WorldWideScience

Sample records for facility studies california

  1. Fumigation success for California facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Robert

    2010-02-01

    As Robert Hacker, at the time director of facilities management at the St John's Regional Medical Center in Oxnard, California, explains, the hospital, one of the area's largest, recently successfully utilised a new technology to eliminate mould, selecting a cost and time-saving fumigation process in place of the traditional "rip and tear" method. Although hospital managers knew the technology had been used extremely effectively in other US buildings, this was reportedly among the first ever healthcare applications.

  2. Geothermal-retrofit study for the National Orange Show Facilities in San Bernardino, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-17

    The cost and feasibility of retrofitting the National Orange Show Facilities to use geothermal heat instead of natural gas for heating are determined. Because of the limited usage of the smaller facilities the study was limited to the conversion of the six major buildings: Domed, Hobby, Citrus, Auditorium, Restaurant and Commercial. A major problem is that most of the buildings are used on a very limited basis. This drastically reduced the amount of savings that could be used to amortize the retrofit cost. Another problem is that the buildings are spread over a large area and so the below grade piping costs were high. Finally, all of the buildings except for the Auditorium have direct gas fired heaters that would require all new terminal heating systems. In order to limit the retrofit cost, the retrofit system was designed to handle less than the peak load. This seemed appropriate because the facility might not even be in operation when a peak load condition occurred. Also, the existing systems could be used to supplement the geothermal system if necessary. The calculated and design peak loads are summarized.

  3. Opportunities for Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California - Phase II Report. San Luis Rey Wastewater Treatment Plant Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Lisa; Lekov, Alex; McKane, Aimee; Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-08-20

    This case study enhances the understanding of open automated demand response opportunities in municipal wastewater treatment facilities. The report summarizes the findings of a 100 day submetering project at the San Luis Rey Wastewater Treatment Plant, a municipal wastewater treatment facility in Oceanside, California. The report reveals that key energy-intensive equipment such as pumps and centrifuges can be targeted for large load reductions. Demand response tests on the effluent pumps resulted a 300 kW load reduction and tests on centrifuges resulted in a 40 kW load reduction. Although tests on the facility?s blowers resulted in peak period load reductions of 78 kW sharp, short-lived increases in the turbidity of the wastewater effluent were experienced within 24 hours of the test. The results of these tests, which were conducted on blowers without variable speed drive capability, would not be acceptable and warrant further study. This study finds that wastewater treatment facilities have significant open automated demand response potential. However, limiting factors to implementing demand response are the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration load, along with the cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities.

  4. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California - Southeast Water Pollution Control Plant Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goli, Sasank [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faulkner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-12-20

    This report details a study into the demand response potential of a large wastewater treatment facility in San Francisco. Previous research had identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response and automated demand response, and this study was conducted to investigate facility attributes that are conducive to demand response or which hinder its implementation. One years' worth of operational data were collected from the facility's control system, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. These data were analyzed to determine factors which affected facility power demand and demand response capabilities The average baseline demand at the Southeast facility was approximately 4 MW. During the rainy season (October-March) the facility treated 40% more wastewater than the dry season, but demand only increased by 4%. Submetering of the facility's lift pumps and centrifuges predicted load shifts capabilities of 154 kW and 86 kW, respectively, with large lift pump shifts in the rainy season. Analysis of demand data during maintenance events confirmed the magnitude of these possible load shifts, and indicated other areas of the facility with demand response potential. Load sheds were seen to be possible by shutting down a portion of the facility's aeration trains (average shed of 132 kW). Load shifts were seen to be possible by shifting operation of centrifuges, the gravity belt thickener, lift pumps, and external pump stations These load shifts were made possible by the storage capabilities of the facility and of the city's sewer system. Large load reductions (an average of 2,065 kW) were seen from operating the cogeneration unit, but normal practice is continuous operation, precluding its use for demand response. The study also identified potential demand response opportunities that warrant further study: modulating variable-demand aeration loads, shifting

  5. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wray, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-30

    Previous research over a period of six years has identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response (DR), automated demand response (Auto-­DR), and Energy Efficiency (EE) measures. This report summarizes that work, including the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy used and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and automated demand response opportunities. Furthermore, this report summarizes the DR potential of three wastewater treatment facilities. In particular, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has collected data at these facilities from control systems, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. The collected data were then used to generate a summary of wastewater power demand, factors affecting that demand, and demand response capabilities. These case studies show that facilities that have implemented energy efficiency measures and that have centralized control systems are well suited to shed or shift electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. In summary, municipal wastewater treatment energy demand in California is large, and energy-­intensive equipment offers significant potential for automated demand response. In particular, large load reductions were achieved by targeting effluent pumps and centrifuges. One of the limiting factors to implementing demand response is the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration at an earlier stage of the process. Another limiting factor is that cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities, limit a facility’s potential to participate in other DR activities.

  6. Energy efficiency in California laboratory-type facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, E.; Bell, G.; Sartor, D. [and others

    1996-07-31

    The central aim of this project is to provide knowledge and tools for increasing the energy efficiency and performance of new and existing laboratory-type facilities in California. We approach the task along three avenues: (1) identification of current energy use and savings potential, (2) development of a {ital Design guide for energy- Efficient Research Laboratories}, and (3) development of a research agenda for focused technology development and improving out understanding of the market. Laboratory-type facilities use a considerable amount of energy resources. They are also important to the local and state economy, and energy costs are a factor in the overall competitiveness of industries utilizing laboratory-type facilities. Although the potential for energy savings is considerable, improving energy efficiency in laboratory-type facilities is no easy task, and there are many formidable barriers to improving energy efficiency in these specialized facilities. Insufficient motivation for individual stake holders to invest in improving energy efficiency using existing technologies as well as conducting related R&D is indicative of the ``public goods`` nature of the opportunity to achieve energy savings in this sector. Due to demanding environmental control requirements and specialized processes, laboratory-type facilities epitomize the important intersection between energy demands in the buildings sector and the industrial sector. Moreover, given the high importance and value of the activities conducted in laboratory-type facilities, they represent one of the most powerful contexts in which energy efficiency improvements stand to yield abundant non-energy benefits if properly applied.

  7. Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Dairy Facilities in Central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, A. S.; Ogunjemiyo, S. O.; Trabue, S.; Middala, S. R.; Ashkan, S.; Scoggin, K.; Vu, K. K.; Addala, L.; Olea, C.; Nana, L.; Scruggs, A. K.; Steele, J.; Shelton, T. C.; Osborne, B.; McHenry, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from dairy facilities are thought to be an important contributor to high ozone levels in Central California, but emissions inventories from these sources contain significant uncertainties. In this work, VOC emissions were measured at two Central California dairies during 2010 and 2011. Isolation flux chambers were used to measure direct emissions from specific dairy sources, and upwind/downwind ambient profiles were measured from ground level up to heights of 60 m. Samples were collected using a combination of canisters and sorbent tubes, and were analyzed by GC-MS. Additional in-situ measurements were made using infra-red photoaccoustic detectors and Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy. Temperature and ozone profiles up to 250 m above ground level were also measured using a tethersonde. Substantial fluxes of a number of VOCs including alcohols, volatile fatty acids and esters were observed at both sites. Implications of these measurements for regional air quality will be discussed.

  8. Sandia National Laboratories, California proposed CREATE facility environmental baseline survey.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catechis, Christopher Spyros

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Environmental Programs completed an environmental baseline survey (EBS) of 12.6 acres located at Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) in support of the proposed Collaboration in Research and Engineering for Advanced Technology and Education (CREATE) Facility. The survey area is comprised of several parcels of land within SNL/CA, County of Alameda, California. The survey area is located within T 3S, R 2E, Section 13. The purpose of this EBS is to document the nature, magnitude, and extent of any environmental contamination of the property; identify potential environmental contamination liabilities associated with the property; develop sufficient information to assess the health and safety risks; and ensure adequate protection for human health and the environment related to a specific property.

  9. Building Accountability in California: A Review of State Standards and Requirements for K-12 Public School Facility Planning and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to inform the California Department of Education (CDE) in ensuring the standards contained in Title 5 appropriately promote the planning and design of healthy, safe and educationally suitable K-12 school facilities. The study gathers and analyzes K-12 facility standards in ten case study states across the country to understand…

  10. Geochemical and VOC-constraints on landfill gas age and attenuation characteristics: A case study from a waste disposal facility in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Benjamin; Kerfoot, Henry B; Verwiel, Mark; Matlock, Bruce

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a multi-tracer approach was applied to a complex, methane-impacted site in Southern California to (1) distinguish between natural gas and landfill gas (LFG)-derived methane impacts at site perimeter gas probes, (2) estimate the relative age of the LFG at these probes, and (3) document natural attenuation trends during a 3-year monitoring period. Relationships between methane and ethane values suggest that at the majority of probes, methane is from LFG and not from natural gas and that the relative contribution of LFG methane at these probes has increased over the monitoring period. To evaluate whether LFG is attenuating in the subsurface, the relative age of LFG was estimated by comparing readily degraded VOCs that are major constituents in LFG (toluene in this case) with those resistant to degradation (Freons). Time-series data trends are consistent with several probes being impacted by fresh LFG from recent releases that occurred after the update of the local LFG collection and control system (LFGCCS). Data further indicate some probes to be only affected by legacy LFG from a past release that occurred prior to the LFGCCS update and that, because of a lack of oxygen in the subsurface, had not been fully degraded. The outlined attenuation evaluation methodology is potentially applicable to other sites or even groundwater contaminants; however, the assessment is limited by the degree of homogeneity of the LFG source composition and non-LFG-derived toluene inputs to the analyzed samples.

  11. Case Study of the California Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coito, Fred; Powell, Frank; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Friedmann, Rafael

    2005-05-01

    California is the largest cement producing state in theU.S., accounting for between 10 percent and 15 percent of U.S. cementproduction and cement industry employment. The cement industry inCalifornia consists of 31 sites that consume large amounts of energy,annually: 1,600 GWh of electricity, 22 million therms of natural gas, 2.3million tons of coal, 0.25 tons of coke, and smaller amounts of wastematerials, including tires. The case study summarized in this paperfocused on providing background information, an assessment ofenergy-efficiency opportunities and barriers, and program recommendationsthat can be used by program planners to better target products to thecement industry. The primary approach to this case study involvedwalk-through surveys of customer facilities and in depth interviews withcustomer decision makers and subsequent analysis of collected data. Inaddition, a basic review of the cement production process was developed,and summary cement industry energy and economic data were collected, andanalyzed. The analysis of secondary data provides background informationon the cement industry and identification of potential energy-efficiencyopportunities. The interviews provide some understanding of the customerperspective about implementation of energy-efficiencyprojects.

  12. Seismic risk analysis for General Electric Plutonium Facility, Pleasanton, California. Final report, part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-27

    This report is the second of a two part study addressing the seismic risk or hazard of the special nuclear materials (SNM) facility of the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center at Pleasanton, California. The Part I companion to this report, dated July 31, 1978, presented the seismic hazard at the site that resulted from exposure to earthquakes on the Calaveras, Hayward, San Andreas and, additionally, from smaller unassociated earthquakes that could not be attributed to these specific faults. However, while this study was in progress, certain additional geologic information became available that could be interpreted in terms of the existance of a nearby fault. Although substantial geologic investigations were subsequently deployed, the existance of this postulated fault, called the Verona Fault, remained very controversial. The purpose of the Part II study was to assume the existance of such a capable fault and, under this assumption, to examine the loads that the fault could impose on the SNM facility. This report first reviews the geologic setting with a focus on specifying sufficient geologic parameters to characterize the postulated fault. The report next presents the methodology used to calculate the vibratory ground motion hazard. Because of the complexity of the fault geometry, a slightly different methodology is used here compared to the Part I report. This section ends with the results of the calculation applied to the SNM facility. Finally, the report presents the methodology and results of the rupture hazard calculation.

  13. ERDA test facilities, East Mesa Test Site. Geothermal resource investigations, Imperial Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Detailed specifications which must be complied with in the construction of the ERDA Test Facilities at the East Mesa Site for geothermal resource investigations in Imperial Valley, California are presented for use by prospective bidders for the construction contract. The principle construction work includes a 700 gpm cooling tower with its associated supports and equipment, pipelines from wells, electrical equipment, and all earthwork. (LCL)

  14. California State Plan for Facilities for the Mentally Retarded, July 1, 1968 - July 30, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Public Health, Berkeley. Bureau of Health Facilities Planning and Construction.

    Written to aid in the development and improvement of facilities for the mentally retarded in California, the guide describes the organization of the agency responsible, the State Department of Public Health, and presents the laws relating to hospital survey and construction, the State Health and Safety Code. Further information is provided…

  15. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in California. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.; Gallagher, K.C.; Hejna, D.; Rielley, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Constitution of the State of California grants to the Legislature control over persons and private corporations that own or operate a line, plant, or system for the production, generation, or transmission of heat, light, water, or power to be furnished either directly or indirectly to or for the public. The Constitution establishes the Public Utilities Commission and grants certain specific powers to the PUC, including the power to fix rates, establish rules and prescribe a uniform system of accounts. The Constitution also recognizes that the Legislature has plenary power to confer additional authority and jurisdiction upon the PUC. The Constitution prohibits regulation by a city, county, or other municipal body of matters over which the Legislature has granted regulatory power to the PUC. This provision does not, however, impair the right of any city to grant franchises for public utilities. The California legislature has enacted the California Public Utilities Code and has designated the PUC as the agency to implement the regulatory provisions of the Code. The Public Utilities Commission consists of five members appointed by the governor and approved by the senate, a majority of the membership concurring, for staggered 6-year terms. Certain limited powers over the conduct of public utilities may still be exercised by municipalities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  16. Jail Pedagogy: Liberatory Education inside a California Juvenile Detention Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 2 million juveniles are arrested each year. Half are sentenced to serve terms of incarceration. Although many scholars have written about teaching in detention facilities, few directly address how prisoners are being taught. This research explores the experiences, teaching philosophy, and practices of correctional educators. To learn…

  17. Seismic risk analysis for the Atomics International Nuclear Materials Development Facility, Santa Susana California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-29

    This report presents the results of a detailed seismic risk analysis of the Nuclear Materials Development Facility (NMDF) operated by Atomics International at Santa Susana, California. The historical seismic record was established after a review of available literature, consultation with operators of local seismic arrays and examination of appropriate seismic data bases including the USGS, California Institute of Technology and NEIS data bases. The resulting seismic record, covering the period 1969 to 1977, was used to identify all possible sources of seismicity that could affect the site. The best estimate curve indicates that the facility will experience 30% g with a return period of 55 years and 60% g with a return period of 750 years.

  18. Rocket propulsion experimental facilities at the Phillips Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Joel W.; Kalliomaa, Wayne M.

    The Phillips Laboratory has extensive rocket propulsion faciliteis at Edwards Air Force Base, California. These facilities range form small scale cells capable of firing liquid rocket engines as small as 0.01 lbf (0.04 Newtons (N)) thrust up to very large liquid/solid test stands designed for firings up to 10 million lbf (44.5 million N) thrust. This paper gives a review of the variety and capabilities of the numerous facilities at Edwards Air Force Base, as well as an overview of current projects. Emphasis is placed on the general capabilities of these facilities; specifics are available upon request to the author. Trends in the evolution of rocket test facilities are discussed.

  19. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California -- Phase I Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Song, Katherine; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-04-01

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory?s research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities for wastewater treatment facilities in California. The report describes the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy use and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities. In addition, several energy efficiency and load management case studies are provided for wastewater treatment facilities.This study shows that wastewater treatment facilities can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for automated demand response at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to open automated demand response due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

  20. Dryden Fllight Reseach Facility, Edwards, California STA (Shuttle Training Aircraft, Gulf Stream II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Dryden Fllight Reseach Facility, Edwards, California STA (Shuttle Training Aircraft, Gulf Stream II) flys chase as STS-41returns from it's mission to Deploy Ulysses Spacecraft... Discovery's main gear is about to touch down at Edwards Air Foce Base to end a four-day mission in space for it's five-man crew. The vehicle landed at 6:57 a.m. Onboard the spacecraft were Astronauts Richard N. Richards, Robert D Cabana, William M Sheperd, Bruce E. Melnick and Thomas D. Akers.

  1. Golden Eagle mortality at a utility-scale wind energy facility near Palm Springs, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) mortality associated with wind energy turbines and infrastructure is under-reported and weakly substantiated in the published literature. I report two cases of mortality at a utility-scale renewable energy facility near Palm Springs, California. The facility has been in operation since 1984 and included 460 65KW turbines mounted on 24.4 m or 42.7 m lattice-style towers with 8 m rotor diameters. One mortality event involved a juvenile eagle that was struck and killed by a spinning turbine blade on 31 August, 1995. The tower was 24.4 m high. The other involved an immature female that was struck by a spinning blade on another 24.4 m tower on 17 April, 1997 and was later euthanized due to the extent of internal injuries. Other raptor mortalities incidentally observed at the site, and likely attributable to turbines, included three Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) found near turbines.

  2. COASTAL STUDY, SOLANO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  3. Federal Facility Compliance Act: Conceptual Site Treatment Plan for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required by section 3021(b) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended by the Federal Facility Compliance Act (the Act), to prepare plans describing the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating mixed waste. The Act requires site treatment plans (STPs or plans) to be developed for each site at which DOE generates or stores mixed waste and submitted to the State or EPA for approval, approval with modification, or disapproval. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP) is the preliminary version of the plan required by the Act and is being provided to California, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and others for review. A list of the other DOE sites preparing CSTPs is included in Appendix 1.1 of this document. Please note that Appendix 1.1 appears as Appendix A, pages A-1 and A-2 in this document.

  4. California Institute for the Study of Specialty Crops: California Renewablle Energy Overview for Agriculture: Final Report

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Lynn L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the current and projected demand for renewable electricity and renewable fuels in California, and to estimate the current and future contribution of renewable energy sourced from California agriculture. An overview of current relevant state and federal policies that encourage renewable energy production and consumption is provided.

  5. Wind to Hydrogen in California: Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonia, O.; Saur, G.

    2012-08-01

    This analysis presents a case study in California for a large scale, standalone wind electrolysis site. This is a techno-economic analysis of the 40,000 kg/day renewable production of hydrogen and subsequent delivery by truck to a fueling station in the Los Angeles area. This quantity of hydrogen represents about 1% vehicle market penetration for a city such as Los Angeles (assuming 0.62 kg/day/vehicle and 0.69 vehicles/person) [8]. A wind site near the Mojave Desert was selected for proximity to the LA area where hydrogen refueling stations are already built.

  6. Collaboration with behavioral health care facilities to implement systemwide tobacco control policies--California, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Lauren; Modayil, Mary V; Pavlik, Jim; Morris, Chad D

    2015-02-05

    The California Tobacco Control Program (CTCP) administered 4 regional trainings in 2012 to staffers at CTCP-funded projects, tobacco control coalitions, several county departments of mental health and alcohol and drug, and administrators and providers from behavioral health care facilities. These trainings focused on the special tobacco use cessation needs and opportunities for cessation among persons with mental illness or substance abuse disorders, and they provided information about cessation and smoke-free policies. CTCP surveyed county and private behavioral health care programs to assess their readiness for adopting tobacco control strategies at treatment facilities. Between baseline and follow-up we found a decrease in the proportion of organizations at the precontemplation or contemplation stages of change and twice as many organizations at the action and maintenance stages of change. Significant obstacles remain to implementing policy: many agencies have concerns about going tobacco-free. But significant progress has been made, as evidenced by new policies and a growing number of tobacco-free coalitions consisting of public health agencies, behavioral health care agencies, and local hospitals.

  7. Collaboration With Behavioral Health Care Facilities to Implement Systemwide Tobacco Control Policies — California, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Lauren; Modayil, Mary V.; Pavlik, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The California Tobacco Control Program (CTCP) administered 4 regional trainings in 2012 to staffers at CTCP-funded projects, tobacco control coalitions, several county departments of mental health and alcohol and drug, and administrators and providers from behavioral health care facilities. These trainings focused on the special tobacco use cessation needs and opportunities for cessation among persons with mental illness or substance abuse disorders, and they provided information about cessation and smoke-free policies. CTCP surveyed county and private behavioral health care programs to assess their readiness for adopting tobacco control strategies at treatment facilities. Between baseline and follow-up we found a decrease in the proportion of organizations at the precontemplation or contemplation stages of change and twice as many organizations at the action and maintenance stages of change. Significant obstacles remain to implementing policy: many agencies have concerns about going tobacco-free. But significant progress has been made, as evidenced by new policies and a growing number of tobacco-free coalitions consisting of public health agencies, behavioral health care agencies, and local hospitals. PMID:25654218

  8. Nesting ecology of a population of Gopherus agassizii at a utility-scale wind energy facility in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennen, Joshua R.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Meyer, Katherin P.; Bjurlin, Curtis; Arundel, Terence R.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the annual nesting ecology of a population of Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) inhabiting a utility-scale renewable energy (USRE) facility in southern California and compared our results with populations inhabiting relatively undisturbed sites. In 2000, 15 radio-tracked females produced 29 clutches, and 24 nests were monitored to examine nest-site selection, nest predation, hatching success, date of emergence of hatchlings, and hatchling mass and carapace length. Overall, the nesting ecology of the population inhabiting the USRE facility was very similar to other populations of Desert Tortoises inhabiting relatively undisturbed habitats. Oviposition occurred from 12 May to 8 July, which was similar to other sites. Nest depths (11.1 cm), nest predation (12%), hatchling emergence date (7 August and 29 September), and hatchling morphometrics (i.e., MCL: 44.5 mm; mass: 23 g) were all within ranges reported in other populations. Unlike within other populations, we observed no relationship between hatchling size and either maternal body size or egg width. We found no evidence of females selecting for a particular burrow for oviposition of eggs based on environmental or anthropogenic variables. Most nests were located in or near burrows, and nest depth was greater for nests near the entrance than those deeper in the burrow. Although this study suggests that the nesting ecology of the Desert Tortoise population we studied was not adversely affected by the USRE facility, this relationship is only correlative because our study was not a before-after-control-impact (BACI) study, which would establish a cause and effect relationship. As pointed out in a recent review, BACI studies are critically needed to address the wildlife impacts of utility-scale renewable energy development.

  9. National Biomedical Tracer Facility: Project definition study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, R.; Peterson, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Smith, P. [Smith (P.A.) Concepts and Designs (United States)

    1995-05-31

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is an ideal institution and New Mexico is an ideal location for siting the National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). The essence of the Los Alamos proposal is the development of two complementary irradiation facilities that combined with our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities and waste handling and disposal facilities provide a low cost alternative to other proposals that seek to satisfy the objectives of the NBTF. We propose the construction of a 30 MeV cyclotron facility at the site of the radiochemical facilities, and the construction of a 100 MeV target station at LAMPF to satisfy the requirements and objectives of the NBTF. We do not require any modifications to our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities or our waste treatment and disposal facilities to accomplish the objectives of the NBTF. The total capital cost for the facility defined by the project definition study is $15.2 M. This cost estimate includes $9.9 M for the cyclotron and associated facility, $2.0 M for the 100 MeV target station at LAMPF, and $3.3 M for design.

  10. Licensed Healthcare Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Licensed Healthcare Facilities point layer represents the locations of all healthcare facilities licensed by the State of California, Department of Health...

  11. Licensed Healthcare Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Licensed Healthcare Facilities point layer represents the locations of all healthcare facilities licensed by the State of California, Department of Health...

  12. Investigation of seismicity and related effects at NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Computer Center, Edwards, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousineau, R. D.; Crook, R., Jr.; Leeds, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    This report discusses a geological and seismological investigation of the NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility site at Edwards, California. Results are presented as seismic design criteria, with design values of the pertinent ground motion parameters, probability of recurrence, and recommended analogous time-history accelerograms with their corresponding spectra. The recommendations apply specifically to the Dryden site and should not be extrapolated to other sites with varying foundation and geologic conditions or different seismic environments.

  13. Summary environmental site assessment report for the U.S. Department of Energy Oxnard Facility, Oxnard, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This report summarizes the investigations conducted by Rust Geotech at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oxnard facility, 1235 East Wooley Road, Oxnard, California. These investigations were designed to locate, identify, and characterize any regulated contaminated media on the site. The effort included site visits; research of ownership, historical uses of the Oxnard facility and adjacent properties, incidences of and investigations for contaminants on adjacent properties, and the physical setting of the site; sampling and analysis; and reporting. These investigations identified two friable asbestos gaskets on the site, which were removed, and nonfriable asbestos, which will be managed through the implementation of an asbestos management plan. The California primary drinking water standards were exceeded for aluminum on two groundwater samples and for lead in one sample collected from the shallow aquifer underlying the site; remediation of the groundwater in this aquifer is not warranted because it is not used. Treated water is available from a municipal water system. Three sludge samples indicated elevated heavy metals concentrations; the sludge must be handled as a hazardous waste if disposed. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected at concentrations below remediation criteria in facility soils at two locations. In accordance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and State of California guidance, remediation of the PCBs is not required. No other hazardous substances were detected in concentrations exceeding regulatory limits.

  14. Economic analysis of electronic waste recycling: modeling the cost and revenue of a materials recovery facility in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hai-Yong; Schoenung, Julie M

    2006-03-01

    The objectives of this study are to identify the various techniques used for treating electronic waste (e-waste) at material recovery facilities (MRFs) in the state of California and to investigate the costs and revenue drivers for these techniques. The economics of a representative e-waste MRF are evaluated by using technical cost modeling (TCM). MRFs are a critical element in the infrastructure being developed within the e-waste recycling industry. At an MRF, collected e-waste can become marketable output products including resalable systems/components and recyclable materials such as plastics, metals, and glass. TCM has two main constituents, inputs and outputs. Inputs are process-related and economic variables, which are directly specified in each model. Inputs can be divided into two parts: inputs for cost estimation and for revenue estimation. Outputs are the results of modeling and consist of costs and revenues, distributed by unit operation, cost element, and revenue source. The results of the present analysis indicate that the largest cost driver for the operation of the defined California e-waste MRF is the materials cost (37% of total cost), which includes the cost to outsource the recycling of the cathode ray tubes (CRTs) (dollar 0.33/kg); the second largest cost driver is labor cost (28% of total cost without accounting for overhead). The other cost drivers are transportation, building, and equipment costs. The most costly unit operation is cathode ray tube glass recycling, and the next are sorting, collecting, and dismantling. The largest revenue source is the fee charged to the customer; metal recovery is the second largest revenue source.

  15. Deep Energy Retrofits - Eleven California Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisher, Jeremy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This research documents and demonstrates viable approaches using existing materials, tools and technologies in owner-conducted deep energy retrofits (DERs). These retrofits are meant to reduce energy use by 70% or more, and include extensive upgrades to the building enclosure, heating, cooling and hot water equipment, and often incorporate appliance and lighting upgrades as well as the addition of renewable energy. In this report, 11 Northern California (IECC climate zone 3) DER case studies are described and analyzed in detail, including building diagnostic tests and end-use energy monitoring results. All projects recognized the need to improve the home and its systems approximately to current building code-levels, and then pursued deeper energy reductions through either enhanced technology/ building enclosure measures, or through occupant conservation efforts, both of which achieved impressive energy performance and reductions. The beyond-code incremental DER costs averaged $25,910 for the six homes where cost data were available. DERs were affordable when these incremental costs were financed as part of a remodel, averaging a $30 per month increase in the net-cost of home ownership.

  16. University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Sky Imager Cloud Position Study Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleissl, J. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Urquhart, B. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Ghonima, M. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Dahlin, E. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Nguyen, A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Kurtz, B. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Chow, C. W. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Mejia, F. A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    During the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Sky Imager Cloud Position Study, two University of California, San Diego Sky Imagers (USI) (Figure 1) were deployed the U.S. Department of Energy(DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains SGP) research facility. The UCSD Sky Imagers were placed 1.7 km apart to allow for stereographic determination of the cloud height for clouds over approximately 1.5 km. Images with a 180-degree field of view were captured from both systems during daylight hours every 30 seconds beginning on March 11, 2013 and ending on November 4, 2013. The spatial resolution of the images was 1,748 × 1,748, and the intensity resolution was 16 bits using a high-dynamic-range capture process. The cameras use a fisheye lens, so the images are distorted following an equisolid angle projection.

  17. Calcined solids storage facility closure study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlmeir, M.M.; Tuott, L.C.; Spaulding, B.C. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes now stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is currently mandated under a {open_quotes}Settlement Agreement{close_quotes} (or {open_quotes}Batt Agreement{close_quotes}) between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. Under this agreement, all high-level waste must be treated as necessary to meet the disposal criteria and disposed of or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. In order to comply with this agreement, all calcined waste produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility and stored in the Calcined Solids Facility must be treated and disposed of by 2035. Several treatment options for the calcined waste have been studied in support of the High-Level Waste Environmental Impact Statement. Two treatment methods studied, referred to as the TRU Waste Separations Options, involve the separation of the high-level waste (calcine) into TRU waste and low-level waste (Class A or Class C). Following treatment, the TRU waste would be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for final storage. It has been proposed that the low-level waste be disposed of in the Tank Farm Facility and/or the Calcined Solids Storage Facility following Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure. In order to use the seven Bin Sets making up the Calcined Solids Storage Facility as a low-level waste landfill, the facility must first be closed to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) standards. This study identifies and discusses two basic methods available to close the Calcined Solids Storage Facility under the RCRA - Risk-Based Clean Closure and Closure to Landfill Standards. In addition to the closure methods, the regulatory requirements and issues associated with turning the Calcined Solids Storage Facility into an NRC low-level waste landfill or filling the bin voids with clean grout are discussed.

