake of all radionuclides present at the facility. The main radioactive elements of interest at Rocky Flats were plutonium and uranium, but much smaller quantities of several other elements, including thorium, were occasionally handled at the site. Bounding potential doses from thorium has proven challenging at other sites due to the early historical difficulty in detecting this element through urinalysis methods and the relatively high internal dose delivered per unit intake. This paper reports the results of NIOSH's investigation of the uses of thorium at Rocky Flats and provides bounding dose reconstructions for these operations. During this investigation, NIOSH reviewed unclassified reports, unclassified extracts of classified materials, material balance and inventory ledgers, monthly progress reports from various groups, and health physics field logbooks, and conducted interviews with former Rocky Flats workers. Thorium operations included: (1) an experimental metal forming project with 240 kg of thorium in 1960; (2) the use of pre-formed parts in weapons mockups; (3) the removal of Th from U; (4) numerous analytical procedures involving trace quantities of thorium; and (5) the possible experimental use of thorium as a mold coating compound. The thorium handling operations at Rocky Flats were limited in scope, well-monitored and documented, and potential doses can be bounded.

  7. Pulmonary deposition modeling with airborne fiber exposure data: a study of workers manufacturing refractory ceramic fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Thomas J; Rice, Carol H; Succop, Paul A; Lockey, James E; Dement, John M; LeMasters, Grace K

    2003-04-01

    Increasing production of refractory ceramic fiber (RCF), a synthetic vitreous material with industrial applications (e.g., kiln insulation), has created interest in potential respiratory effects of exposure to airborne fibers during manufacturing. An ongoing study of RCF manufacturing workers in the United States has indicated an association between cumulative fiber exposure and pleural plaques. Fiber sizing data, obtained from electron microscopy analyses of 118 air samples collected in three independent studies over a 20-year period (1976-1995), were used with a computer deposition model to estimate pulmonary dose of fibers of specified dimensions for 652 former and current RCF production workers. Separate dose correction factors reflecting differences in fiber dimensions in six uniform job title groups were used with data on airborne fiber concentration and employment duration to calculate cumulative dose estimates for each worker. From review of the literature, critical dimensions (diameter <0.4 microm, length <10 microm) were defined for fibers that may translocate to the parietal pleura. Each of three continuous exposure/dose metrics analyzed in separate logistic regression models was significantly related to plaques, even after adjusting for possible past asbestos exposure: cumulative fiber exposure, chi(2) = 15.2 (p < 0.01); cumulative pulmonary dose (all fibers), chi(2) = 14.6 (p < 0.01); cumulative pulmonary dose (critical dimension fibers), chi(2) = 12.4 (p < 0.01). Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for levels of each metric. Increasing ORs were statistically significant for the two highest dose levels of critical dimension fibers (level three, OR = 11, 95%CI = [1.4, 98]; level four, OR = 25, 95%CI = [3.2, 190]). Similar associations existed for all metrics after adjustment for possible asbestos exposure. It was concluded that development of pleural plaques follows exposure- and dose-response patterns, and that airborne fibers in RCF manufacturing

  8. Dose Reduction Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Waggoner, L O

    2000-01-01

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the sm...

  9. Identification of dose-reduction techniques for BWR and PWR repetitive high-dose jobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Baum, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    As a result of concern about the apparent increase in collective radiation dose to workers at nuclear power plants, this project will provide information to industry in preplanning for radiation protection during maintenance operations. This study identifies Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) repetitive jobs, and respective collective dose trends and dose reduction techniques. 3 references, 2 tables. (ACR)

  10. Mortality among mound workers exposed to polonium-210 and other sources of radiation, 1944-1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, John D; Cohen, Sarah S; Mumma, Michael T; Ellis, Elizabeth Dupree; Cragle, Donna L; Eckerman, Keith F; Wallace, Phillip W; Chadda, Bandana; Sonderman, Jennifer S; Wiggs, Laurie D; Richter, Bonnie S; Leggett, Richard W

    2014-02-01

    Polonium-210 is a naturally occurring radioactive element that decays by emitting an alpha particle. It is in the air we breathe and also a component of tobacco smoke. Polonium-210 is used as an anti-static device in printing presses and gained widespread notoriety in 2006 after the poisoning and subsequent death of a Russian citizen in London. More is known about the lethal effects of polonium-210 at high doses than about late effects from low doses. Cancer mortality was examined among 7,270 workers at the Mound nuclear facility near Dayton, OH where polonium-210 was used (1944-1972) in combination with beryllium as a source of neutrons for triggering nuclear weapons. Other exposures included external gamma radiation and to a lesser extent plutonium-238, tritium and neutrons. Vital status and cause of death was determined through 2009. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed for comparisons with the general population. Lifetime occupational doses from all places of employment were sought and incorporated into the analysis. Over 200,000 urine samples were analyzed to estimate radiation doses to body organs from polonium and other internally deposited radionuclides. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate dose-response relationships for specific organs and tissues. Vital status was determined for 98.7% of the workers of which 3,681 had died compared with 4,073.9 expected (SMR 0.90; 95% CI 0.88-0.93). The mean dose from external radiation was 26.1 mSv (maximum 939.1 mSv) and the mean lung dose from external and internal radiation combined was 100.1 mSv (maximum 17.5 Sv). Among the 4,977 radiation workers, all cancers taken together (SMR 0.86; 95% CI 0.79-0.93), lung cancer (SMR 0.85; 95% CI 0.74-0.98), and other types of cancer were not significantly elevated. Cox regression analysis revealed a significant positive dose-response trend for esophageal cancer [relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval at 100 mSv of 1.54 (1.15-2.07)] and a

  11. Assessment of internal doses

    CERN Document Server

    Rahola, T; Falk, R; Isaksson, M; Skuterud, L

    2002-01-01

    There is a definite need for training in dose calculation. Our first course was successful and was followed by a second, both courses were fully booked. An example of new tools for software products for bioassay analysis and internal dose assessment is the Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis (IMBA) were demonstrated at the second course. This suite of quality assured code modules have been adopted in the UK as the standard for regulatory assessment purposes. The intercomparison measurements are an important part of the Quality Assurance work. In what is known as the sup O utside workers ' directive it is stated that the internal dose measurements shall be included in the European Unions supervision system for radiation protection. The emergency preparedness regarding internal contamination was much improved by the training with and calibration of handheld instruments from participants' laboratories. More improvement will be gained with the handbook giving practical instructions on what to do in case of e...

  12. Fabrication Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fabrication Facilities are a direct result of years of testing support. Through years of experience, the three fabrication facilities (Fort Hood, Fort Lewis, and...

  13. Facility Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Z.; Walling, R.; Miller, N.; Du, P.; Nelson, K.

    2005-05-01

    Microgrids are receiving a considerable interest from the power industry, partly because their business and technical structure shows promise as a means of taking full advantage of distributed generation. This report investigates three issues associated with facility microgrids: (1) Multiple-distributed generation facility microgrids' unintentional islanding protection, (2) Facility microgrids' response to bulk grid disturbances, and (3) Facility microgrids' intentional islanding.

  14. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis is a lung disease that results ...

  15. Screening calculations for radioactive waste releases from non-nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulan Xu; Soederman, Ann-Louis

    2009-02-15

    A series of screening calculations have been performed to assess the potential radiological consequences of discharges of radioactive substances to the environment arising from waste from non-nuclear practices. Solid waste, as well as liquids that are not poured to the sewer, are incinerated and ashes from incineration and sludge from waste water treatment plants are disposed or reused at municipal disposal facilities. Airborne discharges refer to releases from an incineration facility and liquid discharges refer both to releases from hospitals and laboratories to the sewage system, as well as leakage from waste disposal facilities. The external exposure of workers is estimated both in the waste water treatment plant and at the disposal facility. The calculations follow the philosophy of the IAEA's safety guidance starting with a simple assessment based on very conservative assumptions which may be iteratively refined using progressively more complex models, with more realistic assumptions, as necessary. In the assessments of these types of disposal, with cautious assumptions, carried out in this report we conclude that the radiological impacts on representative individuals in the public are negligible in that they are small with respect to the target dose of 10 muSv/a. A Gaussian plume model was used to estimate the doses from airborne discharges from the incinerator and left a significant safety margin in the results considering the conservative assumptions in the calculations. For the sewage plant workers the realistic approach included a reduction in working hours and the shorter exposure time resulted in maximum doses around 10 muSv/a. The calculations for the waste disposal facility show that the doses are higher or in the range of the target dose. The excess for public exposure is mainly caused by H-3 and C-14. The assumption used in the calculation is that all of the radioactive substances sent to the incineration facility and waste water treatment

  16. Estimation of the contribution of neutrons to the equivalent dose for personnel occupationally exposed and public in medical facilities: X-ray with energy equal or greater than 10MV; Estimacion de la contribucion por neutrones a la dosis equivalente para personal ocupacionalmente expuesto y publico en instalaciones de uso medico: rayos X de energia igual y/o superior a 10MV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Alfonso Mayer; Jimenez, Roberto Ortega; Sanchez, Mario A. Reyes, E-mail: amgesfm@hotmail.com, E-mail: rojimenez@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Moranchel y Mejia, Mario, E-mail: mmoranchel@ipn.mx [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (ESFM/IPN), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas. Departamento de lngenieria Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    In Mexico the use of electron accelerators for treating cancerous tumors had grown enormously in the last decade. When the treatments are carried out with X-ray beam energy below 10 MV the design of the shielding of the radioactive facility is determined by analyzing the interaction of X-rays, which have a direct impact and dispersion, with materials of the facility. However, when it makes use of X-ray beam energy equal to or greater than 10 MV the neutrons presence is imminent due to their generation by the interaction of the primary beam X-ray with materials head of the accelerator and of the table of treatment, mainly. In these cases, the design and calculation of shielding considers the generation of high-energy neutrons which contribute the equivalent dose that public and Occupationally Staff Exposed (POE) will receive in the areas surrounding the facility radioactive. However, very few measurements have been performed to determine the actual contribution to the neutron dose equivalent received by POE and public during working hours. This paper presents an estimate of the actual contribution of the neutron dose equivalent received by public and POE facilities in various radioactive medical use, considering many factors. To this end, measurements were made of the equivalent dose by using a neutron monitor in areas surrounding different radioactive installations (of Mexico) which used electron accelerators medical use during treatment with X-ray beam energy equal to or greater than 10 MV. The results are presented after a statistical analysis of a wide range of measures in order to estimate more reliability real contribution of the neutron dose equivalent for POE and the public. (author)

  17. Estimation of the contribution by neutrons to the equivalent dose for exposed occupationally personnel and people in medical use facilities: X rays of equal or superior energy to 10 MV; Estimacion de la contribucion por neutrones a la dosis equivalente para personal ocupacionalmente expuesto y publico en instalaciones de uso medico: rayos X de energia igual y/o superior a 10 MV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega J, R.; Reyes S, M. A. [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Moranchel y R, M., E-mail: rojimenez@cnsns.gob.mx [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional s/n, U. P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edif. 9, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    In Mexico the use of electron accelerators for treating cancerous tumors had grown enormously in the last decade. When the treatments are carried out with X-ray beam energy below 10 MV the design of the shielding of the radioactive facility is determined by analyzing the interaction of X-rays, which have a direct impact and dispersion, with materials of the facility. However, when it makes use of X-ray beam energy equal to or greater than 10 MV the neutrons presence is imminent due to their generation by the interaction of the primary beam X-ray with materials head of the accelerator and of the table of treatment, mainly. In these cases, the design and calculation of shielding considers the generation of high-energy neutrons which contribute the equivalent dose that public and occupationally staff exposed (POE) will receive in the areas surrounding the facility radioactive. However, very few measurements have been performed to determine the actual contribution to the neutron dose equivalent received by POE and public during working hours. This paper presents and estimate of the actual contribution of the neutron dose equivalent received by public and POE facilities in various radioactive medical use, considering many factors. To this end, measurements were made of the equivalent dose by using a neutron monitor in areas surrounding different radioactive installations (of Mexico) which used electron accelerators medical use during treatment with X-ray beam energy equal to or greater than 10 MV. The results are presented after a statistical analysis of a wide range of measures in order to estimate more reliability real contribution of the neutron dose equivalent for POE and the public. (author)

  18. Migrant Workers' Lack of Cultural Rights and Interests and Government Safeguard Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qiang; Yin, Huan-ju; Wang, Xue-Yan

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the status quo of migrant workers' lack of cultural rights and interests as follows: the holistic cultural life of migrant workers is scant and monotonous; the cultural facilities prodded by the majority of enterprises are critically short; the cultural life of migrant workers has the characteristic of closeness to some extent; the holistic cultural consuming capacity of migrant workers is very low, and they are not satisfied with their own cultural life. this paper puts f...

  19. Radiological safety assessment of transporting radioactive waste to the Gyeongju disposal facility in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Baik, Min Hoon; Kang, Mun Ja; Ahn, Hong Joo; Hwang, Doo Seong; Hong, Dae Seok; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Kim, Kyung Su [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    A radiological safety assessment study was performed for the transportation of low level radioactive wastes which are temporarily stored in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon, Korea. We considered two kinds of wastes: (1) operation wastes generated from the routine operation of facilities; and (2) decommissioning wastes generated from the decommissioning of a research reactor in KAERI. The important part of the radiological safety assessment is related to the exposure dose assessment for the incident-free (normal) transportation of wastes, i.e., the radiation exposure of transport personnel, radiation workers for loading and unloading of radioactive waste drums, and the general public. The effective doses were estimated based on the detailed information on the transportation plan and on the radiological characteristics of waste packages. We also estimated radiological risks and the effective doses for the general public resulting from accidents such as an impact and a fire caused by the impact during the transportation. According to the results, the effective doses for transport personnel, radiation workers, and the general public are far below the regulatory limits. Therefore, we can secure safety from the viewpoint of radiological safety for all situations during the transportation of radioactive wastes which have been stored temporarily in KAERI.

  20. Radiological Safety Assessment of Transporting Radioactive Wastes to the Gyeongju Disposal Facility in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongtae Jeong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A radiological safety assessment study was performed for the transportation of low level radioactive wastes which are temporarily stored in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI, Daejeon, Korea. We considered two kinds of wastes: (1 operation wastes generated from the routine operation of facilities; and (2 decommissioning wastes generated from the decommissioning of a research reactor in KAERI. The important part of the radiological safety assessment is related to the exposure dose assessment for the incident-free (normal transportation of wastes, i.e., the radiation exposure of transport personnel, radiation workers for loading and unloading of radioactive waste drums, and the general public. The effective doses were estimated based on the detailed information on the transportation plan and on the radiological characteristics of waste packages. We also estimated radiological risks and the effective doses for the general public resulting from accidents such as an impact and a fire caused by the impact during the transportation. According to the results, the effective doses for transport personnel, radiation workers, and the general public are far below the regulatory limits. Therefore, we can secure safety from the viewpoint of radiological safety for all situations during the transportation of radioactive wastes which have been stored temporarily in KAERI.

  1. Malignant pleural mesothelioma risk among nuclear workers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz-Flamant, C; Guseva Canu, I; Laurier, D

    2011-03-01

    Exposure to ionising radiation has been suggested as a causal risk factor for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Studies of patients treated by radiotherapy for primary cancers have suggested that radiation contributes to the development of secondary MPM. Here we examined the risk to nuclear workers of MPM related to exposure to low doses of occupational radiation at low dose rates. All results concerning MPM risk in published studies of nuclear workers were examined for their association with radiation exposure and potential confounders. We found 19 relevant studies. Elevated risks of pleural cancer were reported in most (15/17) of these studies. Eight reported risks higher for radiation monitored workers than for other workers. However, of 12 studies that looked at associations with ionising radiation, only one reported a significant dose-risk association. Asbestos was an important confounder in most studies. We conclude that studies of nuclear workers have not detected an association between ionising radiation exposure and MPM. Further investigations should improve the consideration of asbestos exposure at the same time as they address the risk of MPM related to occupational exposure of nuclear workers to low doses of ionising radiation at low dose rates.

  2. Doses from radiation exposure

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, H G

    2012-01-01

    Practical implementation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) system of protection requires the availability of appropriate methods and data. The work of Committee 2 is concerned with the development of reference data and methods for the assessment of internal and external radiation exposure of workers and members of the public. This involves the development of reference biokinetic and dosimetric models, reference anatomical models of the human body, and reference anatomical and physiological data. Following ICRP's 2007 Recommendations, Committee 2 has focused on the provision of new reference dose coefficients for external and internal exposure. As well as specifying changes to the radiation and tissue weighting factors used in the calculation of protection quantities, the 2007 Recommendations introduced the use of reference anatomical phantoms based on medical imaging data, requiring explicit sex averaging of male and female organ-equivalent doses in the calculation of effecti...

  3. [Estimation of effective doses derived from radon in selected SPA centers that use geothermal waters based on the information of radon concentrations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Katarzyna; Zmyślony, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal waters contain, among other components, soluble radon gas. Alpha radioactive radon is a health hazard to humans, especially when it gets into the respiratory tract. SPA facilities that use geothermal water can be a source of an increased radiation dose to people who stay there. Based on the available literature concerning radon concentrations, we assessed exposure to radon among people - workers and visitors of Spa centers that use geothermal waters. Radon concentrations were analyzed in 17 geothermal centers: in Greece (3 centers), Iran (5), China (4) and India (5). Doses recived by people in the SPA were estimated using the formula that 1 hour exposure to 1 Bq/m3 of radon concentration and equilibrium factor F = 0.4 corresponds to an effective dose of 3.2 nSv. We have found that radon levels in SPAs are from a few to several times higher than those in confined spaces, where geothermal waters are not used (e.g., residential buildings). In 82% of the analyzed SPAs, workers may receive doses above 1 mSv/year. According to the relevant Polish regulations, people receiving doses higher than 1 mSv/year are included in category B of radiation exposure and require regular dosimetric monitoring. Doses received by SPA visitors are much lower because the time of their exposure to radon released from geothermal water is rather short. The analysis of radon concentration in SPA facilities shows that the radiological protection of people working with geothermal waters plays an important role. It seems reasonable to include SPA workers staying close to geotermal waters into a dosimetric monitoring program.

  4. Epidemiological study of health hazards among workers handling engineered nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing, E-mail: shliou@nhri.org.tw; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Wang, Shu-Li; Li, Lih-Ann; Chiang, Hung-Che; Li, Wan-Fen; Lin, Pin-Pin [National Health Research Institutes, Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, Taiwan (China); Lai, Ching-Huang [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Public Health, Taiwan (China); Lee, Hui-Ling [Fu Jen Catholic University, Department of Chemistry, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Hsu, Jin-Huei; Chen, Chiou-Rong [Council of Labor Affairs, Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Taiwan (China); Shih, Tung-Sheng [College of Public Health, China Medical University and Hospital, Institute of Environmental Health, Taiwan (China); Liao, Hui-Yi; Chung, Yu-Teh [National Health Research Institutes, Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-15

    The aim of this study was to establish and identify the health effect markers of workers with potential exposure to nanoparticles (20-100 nm) during manufacturing and/or application of nanomaterials. For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 227 workers who handled nanomaterials and 137 workers for comparison who did not from 14 plants in Taiwan. A questionnaire was used to collect data on exposure status, demographics, and potential confounders. The health effect markers were measured in the medical laboratory. Control banding from the Nanotool Risk Level Matrix was used to categorize the exposure risk levels of the workers. The results showed that the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) in risk level 1 (RL1) and risk level 2 (RL2) workers was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than in control workers. A significantly decreasing gradient was found for SOD (control > RL1 > RL2). Another antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), was significantly lower only in RL1 workers than in the control workers. The cardiovascular markers, fibrinogen and ICAM (intercellular adhesion molecule), were significantly higher in RL2 workers than in controls and a significant dose-response with an increasing trend was found for these two cardiovascular markers. Another cardiovascular marker, interleukin-6, was significantly increased among RL1 workers, but not among RL2 workers. The accuracy rate for remembering 7-digits and reciting them backwards was significantly lower in RL2 workers (OR = 0.48) than in controls and a significantly reversed gradient was also found for the correct rate of backward memory (OR = 0.90 for RL1, OR = 0.48 for RL2, p < 0.05 in test for trend). Depression of antioxidant enzymes and increased expression of cardiovascular markers were found among workers handling nanomaterials. Antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD and GPX, and cardiovascular markers, such as fibrinogen, ICAM, and interluekin-6, are possible biomarkers for medical surveillance of

  5. Occupational Doses and the Contribution to the Population Dose in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Jae; Kyu, Hwan Jeong [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the occupational exposure records in terms of the control of exposure for radiation workers and dose reduction. The study includes the estimates of the number of people exposed occupationally, the effective collective doses and mean doses to those exposed. In addition, the study includes an estimate of the contribution of occupational exposure to the Korean population dose. The exposure of radiation workers in occupational field includes medical radiology, industrial applications such as radiography, nuclear power, and some research activities. Occupational exposure from medical radiology practices includes the contributions from diagnostic x-ray procedures, dental radiography, nuclear medicine and radiation therapy. The control of exposure for radiation workers, and the measures necessary to maintain radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) are specified in Subparagraph 3 and Subparagraph 4 of Article 91 (1) of the Korea Nuclear Safety Act (KNSA), respectively. Therefore, from a regulatory perspective, the exposure data of the workers are primarily for verification of the adequacy of the control of exposure, radiation protection and implementation of ALARA. The number of people exposed occupationally, the effective collective doses and mean doses to those exposed, and average effective doses from occupational exposure during the period of 2009 to 2013 have been evaluated. In general, radiation workers were increasing in number annually, but the mean doses for those exposed each year showed the control of exposures were mostly considered met within the dose limit in KNSA. Nevertheless, it was shown that the continuous efforts would be needed to reduce doses and thus to implement ALARA regulatory requirements. In radiation occupations, the application of ICRP radiation protection principles will ensure good practice and decreasing exposures. Over the period of 5 years, the contributions of the annual

  6. Motivating Workers in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Barg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the motivation of construction workers is limited to a relatively small body of knowledge. Although there is considerable research available regarding motivation and productivity, few researchers have provided a comprehensive analysis on the motivation of construction workers. The research stated that productivity in construction has not improved compared to other industry sectors such as manufacturing. This trend has been echoed in publications throughout the past five decades, and suggested that motivation is one of the key factors impacting productivity. This paper offers a comprehensive review of the published work that directly links the key words—construction and motivation. The findings have been presented in five themes, that is, motivation models, environment and culture, incentives and empowerment, and worker management. This paper concludes with two methods suggested by previous researchers to improve motivation of construction workers: (1 relevant worker incentives (intrinsic or extrinsic and (2 improved management practices, specifically regarding communication with workers.

  7. Analysis on abnormal results of personal dose monitoring among radiation workers in Nanjing military area command from 2010-2011%2010-2011年南京军区放射工作人员个人剂量监测异常结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣曙; 杨龙; 陈乐如; 毛应华; 金慧英; 赵国良; 朱乐明

    2012-01-01

    目的 对2010-2011年南京军区放射工作人员个人剂量监测中数据异常的原因进行总结分析.方法 采用个人剂量计,对个人剂量监测结果进行统计分析.结果 2010-2011年期间,全区共计125人次个人剂量异常,其中从事介入治疗工作的占57.6%,从事放射诊断工作的仅占2.4%.大部分异常剂量在5mSv以下,且56.8%的剂量异常并非实际受照.导致剂量异常的原因主要有剂量计佩戴不规范(50.4%)、工作量大、接触射线时间长(37.6%),以及操作不规范(4.8%)等.结论 加强防护知识培训,加大监督执法力度,提高个人防护意识,保证数据真实可靠,是下一步工作的重点.%[Objective]To summarize and analyze the abnormal reasons of personal dose monitoring data among radiation workers in Nanjing military area command from 2010-2011. [Methods]By using personal dosimeter, the results of personal dose monitoring were analyzed statistically. [Results]During 2010-2011, a total of 12S person/times were detected for abnormal personal dose in Nanjing military area command. Among them, 57.6% were people worked in department of interventional therapy, and only 2.4% worked in department of radiological diagnosis. Most of abnormal doses were less than SmSv, and 56.8% of the abnormal doses were not caused by the actual exposure. The main reasons for abnormal doses included; the application of personal dosimeters was not standardized (SO. 4%), the workload was heavy and the exposure time was too long (37.6% ), as well as the operation was not standard (4.8%). [Conclusion]It is important to strengthen training of knowledge about radiation protection, enhance the intensity of law enforcement, improve the consciousness about personal radiation protection, and ensure that the data is reliable.