  18. Nest guarding by female Agassiz's desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) at a wind-energy facility near Palm Springs, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Wilcox, Ethan

    2013-01-01

    We observed behavior consistent with nest-guarding in Agassiz's desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) at two nests in a large wind-energy-generation facility near Palm Springs, California, locally known as the Mesa Wind Farm. As researchers approached the nests, female desert tortoises moved to the entrance of their burrows and positioned themselves sideways, directly over their nests. One female stretched her limbs outward and wedged herself into the burrow (her plastron directly above the nest). Guarding of nests is rarely observed in Agassiz's desert tortoise but can occur as a result of attempted predation on eggs by Gila monsters (Heloderma suspectum) or in direct response to the perceived threat posed by researchers. This is the first report of nest-guarding for G. agassizii in the Sonoran Desert ecosystem of California.

  19. California-Wyoming Grid Integration Study: Phase 1 -- Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D.; Hurlbut, D.; Schwabe, P.; Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.; Brinkman, G.; Paduru, A.; Diakov, V.; Hand, M.

    2014-03-01

    This study presents a comparative analysis of two different renewable energy options for the California energy market between 2017 and 2020: 12,000 GWh per year from new California in-state renewable energy resources; and 12,000 GWh per year from Wyoming wind delivered to the California marketplace. Either option would add to the California resources already existing or under construction, theoretically providing the last measure of power needed to meet (or to slightly exceed) the state's 33% renewable portfolio standard. Both options have discretely measurable differences in transmission costs, capital costs (due to the enabling of different generation portfolios), capacity values, and production costs. The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast the two different options to provide additional insight for future planning.

  20. Tokamak Engineering Technology Facility scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.; Abdou, M.A.; Bolta, C.C.

    1976-03-01

    A scoping study for a Tokamak Engineering Technology Facility (TETF) is presented. The TETF is a tokamak with R = 3 m and I/sub p/ = 1.4 MA based on the counterstreaming-ion torus mode of operation. The primary purpose of TETF is to demonstrate fusion technologies for the Experimental Power Reactor (EPR), but it will also serve as an engineering and radiation test facility. TETF has several technological systems (e.g., superconducting toroidal-field coil, tritium fuel cycle, impurity control, first wall) that are prototypical of EPR.

  1. Environmental Assessment:Security and Safety Upgrades to Entry Control Facilities Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    level, it has the potential to disrupt sleep , interfere with speech communication, or cause temporary or permanent changes in hearing sensitivity...many architectural coatings, including house paints, lacquers, sealers, maintenance coatings, primers, stains, and enamels. Chapter 4...California These coatings generate VOC emissions from the evaporation of solvents they contain. Painting structures with architectural coatings and

  2. Water supply studies. [management and planning of water supplies in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgy, R. H.; Algazi, V. R.; Draeger, W. C.; Churchman, C. W.; Thomas, R. W.; Lauer, D. T.; Hoos, I.; Krumpe, P. F.; Nichols, J. D.; Gialdini, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    The primary test site for water supply investigations continues to be the Feather River watershed in northeastern California. This test site includes all of the area draining into and including the Oroville Reservoir. The principal effort is to determine the extent to which remote sensing techniques, when properly employed, can provide information useful to those persons concerned with the management and planning of lands and facilities for the production of water, using the Oroville Reservoir and the California Water Project as the focus for the study. In particular, emphasis is being placed on determining the cost effectiveness of information derived through remote sensing as compared with that currently being derived through more conventional means.

  3. National facilities study. Volume 2: Task group on aeronautical research and development facilities report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Task Group on Aeronautics R&D Facilities examined the status and requirements for aeronautics facilities against the competitive need. Emphasis was placed on ground-based facilities for subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic aerodynamics, and propulsion. Subsonic and transonic wind tunnels were judged to be most critical and of highest priority. Results of the study are presented.

  4. Study: California Ethnic Groups Seeing Increased Cancer Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A statewide study on cancer and ethnicity hints that cancer rates among immigrant groups may be tied to their degree of assimilation into American culture. The study, released by the University of Southern California's Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, marks the first statewide look at cancer rates among Vietnamese and South Asians and provides…

  5. Assisted Living Facilities, Published in Not Provided, California University of Pennsylvania.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Assisted Living Facilities dataset, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of Not Provided. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  6. Reconnaissance of geothermal resources near US naval facilities in the San Diego area, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngs, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    A reconnaissance study has found little evidence of potential geothermal resources useful at naval facilities in the greater San Diego metropolitan area. However, there is a zone of modest elevated water well temperatures and slightly elevated thermal gradients that may include the eastern portion of the Imperial Beach Naval Air Station south of San Diego Bay. An increase of 0.3/sup 0/ to 0.4/sup 0/F/100 ft over the regional thermal gradient of 1.56/sup 0/F/100 ft was conservatively calculated for this zone. The thermal gradient can be used to predict 150/sup 0/F temperatures at a depth of approximately 4000 ft. This zone of greatest potential for a viable geothermal resource lies within a negative gravity anomaly thought to be caused by a tensionally developed graben, approximately centered over the San Diego Bay. Water well production in this zone is good to high, with 300 gpm often quoted as common for wells in this area. The concentration of total dissolved solids (TDS) in the deeper wells in this zone is relatively high due to intrusion of sea water. Productive geothermal wells may have to be drilled to depths economically infeasible for development of the resource in the area of discussion.

  7. Hyperfine structure studies with the COMPLIS facility

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, J E; Le Blanc, F; Lunney, M D; Obert, J; Oms, J; Putaux, J C; Roussière, B; Sauvage, J; Zemlyanoi, S G; Verney, D; Pinard, J; Cabaret, L A; Duong, H T; Huber, G; Krieg, M; Sebastian, V; Girod, M; Peru, S; Genevey, J; Ibrahim, F; Lettry, Jacques

    1998-01-01

    COMPLIS is an experimental facility designed to carry out spectroscopic studies on radioisotopes produced by disintegration of elements available at CERN's Booster-ISOLDE on-line isotope separator. During recent series of experimental runs, hyperfine structure measurements have yielded information on nuclear moments and deformations of platinum and iridium isotopes, For the first time, population by alpha -decay from Hg was exploited to investigate /sup 178/-/sup 181/Pt-the most neutron-deficient Pt isotopes yet studied. Successful measurements have recently been carried out on /sup 182-189/Ir. (10 refs).

  8. Planning Our Future. A Staff Background Paper on Long-Range Enrollment and Facilities Planning in California Public Higher Education. Commission Report 89-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Kirk L.

    A background paper on long-range enrollment and facilities planning in California's public segments of higher education is designed to: (1) establish a policy framework within which the Postsecondary Education Commission can examine and assess the planning processes of the segments; and (2) describe the processes, identifying major differences…

  9. Facilities for pyrochemical process studies at ENEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angelis, G.; Fedeli, C.; Tiranti, G. [Italian National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment - ENEA, Casaccia Research Center, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Roma (Italy); Baicchi, E. [ENEA, Brasimone Research Center, 40032 Camugnano, Bologna (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Some facilities have successfully been installed at ENEA laboratories for pyrochemical process studies under inactive conditions. PYREL III, MECRYP and OGATA plants allow to perform experiments about electrorefining and electroreduction of simulated fuel, melt crystallization of lithium chloride containing impurities from electroreduction campaigns, and trapping of volatile and semi-volatile fission products. Moreover, an argon-atmosphere glove-box is used for conditioning of chloride salt wastes with sodalite or SAP (SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) matrix.

  10. Dry Well Storage Facility conceptual design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The Dry Well Storage Facility described is assumed to be located adjacent to or near a Spent Fuel Receiving and Packaging Facility and/or a Packaged Fuel Transfer Facility. Performance requirements, quality levels and codes and standards, schedule and methods of performance, special requirements, quality assurance program, and cost estimate are discussed. Appendices on major mechanical equipment and electric power requirements are included.

  11. Heber Ethanol Fuel Facility, Imperial Valley, California. Quarterly report No. 2, March 1981-May 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The purposed project is a commercial-scale ethanol-fuel facility with a capacity of twenty million gallons per year of fuel-grade ethanol. In addition, 70,000 tons per year of distillers dried grains will be produced. The following tasks and issues are addressed: process engineering - process descriptions, plant layout, and design; economics and finance - overview of capital and operating costs; environmental analysis - preliminary project description; and permit processing and legal issues. (MHR)

  12. California air transportation study: A transportation system for the California Corridor of the year 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    To define and solve the problems of transportation in the California Corrider in the year 2010, the 1989 California Polytechnic State University Aeronautical Engineering Senior Design class determined future corridor transportation needs and developed a system to meet the requirements. A market study, which included interpreting travel demand and gauging the future of regional and national air travel in and out of the corridor, allowed the goals of the project to be accurately refined. Comprehensive trade-off studies of several proposed transporation systems were conducted to determine which components would form the final proposed system. Preliminary design and further analysis were performed for each resulting component. The proposed system consists of three vehicles and a special hub or mode mixer, the Corridor Access Port (CAP). The vehicles are: (1) an electric powered aircraft to serve secondary airports and the CAP; (2) a high speed magnetic levitation train running through the CAP and the high population density areas of the corridor; and (3) a vertical takeoff and landing tilt rotor aircraft to serve both intercity and intrametropolitan travelers from the CAP and city vertiports. The CAP is a combination and an extension of the hub, mode mixer, and Wayport concepts. The CAP is an integrated part of the system which meets the travel demands in the corridor, and interfaces with interstate and international travel.

  13. Manpower requirements for energy conservation: a case study of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms, W.W.; McCarthy, M.A.; Moore, R.W.

    1982-07-15

    This case study of California's new energy conservation policies concludes the impact of such legislation is qualitative, not quantitative. Substantial numbers of new jobs are not created by these policies, but some new knowledge is required by the existing workforce to adequately comply. The study suggests that the conventional manpower requirements approach to planning that attempts to numerically match supply and demand is not a productive way to plan for qualitative changes in the workforce. Instead, the study details how regulations act to create an information and training system that operates on natural incentives. In California, these new energy policies created an immediate demand for relevant information by designers, builders and building officials. Further, the investigation describes the existence of a non-formal training system and how it emerges in the short-run to meet immediate knowledge demands. The study shows how building inspection that insures uniform compliance can act to close the system, thereby intensifying designers and builders demands for new knowledge which are met by non-formal training organizations - trade and professional associations and manufacturers. Though the study shows how this system driven by regulations on one end and bounded by inspection and enforcement on the other, operates without central guidance, it identifies key barriers that impede its effectiveness. The study recommends specific steps the US Department of Energy and state energy planners can take to improve the system's effectiveness by learning from the California experience.

  14. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. L. Kubicek

    2001-09-07

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire or related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment. (3) Vital US. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. (5) Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  15. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard C. Logan

    2002-03-28

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: The occurrence of a fire or related event; A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment; Vital U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE; and Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  16. Design Study of Beijing XFEL Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, J P

    2005-01-01

    As R&D of X-ray Free Electron Laser facility in China, the construction of Beijing XFEL Test Facility (BTF) has been proposed. And the start to end simulation of BTF was made with codes PARMELA, ELEGANT and TDA. This paper presents the motivation, the scheme and the simulation results of BTF.

  17. Retrospective study of cattle poisonings in California: recognition, diagnosis, and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Puschner B; Varga A

    2012-01-01

    Anita Varga,1 Birgit Puschner21William R Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, Large Animal Clinic, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA; 2Department of Molecular Biosciences and the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USAAbstract: In this retrospective study all suspect bovine intoxications submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laborator...

  18. Tar Creek study, Sargent oil field, Santa Clara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, David L.; Fedasko, Bill; Carnahan, J.R.; Brunetti, Ross; Magoon, Leslie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Lorenson, T.D.; Stanley, Richard G.

    2002-01-01

    Field work in the Tar Creek area of Sargent oil field was performed June 26 to 28, 2000. The Santa Clara County study area is located in Sections, 30, 31, and 32, Township 11 South, Range 4 East, M.D.B&M; and in Sections 25 and 36, Township 11 South, Range 3 East, M.D.B.&M., north and south of Tar Creek, west of Highway 101. The work was a cooperative effort of the California Department of Conservation's Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (DOGGR), California Geological Survey (CGS), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the project was to map the stratigraphy and geologic structure (David Wagner, CGS); sample oil for age dating (Les Magoon, USGS); and search for undocumented wells plus conduct a GPS survey of the area (Bill Fedasko, J.P. Carnahan, and Ross Brunetti, DOGGR)

  19. Native fish population and habitat study, Santa Ana River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Marissa L.; Brown, Larry R.; May, Jason

    2017-01-01

    various research and monitoring studies within its remaining habitat in California (see below for more detail), initial assessment of the available data within the HCP suggested that additional data on population size, fish habitat use and availability of suitable habitat would be needed to support development of the HCP. Similarly, work on the Arroyo Chub has been limited and there is little data on the species within the HCP area, particularly the mainstem Santa Ana River. Thus, the collection of additional data on these two species has been identified as a needed task to support development of the HCP. The goals of the current study are: 1. Compare snorkeling, seining, and electrofishing as methods for estimating native fish abundance. 2. Develop a population estimate for native fish species in the study area based on the results from Goal 1. 3. Develop a habitat suitability model for the Santa Ana River for Santa Ana Sucker, and if possible Arroyo Chub. Moyle, P. B. 2002. Inland Fishes of California. Berkeley: University of California Press, 502 pp.

  20. Investigating walking environments in and around assisted living facilities: a facility visit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhipeng

    2010-01-01

    This study explores assisted living residents' walking behaviors, locations where residents prefer to walk, and walking environments in and around assisted living facilities. Regular walking is beneficial to older adults' physical and psychological health. Yet frail older residents in assisted living are usually too sedentary to achieve these benefits. The physical environment plays an important role in promoting physical activity. However, there is little research exploring this relationship in assisted living settings. The researcher visited 34 assisted living facilities in a major Texas city. Methods included walk-through observation with the Assisted Living Facility Walking Environment Checklist, and interviews with administrators by open- and close-ended questions. The data from 26 facilities were analyzed using descriptive statistics (for quantitative data) and content analysis (for qualitative data). The results indicate that (a) residents were walking both indoors and outdoors for exercise or other purposes (e.g., going to destinations); (b) assisted living facility planning and design details-such as neighborhood sidewalk conditions, facility site selection, availability of seating, walking path configuration (e.g., looped/nonlooped path), amount of shading along the path, presence of handrails, existence of signage, etc.-may influence residents' walking behaviors; and (c) current assisted living facilities need improvement in all aspects to make their environments more walkable for residents. Findings of the study provide recommendations for assisted living facilities to improve the walkability of environments and to create environmental interventions to promote regular walking among their residents. This study also implies several directions for future research.

  1. National Biomedical Tracer Facility. Project definition study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer, R.

    1995-02-14

    We request a $25 million government-guaranteed, interest-free loan to be repaid over a 30-year period for construction and initial operations of a cyclotron-based National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF) in North Central Texas. The NBTF will be co-located with a linear accelerator-based commercial radioisotope production facility, funded by the private sector at approximately $28 million. In addition, research radioisotope production by the NBTF will be coordinated through an association with an existing U.S. nuclear reactor center that will produce research and commercial radioisotopes through neutron reactions. The combined facilities will provide the full range of technology for radioisotope production and research: fast neutrons, thermal neutrons, and particle beams (H{sup -}, H{sup +}, and D{sup +}). The proposed NBTF facility includes an 80 MeV, 1 mA H{sup -} cyclotron that will produce proton-induced (neutron deficient) research isotopes.

  2. California Basin Studies (CaBS). Final contract report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorsline, D.S.

    1991-12-31

    The California Continental Borderland`s present configuration dates from about 4 to 5 X 10{sup 6} years Before Present (B.P.) and is the most recent of several configurations of the southern California margin that have evolved after the North America Plate over-rode the East Pacific Rise about 30 X 10{sup 6} years ago. The present morphology is a series of two to three northwest-southeast trending rows of depressions separated by banks and insular ridges. Two inner basins, Santa Monica and San Pedro, have been the site for the Department of Energy-funded California Basin Study (CaBS) Santa Monica and San Pedro Basins contain post-Miocene sediment thicknesses of about 2.5 and 1.5 km respectively. During the Holocene (past 10,000 years) about 10-12 m have accumulated. The sediment entered the basin by one or a combination of processes including particle infall (mainly as bioaggregates) from surface waters, from nepheloid plumes (surface, mid-depths and near-bottom), from turbidity currents, mass movements, and to a very minor degree direct precipitation. In Santa Monica Basin, during the last century, particle infall and nepheloid plume transport have been the most common processes. The former dominates in the central basin floor in water depths from 900 to 945 m. where a characteristic silt-clay with a typical mean diameter of about 0.006 mm, phi standard deviation.

  3. Diurnal variation of midlatitudinal NO3 column abundance over table mountain facility, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Li

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The column abundance of NO3 was measured over Table Mountain Facility, CA (34.4° N, 117.7° W from May 2003 through September 2004, using lunar occultation near full moon with a grating spectrometer. The NO3 column retrieval was performed with the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS technique using both the 623 and 662 nm NO3 absorption bands. Other spectral features such as Fraunhofer lines and absorption from water vapor and oxygen were removed using solar spectra obtained at different airmass factors. We observed a seasonal variation, with nocturnally averaged NO3 columns between 5−7 × 1013 molec cm−2 during October through March, and 5−22 × 1013 molec cm−2 during April through September. A subset of the data, with diurnal variability vastly different from the temporal profile obtained from one-dimensional stratospheric model calculations, clearly has boundary layer contributions; this was confirmed by simultaneous long-path DOAS measurements. However, even the NO3 columns that did follow the modeled time evolution were often much larger than modeled stratospheric partial columns constrained by realistic temperatures and ozone concentrations. This discrepancy is attributed to substantial tropospheric NO3 in the free troposphere, which may have the same time dependence as stratospheric NO3.

  4. Feasibility study for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincoff, A.H. [US Environmental Protection Agency, San Francisco, CA (United States). Region IX; Costan, G.P.; Montgomery, M.S.; White, P.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The United Heckathom Superfund Site in Richmond, California, was used to formulate pesticides from approximately 1947 to 1966. Soils at the site and sediments in the harbor were contaminated with various chlorinated pesticides, primarily DDT, as a result of these activities. The US Environmental Protection Agency listed the site on the Superfund National Priorities List in 1990. This document is part of the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study phase of the Superfund response, which will provide the basis for selection of a final remedy that will protect human health and the environment and achieve compliance with federal and state envirorunental laws.

  5. Nelson's big horn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) trample Agassiz's desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) burrow at a California wind energy facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Mickey; Delaney, David F.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Price, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Research on interactions between Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) and ungulates has focused exclusively on the effects of livestock grazing on tortoises and their habitat (Oldemeyer, 1994). For example, during a 1980 study in San Bernardino County, California, 164 desert tortoise burrows were assessed for vulnerability to trampling by domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Herds of grazing sheep damaged 10% and destroyed 4% of the burrows (Nicholson and Humphreys 1981). In addition, a juvenile desert tortoise was trapped and an adult male was blocked from entering a burrow due to trampling by domestic sheep. Another study found that domestic cattle (Bos taurus) trampled active desert tortoise burrows and vegetation surrounding burrows (Avery and Neibergs 1997). Trampling also has negative impacts on diversity of vegetation and intershrub soil crusts in the desert southwest (Webb and Stielstra 1979). Trampling of important food plants and overgrazing has the potential to create competition between desert tortoises and domestic livestock (Berry 1978; Coombs 1979; Webb and Stielstra 1979).

  6. A study of the operation of selected national research facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, M.

    1974-01-01

    The operation of national research facilities was studied. Conclusions of the study show that a strong resident scientific staff is required for successful facility operation. No unique scheme of scientific management is revealed except for the obvious fact that the management must be responsive to the users needs and requirements. Users groups provide a convenient channel through which these needs and requirements are communicated.

  7. Schools of California Online Resources for Education: History-Social Science One Stop Shopping for California's Social Studies Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Margaret; Benoit, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the resources available for social studies teachers from the Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): History Social Science World Wide Web site. Includes curriculum-aligned resources and lessons; standards and assessment information; interactive projects and field trips; teacher chat area; professional development…

  8. Schools of California Online Resources for Education: History-Social Science One Stop Shopping for California's Social Studies Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Margaret; Benoit, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the resources available for social studies teachers from the Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): History Social Science World Wide Web site. Includes curriculum-aligned resources and lessons; standards and assessment information; interactive projects and field trips; teacher chat area; professional development…

  9. Geologic structure in California: Three studies with ERTS-1 imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, P. D., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of three early applications of imagery from the NASA Earth Resources Technology Satellite to geologic studies in California. In the Coast Ranges near Monterey Bay, numerous linear drainage features possibly indicating unmapped fracture zones were mapped within one week after launch of the satellite. A similar study of the Sierra Nevada near Lake Tahoe revealed many drainage features probably formed along unmapped joint or faults in granitic rocks. The third study, in the Peninsular Ranges, confirmed existence of several major faults not shown on published maps. One of these, in the Sawtooth Range, crosses in Elsinore fault without lateral offset; associated Mid-Cretaceous structures have also been traced continuously across the fault without offset. It therefore appears that displacement along the Elsinore fault has been primarily of a dip-slip nature, at least in this area, despite evidence for lateral displacement elsewhere.

  10. Opportunities for nuclear reaction studies at future facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Veselsky, Martin; Vujisicova, Nikoleta; Souliotis, Georgios A

    2016-01-01

    Opportunities for investigations of nuclear reactions at the future nuclear physics facilities such as radioactive ion beam facilities and high-power laser facilities are considered. Post-accelerated radioactive ion beams offer possibilities for study of the role of isospin asymmetry in the reaction mechanisms at various beam energies. Fission barrier heights of neutron-deficient nuclei can be directly determined at low energies. Post-accelerated radioactive ion beams, specifically at the future facilities such as HIE-ISOLDE, SPIRAL-2 or RAON-RISP can be also considered as a candidate for production of very neutron-rich nuclei via mechanism of multi-nucleon transfer. High-power laser facilities such as ELI-NP offer possibilities for nuclear reaction studies with beams of unprecedented properties. Specific cases such as ternary reactions or even production of super-heavy elements are considered.

  11. Solar diffusion in California: a pilot study. Consultant report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, E.M.; Leonard-Barton, D.; Avi-Itzhak, T.; Rosa, E.; Adhikarya, R.

    1979-10-01

    Solar system owners and their neighbors in the San Francisco Bay Area were studied. The study determined the level of homeowner awareness about residential solar energy systems, described characteristics of consumers purchasing solar equipment (e.g. whether they represent identifiable market segments), identified major channels of communication through which solar information is effectively used, determined remaining barriers to solar use, identified needed incentives to accelerate commercialization, and assessed public attitudes toward various state and Federal government actions to increase the rate of solar energy use statewide. Issues and questions explored are being used in the development of a statewide survey of 700 homeowners in California to determine if these findings apply to residents throughout the state.

  12. Solar diffusion in California: a pilot study. Consultant report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, E.M.; Leonard-Barton, D.; Avi-Itzhak, T.; Rosa, E.; Adhikarya, R.

    1979-10-01

    Solar system owners and their neighbors in the San Francisco Bay Area were studied. The study determined the level of homeowner awareness about residential solar energy systems, described characteristics of consumers purchasing solar equipment (e.g. whether they represent identifiable market segments), identified major channels of communication through which solar information is effectively used, determined remaining barriers to solar use, identified needed incentives to accelerate commercialization, and assessed public attitudes toward various state and Federal government actions to increase the rate of solar energy use statewide. Issues and questions explored are being used in the development of a statewide survey of 700 homeowners in California to determine if these findings apply to residents throughout the state.

  13. Wakefields studies for the SXFEL user facility

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Minghao; Huang, Dazhang; Deng, Haixiao; Liu, Bo; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Besides the original seeded undulator line, in the Soft X-ray free-electron laser (SXFEL) user facility at Shanghai, a second undulator line based on self-amplified spontaneous emission is proposed to achieve 2 nm laser pulse with extremely high brightness. In this paper, the beam energy deviation induced by the undulator wakefields is numerically obtained, and it is verified to have a good agreement between 3D and 2D simulation results. The beam energy loss along the undulator degrades the expected FEL output performance. Impact of wakefields on pulse energy, radiation power and spectrum is discussed, as well as the benefits of compensation obtained with a taper in the undulator field. And using the planned SXFEL diagnostic, a longitudinal wakefields measurement experiment is proposed and simulated.

  14. Energy Policy Case Study - California: Renewables and Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bender, Sadie R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    The purpose of this document is to present a case study of energy policies in California related to power system transformation and renewable and distributed energy resources (DERs). Distributed energy resources represent a broad range of technologies that can significantly impact how much, and when, electricity is demanded from the grid. Key policies and proceedings related to power system transformation and DERs are grouped into the following categories: 1.Policies that support achieving environmental and climate goals 2.Policies that promote deployment of DERs 3.Policies that support reliability and integration of DERs 4.Policies that promote market animation and support customer choice. Major challenges going forward are forecasting and modeling DERs, regulatory and utility business model issues, reliability, valuation and pricing, and data management and sharing.

  15. Facility Configuration Study of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Component Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. L. Austad; L. E. Guillen; D. S. Ferguson; B. L. Blakely; D. M. Pace; D. Lopez; J. D. Zolynski; B. L. Cowley; V. J. Balls; E.A. Harvego, P.E.; C.W. McKnight, P.E.; R.S. Stewart; B.D. Christensen

    2008-04-01

    A test facility, referred to as the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Component Test Facility or CTF, will be sited at Idaho National Laboratory for the purposes of supporting development of high temperature gas thermal-hydraulic technologies (helium, helium-Nitrogen, CO2, etc.) as applied in heat transport and heat transfer applications in High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors. Such applications include, but are not limited to: primary coolant; secondary coolant; intermediate, secondary, and tertiary heat transfer; and demonstration of processes requiring high temperatures such as hydrogen production. The facility will initially support completion of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. It will secondarily be open for use by the full range of suppliers, end-users, facilitators, government laboratories, and others in the domestic and international community supporting the development and application of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor technology. This pre-conceptual facility configuration study, which forms the basis for a cost estimate to support CTF scoping and planning, accomplishes the following objectives: • Identifies pre-conceptual design requirements • Develops test loop equipment schematics and layout • Identifies space allocations for each of the facility functions, as required • Develops a pre-conceptual site layout including transportation, parking and support structures, and railway systems • Identifies pre-conceptual utility and support system needs • Establishes pre-conceptual electrical one-line drawings and schedule for development of power needs.

  16. National facilities study. Volume 5: Space research and development facilities task group

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    With the beginnings of the U.S. space program, there was a pressing need to develop facilities that could support the technology research and development, testing, and operations of evolving space systems. Redundancy in facilities that was once and advantage in providing flexibility and schedule accommodation is instead fast becoming a burden on scarce resources. As a result, there is a clear perception in many sectors that the U.S. has many space R&D facilities that are under-utilized and which are no longer cost-effective to maintain. At the same time, it is clear that the U.S. continues to possess many space R&D facilities which are the best -- or among the best -- in the world. In order to remain world class in key areas, careful assessment of current capabilities and planning for new facilities is needed. The National Facility Study (NFS) was initiated in 1992 to develop a comprehensive and integrated long-term plan for future aerospace facilities that meets current and projected government and commercial needs. In order to assess the nation's capability to support space research and development (R&D), a Space R&D Task Group was formed. The Task Group was co-chaired by NASA and DOD. The Task Group formed four major, technologically- and functionally- oriented working groups: Human and Machine Operations; Information and Communications; Propulsion and Power; and Materials, Structures, and Flight Dynamics. In addition to these groups, three supporting working groups were formed: Systems Engineering and Requirements; Strategy and Policy; and Costing Analysis. The Space R&D Task Group examined several hundred facilities against the template of a baseline mission and requirements model (developed in common with the Space Operations Task Group) and a set of excursions from the baseline. The model and excursions are described in Volume 3 of the NFS final report. In addition, as a part of the effort, the group examined key strategic issues associated with space R

  17. Archaeological Study of CA-VEN-110, Ventura, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    more feet and may weigh 500 pounds; it was not recovered at CA-VEN-ll, but did occur at Shisholop and at CA-SBA-l, at Rincon Point. It does enter...Southern California Academy of Sciences vol. 8. 1972 Fish Remains, Primarily Otoliths, From a Coastal Indian Midden (SLO-2) at Diablo Cove, San Luis ...Obispo County, California. In 9000 Years of Prehistory at Diablo Canyon, San Luis Obispo County. California, by Roberta S. Greenwood, pp. 99-120. San Luis

  18. A beam expander facility for studying x-ray optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Frederiksen, P.

    1992-01-01

    The detailed study of the performance of full scale x-ray optics often requires the illumination of large areas. This paper describes a beam expander facility at the Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Facility. It combines monochromatization and beam expansion in one dimension. The beam expansion...... is obtained from an extremely asymmetric reflection in a large single crystal of Si. An expansion of a factor of 50 was obtained in one dimension. The expanded beam of ~85 mm is limited only by the crystal size. The facility is installed in a 12-m-long hutch. A specific application, in which a high throughput...

  19. Urgent Care Facilities, Licensed Healthcare Facilities, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of California - Office of the State Chief Information Officer.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Urgent Care Facilities dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is...