  8. DNA repair gene polymorphisms in relation to chromosome aberration frequencies in retired radiation workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilding, Craig S. [Genetics Department, Westlakes Research Institute, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3JY (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: craig.wilding@westlakes.ac.uk; Relton, Caroline L. [Genetics Department, Westlakes Research Institute, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3JY (United Kingdom); Paediatric and Lifecourse Epidemiology Research Group, School of Clinical Medical Sciences (Child Health), Newcastle University, Sir James Spence Institute, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle-upon-Tyne NE1 4LP (United Kingdom); Rees, Gwen S. [Genetics Department, Westlakes Research Institute, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3JY (United Kingdom); Tarone, Robert E. [International Epidemiology Institute, 1455 Research Boulevard, Suite 550, Rockville, MD 20850 (United States); Whitehouse, Caroline A. [Genetics Department, Westlakes Research Institute, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3JY (United Kingdom); Tawn, E. Janet [Genetics Department, Westlakes Research Institute, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3JY (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-15

    Polymorphic variation in DNA repair genes was examined in a group of retired workers from the British Nuclear Fuels plc facility at Sellafield in relation to previously determined translocation frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Variation at seven polymorphisms in four genes involved in the base excision repair (XRCC1 R194W, R399Q and a [AC]{sub n} microsatellite in the 3' UTR) and double strand break repair (XRCC3 T241M and a [AC]{sub n} microsatellite in intron 3 of XRCC3, XRCC4 I134T, and a GACTAn microsatellite located 120kb 5' of XRCC5) pathways was determined for 291 retired radiation workers who had received cumulative occupational external radiation doses of between 0 and 1873mSv. When the interaction between radiation dose and each DNA repair gene polymorphism was examined in relation to translocation frequency there was no evidence for any of the polymorphisms studied influencing the response to occupational exposure. A positive interaction observed between genotype (individuals with at least one allele >=20 repeat units) at a microsatellite locus in the XRCC3 gene and smoking status should be interpreted cautiously because interactions were investigated for seven polymorphisms and two exposures. Nonetheless, further research is warranted to examine whether this DNA repair gene variant might be associated with a sub-optimal repair response to smoking-induced DNA damage and hence an increased frequency of translocations.

  9. Health survey of radiation workers. Results of questionnaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morikawa, Kaoru [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Medical School; Aoyama, Takashi; Kawagoe, Yasumitsu; Sunayashiki, Tadashi; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Nishitani, Motohiro; Yoshinaga, Nobuharu

    1998-11-01

    The Japanese Society of Radiological Technology asked radiation workers about the radiation doses and the state of their health as well as family. The reports by the Health and Welfare Ministry were referenced to compare radiation workers with others. The questionnaire was sent to about 4,000 members, and returned from 2,479. The survey showed that 684 persons (27.6%) felt health anxiety, 455 persons (18.4%) had medical check for recent one year, and 1,645 persons (66.4%) had anamnesis. Radiation doses for one year and cumulated doses varied according to engaging duration. (K.H.)

  10. Mortality among rubber workers: V. processing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzell, E; Monson, R R

    1982-07-01

    Cause-specific mortality was evaluated among 2,666 men employed in the processing division of a rubber manufacturing plant. The division was divided into two sections: front processing (compounding, mixing and milling operations) and back processing (extrusion, calendering, cement mixing and rubberized fabrics operations). Mortality rates for all processing workers combined and for men in each section were compared with rates for U.S. White males or for workers employed in other divisions of the same plant. Compared with either referent group, men in the processing division had increased mortality from leukemia, emphysema, and cancers of the stomach, large intestine, and biliary passages and liver. An excess number of deaths from stomach and larger intestine cancer was found predominantly among men in the front processing section (33 observed vs. 17.7 expected deaths, based on rates in nonprocessing workers). Increased mortality from leukemia (14 observed vs. 7.3 expected) and from emphysema (22 observed vs. 11.0 expected) was present among men employed in the back processing section. Examination of mortality from these causes according to age and the year starting work, duration of employment, and years since starting work in the relevant sections of the processing division suggested that observed excesses of stomach cancer, large intestine cancer, leukemia, and emphysema among processing workers are related to occupational exposures. These results are consistent with the findings of studies of other groups of rubber workers.

  11. Summary of the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura and a dose assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, S I

    2001-09-01

    A criticality accident occurred on September 30, 1999, in a conversion test facility at the JCO Tokai site. The accident was triggered by pouring an 18.8% enriched uranyl nitrate solution into a precipitation vessel beyond the critical mass. The accident continued for about 19 hours before the criticality could be stopped. during which time neutrons and gamma-rays were emitted continuously due to fission reactions. The total number of fission reactions was 2.5 x 10(18), which was estimated by an activity analysis of the fission products in the solution of the precipitation vessel. The accident gave serious radiation dose to 3 employees and fatal dose to 2 of them. Neutrons and gamma-rays emitted by the accident caused meaningful doses to the residents of the surrounding area of JCO. The dominant dose to the residents and JCO employees was brought by neutrons and gamma-rays from the precipitation vessel, while the contribution of radioactive plume was negligible. The individual dose was estimated for 234 resident, 169 JCO employees and 260 emergency personnel. The maximum doses were 21 mSv for the residents, 48mSv for the JCO employees, and 9.4mSv for the emergency personnel, respectively. No deterministic effect, however, has been observed, except for the 3 workers.

  12. Evaluating malaria case management at public health facilities in two provinces in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plucinski, Mateusz M; Ferreira, Manzambi; Ferreira, Carolina Miguel; Burns, Jordan; Gaparayi, Patrick; João, Lubaki; da Costa, Olinda; Gill, Parambir; Samutondo, Claudete; Quivinja, Joltim; Mbounga, Eliane; de León, Gabriel Ponce; Halsey, Eric S; Dimbu, Pedro Rafael; Fortes, Filomeno

    2017-05-03

    Malaria accounts for the largest portion of healthcare demand in Angola. A pillar of malaria control in Angola is the appropriate management of malaria illness, including testing of suspect cases with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and treatment of confirmed cases with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Periodic systematic evaluations of malaria case management are recommended to measure health facility readiness and adherence to national case management guidelines. Cross-sectional health facility surveys were performed in low-transmission Huambo and high-transmission Uíge Provinces in early 2016. In each province, 45 health facilities were randomly selected from among all public health facilities stratified by level of care. Survey teams performed inventories of malaria commodities and conducted exit interviews and re-examinations, including RDT testing, of a random selection of all patients completing outpatient consultations. Key health facility readiness and case management indicators were calculated adjusting for the cluster sampling design and utilization. Availability of RDTs or microscopy on the day of the survey was 71% (54-83) in Huambo and 85% (67-94) in Uíge. At least one unit dose pack of one formulation of an ACT (usually artemether-lumefantrine) was available in 83% (66-92) of health facilities in Huambo and 79% (61-90) of health facilities in Uíge. Testing rates of suspect malaria cases in Huambo were 30% (23-38) versus 69% (53-81) in Uíge. Overall, 28% (13-49) of patients with uncomplicated malaria, as determined during the re-examination, were appropriately treated with an ACT with the correct dose in Huambo, compared to 60% (42-75) in Uíge. Incorrect case management of suspect malaria cases was associated with lack of healthcare worker training in Huambo and ACT stock-outs in Uíge. The results reveal important differences between provinces. Despite similar availability of testing and ACT, testing and treatment rates were lower in

  13. Single dose vaccination of the ASO3-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 monovalent vaccine in health care workers elicits homologous and cross-reactive cellular and humoral responses to H1N1 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartey, Sarah; Pathirana, Rishi D; Zhou, Fan; Jul-Larsen, Åsne; Montomoli, Emanuele; Wood, John; Cox, Rebecca Jane

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare workers (HCW) were prioritized for vaccination during the 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic. We conducted a clinical trial in October 2009 where 237 HCWs were immunized with a AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 monovalent vaccine. In the current study, we analyzed the homologous and cross-reactive H1N1 humoral responses using prototype vaccine strains dating back to 1977 by the haemagglutinin inhibition (HI), single radial hemolysis SRH), antibody secreting cell (ASC) and memory B cell (MBC) assays. The cellular responses were assessed by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) ELISPOT and by intracellular staining (ICS) for the Th1 cytokines IFN-γ, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). All assays were performed using blood samples obtained prior to (day 0) and 7, 14 and 21 d post-pandemic vaccination, except for ASC (day 7) and ICS (days 0 and 21). Vaccination elicited rapid HI, SRH and ASC responses against A(H1N1)pdm09 which cross reacted with seasonal H1N1 strains. MBC responses were detected against the homologous and seasonal H1N1 strains before vaccination and were boosted 2 weeks post-vaccination. An increase in cellular responses as determined by IFN-γ ELISPOT and ICS were observed 1-3 weeks after vaccination. Collectively, our data show that the AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine induced rapid cellular and humoral responses against the vaccine strain and the response cross-reacted against prototype H1N1 strains dating back to 1977.

  14. Advanced worker protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

  15. Lung function in Pakistani wood workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan A

    2006-06-01

    The lung function impairment is the most common respiratory problem in industrial plants and their vicinity. Therefore, the purpose was to study the affects of wood dust and its duration of exposure on lung function. This was a matched cross-sectional study of Spirometry in 46 non-smoking wood workers with age range 20 - 60 years, who worked without the benefit of wood dust control ventilation or respiratory protective devices. Pulmonary function test was performed by using an electronic Spirometer. Significant reduction was observed in the mean values of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1), and Maximum Voluntary Ventilation (MVV) in wood workers relative to their matched controls. This impairment was increased with the duration of exposure to wood industries. It is concluded that lung function in wood workers is impaired and stratification of results shows a dose-response effect of years of wood dust exposure on lung function.

  16. Epidemiological study of health hazards among workers handling engineered nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Wang, Shu-Li; Li, Lih-Ann; Chiang, Hung-Che; Li, Wan-Fen; Lin, Pin-Pin; Lai, Ching-Huang; Lee, Hui-Ling; Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Hsu, Jin-Huei; Chen, Chiou-Rong; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Liao, Hui-Yi; Chung, Yu-Teh

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish and identify the health effect markers of workers with potential exposure to nanoparticles (20-100 nm) during manufacturing and/or application of nanomaterials. For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 227 workers who handled nanomaterials and 137 workers for comparison who did not from 14 plants in Taiwan. A questionnaire was used to collect data on exposure status, demographics, and potential confounders. The health effect markers were measured in the medical laboratory. Control banding from the Nanotool Risk Level Matrix was used to categorize the exposure risk levels of the workers. The results showed that the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) in risk level 1 (RL1) and risk level 2 (RL2) workers was significantly ( p RL1 > RL2). Another antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), was significantly lower only in RL1 workers than in the control workers. The cardiovascular markers, fibrinogen and ICAM (intercellular adhesion molecule), were significantly higher in RL2 workers than in controls and a significant dose-response with an increasing trend was found for these two cardiovascular markers. Another cardiovascular marker, interleukin-6, was significantly increased among RL1 workers, but not among RL2 workers. The accuracy rate for remembering 7-digits and reciting them backwards was significantly lower in RL2 workers (OR = 0.48) than in controls and a significantly reversed gradient was also found for the correct rate of backward memory (OR = 0.90 for RL1, OR = 0.48 for RL2, p antioxidant enzymes and increased expression of cardiovascular markers were found among workers handling nanomaterials. Antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD and GPX, and cardiovascular markers, such as fibrinogen, ICAM, and interluekin-6, are possible biomarkers for medical surveillance of workers handling engineered nanomaterials.

  17. Mammography Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mammography Facility Database is updated periodically based on information received from the four FDA-approved accreditation bodies: the American College of...

  18. Health Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health facilities are places that provide health care. They include hospitals, clinics, outpatient care centers, and specialized care centers, such as birthing centers and psychiatric care centers. When you ...

  19. Canyon Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — B Plant, T Plant, U Plant, PUREX, and REDOX (see their links) are the five facilities at Hanford where the original objective was plutonium removal from the uranium...

  20. Migrant Farm Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.

    This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…

  1. Workers' Education in Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elayassa, Wajih

    2013-01-01

    Due to the political context and the restrictions placed on general freedoms and trade union activities, workers' education in Palestine remained informal and largely reliant on oral memory until the early 1990s. For decades, it was an integral part of political education. Workers' education only became a stand-alone field after the establishment…

  2. 非稳态噪声与作业工人高频听力损失的剂量-反应关系研究%A study on dose -response relationship between human hearing loss and non -stationary noise among workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭慧; 张磊; 夏予勇; 王强; 许玉洋; 陈建春; 舒丽萍; 朱益民

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究非稳态噪声作业工人的听力损失发生状况以及影响因素。方法采用横断面研究方法,以接触非稳态噪声≥1年的无耳病史的571名男性工人为研究对象,采用问卷调查噪声接触史、吸烟与饮酒等情况。对噪声接触者测定500、1000、2000、3000、4000和6000 Hz 6个频段的听阈,并进行作业环境8 h 等效声级检测,分析影响听力损失的因素。结果非稳态噪声作业工人双耳高频听力损失的患病率为52.54%,单耳高频听力损失患病率为71.98%(按人数计)。不同的现场噪声8 h 等效声级、接噪工龄和累积噪声暴露量者之间听力损失的患病率差异均有统计学意义(P 均<0.01)。8 h 等效声级、接噪工龄和累积噪声暴露量与高频听力损失的危险性存在剂量-反应关系(P 均<0.01)。结论非稳态噪声接触对作业工人高频听力造成损害,具有剂量-反应关系。%Objective To investigate the incidence and risk factors of hearing loss among the workers exposed to non -stationary noise.Methods A cross -sectional study was conducted among the participants.571 male workers without any history of ear disorder were enrolled in this study.They had been exposed to non -stationary noise for one year or more. The history of noise exposure,smoking and drinking behavior were interviewed by using a questionnaire.The noise exposure in the workplace was measured at eight -hour equivalent noise level (LEX.8h )and the thresholds of hearing at 500,1 000,2 000,3 000,4 000 and 6 000 Hz were detected.Results The prevalence of high -frequency hearing loss of two ears was 52.54%,while the prevalence of hearing loss of one ear was 71.98%.There were significant differences of prevalence among different groups of workers in LEX.8h ,duration of noise exposure and the cumulative noise exposure (CNE)(P <0.01).There was a dose response relationship between noise exposure and the

  3. Chromosome aberrations in workers of ignalina nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griciene, B.; Januskeviciute, I.; Mierauskiene, J.; Slapsyte, G. [Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (I.N.P.P.) workers and outside workers including visitors constitute the largest occupational group exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation in Lithuania. In 2004, the annual collective dose to these workers (4392 persons) was 6,83 man Sv. The maximum annual individual dose of I.N.P.P. workers was 19,16 mSv, and of outside workers was 29,41 mSv. However, according to calculations performed by the Lithuanian Radiation Protection Centre, the decommissioning of I.N.P.P. (the I.N.P.P. is to be shut down by 2009) will result in collective dose of 35 man Sv. Therefore, a special attention should be given to implementation of radiation protection programme. The importance of cytogenetic studies in the medical surveillance of radiation-exposed persons is generally acknowledged. The aim of the present study was to analyse chromosome aberration frequencies in lymphocytes of I.N.P.P. workers. The blood sampling of 27 male workers was performed in October 2004, after planned outage of I.N.P.P.. It was estimated that outages of I.N.P.P. Units contributed 84% to all annual occupational collective dose. Average cumulative dose of 18 workers was 290,7 mSv (group A), and of 9 workers - 71,7 mSv (group B). The mean annual doses averaged over the three-year-period were 15,2 mSv and 0,76 mSv, respectively. None of the exposed workers had ever exceeded the permissible dose limit. The average age of group A workers was 45,2 years, and group B 48,2 years. A questionnaire form with details on age, occupational history, smoking habit and alcohol intake, medication, history of recent illness was completed for each person at the time of blood collection. 64 non-exposed male donors approximately matched by age were used as controls (group C). Heparinized venous blood samples were taken and cultures were initiated within 24 h according to the standard procedures. At least 500 first cycle metaphases were analysed from each

  4. Initial experiences and innovations in supervising community health workers for maternal, newborn, and child health in Morogoro region, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Roberton, Timothy; Applegate, Jennifer; LeFevre, Amnesty E.; Mosha, Idda; Cooper, Chelsea M; Silverman, Marissa; Feldhaus, Isabelle; Chebet, Joy J; Mpembeni, Rose; Semu, Helen; Killewo, Japhet; Winch, Peter; Baqui, Abdullah H.; George, Asha S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Supervision is meant to improve the performance and motivation of community health workers (CHWs). However, most evidence on supervision relates to facility health workers. The Integrated Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health (MNCH) Program in Morogoro region, Tanzania, implemented a CHW pilot with a cascade supervision model where facility health workers were trained in supportive supervision for volunteer CHWs, supported by regional and district staff, and with village...

  5. Radiological Worker II Training, Course 20301 (Live), Course 12909 (Test)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Jimmy D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-13

    Radiological worker training is the basic building block for any additional radiological training you may receive. Upon completing radiological worker training, you will have the basic knowledge needed to work safely, using proper radiological practices, in areas where radiological hazards exist. You will also have a better understanding of the hazards and responsibilities associated with radiological work to help prevent the carelessness that can occur when working continually with or around radioactive material. This course does not qualify you for any specific radiological work. You may be required to take additional training at individual facilities to address facility- and job-specific hazards and procedures.

  6. [Anemia in workers exposed to lead: update on differential diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, L; Soleo, L; Cassano, F; Elia, G; Schiavulli, N; Martino, M G; Corfiati, M; Bulfaro, D; Apostoli, P

    2005-01-01

    Occupational lead exposure can cause anemia at blood lead levels >50 microg/dl, as high as rarely occurs in industrialized countries nowadays. Whereas other forms of anemia are fairly probable to be found in lead exposed workers, especially in areas highly endemicfor extraoccupational anemias, such as beta thalassemia and iron deficiency anemia. The etiology of anemias has to be correctly defined in order to assess suitable therapeutical approaches and medicolegal consequences. The objective of this study is to verify in male lead exposed workers whether an accurate evaluation of hemocromocytometric parameters and of usual biological indices of lead exposure and effect on heme can differentiate the most common forms of anemia in Southern Italy. 68 workers occupationally exposed to low to moderate lead doses were studied and 59 workers of an alimentary plant have been taken as control group. On venous blood samples collected from these workers a complete hemocromocytometric test was performed and blood lead and erythrocytic zincoprotoporphyrin were determined. Anemia (Hb lead exposed workers and in a nonexposed worker. The reasoned evaluation of laboratory parameters led to identify among lead exposed workers four subjects with high probability of beta-thalassemic trait and two with lead poisoning anemia. Moreover a diagnostic algorithm was developed based on literature that seems to be able to discriminate lead poisoning from other causes of anemia in lead exposed workers in this study.

  7. Pulmonary toxicity of indium-tin oxide production facility particles in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badding, Melissa A.; Fix, Natalie R.; Orandle, Marlene S.; Barger, Mark W.; Dunnick, Katherine M.; Cummings, Kristin J.; Leonard, Stephen S.

    2016-01-01

    Indium-tin oxide (ITO) is used to make transparent conductive coatings for touch-screen and liquid crystal display electronics. Occupational exposures to potentially toxic particles generated during ITO production have increased in recent years as the demand for consumer electronics continues to rise. Previous studies have demonstrated cytotoxicity in vitro and animal models have shown pulmonary inflammation and injury in response to various indium-containing particles. In humans, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) and fibrotic interstitial lung disease have been observed in ITO facility workers. However, which indium materials or specific processes in the workplace may be the most toxic to workers is unknown. Here we examined the pulmonary toxicity of three different particle samples that represent real-life worker exposures, as they were collected at various production stages throughout an ITO facility. Indium oxide (In2O3), sintered ITO (SITO) and ventilation dust (VD) particles each caused pulmonary inflammation and damage in rats over a time course (1, 7 and 90 days post-intratracheal instillation), but SITO and VD appeared to induce greater toxicity in rat lungs than In2O3 at a dose of 1 mg per rat. Downstream pathological changes such as PAP and fibrosis were observed in response to all three particles 90 days after treatment, with a trend towards greatest severity in animals exposed to VD when comparing animals that received the same dose. These findings may inform workplace exposure reduction efforts and provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of an emerging occupational health issue. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:26472246

  8. DARHT : integration of shielding design and analysis with facility design /

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudrie, R. L. (Richard L.); Brown, T. H. (Thomas H.); Gilmore, W. E. (Walter E.); Downing, J. N. (James N.), Jr.; Hack, Alan; McClure, D. A. (Donald A.); Nelson, C. A. (Christine A.); Wadlinger, E. Alan; Zumbro, M. V. (Martha V.)

    2002-01-01

    The design of the interior portions of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility incorporated shielding and controls from the beginning of the installation of the Accelerators. The purpose of the design and analysis was to demonstrate the adequacy of shielding or to determine the need for additional shielding or controls. Two classes of events were considered: (1) routine operation defined as the annual production of 10,000 2000-ns pulses of electrons at a nominal energy of 20 MeV, some of which are converted to the x-ray imaging beam consisting of four nominal 60-ns pulses over the 2000-ns time frame, and (2) accident case defined as up to 100 2000-ns pulses of electrons accidentally impinging on some metallic surface, thereby producing x rays. Several locations for both classes of events were considered inside and outside of the accelerator hall buildings. The analysis method consisted of the definition of a source term for each case studied and the definition of a model of the shielding and equipment present between the source and the dose areas. A minimal model of the fixed existing or proposed shielding and equipment structures was used for a first approximation. If the resulting dose from the first approximation was below the design goal (1 rem/yr for routine operations, 5 rem for accident cases), then no further investigations were performed. If the result of the first approximation was above our design goals, the model was refined to include existing or proposed shielding and equipment. In some cases existing shielding and equipment were adequate to meet our goals and in some cases additional shielding was added or administrative controls were imposed to protect the workers. It is expected that the radiation shielding design, exclusion area designations, and access control features, will result in low doses to personnel at the DARHT Facility.

  9. Nuclear Rocket Facility Decommissioning Project: Controlled Explosive Demolition of Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael R. Kruzic

    2008-06-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Test Cell A (TCA) Facility (Figure 1) was used in the early to mid-1960s for testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program, to further space travel. Nuclear rocket testing resulted in the activation of materials around the reactors and the release of fission products and fuel particles. The TCA facility, known as Corrective Action Unit 115, was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) from December 2004 to July 2005 using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The SAFER process allows environmental remediation and facility closure activities (i.e., decommissioning) to occur simultaneously, provided technical decisions are made by an experienced decision maker within the site conceptual site model. Facility closure involved a seven-step decommissioning strategy. First, preliminary investigation activities were performed, including review of process knowledge documentation, targeted facility radiological and hazardous material surveys, concrete core drilling and analysis, shield wall radiological characterization, and discrete sampling, which proved to be very useful and cost-effective in subsequent decommissioning planning and execution and worker safety. Second, site setup and mobilization of equipment and personnel were completed. Third, early removal of hazardous materials, including asbestos, lead, cadmium, and oil, was performed ensuring worker safety during more invasive demolition activities. Process piping was to be verified void of contents. Electrical systems were de-energized and other systems were rendered free of residual energy. Fourth, areas of high radiological contamination were decontaminated using multiple methods. Contamination levels varied across the facility. Fixed beta/gamma contamination levels ranged up to 2 million disintegrations per minute (dpm)/100

  10. Worker Alienation and Compensation at the Savannah River Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwood, Loka; Wing, Steve

    2016-05-01

    Corporations operating U.S. nuclear weapons plants for the federal government began tracking occupational exposures to ionizing radiation in 1943. However, workers, scholars, and policy makers have questioned the accuracy and completeness of radiation monitoring and its capacity to provide a basis for workers' compensation. We use interviews to explore the limitations of broad-scale, corporate epidemiological surveillance through worker accounts from the Savannah River Site nuclear weapons plant. Interviewees report inadequate monitoring, overbearing surveillance, limited venues to access medical support and exposure records, and administrative failure to report radiation and other exposures at the plant. The alienation of workers from their records and toil is relevant to worker compensation programs and the accuracy of radiation dose measurements used in epidemiologic studies of occupational radiation exposures at the Savannah River Site and other weapons plants.

  11. The dose-response relationship between in-ear occupational noise exposure and hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Peter M; Galusha, Deron; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Clougherty, Jane E; Neitzel, Richard L

    2013-10-01

    Current understanding of the dose-response relationship between occupational noise and hearing loss is based on cross-sectional studies prior to the widespread use of hearing protection, and with limited data regarding noise exposures below 85 dBA. We report on the hearing loss experience of a unique cohort of industrial workers, with daily monitoring of noise inside of hearing protection devices. At an industrial facility, workers exhibiting accelerated hearing loss were enrolled in a mandatory programme to monitor daily noise exposures inside of hearing protection. We compared these noise measurements (as time-weighted LAVG) to interval rates of high-frequency hearing loss over a 6-year period using a mixed-effects model, adjusting for potential confounders. Workers' high-frequency hearing levels at study inception averaged more than 40 dB Hearing threshold level (HTL). Most noise exposures were less than 85 dBA (mean LAVG 76 dBA, IQR 74-80 dBA). We found no statistical relationship between LAvg and high-frequency hearing loss (p=0.53). Using a metric for monthly maximum noise exposure did not improve model fit. At-ear noise exposures below 85 dBA did not show an association with risk of high-frequency hearing loss among workers with substantial past noise exposure and hearing loss at baseline. Therefore, effective noise control to below 85 dBA may lead to significant reduction in occupational hearing loss risk in such individuals. Further research is needed on the dose-response relationship of noise and hearing loss in individuals with normal hearing and little prior noise exposure.