  20. Nest site characteristics, nesting movements, and lack of long-term nest site fidelity in Agassiz's desert tortoises at a wind energy facility in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Agha, Mickey; Yackulic, Charles B.; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Ennen, Joshua R.; Arundel, Terry R.; Austin, Meaghan

    2014-01-01

    Nest site selection has important consequences for maternal and offspring survival and fitness. Females of some species return to the same nesting areas year after year. We studied nest site characteristics, fidelity, and daily pre-nesting movements in a population of Agassiz’s desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) at a wind energy facility in southern California during two field seasons separated by over a decade. No females returned to the same exact nest site within or between years but several nested in the same general area. However, distances between first and second clutches within a year (2000) were not significantly different from distances between nests among years (2000 and 2011) for a small sample of females, suggesting some degree of fidelity within their normal activity areas. Environmental attributes of nest sites did not differ significantly among females but did among years due largely to changes in perennial plant structure as a result of multiple fires. Daily pre-nesting distances moved by females decreased consistently from the time shelled eggs were first visible in X-radiographs until oviposition, again suggesting some degree of nest site selection. Tortoises appear to select nest sites that are within their long-term activity areas, inside the climate-moderated confines of one of their self-constructed burrows, and specifically, at a depth in the burrow that minimizes exposure of eggs and embryos to lethal incubation temperatures. Nesting in “climate-controlled” burrows and nest guarding by females relaxes some of the constraints that drive nest site selection in other oviparous species.

  1. Experimental geothermal research facilities study (Phase O). Final report No. 26405-6001-RU-00

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-12-31

    This study focuses on identification of a representative liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir of moderate temperature and salinity, preliminary design of an appropriate energy conversion system, identification of critical technology and planning for the implementation of experimental facilities. Results of Phase O of the project are reported in two volumes. Volume II presents detailed results of studies and analyses arranged in nine appendices including the final report by a subcontractor on the study. The specific appendices are: Appendix A: Geothermal Resources of the Western United States; Appendix B: Site Selection Process and the East Mesa Geothermal Field; Appendix C: East Mesa Geothermal Field Reservoir Characteristics; Appendix D: Advisor's Views and Comments; Appendix E: Thermodynamic Analyses; Appendix F: Material and Corrosion Factors; Appendix G: Preliminary Reliability/Maintainability Analyses; Appendix H: Environmental Impact Analysis Guidelines; and Appendix I: Report to the National Science Foundation/TRW Systems Group by Rogers Engineering Company, Inc., San Francisco, California.

  2. Smart Schools, Smart Growth: Investing in Education Facilities and Stronger Communities. California Builds Better Schools. Working Paper 09-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Bruce; Vincent, Jeff; Bierbaum, Ariel H.; Kirschenbaum, Greta; McCoy, Deborah; Rigby, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    This report examines how California's massive and ongoing investment in school construction could better advance the shared goals of school improvement, sustainable urban growth, and equal opportunity. This brief is organized in five parts. First, the authors sketch a "framework" for how smart growth principles could help guide school…

  3. A Water Quality Study: Heron's Head Park, San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A.; Wu, K.; Neiss, J.

    2007-12-01

    Heron's Head Park, formerly known as Pier 98, is a 24-acre restored wetland, owned and operated by the Port of San Francisco and situated at the base of the Hunter's Point Power Plant. Heron's Head is a unique environment that is built on landfill and is now a thriving marsh maintained primarily by youth and community volunteers. Adjacent to the park stands a PG&E power plant (closed May 2006), a county waste transfer station, and a combined sewer overflow (CSO) pipe. The park is bordered by San Francisco Bay on the north, east and south sides of the park. We examined the levels of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and fecal coliform at nine sites around the park. Utilizing historical data from other San Francisco Bay sites and other similar estuarine settings in California, we assessed the health of the Bay waters surrounding the park. We found the levels of ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and phosphates to be within the parameters of historical San Francisco Bay data and similar to settings such as Elkhorn Slough, Tomales Bay and Tijuana Estuary. In our study we did find a potential hazard to human health. Fecal coliform concentrations in waters that border the park range from 340 MPN/100 mL - 24,000 MPN/100 mL. This level significantly exceeds Environmental Protection Agency recommendations of 300 MPN/100 mL for human contact with water.

  4. Fission yield studies at the IGISOL facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penttilae, H.; Elomaa, V.V.; Eronen, T.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Moore, I.D.; Rahaman, S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Rissanen, J.; Saastamoinen, A.; Weber, C.; Aeystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Rubchenya, V. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2012-04-15

    Low-energy-particle-induced fission is a cost-effective way to produce neutron-rich nuclei for spectroscopic studies. Fission has been utilized at the IGISOL to produce isotopes for decay and nuclear structure studies, collinear laser spectroscopy and precision mass measurements. The ion guide technique is also very suitable for the fission yield measurements, which can be performed very efficiently by using the Penning trap for fission fragment identification and counting. The proton- and neutron-induced fission yield measurements at the IGISOL are reviewed, and the independent isotopic yields of Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Cd and In in 25MeV deuterium-induced fission are presented for the first time. Moving to a new location next to the high intensity MCC30/15 light-ion cyclotron will allow also the use of the neutron-induced fission to produce the neutron rich nuclei at the IGISOL in the future. (orig.)

  5. Contingent post-closure plan, hazardous waste management units at selected maintenance facilities, US Army National Training Center, Fort Irwin, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, California, is a US Army training installation that provides tactical experience for battalion/task forces and squadrons in a mid- to high-intensity combat scenario. Through joint exercises with US Air Force and other services, the NTC also provides a data source for improvements of training doctrines, organization, and equipment. To meet the training and operational needs of the NTC, several maintenance facilities provide general and direct support for mechanical devices, equipment, and vehicles. Maintenance products used at these facilities include fuels, petroleum-based oils, lubricating grease, various degreasing solvents, antifreeze (ethylene glycol), transmission fluid, brake fluid, and hydraulic oil. Used or spent petroleum-based products generated at the maintenance facilities are temporarily accumulated in underground storage tanks (USTs), collected by the NTC hazardous waste management contractor (HAZCO), and stored at the Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricant (POL) Storage Facility, Building 630, until shipped off site to be recovered, reused, and/or reclaimed. Spent degreasing solvents and other hazardous wastes are containerized and stored on-base for up to 90 days at the NTC`s Hazardous Waste Storage Facility, Building 703. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) performed an inspection and reviewed the hazardous waste management operations of the NTC. Inspections indicated that the NTC had violated one or more requirements of Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and as a result of these violations was issued a Notice of Noncompliance, Notice of Necessity for Conference, and Proposed Compliance Schedule (NON) dated October 13, 1989. The following post-closure plan is the compliance-based approach for the NTC to respond to the regulatory violations cited in the NON.

  6. Contingent post-closure plan, hazardous waste management units at selected maintenance facilities, US Army National Training Center, Fort Irwin, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, California, is a US Army training installation that provides tactical experience for battalion/task forces and squadrons in a mid- to high-intensity combat scenario. Through joint exercises with US Air Force and other services, the NTC also provides a data source for improvements of training doctrines, organization, and equipment. To meet the training and operational needs of the NTC, several maintenance facilities provide general and direct support for mechanical devices, equipment, and vehicles. Maintenance products used at these facilities include fuels, petroleum-based oils, lubricating grease, various degreasing solvents, antifreeze (ethylene glycol), transmission fluid, brake fluid, and hydraulic oil. Used or spent petroleum-based products generated at the maintenance facilities are temporarily accumulated in underground storage tanks (USTs), collected by the NTC hazardous waste management contractor (HAZCO), and stored at the Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricant (POL) Storage Facility, Building 630, until shipped off site to be recovered, reused, and/or reclaimed. Spent degreasing solvents and other hazardous wastes are containerized and stored on-base for up to 90 days at the NTC's Hazardous Waste Storage Facility, Building 703. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) performed an inspection and reviewed the hazardous waste management operations of the NTC. Inspections indicated that the NTC had violated one or more requirements of Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and as a result of these violations was issued a Notice of Noncompliance, Notice of Necessity for Conference, and Proposed Compliance Schedule (NON) dated October 13, 1989. The following post-closure plan is the compliance-based approach for the NTC to respond to the regulatory violations cited in the NON.

  7. Environmental Assessment for Demolition and Disposal of Base Buildings and Facilities on Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-26

    Resources Board CCR California Code of Regulations CE/ AOO Civil Engineer Asbestos Operations Officer CEO Civil Engineer Operations Division CEQA...CE/ AOO ), Environmental Management Base Asbestos Coordinator (CEV/BAC), and Bioenvironmental Engineering (BEE). All work plans require review and...approval by base coordinators listed in this section. b. Coordinate requirements with CE Project Manager, CE/ AOO , CEV/BAC and BEE. All friable

  8. Diffraction studies applicable to 60-foot microwave research facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R. F.

    1973-01-01

    The principal features of this document are the analysis of a large dual-reflector antenna system by vector Kirchhoff theory, the evaluation of subreflector aperture-blocking, determination of the diffraction and blockage effects of a subreflector mounting structure, and an estimate of strut-blockage effects. Most of the computations are for a frequency of 15.3 GHz, and were carried out using the IBM 360/91 and 360/95 systems at Goddard Space Flight Center. The FORTRAN 4 computer program used to perform the computations is of a general and modular type so that various system parameters such as frequency, eccentricity, diameter, focal-length, etc. can be varied at will. The parameters of the 60-foot NRL Ku-band installation at Waldorf, Maryland, were entered into the program for purposes of this report. Similar calculations could be performed for the NELC installation at La Posta, California, the NASA Wallops Station facility in Virginia, and other antenna systems, by a simple change in IBM control cards. A comparison is made between secondary radiation patterns of the NRL antenna measured by DOD Satellite and those obtained by analytical/numerical methods at a frequency of 7.3 GHz.

  9. Environmental assessment for the decommissioning and decontamination of contaminated facilities at the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research University of California, Davis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) was established in 1958 at its present location by the Atomic Energy Commission. Research at LEHR originally focused on the health effects from chronic exposures to radionuclides, primarily strontium 90 and radium 226, using beagles to simulate radiation effects on humans. In 1988, pursuant to a memorandum of agreement between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the University of California, DOE`s Office of Energy Research decided to close out the research program, shut down LEHR, and turn the facilities and site over to the University of California, Davis (UCD) after remediation. The decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of LEHR will be managed by the San Francisco Operations Office (SF) under DOE`s Environmental Restoration Program. This environmental assessment (EA) addresses the D&D of four site buildings and a tank trailer, and the removal of the on-site cobalt 60 (Co-60) source. Future activities at the site will include D&D of the Imhoff building and the outdoor dog pens, and may include remediation of underground tanks, and the landfill and radioactive disposal trenches. The remaining buildings on the LEHR site are not contaminated. The environmental impacts of the future activities cannot be determined at this time because the extent of contamination has not yet been ascertained. The impacts of these future activities (including the cumulative impacts of the future activities and those addressed in this EA) will be addressed in future National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation.

  10. A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-01

    This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report.

  11. Engineering study for the phase 1 privatization facilities electrical power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, G., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-18

    This engineering study evaluates the availability of electric power from the existing 13.8 kV substation, BPA 115 kV system,and RL 230 kV transmission line; for supporting the Privatization Phase I Facilities. 230 kV system is a preferable alternative.

  12. Staging and storage facility feasibility study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, C.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This study was performed to investigate the feasibility of adapting the design of the HWVP Canister Storage Building (CSB) to meet the needs of the WHC Spent Nuclear Fuel Project for Staging and Storage Facility (SSF), and to develop Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost and schedule estimates.

  13. Interdisciplinary Study of Magmatic Carbon Dioxide at Mammoth Mountain, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, M.; Evans, W. C.; Farrar, C. D.; Hill, D. P.; Ingebritsen, S.; Klinger, R.; McFarland, J.; Schulz, M. S.; Shelly, D. R.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Waldrop, M. P.

    2011-12-01

    A unique opportunity for studying carbon exchange between the deep earth and the surface exists at Mammoth Mountain in eastern California, where mantle-derived carbon dioxide has leaked through soils, springs, and fumaroles for decades, if not centuries. An estimated 3.5 × 10E9 kg of CO2 has escaped in the past 20 years. A long-term program of geochemical monitoring of gas at numerous sites reveals a consistent chemical and isotopic signature indicative of a large, well-mixed, CO2-rich gas reservoir residing within a few kilometers of the surface. Leakage of CO2 increases when the low-permeability seal capping the gas reservoir fails due to critical build-up of fluid-pressure, magma intrusion, and/or tectonic earthquakes. The high CO2 efflux at Mammoth Mountain has caused human fatalities, ecosystem disturbance, acidification of local water supplies, and raises the specter of CO2-rich gas explosions. The USGS Volcano Hazards Program recently launched an integrated geochemical, geophysical, hydrologic, and biologic research project aimed at holistic understanding of the origin, transport, and impact of magmatic carbon dioxide, with Mammoth Mountain as a natural, outdoor laboratory. Key elements of the project include: (I) Lithosphere Studies: Experimental investigation of deep, CO2-rich degassing of basaltic magmas, spatial-temporal analysis of fluid-driven earthquakes, and modeling of dynamic permeability provide insight into the origin and transport of CO2-rich fluids. (II) Hydrosphere/Atmosphere Studies: Tracking the concentration and geochemistry of surface exhalations through fumarole and spring sampling, soil efflux measurements, and 14C depletion in tree cores provide characteristics of the shallow gas reservoir and a time-series record of total CO2 efflux. (III) Biosphere Studies: Field-based studies and greenhouse experiments investigate the effect of elevated CO2 on biogeochemical cycles, soil nutrient levels, and changes in vegetation and microbial

  14. Study on Nuclear Facility Cyber Security Awareness and Training Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung-Woon; Song, Jae-Gu; Lee, Cheol-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Cyber security awareness and training, which is a part of operational security controls, is defined to be implemented later in the CSP implementation schedule. However, cyber security awareness and training is a prerequisite for the appropriate implementation of a cyber security program. When considering the current situation in which it is just started to define cyber security activities and to assign personnel who has responsibilities for performing those activities, a cyber security awareness program is necessary to enhance cyber security culture for the facility personnel to participate positively in cyber security activities. Also before the implementation of stepwise CSP, suitable education and training should be provided to both cyber security teams (CST) and facility personnel who should participate in the implementation. Since such importance and urgency of cyber security awareness and training is underestimated at present, the types, trainees, contents, and development strategies of cyber security awareness and training programs are studied to help Korean nuclear facilities to perform cyber security activities more effectively. Cyber security awareness and training programs should be developed ahead of the implementation of CSP. In this study, through the analysis of requirements in the regulatory standard RS-015, the types and trainees of overall cyber security training programs in nuclear facilities are identified. Contents suitable for a cyber security awareness program and a technical training program are derived. It is suggested to develop stepwise the program contents in accordance with the development of policies, guides, and procedures as parts of the facility cyber security program. Since any training programs are not available for the specialized cyber security training in nuclear facilities, a long-term development plan is necessary. As alternatives for the time being, several cyber security training courses for industrial control systems by

  15. LNL irradiation facilities for radiation damage studies on electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisello, D.; Candelori, A.; Giubilato, P.; Mattiazzo, S.; Pantano, D.; Silvestrin, L.; Tessaro, M.; Wyss, J.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we will review the wide range of irradiation facilities installed at the INFN Legnaro National Laboratories and routinely used for radiation damage studies on silicon detectors, electronic components and systems. The SIRAD irradiation facility, dedicated to Single Event Effect (SEE) and bulk damage studies, is installed at the 14MV Tandem XTU accelerator and can deliver ion beams from H up to Au in the energy range from 28MeV to 300MeV. An Ion Electron Emission Microscope, also installed at SIRAD, allows SEE testing with micrometric sensitivity. For total dose tests, two facilities are presently available: an X-rays source and a 60Co γ -ray source. The 7MV Van de Graaff CN accelerator provides 1H beams in the energy range 2-7MeV and currents up to few μA for both total dose and bulk damage studies. At this facility, very high dose rates (up to ˜ 100 krad/s (SiO2)) can be achieved. Finally, also neutron beams are available, produced at the CN accelerator, by the reaction d + Be ⇒ n + B.

  16. Groundwater quality in the Upper Santa Ana Watershed study unit, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Upper Santa Ana Watershed is one of the study units being evaluated.

  17. California Diploma Project Technical Report II: Alignment Study--Alignment Study of the Health Sciences and Medical Technology Draft Standards and California's Exit Level Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaughy, Charis; de Gonzalez, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    The California Department of Education is in the process of revising the Career and Technical Education (CTE) Model Curriculum Standards. The Educational Policy Improvement Center (EPIC) conducted an investigation of the draft version of the Health Sciences and Medical Technology Standards (Health Science). The purpose of the study is to…

  18. Study Plan : Life History And Population Studies of California Gulls Nesting At Bamforth Lake, Albany County, Wyoming : 1991-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Dr. Pugesek, in his study plan, provides the background and justification for the study of the Bamforth Lake California Gulls. With 33 years of research history on...

  19. Project definition study for the National Biomedical Tracer Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roozen, K.

    1995-02-15

    The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) has conducted a study of the proposed National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). In collaboration with General Atomics, RUST International, Coleman Research Corporation (CRC), IsoMed, Ernst and Young and the advisory committees, they have examined the issues relevant to the NBTF in terms of facility design, operating philosophy, and a business plan. They have utilized resources within UAB, CRC and Chem-Nuclear to develop recommendations on environmental, safety and health issues. The Institute of Medicine Panel`s Report on Isotopes for Medicine and the Life Sciences took the results of prior workshops further in developing recommendations for the mission of the NBTF. The IOM panel recommends that the NBTF accelerator have the capacity to accelerate protons to 80 MeV and a minimum of 750 microamperes of current. The panel declined to recommend a cyclotron or a linac. They emphasized a clear focus on research and development for isotope production including target design, separation chemistry and generator development. The facility needs to emphasize education and training in its mission. The facility must focus on radionuclide production for the research and clinical communities. The formation of a public-private partnership resembling the TRIUMF-Nordion model was encouraged. An advisory panel should assist with the NBTF operations and prioritization.

  20. California Tribal Gasoline Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing a draft general permit under the Clean Air Act Federal Indian Country Minor NSR program for gasoline dispensing facilities, such as gas stations, located in Indian country within the geographical boundaries of California.

  1. Impact Of The Granted Facilities On Jobs In Urban Tourism Development (Case Study: Melli Banking Facilities In Zahedan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Shahmoradzadeh Fahraji

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the expansion of the banking system in recent years and the increased facilities and services to banks, to assess the effect on net employment in the economic performance of the banking system has become more important. What is important is the effectiveness of these types of facilities to create new job opportunities. One of the sectors, which have been discussed in recent year's tourism sector, is lending facility. It should be noted that most of the direct and indirect employment opportunities associated with this sector. In this regard, this study is based on the framework and describes an analytical method using field observations and questionnaire study. The library of documents, employment facility for granting Effect - creation of urban tourism development (case study: national banking facilities in Zahedan has been used. And also the extent of this effect has been studied. And also the extent of this effect has been studied. Accordingly, the results indicate that the greatest amount of tourism facilities and cultural heritage of national banks amounted to 6 thousand 500 million dollars to pay the country's banking system. National Bank of the city of Zahedan facility dedicated to value (1824949 to 2012 in the service sector than in other sectors led tourism development and tourism boom in the city. Finally, the results obtained are presented in a series of administrative procedure.

  2. Feasibility study for a transportation operations system cask maintenance facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennich, M.J.; Medley, L.G.; Attaway, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the development of a waste management program for the disposition of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW). The program will include a transportation system for moving the nuclear waste from the sources to a geologic repository for permanent disposal. Specially designed casks will be used to safely transport the waste. The cask systems must be operated within limits imposed by DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the Department of Transportation (DOT). A dedicated facility for inspecting, testing, and maintaining the cask systems was recommended by the General Accounting Office (in 1979) as the best means of assuring their operational effectiveness and safety, as well as regulatory compliance. In November of 1987, OCRWM requested a feasibility study be made of a Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF) that would perform the required functions. 46 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Development of water facilities in the Santa Ana River Basin, California, 1810-1968: a compilation of historical notes derived from many sources describing ditch and canal companies, diversions, and water rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M.B.

    1977-01-01

    This report traces by text, maps, and photographs, the development of the water supply in the Santa Ana River basin from its beginning in 1810 or 1811 to 1968. The value of the report lies in the fact that interpretation of the hydrologic systems in the basin requires knowledge of the concurrent state of development of the water supply, because that development has progressively altered the local regimen of both surface water and ground water. Most of the information for the earlier years was extracted and condensed from an investigation made by W. H. Hall, California State Engineer during the years 1878-87. Hall's study described irrigation development in southern California from its beginning through 1888. Information for the years following 1888 was obtained from the archives of the numerous water companies and water agencies in the Santa Ana River basin and from the various depositories of courthouse, county, and municipal records. The history of water-resources development in the Santa Ana River basin begins with the introduction of irrigation in the area by the Spanish, who settled in southern California in the latter part, of the 18th century. The first irrigation diversion from the Santa Ana River was made in 1810 or 1811 by Jose Antonio Yorba and Juan Pablo Peralta. Irrigation remained a localized practice during the Mexican-Californian, or rancho, period following the separation of Mexico from Spain in 1821. Rancho grantees principally raised cattle, horses, and sheep and irrigated only small· plots of feed grain for their livestock and fruit crops for household use. The breakup of the ranchos through sales to Americans, who were migrating to California in ever-increasing numbers following the acquisition of California by the United States in 1848, marked the beginning of a rapid increase in water use and the beginning of widespread irrigation. Many water companies and water agencies were organized to divert the surface flow of the Santa Ana River and

  4. An integrated study of earth resources in the state of California using remote sensing techniques. [planning and management of water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, R. N.; Churchman, C. W.; Burgy, R. H.; Schubert, G.; Estes, J. E.; Bowden, L. W.; Algazi, R.; Coulson, K. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The University of California has been conducting an investigation which seeks to determine the usefulness of modern remote sensing techniques for studying various components of California's earth resources complex. Most of the work has concentrated on California's water resources, but with some attention being given to other earth resources as well and to the interplay between them and California's water resources.

  5. National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). Project definition study: Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagunas-Solar, M.C.

    1995-02-15

    This report describes a five-year plan for the construction and commissioning of a reliable and versatile NBTF facility for the production of high-quality, high-yield radioisotopes for research, biomedical, and industrial applications. The report is organized in nine sections providing, in consecutive order, responses to the nine questions posed by the U.S. Department of Energy in its solicitation for the NBTF Project Definition Study. In order to preserve direct correspondence (e.g., Sec. 3 = 3rd item), this Introduction is numbered {open_quotes}0.{close_quotes} Accelerator and facility designs are covered in Section 1 (Accelerator Design) and Section 2 (Facility Design). Preliminary estimates of capital costs are detailed in Section 3 (Design and Construction Costs). Full licensing requirements, including federal, state, and local ordinances, are discussed in Section 4 (Permits). A plan for the management of hazardous materials to be generated by NBTF is presented in Section 5 (Waste Management). An evaluation of NBTF`s economic viability and its potential market impact is detailed in Section 6(Business Plan), and is complemented by the plans in Section 7 (Operating Plan) and Section 8 (Radioisotope Plan). Finally, a plan for NBTF`s research, education, and outreach programs is presented in Section 9 (Research and Education Programs).

  6. California solar energy study: decision-analysis panel report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolin, J.B.; Misch, M.R.

    1979-09-01

    In order to investigate motivations behind an individual's decision to purchase or not to purchase a solar energy system for a home, the California Energy Commission initiated a comprehensive survey program to analyze, in some depth, attitudes toward solar energy use. As part of that program, the CEC contracted for a series of panels comprised of homogenous groups of individuals who were not solar adopters, to probe for underlying attitudes about solar and, through the group dynamics process, elicit information which generally cannot be obtained using a standard questionnaire. The results shed additional light on consumer perceptions about the energy situation, the solar industry, economics, government's role and acceptance of the technology which, in turn, affect the individual's decision to adopt or not to adopt a solar energy device.

  7. Disparities in location of death of adolescents and young adults with cancer: A longitudinal, population study in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeshuni, Nitya; Johnston, Emily E; Saynina, Olga; Sanders, Lee M; Chamberlain, Lisa J

    2017-07-12

    Patients with a terminal illness should have access to their chosen location of death. Cancer is the leading cause of non-accidental death among adolescents and young adults (AYAs; those aged 15-39 years). Although surveys have suggested that a majority of these patients prefer a home death, to the authors' knowledge, little is known regarding their barriers to accessing their preferred location of death. As a first step, the authors sought to determine, across a large population, 20-year trends in the location of death among AYA patients with cancer. Using the Vital Statistics Death Certificate Database of the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, the authors performed a retrospective, population-based analysis of California patients with cancer aged 15 to 39 years who died between 1989 and 2011. Sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with hospital death were examined using multivariable logistic regression. Of 30,573 AYA oncology decedents, 57% died in a hospital, 33% died at home, and 10% died in other locations (eg, hospice facility or nursing facility). Between 1989 and 1994, hospital death rates decreased from 68.3% to 53.6% and at-home death rates increased from 16.8% to 35.5%. Between 1995 and 2011, these rates were stable. Those individuals who were more likely to die in a hospital were those aged center, and who had a diagnosis of leukemia or lymphoma. Overall, the majority of AYA cancer deaths occurred in a hospital, with a 5-year shift to more in-home deaths that abated after 1995. In-hospital deaths were more common among younger patients, patients of minority race/ethnicities, and those with a leukemia or lymphoma diagnosis. Further study is needed to determine whether these rates and disparities are consistent with patient preferences. Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  8. Tropospheric ozone seasonal and long-term variability as seen by lidar and surface measurements at the JPL-Table Mountain Facility, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Muñoz, Maria Jose; Leblanc, Thierry

    2016-07-01

    A combined surface and tropospheric ozone climatology and interannual variability study was performed for the first time using co-located ozone photometer measurements (2013-2015) and tropospheric ozone differential absorption lidar measurements (2000-2015) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Table Mountain Facility (TMF; elev. 2285 m), in California. The surface time series were investigated both in terms of seasonal and diurnal variability. The observed surface ozone is typical of high-elevation remote sites, with small amplitude of the seasonal and diurnal cycles, and high ozone values, compared to neighboring lower altitude stations representative of urban boundary layer conditions. The ozone mixing ratio ranges from 45 ppbv in the winter morning hours to 65 ppbv in the spring and summer afternoon hours. At the time of the lidar measurements (early night), the seasonal cycle observed at the surface is similar to that observed by lidar between 3.5 and 9 km. Above 9 km, the local tropopause height variation with time and season impacts significantly the ozone lidar observations. The frequent tropopause folds found in the vicinity of TMF (27 % of the time, mostly in winter and spring) produce a dual-peak vertical structure in ozone within the fold layer, characterized by higher-than-average values in the bottom half of the fold (12-14 km), and lower-than-averaged values in the top half of the fold (14-18 km). This structure is consistent with the expected origin of the air parcels within the fold, i.e., mid-latitude stratospheric air folding down below the upper tropospheric sub-tropical air. The influence of the tropopause folds extends down to 5 km, increasing the ozone content in the troposphere. No significant signature of interannual variability could be observed on the 2000-2015 de-seasonalized lidar time series, with only a statistically non-significant positive anomaly during the years 2003-2007. Our trend analysis reveals however an overall statistically

  9. Female Agassiz’s desert tortoise activity at a wind energy facility in southern California: The influence of an El Niño event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennen, Josh R.; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Lovich, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    We compared spring-summer activity of adult female Agassiz’s Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) among three consecutive years (1997, 1998, and 1999) that differed dramatically in winter rainfall and annual plant production at a wind energy facility in the Sonoran Desert of southern California. Winter rainfall was approximately 71%, 190%, and 17% of the long-term average (October-March = 114 mm) for this area in water years (WY) 1997, 1998, and 1999, respectively. The substantial precipitation caused by an El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event in WY 1998 produced a generous annual food plant supply (138.2 g dry biomass/ m2) in the spring. Primary production of winter annuals during below average rainfall years (WY 1997 and WY 1999) was reduced to 98.3 and 0.2 g/m2, respectively. Mean rates of movement and mean body condition indices (mass/length) did not differ significantly among the years. The drought year following ENSO (WY 1999) was statistically similar to ENSO in every other measured value, while WY 1997 (end of a two year drought) was statistically different from ENSO using activity area, minimum number of burrows used, and percentage of non-movements. Our data suggest that female G. agassizii activity can be influenced by environmental conditions in previous years.

  10. Progress in preliminary studies at Ottana Solar Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demontis, V.; Camerada, M.; Cau, G.; Cocco, D.; Damiano, A.; Melis, T.; Musio, M.

    2016-05-01

    The fast increasing share of distributed generation from non-programmable renewable energy sources, such as the strong penetration of photovoltaic technology in the distribution networks, has generated several problems for the management and security of the whole power grid. In order to meet the challenge of a significant share of solar energy in the electricity mix, several actions aimed at increasing the grid flexibility and its hosting capacity, as well as at improving the generation programmability, need to be investigated. This paper focuses on the ongoing preliminary studies at the Ottana Solar Facility, a new experimental power plant located in Sardinia (Italy) currently under construction, which will offer the possibility to progress in the study of solar plants integration in the power grid. The facility integrates a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant, including a thermal energy storage system and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) unit, with a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) plant and an electrical energy storage system. The facility has the main goal to assess in real operating conditions the small scale concentrating solar power technology and to study the integration of the two technologies and the storage systems to produce programmable and controllable power profiles. A model for the CSP plant yield was developed to assess different operational strategies that significantly influence the plant yearly yield and its global economic effectiveness. In particular, precise assumptions for the ORC module start-up operation behavior, based on discussions with the manufacturers and technical datasheets, will be described. Finally, the results of the analysis of the: "solar driven", "weather forecasts" and "combined storage state of charge (SOC)/ weather forecasts" operational strategies will be presented.

  11. The University of California Institute of Environmental Stress Marathon Field Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    In 1973, the Institute of Environmental Stress of the University of California-Santa Barbara, under the direction of Steven M. Horvath, began a series of field and laboratory studies of marathon runners during competition. As one of Horvath's graduate students, many of these studies became part of my doctoral dissertation. The rationale for…

  12. The University of California Institute of Environmental Stress Marathon Field Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    In 1973, the Institute of Environmental Stress of the University of California-Santa Barbara, under the direction of Steven M. Horvath, began a series of field and laboratory studies of marathon runners during competition. As one of Horvath's graduate students, many of these studies became part of my doctoral dissertation. The rationale for…

  13. Resource Allocation in Successful Schools: Case Studies of California Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Syed N.

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine instructional strategies and resource allocation in successful schools. The study was based on analysis of six effective Southern California elementary schools. All the analyzed schools were Title I, non-charter public schools that had demonstrated consistent student achievement, had narrowed the achievement gap…

  14. Health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. Volume 9. Methodologies for review of the health and safety aspects of proposed nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel sites and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, A.V.; Quinby-Hunt, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    This report sets forth methodologies for review of the health and safety aspects of proposed nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel sites and facilities for electric power generation. The review is divided into a Notice of Intention process and an Application for Certification process, in accordance with the structure to be used by the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, the first emphasizing site-specific considerations, the second examining the detailed facility design as well. The Notice of Intention review is divided into three possible stages: an examination of emissions and site characteristics, a basic impact analysis, and an assessment of public impacts. The Application for Certification review is divided into five possible stages: a review of the Notice of Intention treatment, review of the emission control equipment, review of the safety design, review of the general facility design, and an overall assessment of site and facility acceptability.

  15. Study of fast reactor safety test facilities. Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.; Boudreau, J.E.; McLaughlin, T.; Palmer, R.G.; Starkovich, V.; Stein, W.E.; Stevenson, M.G.; Yarnell, Y.L.

    1975-05-01

    Included are sections dealing with the following topics: (1) perspective and philosophy of fast reactor safety analysis; (2) status of accident analysis and experimental needs; (3) experiment and facility definitions; (4) existing in-pile facilities; (5) new facility options; and (6) data acquisition methods. (DG)

  16. A Unique Facility For Metabolic and Thermoregulatory Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Rebecca C.; Webbon, Bruce W.

    1995-01-01

    A unique exercise facility has been developed and used to perform tipper body ergometry tests for space applications. Originally designed to simulate the muscular, cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses to working in zero gravity, this facility may be used to conduct basic thermoregulatory investigations applicable to multiple sclerosis patients. An environmental chamber houses the tipper body ergometer and permits control of temperature, air now and humidify. The chamber is a closed system and recirculate-s air after conditioning if. A Cybex Lipper body ergometer has been mounted horizontally on the wall of the environmental chamber. In this configuration, the subject lies underneath the arm crank on a supine seat in order to turn the crank. The supine seat can be removed in order to introduce other equipment into the chamber such as a stool to allow upright arm cranking, or a treadmill to allow walk-run experiments. Physiological and environmental signals are fed into a Strawberry Tree data acquisition system while being monitored and logged using the Workbench software program. Physiological monitoring capabilities include 3-lead EKG using an H-P patient monitor, 5 site skin temperature and core temperature using YSI thermistors, and O2 consumption and CO2 production using AMFTFK Applied Electrochemistry analyzers and sensors. This comprehensive data acquisition set tip allows for calculation of various thermoregulatory indices including heat storage, evaporative heat loss, latent heat loss, and metabolic rate. The current system is capable of adding more data acquisition channels if needed. Some potential studies that could be carried out using the facility include: 1) An investigation into the efficiency of cooling various segments of the body to lower Tc 1-2 F. 2) A series of heat and mass balance studies comparing various LCG configurations.

  17. Factors Affecting College-Going Rates in California: A Study Prospectus. Working Paper WP/06-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This working paper announces a report proposed by the California Postsecondary Education Commission to conduct a further statistical study on the factors affecting college-going rates in California. These factors would include school demographics, neighborhood characteristics, and regional labor market forces. Such a study could reveal insights…

  18. Opportunities for Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation: A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Gary [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wilcox, Edmund [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goli, Sasank [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-02

    California agricultural irrigation consumes more than ten billion kilowatt hours of electricity annually and has significant potential for contributing to a reduction of stress on the grid through demand response, permanent load shifting, and energy efficiency measures. To understand this potential, a scoping study was initiated for the purpose of determining the associated opportunities, potential, and adoption challenges in California agricultural irrigation. The primary research for this study was conducted in two ways. First, data was gathered and parsed from published sources that shed light on where the best opportunities for load shifting and demand response lie within the agricultural irrigation sector. Secondly, a small limited survey was conducted as informal face-to-face interviews with several different California growers to get an idea of their ability and willingness to participate in permanent load shifting and/or demand response programs. Analysis of the data obtained from published sources and the survey reveal demand response and permanent load shifting opportunities by growing region, irrigation source, irrigation method, grower size, and utility coverage. The study examines some solutions for demand response and permanent load shifting in agricultural irrigation, which include adequate irrigation system capacity, automatic controls, variable frequency drives, and the contribution from energy efficiency measures. The study further examines the potential and challenges for grower acceptance of demand response and permanent load shifting in California agricultural irrigation. As part of the examination, the study considers to what extent permanent load shifting, which is already somewhat accepted within the agricultural sector, mitigates the need or benefit of demand response for agricultural irrigation. Recommendations for further study include studies on how to gain grower acceptance of demand response as well as other related studies such as

  19. The California Academic Partnership Program: A Case Study of Retrenchment from Two Different Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Michael

    This case study analyzed the management of the retrenchment for the California Academic Partnership Program (CAPP) from two perspectives: the functionalist perspective and the radical structuralist view. CAPP is a program supporting higher education faculty-secondary school teacher partnerships to improve secondary education. The California…

  20. GIS-BASED RISK ASSESSMENT OF PESTICIDE DRIFT CASE STUDY: FRESNO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes the potential risk of herbicide drift and accidentally damaging neighboring crops or surrounding native vegetation. This study is the first to use the California Pesticide Use Reporting database within a mapping framework (known as a Geographic Information S...

  1. Foreign Language Education, Academic Performance, and Socioeconomic Status: A Study of California Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hyekyung; Padilla, Amado M.; Silva, Duarte M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines various features of foreign language program offerings at 220 public high schools in California. Foreign language program features were examined in relation to the school's Academic Performance Index (API), the school's socioeconomic status (percentage of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch), and percentage of…

  2. Preliminary study for small animal preclinical hadrontherapy facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, G.; Pisciotta, P.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Romano, F.; Cammarata, F.; Marchese, V.; Forte, G. I.; Lamia, D.; Minafra, L.; Bravatá, V.; Acquaviva, R.; Gilardi, M. C.; Cuttone, G.

    2017-02-01

    Aim of this work is the study of the preliminary steps to perform a particle treatment of cancer cells inoculated in small animals and to realize a preclinical hadrontherapy facility. A well-defined dosimetric protocol was developed to explicate the steps needed in order to perform a precise proton irradiation in small animals and achieve a highly conformal dose into the target. A precise homemade positioning and holding system for small animals was designed and developed at INFN-LNS in Catania (Italy), where an accurate Monte Carlo simulation was developed, using Geant4 code to simulate the treatment in order to choose the best animal position and perform accurately all the necessary dosimetric evaluations. The Geant4 application can also be used to realize dosimetric studies and its peculiarity consists in the possibility to introduce the real target composition in the simulation using the DICOM micro-CT image. This application was fully validated comparing the results with the experimental measurements. The latter ones were performed at the CATANA (Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate) facility at INFN-LNS by irradiating both PMMA and water solid phantom. Dosimetric measurements were performed using previously calibrated EBT3 Gafchromic films as a detector and the results were compared with the Geant4 simulation ones. In particular, two different types of dosimetric studies were performed: the first one involved irradiation of a phantom made up of water solid slabs where a layer of EBT3 was alternated with two different slabs in a sandwich configuration, in order to validate the dosimetric distribution. The second one involved irradiation of a PMMA phantom made up of a half hemisphere and some PMMA slabs in order to simulate a subcutaneous tumour configuration, normally used in preclinical studies. In order to evaluate the accordance between experimental and simulation results, two different statistical tests were made: Kolmogorov test and

  3. Boiling Experiment Facility for Heat Transfer Studies in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delombard, Richard; McQuillen, John; Chao, David

    2008-01-01

    Pool boiling in microgravity is an area of both scientific and practical interest. By conducting tests in microgravity, it is possible to assess the effect of buoyancy on the overall boiling process and assess the relative magnitude of effects with regards to other "forces" and phenomena such as Marangoni forces, liquid momentum forces, and microlayer evaporation. The Boiling eXperiment Facility is now being built for the Microgravity Science Glovebox that will use normal perfluorohexane as a test fluid to extend the range of test conditions to include longer test durations and less liquid subcooling. Two experiments, the Microheater Array Boiling Experiment and the Nucleate Pool Boiling eXperiment will use the Boiling eXperiment Facility. The objectives of these studies are to determine the differences in local boiling heat transfer mechanisms in microgravity and normal gravity from nucleate boiling, through critical heat flux and into the transition boiling regime and to examine the bubble nucleation, growth, departure and coalescence processes. Custom-designed heaters will be utilized to achieve these objectives.

  4. Plasma interpenetration study on the Omega laser facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pape, Sebastien; Divol, Laurent; Ross, Steven; Wilks, Scott; Amendt, Peter; Berzak Hopkins, Laura; Huser, Gael; Moody, John; MacKinnon, Andy; Meezan, Nathan

    2016-10-01

    The Near Vacuum Campaign on the National Ignition Facility has sparked an interest on the nature of the gold/carbon interface at high velocity, high electron temperature, low-electron density. Indeed radiation-hydrodynamic simulations have been unable to accurately reproduce the experimental shape of the hot spot resulting from implosion driven in Near Vacuum Holhraum. The experimental data are suggesting that the inner beams are freely propagating to the waist of the hohlraum when simulations predict that a density ridge at the gold/carbon interface blocks the inner beams. The discrepancy between experimental data and simulation might be explained by the fluid description of the plasma interface in a rad-hydro code which is probably not valid in when two plasma at high velocity, high temperature are meeting. To test our assumption, we went to the Omega laser facility to study gold/carbon interface in the relevant regime. Time resolved images of the self-emission as well as Thomson scattering data will be presented. For the first time, a transition from a multifluid to a single fluid is observed as plasmas are interacting. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Long-term post-fire effects on spatial ecology and reproductive output of female Agassiz’s desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) at a wind energy facility near Palm Springs, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Madrak, Sheila V.; Loughran, Caleb L.; Meyer, Katherin P.; Arundel, Terence R.; Bjurlin, Curtis D.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the long-term response of a cohort of eight female Agassiz’s desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) during the first 15 years following a large fire at a wind energy generation facility near Palm Springs, California, USA. The fire burned a significant portion of the study site in 1995. Tortoise activity areas were mapped using minimum convex polygons for a proximate post-fire interval from 1997 to 2000, and a long-term post-fire interval from 2009 to 2010. In addition, we measured the annual reproductive output of eggs each year and monitored the body condition of tortoises over time. One adult female tortoise was killed by the fire and five tortoises bore exposure scars that were not fatal. Despite predictions that tortoises would make the short-distance movements from burned to nearby unburned habitats, most activity areas and their centroids remained in burned areas for the duration of the study. The percentage of activity area burned did not differ significantly between the two monitoring periods. Annual reproductive output and measures of body condition remained statistically similar throughout the monitoring period. Despite changes in plant composition, conditions at this site appeared to be suitable for survival of tortoises following a major fire. High productivity at the site may have buffered tortoises from the adverse impacts of fire if they were not killed outright. Tortoise populations at less productive desert sites may not have adequate resources to sustain normal activity areas, reproductive output, and body conditions following fire.

  6. Fort Hood solar cogeneration facility conceptual design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A study is done on the application of a tower-focus solar cogeneration facility at the US Fort Hood Army Base in Killeen, Texas. Solar-heated molten salt is to provide the steam for electricity and for room heating, room cooling, and domestic hot water. The proposed solar cogeneration system is expected to save the equivalent of approximately 10,500 barrels of fuel oil per year and to involve low development risks. The site and existing plant are described, including the climate and plant performance. The selection of the site-specific configuration is discussed, including: candidate system configurations; technology assessments, including risk assessments of system development, receiver fluids, and receiver configurations; system sizing; and the results of trade studies leading to the selection of the preferred system configuration. (LEW)

  7. Study on Storage Facilities of Agricultural Products in Courtyard in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li; LI Xi-Hong; XIA Qiu-Yu; HU Yun-feng; GUAN Wen-qiang

    2002-01-01

    Mini storage facilities applicable in rural areas in China have been developed after nine years of research. Optimal design of structure and refrigeration system, facilities optimization, computer control and management technology are studied and developed.

  8. FY11 Facility Assessment Study for Aeronautics Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loboda, John A.; Sydnor, George H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the approach and results for the Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) FY11 Facility Assessment Project. ATP commissioned assessments in FY07 and FY11 to aid in the understanding of the current condition and reliability of its facilities and their ability to meet current and future (five year horizon) test requirements. The principle output of the assessment was a database of facility unique, prioritized investments projects with budgetary cost estimates. This database was also used to identify trends for the condition of facility systems.

  9. Softwood forest thinning as a biomass source for ethanol production: A feasibility study for California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadam, Kiran L; Wooley, Robert J; Aden, Andrew; Nguyen, Quang A; Yancey, Mark A; Ferraro, Francis M [Colorado(United States)

    2000-07-01

    A plan has been put forth to strategically thin northern California forests to reduce fire danger and improve forest health. The resulting biomass residue, instead of being open burned, can be converted into ethanol that can be used as a fuel oxygenate or an octane enhancer. Economic potential for a biomass-to-ethanol facility using this softwood biomass was evaluated for two cases: Stand-alone and co-located. The co-located case refers to a specific site with an existing biomass power facility owned by Wheelabrator Environmental Systems Inc. near Martell, California. A two-stage dilute acid hydrolysis process is used for the production of ethanol from softwoods, and the residual lignin is used to generate steam and electricity. For a plant processing 800 dry tonnes per day of feedstock, the co-located case is an economically attractive concept. Total estimated capital investment is approximately $ 70 million for the co-located case. The resulting internal rate of return is about 24% using 25% equity financing. Hence, such a biomass-to-ethanol plant seems to be an appealing proposition for California, with ethanol replacing methyl tertiary-butyl ether, which is slated for a phaseout. [Spanish] Se ha desarrollado un plan para adelgazar estrategicamente los bosques del norte de California para reducir el peligro de incendio y mejorar la salud del bosque. El residuo resultante de biomasa en vez de ser quemado a la intemperie, puede ser convertido en etanol, el cual se puede utilizar como un combustible oxigenado o como un mejorador del octanaje. Se ha evaluado el potencial economico de una planta de conversion de biomasa a etanol utilizando la biomasa de las coniferas para dos opciones: Una planta independiente o una localizada junto a otra. El caso de la localizada una junto a otra se refiere a un lugar especifico con una instalacion ya existente de biomasa propiedad de Wheelabrator Environmental Systems Inc. cerca de Martell, California. Se utiliza un proceso de

  10. Regulation study for the facility control system design at the Facility Operations Center at TA55

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-16

    NMT-8 is proposing to upgrade the existing Facility Control System (FCS) located within the Facility Operations Center (FOC) at the TA-55 Plutonium Processing and Handling Facility (PPHF). The FCS modifications will upgrade the existing electronics to provide better reliability of system functions. Changes include replacement of the FCS computers and field multiplex units which are used for transmitting systems data. Data collected at the FCS include temperature, pressure, contact closures, etc., and are used for monitoring and/or control of key systems at TA-55. Monitoring is provided for the electrical power system status, PF-4 HVAC air balance status (Static Differential pressure), HVAC fan system status, site chill water return temperature, fire system information, and radioactive constant air monitors alarm information, site compressed air pressure and other key systems used at TA-55. Control output signals are provided for PF-4 HVAC systems, and selected alarms for criticality, fire, loss of pressure in confinement systems. A detailed description of the FCS modifications is provided in Section 2.

  11. Retrospective study of cattle poisonings in California: recognition, diagnosis, and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puschner B

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Anita Varga,1 Birgit Puschner21William R Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, Large Animal Clinic, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA; 2Department of Molecular Biosciences and the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USAAbstract: In this retrospective study all suspect bovine intoxications submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2011 were reviewed. A total of 1199 cases were submitted, but a diagnosis of intoxication was only established in 13.5% of cases. In these cases, overexposures to minerals, metals, and poisonous plants were determined as the most commonly diagnosed poisonings in cattle in California. Nitrate/nitrite poisoning was the most commonly diagnosed plant-associated intoxication, followed by gossypol and oleander. This study details the diagnostic challenges and treatment options for the most commonly diagnosed intoxications. To ensure proper treatment and prevention of new cases, accurate diagnosis is necessary, and therefore this review provides an essential tool for the food animal practitioner. Available toxicological analyses are offered at select laboratories, which can be time consuming and expensive, yet the potential for residues in consumed animal products and implications for human health necessitate testing and consultation. Any potential exposure to a toxicant in cattle should be reviewed to determine whether a residue hazard exists. Therapy focuses on immediate removal of the toxicant from the environment and from the gastrointestinal tract. With few antidotes available, most are cost prohibitive to treat numerous affected cattle. In addition, most antidotes will require extra-label drug use and establishment of meat and milk withdrawal times.Keywords: toxins, toxicology, poisonous plants, bovine

  12. Reducing staff turnover: a case study of dialysis facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, T W; Robinson, C D

    1998-01-01

    A multivariate logistic analysis of 42 Texas dialysis facilities indicated that younger, white, short tenure, an LVN/LPN, with less support from family and friends for emotional concerns, and less supervisor support significantly increased the likelihood of turnover (p staff turnover of these dialysis facilities increases costs and impedes the delivery of quality patient care. Managerial strategies to increase staff retention are suggested.

  13. Study of parameters of a facility generating compressive plasma flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyvi, A. Ya

    2017-05-01

    The prosperity of plasma technologies stimulates making of a facility generating compressive plasma flows at the South Ural State University. The facility is a compact-geometry magnetoplasma compressor with the following parameters: stored energy up to 15 kJ, voltage of a bank from 3 to 5 kV; nitrogen, air, and other gases can serve as its operating gas. The investigation of parameters of the facility showed the following parameters of compressive plasma flows: impulse duration of up to 120 μs, discharge current of 50-120 kA, speed of plasma flow of 15-30 km/s. By contrast to the available facilities, the parameters of the developed facility can be adjusted in a wide range of voltage from 2 kV to 10 kV, its design permits generating CPF in horizontal and vertical positions.

  14. Saltstone studies using the scaled continuous processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowley, M. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hansen, E. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has supported the Saltstone Facility since its conception with bench-scale laboratory experiments, mid-scale testing at vendor facilities, and consultations and testing at the Saltstone Facility. There have been minimal opportunities for the measurement of rheological properties of the grout slurry at the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF); thus, the Scaled Continuous Processing Facility (SCPF), constructed to provide processing data related to mixing, transfer, and other operations conducted in the SPF, is the most representative process data for determining the expected rheological properties in the SPF. These results can be used to verify the laboratory scale experiments that support the SPF using conventional mixing processes that appropriately represent the shear imparted to the slurry in the SPF.

  15. Risk management study for the Hanford Site facilities: Risk reduction cost comparison for the retired Hanford Site facilities. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, G.A.; Egge, R.G.; Senger, E.; Shultz, M.W.; Taylor, W.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document provides a cost-comparison evaluation for implementing certain risk-reduction measures and their effect on the overall risk of the 100 and 200 Area retired, surplus facilities. The evaluation is based on conditions that existed at the time the risk evaluation team performed facility investigations, and does not acknowledge risk-reduction measures that occurred soon after risk identification. This evaluation is one part of an overall risk management study for these facilities. The retired facilities investigated for this evaluation are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1450-km{sup 2} Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a semiarid tract of land in southeastern Washington State. The nearest population center is Richland, Washington, (population 32,000) 30 km southeast of the 200 Area. This cost-comparison evaluation (1) determines relative costs for reducing risk to acceptable levels; (2) compares the cost of reducing risk using different risk-reduction options; and (3) compares the cost of reducing risks at different facilities. The result is an identification of the cost effective risk-reduction measures. Supporting information required to develop costs of the various risk-reduction options also is included.

  16. Seismic vulnerability study Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, M. [EQE International, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Goen, L.K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF), located at TA-53 of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), features an 800 MeV proton accelerator used for nuclear physics and materials science research. As part of the implementation of DOE Order 5480.25 and in preparation for DOE Order 5480.28, a seismic vulnerability study of the structures, systems, and components (SSCs) supporting the beam line from the accelerator building through to the ends of die various beam stops at LAMPF has been performed. The study was accomplished using the SQUG GIP methodology to assess the capability of the various SSCs to resist an evaluation basis earthquake. The evaluation basis earthquake was selected from site specific seismic hazard studies. The goals for the study were as follows: (1) identify SSCs which are vulnerable to seismic loads; and (2) ensure that those SSCs screened during die evaluation met the performance goals required for DOE Order 5480.28. The first goal was obtained by applying the SQUG GIP methodology to those SSCS represented in the experience data base. For those SSCs not represented in the data base, information was gathered and a significant amount of engineering judgment applied to determine whether to screen the SSC or to classify it as an outlier. To assure the performance goals required by DOE Order 5480.28 are met, modifications to the SQUG GIP methodology proposed by Salmon and Kennedy were used. The results of this study ire presented in this paper.

  17. An Arc-Heated High Enthalpy Test Facility for Thermal Protection Studies

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    A high enthalpy flow facility primarily for the high-temperature-resistant material research and for experimental studies on high temperature gas dynamics is built in ISAS, taking into account the demand for the application to the reentry vahicles. The facility is composed of Huels-type arc heater and necessary subsystems for power supply, water cooling, evacuation and operation/control. After briefly describing the facility, characterized facility performance and flow conditions for the heat...

  18. Medical Image Analysis Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    To improve the quality of photos sent to Earth by unmanned spacecraft. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed a computerized image enhancement process that brings out detail not visible in the basic photo. JPL is now applying this technology to biomedical research in its Medical lrnage Analysis Facility, which employs computer enhancement techniques to analyze x-ray films of internal organs, such as the heart and lung. A major objective is study of the effects of I stress on persons with heart disease. In animal tests, computerized image processing is being used to study coronary artery lesions and the degree to which they reduce arterial blood flow when stress is applied. The photos illustrate the enhancement process. The upper picture is an x-ray photo in which the artery (dotted line) is barely discernible; in the post-enhancement photo at right, the whole artery and the lesions along its wall are clearly visible. The Medical lrnage Analysis Facility offers a faster means of studying the effects of complex coronary lesions in humans, and the research now being conducted on animals is expected to have important application to diagnosis and treatment of human coronary disease. Other uses of the facility's image processing capability include analysis of muscle biopsy and pap smear specimens, and study of the microscopic structure of fibroprotein in the human lung. Working with JPL on experiments are NASA's Ames Research Center, the University of Southern California School of Medicine, and Rancho Los Amigos Hospital, Downey, California.

  19. The National Ignition Facility Status and Plans for Laser Fusion and High-Energy-Density Experimental Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Moses, E I

    2001-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) currently under construction at the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a 192-beam, 1.8-megajoule, 500-terawatt, 351-nm laser for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density experimental studies. NIF is being built by the Department of Energy and the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) to provide an experimental test bed for the U.S. Stockpile Stewardship Program to ensure the country's nuclear deterrent without underground nuclear testing. The experimental program will encompass a wide range of physical phenomena from fusion energy production to materials science. Of the roughly 700 shots available per year, about 10% will be dedicated to basic science research. Laser hardware is modularized into line replaceable units (LRUs) such as deformable mirrors, amplifiers, and multi-function sensor packages that are operated by a distributed computer control system of nearly 60,000 control points. The supervisory control roo...

  20. The Study on Policy Options for Siting Hazardous Energy Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Oh [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2000-10-01

    The problem of site allocation on locally unwanted land uses related to energy utilities that extended most recently is becoming a new energy policy issue due to the improvement of national standard of living and livelihood quality. Residents do not generally agree on establishing the construction of public energy utilities in their village due to NIMBY syndrome while they basically agree to have them. These circumstances made a big problem against mass production of industry society and the improvement of the national welfare. Locally unwanted land use related to energy utilities includes waste incineration system, nuclear power plant, coal fired power plant, oil and Gas storage tank, briquette manufacturing plant and etc. Opportunity for SOC projects carried out by central and local government is lost because of the regional egoism. The site dispute between government and residents obstructs optimal energy supply to be necessary for industry growth and the national welfare. The main objective of this study is to propose the policy option for finding a solution after surveying theory and background of site troubles and dispute factors. Final results of this study propose a solution on structural and institutional dispute. The former introduces three kinds of approaches such as tradition, compensation and negotiation. The transition of an environmentally sound energy consumption pattern and the improvement of energy efficiency could be carried out by traditional approaches. To claim the damage and offer the accommodation facilities could be settled by compensational approaches. The establishment of regional decentralization on NIMBY facilities could be settled by negotiatory approaches through fair share criteria. The latter proposes 1) 'polluter pays principle', 2) internalization of social cost and benefit on air or water pollution, 3) the behind - the - scene negotiation in a bid to settle a site dispute, 4) and supporting system for peripheral areas

  1. DETERMINATI>N OF MOMENTS OF INERTIA: A FACILITIES STUDY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    which can be accommodated by the facility. It is concluded that the amount of manual manipulacion required for moment of inertia 4easurements can be reduced by improving che usefulness of present equipment. (Author)

  2. Wastewater characterization of IPEN facilities - a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Goncalves, Cristina; Terazan, Wagner R.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F., E-mail: lrmonteiro@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    As part of IPEN's Environmental Monitoring Program, wastewater sample collection and analysis was implemented on a daily basis. CQMA- Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente was responsible for the determination of total, fixed and volatile solids, pH, metals (as Al, Sb, Ba, Cd, Pb, Co, Cu, Cr, Hg, Mo, Ni, Ag, Na, Zn, Ca, Mg, Be, Sn, Li, K, Sr, Ti and V), semimetals (As, B, Se and Si) and anions (such as chloride, nitrate, sulfate and fluoride). The results were compared to the legal values established by the Sao Paulo State regulation 8,468/76, which defines the maximum permitted values for most of the studied substances in wastewater, aiming its releasing in public wastewater treatment system. The evaluation of this parameters concentration on Ipen's effluent implies that 50% of the wastewater corresponds to organic matter due to the sanitary load and inorganic macro elements, mainly as sodium, potassium, calcium. The only parameter not found in accordance with Brazilian legislation was pH in four out of the one hundred and seven samples collected throughout 2009 (2.8% of the samples analyzed). This preliminary study showed the effluents generated at Ipen's facility is characterized by the presence of organic matter and macro elements, commonly found in sanitary wastewater and it is in compliance with Sao Paulo regulations. (author)

  3. Study of hydrogen vehicle storage in enclosed parking facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzile, M.A. [Transport Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). ecoTECHNOLOGY for Vehicles; Cook, S. [Canadian Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a coordinated research program between Transport Canada and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Canada that examines issues of hydrogen vehicle storage. The ecoTECHNOLOGY for Vehicles (eTV) program focuses on the safety issues of operating and storing hydrogen fuelled vehicles in enclosed parking facilities. The aim of the program is to review existing research, current building standards applied in Canada, standards applied to natural gas vehicles, and standards and recommended practices for the design of fuel cell vehicles. Any potential gaps in safety will be considered in the design of CFD modeling scenarios. Considerations that extend beyond previously performed studies include the effect of Canadian climate on vehicle safety and leak detection equipment, fail-safe mechanism performance, as well as analyses of the frequency of hydrogen leak occurrences and the probability of ignition. The results of the study will facilitate policy makers and authorities in making decisions regarding the storage of hydrogen fuelled vehicles as they become more popular.

  4. A case study of collaborative facilities use in engineering design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, Laura M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe the use of visualization tools and facilities in the collaborative design of a replacement weapons system, the Reliable Replacement Warhead. We used not only standard collaboration methods but also a range of visualization software and facilities to bring together domain specialists from laboratories across the country to collaborate on the design and integrate this disparate input early in the design.