  12. Asthma among mink workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Berit; Carstensen, Ole; Petersen, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of asthma among mink workers. The first case is about a mink farmer who had asthma that was difficult to treat. In the medical history there was no clear relation to work, and no conclusive work relation with peak flow monitoring. He had a positive histamine release test to mink...... urine. The second case is about a mink farm worker, who had an asthma attack when handling mink furs. Peak flow monitoring showed a clear relation to this work, but there were no signs of allergy. We conclude that these two cases suggest an increased risk of asthma among mink workers....

  13. [Indian workers in Oman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longuenesse, E

    1985-01-01

    Until recently Oman was a country of emigration, but by 1980 an estimated 200,000 foreign workers were in the country due to the petroleum boom. Almost 1/3 of the estimated 300,000 Indian workers in the Gulf states were in Oman, a country whose colonial heritage was closely tied to that of India and many of whose inhabitants still speak Urdu. The number of work permits granted to Indians working in the private sector in Oman increased from 47,928 in 1976 to 80,787 in 1980. An estimated 110,000 Indians were working in Oman in 1982, the great majority in the construction and public works sector. A few hundred Indian women were employed by the government of Oman, as domestics, or in other capacities. No accurate data is available on the qualifications of Indian workers in Oman, but a 1979 survey suggested a relatively low illiteracy rate among them. 60-75% of Indians in Oman are from the state of Kerala, followed by workers from the Punjab and the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and Bombay. Indian workers are recruited by specialized agencies or by friends or relatives already employed in Oman. Employers in Oman prefer to recruit through agencies because the preselection process minimizes hiring of workers unqualified for their posts. Officially, expenses of transportation, visas, and other needs are shared by the worker and the employer, but the demand for jobs is so strong that the workers are obliged to pay commissions which amount to considerable sums for stable and well paying jobs. Wages in Oman are however 2 to 5 times the level in India. Numerous abuses have been reported in recruitment practices and in failure of employers in Oman to pay the promised wages, but Indian workers have little recourse. At the same level of qualifications, Indians are paid less then non-Omani Arabs, who in turn receive less than Oman nationals. Indians who remain in Oman long enough nevertheless are able to support families at home and to accumulate considerable

  14. Investigation of mental health in Indonesian health workers immigrating to Japan under the Economic Partnership Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Fumiko; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Kamide, Kei

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mental health status of Indonesian nurses and care workers who immigrated to Japan after the Economic Partnership Agreement was signed by the governments of Japan and Indonesia in 2008. From November 2012 to March 2013, questionnaires were mailed to 206 workers in 87 medical and caregiving facilities that openly accept Indonesian EPA immigrant workers. Responses were received from 71 workers in 35 facilities. Responses from 22.5% of workers suggested that they were at risk of developing mental health problems, and "gender" and "acquisition state of national qualifications" were the main factors influencing their mental health status. The results suggest that support after obtaining national qualifications is inadequate and that mid and long-term support systems that focus on the needs of immigrant healthcare workers after passing national examinations are necessary.

  15. Standardisation and Validation of Cytogenetic Markers to Quantify Radiation Absorbed Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatachalam Perumal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The amounts of radiation exposure received by radiation workers are monitored generally by physical dosimeters like thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD and film badge. However, in practice the over-exposure recorded by physical dosimeters need to be confirmed with biological dosimeters. In addition to confirming the dose recorded by physical dosimeters, biological dosimeters play an important role in estimating the doses received during accidental exposures. Exposure to high levels of radiation induces certain  biochemical, biophysical, and immunological changes (biomarkers in a cell. Measurement of these changes are generally precise but cannot be effectively used to assess the dose, as the level of these changes return to normalcy within hours to months after exposure. Thus, among various biological indicators, cytogenetic indicators are considered practical and reliable for dose estimation. The paper highlights the importance and establishment of biodosimetry facility using genetic markers such as the sensitive dicentric chromosomes, rapid micronucleus assay and stable translocations measured using fluorescence in situ hybridisation and GTG banding for retrospective dose estimation. Finally, the development of gH2AX assay, as a potential marker of triage dosimeter, is discussed.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(2, pp.125-132, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.832

  16. Epidemiologic Study of One Million American Workers and Military Veterans Exposed to Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boice, John D. [International Epidemiology Inst. Ltd., Rockville, MD (United States)

    2015-02-27

    A pilot study was completed demonstrating the feasibility of conducting an epidemiologic study assessing cancer and other disease mortality among nearly one million US veterans and workers exposed to ionizing radiation, a population 10 times larger than atomic bomb survivor study with high statistical power to evaluate low dose rate effects. Among the groups enumerated and/or studied were: (1) 194,000 Department of Energy Uranium Workers; (2) 6,700 Rocketdyne Radiation Workers; (3) 7,000 Mound Radiation Workers; (4) 156,000 DOE Plutonium Workers; (5) 212,000 Nuclear Power Plant Workers; (6) 130,000 Industrial Radiography Workers; (7) 1.7 million Medical Workers and (8) 135,000 Atomic Veterans.

  17. Mortality of workers occupationally exposed to refractory ceramic fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMasters, Grace Kawas; Lockey, James E; Yiin, James H; Hilbert, Timothy J; Levin, Linda S; Rice, Carol H

    2003-04-01

    This study was prompted by refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) inhalation studies at high dose levels in animals that demonstrated positive effects for lung fibrosis, mesothelioma, and lung cancer. Current and former male workers employed between 1952 and 2000 at two RCF manufacturing facilities were followed to investigate a possible excess in mortality. The mortality analytic methods included: (1) standardized mortality ratios comparing this cohort to the general and state populations, and (2) a proportional hazards model that relates risk of death to the lifetime cumulative fiber-months/cc exposure among the RCF cohort, adjusted for age at hire and for race. There was no excess mortality related to all deaths, all cancers, or malignancies or diseases of the respiratory system including mesothelioma, but there was a statistically significant association with cancers of the urinary organs SMR = 344.8 (95% CL of 111.6, 805.4). The quality of the data for job history, exposure, and smoking history were very high. Although the cohort was relatively small and young with an average age of 51, the mean latency period was over 21 years. Because of these limitations, the preliminary findings warrant the continuation of this mortality registry for future analyses.

  18. Visual ergonomics interventions in mail sorting facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphälä, H; Hansson, G-Å; Dahlqvist, C; Eklund, J

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed between 2004 and 2011 at mail sorting facilities in Sweden. During this time, different interventions were performed. The first was a lighting intervention that had a positive impact on the postal workers, especially those with eyestrain. A new lighting system also improved the illuminance and gave better light distribution. The second intervention involved new personal spectacles for the postal workers who needed them and this had a positive effect on eyestrain. The third intervention involved a specific type of sorting spectacles for the postal workers who already used progressive lenses privately. The reading distances that the postal workers had while sorting the mail was inverted to the distances in their regular progressive lenses. The new sorting spectacles had a positive effect on head postures and on muscular activity.

  19. PROJECTIZING AN OPERATING NUCLEAR FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, N

    2007-07-08

    This paper will discuss the evolution of an operations-based organization to a project-based organization to facilitate successful deactivation of a major nuclear facility. It will describe the plan used for scope definition, staff reorganization, method estimation, baseline schedule development, project management training, and results of this transformation. It is a story of leadership and teamwork, pride and success. Workers at the Savannah River Site's (SRS) F Canyon Complex (FCC) started with a challenge--take all the hazardous byproducts from nearly 50 years of operations in a major, first-of-its-kind nuclear complex and safely get rid of them, leaving the facility cold, dark, dry and ready for whatever end state is ultimately determined by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). And do it in four years, with a constantly changing workforce and steadily declining funding. The goal was to reduce the overall operating staff by 93% and budget by 94%. The facilities, F Canyon and its adjoined sister, FB Line, are located at SRS, a 310-square-mile nuclear reservation near Aiken, S.C., owned by DOE and managed by Washington Group International subsidiary Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC). These facilities were supported by more than 50 surrounding buildings, whose purpose was to provide support services during operations. The radiological, chemical and industrial hazards inventory in the old buildings was significant. The historical mission at F Canyon was to extract plutonium-239 and uranium-238 from irradiated spent nuclear fuel through chemical processing. FB Line's mission included conversion of plutonium solutions into metal, characterization, stabilization and packaging, and storage of both metal and oxide forms. The plutonium metal was sent to another DOE site for use in weapons. Deactivation in F Canyon began when chemical separations activities were completed in 2002, and a cross-functional project team concept was implemented to

  20. Tobacco Workers in 1916

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    I looked at the women in the photo carefully,judging theirage from the style of their hair and clothes,and guessingtheir mood at the time when the photo was taken. On this photo there are about 50 workers from theNanyang Brothers Tobacco Company,who are sitting in thefactory working.It seems they are married women, for allwear their hair in buns.Behind them stand two men in white;they may be the foremen. Women tobacco workers were one branch of Chinesewomen workrs in modern industry.At the end of the 1900’s,the reeling.cotton spinning,match and cigarette trades usedwomen workers extensively.They were mainly employed inenterprises with more than 500 workers,chiefly in cotton,silkand weaving mills.They also amassed in the tobacco trade,

  1. Migrant Workers Fight Back

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUBO

    2005-01-01

    Zhao, aged 33, is a migrant worker in a shoe factory in Shenzhen, the prosperous southern Chinese city. He arrived there hve years ago from his home village in north Jiangsu province, a notoriously poverty struck region of China.

  2. Telecommuting: The Wired Worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilles, Jack M.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the use of home computers and how they allow the worker to work at home rather than commuting. Discusses the growing trend of telecommuting, cost of operation, how it will affect company structure, and productivity. (CT)

  3. Telecommuting: The Wired Worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilles, Jack M.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the use of home computers and how they allow the worker to work at home rather than commuting. Discusses the growing trend of telecommuting, cost of operation, how it will affect company structure, and productivity. (CT)

  4. Workers Compensation Claim Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains DOT employee workers compensation claim data for current and past DOT employees. Types of data include claim data consisting of PII data (SSN,...

  5. Stress in Humanitarian Workers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    In emerging countries, the consequences of stress remain undervalued. Stress ... hazards reducing workers' satisfaction and productivity,. 1-3 ... organizations and NGOs (renewable one-year contract) ... Job Related Stress Among Physicians.

  6. Chromosome aberrations determined by sFISH and G-banding in lymphocytes from workers with internal deposits of plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawn, E. Janet; Curwen, Gillian B.; Jonas, Patricia; Riddell, Anthony E.; Hodgson, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To examine the influence of α-particle radiation exposure from internally deposited plutonium on chromosome aberration frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes of workers from the Sellafield nuclear facility, UK. Materials and methods: Chromosome aberration data from historical single colour fluorescence in situ hybridization (sFISH) and Giemsa banding (G-banding) analyses, together with more recent sFISH results, were assessed using common aberration analysis criteria and revised radiation dosimetry. The combined sFISH group comprised 29 men with a mean internal red bone marrow dose of 21.0 mGy and a mean external γ-ray dose of 541 mGy. The G-banding group comprised 23 men with a mean internal red bone marrow dose of 23.0 mGy and a mean external γ-ray dose of 315 mGy. Results: Observed translocation frequencies corresponded to expectations based on age and external γ-ray dose with no need to postulate a contribution from α-particle irradiation of the red bone marrow by internally deposited plutonium. Frequencies of stable cells with complex aberrations, including insertions, were similar to those in a group of controls and a group of workers with external radiation exposure only, who were studied concurrently. In a similar comparison there is some suggestion of an increase in cells with unstable complex aberrations and this may reflect recent direct exposure to circulating lymphocytes. Conclusions: Reference to in vitro dose response data for the induction of stable aberrant cells by α-particle irradiation indicates that the low red bone marrow α-particle radiation doses received by the Sellafield workers would not result in a discernible increase in translocations, thus supporting the in vivo findings. Therefore, the greater risk from occupational radiation exposure of the bone marrow resulting in viable chromosomally aberrant cells comes from, in general, much larger γ-ray exposure in comparison to α-particle exposure from plutonium

  7. Dependency and Worker Flirting

    OpenAIRE

    Konecki, Krzysztof

    1990-01-01

    The present paper concentrates on 'worker flirting' as one of the forms of interactional ritual in the culture of an organization. It is thus only an illustration of the interactional dimension of the culture of an organization. The paper deals with interactional ritual in an industrial organization and is based on an empirical study carried out in a radio-electrical plant, "Z," which employs 1,500 workers. The author carried out a period of three-months covert participant observation and...

  8. Asian Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahata, M.

    2011-04-01

    Asian underground facilities are reviewed. The YangYang underground Laboratory in Korea and the Kamioka observatory in Japan are operational and several astrophysical experiments are running. Indian Neutrino Observatory(INO) and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) are under construction and underground experiments are being prepared. Current activities and future prospects at those underground sites are described.

  9. Advanced worker protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J. [Oceaneering Space Systems, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  10. Do sanitary ceramic workers have a worse presentation of chest radiographs or pulmonary function tests than other ceramic workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Yu-Chung; Liu, Su-Hsun; Tzeng, I-Shiang; Hsieh, Tsung-Han; Chen, Jau-Yuan; Luo, Jiin-Chyuan John

    2017-03-01

    Silicosis remains the most prevalent occupational disease worldwide. There have been no specific studies focusing on the association between exposure settings at work and the clinical severity in silicosis patients. In this study, we describe and compare the clinical characteristics and silicosis-associated exposure history at work among workers from several types of ceramic production facilities in Taiwan. We reviewed the medical records of 221 patients who were first diagnosed with silicosis at the Occupational Medicine Clinic of Northern Taiwan in 2012. For each patient, we collected data on demographic characteristics, smoking habits, working history, duration of exposure, and years on the first relevant job. We also retrieved clinical reports of the pulmonary function test and the baseline chest radiography used for silicosis staging. As compared to other ceramic workers, sanitary ceramic workers had a worse X-ray type (p=0.044), more advanced age (pceramic workers showed a comparable risk for worse X-ray findings to other ceramic workers (adjusted odds ratio=1.18, p=0.704). Results of multivariable regression models on individual lung function parameter also suggested comparably impaired lung function tests between sanitary and other ceramic workers (p>0.05). In this study, we found that sanitary ceramic workers were at a similar risk to other ceramic workers for moderate to severe silicosis when older age and longer working duration were accounted for. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Compassion Fatigue and Compassion Satisfaction among Residential Child Care Workers: The Role of Personality Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerach, Gadi

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed compassion fatigue (CF) and compassion satisfaction (CS) among Israeli residential child-care workers (RCWs) working in residential treatment facilities for children and youth at risk (N = 147) as compared to educational boarding schools workers (BSWs; N = 74). Furthermore, we assessed the relationship of potential…

  12. Local health workers' perceptions of substandard care in the management of obstetric hemorrhage in rural Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beltman, Jogchum Jan; van den Akker, Thomas; Bwirire, Dieudonne; Korevaar, Anneke; Chidakwani, Richard; van Lonkhuijzen, Luc; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2013-01-01

    Background: To identify factors contributing to the high incidence of facility-based obstetric hemorrhage in Thyolo District, Malawi, according to local health workers. Methods: Three focus group discussions among 29 health workers, including nurse-midwives and non-physician clinicians ('medical ass

  13. Teaching and Learning in Industries: Are We Malaysian Workers Really Ready for The E-training?

    OpenAIRE

    Hasmadi Hassan

    2012-01-01

    E-training style requires a strong readiness level among industrial workers in order to ensure that they gain its optimum advantages. The purpose of the study is to explore analytically how the demographic factors affect the computer usage attitude, computer literacy, computer facility and access technology. The study also explores analytically the e-training readiness level in terms of computer usage attitude, computer literacy, computer facility and technology access among industrial worker...

  14. Mortality through 1990 among white male workers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory: considering exposures to plutonium and external ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggs, L D; Johnson, E R; Cox-DeVore, C A; Voelz, G L

    1994-12-01

    A cohort mortality study was conducted of 15,727 white men employed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a nuclear research and development facility. Some of the workers at this facility have been exposed to various forms of ionizing radiation and other potentially hazardous materials. These analyses focused on whole-body ionizing radiation exposures and internal depositions of plutonium. The results indicated that overall mortality among this cohort is quite low, even after nearly 30 y of follow-up. No cause of death was significantly elevated among plutonium-exposed workers when compared with their unexposed coworkers; however, a rate ratio for lung cancer of 1.78 (95% CI = 0.79-3.99) was observed. A case of osteogenic sarcoma, a type of cancer related to plutonium exposure in animal studies, was also observed. Dose-response relationships for whole-body dose from external ionizing radiation and tritium were observed for cancers of the brain/central nervous system, the esophagus, and Hodgkin's disease.

  15. Overview of Dose Assessment Developments and the Health of Riverside Residents Close to the “Mayak” PA Facilities, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J.F. Standring

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA has been involved in studies related to the Mayak PA and the consequences of activities undertaken at the site for a number of years. This paper strives to present an overview of past and present activities at the Mayak PA and subsequent developments in the quantification of health effects on local populations caused by discharges of radioactive waste into the Techa River. Assessments of doses to affected populations have relied on the development of dose reconstruction techniques for both external and internal doses. Contamination levels are typically inhomogeneous and decrease with increasing distance from the discharge point. Citations made in this paper give a comprehensive, though not exhaustive, basis for further reading about this topic.

  16. The IRMA gamma irradiation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, L.; Raboin, M.; Corbiere, J. [IRSN, Fontenat-aux-roses (France)

    2011-07-01

    The IRMA cobalt-60 irradiation cell has been installed at the Saclay research centre (25 km from Paris) for 40 years. IRMA is a facility with a maximum authorized capacity of 1, 700 TBq (i.e. approx. 46, 000 Ci). It is a test facility intended primarily for research and development studies on how equipment and materials respond to dose or dose rate exposure. Cobalt-60 gamma photons are the reference in this field. Irradiation is panoramic and achieved using 4, independent, cylindrical sealed sources (11 mm in diameter and 452 mm in length). When not in use, the sources are stored in a lead cask with 0.30 m thick walls to allow safe access inside the cell (uncontaminated environment). With an internal volume of 24 m{sup 3}, it can accommodate a very wide variety of geometric configurations for exposure to gamma radiation. Available dose rates range from 5 {mu}Gy/h (which is the background radiation in the cell when the sources are enclosed in their lead cask) to 25 kGy/h (value obtained 10 cm from a source holder containing all four sources). The resulting doses can be used in experiments representing relatively extreme situations (reactor accidents, dose after x years for equipment in hot cells, reprocessing plants, and so on).The IRMA facility has performed several irradiation tests on new components for EPR and LWR. The IRMA facility is also adapted to check the performance of new biological shieldings and protections for reactors and reprocessing plants. In several other fields of nuclear applications, this facility is useful to characterize and calibrate radiation detectors for the nuclear, space, and military industries

  17. Difficulties facing healthcare workers in the era of AIDS treatment in Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koto, Masebeo Veronica; Maharaj, Pranitha

    2016-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected by the AIDS pandemic and Lesotho is no exception. In many countries, healthcare workers are at the forefront of the fight against AIDS. This study explores the difficulties facing healthcare workers in Lesotho using a combination of qualitative methods--focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. The findings suggest that healthcare workers are afraid of contracting HIV from their patients and this affects their delivery of services. In addition, the results revealed that poor infrastructure and shortage of supplies at the facilities hinder healthcare workers from performing their duties effectively. The other concern was the heavy workload and severe time constraints which puts enormous stress on healthcare workers. Stigma and discrimination emerged as major problems for healthcare workers. Addressing the challenges facing healthcare workers is essential in effectively managing the AIDS pandemic facing the continent.

  18. Incomplete data on the Canadian cohort may have affected the results of the study by the International Agency for Research on Cancer on the radiogenic cancer risk among nuclear industry workers in 15 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, J Patrick; Gentner, Norman E; Osborne, Richard V

    2010-06-01

    In 1995 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) completed a study that involved nuclear workers from facilities in the USA, UK and Canada. The only significant, though weak, dose-related associations found were for leukaemia and multiple myeloma. The results for the Canadian cohort, which comprised workers from the facilities of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), were compatible with those for the other national cohorts. In 2005, IARC completed a further study, involving nuclear workers from 15 countries, including Canada. In these results, the dose-related risk for leukaemia was not significant but the prominent finding was a statistically significant excess relative risk per sievert (ERR Sv(-1)) for 'all cancers excluding leukaemia'. Surprisingly, the risk ascribed to the Canadian cohort for all cancers excluding leukaemia, driven by the AECL sub-cohort, was significantly higher than the risk estimate for the 15-country cohort as a whole. We have attempted to identify why the results for the AECL cohort were so discrepant and had such a remarkable influence on the 15-country risk estimate. When considering the issues associated with data on the AECL cohorts and their handling, we noted a striking feature: a major change in outcome of studies that involved Canadian nuclear workers occurred concomitantly with the shift to when data from the National Dose Registry (NDR) of Canada were used directly rather than data from records at AECL. We concluded that an important contributor to the considerable upward shift in apparent risk in the 15-country and other Canadian studies that have been based on the NDR probably relates to pre-1971 data and, in particular, the absence from the NDR of the person-years of workers who had zero doses in the calendar years 1956 to 1970. Our recommendation was for there to be a comprehensive evaluation of the risks from radiation in nuclear industry workers in Canada, organisation by organisation, in which some of the

  19. Security culture for nuclear facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deeksha; Bajramovic, Edita

    2017-01-01

    Natural radioactive elements are part of our environment and radioactivity is a natural phenomenon. There are numerous beneficial applications of radioactive elements (radioisotopes) and radiation, starting from power generation to usages in medical, industrial and agriculture applications. But the risk of radiation exposure is always attached to operational workers, the public and the environment. Hence, this risk has to be assessed and controlled. The main goal of safety and security measures is to protect human life, health, and the environment. Currently, nuclear security considerations became essential along with nuclear safety as nuclear facilities are facing rapidly increase in cybersecurity risks. Therefore, prevention and adequate protection of nuclear facilities from cyberattacks is the major task. Historically, nuclear safety is well defined by IAEA guidelines while nuclear security is just gradually being addressed by some new guidance, especially the IAEA Nuclear Security Series (NSS), IEC 62645 and some national regulations. At the overall level, IAEA NSS 7 describes nuclear security as deterrence and detection of, and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear, other radioactive substances and their associated facilities. Nuclear security should be included throughout nuclear facilities. Proper implementation of a nuclear security culture leads to staff vigilance and a high level of security posture. Nuclear security also depends on policy makers, regulators, managers, individual employees and members of public. Therefore, proper education and security awareness are essential in keeping nuclear facilities safe and secure.

  20. Visualization of a changing dose field.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, T. M (Terry M.); Kornreich, D. E. (Drew E.)

    2002-01-01

    To help visualize the results of dose modeling for nuclear materials processing opcrations, we have developed an integrated model that uses a simple dosc calculation tool to obtain estimates of the dose field in a complex geomctry and then post-process the data to produce a video of the now time-dependent data. We generate two-dimensional radiation fields within an existing physical cnvironment and then analyze them using three-dimensional visualization techniques. The radiation fields are generated for both neutrons and photons. Standard monoenergetic diffusion theory is used to estimate the neutron dosc fields. The photon dose is estimated using a point-kernel formalism, with photon shielding effects and buildup taken into account. The radiation field dynamics are analyzed by interleaving individual 3D graphic 'snapshots' into a smoothed, lime dependent, video-based display. In-the-room workers are 'seen' in the radiation fields via a graphical, 3D fly-through rendering of the room. Worker dose levels can reveal surprising dependencies on operational source placement, source types, worker alignment, shielding alignments, and indirect operations from external workers.

  1. Measurement and evaluation of internal dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae-Young; Chang, S.Y.; Lee, J.I.; Song, M.Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    This report describes the contents and results for implementation of internal radiation monitoring programme, measurement of uranium lung deposition by lung counter and assessment of committed effective dose for radiation workers of KNFC. The aim of radiation protection was achieved by implementing this activity. 3 refs., 6 tabs. (Author)

  2. Measurement and evaluation of internal dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae Young; Chang, S. Y.; Lee, J. I.; Song, M. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the contents and results for implementation of internal radiating monitoring programme, measurement of uranium present in lung by lung counter and assessment of committed effective dose for radiation workers of KNFC. The aim of radiation protection was achieved by implementing this activity. 8 refs., 14 tabs. (Author)

  3. Measurement and evaluation of internal dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae Young; Chang, S.Y.; Lee, J.I.; Song, M.Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the contents and results for implementation of internal radiation monitoring programme, measurement of uranium present in lung by lung counter and assessment of committed effective dose for radiation workers of KNFC. The aim of radiation protection was achieved by implementing this activity. 4 refs., 12 tabs. (Author)

  4. Health worker perspectives on user fee removal in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carasso Barbara S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background User fees for primary care services were removed in rural districts in Zambia in 2006. Experience from other countries has suggested that health workers play a key role in determining the success of a fee removal policy, but also find the implementation of such a policy challenging. The policy was introduced against a backdrop of a major shortage in qualified health staff. Methods As part of a larger study on the experience and effect of user fee removal in Zambia, a number of case studies at the facility level were conducted. As part of these, quantitative and qualitative data were collected to evaluate health workers’ satisfaction and experiences in charging and non-charging facilities. Results Our findings show that health-care workers have mixed feelings about the policy change and its consequences. We found some evidence that personnel motivation was higher in non-charging facilities compared to facilities still charging. Yet it is unclear whether this effect was due to differences in the user fee policy or to the fact that a lot of staff interviewed in non-charging facilities were working in mission facilities, where we found a significantly higher motivation. Health workers expressed satisfaction with an apparent increase in the number of patients visiting the facilities and the removal of a deterring factor for many needy patients, but also complained about an increased workload. Furthermore, working conditions were said to have worsened, which staff felt was linked to the absence of additional resources to deal with the increased demand or replace the loss of revenue generated by fees. Conclusion These findings highlight the need to pay attention to supply-side measures when removing demand-side barriers such as user fees and in particular to be concerned about the burden that increased demand can place on already over-stretched health workers.

  5. The impact of the National HIV Health Care Worker Hotline on patient care in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinkel Hans-Friedemann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa has a huge burden of illness due to HIV infection. Many health care workers managing HIV infected patients, particularly those in rural areas and primary care health facilities, have minimal access to information resources and to advice and support from experienced clinicians. The Medicines Information Centre, based in the Division of Clinical Pharmacology at the University of Cape Town, has been running the National HIV Health Care Worker (HCW Hotline since 2008, providing free information for HIV treatment-related queries via telephone, fax and e-mail. Results A questionnaire-based study showed that 224 (44% of the 511 calls that were received by the hotline during the 2-month study period were patient-specific. Ninety-four completed questionnaires were included in the analysis. Of these, 72 (77% were from doctors, 13 (14% from pharmacists and 9 (10% from nurses. 96% of the callers surveyed took an action based on the advice received from the National HIV HCW Hotline. The majority of actions concerned the start, dose adaption, change, or discontinuation of medicines. Less frequent actions taken were adherence and lifestyle counselling, further investigations, referring or admission of patients. Conclusions The information provided by the National HIV HCW Hotline on patient-specific requests has a direct impact on the management of patients.

  6. Carbon monoxide exposure in blast furnace workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S; Mason, C; Srna, J

    1992-09-01

    This study investigated the occupational exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) of a group of blast furnace workers from an integrated steelworks, compared to a control group having no significant occupational CO exposure from other areas in the same works. The study was undertaken in 1984 at Port Kembla, New South Wales. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels before and after an eight-hour work shift were measured in 98 male steelworkers: 52 from two CO-exposed iron blast furnaces and 46 controls from production areas in the same steelworks. The sample was stratified by smoking habits. Environmental air CO levels had been found to be consistently higher on one furnace than on the other. Absorption of CO from the working environment occurred in workers on the blast furnace with higher CO levels, regardless of smoking habits. On this blast furnace, some readings of COHb levels after a workshift in nonsmokers approached the proposed Australian occupational limit of 5 per cent COHb saturation. Overall, workers with the highest occupational exposure who smoked most heavily had the highest absorption of CO over a work shift. Biological monitoring gives an accurate measure of individual worker 'dose' of CO from all sources. Both environmental monitoring and biological monitoring need to be included as part of a program for controlling occupational CO exposure.

  7. Decontamination and dismantlement of the building 594 waste ion exchange facility at Argonne National Laboratory-East project final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, E. C.

    1998-11-23

    The Building 594 D&D Project was directed toward the following goals: Removal of any radioactive and hazardous materials associated with the Waste Ion Exchange Facility; Decontamination of the Waste Ion Exchange Facility to unrestricted use levels; Demolition of Building 594; and Documentation of all project activities affecting quality (i.e., waste packaging, instrument calibration, audit results, and personnel exposure) These goals had been set in order to eliminate the radiological and hazardous safety concerns inherent in the Waste Ion Exchange Facility and to allow, upon completion of the project, unescorted and unmonitored access to the area. The ion exchange system and the resin contained in the system were the primary areas of concern, while the condition of the building which housed the system was of secondary concern. ANL-E health physics technicians characterized the Building 594 Waste Ion Exchange Facility in September 1996. The characterization identified a total of three radionuclides present in the Waste Ion Exchange Facility with a total activity of less than 5 {micro}Ci (175 kBq). The radionuclides of concern were Co{sup 60}, Cs{sup 137}, and Am{sup 241}. The highest dose rates observed during the project were associated with the resin in the exchange vessels. DOE Order 5480.2A establishes the maximum whole body exposure for occupational workers at 5 rem (50 mSv)/yr; the administrative limit at ANL-E is 1 rem/yr (10 mSv/yr).

  8. Constructing Predictive Estimates for Worker Exposure to Radioactivity During Decommissioning: Analysis of Completed Decommissioning Projects - Master Thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettmers, Dana Lee; Eide, Steven Arvid

    2002-10-01

    An analysis of completed decommissioning projects is used to construct predictive estimates for worker exposure to radioactivity during decommissioning activities. The preferred organizational method for the completed decommissioning project data is to divide the data by type of facility, whether decommissioning was performed on part of the facility or the complete facility, and the level of radiation within the facility prior to decommissioning (low, medium, or high). Additional data analysis shows that there is not a downward trend in worker exposure data over time. Also, the use of a standard estimate for worker exposure to radioactivity may be a best estimate for low complete storage, high partial storage, and medium reactor facilities; a conservative estimate for some low level of facility radiation facilities (reactor complete, research complete, pits/ponds, other), medium partial process facilities, and high complete research facilities; and an underestimate for the remaining facilities. Limited data are available to compare different decommissioning alternatives, so the available data are reported and no conclusions can been drawn. It is recommended that all DOE sites and the NRC use a similar method to document worker hours, worker exposure to radiation (person-rem), and standard industrial accidents, injuries, and deaths for all completed decommissioning activities.

  9. Occupational dose reduction developments and data collected at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Baum, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Occupational dose reduction developments and data collected at nuclear power plants have been described. Written descriptions of repetitive high dose jobs, their collective dose equivalent ranges and list of dose reduction techniques will aid in reducing collective dose equivalents from these dose-reduction targets. Knowing which components contribute to high maintenance or repair dose will aid in reducing routine maintenance collective dose equivalents. The radwaste dose reduction improvements will aid in reducing radwaste operations collective dose equivalent and reduce the number of radwaste workers who exceed their administrative dose limits. The identification and rating of managers' and workers' ALARA incentives will provide the basis for recommendations to improve dose reduction incentives. Lastly, the identification and rating of the key components of an ALARA program will aid in

  10. Evolution of worker policing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejarz, Jason W; Allen, Benjamin; Veller, Carl; Gadagkar, Raghavendra; Nowak, Martin A

    2016-06-21

    Workers in insect societies are sometimes observed to kill male eggs of other workers, a phenomenon known as worker policing. We perform a mathematical analysis of the evolutionary dynamics of policing. We investigate the selective forces behind policing for both dominant and recessive mutations for different numbers of matings of the queen. The traditional, relatedness-based argument suggests that policing evolves if the queen mates with more than two males, but does not evolve if the queen mates with a single male. We derive precise conditions for the invasion and stability of policing alleles. We find that the relatedness-based argument is not robust with respect to small changes in colony efficiency caused by policing. We also calculate evolutionarily singular strategies and determine when they are evolutionarily stable. We use a population genetics approach that applies to dominant or recessive mutations of any effect size. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Migration of health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, James

    2008-01-01

    The discussion and debate stimulated by these papers focused across a range of issues but there were four main areas of questioning: "measuring" and monitoring migration (issues related to comparability, completeness and accuracy of data sets on human resources); the impact of migration of health workers on health systems; the motivations of individual health workers to migrate (the "push" and "pull" factors) and the effect of policies designed either to reduce migration (e.g "self ufficiency") or to stimulate it (e.g active international recruitment). It was recognised that there was a critical need to examine migratory flows within the broader context of all health care labour market dynamics within a country, that increasing migration of health workers was an inevitable consequence of globalisation, and that there was a critical need to improve monitoring so as to better inform policy formulation and policy testing in this area.

  12. Emission Facilities - Erosion & Sediment Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Erosion and Sediment Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control program. The following sub-facility types related to...

  13. The older worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulks, J S; Fallon, L F

    2001-01-01

    About one person in eight remains employed past 65, the average age for retirement in the U.S. These persons tend to be highly reliable. They can adapt and learn new technology, but may require extra time to do so. Older workers have particular needs in the workplace due to physiological changes that accompany aging. They may require more lighting, and they may have decreased mobility, physical strength, and dexterity. These factors often have no impact on their ability to accomplish job duties. This chapter underscores the significant contributions that older workers often provide, and also addresses retirement planning.

  14. Shielding design and dose assessment for accelerator based neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, W B; Yanch, J C

    1995-05-01

    Preparations are ongoing to test the viability and usefulness of an accelerator source of epithermal neutrons for ultimate use in a clinical environment. This feasibility study is to be conducted in a shielded room located on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology campus and will not involve patient irradiations. The accelerator production of neutrons is based on the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction, and a maximum proton beam current of 4 mA at an energy of 2.5 MeV is anticipated. The resultant 3.58 x 10(12) neutrons s-1 have a maximum energy of 800 keV and will be substantially moderated. This paper describes the Monte Carlo methods used to estimate the neutron and photon dose rates in a variety of locations in the vicinity of the accelerator, as well as the shielding configuration required when the device is run at maximum current. Results indicate that the highest absorbed dose rate to which any individual will be exposed is 3 microSv h-1 (0.3 mrem h-1). The highest possible yearly dose is 0.2 microSv (2 x 10(-2) mrem) to the general public or 0.9 mSv (90 mrem) to a radiation worker in close proximity to the accelerator facility. The shielding necessary to achieve these dose levels is also discussed.

  15. Dose-mapping distribution around MNSR

    CERN Document Server

    Jamal, M H

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establish the dose-rate map through the determination of radiological dose-rate levels in reactor hall, adjacent rooms, and outside the MNSR facility. Controlling dose rate to reactor operating personnel , dose map was established. The map covers time and distances in the reactor hall, during reactor operation at nominal power. Different measurement of dose rates in other areas of the reactor buildings was established. The maximum dose rate, during normal operation of the MNSR was 40 and 21 Sv/hr on the top of the reactor and near the pool fence, respectively. Whereas, gamma and neutron doses have not exceeded natural background in all rooms adjacent to the reactor hall or nearly buildings. The relation between the dose rate for gamma rays and neutron flux at the top of cover of reactor pool was studied as well. It was found that this relation is linear.

  16. Low doses controversy; La controverse des faibles doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, R. [Office de Protection contre les Rayonnements Ionisants, 78 -le Vesinet (France); Carde, C. [EDF, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    In this article is studied the question of low dose irradiation. From this question, the risk assessment and how it is perceived in public opinion is studied. Then, it is more generally, the question of public opinion and the information made by the media which is discussed. Different events and how they were related in press are reviewed: leukemia around La Hague, human guinea-pigs for plutonium, Chernobyl consequences, survivors from Hiroshima, nuclear nomads ( for temporary workers and their bad medical surveillance ), radioactive effluents releases from La Hague, Valduc or Cattenom. (N.C.).

  17. Workers in Building 181 - LHC Magnet Assembly Facility building (1996)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN audiovisual service

    1996-01-01

    Montage et assemblage des laminations en acier pour le circuit magnétique du dipole.Prépa a la soudure d'un Dipole sous la presse spéciale "NOELL"Sortie du dipole qui a été soudé en la présence de L. EvansNettoyage et préparation des cryostats avant introduction du dipoleMontage et alignement d'un demi-ensemble de laminations acier, de la bobine et de l'autre demi-ensemble.Initiation aux futurs contrats de fabrication avec les sociétés industrielles.

  18. General radiation management situation at the first stage of accident occurrence. Fire and explosion of asphalt solidification processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Kimio; Shimizu, Takehiko; Ishiguro, Shuji [Health and Safety Division, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Fire accident in the cell of Asphalt Solidification Processing Facility (ASP) in PNC took placed at 10:06 a.m., March 11, 1997. Explosion accident occurred subsequently in the ASP at 8:04 p.m. of the day about 10 hours later. The accident which included loss of confinement function of the cell, release of radioactive materials to the working environment, evacuation of many workers, radioactive materials intake of the workers, alarm of many radiation monitoring system, diffusion of radiation materials to off-site, required the radiation management division to take a prompt and wide-ranging protective action. No one was inflicted an external injury by the accident. The workers who inhaled a few radioactive materials, such as Cs-137, were 37 in number. The maximum committed effective dose equivalent or a person was estimated 0.4-1.6 mSv, taking account of the effects of alpha-ray emission nuclides. Radioactive materials were released outside through the raptured windows of the facility. Radioactive nuclides, such as Cs, Sr, Pu, and Am were detected in site by the environmental monitoring. A small quantity of Cs was detected in the aerosols of Oarai area, where is located at about 20 km south-south-west distant from the accidental site. The total amount of effluent throughout the accident was estimated about 1-4 GBq for {beta}-ray emission nuclides, excluding C-14, and about 1x10{sup -4}-4 x 10{sup -3} GBq for {alpha}-ray emission nuclides. The maximum committed effective dose equivalent for the general public was estimated about 1x10{sup -3}-2 x 10{sup -2} mSv. (M. Suetake)

  19. General radiation management situation at the first stage of accident occurrence. Fire and explosion of asphalt solidification processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Kimio; Shimizu, Takehiko; Ishiguro, Shuji [Health and Safety Division, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Fire accident in the cell of Asphalt Solidification Processing Facility (ASP) in PNC took placed at 10:06 a.m., March 11, 1997. Explosion accident occurred subsequently in the ASP at 8:04 p.m. of the day about 10 hours later. The accident which included loss of confinement function of the cell, release of radioactive materials to the working environment, evacuation of many workers, radioactive materials intake of the workers, alarm of many radiation monitoring system, diffusion of radiation materials to off-site, required the radiation management division to take a prompt and wide-ranging protective action. No one was inflicted an external injury by the accident. The workers who inhaled a few radioactive materials, such as Cs-137, were 37 in number. The maximum committed effective dose equivalent or a person was estimated 0.4-1.6 mSv, taking account of the effects of alpha-ray emission nuclides. Radioactive materials were released outside through the raptured windows of the facility. Radioactive nuclides, such as Cs, Sr, Pu, and Am were detected in site by the environmental monitoring. A small quantity of Cs was detected in the aerosols of Oarai area, where is located at about 20 km south-south-west distant from the accidental site. The total amount of effluent throughout the accident was estimated about 1-4 GBq for {beta}-ray emission nuclides, excluding C-14, and about 1x10{sup -4}-4 x 10{sup -3} GBq for {alpha}-ray emission nuclides. The maximum committed effective dose equivalent for the general public was estimated about 1x10{sup -3}-2 x 10{sup -2} mSv. (M. Suetake)

  20. Globalization and workers' health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawachi, Ichiro

    2008-10-01

    The global integration of economies worldwide has led to increased pressure for "labor flexibility". A notable aspect of this trend has been the rise in non-standard work arrangements, which include part-time work, temporary agency-based work, fixed-term contingent work, and independent contracting. Although non-standard work arrangements are convenient for employers, they are often associated with poor pay, absence of pension and health benefits, as well as lack of protection from unions and labor laws. Studies have begun to address the question of whether these "precarious" jobs pose a health hazard for workers. The challenge for causal inference is that precarious workers are likely to differ from non-precarious workers in a variety of characteristics that also influence health outcomes, i.e. there is confounding and selection bias. However, even after taking account of these biases--through propensity score-matched analysis--there is evidence to suggest that non-standard work may be damaging to workers' health. Policies modeled after the European Union's Directive on Part-Time Work may help to mitigate some of the health hazards associated with precarious work.

  1. Battling for Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s labor pool is not running dry, but migrant workers are expecting more from cities For most of China’s 240 million farmers who leave their hometowns for manualobs in cities, the only opportunity for family reunion is the Spring Festival,or Lunar New

  2. Chinese Workers' Real Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ A new generation different from their elders Cheap labor has built Chinas economic miracle.As China's economy has bounced back,wages have followed suit.But,for the new generation of Chinese migrant workers,wages are not enough to meet their needs.

  3. WORKERS FINDING A VOICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The recent cases of U.S. fast-food giants McDonald’s and KFC, accused of underpaying and exploiting part-time workers in their Chinese branches, have put labor relations under the spotlight. With deepening market-oriented economic reforms and an increasi

  4. Immigrants and Native Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette; Peri, Giovanni

    Using a database that includes the universe of individuals and establishments in Denmark over the period 1991-2008 we analyze the effect of a large inflow of non-European (EU) immigrants on Danish workers. We first identify a sharp and sustained supply-driven increase in the inflow of non...

  5. Retention of health workers in Malawi: perspectives of health workers and district management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLachlan Malcolm

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shortage of human resources is a major problem facing Malawi, where more than 50% of the population lives in rural areas. Most of the district health services are provided by clinical health officers specially trained to provide services that would normally be provided by fully qualified doctors or specialists. As this cadre and the cadre of enrolled nurses are the mainstay of the Malawian health service at the district level, it is important that they are supported and motivated to deliver a good standard of service to the population. This study explores how these cadres are managed and motivated and the impact this has on their performance. Methods A quantitative survey measured health workers' job satisfaction, perceptions of the work environment and sense of justice in the workplace, and was reported elsewhere. It emerged that health workers were particularly dissatisfied with what they perceived as unfair access to continuous education and career advancement opportunities, as well as inadequate supervision. These issues and their contribution to demotivation, from the perspective of both management and health workers, were further explored by means of qualitative techniques. Focus group discussions were held with health workers, and key-informant interviews were conducted with members of district health management teams and human resource officers in the Ministry of Health. The focus groups used convenience sampling that included all the different cadres of health workers available and willing to participate on the day the research team visited the health facility. The interviews targeted district health management teams in three districts and the human resources personnel in the Ministry of Health, also sampling those who were available and agreed to participate. Results The results showed that health workers consider continuous education and career progression strategies to be inadequate. Standard human resource

  6. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research FacilityFacilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other facilities...

  7. Theme: Laboratory Facilities Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Glen M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Laboratory Facilities Improvement" (Miller); "Remodeling Laboratories for Agriscience Instruction" (Newman, Johnson); "Planning for Change" (Mulcahy); "Laboratory Facilities Improvement for Technology Transfer" (Harper); "Facilities for Agriscience Instruction" (Agnew et al.); "Laboratory Facility Improvement" (Boren, Dwyer); and…

  8. 75 FR 47644 - General Electric Company, Transportation Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... 3, 2010, the USCIT remanded United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America, Local 506 v..., Pennsylvania (hereafter referred to as the subject facility). On July 1, 2009, United Electrical, Radio and... the subject facility. In accordance with section 223 of the Act, 19 U.S.C. 2273, I make the...

  9. Optimization of Routine Monitoring of Workers Exposed to Plutonium Aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davesne, Estelle; Quesne, Benoit; De Vita, Antoine; Chojnacki, Eric; Blanchardon, Eric; Franck, Didier

    2016-10-01

    In case of incidental confinement failure, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel preparation may expose workers to plutonium aerosols. Due to its potential toxicity, occupational exposure to plutonium compounds should be kept as low as reasonably achievable. To ensure the absence of significant intake of radionuclides, workers at risk of internal contamination are monitored by periodic bioassay planned in a routine monitoring programme. From bioassay results, internal dose may be estimated. However, accurate dose calculation relies on known exposure conditions, which are rarely available when the exposure is demonstrated by routine monitoring only. Therefore, internal dose calculation is subject to uncertainty from unknown exposure conditions and from activity measurement variability. The present study calculates the minimum detectable dose (MDD) for a routine monitoring programme by considering all plausible conditions of exposure and measurement uncertainty. The MDD evaluates the monitoring quality and can be used for optimization. Here, MDDs were calculated for the monitoring of workers preparing MOX fuel. Uncertain parameters were modelled by probability distributions defined according to information provided by experts of routine monitoring, of workplace radiological protection and of bioassay analysis. Results show that the current monitoring is well adapted to potential exposure. A sensitivity study of MDD highlights high dependence on exposure condition modelling. Integrating all expert knowledge is therefore crucial to obtain reliable MDD estimates, stressing the value of a holistic approach to worker monitoring.

  10. Cancer risk in diagnostic radiation workers in Korea from 1996–2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Ha, Mina; Lee, Won Jin; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Jeong, Meeseon; Jin, Young-Woo; Kim, Hyeog Ju; Lee, Kwang-Yong; Lee, Jung-Eun; Kang, Jong-Won; Kim, Heon

    2013-01-14

    This study was aimed to examine the association between the effective radiation dose of diagnostic radiation workers in Korea and their risk for cancer. A total of 36,394 diagnostic radiation workers (159,189 person-years) were included in this study; the effective dose and cancer incidence were analyzed between the period 1996 and 2002. Median (range) follow-up time was 5.5 (0.04-7) years in males and 3.75 (0.04-7) years in females. Cancer risk related to the average annual effective dose and exposure to more than 5 mSv of annual radiation dose were calculated by the Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for occupation and age at the last follow-up. The standardized incidence ratio of cancer in radiation workers showed strong healthy worker effects in both male and female workers. The relative risk of all cancers from exposure of the average annual effective dose in the highest quartile (upper 75% or more of radiation dose) was 2.14 in male workers (95% CI: 1.48-3.10, p-trend: <0.0001) and 4.43 in female workers (95% CI: 2.17-9.04, p-trend: <0.0001), compared to those in the lower three quartiles of radiation exposure dose (less than upper 75% of radiation dose). Cancer risks of the brain (HR: 17.38, 95% CI: 1.05-287.8, p-trend: 0.04) and thyroid (HR: 3.88, 95% CI: 1.09-13.75, p-trend: 0.01) in female workers were significantly higher in the highest quartile group of radiation exposure compared to those in the lower three quartiles, and the risk of colon and rectum cancers in male workers showed a significantly increasing trend according to the increase of the average annual radiation dose (HR: 2.37, 95% CI: 0.99-5.67, p-trend: 0.02). The relative risk of leukemia in male workers and that of brain cancer in female workers were significantly higher in the group of people who had been exposed to more than 5 mSv/year than those exposed to less than 5 mSv/year (HR: 11.75, 95% CI: 1.08-128.20; HR: 63.11, 95% CI: 3.70-1,075.00, respectively). Although the present study

  11. "Othering" the health worker: self-stigmatization of HIV/AIDS care among health workers in Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries Daniel H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV is an important factor affecting healthcare workforce capacity in high-prevalence countries, such as Swaziland. It contributes to loss of valuable healthcare providers directly through death and absenteeism and indirectly by affecting family members, increasing work volume and decreasing performance. This study explored perceived barriers to accessing HIV/AIDS care and prevention services among health workers in Swaziland. We asked health workers about their views on how HIV affects Swaziland's health workforce and what barriers and strategies health workers have for addressing HIV and using healthcare treatment facilities. Methods Thirty-four semi-structured, in-depth interviews, including a limited set of quantitative questions, were conducted among health workers at health facilities representing the mixture of facility type, level and location found in the Swaziland health system. Data were collected by a team of Swazi nurses who had received training in research methods. Study sites were selected using a purposive sampling method while health workers were sampled conveniently with attention to representing a mixture of different cadres. Data were analyzed using Nvivo qualitative analysis software and Excel. Results Health workers reported that HIV had a range of negative impacts on their colleagues and identified HIV testing and care as one of the most important services to offer health workers. They overwhelmingly wanted to know their own HIV status. However, they also indicated that in general, health workers were reluctant to access testing or care as they feared stigmatization by patients and colleagues and breaches of confidentiality. They described a self-stigmatization related to a professional need to maintain a HIV-free status, contrasting with the HIV-vulnerable general population. Breaching of this boundary included feelings of professional embarrassment and fear of colleagues' and patients' judgements

  12. Comparison of Design and Practices for Radiation Safety among Five Synchrotron Radiation Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, James C.; Rokni, Sayed H.; /SLAC; Asano, Yoshihiro; /JAERI-RIKEN, Hyogo; Casey, William R.; /Brookhaven; Donahue, Richard J.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2005-06-29

    There are more and more third-generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities in the world that utilize low emittance electron (or positron) beam circulating in a storage ring to generate synchrotron light for various types of experiments. A storage ring based SR facility consists of an injector, a storage ring, and many SR beamlines. When compared to other types of accelerator facilities, the design and practices for radiation safety of storage ring and SR beamlines are unique to SR facilities. Unlike many other accelerator facilities, the storage ring and beamlines of a SR facility are generally above ground with users and workers occupying the experimental floor frequently. The users are generally non-radiation workers and do not wear dosimeters, though basic facility safety training is required. Thus, the shielding design typically aims for an annual dose limit of 100 mrem over 2000 h without the need for administrative control for radiation hazards. On the other hand, for operational and cost considerations, the concrete ring wall (both lateral and ratchet walls) is often desired to be no more than a few feet thick (with an even thinner roof). Most SR facilities have similar operation modes and beam parameters (both injection and stored) for storage ring and SR beamlines. The facility typically operates almost full year with one-month start-up period, 10-month science program for experiments (with short accelerator physics studies and routine maintenance during the period of science program), and a month-long shutdown period. A typical operational mode for science program consists of long periods of circulating stored beam (which decays with a lifetime in tens of hours), interposed with short injection events (in minutes) to fill the stored current. The stored beam energy ranges from a few hundreds MeV to 10 GeV with a low injection beam power (generally less than 10 watts). The injection beam energy can be the same as, or lower than, the stored beam energy

  13. Workers' marginal costs of commuting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ommeren, Jos; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies a dynamic search model to estimate workers' marginal costs of commuting, including monetary and time costs. Using data on workers' job search activity as well as moving behaviour, for the Netherlands, we provide evidence that, on average, workers' marginal costs of one hour...