  5. Assessing neuropsychological performance in a migrant farm working Colonia in Baja California, Mexico: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousman, Chad A; Salgado, Hugo; Hendrix, Terence; Fraga, Miguel; Cherner, Mariana

    2011-08-01

    Neuropsychological impairments (NPI) can lead to difficulties in daily functioning and ultimately contribute to poor health outcomes. However, evidence for the feasibility of NPI assessment in resource-limited settings using tests developed in high literacy/high education cultures is sparse. The main objectives were to: (1) determine the feasibility and appropriateness of conducting neuropsychological assessments among a migrant farm worker population in Baja California, Mexico and (2) preliminary describe neuropsychological test performance in this unique population. A neuropsychological test battery was administered to 21 presumably healthy adults (8 men, 13 women) during a two-day international health services and research collaboration. All but one neuropsychological test (i.e. figure learning) was feasible and appropriate to administer to the study population. Contrary to expectations, participants performed better on verbal rather than nonverbal neuropsychological tests. Results support inclusion of neuropsychological tests into future studies among migrant farm worker populations in Baja California, Mexico.

  6. Low Carbon Grid Study: Analysis of a 50% Emission Reduction in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ehlen, Ali [Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Technologies, Sacramento, CA (United States); Caldwell, James H. [Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Technologies, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2016-01-07

    The California 2030 Low Carbon Grid Study (LCGS) analyzes the grid impacts of a variety of scenarios that achieve 50% carbon emission reductions from California's electric power sector. Impacts are characterized based on several key operational and economic metrics, including production costs, emissions, curtailment, and impacts on the operation of gas generation and imports. The modeling results indicate that achieving a low-carbon grid (with emissions 50% below 2012 levels) is possible by 2030 with relatively limited curtailment (less than 1%) if institutional frameworks are flexible. Less flexible institutional frameworks and a less diverse generation portfolio could lead to higher curtailment (up to 10%), operational costs (up to $800 million higher), and carbon emissions (up to 14% higher).

  7. Vegetation studies, National Training Center, Fort Irwin, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1997-09-01

    During the spring of 1992, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted surveys of the Avawatz and Granite mountains springs for the National Training Center (NTC) to evaluate the occurrence of sensitive plant species in these areas. PNNL also conducted a survey of the eastern outwash of the Paradise Range for the occurrence of Lane Mountain milk vetch (Astragalus jaegerianus). In spring of 1993, PNNL conducted an additional study of Lane Mountain milk vetch on the NTC to determine habitat characteristics for this plant and to develop a method for predicting its potential occurrence, based on simple habitat attributes. The results of these studies are itemized.

  8. An Ecological Study of Gray Goose Marsh, Alviso California

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The area of our study is located in the heart of the 300m wide strip of land just north of Triangle Marsh, known as Gray Goose Marsh. This land used to be part of an...

  9. Agricultural work exposures and pulmonary function among hired farm workers in California (the MICASA study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Erik J; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T; Bennett, Deborah H; Tancredi, Daniel J; Schenker, Marc B

    2014-01-01

    Despite California's dependence on hired farm labor, scarce research has been conducted on the respiratory health of hired farm workers. Agricultural exposures to inorganic and organic dusts can adversely affect an individual's respiratory health and differ by farm type and job task. The purpose of the present analysis was to examine associations between agricultural work exposures and pulmonary function among 450 California farm workers. Data were collected as part of the Mexican Immigration to California: Agricultural Safety and Acculturation (MICASA) study, a prospective cohort study examining occupational risk factors and health of hired farm worker families in Mendota, California. Time-weighted self-reported average (TWSRA) dust scores were calculated from assessments of past-12-month agricultural work history. Other dust exposure indicator variables included months worked in agriculture in the past 12 months and years worked in agriculture. Multiple linear regression modeled FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second), FEF(25-75%) (forced midexpiratory flow rate), FVC (forced vital capacity), FEV6, FEV1/FVC, and FEV1/FEV6 separately. Seventy-six percent of participants had worked in agriculture in the past year. In models conducted for crops and tasks separately, high TWSRA dust score was associated with better FEV6. Crop and task models showed associations between greater months worked in agriculture in the past year and better FEV1, FEF(25-75%), and FEV6. Both models also found greater years worked in agriculture to be associated with worse FEV1/FEV6. Results were generally in the opposite direction as expected given past research but not uncommon. Future research should investigate relationships between pulmonary function and agricultural dust exposure over a lifetime and changes in pulmonary function over time.

  10. Ecological study requirements for Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooten, R.C. Jr. (Air Force Weapons Lab., Albuquerque, NM); Meyer, G.F.; Sigler, J.W.; Scott, C.L.

    1975-01-23

    The impact of the Space Transportation System on the ecology of Vandenberg and the need and direction of future land management are determined. Vandenberg has a variety of vegetative communities which support various species of animal and bird life. The coastal areas may support a rich abundance of marine life. Recommendations include a systematic approach and multidiscipline study to determine the significance and associativity of the various forms of biota.

  11. Greenfield Alternative Study LEU-Mo Fuel Fabrication Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Division of URS

    2008-07-01

    This report provides the initial “first look” of the design of the Greenfield Alternative of the Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC); a facility to be built at a Greenfield DOE National Laboratory site. The FFC is designed to fabricate LEU-Mo monolithic fuel for the 5 US High Performance Research Reactors (HPRRs). This report provides a pre-conceptual design of the site, facility, process and equipment systems of the FFC; along with a preliminary hazards evaluation, risk assessment as well as the ROM cost and schedule estimate.

  12. A case study of collaborative facilities in engineering design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, Laura M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pugmire, David [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe the use of visualization tools and facilities in the collaborative design of a replacement weapons system, the Reliable Replacement Warhead (RRW). We used not only standard collaboration methods but also a range of visualization software and facilities to bring together domain specialists from laboratories across the country to collaborate on the design and integrate this disparate input early in the design. This was the first time in U.S. weapons history that a weapon had been designed in this collaborative manner. Benefits included projected cost savings, design improvements and increased understanding across the project.

  13. California Bioregions

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California regions developed by the Inter-agency Natural Areas Coordinating Committee (INACC) were digitized from a 1:1,200,000 California Department of Fish and...

  14. Statistical study of seismicity associated with geothermal reservoirs in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, D.M.; Cavit, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    Statistical methods are outlined to separate spatially, temporally, and magnitude-dependent portions of both the random and non-random components of the seismicity. The methodology employed compares the seismicity distributions with a generalized Poisson distribution. Temporally related events are identified by the distribution of the interoccurrence times. The regions studied to date include the Imperial Valley, Coso, The Geysers, Lassen, and the San Jacinto fault. The spatial characteristics of the random and clustered components of the seismicity are diffuse and appear unsuitable for defining the areal extent of the reservoir. However, from the temporal characteristics of the seismicity associated with these regions a general discriminant was constructed that combines several physical parameters for identifying the presence of a geothermal system.

  15. Recent Advances in Climate Impacts, Vulnerability, and Adaptation Studies in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, G.; Cayan, D. R.; Moser, S. C.; Hanemann, M.; Pittiglio, S.

    2010-12-01

    The State of California is committed to preparing periodic climate change impacts and adaptation assessments to inform and develop policy in the State. The most recent assessment was released late in 2009 and a new vulnerability and adaptation assessment is underway for release in late 2011. Both assessments use IPCC climate simulations that were statistically downscaled to a horizontal resolution of about 12 Km. The 2009 California assessment attempted to translate some impacts and adaptation options into monetary terms which introduced additional uncertainties. The 2011 California assessment combines a set of coordinated statewide and regional/local studies because many adaptation options, though informed by state and national policies, will be implemented at regional and local levels. The 2011 assessment expands the number of climate simulations that are employed in order to form a fuller estimate of the potential envelope of climate change and its impacts in the state. It also introduces a subset of dynamically downscaled scenarios to understand how well statistical relationships, developed using historical data, hold up in future climate regimes. Investigations are on-going to translate the ensemble of climate simulations and to begin to attach probabilities to the scenarios using subjective and objective techniques. In addition to advances in climate simulations and downscaling techniques, the new vulnerability and adaptation assessment also increasingly integrates social science approaches to assessing vulnerabilities and adaptation options. This presentation will illustrate results from the 2009 assessment and describe the design and initial implementation of the 2011 assessment.

  16. The National Ignition Facility: Status and Plans for Laser Fusion and High-Energy-Density Experimental Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, E I; Wuest, C R

    2002-10-16

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), currently under construction at the University of California's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is a stadium-sized facility containing a 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, 351-nm laser system and a 10-meter diameter target chamber with room for nearly 100 experimental diagnostics. NIF is being built by the National Nuclear Security Administration and when completed will be the world's largest laser experimental system, providing a national center to study inertial confinement fusion and the physics of matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. NIF will provide 192 energetic laser beams that will compress small fusion targets to conditions where they will ignite and burn, liberating more energy than is required to initiate the fusion reactions. NIF experiments will allow the study of physical processes at temperatures approaching 100 million K and 100 billion times atmospheric pressure. These conditions exist naturally only in the interior of stars and in nuclear weapons explosions. In the course of designing the world's most energetic laser system, a number of significant technology breakthroughs have been achieved. Research is also underway to develop a shorter pulse capability on NIF for very high power and extreme electromagnetic field research and applications. We discuss here the technology challenges and solutions that have made NIF possible, along with enhancements to NIF's design that could lead to near-exawatt power levels.

  17. The National Ignition Facility: Status and Plans for Laser Fusion and High-Energy-Density Experimental Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, E I

    2002-01-11

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), currently under construction at the University of California's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a $2.25B stadium-sized facility containing a 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, 351-nm laser system. NIF is being built by the National Nuclear Security Agency and when completed will be the world's largest laser system, providing a national center to study inertial confinement fusion and the physics of extreme energy densities and pressures. In NIF up to 192 energetic laser beams will compress small fusion targets to conditions where they will ignite and burn, liberating more energy than is required to initiate the fusion reactions. NIF experiments will allow the study of physical processes at temperatures approaching 100 million K and 100 billion times atmospheric pressure. These conditions exist naturally only in the interior of stars and in nuclear weapons explosions. In the course of designing the world's most energetic laser system, a number of significant technology breakthroughs have been achieved. Research is also underway to develop a shorter pulse capability on NIF for high power applications. We discuss here the technology challenges and solutions that have made NIF possible along with enhancements to NIF's design that could lead to exawatt power levels.

  18. BIM Guidelines Inform Facilities Management Databases: A Case Study over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Kensek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A building information model (BIM contains data that can be accessed and exported for other uses during the lifetime of the building especially for facilities management (FM and operations. Working under the guidance of well-designed BIM guidelines to insure completeness and compatibility with FM software, architects and contractors can deliver an information rich data model that is valuable to the client. Large owners such as universities often provide these detailed guidelines and deliverable requirements to their building teams. Investigation of the University of Southern California (USC Facilities Management Service’s (FMS website showed a detailed plan including standards, file names, parameter lists, and other requirements of BIM data, which were specifically designated for facilities management use, as deliverables on new construction projects. Three critical details were also unearthed in the reading of these documents: Revit was the default BIM software; COBie was adapted to help meet facilities management goals; and EcoDomus provided a display of the collected data viewed through Navisworks. Published accounts about the Cinema Arts Complex developed with and under these guidelines reported positive results. Further examination with new projects underway reveal the rapidly changing relational database landscape evident in the new USC “Project Record Revit Requirement Execution Plan (PRxP”.

  19. Inseguridad alimentaria en latinos de California: observaciones de grupos focales Food insecurity among Latinos in California: A focal groups study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Melgar-Quiñonez

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudiar la percepción y la experiencia sobre inseguridad alimentaria entre latinoamericanos de California, así como su interpretación de los insumos incluidos en la Escala de Seguridad Alimentaria. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre noviembre y diciembre de 2000, en los condados californianos de Solano y San Joaquín, se efectuaron cuatro grupos focales, con 30 adultos de origen latinoamericano residentes allí. Los comentarios de los participantes fueron codificados por dos investigadores para determinar los temas principales, y fueron confrontados para verificar su convergencia. RESULTADOS: Las preguntas fueron bien comprendidas, no percibiéndose como ofensivas. El marco conceptual se confirmó como "proceso manejado" con diferentes niveles de severidad. Las causas de inseguridad alimentaria identificadas fueron: desempleo, alto costo de algunos alimentos y falta de información nutricional. La necesidad de educación nutricional fue una constante. CONCLUSIONES: Para interpretar datos nacionales de inseguridad alimentaria en latinoamericanos es esencial considerar su percepción particular de ese fenómeno.OBJECTIVE: To assess the perception and experience with food insecurity among Latinos living in California, as well as their interpretation of the items included in the Food Security Scale. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A series of four focus groups were carried out among 30 adults of Latin-American descent living in California. The participant's responses were coded by two researchers to identify the main issues, and to compare them for assessing their convergence. RESULTS: The items were well understood and were not perceived as offensive. The conceptual framework was confirmed as a "managed process" with different severity levels. The causes of food insecurity were: unemployment, high cost of some food items, and lack of nutritional information. The demand for nutritional education was constant. CONCLUSION: Interpreting data on food

  20. Deep Energy Retrofit Performance Metric Comparison: Eight California Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisher, Jeremy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we will present the results of monitored annual energy use data from eight residential Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) case studies using a variety of performance metrics. For each home, the details of the retrofits were analyzed, diagnostic tests to characterize the home were performed and the homes were monitored for total and individual end-use energy consumption for approximately one year. Annual performance in site and source energy, as well as carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions were determined on a per house, per person and per square foot basis to examine the sensitivity to these different metrics. All eight DERs showed consistent success in achieving substantial site energy and CO2e reductions, but some projects achieved very little, if any source energy reduction. This problem emerged in those homes that switched from natural gas to electricity for heating and hot water, resulting in energy consumption dominated by electricity use. This demonstrates the crucial importance of selecting an appropriate metric to be used in guiding retrofit decisions. Also, due to the dynamic nature of DERs, with changes in occupancy, size, layout, and comfort, several performance metrics might be necessary to understand a project’s success.

  1. DETERMINATION OF IMPORTANCE EVALUATION FOR THE SUBSURFACE EXPORATORY STUDIES FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.J. Clark

    1999-06-28

    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) East-West Cross Drift Starter Tunnel (to approximate ECRB Station 0+26 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas in the TS Loop. This evaluation applies to the construction, operation, and maintenance of these excavations. A more detailed description of these items is provided in Section 6.0. Testing activities are not evaluated in this DIE. Certain construction activities with respect to testing activities are evaluated; but the testing activities themselves are not evaluated. The DIE for ESF Subsurface Testing Activities (BAJ3000000-01717-2200-00011 Rev 01) (CRWMS M&O 1998a) evaluates Subsurface ESF Testing activities. The construction, operation, and maintenance of the TS Loop niches and alcove slot cuts is evaluated herein and is also discussed in CRWMS M&O 1998a. The construction, operation, and maintenance of the Busted Butte subsurface test area in support of the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test is evaluated in CRWMS M&O 1998a. Potential test-to-test interference and the waste isolation impacts of testing activities are evaluated in the ESF Subsurface Testing Activities DIE and other applicable evaluation(s) for the Job Package (JP), Test Planning Package (TPP), and/or Field Work Package (FWP). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether the Subsurface ESF TS Loop and associated excavations, including activities associated with their construction and operation, potentially impact site characterization testing or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified. The validity and veracity of the individual tests, including data collection, are the responsibility

  2. California's Central Valley Groundwater Study: A Powerful New Tool to Assess Water Resources in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, Claudia C.; Hanson, Randall T.; Belitz, Kenneth; Rogers, Laurel

    2009-01-01

    Competition for water resources is growing throughout California, particularly in the Central Valley. Since 1980, the Central Valley's population has nearly doubled to 3.8 million people. It is expected to increase to 6 million by 2020. Statewide population growth, anticipated reductions in Colorado River water deliveries, drought, and the ecological crisis in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta have created an intense demand for water. Tools and information can be used to help manage the Central Valley aquifer system, an important State and national resource.

  3. The Study on Domestic and Foreign Cases for Decommissioning of DPRK Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Ye Ji; Hhu, Joo Youn; Lee, Jung Hyun; Hwang, Yong Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This study was able to analyze domestic and foreign cases, and collect data on the approximate amount of waste and time required time; however, data on applied technology, input manpower, required cost, and waste disposal method was insufficient. DPRK activities such as nuclear weapon development or nuclear testing not only threaten our country's security but also have an adverse effect on nuclear nonproliferation and security in the international society. Therefore, denuclearization of the DPRK is prior task that is essential to peace on the Korean Peninsula. The fundamental purpose of denuclearization of the DPRK is to safely decommission facilities related to developing nuclear weapons and to depose related radioactive waste and nuclear materials. Understanding descriptive references and physical properties of the facility and its purpose important for decommissioning nuclear facilities. Although it was impossible to collect data on DPRK nuclear facilities to perform complete decommissioning, we were able to understand the process used at DPRK nuclear facilities with open source data. This study has been conducted to establish overall measures for decommissioning DPRK nuclear facilities. DPRK nuclear facilities in this study include a IRT- 2000 type nuclear research reactor, a 5 MWe graphite moderated reactor, nuclear fuel fabrication facility, and a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility, which are considered as facilities that produce or manufacture nuclear materials needed for nuclear weapons or related to such activities.

  4. Study of energetic particle dynamics in Harbin Dipole eXperiment (HDX) on Space Plasma Environment Research Facility (SPERF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhibin, W.; Xiao, Q.; Wang, X.; Xiao, C.; Zheng, J.; E, P.; Ji, H.; Ding, W.; Lu, Q.; Ren, Y.; Mao, A.

    2015-12-01

    Zhibin Wang1, Qingmei Xiao1, Xiaogang Wang1, Chijie Xiao2, Jinxing Zheng3, Peng E1, Hantao Ji1,5, Weixing Ding4, Quaming Lu6, Y. Ren1,5, Aohua Mao11 Laboratory for Space Environment and Physical Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China 150001 2 State Key Lab of Nuclear Physics & Technology, and School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, China 100871 3ASIPP, Hefei, China, 230031 4University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, 90095 5Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 6University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China, 230026 A new terrella device for laboratory studies of space physics relevant to the inner magnetospheric plasmas, Harbin Dipole eXperiment (HDX), is scheduled to be built at Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT), China. HDX is one of two essential parts of Space Plasma Environment Research Facility (SPERF), which is a major national research facility for space physics studies. HDX is designed to provide a laboratory experimental platform to reproduce the earth's magnetospheric structure for investigations on the mechanism of acceleration/loss and wave-particle interaction of energetic particles in radiation belt, and on the influence of magnetic storms on the inner magnetosphere. It can be operated together with Harbin Reconnection eXperiment (HRX), which is another part of SPERF, to study the fundamental processes during interactions between solar wind and Earth's magnetosphere. In this presentation, the scientific goals and experimental plans for HDX, together with the means applied to generate the plasma with desired parameters, including multiple plasma sources and different kinds of coils with specific functions, as well as advanced diagnostics designed to be equipped to the facility for multi-functions, are reviewed. Three typical scenarios of HDX with operations of various coils and plasma sources to study specific physical processes in space plasmas will also be

  5. Depositional history and fault-related studies, Bolinas Lagoon, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berquist, Joel R.

    1978-01-01

    Studies of core sediments and seismic reflection profiles elucidate the structure and depositional history of Bolinas Lagoon, Calif., which covers 4.4 km 2 and lies in the San Andreas fault zone at the southeast corner of the Point Reyes Peninsula 20 km northwest of San Francisco. The 1906 trace of the San Andreas fault crosses the west side of the lagoon and was determined from (1) tectonically caused salt-marsh destruction indicated by comparison of 1854 and 1929 U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey (U.S.C. & G.S.) topographic surveys, (2) formation of a tidal channel along the border of destroyed salt marshes, and (3) azimuths of the trend of the fault measured in 1907. Subsidence in the lagoon of 30 cm occurred east of the San Andreas fault in 1906. Near the east shore, seismic-reflection profiling indicates the existence of a graben fault that may connect to a graben fault on the Golden Gate Platform. Comparison of radiocarbon dates on shells and plant debris from boreholes drilled on Stinson Beach spit with a relative sea-level curve constructed for southern San Francisco Bay indicates 5.8 to more than 17.9 m of tectonic subsidence of sediments now located 33 m below mean sea level. Cored sediments indicate a marine transgression dated at 7770?65 yrs B.P. overlying freshwater organic-rich lake deposits. Fossil pollen including 2 to 8 percent Picea (spruce) indicate a late Pleistocene (?)-Early Holocene climate, cooler, wetter, and foggier than at present. Above the transgression are discontinuous and interfingering sequences of transgressive-regressive marine, estuarine, and barrier sediments that reflect rapid lateral and vertical shifts of successive depositional environments. Fossil megafauna indicate (1) accumulation in a protected, shallow-water estuary or bay, and (2) that the lagoon was probably continuously shallow and never a deep-water embayment. Analysis of grain-size parameters, pollen frequencies, and organic remains from a core near the north end of

  6. Facility-level interpatient hemoglobin variability in hemodialysis centers participating in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS): Associations with mortality, patient characteristics, and facility practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisoni, Ronald L; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Fuller, Douglas S; Morgenstern, Hal; Canaud, Bernard; Locatelli, Francesco; Li, Yun; Gillespie, Brenda; Wolfe, Robert A; Port, Friedrich K; Robinson, Bruce M

    2011-02-01

    Hemodialysis patients with larger hemoglobin level fluctuations have higher mortality rates. We describe facility-level interpatient hemoglobin variability, its relation to patient mortality, and factors associated with facility-level hemoglobin variability or achieving hemoglobin levels of 10.5-12.0 g/dL. Facility-level hemoglobin variability may reflect within-patient hemoglobin variability and facility-level anemia-control practices. Prospective cohort study. Data from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS; 26,510 hemodialysis patients, 930 facilities, 12 countries, 1996-2008) and from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS; 193,291 hemodialysis patients, 3,741 US facilities, 2002). Standard deviation (SD) in single-measurement hemoglobin levels in hemodialysis patients in facility cross-sections (facility-level hemoglobin SD); patient characteristics; facility practices. Patient-level mortality; additionally, facility practices correlated with facility-level hemoglobin SD or patient hemoglobin levels of 10.5-12.0 g/dL. Facility-level hemoglobin SD varied more than 5-fold across DOPPS facilities (range, 0.5-2.7 g/dL; mean, 1.3 g/dL) and by country (range, 1.1 in Japan-DOPPS [2005/2006] to 1.7 g/dL in Spain-DOPPS [1998/1999]), with substantial decreases seen in many countries from 1998 to 2007. Facility-level hemoglobin SD was related inversely to patient age, but was associated minimally with more than 30 other patient characteristics and facility mean hemoglobin levels. Several anemia management practices were associated strongly with facility-level hemoglobin SD and having a hemoglobin level of 10.5-12.0 g/dL. When examined in CMS data, facility-level hemoglobin SD was positively associated with within-patient hemoglobin SD during the prior 6 months. Patient mortality rates were higher with greater facility-level hemoglobin SD (DOPPS: HR, 1.08 per 0.5-g/dL greater facility-level hemoglobin SD [95% CI, 1.02-1.15; P = 0.006]; CMS

  7. PRELIMINARY STUDY TO PRIMARY EDUCATION FACILITIES (A Comparison Study between Indonesia and Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Yosita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This writing is a preliminary study to condition of primary education facilities in Indonesia, and then comparing these with theories as well as various relevant cases aimed to know the problem more obviously. Basically, there is difference between primary education facilities in Indonesia with those in developed countries. Meanwhile on the other hand, the condition as well as the completion of education facility is actually as the main factor contributes to address the purpose of learning process. If building design, interior and also site plan were dynamic in form, space, colour and tools, those would be probably more stimulate activity and influence into the growth of students. However, lastly, it is still required further analysis, as an example analysis to student's behaviour in spaces of learning environment, more detail and within enough time, not only at indoor but also at outdoor.

  8. The National Ignition Facility: Status and Plans for Laser Fusion and High-Energy-Density Experimental Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, C

    2001-10-29

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) currently under construction at the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a 192-beam, 1.8-megajoule, 500-terawatt, 351-nm laser for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density experimental studies. NIF is being built by the Department of Energy and the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) to provide an experimental test bed for the U.S. Stockpile Stewardship Program to ensure the country's nuclear deterrent without underground nuclear testing. The experimental program will encompass a wide range of physical phenomena from fusion energy production to materials science. Of the roughly 700 shots available per year, about 10% will be dedicated to basic science research. Laser hardware is modularized into line replaceable units (LRUs) such as deformable mirrors, amplifiers, and multi-function sensor packages that are operated by a distributed computer control system of nearly 60,000 control points. The supervisory control room presents facility-wide status and orchestrates experiments using operating parameters predicted by physics models. A network of several hundred front-end processors (FEPs) implements device control. The object-oriented software system is implemented in the Ada and Java languages and emphasizes CORBA distribution of reusable software objects. NIF is currently scheduled to provide first light in 2004 and will be completed in 2008.

  9. Thermal hydraulic studies in steam generator test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinod, V.; Suresh Kumar, V.A.; Noushad, I.B.; Ellappan, T.R.; Rajan, K.K.; Rajan, M.; Vaidyanathan, G. [Engineering Development Group Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: A 500 MWe fast breeder reactor is being constructed at Kalpakkam, India. This is a sodium cooled reactor with two primary and two secondary sodium loops with total 8 steam generators. The typical advantage of fast breeder plants is the high operating temperature of steam cycles and the high plant efficiency. To produce this high pressure and high temperature steam, once through straight tube vertical sodium heated steam generators are used. The steam is generated from the heat produced in the reactor core and being transported through primary and secondary sodium circuits. The steam generator is a 25 m high middle supported steam generator with expansion bend and 23 m heat transfer length. Steam Generator Test Facility (SGTF) constructed at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam aims at performing various tests on a 5.5 MWt steam generator. This vertically simulated test article is similar in all respects to the proposed 157 MWt steam generator module for the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), with reduced number of tubes. Heat transfer performance tests are done with this 19 tube steam generator at various load conditions. Sodium circuit for the SGTF is equipped with oil fired heater as heat source and centrifugal sodium pump, to pump sodium at 105 m{sup 3}/hr flow rate. Other typical components like sodium to air heat exchanger, sodium purification system and hydrogen leak detection system is also present in the sodium circuit. High pressure steam produced in the steam generator is dumped in a condenser and recycled. Important tests planned in SGTF are the heat transfer performance test, stability test, endurance test and performance test of steam generator under various transients. The controlled operation of steam generator will be studied with possible control schemes. A steady state simulation of the steam generator is done with a mathematical model. This paper gives the details of heat transfer

  10. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability:A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy; Coffey, Brian; Aki, Hirohisa

    2008-12-01

    In past work, Berkeley Lab has developed the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). Given end-use energy details for a facility, a description of its economic environment and a menu of available equipment, DER-CAM finds the optimal investment portfolio and its operating schedule which together minimize the cost of meeting site service, e.g., cooling, heating, requirements. Past studies have considered combined heat and power (CHP) technologies. Methods and software have been developed to solve this problem, finding optimal solutions which take simultaneity into account. This project aims to extend on those prior capabilities in two key dimensions. In this research storage technologies have been added as well as power quality and reliability (PQR) features that provide the ability to value the additional indirect reliability benefit derived from Consortium for Electricity Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Microgrid capability. This project is intended to determine how attractive on-site generation becomes to a medium-sized commercial site if economical storage (both electrical and thermal), CHP opportunities, and PQR benefits are provided in addition to avoiding electricity purchases. On-site electrical storage, generators, and the ability to seamlessly connect and disconnect from utility service would provide the facility with ride-through capability for minor grid disturbances. Three building types in both California and New York are assumed to have a share of their sensitive electrical load separable. Providing enhanced service to this load fraction has an unknown value to the facility, which is estimated analytically. In summary, this project began with 3 major goals: (1) to conduct detailed analysis to find the optimal equipment combination for microgrids at a few promising commercial building hosts in the two favorable markets of California and New York; (2) to extend the analysis capability of DER-CAM to include both heat and

  11. Proposition 14 and California's Minor Parties: A Case Study of Electoral Reform and Party Response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keith Smith

    2014-01-01

      In 2010, California voters enacted Proposition 14, the Top Two Candidates Open Primary Act, which changed California's electoral system from single-member, plurality district elections to a top two (majority) runoff system...