  14. Health facility committees and facility management - exploring the nature and depth of their roles in Coast Province, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Catherine; Opwora, Antony; Kabare, Margaret; Molyneux, Sassy

    2011-09-22

    Community participation has been emphasized internationally as a way of enhancing accountability, as well as a means to enhance health goals in terms of coverage, access and effective utilization. In rural health facilities in Kenya, initiatives to increase community accountability have focused on Health Facility Committees (HFCs). In Coast Province the role of HFCs has been expanded with the introduction of direct funding of rural facilities. We explored the nature and depth of managerial engagement of HFCs at the facility level in two rural districts in this Coastal setting, and how this has contributed to community accountability We conducted structured interviews with the health worker in-charge and with patients in 30 health centres and dispensaries. These data were supplemented with in-depth interviews with district managers, and with health workers and HFC members in 12 health centres and dispensaries. In-depth interviews with health workers and HFC members included a participatory exercise to stimulate discussion of the nature and depth of their roles in facility management. HFCs were generally functioning well and played an important role in facility operations. The breadth and depth of engagement had reportedly increased after the introduction of direct funding of health facilities which allowed HFCs to manage their own budgets. Although relations with facility staff were generally good, some mistrust was expressed between HFC members and health workers, and between HFC members and the broader community, partially reflecting a lack of clarity in HFC roles. Moreover, over half of exit interviewees were not aware of the HFC's existence. Women and less well-educated respondents were particularly unlikely to know about the HFC. There is potential for HFCs to play an active and important role in health facility management, particularly where they have control over some facility level resources. However, to optimise their contribution, efforts are needed to

  15. Health facility committees and facility management - exploring the nature and depth of their roles in Coast Province, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabare Margaret

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community participation has been emphasized internationally as a way of enhancing accountability, as well as a means to enhance health goals in terms of coverage, access and effective utilization. In rural health facilities in Kenya, initiatives to increase community accountability have focused on Health Facility Committees (HFCs. In Coast Province the role of HFCs has been expanded with the introduction of direct funding of rural facilities. We explored the nature and depth of managerial engagement of HFCs at the facility level in two rural districts in this Coastal setting, and how this has contributed to community accountability Methods We conducted structured interviews with the health worker in-charge and with patients in 30 health centres and dispensaries. These data were supplemented with in-depth interviews with district managers, and with health workers and HFC members in 12 health centres and dispensaries. In-depth interviews with health workers and HFC members included a participatory exercise to stimulate discussion of the nature and depth of their roles in facility management. Results HFCs were generally functioning well and played an important role in facility operations. The breadth and depth of engagement had reportedly increased after the introduction of direct funding of health facilities which allowed HFCs to manage their own budgets. Although relations with facility staff were generally good, some mistrust was expressed between HFC members and health workers, and between HFC members and the broader community, partially reflecting a lack of clarity in HFC roles. Moreover, over half of exit interviewees were not aware of the HFC's existence. Women and less well-educated respondents were particularly unlikely to know about the HFC. Conclusions There is potential for HFCs to play an active and important role in health facility management, particularly where they have control over some facility level resources

  16. Immigrants and Native Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette; Peri, Giovanni

    Using a database that includes the universe of individuals and establishments in Denmark over the period 1991-2008 we analyze the effect of a large inflow of non-European (EU) immigrants on Danish workers. We first identify a sharp and sustained supply-driven increase in the inflow of non......-EU immigrants in Denmark, beginning in 1995 and driven by a sequence of international events such as the Bosnian, Somalian and Iraqi crises. We then look at the response of occupational complexity, job upgrading and downgrading, wage and employment of natives in the short and long run. We find...... that the increased supply of non-EU low skilled immigrants pushed native workers to pursue more complex occupations. This reallocation happened mainly through movement across firms. Immigration increased mobility of natives across firms and across municipalities but it did not increase their probability...

  17. Target Area design basis and system performance for the National Ignition Facility. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, M.; Karpenko, V.; Hagans, K.; Anderson, A.; Latkowski, J.; Warren, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Wavrik, R.; Garcia, R.; Boyes, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The NIF Target Area is designed to confine the ICF target experiments leading up to and including fusion ignition and gain. The Target Area will provide appropriate in-chamber conditions before, during, and after each shot. The repeated introduction of large amounts of laser energy into the chamber and emission of fusion energy from targets represents a new challenge in ICF facility design. Prior to a shot, the facility provides proper illumination geometry, target chamber vacuum, and a stable platform for the target and its diagnostics. During a shot, the impact of the energy introduced into the chamber is minimized, and workers and the public are protected from excessive prompt radiation doses. After the shot, the residual radioactivation is managed to allow required accessibility. Tritium and other radioactive wastes are confined and disposed of. Diagnostic data is also retrieved, and the facility is readied for the next shot. The Target Area will accommodate yields up to 20 MJ, and its design lifetime is 30 years. The Target Area provides the personnel access needed to support the use precision diagnostics. The annual shot mix for design purposes is shown. Designing to this experimental envelope ensures the ability and flexibility to move through the experimental campaign to ignition efficiently.

  18. Preliminary safety analysis report for the Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OSCAR,DEBBY S.; WALKER,SHARON ANN; HUNTER,REGINA LEE; WALKER,CHERYL A.

    1999-12-01

    The Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility (AHCF) at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) will be a Hazard Category 3 nuclear facility used to characterize, treat, and repackage radioactive and mixed material and waste for reuse, recycling, or ultimate disposal. A significant upgrade to a previous facility, the Temporary Hot Cell, will be implemented to perform this mission. The following major features will be added: a permanent shield wall; eight floor silos; new roof portals in the hot-cell roof; an upgraded ventilation system; and upgraded hot-cell jib crane; and video cameras to record operations and facilitate remote-handled operations. No safety-class systems, structures, and components will be present in the AHCF. There will be five safety-significant SSCs: hot cell structure, permanent shield wall, shield plugs, ventilation system, and HEPA filters. The type and quantity of radionuclides that could be located in the AHCF are defined primarily by SNL/NM's legacy materials, which include radioactive, transuranic, and mixed waste. The risk to the public or the environment presented by the AHCF is minor due to the inventory limitations of the Hazard Category 3 classification. Potential doses at the exclusion boundary are well below the evaluation guidelines of 25 rem. Potential for worker exposure is limited by the passive design features incorporated in the AHCF and by SNL's radiation protection program. There is no potential for exposure of the public to chemical hazards above the Emergency Response Protection Guidelines Level 2.

  19. Association between health worker motivation and healthcare quality efforts in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Spieker, Nicole; van Ostenberg, Paul; Ogink, Alice; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; de Wit, Tobias F Rinke

    2013-08-14

    Ghana is one of the sub-Saharan African countries making significant progress towards universal access to quality healthcare. However, it remains a challenge to attain the 2015 targets for the health related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) partly due to health sector human resource challenges including low staff motivation. This paper addresses indicators of health worker motivation and assesses associations with quality care and patient safety in Ghana. The aim is to identify interventions at the health worker level that contribute to quality improvement in healthcare facilities. The study is a baseline survey of health workers (n = 324) in 64 primary healthcare facilities in two regions in Ghana. Data collection involved quality care assessment using the SafeCare Essentials tool, the National Health Insurance Authority (NHIA) accreditation data and structured staff interviews on workplace motivating factors. The Spearman correlation test was conducted to test the hypothesis that the level of health worker motivation is associated with level of effort by primary healthcare facilities to improve quality care and patient safety. The quality care situation in health facilities was generally low, as determined by the SafeCare Essentials tool and NHIA data. The majority of facilities assessed did not have documented evidence of processes for continuous quality improvement and patient safety. Overall, staff motivation appeared low although workers in private facilities perceived better working conditions than workers in public facilities (P motivation interventions should be integrated into quality improvement strategies especially in government-owned healthcare facilities where working conditions are perceived to be the worst.

  20. Retired Worker Writes Novel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    SUN Junxian, a retired worker from the Huanghe Machine Building Company in Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, spent nearly 15 years writing her autobiographical novel White Snow. With the publication of this novel, Sun has won widespread praise throughout Xi’an. Readers think the novel is effective and true to life. The China Television Play Production Center plans to adapt the novel for a TV series and present it during the

  1. Exposure scenarios for workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart, Hans; Northage, Christine; Money, Chris

    2007-12-01

    The new European chemicals legislation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals) requires the development of Exposure Scenarios describing the conditions and risk management measures needed for the safe use of chemicals. Such Exposure Scenarios should integrate considerations of both human health and the environment. Specific aspects are relevant for worker exposure. Gathering information on the uses of the chemical is an important step in developing an Exposure Scenario. In-house information at manufacturers is an important source. Downstream users can contribute information through direct contact or through their associations. Relatively simple approaches (Tier 1 tools, such as the ECETOC Targeted Risk Assessment and the model EASE) can be used to develop broad Exposure Scenarios that cover many use situations. These approaches rely on the categorisation of just a few determinants, including only a small number of risk management measures. Such approaches have a limited discriminatory power and are rather conservative. When the hazard of the substance or the complexity of the exposure situation require a more in-depth approach, further development of the Exposure Scenarios with Tier 2 approaches is needed. Measured data sets of worker exposure are very valuable in a Tier 2 approach. Some downstream user associations have attempted to build Exposure Scenarios based on measured data sets. Generic Tier 2 tools for developing Exposure Scenarios do not exist yet. To enable efficient development of the worker exposure part of Exposure Scenarios a further development of Tier 1 and Tier 2 tools is needed. Special attention should be given to user friendliness and to the validity (boundaries) of the approaches. The development of standard worker exposure descriptions or full Exposure Scenarios by downstream user branches in cooperation with manufacturers and importers is recommended.

  2. Technical Safety Requirements for the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF)

    CERN Document Server

    Mahn, J A E M J G

    2003-01-01

    This document provides the Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Sandia National Laboratories Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF). The TSR is a compilation of requirements that define the conditions, the safe boundaries, and the administrative controls necessary to ensure the safe operation of a nuclear facility and to reduce the potential risk to the public and facility workers from uncontrolled releases of radioactive or other hazardous materials. These requirements constitute an agreement between DOE and Sandia National Laboratories management regarding the safe operation of the Gamma Irradiation Facility.

  3. Organizational culture, safety culture, and safety performance at research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, William S.

    2000-07-30

    Organizational culture surveys of research facilities conducted several years ago and archival occupational injury reports were used to determine whether differences in safety performance are related to general organizational factors or to ''safety culture'' as reflected in specific safety-related dimensions. From among the organizations surveyed, a pair of facilities was chosen that were similar in size and scientific mission while differing on indices of work-related injuries. There were reliable differences in organizational style between the facilities, especially among workers in environment, safety, and health functions; differences between the facilities (and among job categories) on the safety scale were more modest and less regular.

  4. 浙江省宁波市某监管场所女性性工作者艾滋病流行现状调查%Survey of AIDS prevalence in female sex workers detained in a correctional facility in Ningbo, Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江军; 王海滨; 方雯曼; 孙嘉璐; 陈冰冰; 薄丁旖; 董薇薇

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解宁波市海曙区某监管场所收押的女性性工作者中艾滋病流行状况和流行因素,为制定艾滋病防治策略和干预措施提供依据.方法 2010年4-6月对宁波市海曙区某监管场所收押的439名女性性工作者开展问卷调查和人类免疫缺陷病毒(human immunodeficiency virus,HIV)、梅毒和丙型病毒性肝炎(hepatitis C,丙肝)血清学监测.结果 该类人群艾滋病防治知识总体知晓率为70.62%;吸毒率为5.01%;最近1年性病患病率为19.39%;最近一次安全套使用率为83.17%;最近1个月内每次使用安全套比例占53.29%.HIV抗体阳性率为0%,梅毒检测阳性率为21.87%、丙肝检测阳性率为1.37%.结论 该监管场所在押女性性工作者艾滋病疫情处于较低水平,梅毒感染率处于较高水平,亟需进一步普及性病和艾滋病预防相关知识.%Objective To understand the HIV infection prevalence and related factors in female sex workers (FSWs) detained in a correctional facility in Ningbo and provide evidence for the development of AIDS prevention strategies. Methods Questionnaire survey and serological surveillance of HIV, syphilis and hepatitis C were condcuted in 439 FSWs detained in a correctional facility in Ningbo from April to June 2010. Results The overall AIDS related knowledge awareness was 70. 62% , the drug abuse rate was 5. 01% , and the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in the past year was 19. 39%. The condom use rate was 83. 17% in the latest sex and the consistent condom use rate in the past month was 53. 29% . The positive rate of HIV was 0% , the positive rate of syphilis was 21. 87% and the positive rate of hepatitis C was 1. 37%. Conclusion The HTV infection rate was low and the syphilis infection rate was high in the FSWs detained in Ningbo. It is necessary to strengthen the health education about the prevention of STDs and AIDS.

  5. Disability rates for cardiovascular and psychological disorders among autoworkers by job category, facility type, and facility overtime hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsbergis, Paul A; Janevic, Teresa; Rothenberg, Laura; Adamu, Mohammed T; Johnson, Sylvia; Mirer, Franklin E

    2013-07-01

    We examined the association between long work hours, assembly line work and stress-related diseases utilizing objective health and employment data from an employer's administrative databases. A North American automobile manufacturing company provided data for claims for sickness, accident and disability insurance (work absence of at least 4 days) for cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension and psychological disorders, employee demographics, and facility hours worked per year for 1996-2001. Age-adjusted claim rates and age-adjusted rate ratios were calculated using Poisson regression, except for comparisons between production and skilled trades workers owing to lack of age denominator data by job category. Associations between overtime hours and claim rates by facility were examined by Poisson regression and multi-level Poisson regression. Claims for hypertension, coronary heart disease, CVD, and psychological disorders were associated with facility overtime hours. We estimate that a facility with 10 more overtime hours per week than another facility would have 4.36 more claims for psychological disorders, 2.33 more claims for CVD, and 3.29 more claims for hypertension per 1,000 employees per year. Assembly plants had the highest rates of claims for most conditions. Production workers tended to have higher rates of claims than skilled trades workers. Data from an auto manufacturer's administrative databases suggest that autoworkers working long hours, and assembly-line workers relative to skilled trades workers or workers in non-assembly facilities, have a higher risk of hypertension, CVD, and psychological disorders. Occupational disease surveillance and disease prevention programs need to fully utilize such administrative data. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Process Evaluation of a Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Meat Processing Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Holland, Berry J; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko

    2016-07-30

    Objective To evaluate the implementation process of a workers' health surveillance (WHS) program in a Dutch meat processing company. Methods Workers from five plants were eligible to participate in the WHS program. The program consisted of four evaluative components and an intervention component. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to evaluate seven process aspects. Data were gathered by interviews with stakeholders, participant questionnaires, and from registries of the company and occupational health service. Results Two recruitment strategies were used: open invitation or automatic participation. Of the 986 eligible workers, 305 participated in the program. Average reach was 53 %. Two out of five program components could not be assessed on dose delivered, dose received and fidelity. If components were assessable, 85-100 % of the components was delivered, 66-100 % of the components was received by participants, and fidelity was 100 %. Participants were satisfied with the WHS program (mean score 7.6). Contextual factors that facilitated implementation were among others societal developments and management support. Factors that formed barriers were program novelty and delayed follow-up. Conclusion The WHS program was well received by participants. Not all participants were offered the same number of program components, and not all components were performed according to protocol. Deviation from protocol is an indication of program failure and may affect program effectiveness.

  7. Teaching and Learning in Industries: Are We Malaysian Workers Really Ready for The E-training?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasmadi Hassan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available E-training style requires a strong readiness level among industrial workers in order to ensure that they gain its optimum advantages. The purpose of the study is to explore analytically how the demographic factors affect the computer usage attitude, computer literacy, computer facility and access technology. The study also explores analytically the e-training readiness level in terms of computer usage attitude, computer literacy, computer facility and technology access among industrial workers. Four hundreds industrial workers from electronics industries, food industries, poultry industries and textile industries in Batu Pahat, Johore were involved in this study. The data were collected using questionnaires and were analyzed quantitatively. Through multiple regression analysis, the findings showed that some demographic factors (workers’ characteristics and work place were significant at predicting the computer usage attitude, the computer literacy, the computer facility and the technology access. The findings also showed that there was a high level of e-training readiness among industrial workers in the aspect of computer usage attitude. But the aspects of computer literacy, computer facility and technology access showed only a moderate level of readiness. In general, the e-training readiness level among industrial workers is still moderate. This situation should be overcome in order to ensure that the e-training approach which has been emphasized in Malaysian Occupational Skills Development and Training Master Plan 2008-2020 would be implemented successfully. Therefore, some suggestions for improvement have been presented toward enhance the e-training readiness among industrial workers.

  8. 76 FR 2148 - Xilinx, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers of TEKsystems, Albuquerque, NM; Notice of Revised...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ..., Albuquerque, NM; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration On January 25, 2010, the Department issued... workers and former workers of Xilinx, Inc., Albuquerque, New Mexico (the subject firm). The Department's... competitive with the internal-use engineering services supplied by the Albuquerque, New Mexico facility...

  9. 75 FR 65526 - Xilinx, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers of TEKsystems, Albuquerque, NM; Notice of Revised...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ..., Albuquerque, NM; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration On January 25, 2010, the Department issued... workers and former workers of Xilinx, Inc., Albuquerque, New Mexico (the subject firm). The Department's... competitive with the internal-use engineering services supplied by the Albuquerque, New Mexico facility...

  10. 75 FR 11916 - Chrysler Transportation LLC, a Subsidiary of Chrysler LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ..., Detroit, Michigan. The notice was published in the Federal Register on January 14, 2009 (74 FR 2136). At... subject firm. The workers provide transport of parts from suppliers to Chrysler manufacturing facilities... assembly of automotive vehicles. New information shows that workers leased from Caravan Knight...

  11. New kids on the block : New generations of workers may change the way we perceive work and workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, B.; Lub, X.D.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale for our research is the upcoming war for talent (Ware & Grantham, 2003), caused by a diminishing workforce and the scarcity of students in facility management degree programs (outside the Netherlands). In order to retain (future) workers, a good scope of workers' needs is required.

  12. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Worker Respiratory Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Diane; Arteaga, Veronica; Armitage, Tracey; Mitloehner, Frank; Tancredi, Daniel; Kenyon, Nicholas; Schenker, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare respiratory health of poultry workers in conventional cage, enriched cage and aviary layer housing on a single commercial facility, motivated by changing requirements for humane housing of hens. Three workers were randomly assigned daily, one to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary housing in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods (for a total of 123 worker-days, eight different workers). Workers' exposure to particles were assessed (Arteaga et al. J Agromedicine. 2015;20:this issue) and spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, respiratory symptoms, and questionnaires were conducted pre- and post-shift. Personal exposures to particles and endotoxin were significantly higher in the aviary than the other housings (Arteaga et al., 2015). The use of respiratory protection was high; the median usage was 70% of the shift. Mixed-effects multivariate regression models of respiratory cross-shift changes were marginally significant, but the aviary system consistently posted the highest decrements for forced expiratory volume in 1 and 6 seconds (FEV1 and FEV6) compared with the enriched or conventional housing. The adjusted mean difference in FEV1 aviary - enriched cage housing was -47 mL/s, 95% confidence interval (CI): (-99 to 4.9), P = .07. Similarly, for FEV6, aviary - conventional housing adjusted mean difference was -52.9 mL/6 s, 95% CI: (-108 to 2.4), P = .06. Workers adopting greater than median use of respiratory protection were less likely to exhibit negative cross-shift pulmonary function changes. Although aviary housing exposed workers to significantly higher respiratory exposures, cross-shift pulmonary function changes did not differ significantly between houses. Higher levels of mask use were protective; poultry workers should wear respiratory protection as appropriate to avoid health decrements.

  13. Noise, Worker Perception, and Worker Concentration in Timber Harvesting Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Efi Yuliati Yovi; Suryaningsih Suryaningsih

    2012-01-01

    Timber harvesting activities are unquestionably related with high risk of work accidents and health disorders.Such activities were not only burdened the workers with heavy physical workloads due to uneasy workingenvironment, and massive work materials and tools, but also physiopsychologically burdened workers as theywere imposed with both mechanical and acoustic vibrations (noise) produced by the chainsaw. However,  it is acommon practice that most of the workers still ignored the importance ...

  14. Evaluation of thiol-disulphide homeostasis in radiation workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Ural; Tan, Sinan; Ertem, Ahmet Goktug; Gumus, Mehmet; Ozbek, Betul; Erel, Ozcan

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate thiol-disulphide homeostasis - a novel, easily calculated, readily available, and relatively cheap oxidative stress marker - in radiation workers and compare the results with healthy controls. A total of 108 participants were enrolled in the study including 63 hospital workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation in the units of interventional radiology, interventional cardiology and nuclear medicine. A control group consisted of 45 individuals staff in the same hospital. Serum thiol-disulphide homeostasis measurement was investigated via the spectrophotometric method newly described by Erel and Neşelioğlu. The mean serum native thiol levels of radiation workers (528.96 ± 86.42 μmol/l) was significantly lower than control subjects (561.05 ± 104.83 μmol/l) (p = .045). The mean serum total thiol levels of radiation workers (547.70 ± 91.50 μmol/l) was lower than control subjects (580.36 ± 112.24 μmol/l). Nevertheless, there was no significant difference between total thiol of exposed workers and controls. The results show that long-term low dose ionizing radiation may lead to oxidative stress and have side-effects in antioxidant thiol groups. We may suggest supporting radiation workers by safe antioxidant nutritional formulations and following up via both physical dosimetry and biodosimetric methods.

  15. Abortion services for sex workers in Uganda: successful strategies in an urban clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Heather M; Shellenberg, Kristen; Yegon, Erick

    2014-01-01

    Sex workers' need for safe abortion services in Uganda is greater than that of the population of women of reproductive age because of their number of sexual contacts, the inconsistent use of contraception and their increased risk of forced sex, rape or other forms of physical and sexual violence. We sought to understand sex workers' experiences with induced abortion services or post-abortion care (PAC) at an urban clinic in Uganda. We conducted nine in-depth interviews with sex workers. All in-depth interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, computer recorded and coded for analysis. We identified several important programmatic considerations for safe abortion services for sex workers. Most important is creating community-level interventions in which women can speak openly about abortion, creating a support network among sex workers, training peer educators, and making available a community outreach educator and community outreach workshops on abortion. At the health facility, it is important for service providers to treat sex workers with care and respect, allow sex workers to be accompanied to the health facility and guarantee confidentiality. These programmatic elements help sex workers to access safe abortion services and should be tried with all women of reproductive age to improve women's access to safe abortion in Uganda.

  16. Estimated rates of recurrence, cure, and treatment abandonment in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis treated with a -four-drug fixed-dose combination regimen at a tertiary health care facility in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vangie Dias da; Mello, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz; Figueiredo, Sonia Catarina de Abreu

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the rates of recurrence, cure, and treatment abandonment in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis treated with a four-drug fixed-dose combination (FDC) regimen, as well as to evaluate possible associated factors. This was a retrospective observational study involving 208 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis enrolled in the Hospital Tuberculosis Control Program at the Institute for Thoracic Diseases, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Between January of 2007 and October of 2010, the patients were treated with the rifampin-isoniazid-pyrazinamide (RHZ) regimen, whereas, between November of 2010 and June of 2013, the patients were treated with the rifampin-isoniazid-pyrazinamide-ethambutol FDC (RHZE/FDC) regimen. Data regarding tuberculosis recurrence and mortality in the patients studied were retrieved from the Brazilian Case Registry Database and the Brazilian Mortality Database, respectively. The follow-up period comprised two years after treatment completion. The rates of cure, treatment abandonment, and death were 90.4%, 4.8%, and 4.8%, respectively. There were 7 cases of recurrence during the follow-up period. No significant differences in the recurrence rate were found between the RHZ and RHZE/FDC regimen groups (p = 0.13). We identified no factors associated with the occurrence of recurrence; nor were there any statistically significant differences between the treatment groups regarding adverse effects or rates of cure, treatment abandonment, or death. The adoption of the RHZE/FDC regimen produced no statistically significant differences in the rates of recurrence, cure, or treatment abandonment; nor did it have any effect on the occurrence of adverse effects, in comparison with the use of the RHZ regimen. Estimar as taxas de recidiva, cura e abandono de tratamento em pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar tratados com o esquema de dose fixa combinada (DFC) de quatro drogas e avaliar possíveis fatores associados

  17. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FACILITY (Facility Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for oil field facilities for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent oil field facility locations. This data...