  12. Bypassing health facilities for childbirth: a multilevel study in three districts of Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Mariano; Vora, Kranti; Costa, Ayesha De

    2016-01-01

    Bypassing available facilities for childbirth has important implications for maternal health service delivery and human resources within a health system. The results are the additional expenses imposed on the woman and her family, as well as the inefficient use of health system resources. Bypassing often indicates a lack of confidence in the care provided by the facility nearest to the mother, which implies a level of dysfunctionality that the health system needs to address. Over the past decade, India has experienced a steep rise in the proportion of facility births. The initiation of programs promoting facility births resulted in a rise from 39% in 2005 to 85% in 2014. There have been no reports on bypassing facilities for childbirth from India. In the context of steeply rising facility births, it is important to quantify the occurrence of and study the relative contributions of maternal characteristics and facility functionality to bypassing. 1) To determine the extent of bypassing health facilities for childbirth among rural mothers in three districts of Gujarat, India, 2) to identify associations between the functionality of an obstetric care (OC) facility and it being bypassed, and 3) to assess the relative contribution of maternal and facility characteristics to bypassing. A cross-sectional survey of 166 public and private OC facilities reporting ≥30 births in the 3 months before the survey was conducted in three purposively selected districts (Dahod, Sabarkantha, and Surendranagar) in the state of Gujarat, India. Besides information on each facility, data from 946 women giving birth at these facilities were also gathered. Data were analyzed using a multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression model. Off all mothers, 37.7% bypassed their nearest facility for childbirth. After adjusting for maternal characteristics, for every one-unit increase in the facility's emergency obstetric care (EmOC) signal functions, the odds of bypassing a facility for childbirth

  13. Bypassing health facilities for childbirth: a multilevel study in three districts of Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Mariano; Vora, Kranti; De Costa, Ayesha

    2016-01-01

    Background Bypassing available facilities for childbirth has important implications for maternal health service delivery and human resources within a health system. The results are the additional expenses imposed on the woman and her family, as well as the inefficient use of health system resources. Bypassing often indicates a lack of confidence in the care provided by the facility nearest to the mother, which implies a level of dysfunctionality that the health system needs to address. Over the past decade, India has experienced a steep rise in the proportion of facility births. The initiation of programs promoting facility births resulted in a rise from 39% in 2005 to 85% in 2014. There have been no reports on bypassing facilities for childbirth from India. In the context of steeply rising facility births, it is important to quantify the occurrence of and study the relative contributions of maternal characteristics and facility functionality to bypassing. Objectives 1) To determine the extent of bypassing health facilities for childbirth among rural mothers in three districts of Gujarat, India, 2) to identify associations between the functionality of an obstetric care (OC) facility and it being bypassed, and 3) to assess the relative contribution of maternal and facility characteristics to bypassing. Design A cross-sectional survey of 166 public and private OC facilities reporting ≥30 births in the 3 months before the survey was conducted in three purposively selected districts (Dahod, Sabarkantha, and Surendranagar) in the state of Gujarat, India. Besides information on each facility, data from 946 women giving birth at these facilities were also gathered. Data were analyzed using a multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression model. Results Off all mothers, 37.7% bypassed their nearest facility for childbirth. After adjusting for maternal characteristics, for every one-unit increase in the facility's emergency obstetric care (EmOC) signal functions, the odds

  14. Bypassing health facilities for childbirth: a multilevel study in three districts of Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Salazar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bypassing available facilities for childbirth has important implications for maternal health service delivery and human resources within a health system. The results are the additional expenses imposed on the woman and her family, as well as the inefficient use of health system resources. Bypassing often indicates a lack of confidence in the care provided by the facility nearest to the mother, which implies a level of dysfunctionality that the health system needs to address. Over the past decade, India has experienced a steep rise in the proportion of facility births. The initiation of programs promoting facility births resulted in a rise from 39% in 2005 to 85% in 2014. There have been no reports on bypassing facilities for childbirth from India. In the context of steeply rising facility births, it is important to quantify the occurrence of and study the relative contributions of maternal characteristics and facility functionality to bypassing. Objectives: 1 To determine the extent of bypassing health facilities for childbirth among rural mothers in three districts of Gujarat, India, 2 to identify associations between the functionality of an obstetric care (OC facility and it being bypassed, and 3 to assess the relative contribution of maternal and facility characteristics to bypassing. Design: A cross-sectional survey of 166 public and private OC facilities reporting ≥30 births in the 3 months before the survey was conducted in three purposively selected districts (Dahod, Sabarkantha, and Surendranagar in the state of Gujarat, India. Besides information on each facility, data from 946 women giving birth at these facilities were also gathered. Data were analyzed using a multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression model. Results: Off all mothers, 37.7% bypassed their nearest facility for childbirth. After adjusting for maternal characteristics, for every one-unit increase in the facility's emergency obstetric care (EmOC signal

  15. Green Facility Management in a Shanghai Office Building : A Case Study of the "Asia Building"

    OpenAIRE

    Yunqing, Liang

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to explore how well green facility management has performed in Shanghai office building and finds the possible way to improve the situation. Together with two interviews, questionnaire based on benchmarking approach is conducted in a case study of the Asia Building, which lead to the conclusion that green facility management has done a fair work in Asia Building, and suggestions that laws and regulations related to green facility management should be established; governmental ...

  16. Deflecting cavity dynamics for time-resolved machine studies of SXFEL user facility

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Minghao; Liu, Bo; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Radio frequency deflectors are widely used for time-resolved electron beam energy, emittance and radiation profile measurements in modern free electron laser facilities. In this paper, we present the beam dynamics aspects of the deflecting cavity of SXFEL user facility, which is located at the exit of the undulator. With a targeted time resolution around 10 fs, it is expected to be an important tool for time-resolved commissioning and machine studies for SXFEL user facility.

  17. A Prospective Study of Ventilation Rates and Illness Absence in California Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseeva, Ekaterina A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spears, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chan, Wanyu R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cohn, Sebastian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sullivan, Douglas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-10-07

    Background – This study investigated the associations of ventilation rates (VRs), estimated from indoor CO2 concentrations, in offices with the amount of respiratory infections, illness absences, and building-related health symptoms in occupants. Methods – Office buildings were recruited from three California climate zones. In one or more study spaces within each building, real-time logging sensors measured carbon dioxide, temperature, and relative humidity for one year. Ventilation rates were estimated using daily peak CO2 levels, and also using an alternative metric. Data on occupants and health outcomes were collected through web-based surveys every three months. Multivariate models were used to assess relationships between metrics of ventilation rate or CO2 and occupant outcomes. For all outcomes, negative associations were hypothesized with VR metrics, and positive associations with CO2 metrics. Results – Difficulty recruiting buildings and low survey response limited sample size and study power. In 16 studied spaces within 9 office buildings, VRs were uniformly high over the year, from twice to over nine times the California office VR standard (7 L/s or 15 cfm per person). VR and CO2 metrics had no statistically significant relationships with occupant outcomes, except for a small significantly positive association of the alternative VR metric with respiratory illness-related absence, contrary to hypotheses. Conclusions– The very high time-averaged VRs in the California office buildings studied presumably resulted from “economizer cycles” bringing in large volumes of outdoor air; however, in almost all buildings even the estimated minimum VRs supplied (without the economizer) substantially exceeded the minimum required VR. These high VRs may explain the absence of hypothesized relationships with occupant outcomes. Among uniformly high VRs, little variation in contaminant concentration and occupant effects would be expected. These findings may

  18. Leadership skills for the California electric utility industry: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, Michael

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine the skills and knowledge necessary for leaders in the California electric utility industry in 2020. With rapid industry changes, skills to effectively lead and stay competitive are undetermined. Leaders must manage an increasingly hostile social and political environment, incorporate new technology, and deal with an aging workforce and infrastructure. Methodology. This study utilized a qualitative case study design to determine the factors that influence the skills leaders will require in 2020. It incorporated the perspectives of current electric utility leaders while looking with a future lens. Findings. Interviews were conducted with transmission and distribution (T&D) directors at 3 investor-owned public electric utilities headquartered in California. The questions followed an open-ended format to gather responses as perceived by electric utility leaders for each research question category: overall skills, aging workforce, regulation, technology, and leading younger generations. The research resulted in 18 major themes: 5 for overall skills, 3 for aging workforce, 4 for regulation, 3 for technology, and 3 for leading younger generations. Conclusions. The study identified leadership skills including the ability to embrace, leverage, and stay current with technology; understand and provide a clear vision for the future; increase creativity; manage the next set of workers; motivate during a time of great change; prepare for knowledge transfer and change in workforce culture; manage regulatory expectations; expand potential utility opportunities; leverage "big data"; allow worker collaboration; and understand what drives younger generations. Recommendations. California-based electric utility leaders can remain effective by implementing key strategies identified herein. Further research could examine perspectives of additional utility leaders who lead in organizational units outside of T&D, expand the research to

  19. Uncertainties in Earthquake Loss Analysis: A Case Study From Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdyiar, M.; Guin, J.

    2005-12-01

    Probabilistic earthquake hazard and loss analyses play important roles in many areas of risk management, including earthquake related public policy and insurance ratemaking. Rigorous loss estimation for portfolios of properties is difficult since there are various types of uncertainties in all aspects of modeling and analysis. It is the objective of this study to investigate the sensitivity of earthquake loss estimation to uncertainties in regional seismicity, earthquake source parameters, ground motions, and sites' spatial correlation on typical property portfolios in Southern California. Southern California is an attractive region for such a study because it has a large population concentration exposed to significant levels of seismic hazard. During the last decade, there have been several comprehensive studies of most regional faults and seismogenic sources. There have also been detailed studies on regional ground motion attenuations and regional and local site responses to ground motions. This information has been used by engineering seismologists to conduct regional seismic hazard and risk analysis on a routine basis. However, one of the more difficult tasks in such studies is the proper incorporation of uncertainties in the analysis. From the hazard side, there are uncertainties in the magnitudes, rates and mechanisms of the seismic sources and local site conditions and ground motion site amplifications. From the vulnerability side, there are considerable uncertainties in estimating the state of damage of buildings under different earthquake ground motions. From an analytical side, there are challenges in capturing the spatial correlation of ground motions and building damage, and integrating thousands of loss distribution curves with different degrees of correlation. In this paper we propose to address some of these issues by conducting loss analyses of a typical small portfolio in southern California, taking into consideration various source and ground

  20. A study on the safety of radioactive waste incineration facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Y. C. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, W. J.; Lee, B. S.; Lee, S. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    The main scope of the project is the selection of some considerable items in design criteria of radioactive waste incineration facilities not only for the protection of workers and residents during operation but also for the safe disposal of ashes after incineration. The technological and regulational status on incineration technologies in domestic and foreign is surveyed and analyzed for providing such basic items which must be contained in the guideline for safe and appropriate design, construction and operation of the facilities. The contents of the project are summarized as follows; surveying the status on incineration technologies for both radioactive and non-radioactive wastes in domestic and foreign, surveying and analysing same related technical standards and regulations in domestic and foreign, picking out main considerable items and proposing a direction of further research.

  1. INCORRECT PROPOSAL OF RUNOFF DRAINAGE THROUGH INFILTRATION FACILITY - CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. MARKOVIC

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available mbalance of the natural dynamic equilibrium between the processes of percolation, evaporation and surface runoff is caused because of urbanization of the previously natural areas which are transformed by humans now. More and more rainwater flows over the surface of the catchment area. Infiltration facilities are devices designed for fluent and natural infiltration of rainwater from the roofs of buildings and paved surfaces. Facilities for infiltration as one of source control measures are permeable paved areas, unpaved areas for infiltration, vegetated swales, vegetated buffer strips, bioretention, detention ponds, dry well, infiltration basins and infiltration gallery and many more. Rainwater drainage from the bridge object in Sarisske Luky in Presov district (Slovakia, using infiltration gallery is presented in the paper. Its capacity is not efficient now, so the reconstruction or other supplement solution is needed. From the wide possibilities of solutions, one of them which full fills all criterions about the rainwater infiltration in selected building object is presented and discussed.

  2. A study on the safety of radioactive waste incineration facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Y. C. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, W. J.; Lee, B. S.; Lee, S. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    The main scope of the project is the selection of some considerable items in design criteria of radioactive waste incineration facilities not only for the protection of workers and residents during operation but also for the safe disposal of ashes after incineration. The technological and regulational status on incineration technologies in domestic and foreign is surveyed and analyzed for providing such basic items which must be contained in the guideline for safe and appropriate design, construction and operation of the facilities. The contents of the project are summarized as follows; surveying the status on incineration technologies for both radioactive and non-radioactive wastes in domestic and foreign, surveying and analysing same related technical standards and regulations in domestic and foreign, picking out main considerable items and proposing a direction of further research.

  3. CASE STUDY PROJECT: THE USE OF LOW-VOC/HAP COATINGS AT WOOD FURNITURE MANUFACTURING FACILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses a study of pollution prevention and the use of low-VOC/HAP (volatile organic compound/hazardous air pollutant) coatings at wood furniture manufacturing facilities. The study is to identify wood furniture and cabinet manufacturing facilities that have converted...

  4. Facility design and associated services for the study of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Robert K; Odum, R Andrew; Herman, Timothy; Zippel, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The role of facilities and associated services for amphibians has recently undergone diversification. Amphibians traditionally used as research models adjust well to captivity and thrive with established husbandry techniques. However, it is now necessary to maintain hundreds of novel amphibian species in captive breeding, conservation research, and biomedical research programs. These diverse species have a very wide range of husbandry requirements, and in many cases the ultimate survival of threatened species will depend on captive populations. Two critical factors have emerged in the maintenance of amphibians, stringent quarantine and high-quality water. Because exotic diseases such as chytridiomycosis have devastated both natural and captive populations of amphibians, facilities must provide stringent quarantine. The provision of high-quality water is also essential to maintain amphibian health and condition due to the intimate physiological relationship of amphibians to their aquatic environment. Fortunately, novel technologies backed by recent advances in the scientific knowledge of amphibian biology and disease management are available to overcome these challenges. For example, automation can increase the reliability of quarantine and maintain water quality, with a corresponding decrease in handling and the associated disease-transfer risk. It is essential to build facilities with appropriate nontoxic waterproof materials and to provide quarantined amphibian rooms for each population. Other spaces and services include live feed rooms, quarantine stations, isolation rooms, laboratory space, technical support systems, reliable energy and water supplies, high-quality feed, and security. Good husbandry techniques must include reliable and species-specific management by trained staff members who receive support from the administration. It is possible to improve husbandry techniques for many species by sharing knowledge through common information systems. Overall

  5. Evaluation of the SB 1041 Reforms to California's CalWORKs Program: Background and Study Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, Lynn A.; Bozick, Robert; Davis, Lois M.; Kitmitto, Sami; Turk-Bicakci, Lori; Bos, Johannes M.; Holod, Aleksandra; Blankenship, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The California Budget Act of 2012, through a trailer bill known as Senate Bill (SB) 1041, contained significant reforms to the California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKs) program. CalWORKs is California's Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, a central component of the safety net that provides cash aid for…

  6. Conceptual design study advanced concepts test (ACT) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaloudek, F.R.

    1978-09-01

    The Advanced Concepts Test (ACT) Project is part of program for developing improved power plant dry cooling systems in which ammonia is used as a heat transfer fluid between the power plant and the heat rejection tower. The test facility will be designed to condense 60,000 lb/hr of exhaust steam from the No. 1 turbine in the Kern Power Plant at Bakersfield, CA, transport the heat of condensation from the condenser to the cooling tower by an ammonia phase-change heat transport system, and dissipate this heat to the environs by a dry/wet deluge tower. The design and construction of the test facility will be the responsibility of the Electric Power Research Institute. The DOE, UCC/Linde, and the Pacific Northwest Laboratories will be involved in other phases of the project. The planned test facilities, its structures, mechanical and electrical equipment, control systems, codes and standards, decommissioning requirements, safety and environmental aspects, and energy impact are described. Six appendices of related information are included. (LCL)

  7. Wineries’ Perception of Sustainability Costs and Benefits: An Exploratory Study in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Pomarici

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to make a contribution to the analysis of costs and benefits of adopting sustainable practices. The paper reports the results of an exploratory study into wineries’ perceived mix of economic costs and benefits and environmental benefits provided by participating in the Certified California Sustainable Winegrowing scheme. A total of 14 wineries, representing more than 50% of the entire wine production of California certified wine (and 25% of all certified wineries, participated in the study. Based on the information detected through face-to-face semi-structured interviews with winery managers and owners, performing a descriptive analysis and a logit model, we reveal that overall economic benefits, resulting from the sustainable practices introduced by the certification scheme, outweigh the additional costs. In particular, older wineries (>15 years and those located in Sonoma Valley or onmultiple sites are more keen to assign a positive economic viability tosustainable practices. Furthermore, sustainable vineyard practices are highly rated by respondents in terms of both perceived environmental and economic benefits. Outcomes should foster similar studies exploring other specific sustainability programs and certification schemes, and eventually encourage cross-cultural investigations.

  8. Facility for studying spin dependence in pion production near threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Rinckel, T; Meyer, H O; Balewski, J T; Doskow, J; Pollock, R E; Von Przewoski, B; Sperisen, F; Daehnick, W W; Flammang, R W; Saha, S K; Haeberli, W; Lorentz, B; Rathmann, F; Schwartz, B; Wise, T; Pancella, P V

    2000-01-01

    We describe an experimental setup for the measurement of polarization observables in pion production near threshold. Experiments carried out with this facility use a polarized proton beam in the Indiana University Cooler storage ring, and an internal, polarized hydrogen target. The detector system measures energy, direction and velocity of multiple outgoing charged particles that are within a forward cone of about 32 deg. opening angle. An array of scintillators also allows the detection of neutrons. In addition to the technical details of the apparatus, we describe the procedure for data acquisition, as well as some aspects of the analysis.

  9. A Pilot Study to Evaluate California's Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions Using Atmospheric Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graven, H. D.; Fischer, M. L.; Lueker, T.; Guilderson, T.; Brophy, K. J.; Keeling, R. F.; Arnold, T.; Bambha, R.; Callahan, W.; Campbell, J. E.; Cui, X.; Frankenberg, C.; Hsu, Y.; Iraci, L. T.; Jeong, S.; Kim, J.; LaFranchi, B. W.; Lehman, S.; Manning, A.; Michelsen, H. A.; Miller, J. B.; Newman, S.; Paplawsky, B.; Parazoo, N.; Sloop, C.; Walker, S.; Whelan, M.; Wunch, D.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentration is influenced by human activities and by natural exchanges. Studies of CO2 fluxes using atmospheric CO2 measurements typically focus on natural exchanges and assume that CO2 emissions by fossil fuel combustion and cement production are well-known from inventory estimates. However, atmospheric observation-based or "top-down" studies could potentially provide independent methods for evaluating fossil fuel CO2 emissions, in support of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change. Observation-based estimates of fossil fuel-derived CO2 may also improve estimates of biospheric CO2 exchange, which could help to characterize carbon storage and climate change mitigation by terrestrial ecosystems. We have been developing a top-down framework for estimating fossil fuel CO2 emissions in California that uses atmospheric observations and modeling. California is implementing the "Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006" to reduce total greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, and it has a diverse array of ecosystems that may serve as CO2 sources or sinks. We performed three month-long field campaigns in different seasons in 2014-15 to collect flask samples from a state-wide network of 10 towers. Using measurements of radiocarbon in CO2, we estimate the fossil fuel-derived CO2 present in the flask samples, relative to marine background air observed at coastal sites. Radiocarbon (14C) is not present in fossil fuel-derived CO2 because of radioactive decay over millions of years, so fossil fuel emissions cause a measurable decrease in the 14C/C ratio in atmospheric CO2. We compare the observations of fossil fuel-derived CO2 to simulations based on atmospheric modeling and published fossil fuel flux estimates, and adjust the fossil fuel flux estimates in a statistical inversion that takes account of several uncertainties. We will present the results of the top-down technique to estimate fossil fuel emissions for our field

  10. Physical Energy Accounting in California: A Case Study of Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, Katie; Fridley, David

    2008-07-17

    California's target for greenhouse gas reduction in part relies on the development of viable low-carbon fuel alternatives to gasoline. It is often assumed that cellulosic ethanol--ethanol made from the structural parts of a plant and not from the food parts--will be one of these alternatives. This study examines the physical viability of a switchgrass-based cellulosic ethanol industry in California from the point of view of the physical requirements of land, water, energy and other material use. Starting from a scenario in which existing irrigated pastureland and fiber-crop land is converted to switchgrass production, the analysis determines the total acreage and water supply available and the resulting total biofuel feedstock output under different assumed yields. The number and location of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries that can be supported is also determined, assuming that the distance from field to biorefinery would be minimized. The biorefinery energy input requirement, available energy from the fraction of biomass not converted to ethanol, and energy output is calculated at various levels of ethanol yields, making different assumptions about process efficiencies. The analysis shows that there is insufficient biomass (after cellulose separation and fermentation into ethanol) to provide all the process energy needed to run the biorefinery; hence, the purchase of external energy such as natural gas is required to produce ethanol from switchgrass. The higher the yield of ethanol, the more external energy is needed, so that the net gains due to improved process efficiency may not be positive. On 2.7 million acres of land planted in switchgrass in this scenario, the switchgrass outputproduces enough ethanol to substitute for only 1.2 to 4.0percent of California's gasoline consumption in 2007.

  11. Canine demodicosis: a retrospective study of a veterinary hospital population in California, USA (2000-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Daniel G; Outerbridge, Catherine A; Kissel, Marguerite B; Baron, Jerome N; White, Stephen D

    2017-09-03

    Demodex spp. are cutaneous mites that cause clinical disease when present in increased numbers. There is an association in some dogs with underlying systemic disease or immunosuppressive medications. Retrospective study to document breed predisposition, identify any concurrent diseases or underlying immunosuppressive conditions, and to determine the frequency of demodicosis recurrence after treatment completion. There were 431 dogs with demodicosis presented to a veterinary teaching hospital in California, USA, from 2000 to 2016. Inclusion in this study required a diagnosis of demodicosis based on direct demonstration of the mite. Records were reviewed for signalment, disease history, potential underlying aetiologies, diagnosed concurrent diseases, medications and demodicosis treatment. Analyses were performed to evaluate for potential breed predispositions and because of the large number of dogs with allergic dermatoses, analyses for this diagnosis as a disease associated with demodicosis was also performed. E-mailed surveys and follow-up telephone calls were used to assess for information about disease recurrence. The pit bull terrier group and West Highland white terrier, based on calculated odds ratio, were breeds predisposed to developing demodicosis. For dogs with demodicosis, allergic dermatoses was an associated disease. Relapse or recurrence of disease after treatment was uncommon, affecting 11% of the dogs with long-term follow-up. This study identified, in dogs attending the institution based in California, USA, breed predilections for canine demodicosis and associated concomitant diseases. It also revealed a low occurrence of disease relapse, recurrence or persistence. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  12. DETERMINATION OF IMPORTANCE EVALUATION FOR THE SURFACE EXPLORATORY STUDIES FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.J. Byrne

    2000-07-25

    This DIE applies to the surface facilities component of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (W) ESF. The ESF complex-including surface and subsurface accommodations--encompasses an area that is approximately six miles wide and nine miles long (approximately 30,000 acres total) (United States Department of Energy [DOE] 1997, p. 9.04). It is located on federally withdrawn lands, near the southwest border of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in southern Nevada (DOE 1997, p. 9.04). Site characterization activities are conducted within the subsurface ESF to obtain the information necessary to determine whether the Yucca Mountain Site is suitable as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Most ESF surface facilities are located within the Conceptual Controlled Area Boundary (CCAB) (DOE 1997, p. 9.04), with the exception of the southeastern most portions of the H-Road and the Water Supply System. Various SBT activities are also conducted throughout the Yucca Mountain region as a part of the overall site-characterization effort. In general, the DIE for SBT Activities (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System [CRWMS] Management and Operating Contractor [M&O] 1998a) evaluates activities associated with SBT. Potential test-to-test interference and waste isolation impacts associated with SBT activities are also evaluated in CRWMS M&O (1998a).

  13. LIQUID EFFLUENT RETENTION FACILITY (LERF) BASIN 42 STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN JB

    2004-10-29

    This report documents laboratory results obtained under test plan RPP-21533 for samples submitted by the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) from the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) Basin 42 (Reference 1). The LERF Basin 42 contains process condensate (PC) from the 242-A Evaporator and landfill leachate. The ETF processes one PC campaign approximately every 12 to 18 months. A typical PC campaign volume can range from 1.5 to 2.5 million gallons. During the September 2003 ETF Basin 42 processing campaign, a recurring problem with 'gelatinous buildup' on the outlet filters from 60A-TK-I (surge tank) was observed (Figure 1). This buildup appeared on the filters after the contents of the surge tank were adjusted to a pH of between 5 and 6 using sulfuric acid. Biological activity in the PC feed was suspected to be the cause of the gelatinous material. Due to this buildup, the filters (10 {micro}m CUNO) required daily change out to maintain process throughput.

  14. An irradiation facility with a vertical beam for radiobiological studies

    CERN Document Server

    Besserer, J; Dellert, M; Gahn, C; Moosburger, M; Pemler, P; Quicken, P; Distel, L; Schuessler, H

    1999-01-01

    A vertical beam facility for radiobiological experiments was designed and constructed at the Munich Tandem-Accelerator Laboratory. The main part of the facility is a 90 deg. dipole magnet bending the beam of protons or heavy particles into a vertical upward direction, which is advantageous for wet-cell irradiation. After collimation the beam is spread out passively by thin scattering foils and dynamically by magnetic coils. A homogeneity of the radiation field better than +-5% has been achieved over the diameter of the exit window of 60 mm. The dose rate can be widely adjusted from single particles to more than 10 sup 1 sup 0 particles (i.e. hundreds of Grays) per second. The dose measurement is based on single-particle counting and on standard dosimeters. The detector system for dosimetry and irradiation control is described. In a first radiobiological experiment the cell survival of chinese hamster cells was measured after irradiation with 22.7 MeV protons and compared with the X-ray result.

  15. An ethnographic study of Latino preschool children's oral health in rural California: Intersections among family, community, provider and regulatory sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horton Sarah B

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Latino children experience a higher prevalence of caries than do children in any other racial/ethnic group in the US. This paper examines the intersections among four societal sectors or contexts of care which contribute to oral health disparities for low-income, preschool Latino1 children in rural California. Methods Findings are reported from an ethnographic investigation, conducted in 2005–2006, of family, community, professional/dental and policy/regulatory sectors or contexts of care that play central roles in creating or sustaining low income, rural children's poor oral health status. The study community of around 9,000 people, predominantly of Mexican-American origin, was located in California's agricultural Central Valley. Observations in homes, community facilities, and dental offices within the region were supplemented by in-depth interviews with 30 key informants (such as dental professionals, health educators, child welfare agents, clinic administrators and regulatory agents and 47 primary caregivers (mothers of children at least one of whom was under 6 years of age. Results Caregivers did not always recognize visible signs of caries among their children, nor respond quickly unless children also complained of pain. Fluctuating seasonal eligibility for public health insurance intersected with limited community infrastructure and civic amenities, including lack of public transportation, to create difficulties in access to care. The non-fluoridated municipal water supply is not widely consumed because of fears about pesticide pollution. If the dentist brought children into the clinic for multiple visits, this caused the accompanying parent hardship and occasionally resulted in the loss of his or her job. Few general dentists had received specific training in how to handle young patients. Children's dental fear and poor provider-parent communication were exacerbated by a scarcity of dentists willing to serve rural

  16. Aviation Engine Test Facilities (AETF) fire protection study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, R. C.; Burns, R. E.; Leonard, J. T.

    1989-07-01

    An analysis is presented to the effectiveness of various types of fire fighting agents in extinguishing the kinds of fires anticipated in Aviation Engine Test Facilities (AETF), otherwise known as Hush Houses. The agents considered include Aqueous Film-Forming Foam, Halon 1301, Halon 1211 and water. Previous test work has shown the rapidity with which aircraft, especially high performance aircraft, can be damaged by fire. Based on this, tentative criteria for this evaluation included a maximum time of 20 s from fire detection to extinguishment and a period of 30 min in which the agent would prevent reignition. Other issues examined included: toxicity, corrosivity, ease of personnel egress, system reliability, and cost effectiveness. The agents were evaluated for their performance in several fire scenarios, including: under frame fire, major engine fire, engine disintegration fire, high-volume pool fire with simultaneous spill fire, internal electrical fire, and runaway engine fire.

  17. The study on safety facility criteria for radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. H.; Choi, M. H.; Han, S. H. and others [Dongbang Electron Industry Corporation, (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-12-15

    The radioactive waste repository are necessary to install the engineered safety systems to secure the safety for operation of the repository in the event of fire and earthquake. Since the development of safety facility criteria requires a thorough understanding about the characteristics of the engineered safety systems, we should investigate by means of literature survey and visit SKB. In particular, definition, composition of the systems, functional requirement of the systems, engineered safety systems of foreign countries, system design, operation and maintenance requirement should be investigated : fire protection system, ventilation system, drainage system, I and C system, electric system, radiation monitoring system. This proposed criteria consist of purpose, scope of application, ventilation system, fire protection system, drainage system, electric system and this proposed criteria can be applied as a basic reference for the final criteria.

  18. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Northern Coast Ranges study unit, 2009: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 633-square-mile (1,639-square-kilometer) Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The study unit is composed of two study areas (Interior Basins and Coastal Basins) and is located in northern California in Napa, Sonoma, Lake, Colusa, Mendocino, Glenn, Humboldt, and Del Norte Counties. The GAMA-PBP is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the USGS and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  19. AMS Observations over Coastal California from the Biological and Oceanic Atmospheric Study (BOAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, K. H.; Coggon, M. M.; Hodas, N.; Negron, A.; Ortega, A. M.; Crosbie, E.; Sorooshian, A.; Nenes, A.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J.

    2015-12-01

    In July 2015, fifteen research flights were conducted on a US Navy Twin Otter aircraft as part of the Biological and Oceanic Atmospheric Study (BOAS) campaign. The flights took place near the California coast at Monterey, to investigate the effects of sea surface temperature and algal blooms on oceanic particulate emissions, the diurnal mixing of urban pollution with other airmasses, and the impacts of biological aerosols on the California atmosphere. The aircraft's payload included an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), a differential mobility analyzer, a cloud condensation nuclei counter, a counterflow virtual impactor, a cloudwater collector, and two instruments designed to detect biological aerosols - a wideband integrated biological spectrometer and a SpinCon II - as well as a number of meteorology and aerosol probes, two condensation particle counters, and instruments to measure gas-phase CO, CO2, O3, and NOx. Here, we describe in depth the objectives and outcomes of BOAS and report preliminary results, primarily from the AMS. We detail the spatial characteristics and meteorological variability of speciated aerosol components over a strong and persistent bloom of Pseudo-Nitzschia, the harmful algae that cause 'red tide', and report newly identified AMS markers for biological particles. Finally, we compare these results with data collected during BOAS over urban, forested, and agricultural environments, and describe the mixing observed between oceanic and terrestrial airmasses.