  18. The inner-city Skater Facility - playground or control mechanism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, David Thore

    2015-01-01

    The inner-city Skater Facility - playground or control mechanism? In 2013, the municipality in Horsens, a medium-sized provincial town in Denmark, bestowed the city's children and young people a skater facility at the city's central squares. Officially, the municipality donated the facility to give...... local children and young people an opportunity to use their leisure time stimulating their bodies, having a great time with friends and other urban dwellers. The gift is accompanied by a number of (more or less camouflaged) crime prevention- and social education agendas, carried out by the SSP (a...... special Social services, School and Police unit), that observe, mingle and socialize at the facility. The social workers affiliated with the SSP understand and define their role in contradiction to the official agenda. The social workers seek to pull the young people off the street and get them to enroll...

  19. Workers' compensation law: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorker, B

    1994-09-01

    1. The workers' compensation system provides benefits to workers who are injured or made ill in the course of employment or their dependents regardless of fault. 2. The current workers' compensation laws benefit both the employer and the employee; however, workers' compensation is an exclusive remedy which bars recovery through a negligence lawsuit. 3. Workers' compensation regulations interact with other federal statutes such as the Americans With Disabilities Act and the Family Medical Leave Act. 4. Workers' compensation covers occupational injuries and occupational diseases, which may include cumulative trauma and mental stress claims. Nurses may be instrumental in evaluating and planning for an injured employee's return to work and occasionally in detecting fraudulent claims.

  20. Individual Dose Monitor of External Radiation Personnel in IMP (1996~2001)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    For evaluating the individual annual effective dose of eternal radiation personnel in IMP, we monitored individual dose of external radiation personnel every year. The monitoring results are shown in Table 1, from which it is known from 1998 to 2001, we monitored 1099 workers, the mean annual effective dose is 0.13 mSv.

  1. Multilateral analysis of increasing collective dose and new ALARA programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumi, Tadashi; Morii, Yasuki; Imai, Toshirou

    2011-07-01

    JAPC (The Japan Atomic Power Company) is the only electric power company that operates different types of nuclear reactors in Japan; it operates two BWRs (boiling water reactors), one pressurised water reactor and one gas cooled reactor. JAPC has been conducting various activities aimed at reducing radiation dose received by workers for over 45 y. Recently, the collective dose resulting from periodic maintenance has increased at each plant because of the replacement of large equipment and the unexpected extension of the outage period. In particular, the collective dose at Tokai-2 is one of the highest among Japanese BWR plants((1)), owing to the replacement and strengthening of equipment to meet earthquake-proof requirements. In this study, the authors performed a multilateral analysis of unacceptably a large collective dose and devised a new ALARA programme that includes a 3D dose prediction map and the development of machines to assist workers.

  2. Dose assessment in the criticality accident at Tokai-mura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Akira, E-mail: endo.akira3@jaea.go.j [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    The present paper reviews a dose assessment carried out after the criticality accident that occurred on September 30, 1999 at JCO in Tokai-mura, Japan. In the accident, almost all doses were caused by external exposure to neutrons and {gamma}-rays emitted upon the fission of uranium. By a joint effort of Japanese experts in radiation dosimetry, a dose assessment was performed for neighboring residents, JCO employees including 3 workers who were at the accident spot, and emergency response personnel. The dose assessment was carried out using records of dosimeters, radiation monitoring data in and around the site, analysis of biological specimens, and computer simulation techniques. It was concluded from the results of the dose assessment that deterministic effects are not expected, except for the 3 heavily exposed workers, and that the probability of stochastic effects is very small and will be undetectable.

  3. Jupiter Laser Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Jupiter Laser Facility is an institutional user facility in the Physical and Life Sciences Directorate at LLNL. The facility is designed to provide a high degree...

  4. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  5. Measuring radon concentrations and estimating dose in tourist caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Sánchez, A; de la Torre Pérez, J; Ruano Sánchez, A B; Naranjo Correa, F L

    2015-11-01

    Caves and mines are considered to be places of especial risk of exposure to (222)Rn. This is particularly important for guides and workers, but also for visitors. In the Extremadura region (Spain), there are two cave systems in which there are workers carrying out their normal everyday tasks. In one, visits have been reduced to maintain the conditions of temperature and humidity. The other comprises several caves frequently visited by school groups. The caves were radiologically characterised in order to estimate the dose received by workers or possible hazards for visitors.

  6. Lung cancer mortality (1950-1999 among Eldorado uranium workers: a comparison of models of carcinogenesis and empirical excess risk models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Eidemüller

    Full Text Available Lung cancer mortality after exposure to radon decay products (RDP among 16,236 male Eldorado uranium workers was analyzed. Male workers from the Beaverlodge and Port Radium uranium mines and the Port Hope radium and uranium refinery and processing facility who were first employed between 1932 and 1980 were followed up from 1950 to 1999. A total of 618 lung cancer deaths were observed. The analysis compared the results of the biologically-based two-stage clonal expansion (TSCE model to the empirical excess risk model. The spontaneous clonal expansion rate of pre-malignant cells was reduced at older ages under the assumptions of the TSCE model. Exposure to RDP was associated with increase in the clonal expansion rate during exposure but not afterwards. The increase was stronger for lower exposure rates. A radiation-induced bystander effect could be a possible explanation for such an exposure response. Results on excess risks were compared to a linear dose-response parametric excess risk model with attained age, time since exposure and dose rate as effect modifiers. In all models the excess relative risk decreased with increasing attained age, increasing time since exposure and increasing exposure rate. Large model uncertainties were found in particular for small exposure rates.

  7. China's Migrant Workers' Social Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Sifeng; Zhang Wenxue; Wang Lijian; Zhang Li

    2010-01-01

    Based on the definition of migrant workers and migrant workers'social security,systems,policies and regulations and status quo of specific safeguard project of social security have been analyzed.Authors draw following conclusions: China's social security systems of migrant workers show diversification and differentiation trend; national-level policies take on diversification and local-level regulations take on differentiation; social welfare and social assistance have deficiency; coverage rate of social insurance items is extremely low.

  8. Safety analysis report for the Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengston, S.J.

    1994-05-01

    This safety analysis report outlines the safety concerns associated with the Waste Storage Facility located in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The three main objectives of the report are: define and document a safety basis for the Waste Storage Facility activities; demonstrate how the activities will be carried out to adequately protect the workers, public, and environment; and provide a basis for review and acceptance of the identified risk that the managers, operators, and owners will assume.

  9. Safety analysis report for the Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengston, S.J.

    1994-05-01

    This safety analysis report outlines the safety concerns associated with the Waste Storage Facility located in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The three main objectives of the report are: define and document a safety basis for the Waste Storage Facility activities; demonstrate how the activities will be carried out to adequately protect the workers, public, and environment; and provide a basis for review and acceptance of the identified risk that the managers, operators, and owners will assume.

  10. Employment Pattern, Skills and Training Issues among Informal Sector Workers in Mumbai Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay RODE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An informal sector in any economy provides different kinds of employment opportunities to people. In Mumbai Metropolitan Region, the female are more involved in regular jobs as compare to the causal and self-employed workers. The secondary and college studied male and female are found more in regular jobs. The high school studied male and illiterate female are working on causal jobs. The causal jobs do not require more education and skills. In self-employed category, the secondary school studied male and high school studied female are found more. The monthly income of workers involved in regular jobs is much higher than the causal and self-employed workers. The moderate malnourished females are found more as compare to the male in causal and self-employed category. The multi nominal logit regression model shows that the causal workers have positive correlation with illiterate male but it is negatively co-related with high school studied male, illiterate and secondary studied female. The monthly income, source of water, refrigerator and condom use is negatively co-related with causal workers as compare to regular workers. The self-employed workers have negative co-relation with monthly wage, source of water and watch cinema regularly as compare to the regular workers. Therefore government must provide infrastructural facilities in all slums of region. The infrastructural facilities such as water supply, electricity, sewage and solid waste collection must be provided in all slums of region. Causal workers must be provided the vocational training to start their own business. Commercial and co-operative banks must provide loans to poor people of slums. Females must be encouraged to take loan and start small business. Government must provide low cost housing to causal and self-employed workers in region. Such policies will certainly improve standard of living of informal sector workers in region.

  11. Ethical issues in worker productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forst, Linda; Levenstein, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Occupational health has always operated at the intersection of corporate economic concerns and worker health. Conflicting demands on the loyalty of occupational health professionals by the interests of labor and industry have made negotiating this minefield an essential part of the practice of occupational medicine. In recent years, occupational health professionals have found themselves increasingly required to rationalize worker health measures with economic arguments. This has led to physician engagement in the realm of defining and measuring worker productivity. Ethical guidelines that hold worker health as a top priority are critical in preserving the responsibility of occupational physicians to their patients.

  12. Injection Safety among Primary Health Care Workers in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Ismail

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational exposure to percutaneous injuries is a substantial source of infections with blood-borne pathogens among health-care workers. Few studies evaluated injection safety practices in Saudi Arabia. Objective: To examine the structure and process of injection safety at primary health care level in Jazan health district, to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices of primary health care physicians and nurses towards injection safety, and to determine the incidence of needle stick injuries among health care workers in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jazan primary health care centers (PHCCs, Saudi Arabia from September 2011 to March 2012. Data were collected using an observational checklist and data collection sheet. Jazan city health district was chosen at random from the 14 health sectors in Jazan region. All the 33 (10 urban, and 23 rural PHCCs of Jazan city were included in this study to get the predetermined sample size of health care workers. 200 health care workers (HCWs were recruited (29% physicians, and 71% nurses. Results: Syringes in the PHCCs were disposable (100%, individually packed (92%, and available at all volumes (98%. Methods of safe disposal of needles and sharps were also operated through contracting with professional companies in 84.8% of instances. Urban PHCCs had more posts for injection safety promotion than rural centers (p=0.02. Continuous Medical Education (CME programs on infection control were present in only 60% of PHCCs. At least 95% of HCWs in Jazan believed that sharp objects should be kept in a puncture-proof container, kept in a closed container, or disposed by a professional company. More than 80% of HCWs washed their hands by soap and water and cleaned them by alcohol before giving injection, and also got the three doses of hepatitis B vaccine.The rate of needle stick injury in the past year was 14%, without a significant difference between

  13. Facility Registry Service (FRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Facility Registry Service (FRS) provides an integrated source of comprehensive (air, water, and waste) environmental information about facilities across EPA,...

  14. Licensed Healthcare Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Licensed Healthcare Facilities point layer represents the locations of all healthcare facilities licensed by the State of California, Department of Health...

  15. High Throughput Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Argonne?s high throughput facility provides highly automated and parallel approaches to material and materials chemistry development. The facility allows scientists...

  16. Aperture area measurement facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST has established an absolute aperture area measurement facility for circular and near-circular apertures use in radiometric instruments. The facility consists of...

  17. Environmental Toxicology Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Fully-equipped facilities for environmental toxicology research The Environmental Toxicology Research Facility (ETRF) located in Vicksburg, MS provides over 8,200 ft...

  18. Licensed Healthcare Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Licensed Healthcare Facilities point layer represents the locations of all healthcare facilities licensed by the State of California, Department of Health...

  19. "That Is So Common Everyday . . . Everywhere You Go": Sexual Harassment of Workers in Assisted Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Elisabeth O; Barmon, Christina; Moorhead, James R; Perkins, Molly M; Bender, Alexis A

    2016-02-09

    In assisted living (AL) facilities, workers are intimately involved in the lives of residents. Existing research on AL demonstrates the imbalance of this environment, which is a personal home for the residents and a workplace for staff. Using observational and interview data collected from six AL facilities, this grounded theory project analyzes how AL staff define, understand, and negotiate sexual comments, joking, and physical touch. We developed a conceptual model to describe how such harassment was perceived, experienced by AL workers, and how they responded. Sexualized behavior or harassment was experienced by workers of every status. We found that words and actions were contextualized based on resident and worker characteristics and the behavior. Staff members refused to engage residents, redirected them, or reframed the words and gestures to get the job done. Reporting the incidents was less common. We conclude by discussing implications for policy and research.

  20. [Tuberculosis in healthcare workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhaus, A

    2009-01-01

    Perception and knowledge of the TB-infection risk in healthcare workers (HCWs) changed profoundly in Germany during the past few years. Molecular-epidemiological studies and a comprehensive review of the existing evidence concerning the infection risk for HCWs lead to the conclusion that TB in HCWs is often caused by infection at the workplace. In the Hamburg Fingerprint Study, 80 % of the TB cases in HCWs were caused by infections at the workplace. In a similar Dutch study 43 % of all cases were work-related. Besides of the well-known risks in TB wards and laboratories, an increased risk for infection should be assumed for paramedics, in emergency rooms, for HCWs caring for the elderly or for workers with close contact to high-risk groups (homeless people, i. v. drug users, migrants from high-incidence countries). TB in a HCW working in these fields can be recognised as an occupational disease (OD) without identifying a particular source of infection. For all other HCWs, the German occupational disease law requires the identification of a source case before TB in an HCW can be accepted as an OD. Even though the proportion of work-related TB in HCWs is higher than was assumed before previously, the prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI) is lower than expected. In an ongoing evaluation study of the interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) LTBI prevalence in HCWs is 10 %. Prevention strategies in Germany should be reconsidered in the light of these new findings.

  1. A Comparison of Workers Employed in Hazardous Jobs in Terms of Job Satisfaction, Perceived Job Risk and Stress: Turkish Jean Sandblasting Workers, Dock Workers, Factory Workers and Miners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunal, Ayda Buyuksahin; Sunal, Onur; Yasin, Fatma

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare job satisfaction, perception of job risk, stress symptoms and vulnerability to stress of miners, dock workers, jean sandblasting workers and factory workers. A job satisfaction scale and stress audit scale were applied to 220 workers. Results revealed that dock and jean sandblasting workers perceived their…

  2. A Comparison of Workers Employed in Hazardous Jobs in Terms of Job Satisfaction, Perceived Job Risk and Stress: Turkish Jean Sandblasting Workers, Dock Workers, Factory Workers and Miners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunal, Ayda Buyuksahin; Sunal, Onur; Yasin, Fatma

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare job satisfaction, perception of job risk, stress symptoms and vulnerability to stress of miners, dock workers, jean sandblasting workers and factory workers. A job satisfaction scale and stress audit scale were applied to 220 workers. Results revealed that dock and jean sandblasting workers perceived their…

  3. Mobile Applications for Knowledge Workers and Field Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Stieglitz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the diffusion of mobile applications (mobile apps has risen significantly. Nowadays, mobile business apps are strongly emerging in business, enhancing productivity and employees’ satisfaction, whilst the usage of customized individual enterprise apps is still an exception. Standardized business apps enable basic functionalities, for example, mobile data storage and exchange (e.g., Dropbox, communication (e.g., Skype, and other routine processes, which support mobile workers. In addition, mobile apps can, for example, increase the flexibility of mobile workers by easing the access to firm’s information from outside the enterprise and by enabling ubiquitous collaboration. Hence, mobile apps can generate competitive advantages and can increase work efficiency on a broad scale. But mobile workers form no coherent group. Our research reveals, based on two case studies, that they can be clustered into two groups: knowledge workers and field workers. Knowledge workers and field workers fulfill different tasks and work in different environments. Hence, they have different requirements for mobile support. In this paper we conclude that standardized mobile business apps cannot meet the different requirements of various groups of mobile workers. Task- and firm-specific (individualized requirements determine the specification, implementation, and application of mobile apps.

  4. Remuneration Difference between Migrant Workers and Non-migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changlin; DUAN; Huawei; LUO

    2013-01-01

    Through the survey of direct economic remuneration, indirect economic remuneration and non-economic remuneration of employees in flat panel furniture enterprises in Chengdu City, we conduct a comparative analysis of the problems and causes of remuneration difference between migrant workers and non-migrant workers. The results show that the wage difference between migrant workers and non-migrant workers is the biggest, and there is little difference in terms of interests safeguarding and non-economic factors. The reason for the above results lies in the difference of education level; gender, region, household registration and other issues have little impact on the above results. The following recommendations are put forward to improve the remuneration of migrant workers: increasing government’s policy advocacy efforts and eliminating subjective offense; establishing the administrative oversight bodies and effectively safeguarding the legitimate rights and interests of migrant workers; strengthening vocational training for migrant workers, so that workers have more choices on positions; improving the working environment and developing good working atmosphere.

  5. ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judson Hedgehock

    2001-03-16

    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify

  6. Comparison of in vivo translocation frequencies with in vitro G{sub 2} radiosensitivity in radiation workers occupationally exposed to external radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwell, Kevin K; Whitehouse, Caroline A; Tawn, E Janet [Westlakes Research Institute, Moor Row, Cumbria, CA24 3JY (United Kingdom); Tarone, Robert E [International Epidemiology Institute, 1455 Research Boulevard, Rockcliffe, MD 20850 (United States)], E-mail: ejtawn@uclan.ac.uk

    2008-03-01

    A group of retired workers from the British Nuclear Fuels plc facility at Sellafield who had been studied for in vivo translocation frequencies in blood lymphocytes were resampled and analysed for in vitro chromosomal radiosensitivity. Significant variation in response to a dose of 0.5 Gy given at the G{sub 2} stage of the cell cycle was observed between individuals (P < 0.001). In a regression analysis that included age, cumulative occupational radiation dose and in vitro G{sub 2} radiation-induced aberration frequencies as independent variables, only cumulative occupational radiation dose had a significant influence on chromosomal translocation frequency (P = 0.0036). G{sub 2} in vitro radiosensitivity is assumed to be a marker for genetic polymorphic variation in DNA damage recognition and repair genes. Therefore, since in vivo translocation frequencies can be considered a surrogate for cancer risk, this lack of association with G{sub 2} in vitro radiosensitivity suggests that such genetic variation has no impact on the response to low dose chronic exposure. (note)

  7. 25 CFR 20.509 - What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... placed in foster care or residential care facility? 20.509 Section 20.509 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Assistance Foster Care § 20.509 What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care facility? When a child is placed in foster care or a residential care facility...

  8. Guide to research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This Guide provides information on facilities at US Department of Energy (DOE) and other government laboratories that focus on research and development of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. These laboratories have opened these facilities to outside users within the scientific community to encourage cooperation between the laboratories and the private sector. The Guide features two types of facilities: designated user facilities and other research facilities. Designated user facilities are one-of-a-kind DOE facilities that are staffed by personnel with unparalleled expertise and that contain sophisticated equipment. Other research facilities are facilities at DOE and other government laboratories that provide sophisticated equipment, testing areas, or processes that may not be available at private facilities. Each facility listing includes the name and phone number of someone you can call for more information.

  9. Uncertainties on lung doses from inhaled plutonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncher, Matthew; Birchall, Alan; Bull, Richard K

    2011-10-01

    In a recent epidemiological study, Bayesian uncertainties on lung doses have been calculated to determine lung cancer risk from occupational exposures to plutonium. These calculations used a revised version of the Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) published by the ICRP. In addition to the Bayesian analyses, which give probability distributions of doses, point estimates of doses (single estimates without uncertainty) were also provided for that study using the existing HRTM as it is described in ICRP Publication 66; these are to be used in a preliminary analysis of risk. To infer the differences between the point estimates and Bayesian uncertainty analyses, this paper applies the methodology to former workers of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), who constituted a subset of the study cohort. The resulting probability distributions of lung doses are compared with the point estimates obtained for each worker. It is shown that mean posterior lung doses are around two- to fourfold higher than point estimates and that uncertainties on doses vary over a wide range, greater than two orders of magnitude for some lung tissues. In addition, we demonstrate that uncertainties on the parameter values, rather than the model structure, are largely responsible for these effects. Of these it appears to be the parameters describing absorption from the lungs to blood that have the greatest impact on estimates of lung doses from urine bioassay. Therefore, accurate determination of the chemical form of inhaled plutonium and the absorption parameter values for these materials is important for obtaining reliable estimates of lung doses and hence risk from occupational exposures to plutonium.

  10. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, S.M. (comp.)

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates). The Source Terms Task develops estimates of radioactive emissions from Hanford facilities since 1944. The Environmental Transport Task reconstructs the movement of radioactive materials from the areas of release to populations. The Environmental Monitoring Data Task assembles, evaluates, and reports historical environmental monitoring data. The Demographics, Agriculture, Food Habits Task develops the data needed to identify the populations that could have been affected by the releases. In addition to population and demographic data, the food and water resources and consumption patterns for populations are estimated because they provide a primary pathway for the intake of radionuclides. The Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates Task use the information produced by the other tasks to estimate the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford radiation. Project progress is documented in this monthly report, which is available to the public. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Construction Safety for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Predmore, R

    2000-09-01

    This Construction Safety Program (CSP) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) presents safety protocols and guidelines that management and workers shall follow to assure a safe and healthful work environment. Appendix A, a separate companion document, includes further applicable environmental, safety, and health requirements for the NIF Project. Specifically this document: {sm_bullet} Defines the fundamental site safety philosophy, {sm_bullet} Identifies management roles and responsibilities, {sm_bullet} Defines core safety management processes, {sm_bullet} Identifies LLNL institutional requirements, and {sm_bullet} Defines the functional areas and facilities accrued by the program and the process for transition of facilities, functional areas, and/or systems from construction to activation. Anyone willfully or thoughtlessly disregarding standards will be subject to immediate removal from the site. Thorough job planning will help ensure that these standards are met.

  12. [Relationship between shift work and overweight/obesity in male steel workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, M Y; Wang, Z Y; Fan, H M; Che, C L; Lu, Y; Cong, L X; Gao, X J; Liu, Y J; Yuan, J X; Li, X M; Hu, B; Chen, Y P

    2016-11-10

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between shift work and overweight/obesity in male steel workers. Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted among the male steel workers selected during health examination in Tangshan Steel Company from March 2015 to March 2016. The relationship between shift work and overweight/obesity in the male steel workers were analyzed by using logistic regression model and restricted cubic splinemodel. Results: A total of 7 262 male steel workers were surveyed, the overall prevalence of overweight/obesitywas 64.5% (4 686/7 262), the overweight rate was 34.3% and the obesity rate was 30.2%, respectively. After adjusting for age, educational level and average family income level per month by multivariable logistic regression analysis, shift work was associated with overweight/obesity and obesity in the male steel workers. The OR was 1.19(95% CI: 1.05-1.35) and 1.15(95% CI: 1.00-1.32). Restricted cubic spline model analysis showed that the relationship between shift work years and overweight/obesity in the male steel workers was a nonlinear dose response one (nonlinear test χ(2)=7.43, Pobesity in the male steel workers was a nonlinear dose response one (nonlinear test χ(2)=10.48, Poverweight and obesity in the male steel workers, and shift work years and overweight/obesity had a nonlinear relationship.

  13. Safety settings in equestrian facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Checchi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years an increased attention has been paid to the risks that can emerge within the equestrian environment. In fact, the activities that are carried out every day, whether of working or sport nature, can cause serious traumatic events. The main problems are related to the following risks: biological and physical contact, followed by chemical, electrical, mechanical risks that are common to also a lot of other situations. All these specific risks, of which we talk about in this work, can be contained through proper training and information of workers. The likelihood of accidents can be reduced also applying appropriate behavioural requirements and certain quality and construction parameters used in structures. Inside the equestrian facilities all the main safety systems should be well indicated, also through appropriate signs.

  14. Dosimetry commissioning of the gamma irradiation facility ``ROBO''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, A.; Moussa, A.; Othman, I.; Alnaal, K.

    1998-06-01

    A product-overlap type gamma irradiation facility with wet storage was put into operation recently in Damascus, Syria and its technical specifications were controlled by dosimetry commissioning experiments and compared to the data specified by the supplier. In the course of this procedure detailed dose mapping using different density products was carried out, and thus the minimum and maximum dose locations within the product boxes were determined. Using these data the plant efficiency and the dose uniformity ratio have been calculated. The dose distribution was also determined vertically along the product carrier. The results were then analyzed with respect to the construction of the facility.

  15. A training intervention on child feeding among primary healthcare workers in Ibadan Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folake O. Samuel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health workers at the primary level are well positioned to provide health information and counselling on child feeding to mothers on antenatal visits. The study was designed to evaluate the effect of training on the knowledge, attitudes and provision of infant and young child feeding (IYCF information and counselling among primary healthcare (PHC workers. Methods: A two-stage cluster sample was used to select health workers for training on IYCF in Ibadan, Nigeria. Baseline, immediate and 4-week post-training surveys were conducted to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices of health workers regarding IYCF. Paired t-tests were used to measure differences (p < 0.05 before and after the training. Results: A total of 124 health workers were trained on current global IYCF recommendations. Participants included community health extension workers (59.7%, nurses (27.4%, community health officers (11.3%, and pharmacy technicians (1.6%. Mean age was 41.8 ± 8.2 years and 95.2% were women. Knowledge of health workers regarding IYCF, particularly complementary feeding, was low at baseline but improved significantly following the training intervention. Attitudes and practices regarding provision of IYCF were suboptimal among health workers at the PHC facilities, but this improved with training. Conclusion: Health workers at the PHC level need regular retraining exercises to ensure effective counselling on IYCF.