  20. A Robotic Platform to Study the Foreflipper of the California Sea Lion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Aditya A; Patel, Rahi K; Friedman, Chen; Leftwich, Megan C

    2017-01-10

    The California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), is an agile and powerful swimmer. Unlike many successful swimmers (dolphins, tuna), they generate most of their thrust with their large foreflippers. This protocol describes a robotic platform designed to study the hydrodynamic performance of the swimming California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). The robot is a model of the animal's foreflipper that is actuated by motors to replicate the motion of its propulsive stroke (the 'clap'). The kinematics of the sea lion's propulsive stroke are extracted from video data of unmarked, non-research sea lions at the Smithsonian Zoological Park (SNZ). Those data form the basis of the actuation motion of the robotic flipper presented here. The geometry of the robotic flipper is based a on high-resolution laser scan of a foreflipper of an adult female sea lion, scaled to about 60% of the full-scale flipper. The articulated model has three joints, mimicking the elbow, wrist and knuckle joint of the sea lion foreflipper. The robotic platform matches dynamics properties-Reynolds number and tip speed-of the animal when accelerating from rest. The robotic flipper can be used to determine the performance (forces and torques) and resulting flowfields.

  1. Detecting Methane Emission Sources in California: a Case-Study of Scientist/Decision-Maker Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, F. M.; Duren, R. M.; Miller, C. E.; Aubrey, A. D.; Falk, M.; Kuwayama, T.; Hinojosa, L.

    2015-12-01

    Reducing anthropogenic methane emissions is a high priority for the state of California as a strategy to meet near-term greenhouse gas emissions targets. However, implementation of an effective, cost-efficient methane mitigation plan requires local-to-regional scale information on methane sources, and cooperation of diverse stakeholders. We hypothesize that methane "super-emitters," large point sources thought to contribute disproportionately to anthropogenic methane emissions, are logical mitigation targets. We outline a tiered observing strategy involving satellite, aircraft, and surface observations to identify these super-emitters and their contribution to regional methane emissions. We demonstrate this approach with field studies of agricultural and oil and gas sources in California's San Joaquin Valley with cooperation a multi-stakeholder team. This partnership between researchers, regulators, and methane emitting industry took advantage of data sharing, site access, and complementary measurement approaches to identify appropriate methane mitigation targets. This experience suggests that collaborative partnerships that leverage multiple observational methods will be required for identifying methane mitigation targets and crafting regionally appropriate methane mitigation policy.

  2. Oral health champions in long-term care facilities-a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerine, Carol; Boyd, Linda; Bowen, Denise M; Neill, Karen; Johnson, Tara; Peterson, Teri

    2014-01-01

    This preintervention/postintervention pilot study examined impact of onsite support by a dental hygiene champion (DHC) on oral health and quality of life (QOL) of elderly residents in three long-term care facilities (LTCFs) in Arkansas. Oral health and oral health-related QOL were operationalized using the Oral Health Assessment Tool (OHAT) and Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI), respectively. CNAs in Facility A received standardized oral health education/materials with onsite DHC support. Facility B received education/materials only. Facility C served as control. Data analyses included Wilcoxon-signed rank tests (OHAT) and repeated measures ANOVA (GOHAI) (p ≤ .05). OHAT postintervention data in Facility A showed significant improvements in three measured areas (tongue health, denture status, and oral cleanliness); in Facility B, one area (tongue health); and none in Facility C. No significant differences were found in GOHAI scores across facilities. Findings suggest that the presence of DHCs in LTCFs may positively impact the oral health of CNA-assisted residents.

  3. Quality of physical resources of health facilities in Indonesia: a panel study 1993-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Aly; Hollingworth, Samantha A; Marks, Geoffrey C

    2013-10-01

    The merits of mixed public and private health systems are debated. Although private providers have become increasingly important in the Indonesian health system, there is no comprehensive assessment of the quality of private facilities. This study examined the quality of physical resources of public and private facilities in Indonesia from 1993 to 2007. Data from the Indonesian Family Life Surveys in 1993, 1997, 2000 and 2007 were used to evaluate trends in the quality of physical resources for public and private facilities, stratified by urban/rural areas and Java-Bali/outer Java-Bali regions. The quality of six categories of resources was measured using an adapted MEASURE Evaluation framework. Overall quality was moderate, but higher in public than in private health facilities in all years regardless of the region. The higher proportion of nurses and midwives in private practice was a determinant of scope of services and facilities available. There was little improvement in quality of physical resources following decentralization. Despite significant increases in public investment in health between 2000 and 2006 and the potential benefits of decentralization (2001), the quality of both public and private health facilities in Indonesia did not improve significantly between 1993 and 2007. As consumers commonly believe the quality is better in private facilities and are increasingly using them, it is essential to improve quality in both private and public facilities. Implementation of minimum standards and effective partnerships with private practice are considered important.

  4. Ambulatory Surgical Facilities, Licensed Ambulatory Sugery Centers, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of California - Office of the State Chief Information Officer.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Ambulatory Surgical Facilities dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of...

  5. Assisted Living Facilities, Licensed Nursing Homes, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of California - Office of the State Chief Information Officer.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Assisted Living Facilities dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It...

  6. Shock-Wave and Detonation Studies at ITEP-TWAC Proton Radiography Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, Sergey; Dudin, Sergey; Lavrov, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Dmitry; Mintsev, Victor; Shilkin, Nikolay; Ternovoi, Vladimir; Utkin, Alexander; Yakushev, Vladislav; Yuriev, Denis; Fortov, Vladimir; Golubev, Alexander; Kantsyrev, Alexey; Shestov, Lev; Smirnov, Gennady; Turtikov, Vladimir; Sharkov, Boris; Burtsev, Vasily; Zavialov, Nikolay; Kartanov, Sergey; Mikhailov, Anatoly; Rudnev, Alexey; Tatsenko, Mikhail; Zhernokletov, Mikhail

    2011-06-01

    In recent years studies of shock and detonation wave phenomena at extreme dynamic conditions were performed at proton radiography facility developed at the 800 MeV proton beam line of ITEP Terawatt Accelerator (ITEP-TWAC). The facility provides a multi-frame imaging capability at 50 μm spatial and 70 ns temporal resolution. The results of latest studies conducted there are presented, including explosion and detonation of pressed and emulsion high explosives, shock-induced dense non-ideal plasma of argon and xenon and shock loading of non-uniform metal surfaces. New compact explosive generators developed specifically for a use at proton radiography facilities are also presented.

  7. Shockwave and detonation studies at ITEP-TWAC proton radiography facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, Sergey; Dudin, Sergey; Lavrov, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Dmitry; Mintsev, Victor; Shilkin, Nikolay; Ternovoi, Vladimir; Utkin, Alexander; Yakushev, Vladislav; Yuriev, Denis; Fortov, Vladimir; Golubev, Alexander; Kantsyrev, Alexey; Shestov, Lev; Smirnov, Gennady; Turtikov, Vladimir; Sharkov, Boris; Burtsev, Vasily; Zavialov, Nikolay; Kartanov, Sergey; Mikhailov, Anatoly; Rudnev, Alexey; Tatsenko, Mikhail; Zhernokletov, Mikhail

    2012-03-01

    In recent years studies of shock and detonation wave phenomena at extreme dynamic conditions were performed at proton radiography facility developed at the 800 MeV proton beam line of ITEP Terawatt Accelerator (ITEP-TWAC). The facility provides a multi-frame imaging capability at 50 μm spatial and 70 ns temporal resolution. The results of latest studies conducted there are presented, including explosion and detonation of pressed and emulsion high explosives, shock-induced dense non-ideal plasma of argon and xenon and shock loading of non-uniform metal surfaces. New compact explosive generators developed specifically for a use at proton radiography facilities are also presented.

  8. Assisted Living Facilities, Licensed Long Term Care Facilities, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of California - Office of the State Chief Information Officer.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Assisted Living Facilities dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It...

  9. National Biomedical Tracer Facility planning and feasibility study. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketchem, L. [ed.; Holmes, R.A.

    1991-03-02

    Since its establishment in mid-1989, the DOE Office of Isotope Production and Distribution has examined the recommendations of the Los Alamos Report and the Health and Environmental Research Advisory Committee (HERAC) Report. The main recommendation from these deliberations is for the DOE to establish an accelerator dedicated to biomedical radioisotope production. Representatives of the nuclear medicine community, meeting at a DOE workshop in August 1988, evaluated present and future needs for accelerator-produced radioisotopes. Workshop participants concluded in the Los Alamos Report that approximately 90% of their radioisotope needs could be met by a machine that delivers a 70 million electronic volts (MeV), 500-microamp proton beam. The HERAC Report provides more quantification of radioisotope needs, and included isotopes that can be produced effectively only at higher energies. An accelerator facility with an upper energy limit of 100 MeV and beam current of 750 to 1,000 microamps, could produce all important accelerator- produced radioisotopes in current use, as well as those isotopes judged to have future potential value in medical research and clinical practice. We therefore recommend that the NBTF have a 100-MeV proton beam accelerator with an extracted beam current of 750 to 1,000 microamps.

  10. National Biomedical Tracer Facility planning and feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketchem, L. (ed.); Holmes, R.A.

    1991-03-02

    Since its establishment in mid-1989, the DOE Office of Isotope Production and Distribution has examined the recommendations of the Los Alamos Report and the Health and Environmental Research Advisory Committee (HERAC) Report. The main recommendation from these deliberations is for the DOE to establish an accelerator dedicated to biomedical radioisotope production. Representatives of the nuclear medicine community, meeting at a DOE workshop in August 1988, evaluated present and future needs for accelerator-produced radioisotopes. Workshop participants concluded in the Los Alamos Report that approximately 90% of their radioisotope needs could be met by a machine that delivers a 70 million electronic volts (MeV), 500-microamp proton beam. The HERAC Report provides more quantification of radioisotope needs, and included isotopes that can be produced effectively only at higher energies. An accelerator facility with an upper energy limit of 100 MeV and beam current of 750 to 1,000 microamps, could produce all important accelerator- produced radioisotopes in current use, as well as those isotopes judged to have future potential value in medical research and clinical practice. We therefore recommend that the NBTF have a 100-MeV proton beam accelerator with an extracted beam current of 750 to 1,000 microamps.

  11. National Biomedical Tracer Facility planning and feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketchem, L. (ed.); Holmes, R.A.

    1991-03-02

    Since its establishment in mid-1989, the DOE Office of Isotope Production and Distribution has examined the recommendations of the Los Alamos Report and the Health and Environmental Research Advisory Committee (HERAC) Report. The main recommendation from these deliberations is for the DOE to establish an accelerator dedicated to biomedical radioisotope production. Representatives of the nuclear medicine community, meeting at a DOE workshop in August 1988, evaluated present and future needs for accelerator-produced radioisotopes. Workshop participants concluded in the Los Alamos Report that approximately 90% of their radioisotope needs could be met by a machine that delivers a 70 million electronic volts (MeV), 500-microamp proton beam. The HERAC Report provides more quantification of radioisotope needs, and included isotopes that can be produced effectively only at higher energies. An accelerator facility with an upper energy limit of 100 MeV and beam current of 750 to 1,000 microamps, could produce all important accelerator- produced radioisotopes in current use, as well as those isotopes judged to have future potential value in medical research and clinical practice. We therefore recommend that the NBTF have a 100-MeV proton beam accelerator with an extracted beam current of 750 to 1,000 microamps.

  12. National Biomedical Tracer Facility planning and feasibility study. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketchem, L. [ed.; Holmes, R.A.

    1991-03-02

    Since its establishment in mid-1989, the DOE Office of Isotope Production and Distribution has examined the recommendations of the Los Alamos Report and the Health and Environmental Research Advisory Committee (HERAC) Report. The main recommendation from these deliberations is for the DOE to establish an accelerator dedicated to biomedical radioisotope production. Representatives of the nuclear medicine community, meeting at a DOE workshop in August 1988, evaluated present and future needs for accelerator-produced radioisotopes. Workshop participants concluded in the Los Alamos Report that approximately 90% of their radioisotope needs could be met by a machine that delivers a 70 million electronic volts (MeV), 500-microamp proton beam. The HERAC Report provides more quantification of radioisotope needs, and included isotopes that can be produced effectively only at higher energies. An accelerator facility with an upper energy limit of 100 MeV and beam current of 750 to 1,000 microamps, could produce all important accelerator- produced radioisotopes in current use, as well as those isotopes judged to have future potential value in medical research and clinical practice. We therefore recommend that the NBTF have a 100-MeV proton beam accelerator with an extracted beam current of 750 to 1,000 microamps.

  13. Nuclear space power safety and facility guidelines study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehlman, W.F.

    1995-09-11

    This report addresses safety guidelines for space nuclear reactor power missions and was prepared by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) under a Department of Energy grant, DE-FG01-94NE32180 dated 27 September 1994. This grant was based on a proposal submitted by the JHU/APL in response to an {open_quotes}Invitation for Proposals Designed to Support Federal Agencies and Commercial Interests in Meeting Special Power and Propulsion Needs for Future Space Missions{close_quotes}. The United States has not launched a nuclear reactor since SNAP 10A in April 1965 although many Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) have been launched. An RTG powered system is planned for launch as part of the Cassini mission to Saturn in 1997. Recently the Ballistic Missile Defense Office (BMDO) sponsored the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) which was to demonstrate and evaluate the Russian-built TOPAZ II nuclear reactor as a power source in space. As of late 1993 the flight portion of this program was canceled but work to investigate the attributes of the reactor were continued but at a reduced level. While the future of space nuclear power systems is uncertain there are potential space missions which would require space nuclear power systems. The differences between space nuclear power systems and RTG devices are sufficient that safety and facility requirements warrant a review in the context of the unique features of a space nuclear reactor power system.

  14. Study on the breakwater caisson as oscillating water column facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Shi, Hongda; Liu, Defu; Liu, Zhen

    2010-09-01

    The Oscillating Water Column (OWC) wave energy convertor with the advantage of its simple geometrical construction and excellent stability is widely employed. Recently, perforated breakwaters have been often used as they can effectively reduce the wave reflection from and wave forces acting on the structures. Considering the similarity between the compartment of perforated caisson and the air chamber of OWC wave energy convertor, a new perforated caisson of breakwater is designed in this paper. The ordinary caisson is modified by installing facilities similar to the air chamber of OWC converter, but here they are utilized to dissipate the wave energy inside the caisson. Such an arrangement improves the stability of the caisson and reduces the construction cost by using the compartment of perforated caisson like using an air chamber. This innovation has both academic significance and important engineering value. For a new type of caisson, reliability analysis of the structure is necessary. Linear potential flow theory is applied to calculate the horizontal wave force acting on the caisson. The calculated results are compared with experimental data, showing the feasibility of the method. The Importance Sampling Procedure (ISP) is used to analyse the reliability of this caisson breakwater.

  15. Factors associated with delivery outside a health facility: cross-sectional study in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazalale, Jacob; Kambala, Christabel; Brenner, Stephan; Chinkhumba, Jobiba; Lohmann, Julia; Mathanga, Don P; Robberstad, Bjarne; Muula, Adamson S; De Allegri, Manuela

    2015-05-01

    To identify factors associated with delivery outside a health facility in rural Malawi. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Balaka, Dedza, Mchinji and Ntcheu districts in Malawi in 2013 among women who had completed a pregnancy 12 months prior to the day of the survey. Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with delivery outside a facility. Of the 1812 study respondents, 9% (n = 159) reported to have delivered outside a facility. Unmarried women were significantly more likely [OR = 1.88; 95% CI (1.086-3.173)] to deliver outside a facility, while women from households with higher socio-economic status [third-quartile OR = 0.51; 95% CI (0.28-0.95) and fourth-quartile OR = 0.48; 95% CI (0.29-0.79)] and in urban areas [OR = 0.39; 95%-CI (0.23-0.67)] were significantly less likely to deliver outside a facility. Women without formal education [OR 1.43; 95% CI (0.96-2.14)] and multigravidae [OR = 1.14; 95% CI (0.98-1.73)] were more likely to deliver outside a health facility at 10% level of significance. About 9% of women deliver outside a facility. Policies to encourage facility delivery should not only focus on health systems but also be multisectoral to address women's vulnerability and inequality. Facility-based delivery can contribute to curbing the high maternal illness burden if authorities provide incentives to those not delivering at the facility without losing existing users. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Santa Monica Children's Centers, Santa Monica, California: Low-Cost Day Care Facilities for Children of Working Mothers Made Available Through the Cooperation of the California State Government and Local School District. Model Programs--Childhood Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, Palo Alto, CA.

    Two of the four Santa Monica Children's Centers are nursery schools for children aged 3 to 5; the other two centers serve as extended care facilities for children of school age. All centers are concerned with meeting the physical, intellectual, and emotional needs of children on a long-term basis and stress a program offering a variety of play…

  17. Summary and Synthesis of Mercury Studies in the Cache Creek Watershed, California, 2000-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Slotton, Darell G.; Alpers, Charles N.; Suchanek, Thomas H.; Churchill, Ronald; Bloom, Nicolas; Ayers, Shaun M.; Clinkenbeard, John

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the principal findings of the Cache Creek, California, components of a project funded by the CALFED Bay?Delta Program entitled 'An Assessment of Ecological and Human Health Impacts of Mercury in the Bay?Delta Watershed.' A companion report summarizes the key findings of other components of the project based in the San Francisco Bay and the Delta of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. These summary documents present the more important findings of the various studies in a format intended for a wide audience. For more in-depth, scientific presentation and discussion of the research, a series of detailed technical reports of the integrated mercury studies is available at the following website: .

  18. Statistical Studies of Induced and Triggered Seismicity at The Geysers, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, A.; Turcotte, D. L.; Yıkılmaz, M. B.; Kellogg, L. H.; Rundle, J. B.

    2017-06-01

    This study considers the statistics of fluid-induced and remotely triggered seismicity at The Geysers geothermal field, California. Little seismicity was reported before steam extraction began in 1960. Beginning in 1980 the residual water associated with power generation was re-injected, producing induced seismicity. Beginning in 1997 large-scale injections of cold water began to enhance the generation of steam. This led to an increase in M 1.25 events. The GR and decay statistics are given. However, to separate aftershocks from remotely triggered earthquakes, an additional triggered sequence is studied. The M = 7.2 4/4/10 Baja earthquake triggered some 34 M > 1.25 earthquakes at The Geysers in the first hour including an M = 3.37 event. We conclude that the remotely triggered seismicity is dominated by local aftershocks of the larger remotely triggered earthquakes.

  19. Statistical Studies of Induced and Triggered Seismicity at The Geysers, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Angela

    This study considers the statistics of induced and triggered seismicity at The Geysers geothermal field, California. Little seismicity was reported before steam extraction began in 1960. In 1980 the residual water associated with power generation was re-injected, producing induced seismicity. Beginning in 1997 large-scale injections of cold water began in order to enhance the generation of steam. This led to an increase in M 1.25 events. The GR and decay statistics will be given. However, in order to separate second-order aftershocks from triggered aftershocks, an additional triggered sequence is studied. The M = 7.2 4/4/10 Baja earthquake had some 34 M >1.25 triggered events in the first hour including a M = 3.37 event.

  20. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) test facilities study program. Final report. Volume II. Part A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-17

    Results are presented of an 8-month study to develop alternative non-site-specific OTEC facilities/platform requirements for an integrated OTEC Test Program which may include land and floating test facilities. The document, Volume II - Appendixes is bound in three parts (A, B, and C) which together comprise a compendium of the most significant detailed data developed during the study. Part A contains definitions, baseline revisions, test plans, and energy utilization sections.

  1. Analysis of Hanford-based Options for Sustainable DOE Facilities on the West Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, William M.

    2012-06-30

    Large-scale conventional energy projects result in lower costs of energy (COE). This is true for most renewable energy projects as well. The Office of Science is interested in its facilities meeting the renewable energy mandates set by Congress and the Administration. Those facilities on the west coast include a cluster in the Bay Area of California and at Hanford in central Washington State. Land constraints at the California facilities do not permit large scale projects. The Hanford Reservation has land and solar insolation available for a large scale solar project as well as access to a regional transmission system that can provide power to facilities in California. The premise of this study is that a large-scale solar project at Hanford may be able to provide renewable energy sufficient to meet the needs of select Office of Science facilities on the west coast at a COE that is competitive with costs in California despite the lower solar insolation values at Hanford. The study concludes that although the cost of solar projects continues to decline, estimated costs for a large-scale project at Hanford are still not competitive with avoided power costs for Office of Science facilities on the west coast. Further, although it is possible to transmit power from a solar project at Hanford to California facilities, the costs of doing so add additional costs. Consequently, development of a large- scale solar project at Hanford to meet the renewable goals of Office of Science facilities on the west coast is currently uneconomic. This may change as solar costs decrease and California-based facilities face increasing costs for conventional and renewable energy produced in the state. PNNL should monitor those cost trends.

  2. Study on applying technology of utilizing long-term materials for corrosion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Chul; Park, Young Kyu; Baek, Soo Gon; Lee, Jong Sub [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong Soo [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Won Suk [Inha University (Korea, Republic of); Song, Rhyo Seong [Hankuk Aviation, University (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Nowadays, as the pollution in seawater is escalating rapidly because of fast industrialization, corrosion rate and repairing frequency of seawater facilities in power plant are increasing. In addition, new construction is restricted with narrow limits due to the deterioration of social condition, asking for extension of facility life and repairing frequency. The objectives of this study are to select the appropriate new high corrosion resistance materials and apply them in the field, to make the corrosion data base in accordance with their usage conditions and to predict the remaining life and optimum repairing period by predicting the life of facilities. (author). 77 refs., 54 figs.

  3. [Experiences of undocumented Mexican migrant women when accessing sexual and reproductive health services in California, USA: a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb-Sossa, Natalia; Díaz Olavarrieta, Claudia; Juárez-Ramírez, Clara; García, Sandra G; Villalobos, Aremis

    2013-05-01

    This study focuses on the experience of Mexican women migrants in California, USA, with the use of formal health services for sexual and reproductive health issues. The authors used a qualitative interpretative approach with life histories, interviewing eight female users of healthcare services in California and seven key informants in Mexico and California. There were three main types of barriers to healthcare: immigration status, language, and gender. Participants reported long waiting times, discriminatory attitudes, and high cost of services. A combination of formal and informal healthcare services was common. The assessment of quality of care was closely related to undocumented immigration status. Social support networks are crucial to help solve healthcare issues. Quality of care should take intercultural health issues into account.

  4. Building Accountability: A Review of State Standards and Requirements for K-12 Public School Facility Planning and Design. Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to inform the California Department of Education (CDE) in ensuring the standards contained in Title 5 appropriately promote the planning and design of healthy, safe and educationally suitable K-12 school facilities. The study gathers and analyzes K-12 facility standards in other states across the country to understand…

  5. Public Health Benefits of End-Use Electrical Energy Efficiency in California: An Exploratory Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Lobscheid, A.B.

    2006-06-01

    This study assesses for California how increasing end-use electrical energy efficiency from installing residential insulation impacts exposures and disease burden from power-plant pollutant emissions. Installation of fiberglass attic insulation in the nearly 3 million electricity-heated homes throughout California is used as a case study. The pollutants nitrous oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), benzo(a)pyrene, benzene, and naphthalene are selected for the assessment. Exposure is characterized separately for rural and urban environments using the CalTOX model, which is a key input to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemicals and other environmental Impacts (TRACI). The output of CalTOX provides for urban and rural populations emissions-to-intake factors, which are expressed as an individual intake fraction (iFi). The typical iFi from power plant emissions are on the order of 10{sup -13} (g intake per g emitted) in urban and rural regions. The cumulative (rural and urban) product of emissions, population, and iFi is combined with toxic effects factors to determine human damage factors (HDFs). HDF are expressed as disability adjusted life years (DALYs) per kilogram pollutant emitted. The HDF approach is applied to the insulation case study. Upgrading existing residential insulation to US Department of Energy (DOE) recommended levels eliminates over the assmned 50-year lifetime of the insulation an estimated 1000 DALYs from power-plant emissions per million tonne (Mt) of insulation installed, mostly from the elimination of PM2.5 emissions. In comparison, the estimated burden from the manufacture of this insulation in DALYs per Mt is roughly four orders of magnitude lower than that avoided.

  6. A Study of the Awareness Level of Electric Vehicle Technology in California Community College Automotive Curriculums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyzer, James

    California automotive technician programs were surveyed regarding their awareness of the impact that mandates of the Clean Air Act would have on their automotive technology programs. A questionnaire was sent to 100 California community colleges with an automotive technology program; 49 usable questionnaires were returned. A possible byproduct of…

  7. Protocol for introducing new and licensed citrus varieties into California. A Florida case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the light of the current Huanglongbing (HLB) threat to the California (CA) citrus industry, and preliminary data indicating that some citrus varieties in Florida (FL) may possess some degree of tolerance to HLB, the California citrus growers indicated a strong interest in proactively introducing ...

  8. Mental Health Workforce Change through Social Work Education: A California Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Gwen; Morris, Meghan Brenna; Sirojudin, Sirojudin

    2013-01-01

    The 2004 California Mental Health Services Act requires large-scale system change in the public mental health system through a shift to recovery-oriented services for diverse populations. This article describes an innovative strategy for workforce recruitment and retention to create and sustain these systemic changes. The California Social Work…

  9. Environmental assessment for the proposed construction and operation of a Genome Sequencing Facility in Building 64 at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This document is an Environmental Assessment (EA) for a proposed project to modify 14,900 square feet of an existing building (Building 64) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to operate as a Genome Sequencing Facility. This EA addresses the potential environmental impacts from the proposed modifications to Building 64 and operation of the Genome Sequencing Facility. The proposed action is to modify Building 64 to provide space and equipment allowing LBL to demonstrate that the Directed DNA Sequencing Strategy can be scaled up from the current level of 750,000 base pairs per year to a facility that produces over 6,000,000 base pairs per year, while still retaining its efficiency.

  10. End-of-Life Care for Hispanic Children: A Study of California Medicaid Beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Lisa C; Trujillo, Laura V

    2016-12-01

    More than 8,000 Hispanic children die annually in the United States; yet little is known about the end-of-life care utilized. The purpose of this study was to examine the children and family characteristics associated with end-of-life care for Hispanic children. A sample of 370 Hispanic children was created, using the 2009-2010 California Medicaid data. The relationship between child and family characteristics and end-of-life care utilization (i.e., hospice enrollment, emergency room utilization, hospital admissions) was analyzed using multivariate regression. Pediatric hospice accessibility (p care policy (p care (p care policy (p care (p Hispanic families in their community are critical to end-of-life care utilization for Hispanic children. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Flood-hazard study: 100-year flood stage for Lucerne Lake, San Bernadino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Mark William

    1977-01-01

    A study of the flood hydrology of Lucerne Valley, Calif., was made to develop the 100-year stage for Lucerne Lake. Synthetic-hydrologic techniques were used; and the 100-year flood stage was estimated to be at an elevation of 2,849.3 feet above mean sea level. Channel dimensions were measured at 59 sites in Lucerne Valley. Dranage area-discharge relations developed from channel-geometry data for sites nearby were used to estimate the discharge at 12 additional sites where channel geometry could not be measured. In order to compute the total volume discharge into the playa, the peak discharges were converted to volumes. From the Apple Valley report (Busby, 1975) the equation formulated from the relation between peak discharge and flood volume for the deserts of California was used to compute the flood volumes for routing into Lucerne Lake. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Integrated modeling and field study of potential mechanisms forinduced seismicity at The Geysers Goethermal Field, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Majer, Ernie; Oldenburg, Curt; Peterson, John; Vasco, Don

    2006-06-07

    In this paper, we present progress made in a study aimed atincreasing the understanding of the relative contributions of differentmechanisms that may be causing the seismicity occurring at The Geysersgeothermal field, California. The approach we take is to integrate: (1)coupled reservoir geomechanical numerical modeling, (2) data fromrecently upgraded and expanded NCPA/Calpine/LBNL seismic arrays, and (3)tens of years of archival InSAR data from monthly satellite passes. Wehave conducted a coupled reservoir geomechanical analysis to studypotential mechanisms induced by steam production. Our simulation resultscorroborate co-locations of hypocenter field observations of inducedseismicity and their correlation with steam production as reported in theliterature. Seismic and InSAR data are being collected and processed foruse in constraining the coupled reservoir geomechanicalmodel.

  13. Preliminary geologic studies of Sierra El Aguajito (Baja California, Mexico): a resurgent-type caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garduño-Monroy, V. H.; Vargas-Ledezma, H.; Campos-Enriquez, J. O.

    1993-12-01

    Geologic field studies conducted in the Quaternary volcanic field of Tres Virgenes (State of Baja California Sur, Mexico) revealed the existence of a resurgent caldera. The caldera's eruptive products, the Aguajito sequence, overlie the products of the nearby Reforma caldera (Reforma sequence) whose youngest products have already been dated as Quaternary. The rim of the Aguajito caldera is inferred by the existence of an arcuate alignment of rhyolitic domes. The mean diameter of this subcircular feature is 10 km. The volume of its mapped acidic products is a minimum of 10 km 3. Several horizons within the sequence contain shells. K/Ar dates of the ignimbrites and domes of El Aguajito formation confirm that the unit are Pleistocene. The detailed stratigraphy also shows the evolution of a marine regression partly related to the caldera.