  16. A training intervention on child feeding among primary healthcare workers in Ibadan Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folake O. Samuel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health workers at the primary level are well positioned to provide health information and counselling on child feeding to mothers on antenatal visits. The study was designed to evaluate the effect of training on the knowledge, attitudes and provision of infant and young child feeding (IYCF information and counselling among primary healthcare (PHC workers. Methods: A two-stage cluster sample was used to select health workers for training on IYCF in Ibadan, Nigeria. Baseline, immediate and 4-week post-training surveys were conducted to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices of health workers regarding IYCF. Paired t-tests were used to measure differences (p < 0.05 before and after the training. Results: A total of 124 health workers were trained on current global IYCF recommendations. Participants included community health extension workers (59.7%, nurses (27.4%, community health officers (11.3%, and pharmacy technicians (1.6%. Mean age was 41.8 ± 8.2 years and 95.2% were women. Knowledge of health workers regarding IYCF, particularly complementary feeding, was low at baseline but improved significantly following the training intervention. Attitudes and practices regarding provision of IYCF were suboptimal among health workers at the PHC facilities, but this improved with training. Conclusion: Health workers at the PHC level need regular retraining exercises to ensure effective counselling on IYCF.

  17. Stakeholders' Perceptions on Shortage of Healthcare Workers in Primary Healthcare in Botswana: Focus Group Discussions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oathokwa Nkomazana

    Full Text Available An adequate health workforce force is central to universal health coverage and positive public health outcomes. However many African countries have critical shortages of healthcare workers, which are worse in primary healthcare. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of healthcare workers, policy makers and the community on the shortage of healthcare workers in Botswana.Fifteen focus group discussions were conducted with three groups of policy makers, six groups of healthcare workers and six groups of community members in rural, urban and remote rural health districts of Botswana. All the participants were 18 years and older. Recruitment was purposive and the framework method was used to inductively analyse the data.There was a perceived shortage of healthcare workers in primary healthcare, which was believed to result from an increased need for health services, inequitable distribution of healthcare workers, migration and too few such workers being trained. Migration was mainly the result of unfavourable personal and family factors, weak and ineffective healthcare and human resources management, low salaries and inadequate incentives for rural and remote area service.Botswana has a perceived shortage of healthcare workers, which is worse in primary healthcare and rural areas, as a result of multiple complex factors. To address the scarcity the country should train adequate numbers of healthcare workers and distribute them equitably to sufficiently resourced healthcare facilities. They should be competently managed and adequately remunerated and the living conditions and rural infrastructure should also be improved.

  18. Workers' Education Methods and Techniques for Rural Workers and Their Organisations: Summary of Views Expressed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labour Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Several issues concerning rural workers' organizations and workers' education are discussed: motivation for self-organization, workers' education needs of rural workers, workers' education methods and techniques, training institutions and training personnel, financial resources, and the role of the International Labor Organization workers'…

  19. Workers' Education Methods and Techniques for Rural Workers and Their Organisations: Summary of Views Expressed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labour Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Several issues concerning rural workers' organizations and workers' education are discussed: motivation for self-organization, workers' education needs of rural workers, workers' education methods and techniques, training institutions and training personnel, financial resources, and the role of the International Labor Organization workers'…

  20. Workers' Education and the ILO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigui, Albert

    1970-01-01

    In its concern to eliminate the imbalance between social and economic development, the International Labour Organisation has two objectives in its workers' education activities: to help workers protect themselves against the harmful effects of our technological society; and to strengthen their ability to discharge their social responsibilities.…

  1. Economic Globalization and Workers: introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E-J. Visser (Evert-Jan); M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis dossier deals with the impact of economic globalisation on workers, especially in developing nations: their employment opportunities, wage income, job security and other aspects of decent work (ILO 1999, 2002). This is a highly relevant theme. Not only do workers in the EU, the Unit

  2. Improving motivation among primary health care workers in Tanzania: a health worker perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bygbjerg Ib Christian

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Tanzania access to urban and rural primary health care is relatively widespread, yet there is evidence of considerable bypassing of services; questions have been raised about how to improve functionality. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of health workers working in the primary health care facilities in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania, in terms of their motivation to work, satisfaction and frustration, and to identify areas for sustainable improvement to the services they provide. The primary issues arising pertain to complexities of multitasking in an environment of staff shortages, a desire for more structured and supportive supervision from managers, and improved transparency in career development opportunities. Further, suggestions were made for inter-facility exchanges, particularly on commonly referred cases. The discussion highlights the context of some of the problems identified in the results and suggests that some of the preferences presented by the health workers be discussed at policy level with a view to adding value to most services with minimum additional resources.

  3. Ionizing radiation risks to satellite power systems (SPS) workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyman, J.T.; Ainsworth, E.J.; Alpen, E.L.; Bond, V.; Curtis, S.B.; Fry, R.J.M.; Jackson, K.L.; Nachtwey, S.; Sondhaus, C.; Tobias, C.A.; Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-11-01

    The radiation risks to the health of workers who will construct and maintain solar power satellites in the space environment were examined. For ionizing radiation, the major concern will be late or delayed health effects, particularly the increased risk of radiation-induced cancer. The estimated lifetime risk for cancer is 0.8 to 5.0 excess deaths per 10,000 workers per rad of exposure. Thus, for example, in 10,000 workers who completed ten missions with an exposure of 40 rem per mission, 320 to 2000 additional deaths in excess of the 1640 deaths from normally occurring cancer, would be expected. These estimates would indicate a 20 to 120% increase in cancer deaths in the worker-population. The wide range in these estimates stems from the choice of the risk-projection model and the dose-response relationsip. The choice between a linear and a linear-quadratic dose-response model may alter the risk estimate by a factor of about two. The method of analysis (e.g., relative vs absolute risk model) can alter the risk estimate by an additional factor of three. Choosing different age and sex distributions can further change the estimate by another factor of up to three. The potential genetic consequences could be of significance, but at the present time, sufficient information on the age and sex distribution of the worker population is lacking for precise estimation of risk. The potential teratogenic consequences resulting from radiation are considered significant. Radiation exposure of a pregnant worker could result in developmental abnormalities.

  4. Transuranic storage and assay facility interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porten, D.R., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-12

    The Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility (TRUSAF) Interim Safety Basis document provides the authorization basis for the interim operation and restriction on interim operations for the TRUSAF. The TRUSAF ISB demonstrates that the TRUSAF can be operated safely, protecting the workers, the public, and the environment. The previous safety analysis document TRUSAF Hazards Identification and Evaluation (WHC 1987) is superseded by this document.

  5. 10 CFR 850.27 - Hygiene facilities and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hygiene facilities and practices. 850.27 Section 850.27 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements... beryllium must be provided for beryllium workers to change into, and store, personal clothing, and clean...

  6. THE DIRECTORY FOR EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN--EDUCATIONAL AND TRAINING FACILITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SARGENT, F. PORTER

    THIS DIRECTORY, INTENDED FOR BOTH THE PROFESSIONAL WORKER AND THE LAY PERSON, LISTS AND FURNISHES DETAILED INFORMATION CONCERNING FACILITIES FOR THERAPY, TRAINING, REHABILITATION, AND EDUCATION OF CHILDREN UNABLE TO ATTEND REGULAR SCHOOL. LISTED ARE SCHOOLS AND TREATMENT CENTERS FOR THE EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED AND SOCIALLY MALADJUSTED, STATE SCHOOLS…

  7. A A field test for extremity dose assessment during outages at Korean nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Geun; Kong, Tae Young

    2013-05-01

    During maintenance on the water chamber of a steam generator, the pressuriser heater and the pressure tube feeder in nuclear power plants, workers are likely to receive high radiation doses due to the severe workplace conditions. In particular, it is expected that workers' hands would receive the highest radiation doses because of their contact with the radioactive materials. In this study, field tests for extremity dose assessments in radiation workers undertaking contact tasks with high radiation doses were conducted during outages at pressurised water reactors and pressurised heavy water reactors in Korea. In the test, the radiation workers were required to wear additional thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) on their backs and wrists and an extremity dosemeter on the finger, as well as a main TLD on the chest while performing the maintenance tasks.

  8. Contact dermatitis in Alstroemeria workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mei, I A; de Boer, E M; Bruynzeel, D P

    1998-09-01

    Hand dermatitis is common in workers in the horticultural industry. This study determined the prevalence of hand dermatitis in workers of Alstroemeria cultivation, investigated how many workers had been sensitized by tulipalin A (the allergen in Alstroemeria) and took stock of a wide range of determinants of hand dermatitis. The 12-month period prevalence of major hand dermatitis amounted to 29.5% whereas 7.4% had minor dermatitis. Of these workers, 52.1% were sensitized for tulipalin A. Several personal and work-related determinants played a role in the multifactorial aetiology of hand dermatitis. Factors which showed a significant relationship with major hand dermatitis were: female sex, atopic dermatitis, chapped hands and the frequency of washing hands. It may be concluded that the Alstroemeria workers are a population at risk of developing contact dermatitis and it might be useful to carry out an educational campaign to lower the high prevalence.

  9. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, B.S. (comp.)

    1990-04-01

    This monthly report summarizes the technical progress and project status for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of a Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks address each of the primary steps in the path from radioactive releases to dose estimates: source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demographics, agriculture, and food habits, and environmental pathways and dose estimates. The source terms task will develop estimates for radioactive emissions from Hanford facilities since 1944. These estimates will be based on historical measurements and production information. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Criticality accident in uranium fuel processing plant. Emergency medical care and dose estimation for the severely overexposed patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akashi, Makoto; Ishigure, Nobuhito [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    A criticality accident occurred in JCO, a plant for nuclear fuel production in 1999 and three workers were exposed to extremely high-level radiation (neutron and {gamma}-ray). This report describes outlines of the clinical courses and the medical cares for the patients of this accident and the emergent medical system for radiation accident in Japan. One (A) of the three workers of JCO had vomiting and diarrhea within several minutes after the accident and another one (B) had also vomiting within one hour after. Based on these evidences, the exposure dose of A and B were estimated to be more than 8 and 4 GyEq, respectively. Generally, acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is assigned into three phases; prodromal phase, critical or manifestation phase and recovery phase or death. In the prodromal phase, anorexia, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea often develop, whereas the second phase is asymptotic. In the third phase, various syndromes including infection, hemorrhage, dehydration shock and neurotic syndromes are apt to occur. It is known that radiation exposure at 1 Gy or more might induce such acute radiation syndromes. Based on the clinical findings of Chernobyl accident, it has been thought that exposure at 0.5 Gy or more causes a lowering of lymphocyte level and a decrease in immunological activities within 48 hours. Lymphocyte count is available as an indicator for the evaluation of exposure dose in early phase, but not in later phase The three workers of JCO underwent chemical analysis of blood components, chromosomal analysis and analysis of blood {sup 24}Na immediately after the arrival at National Institute of Radiological Sciences via National Mito Hospital specified as the third and the second facility for the emergency medical care system in Japan, respectively. (M.N.)

  11. Reliable Facility Location Problem with Facility Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Luohao; Zhu, Cheng; Lin, Zaili; Shi, Jianmai; Zhang, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies a reliable facility location problem with facility protection that aims to hedge against random facility disruptions by both strategically protecting some facilities and using backup facilities for the demands. An Integer Programming model is proposed for this problem, in which the failure probabilities of facilities are site-specific. A solution approach combining Lagrangian Relaxation and local search is proposed and is demonstrated to be both effective and efficient based on computational experiments on random numerical examples with 49, 88, 150 and 263 nodes in the network. A real case study for a 100-city network in Hunan province, China, is presented, based on which the properties of the model are discussed and some managerial insights are analyzed.

  12. Micronucleus frequency is increased in peripheral blood lymphocytes of nuclear power plant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjidekova, Valeria B; Bulanova, Minka; Bonassi, Stefano; Neri, Monica

    2003-12-01

    Nuclear power plant workers are exposed to ionizing radiation at relatively low doses and for prolonged periods of time. To investigate the extent of genetic damage in these workers, a group of 133 nuclear power plant workers and 39 healthy controls were compared using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. The frequency of micronuclei was significantly increased in peripheral lymphocytes of nuclear power plant workers (20.5 +/- 9.7% compared to 13.7 +/- 5.9%). A significant dose-response relationship was observed between micronucleus (MN) frequency and both the accumulated dose and the duration of employment (P < 0.01 for both variables after adjusting for age, gender and cigarette smoking) with an evident leveling off for exposures over 200 mSv. Accumulated dose and duration of employment were significantly correlated but exerted independent effects on MN frequency. For non-occupational parameters, age was significantly associated with the frequency of micronuclei, while gender was not. Smoking habit showed no overall effect, whereas increased chromosome damage was evident in smokers of more than 20 cigarettes per day. In conclusion, a dose-related association between MN frequency and exposure to ionizing radiation was evident in nuclear power plant workers, encouraging the application of the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in biomonitoring studies of human populations with prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation.

  13. Variability in PuO{sub 2} Intake by Inhalation: Implications for Worker Protection at the US Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, B.R.; Fencl, A.F

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the stochastic exposure (SE) paradigm where, at most, small numbers of airborne toxic particles are presented for inhalation. The focus is on alpha-emitting plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) particles that may be inhaled by Department of Energy (DOE) workers. Consideration of the SE paradigm is important because intake of only a few highly radioactive PuO{sub 2} particles such as {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}, could greatly exceed the annual limit on intake (ALI) used to control worker exposure. For the SE paradigm, credible intake distributions evaluated over the population at risk are needed, rather than unreliable point estimates of intake. Credible distributions of radiation doses and health risks are also needed. Because there are limited data on humans who inhaled PuO{sub 2}, these distributions must be calculated. Calculated distributions are presented that relate to the intake of radioactivity via inhaling polydisperse PuO{sub 2} particles. The results indicate that a large variability in radioactivity intake is expected when relatively small numbers of PuO{sub 2} particles are inhaled. For the SE paradigm, one cannot know how many PuO{sub 2} particles were inhaled by an individual involved in a given inhalation exposure scenario. Thus, rather than addressing questions such as 'Did the calculated worker's intake of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} exceed the ALI?', it is better to address questions such as 'What is the probability that {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} intake by a given worker occurred and exceeded the ALI?' Mathematical tools for addressing the latter question are presented, and examples of their applications are provided, with emphasis on possible DOE worker exposures at the Rocky Flats facility near Denver, Colorado. The alpha-emitting isotopes {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu and {sup 242}Pu are found at Rocky Flats. Although {sup 238}Pu is thought to be present in relatively small amounts there, intake via inhalation of only

  14. Incentive Effects of Workers' Compensation Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger, Alan B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper uses Current Population Survey data on a large sample of workers to estimate the determinants of participation in state workers' compensation programs in the United States. The principal finding is Chat higher workers' compensation benefits are associated with greater participation in the workers' compensation program, after accounting for worker characteristics, state fixed effects, and other aspects of the workers' compensation law. Moreover, this result holds for both manufactur...

  15. Health Status, Occupational Hygiene & Safety Practices among Female Workers in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbulKashem Obidul HUQ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the rising of baking industries in Bangladesh, more female workers are surprisingly engaged compared to male workers. The major aim of this study was to observe the working conditions, available safety facilities and hygiene maintained by the female workers.Methods: A cross sectional survey was carried out among the randomly selected 384 female workers from different baking industries located at Dhaka and Tangail regions in Bangladesh by a well-designed semi-structured questionnaire.Results: About 33% of all respondents opined the machine room was congested, 27% narrow packaging and sealing room while 37% unhealthy storage areas. Two industries did not have proper accident prevention facilities. Although all the industries had monitoring personnel hygiene practices, about 40% of the workers were found not strictly maintaining some basic personal hygiene criteria. Socio-demographic result showed that the workers education level and monthly family income were poor. About 59.1% of all workers were suffering from various degrees of Chronic Energy Deficiencies (CED. It was also observed that nutritional status of the workers significantly related to their expenditure of the foods and working loads (χ2 Value < 0.05.Conclusion: The survey revealed that the occupational hygiene and safety practices were not at satisfactory level in some selected food industries in Bangladesh. The currently available food safety tools and system like Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP should be adapted by the industries and concurrently ensure the sufficient wages for workers. Keywords: Industrial female workers, Occupational hygiene, Safety practices, Chronic Energy Deficiencies (CED 

  16. The status of LILW disposal facility construction in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min-Seok; Chung, Myung-Sub; Park, Kyu-Wan [Korea Radioactive Waste Management Corporation (KRMC), 89, Bukseong-ro, Gyeongju-si,, Gyeongsangbuk-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we discuss the experiences during the construction of the first LILW disposal facility in South Korea. In December 2005, the South Korean Government designated Gyeongju-city as a host city of Low- and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste(LILW) disposal site through local referendums held in regions whose local governments had applied to host disposal facility in accordance with the site selection procedures. The LILW disposal facility is being constructed in Bongilri, Yangbuk-myeon, Gyeongju. The official name of the disposal facility is called 'Wolsong Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Center (LILW Disposal Center)'. It can dispose of 800,000 drums of radioactive wastes in a site of 2,100,000 square meters. At the first stage, LILW repository of underground silo type with disposal capacity of 100,000 drums is under construction expected to be completed by June of 2014. The Wolsong Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Center consists of surface facilities and underground facilities. The surface facilities include a reception and inspection facility, an interim storage facility, a radioactive waste treatment building, and supporting facilities such as main control center, equipment and maintenance shop. The underground facilities consist of a construction tunnel for transport of construction equipment and materials, an operation tunnel for transport of radioactive waste, an entrance shaft for workers, and six silos for final disposal of radioactive waste. As of Dec. 2012, the overall project progress rate is 93.8%. (authors)

  17. Individual Monitoring and Occupational Dose Record Management in China: History, Current Status and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Bo; Yu, Hai-Tao; Sun, Quan-Fu

    2016-06-03

    This review paper presents an overview of individual monitoring, as well as the national dose register and dose record management of radiation workers in China. Progress has recently been made on the individual monitoring of radiation workers. A critical analysis of current status and problems in individual monitoring is also presented and necessary future research on individual monitoring, such as the monitoring technology in the form of the ring dosimeters and eye lens dosimeters, is suggested.

  18. Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility mitigation action plan. Annual report for 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haagenstad, T.

    1999-01-15

    This Mitigation Action Plan Annual Report (MAPAR) has been prepared as part of implementing the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility (DARHT) Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) to protect workers, soils, water, and biotic and cultural resources in and around the facility.

  19. Retrospective study on the dose assessment in Algeria over a period 1998-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudena, B.; Chalal, M.; Bellal, A.; Imatoukene, D. [Nuclear Research Center of Algiers (Algeria)

    2006-07-01

    Full text: In Algeria, the assessment of individual doses of workers occupationally exposed to external radiations is made by the national individual monitoring service at the Nuclear Research Center of Algiers (N.R.C.A.) with photographic dosimeter. In this paper, we have undertaken a retrospective study on dose assessment of workers exposed to external radiations involved in medical and industrial activities according to the new occupational dose limits over a period of five consecutive years (1998 2002). This survey has permitted to observe the impact that would have new dose limits once adopted by our legislation. (author)

  20. National Ignition Facility Project Site Safety Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dun, C

    2003-09-30

    This Safety Program for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) presents safety protocols and requirements that management and workers shall follow to assure a safe and healthful work environment during activities performed on the NIF Project site. The NIF Project Site Safety Program (NPSSP) requires that activities at the NIF Project site be performed in accordance with the ''LLNL ES&H Manual'' and the augmented set of controls and processes described in this NIF Project Site Safety Program. Specifically, this document: (1) Defines the fundamental NIF site safety philosophy. (2) Defines the areas covered by this safety program (see Appendix B). (3) Identifies management roles and responsibilities. (4) Defines core safety management processes. (5) Identifies NIF site-specific safety requirements. This NPSSP sets forth the responsibilities, requirements, rules, policies, and regulations for workers involved in work activities performed on the NIF Project site. Workers are required to implement measures to create a universal awareness that promotes safe practice at the work site and will achieve NIF management objectives in preventing accidents and illnesses. ES&H requirements are consistent with the ''LLNL ES&H Manual''. This NPSSP and implementing procedures (e.g., Management Walkabout, special work procedures, etc.,) are a comprehensive safety program that applies to NIF workers on the NIF Project site. The NIF Project site includes the B581/B681 site and support areas shown in Appendix B.

  1. Acoustic dose and acoustic dose-rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duck, Francis

    2009-10-01

    Acoustic dose is defined as the energy deposited by absorption of an acoustic wave per unit mass of the medium supporting the wave. Expressions for acoustic dose and acoustic dose-rate are given for plane-wave conditions, including temporal and frequency dependencies of energy deposition. The relationship between the acoustic dose-rate and the resulting temperature increase is explored, as is the relationship between acoustic dose-rate and radiation force. Energy transfer from the wave to the medium by means of acoustic cavitation is considered, and an approach is proposed in principle that could allow cavitation to be included within the proposed definitions of acoustic dose and acoustic dose-rate.

  2. Medical Surveillance for Former Workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Takaro

    2009-05-29

    The Former Hanford Worker Medical Monitoring Program, directed by the Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program at the University of Washington, served former production and other non-construction workers who were potentially exposed to workplace hazards while working for the USDOE or its contractors at Hanford. The USDOE Former Workers Program arose from Congressional action in the Defense Authorization of 1993 (Public Law 102). Section 3162 stated that, “The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program for the identification and ongoing medical evaluation of current and former Department of Energy employees who are subject to significant health risks as a result of exposure of such employees to hazardous or radioactive substances during such employment.” (This also covers former employees of USDOE contractors and subcontractors.) The key objective has been to provide these former workers with medical evaluations in order to determine whether workers have experienced significant risk due to workplace exposure to hazards. Exposures to asbestos, beryllium, and noise can produce specific medical conditions: asbestosis, berylliosis, and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Each of these conditions can be identified by specific, non-invasive screening tests, which are widely available. Treatments are also available for individuals affected by these conditions. This project involved two phases. Phase I involved a needs and risk assessment, characterizing the nature and extent of workplace health hazards which may have increased the risk for long-term health effects. We categorized jobs and tasks by likelihood of exposures to specific workplace health hazards; and located and established contact with former Hanford workers. Phase II involved implementation of medical monitoring programs for former workers whose individual work history indicated significant risk for adverse health effects. We identified 118,000 former workers, employed from 1943 to 1997

  3. Shielding structure analysis for LSDS facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hong Yeop; Kim, Jeong Dong; Lee, Yong Deok; Kim, Ho Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The nuclear material (Pyro, Spent nuclear fuel) itself and the target material to generate neutrons is the LSDS system for isotopic fissile assay release of high intensity neutron and gamma rays. This research was performed to shield from various strong radiation. A shielding evaluation was carried out with a facilities model of LSDS system. The MCNPX 2.5 code was used and a shielding evaluation was performed for the shielding structure and location. The radiation dose based on the hole structure and location of the wall was evaluated. The shielding evaluation was performed to satisfy the safety standard for a normal person (1 μSv/h) and to use enough interior space. The MCNPX2.5 code was used and a dose evaluation was performed for the location of the shielding material, shielding structure, and hole structure. The evaluation result differs according to the shielding material location. The dose rate was small when the shielding material was positioned at the center. The dose evaluation result regarding the location of the shielding material was applied to the facility and the shielding thickness was determined (In 50 cm + Borax 5 cm + Out 45cm). In the existing hole structure, the radiation leak is higher than the standard. A hole structure model to prevent leakage of radiation was proposed. The general public dose limit was satisfied when using the concrete reinforcement and a zigzag structure. The shielding result will be of help to the facility shielding optimization.

  4. The evolution of doses in the IEA-R1 reactor environment and tendencies based on the current results; Evolucao das doses no ambiente do Reator IEA-R1 e tendencias com base nos resultados atuais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, Eduardo Yoshio

    2016-11-01

    The IPEN / CNEN-SP have a Nuclear Research Reactor-NRR named IEA-R1, in operation from 1957. It is an open swimming pool reactor using light water as shielding, moderator and as cooling, the volume of this pool is 273m{sup 3}.Until 1995 the reactor operated daily at a power of 2,0 MW. From June of that year, after a few safety modifications the reactor began operating in continuous way from Monday to Wednesday without shutdown totalizing 64 hours per week and the power was increased to 4,5MW also. Because of these changes, continuous operation and increased power, workers' doses would tend to increase. In the past several studies were conducted seeking ways to reduce the workers' doses. A study was made on the possibility to introduce a shielding at the top of the reactor core with a hot water layer. Studies have shown that a major limitation for operating a reactor at high power comes from the gamma radiation emitted by the sodium-24. Other elements such as magnesium-27, aluminum-28, Argon-51, contribute considerably to the water activity of the pool. The introduction of a hot water layer on the swimming pool would form a layer of surface, stable and free of radioactive elements with a 1.5m to 2m thickness creates a shielding to radiation from radioactive elements dissolved in water. Optimization studies proved that the installation of the hot layer was not necessary for the regime and the current power reactor operation, because other procedures adopted were more effective. From this decision the Radiological Protection Reactor Team, set up a dose assessment program to ensure them remained in low values based on principles established in national and international standards. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the individual doses of OEI (Occupationally Exposed Individual), which will be checked increasing doses resulting from recent changes in reactor operation regime and suggested viable safety and protection options, in the first instance to

  5. Plutonium worker dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchall, Alan; Puncher, M; Harrison, J; Riddell, A; Bailey, M R; Khokryakov, V; Romanov, S

    2010-05-01

    Epidemiological studies of the relationship between risk and internal exposure to plutonium are clearly reliant on the dose estimates used. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is currently reviewing the latest scientific information available on biokinetic models and dosimetry, and it is likely that a number of changes to the existing models will be recommended. The effect of certain changes, particularly to the ICRP model of the respiratory tract, has been investigated for inhaled forms of (239)Pu and uncertainties have also been assessed. Notable effects of possible changes to respiratory tract model assumptions are (1) a reduction in the absorbed dose to target cells in the airways, if changes under consideration are made to the slow clearing fraction and (2) a doubling of absorbed dose to the alveolar region for insoluble forms, if evidence of longer retention times is taken into account. An important factor influencing doses for moderately soluble forms of (239)Pu is the extent of binding of dissolved plutonium to lung tissues and assumptions regarding the extent of binding in the airways. Uncertainty analyses have been performed with prior distributions chosen for application in epidemiological studies. The resulting distributions for dose per unit intake were lognormal with geometric standard deviations of 2.3 and 2.6 for nitrates and oxides, respectively. The wide ranges were due largely to consideration of results for a range of experimental data for the solubility of different forms of nitrate and oxides. The medians of these distributions were a factor of three times higher than calculated using current default ICRP parameter values. For nitrates, this was due to the assumption of a bound fraction, and for oxides due mainly to the assumption of slower alveolar clearance. This study highlights areas where more research is needed to reduce biokinetic uncertainties, including more accurate determination of particle transport rates

  6. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Young Ho

    2000-02-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor are the follows: The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost some level compared with the past years. Gross {alpha}, {beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water sample were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul Research Reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by {gamma}-spectrometry. (author)

  7. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Young Ho; Lee, M.H. [and others

    1999-02-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul research reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul research reactor are the follows : The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost same level compared with the past years. Gross {alpha}, {beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water samples were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul research reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by {gamma}-spectrometry. (author). 3 refs., 50 tabs., 12 figs.

  8. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Geun Sik; Lee, Chang Woo; Joo, Young Hyun [and others

    2005-04-01

    Environmental Radiation Monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment. radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor are the follows : The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost same level compared with the past years. Gross {alpha} ,{beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water samples were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul Research Reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by {gamma}-spectrometry.

  9. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Young Ho; Lee, M.H. [and others

    1999-02-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul research reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul research reactor are the follows : The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost same level compared with the past years. Gross {alpha}, {beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water samples were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul research reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by {gamma}-spectrometry. (author). 3 refs., 50 tabs., 12 figs.

  10. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Geun Sik and others

    2001-02-01

    Environmental Radiation Monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment. Radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor are the follows : The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost same level compared with the past years. Gross {alpha}, {beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water samples were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul Research Reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by {gamma}-spectrometry.

  11. Estimates of bias and uncertainty in recorded external dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, J.J.; Gilbert, E.S.; Baumgartner, W.V.

    1994-10-01

    A study is underway to develop an approach to quantify bias and uncertainty in recorded dose estimates for workers at the Hanford Site based on personnel dosimeter results. This paper focuses on selected experimental studies conducted to better define response characteristics of Hanford dosimeters. The study is more extensive than the experimental studies presented in this paper and includes detailed consideration and evaluation of other sources of bias and uncertainty. Hanford worker dose estimates are used in epidemiologic studies of nuclear workers. A major objective of these studies is to provide a direct assessment of the carcinogenic risk of exposure to ionizing radiation at low doses and dose rates. Considerations of bias and uncertainty in the recorded dose estimates are important in the conduct of this work. The method developed for use with Hanford workers can be considered an elaboration of the approach used to quantify bias and uncertainty in estimated doses for personnel exposed to radiation as a result of atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons between 1945 and 1962. This approach was first developed by a National Research Council (NRC) committee examining uncertainty in recorded film badge doses during atmospheric tests (NRC 1989). It involved quantifying both bias and uncertainty from three sources (i.e., laboratory, radiological, and environmental) and then combining them to obtain an overall assessment. Sources of uncertainty have been evaluated for each of three specific Hanford dosimetry systems (i.e., the Hanford two-element film dosimeter, 1944-1956; the Hanford multi-element film dosimeter, 1957-1971; and the Hanford multi-element TLD, 1972-1993) used to estimate personnel dose throughout the history of Hanford operations. Laboratory, radiological, and environmental sources of bias and uncertainty have been estimated based on historical documentation and, for angular response, on selected laboratory measurements.

  12. Radiation protection and safety of workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindhe, J.C. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst. (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    This section briefly reviews the principles applicable to radiation protection and safety of workers, and methods that could be used to minimise occupational exposure in reclamation work. In considering the clean up of areas shortly after an accident, a decision would have to be made whether to implement clean-up actions early and thus cause higher occupational doses, or wait until short-lived isotopes have decayed and/or weathering has reduced the radiation levels. For example, the decision may be to stabilise the contamination using sprays to prevent re-suspension followed by a delay before actual clean-up starts. The timing of such actions would depend on many factors, including weather conditions, the area involved, equipment available and the competence of the work force. Means of reducing occupational exposure while carrying out the tasks should, as far as possible, be clearly defined in `work procedures`. In general, reductions in occupational exposure during operational tasks can be accomplished by the use of shielding and limiting the time that workers spend exposed to radiation. (au). 10 refs.

  13. Safety Culture And Best Practices At Japan's Fusion Research Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rule, K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., Princeton, NJ (United States); King, M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Takase, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Oshima, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan); Sukegawa, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka (Japan)

    2014-04-01

    The Safety Monitor Joint Working Group (JWG) is one of the magnetic fusion research collaborations between the US Department of Energy and the government of Japan. Visits by occupational safety personnel are made to participating institutions on a biennial basis. In the 2013 JWG visit of US representatives to Japan, the JWG members noted a number of good safety practices in the safety walkthroughs. These good practices and safety culture topics are discussed in this paper. The JWG hopes that these practices for worker safety can be adopted at other facilities. It is a well-known, but unquantified, safety principle that well run, safe facilities are more productive and efficient than other facilities (Rule, 2009). Worker safety, worker productivity, and high quality in facility operation all complement each other (Mottel, 1995).

  14. Safety Culture and Best Practices at Japan's Fusion Research Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rule, Keith [PPPL

    2014-05-01

    The Safety Monitor Joint Working Group (JWG) is one of the magnetic fusion research collaborations between the US Department of Energy and the government of Japan. Visits by occupational safety personnel are made to participating institutions on a biennial basis. In the 2013 JWG visit of US representatives to Japan, the JWG members noted a number of good safety practices in the safety walkthroughs. These good practices and safety culture topics are discussed in this paper. The JWG hopes that these practices for worker safety can be adopted at other facilities. It is a well-known, but unquantified, safety principle that well run, safe facilities are more productive and efficient than other facilities (Rule, 2009). Worker safety, worker productivity, and high quality in facility operation all complement each other (Mottel, 1995).

  15. Summary of Conceptual Models and Data Needs to Support the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Performance Assessment and Composite Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Jeff Sondrup; Annette L. Schafter; Arthur S. Rood

    2010-09-01

    An overview of the technical approach and data required to support development of the performance assessment, and composite analysis are presented for the remote handled low-level waste disposal facility on-site alternative being considered at Idaho National Laboratory. Previous analyses and available data that meet requirements are identified and discussed. Outstanding data and analysis needs are also identified and summarized. The on-site disposal facility is being evaluated in anticipation of the closure of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INL. An assessment of facility performance and of the composite performance are required to meet the Department of Energy’s Low-Level Waste requirements (DOE Order 435.1, 2001) which stipulate that operation and closure of the disposal facility will be managed in a manner that is protective of worker and public health and safety, and the environment. The corresponding established procedures to ensure these protections are contained in DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual (DOE M 435.1-1 2001). Requirements include assessment of (1) all-exposure pathways, (2) air pathway, (3) radon, and (4) groundwater pathway doses. Doses are computed from radionuclide concentrations in the environment. The performance assessment and composite analysis are being prepared to assess compliance with performance objectives and to establish limits on concentrations and inventories of radionuclides at the facility and to support specification of design, construction, operation and closure requirements. Technical objectives of the PA and CA are primarily accomplished through the development of an establish inventory, and through the use of predictive environmental transport models implementing an overarching conceptual framework. This document reviews the conceptual model, inherent assumptions, and data required to implement the conceptual model in a numerical framework. Available site-specific data and data sources

  16. Peak Dose Assessment for Proposed DOE-PPPO Authorized Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, Delis [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program

    2012-06-01

    The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prime contractor, was contracted by the DOE Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (DOE-PPPO) to conduct a peak dose assessment in support of the Authorized Limits Request for Solid Waste Disposal at Landfill C-746-U at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (DOE-PPPO 2011a). The peak doses were calculated based on the DOE-PPPO Proposed Single Radionuclides Soil Guidelines and the DOE-PPPO Proposed Authorized Limits (AL) Volumetric Concentrations available in DOE-PPPO 2011a. This work is provided as an appendix to the Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document for the Authorized Limits Request for the C-746-U Landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky (ORISE 2012). The receptors evaluated in ORISE 2012 were selected by the DOE-PPPO for the additional peak dose evaluations. These receptors included a Landfill Worker, Trespasser, Resident Farmer (onsite), Resident Gardener, Recreational User, Outdoor Worker and an Offsite Resident Farmer. The RESRAD (Version 6.5) and RESRAD-OFFSITE (Version 2.5) computer codes were used for the peak dose assessments. Deterministic peak dose assessments were performed for all the receptors and a probabilistic dose assessment was performed only for the Offsite Resident Farmer at the request of the DOE-PPPO. In a deterministic analysis, a single input value results in a single output value. In other words, a deterministic analysis uses single parameter values for every variable in the code. By contrast, a probabilistic approach assigns parameter ranges to certain variables, and the code randomly selects the values for each variable from the parameter range each time it calculates the dose (NRC 2006). The receptor scenarios, computer codes and parameter input files were previously used in ORISE 2012. A few modifications were made to the parameter input files as appropriate for this effort. Some of these changes

  17. The worker profile autocontrolled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Omar Delgado Mora

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This document is part of two deliveries. In this first paper is to make an approach to the concept of self-control from the very beginning with Sakichi Toyoda, founder of what the industry Toyota Motor Company, additionally taking some excerpts of the concept issued by teachers and the psychologist Henry Murray, a professor at the university Harvard precursor test TAT personality test creator, pen applied world wide by psychologists David McCllelan, also a psychologist and a pioneer in the study of human needs and the concept of competence; Professor Jeffrey Pfeffer of Stanford University organizational behavior and theory, Frederick Hertzberg, Psychologist and strong influential in business management, Kronfly Cruz, lawyer and investigator of social and administrative sciences, Charles Perrow, a sociologist at Yale University and Stanford , who studies the impact of large organizations in society, among others. The study reflects the need to meet organizational objectives related to the physicochemical characteristics of the finished product in a plant of the company’s main beers in the country. In this paper, we intend to make an approximation of worker self -controlled, which when compared with the powers, generic, specific and technical area established by the brewery, will allow generating a methodology to adjust these competencies and to obtain the target profile drawn. This comparison and development of the methodology proposed is the subject of the second work planned.

  18. Interviewing media workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Graf

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the use of Niklas Luhmann’s systems theoretical approach in order to analyse interviews conducted with media workers concerning their experiences of ethnic diversity in newsrooms. Applying systems theory means constructing the interview as a social system and seeing the “data” as observations produced by the observer and not as representations of a reality. The first part of the article describes the interview methodology and the second part provides examples, from the current study, of how systems theory can be applied in order to analyse interviews. Using a difference-theoretical approach means looking at the distinctions the informants make when talking about their experiences. These main guiding distinctions can be summarised as immigrant background/competence as well as advantage/competence. Using the guiding distinction of inclusion/exclusion when interpreting the interviewees’ statements, the interdependencies of mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion in newsrooms related to ethnic background can be examined.

  19. Compensation for damage to workers health exposed to ionizing radiation in Argentina

    CERN Document Server

    Sobehart, L J

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this report is to analyze the possibility to establish a scheme to compensate damage to workers health exposed to ionizing radiation in Argentina for those cases in which it is possible to assume that the exposure to ionizing radiation is the cause of the cancer suffered by the worker. The proposed scheme is based on the recommendations set out in the 'International Conference on Occupational Radiation Protection: Protecting Workers against Exposure to Ionization Radiation, held in Geneva, Switzerland, August 26-30, 2002. To this end, the study analyzes the present state of scientific knowledge on cancer causation due to genotoxic factors, and the accepted form of the doses-response curve, for the human beings exposure to ionization radiation at low doses with low doses rates. Finally, the labor laws and regulations related to damage compensation; in particular the present Argentine Labor Law; the National Russian Federal Occupational Radiological Health Impairment and Workmen Compensation, t...

  20. Dose level of occupational exposure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Liang'an; Ju, Yongjian

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the dose level of Chinese occupational exposures during 1986-2000. Data on occupational exposures from the main categories in nuclear fuel cycle (uranium enrichment and conversion, fuel fabrication, reactor operation, waste management and research activity, except for uranium mining and milling because of the lack of data), medical uses of radiation (diagnostic radiation, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy) and industrial uses of radiation (industrial radiography and radioisotope production) are presented and summarised in detail. These are the main components of occupational exposures in China. In general, the average annual effective doses show a steady decreasing trend over periods: from 2.16 to 1.16 mSv in medical uses of radiation during 1990-2000; from 1.92 to 1.18 mSv in industrial radiography during 1990-2000; from 8.79 to 2.05 mSv in radioisotope production during the period 1980-2000. Almost all the average annual effective doses in discussed occupations were lower than 5 mSv in recent years (except for well-logging: 6.86 mSv in 1999) and no monitored workers were found to have received the occupational exposure exceeding 50 mSv in a single year or 100 mSv in a five-year period. So the Chinese protection status of occupation exposure has been improved in recent years. However, the average annual effective doses in some occupations, such as diagnostic radiology and coal mining, were still much higher than that of the whole world. There are still needs for further improvement and careful monitoring of occupational exposure to protect every worker from excessive occupational exposure, especially for the workers who were neglected before.

  1. Musculoskeletal problems among workers in a garment industry, at Tirupur, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreesupria Purushothaman Ravichandran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Every occupation has its own ill effects on health. Garment workers are denied of their basic rights and less importance is given to their health. Their health status also depends on their access to treatment and availability of healthcare facilities. Aims & Objectives: To estimate the prevalence, health seeking pattern and associated factors for musculoskeletal problems among garment workers and to assess the level of exposure of individual workers to upper limb musculoskeletal loads. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 380 workers in a garment industry, at Tirupur over a period of two months. Interview was conducted using a structured pretested questionnaire including Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and Numerical Pain Rating Scale. Level of exposure to musculoskeletal load was assessed using RULA tool. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 19 version. Results: 77.6% of the workers had musculoskeletal problems. The most common sites affected were neck (32.1%, knee (28.7% and low back (26.6%. More than half of the workers experienced moderate pain in all body parts. 54.2% sought health care and 40% among them preferred government hospital. Only 8.7% workers had acceptable posture. Conclusion: Health problems among garment workers are one of the areas of public health concern in our country. Reducing the work strain and providing a supportive workplace environment will have a favorable impact on work productivity

  2. Retrospective assessment of personnel neutron dosimetry for workers at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, J.J.; Wilson, R.H.; Baumgartner, W.B.

    1996-09-01

    This report was prepared to examine the specific issue of the potential for unrecorded neutron dose for Hanford workers, particularly in comparison with the recorded whole body (neutron plus photon) dose. During the past several years, historical personnel dosimetry practices at Hanford have been documented in several technical reports. This documentation provides a detailed history of the technology, radiation fields, and administrative practices used to measure and record dose for Hanford workers. Importantly, documentation has been prepared by personnel whose collective experience spans nearly the entire history of Hanford operations beginning in the mid-1940s. Evaluations of selected Hanford radiation dose records have been conducted along with statistical profiles of the recorded dose data. The history of Hanford personnel dosimetry is complex, spanning substantial evolution in radiation protection technology, concepts, and standards. Epidemiologic assessments of Hanford worker mortality and radiation dose data were initiated in the early 1960s. In recent years, Hanford data have been included in combined analyses of worker cohorts from several Department of Energy (DOE) sites and from several countries through the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Hanford data have also been included in the DOE Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR). In the analysis of Hanford, and other site data, the question of comparability of recorded dose through time and across the respective sites has arisen. DOE formed a dosimetry working group composed of dosimetrists and epidemiologists to evaluate data and documentation requirements of CEDR. This working group included in its recommendations the high priority for documentation of site-specific radiation dosimetry practices used to measure and record worker dose by the respective DOE sites.

  3. The ILO and Workers' Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigui, Albert

    1973-01-01

    The International Labour Organization is concerned with three types of education: vocational training, management training, and workers' education. The last, which is the focus of the article, is concerned solely with social matters. (MS)

  4. Outplacement for Underserved Women Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Suzanne C.; Haring-Hidore, Marilyn

    1988-01-01

    Describes an outplacement program for hourly women workers that assisted participants in identifying skills, interests, and values; identified community resources; taught job hunting skills; and encouraged participation in a support group. (JOW)

  5. NGO field workers in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Haroon SIDDIQUE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available NGOs came into the society in their present form after World War II and more precisely in 1960s. Before that also different forms of philanthropy existed. Like elsewhere in the world, in Pakistan also state and the market were the two sectors catering for different needs of the people. When foreign funding started coming into the poor countries, the channel of NGOs was considered more appropriate including the fact they had roots in the society and the benefit could reach the far flung areas. NGO field workers are the real actors in the NGOs’ activities but sadly the NGOs those raise the slogans of working for the destitute do not bother to facilitate the NGO field workers. Eventually the NGO field workers are facing problems of job insecurity, poor salary structure, unhealthy working environment and even harassment especially in case of women NGO field workers in Pakistan

  6. Dermatoses among floral shop workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiboutot, D M; Hamory, B H; Marks, J G

    1990-01-01

    Concern about the increasing incidence of hand dermatitis in floral shop workers in the United States and its possible association to the plant Alstroemeria, a flower that has become popular since its introduction in 1981, prompted investigation of the prevalence and cause of hand dermatitis in a sample of floral workers. Fifty-seven floral workers were surveyed, and 15 (26%) reported hand dermatitis within the previous 12 months. Sixteen floral workers (eight with dermatitis) volunteered to be patch tested to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group Standard and Perfume Trays, a series of eight pesticides and 20 plant allergens. Of four of seven floral designers and arrangers who reported hand dermatitis, three reacted positively to patch tests to tuliposide A, the allergen in Alstroemeria. Patch test readings for all other plant extracts were negative. A positive reading for a test to one pesticide, difolatan (Captafol), was noted, the relevance of which is unknown.

  7. Contingent Faculty as Nonideal Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezar, Adrianna; Bernstein-Sierra, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores how contingent faculty address the issue of work and family and demonstrates the importance of understanding the diversity of contingent faculty experiences and of underemployment rather than notions of the ideal worker to explain their work lives.

  8. Outplacement for Underserved Women Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Suzanne C.; Haring-Hidore, Marilyn

    1988-01-01

    Describes an outplacement program for hourly women workers that assisted participants in identifying skills, interests, and values; identified community resources; taught job hunting skills; and encouraged participation in a support group. (JOW)

  9. Standard Guide for Evaluating Disposal Options for Concrete from Nuclear Facility Decommissioning

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This standard guide defines the process for developing a strategy for dispositioning concrete from nuclear facility decommissioning. It outlines a 10-step method to evaluate disposal options for radioactively contaminated concrete. One of the steps is to complete a detailed analysis of the cost and dose to nonradiation workers (the public); the methodology and supporting data to perform this analysis are detailed in the appendices. The resulting data can be used to balance dose and cost and select the best disposal option. These data, which establish a technical basis to apply to release the concrete, can be used in several ways: (1) to show that the release meets existing release criteria, (2) to establish a basis to request release of the concrete on a case-by-case basis, (3) to develop a basis for establishing release criteria where none exists. 1.2 This standard guide is based on the “Protocol for Development of Authorized Release Limits for Concrete at U.S. Department of Energy Sites,” (1) from ...

  10. Estimating Worker Risk Levels Using Accident/Incident Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenoyer, Judson L.; Stenner, Robert D.; Andrews, William B.; Scherpelz, Robert I.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.

    2000-09-26

    The purpose of the work described in this report was to identify methods that are currently being used in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex to identify and control hazards/risks in the workplace, evaluate them in terms of their effectiveness in reducing risk to the workers, and to develop a preliminary method that could be used to predict the relative risks to workers performing proposed tasks using some of the current methodology. This report describes some of the performance indicators (i.e., safety metrics) that are currently being used to track relative levels of workplace safety in the DOE complex, how these fit into an Integrated Safety Management (ISM) system, some strengths and weaknesses of using a statistically based set of indicators, and methods to evaluate them. Also discussed are methods used to reduce risk to the workers and some of the techniques that appear to be working in the process of establishing a condition of continuous improvement. The results of these methods will be used in future work involved with the determination of modifying factors for a more complex model. The preliminary method to predict the relative risk level to workers during an extended future time period is based on a currently used performance indicator that uses several factors tracked in the CAIRS. The relative risks for workers in a sample (but real) facility on the Hanford site are estimated for a time period of twenty years and are based on workforce predictions. This is the first step in developing a more complex model that will incorporate other modifying factors related to the workers, work environment and status of the ISM system to adjust the preliminary prediction.

  11. Etiological explanation, treatability and preventability of childhood autism: a survey of Nigerian healthcare workers' opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonkwo Kevin O

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of their peculiar sociocultural background, healthcare workers in sub-Saharan African subcultures may have various conceptions on different aspects of autism spectrum disorders (ASD, such as etiology, treatment and issues of prognosis. These various conceptions, if different from current knowledge in literature about ASD, may negatively influence help-seeking behavior of parents of children with ASD who seek advice and information from the healthcare workers. This study assessed the opinions of healthcare workers in Nigeria on aspects of etiology, treatability and preventability of childhood autism, and relates their opinions to the sociodemographic variables. Methods Healthcare workers working in four tertiary healthcare facilities located in the south-east and south-south regions of Nigeria were interviewed with a sociodemographic questionnaire, personal opinion on etiology, treatability and preventability of childhood autism (POETPCA questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW questionnaire to assess their knowledge and opinions on various aspects of childhood autism. Results A total of 134 healthcare workers participated in the study. In all, 78 (58.2%, 19 (14.2% and 36 (26.9% of the healthcare workers were of the opinion that the etiology of childhood autism can be explained by natural, preternatural and supernatural causes, respectively. One (0.7% of the healthcare workers was unsure of the explanation of the etiology. Knowledge about childhood autism as measured by scores on the KCAHW questionnaire was the only factor significantly associated with the opinions of the healthcare workers on etiology of childhood autism. In all, 73 (54.5% and 43 (32.1%, of the healthcare workers subscribed to the opinion that childhood autism is treatable and preventable respectively. Previous involvement with managing children with ASD significantly influenced the opinion of the healthcare

  12. Clandestine migrant workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, T

    1992-01-01

    The author assesses the problem of illegal labor migration to Japan. "Labor policies, regulations, types of immigration violations, and the role of the recruitment industry are described. Most of the estimated 200,000 illegal workers are employed in small and medium sized enterprises, especially construction and manufacturing, which pay them wages well below the normal rate. A key issue is the infringement of human rights of these illegal workers, who lack the protection of labor laws and the social security system."

  13. Product Quality and Worker Quality

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Abowd; Kramarz, Francis

    1995-01-01

    We study the relation between product quality and worker quality using an economic model that, under certain conditions, provides a direct link between product price, product quality and work-force quality. Our measures of product quality are the evolution in the detailed product price relative to its product group, and the level of the product price relative to this group. Our worker quality measures are the firm's average person effect and personal characteristics effect from individual wag...

  14. Product Quality and Worker Quality

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Abowd; Françis KRAMARZ; Moreau, Antoine

    1995-01-01

    We study the relation between product quality and worker quality using an economic model that, under certain conditions, provides a direct link between product price, product quality and work force quality. Our measures of product quality are the evolution in the detailed product price relative to its product group and the level of the product price relative to this group. Our worker quality measures are the firm's average person effect and personal characteristics effect from individual wage...

  15. Occupational exposure to ethylene oxide. Relation between in vivo dose and exposure dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman-Golkar, S; Bergmark, E

    1988-12-01

    As a basis for risk estimations for ethylene oxide (EtO) exposure and for the establishment of occupational exposure limits in work environments it is important to know the ratio between the in vivo dose and the exposure dose of this compound. For an assessment of this ratio, data on hemoglobin adduct levels in occupationally exposed workers and exposure levels in the work environment have been collected. The in vivo dose is directly proportional to the product of the uptake and retention time (1/lambda) of EtO in the body. The rate of clearance (lambda) of EtO has been calculated for individual workers from adduct levels and estimated EtO uptake. The wide range of lambda values found (approximately 1-65 h-1) can only partly be ascribed to a true variation between individuals with respect to clearance rates. One uncertainty results from the difficulties to estimate EtO uptake. A better estimate of lambda (approximately 3 h-1) is probably derived from the measurements of environmental and instantaneous blood concentrations of EtO in exposed workers by Brugnone et al [Int Arch Occu