  14. Community pharmacists as educators in Danish residential facilities: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mygind, Anna; El-Souri, Mira; Pultz, Kirsten; Rossing, Charlotte; Thomsen, Linda A

    2017-08-01

    To explore experiences with engaging community pharmacists in educational programmes on quality and safety in medication handling in residential facilities for the disabled. A secondary analysis of data from two Danish intervention studies where community pharmacists were engaged in educational programmes. Data included 10 semi-structured interviews with staff, five semi-structured interviews and three open-ended questionnaires with residential facility managers, and five open-ended questionnaires to community pharmacists. Data were thematically coded to identify key points pertaining to the themes 'pharmacists as educators' and 'perceived effects of engaging pharmacists in competence development'. As educators, pharmacists were successful as medicines experts. Some pharmacists experienced pedagogical challenges. Previous teaching experience and obtained knowledge of the local residential facility before teaching often provided sufficient pedagogical skills and tailored teaching to local needs. Effects of engaging community pharmacists included in most instances improved cooperation between residential facilities and community pharmacies through a trustful relationship and improved dialogue about the residents' medication. Other effects included a perception of improved patient safety, teaching skills and branding of the pharmacy. Community pharmacists provide a resource to engage in educational programmes on medication handling in residential facilities, which may facilitate improved cooperation between community pharmacies and residential facilities. However, development of pedagogical competences and understandings of local settings are prerequisites for facilities and pharmacists to experience the programmes as successful. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  15. A comparative study of worker and general public risks from nuclear facility operation using MACCS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    East, J.M.; O`Kula, K.R.

    1994-10-01

    Over the last five years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has attempted to establish quantitative risk indices as minimum acceptance criteria for assurance of safe operation of its nuclear facilities. The risk indices serve as aiming points or targets to include consideration of all aspects of operation including normal conditions as well as abnormal, design basis events, and beyond-design basis events. Although initial focus of the application of these safety targets had been on DOE`s reactors, more recent assessments have also considered non-reactor facilities including those encompassing storage and nuclear processing activities. Regardless of the facility`s primary function, accident progression, event tree/fault tree logic models, and probabilistic (dose) consequence assessment model must be implemented to yield a fully integrated analysis of facility operation. The primary tool for probabilistic consequence assessment in the US is the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). In this study, two version of MACCS are applied to representative source terms developed in the safety analysis associated with a waste processing facility at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company`s (WSRC`s) Savannah River Site (SRS). The MACCS versions are used to estimate population dose and subsequent health effects to workers and the general public from the SRS referenced facility operation. When combined with the frequency of occurrence evaluation, the margin of compliance with the safety targets may be quantified.

  16. Facility Delivery, Postnatal Care and Neonatal Deaths in India: Nationally-Representative Case-Control Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaza A Fadel

    Full Text Available Clinical studies demonstrate the efficacy of interventions to reduce neonatal deaths, but there are fewer studies of their real-life effectiveness. In India, women often seek facility delivery after complications arise, rather than to avoid complications. Our objective was to quantify the association of facility delivery and postnatal checkups with neonatal mortality while examining the "reverse causality" in which the mothers deliver at a health facility due to adverse perinatal events.We conducted nationally representative case-control studies of about 300,000 live births and 4,000 neonatal deaths to examine the effect of, place of delivery and postnatal checkup on neonatal mortality. We compared neonatal deaths to all live births and to a subset of live births reporting excessive bleeding or obstructed labour that were more comparable to cases in seeking care.In the larger study of 2004-8 births, facility delivery without postnatal checkup was associated with an increased odds of neonatal death (Odds ratio = 2.5; 99% CI 2.2-2.9, especially for early versus late neonatal deaths. However, use of more comparable controls showed marked attenuation (Odds ratio = 0.5; 0.4-0.5. Facility delivery with postnatal checkup was associated with reduced odds of neonatal death. Excess risks were attenuated in the earlier study of 2001-4 births.The combined effect of facility deliveries with postnatal checks ups is substantially higher than just facility delivery alone. Evaluation of the real-life effectiveness of interventions to reduce child and maternal deaths need to consider reverse causality. If these associations are causal, facility delivery with postnatal check up could avoid about 1/3 of all neonatal deaths in India (~100,000/year.

  17. Status of groundwater quality in the Santa Barbara Study Unit, 2011: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.

    2016-10-03

    Groundwater quality in the 48-square-mile Santa Barbara study unit was investigated in 2011 as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board’s Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project. The study unit is mostly in Santa Barbara County and is in the Transverse and Selected Peninsular Ranges hydrogeologic province. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.The GAMA Priority Basin Project was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater in the primary aquifer system of California. The primary aquifer system is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database for the Santa Barbara study unit. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the Santa Barbara study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors.The status assessment for the Santa Barbara study unit was based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2011 by the U.S. Geological Survey from 23 sites and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health database for January 24, 2008–January 23, 2011. The data used for the assessment included volatile organic compounds; pesticides; pharmaceutical compounds; two constituents of special interest, perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA); and naturally present inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used to evaluate groundwater quality for those constituents that have federal or California regulatory and non

  18. Red wine consumption and risk of prostate cancer: the California men's health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chun; Haque, Reina; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Caan, Bette J; Poon, Kwun-Yee T; Quinn, Virginia P

    2010-01-01

    Red wine contains polyphenol antioxidants that inhibit prostate cancer development in animal studies. We investigated the effect of red wine intake on the risk of prostate cancer using data prospectively collected in the California Men's Health Study (CMHS). CMHS is a multiethnic cohort of 84,170 men aged 45-69 years who were members of the Kaiser Permanente Southern and Northern California Health Plans. Information on demographic and lifestyle factors was collected using mailed questionnaires between 2002 and 2003. We used Cox models to estimate the effect of red wine on prostate cancer risk, adjusting for potential confounders. A total of 1,340 incident prostate cancer cases identified from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Result-affiliated cancer registries were included in the analyses. We did not find a clear association between red wine intake and risk of prostate cancer. Hazard ratio (HR) estimates for consuming or =1 drink/week but or =1 drink/day were 0.89, 95% confidence interval (0.74-1.07), 0.99 (0.83-1.17) and 0.88 (0.70-1.12), respectively. Further, we observed no linear dose response. The lack of association for red wine intake was consistently observed when we restricted the analyses to those with and without a history of PSA screening. In addition, we also did not observe any association with prostate cancer for beer, white wine, liquor or combined alcoholic beverage intake (HR for combined alcoholic beverage intake of > or =5 drinks/day = 1.16 (0.83-1.63). Neither red wine nor total alcohol consumption were associated with prostate cancer risk in this population of moderate drinkers.

  19. North Bay Aqueduct (Phase II Facilities), Solano County, California. Regulatory Permit Application Made by the California Department of Water Resources to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Public Notice 12950-58.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    4/ Suplemental Without Water With Supply Water 3/ Conservation Water 2/ Water Conservation Potential ConservaTion Requirement Solano Co 1990 75,500...conservation and to familiarize them with curriculum materials. o Tours of the water agency facilities should be offered to school children and should be part...programs and provide a consistent model for children to follow. G. Information on Federal and State Water Conservation Programs, Laws, and Sanctions 1

  20. Spatial accessibility to specific sport facilities and corresponding sport practice: the RECORD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karusisi, Noëlla; Thomas, Frédérique; Méline, Julie; Chaix, Basile

    2013-04-20

    Physical activity is considered as a major component of a healthy lifestyle. However, few studies have examined the relationships between the spatial accessibility to sport facilities and sport practice with a sufficient degree of specificity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the spatial accessibility to specific types of sports facilities and the practice of the corresponding sports after carefully controlling for various individual socio-demographic characteristics and neighborhood socioeconomic variables. Data from the RECORD Study involving 7290 participants recruited in 2007-2008, aged 30-79 years, and residing in the Paris metropolitan area were analyzed. Four categories of sports were studied: team sports, racket sports, swimming and related activities, and fitness. Spatial accessibility to sport facilities was measured with two complementary approaches that both take into account the street network (distance to the nearest facility and count of facilities around the dwelling). Associations between the spatial accessibility to sport facilities and the practice of the corresponding sports were assessed using multilevel logistic regression after adjusting for individual and contextual characteristics. High individual education and high household income were associated with the practice of racket sports, swimming or related activities, and fitness over the previous 7 days. The spatial accessibility to swimming pools was associated with swimming and related sports, even after adjustment for individual/contextual factors. The spatial accessibility to facilities was not related to the practice of other sports. High neighborhood income was associated with the practice of a racket sport and fitness. Accessibility is a multi-dimensional concept that integrates educational, financial, and geographical aspects. Our work supports the evidence that strategies to increase participation in sport activities should improve the spatial and

  1. Physics studies with brilliant narrow-width -beams at the new ELI-NP Facility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dimiter L Balabanski; ELI-NP Science Team

    2014-11-01

    The Extreme Light Infrastructure Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) Facility in Magurele is a European research centre for ultrahigh intensity lasers, laser–matter interaction, nuclear science and material science using laser-driven radiation beams. It is the first project within the European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) agenda financed by the European Regional Development Fund. The nuclear physics research programme of the facility is focussed on studies with brilliant narrow-width -beams and experiments in extreme laser fields.

  2. Feasibility study: Assess the feasibility of siting a monitored retrievable storage facility. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.W.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of phase one of this study are: To understand the waste management system and a monitored retrievable storage facility; and to determine whether the applicant has real interest in pursuing the feasibility assessment process. Contents of this report are: Generating electric power; facts about exposure to radiation; handling storage, and transportation techniques; description of a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility; and benefits to be received by host jurisdiction.

  3. Use of ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) Data to Study Aerosol Indirect Effects in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhanqing [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2012-12-19

    General goals: 1) Facilitating the deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) and Ancillary Facility (AAF) in China in 2008, 2) Processing, retrieving, improving and analyzing observation data from ground-based, air-borne and space-borne instruments; 3) Conducting a series of studies to gain insights into the direct and indirect effects of these aerosols on radiation, clouds, and precipitation using both

  4. Status of groundwater quality in the Santa Barbara Study Unit, 2011: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.

    2016-10-03

    Groundwater quality in the 48-square-mile Santa Barbara study unit was investigated in 2011 as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board’s Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project. The study unit is mostly in Santa Barbara County and is in the Transverse and Selected Peninsular Ranges hydrogeologic province. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.The GAMA Priority Basin Project was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater in the primary aquifer system of California. The primary aquifer system is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database for the Santa Barbara study unit. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the Santa Barbara study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors.The status assessment for the Santa Barbara study unit was based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2011 by the U.S. Geological Survey from 23 sites and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health database for January 24, 2008–January 23, 2011. The data used for the assessment included volatile organic compounds; pesticides; pharmaceutical compounds; two constituents of special interest, perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA); and naturally present inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used to evaluate groundwater quality for those constituents that have federal or California regulatory and non

  5. Educational Resource Allocation at the Elementary Level: A Case Study of One Elementary School District in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the dispersion of human capital resources within one school district in southern California and compare the use of personnel at each school to the desired allocation informed by the district's strategies and staffing formula. The district's resource distribution was also compared to that of the Evidence…

  6. A Qualitative Study about Cervical Cancer Screening among Latinas Living in a Rural Area of California: Lessons for Health Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon-Perez, Helda; Perez, Miguel; Torres, Victor; Krenz, Vickie

    2005-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major health concern for Latinas, who are also less likely to undergo a Pap smear exam than the general population. This study identifies alterable determinants of Pap smear screening for Latino women living in a rural area of California. It involved the design and pilot testing of a culturally appropriate instrument and the…

  7. The Impact of Transitional Kindergarten on Kindergarten Readiness. A Report from the Study of California's Transitional Kindergarten Program: Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Institutes for Research, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Transitional kindergarten--the first year of a two-year kindergarten program for California children born between September 2 and December 2--is intended to better prepare young five-year-olds for Kindergarten and ensure a strong start to their educational career. The goal of this study was to measure the success of the program by determining the…

  8. The Impact of Work Study on the Integration and Retention of Undergraduate Students at the University of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandizzi, Maria Queta

    2013-01-01

    Consistent increases to the educational costs to attend the University of California are the current climate students and families find themselves grappling with. The federal work study program is one program employed to support students and their families in financing the cost of education. In an effort to further enhance the professional…

  9. Multiproxy Study of a Holocene Record From Western Pescadero Basin, Gulf of California, Mexico: Paleoclimatic inferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Valdez, M.; Roy, P. D.

    2013-12-01

    A sedimentary sequence (gravity core T-56, 256 cm length) from Pescadero Basin on the western side of the Gulf of California is analyzed as part of a multiproxy study. The core was collected within the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) at 597 m depth, aboard of the R/V "El Puma". Pescadero basin is located at mouth of the gulf; in a location sensitive to record the changes in the gulf and the Eastern Pacific Ocean. The sedimentary sequence is analyzed to contribute to understanding the climatic variability in the southern part of the gulf of California during the Holocene using geochemistry (major and trace elements and Corg), magnetic properties and benthic foraminifera assemblages as proxy of changes in paleoproductivity, paleoprecipitation and bottom water oxygenation. The core is characterized by silty-clay sediments, and exhibits a turbidite between 130 and 235 cm, distinguished by sandy sediments and reworking material. From 130 cm to the top it shows a visible laminated structure. Chronology is based on six AMS radiocarbon dates, and estimated sedimentation rates are 0.22, 0.18, 0.17 and 0.05 mm/yr. The core covers c. last 10,500 years. Variations in major and trace elements (Ti, K, Al, K, Zr) and magnetic susceptibility indicate fluctuations in terrigenous input related to changes in hydrological conditions, Benthic foraminifera assemblages and Corg along the sequence indicate that Pescadero basin is sensitive to paleoceanographic changes. Corg and benthic foraminiferal assemblages show downcore variations related to paleoproductivity changes. For the Early Holocene, low values of Corg and epifaunal benthic foraminifera suggest oxic conditions in bottom waters and strong stratification with low productivity. Organic carbon shows higher values towards the bottom of the core, for the last 1300 years.

  10. Gravity and magnetic studies of the eastern Mojave Desert, California and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Kevin M.; Ponce, David A.

    2016-06-17

    IntroductionFrom May 2011 to August 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected gravity data at more than 2,300 stations and physical property measurements on more than 640 rock samples from outcrops in the eastern Mojave Desert, California and Nevada. Gravity, magnetic, and physical-property data are used to study and locate regional crustal structures as an aid to understanding the geologic framework related to mineral resources of the eastern Mojave Desert.The eastern Mojave Desert is host to a world-class rare earth element carbonatite deposit located at Mountain Pass, California. Carbonatites are typically defined as magmatic rocks with high modal abundances of primary carbonate minerals >50 weight percent and elevated abundances of rare earth elements (REEs) (Nelson and others, 1988; Woolley and Kempe, 1989). The “Sulphide Queen” carbonatite ore deposit is a composite, tabular body made up of sills and dikes of REE-bearing sovites and beforsites that occurs just south of the Clark Mountain Range along a north-northwest trending fault-bounded block that extends along the northeast edge of the Mescal Range and northwestern extent of Ivanpah Mountains. This early to middle Proterozoic block is composed of a 1.7 Ga metamorphic complex of gneiss and schist that underwent widespread metamorphism and associated plutonism during the Ivanpah orogeny (Miller and others, 2007). Subsequently, these rocks were intruded by a series of granitoids, which included the 1.4 Ga (DeWitt and others, 1987) ultrapotassic alkaline suite of intrusions that are spatially and temporally associated with hundreds of dikes, outcrops, and a carbonatite ore body. The relative age sequence of this intrusive suite of alkaline rocks from oldest to youngest includes shonkinite, mesosyenite, syenite, quartz syenite, potassic granite, carbonatite, and late shonkinite dikes (Olson and others, 1954; Wooden and Miller, 1990; Haxel, 2005; Miller and others, 2007).

  11. Developing Water Resource Security in a Greenhouse Gas Constrained Context - A Case Study in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroja, B.; Aghakouchak, A.; Samuelsen, S.

    2015-12-01

    The onset of drought conditions in regions such as California due to shortfalls in precipitation has brought refreshed attention to the vulnerability of our water supply paradigm to changes in climate patterns. In the face of a changing climate which can exacerbate drought conditions in already dry areas, building resiliency into our water supply infrastructure requires some decoupling of water supply availability from climate behavior through conservation, efficiency, and alternative water supply measures such as desalination and water reuse. The installation of these measures requires varying degrees of direct energy inputs and/or impacts the energy usage of the water supply infrastructure (conveyance, treatment, distribution, wastewater treatment). These impacts have implications for greenhouse gas emissions from direct fuel usage or impacts on the emissions from the electric grid. At the scale that these measures may need to be deployed to secure water supply availability, especially under climate change impacted hydrology, they can potentially pose obstacles for meeting greenhouse gas emissions reduction and renewable utilization goals. Therefore, the portfolio of these measures must be such that detrimental impacts on greenhouse gas emissions are minimized. This study combines climate data with a water reservoir network model and an electric grid dispatch model for the water-energy system of California to evaluate 1) the different pathways and scale of alternative water resource measures needed to secure water supply availability and 2) the impacts of following these pathways on the ability to meet greenhouse gas and renewable utilization goals. It was discovered that depending on the water supply measure portfolio implemented, impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and renewable utilization can either be beneficial or detrimental, and optimizing the portfolio is more important under climate change conditions due to the scale of measures required.

  12. A Study on Governance and Human Resources for Cooperative Road Facilities Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Sachiko; Takagi, Akiyoshi; Kurauchi, Fumitaka; Demura, Yoshifumi

    Within today's infrastructure management, Asset Management systems are becoming a mainstream feature. For region where the risk is low, it is necessary to create a "cooperative road facilities management system". This research both examined and suggested what kind of cooperative road facilities management system should be promoted by the regional society. Concretely, this study defines the operational realities of a previous case. It discusses the problem of the road facilities management as a governance. Furthermore, its realization depends on "the cooperation between municipalities", "the private-sector initiative", and "residents participation" .Also, it discusses the problem of human resources for governance. Its realization depends on "the engineers' promotion", and "creation of a voluntary activity of the resident" as a human resources. Moreover, it defines that the intermediary is important because the human resources tied to the governance. As a result, the prospect of the road facilities management is shown by the role of the player and the relation among player.

  13. Conceptual design and programmatics studies of space station accommodations for Life Sciences Research Facilities (LSRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Conceptual designs and programmatics of the space station accommodations for the Life Sciences Research Facilities (LSRF) are presented. The animal ECLSS system for the LSRF provides temperature-humidity control, air circulation, and life support functions for experimental subjects. Three ECLSS were studied. All configurations presented satisfy the science requirements for: animal holding facilities with bioisolation; facilities interchangeable to hold rodents, small primates, and plants; metabolic cages interchangeable with standard holding cages; holding facilities adaptable to restrained large primates and rodent breeding/nesting cages; volume for the specified instruments; enclosed ferm-free workbench for manipulation of animals and chemical procedures; freezers for specimen storage until return; and centrifuge to maintain animals and plants at fractional g to 1 g or more, with potential for accommodating humans for short time intervals.

  14. Cost recovery of NGO primary health care facilities: a case study in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Khurshid

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the cost recovery of primary health care facilities in Bangladesh. This study estimated the cost recovery of a primary health care facility run by Building Resources Across Community (BRAC, a large NGO in Bangladesh, for the period of July 2004 - June 2005. This health facility is one of the seven upgraded BRAC facilities providing emergency obstetric care and is typical of the government and private primary health care facilities in Bangladesh. Given the current maternal and child mortality in Bangladesh and the challenges to addressing health-related Millennium Development Goal (MDG targets the financial sustainability of such facilities is crucial. Methods The study was designed as a case study covering a single facility. The methodology was based on the 'ingredient approach' using the allocation techniques by inpatient and outpatient services. Cost recovery of the facility was estimated from the provider's perspective. The value of capital items was annualized using 5% discount rate and its market price of 2004 (replacement value. Sensitivity analysis was done using 3% discount rate. Results The cost recovery ratio of the BRAC primary care facility was 59%, and if excluding all capital costs, it increased to 72%. Of the total costs, 32% was for personnel while drugs absorbed 18%. Capital items were17% of total costs while operational cost absorbed 12%. Three-quarters of the total cost was variable costs. Inpatient services contributed 74% of total revenue in exchange of 10% of total utilization. An average cost per patient was US$ 10 while it was US$ 67 for inpatient and US$ 4 for outpatient. Conclusion The cost recovery of this NGO primary care facility is important for increasing its financial sustainability and decreasing donor dependency, and achieving universal health coverage in a developing country setting. However, for improving the cost recovery of the health facility, it needs to increase

  15. Study on the Decontamination Methodology for the Refurbishment of Spent Fuel Dry Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, H. J.; Jung, C. H.; Moon, J. K.; Byambatsere, Baigalmaa; Park, G. I.; Lee, D. Y.; Lee, J. W.; Song, K. C.

    2010-01-15

    As the increase of the operation age of the domestic high radiation facilities such as IMEF, PIEF and DFDF, the necessity of decontamination and refurbishment of hot cells in these facilities is also increased. In the near future, the possibilities of refurbishment of hot cells in compliance with the new regulations, the reuse of hot cells for the other purposes and the decommissioning of the facilities also exist. The following contents were studied. 1) State of the art on the decontamination technologies on the spent fuel dry processing facility - Case study on the decontamination and refurbishment of hot cells in the foreign countries. - Understanding of radioactive contamination characteristics of spent fuel powder treatment equipment operated under the high radiation field of the spent fuel dry processing facility. - Evaluation of applicable decontamination technologies 2) Comparative tests of the candidate decontamination technology - Preparation of the surrogate test specimens and derivation of gel decontamination condition - Decontamination tests and comparison with light ablation method 3) Establishment of decontamination methodology for the refurbishment of hot cells of the spent fuel dry processing facility - Derivation of required equipment for the hot cell decontamination - Establishment of decontamination methodologies on the contaminated equipment

  16. MIP models for connected facility location: A theoretical and computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollowitzer, Stefan; Ljubić, Ivana

    2011-02-01

    This article comprises the first theoretical and computational study on mixed integer programming (MIP) models for the connected facility location problem (ConFL). ConFL combines facility location and Steiner trees: given a set of customers, a set of potential facility locations and some inter-connection nodes, ConFL searches for the minimum-cost way of assigning each customer to exactly one open facility, and connecting the open facilities via a Steiner tree. The costs needed for building the Steiner tree, facility opening costs and the assignment costs need to be minimized. We model ConFL using seven compact and three mixed integer programming formulations of exponential size. We also show how to transform ConFL into the Steiner arborescence problem. A full hierarchy between the models is provided. For two exponential size models we develop a branch-and-cut algorithm. An extensive computational study is based on two benchmark sets of randomly generated instances with up to 1300 nodes and 115,000 edges. We empirically compare the presented models with respect to the quality of obtained bounds and the corresponding running time. We report optimal values for all but 16 instances for which the obtained gaps are below 0.6%.

  17. A study on the necessity of medical facilities safety design adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bora; Yang, Yeongae; Yang, Dongjoo; Shin, Joong-Il; Park, Sujong; Park, Soohee; Park, Yunhee

    2013-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the requirements of the introduction of a safety design and certification system for medical facilities. [Subjects] A survey was carried out of one hundred nurses, physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech and language therapists from May to August in 2012. [Methods] The survey was conducted after giving subjects some information about safety design. [Results] The participants were aware of the need for establishing a safety design certification system. Total responses to services, facilities and space were analyzed in order to evaluate the priorities of safety, user characteristics, functionality, convenience and aesthetics. Regarding the application of a safety design certification system to services, items were prioritized in the order of children's items, household supplies and hospital supplies. For facilities, the priorities were, living space, social welfare and medical facilities; space, they were public and transportation-related places. The requirements for operating a safety design system were in order development of: highly skilled manpower, the legal system, educational promotion and qualifying facilities. [Conclusion] In conclusion, in order to implement safety design in medical facilities, a safety design certification system should be introduced first, and to do this a systematic and comprehensive study is needed.

  18. Readiness of health facilities to deliver safe male circumcision services in Tanzania: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Felix Mosha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the readiness of health facilities to deliver safe male circumcision services is more important in sub-Saharan Africa because of the inadequacy state of health facilities in many ways. The World Health Organization recommends that only facilities equipped with available trained staff, capable to perform at least minor surgery, able to offer minimum MC package and appropriate equipment for resuscitation, and compliant with requirements for sterilization and infection control should be allowed to deliver safe circumcision services. A cross-sectional study using quantitative data collection technique was conducted to assess the readiness of the health facilities to deliver safe circumcision services in selected districts of Tanzania. All hospitals, health centres and 30% of all dispensaries in these districts were selected to participate in the study. Face-toface questionnaires were administered to the heads of the health facilities and to health practitioners. Overall, 49/69 (59% of the facilities visited provided circumcision services and only 46/203 (24% of the health practitioners performed circumcision procedures. These were mainly assistant medical officers and clinical officers. The vast majority – 190/203 (95% – of the health practitioners require additional training prior to providing circumcision services. Most facilities – 63/69 (91% – had all basic supplies (gloves, basin, chlorine and waste disposal necessary for infection prevention, 44/69 (65% provided condoms, HIV counselling and testing, and sexuallytransmitted infections services, while 62/69 (90% had the capability to perform at least minor surgery. However, only 25/69 (36% and 15/69 (22% of the facilities had functioning sterilization equipment and appropriate resuscitation equipment, respectively. There is readiness for roll out of circumcision services; however, more practitioners need to be trained on circumcision procedures, demand forecasting

  19. SCAQS (Southern California Air Quality Study) meteorological support program. Final report, June-December 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehrman, D.; Knuth, W.; Alexander, N.; Giroux, H.; Lehrman, L.

    1988-10-01

    During the summer and fall of 1987, the Southern California Air Quality Study (SCAQS) was conducted to develop a comprehensive air quality and meteorological data base for the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB). Extensive measurement of gaseous and particulate pollutants, atmospheric tracers, and meteorological conditions were made on seventeen select days. A network consisting of upper-air and surface sites was designed to augment the existing meteorological resources in the SCAB. This network consisted of six upper-air sites and three surface sites during the summer study and five upper-air and two surface sites during the fall study. The upper-air measurements consisted of temperature, humidity, wind speed, and direction as a function of height to 10,000 feet or more. Typically soundings were taken six times daily at 0500, 0800, 1100, 1400, 1700, and 2200 local time. A total of 386 atmospheric soundings were made during the summer and 212 during the fall study. Three surface sites were established in the summer study and two sites in the fall study. Hourly averaged temperature and wind speed and direction from these sites are tabulated in the report.

  20. Risk management study for the retired Hanford Site facilities: Qualitative risk evaluation for the retired Hanford Site facilities. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, G.A.; Shultz, M.V.; Taylor, W.E.

    1993-09-01

    This document provides a risk evaluation of the 100 and 200 Area retired, surplus facilities on the Hanford Site. Also included are the related data that were compiled by the risk evaluation team during investigations performed on the facilities. Results are the product of a major effort performed in fiscal year 1993 to produce qualitative information that characterizes certain risks associated with these facilities. The retired facilities investigated for this evaluation are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1,450-km{sup 2} (570-mi{sup 2}) Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a semiarid tract of land in southeastern Washington State. The nearest population center is Richland, Washington, (population 32,000) 30-km (20 mi) southeast of the 200 Area. During walkdown investigations of these facilities, data on real and potential hazards that threatened human health or safety or created potential environmental release issues were identified by the risk evaluation team. Using these findings, the team categorized the identified hazards by facility and evaluated the risk associated with each hazard. The factors contributing to each risk, and the consequence and likelihood of harm associated with each hazard also are included in this evaluation.

  1. Mirror Fusion Test Facility data compression study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    This report is organized as follows. Discussions are given of three of the most important data compression methods that have been developed and studied over the years: coding, transforms, and redundancy reduction. (A brief discussion of how to combine and synthesize these ideas, and others, into a system is given). Specific ideas for compressing MFTF diagnostics and control data are developed. Listings and instructions for using FORTRAN programs that were compiled on the Livermore MFTF computers during the course of the study are also given.

  2. Groundwater Quality Data in the Mojave Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,500 square-mile Mojave (MOJO) study unit was investigated from February to April 2008, as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). MOJO was the 23rd of 37 study units to be sampled as part of the GAMA Priority Basin Project. The MOJO study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated ground water used for public water supplies within MOJO, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 59 wells in San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties. Fifty-two of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and seven were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds], constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]) naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, dissolved organic carbon [DOC], major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids [TDS], and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity, radium isotopes, and radon-222). Naturally occurring isotopes (stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, and activities of tritium and carbon-14), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled

  3. Insider Threat Case Studies at Radiological and Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, Noah Gale [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hobbs, Christopher [Centre for Science and Security Studies, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-13

    Seven case studies are presented. The cases include thefts of various materials and sabotage. For each case there is an overview of the incident, a timeline, a profile of the perpetrator, and a discussion of the security system failures which allowed the incident to take place.

  4. Santa Fe Community College Facilities Space Needs Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Van Dorn; And Others

    Results are presented from a study conducted to assess the space needed for educational programs at Santa Fe Community College (SFCC). Introductory material presents a background to the establishment of SFCC following a 1983 voter referendum; outlines SFCC's mission and goals; and highlights the college's institutional organization. The following…

  5. Solar Assisted Heat Pump Study for Heating of Military Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-01

    This study identified 21 generic solar assisted heat pump systems and subjectively evaluated them. The six most promising systems were evaluated in... heat pump . Preliminary drawings intergrating this system into a family housing unit at Little Rock AFB were developed. The system selected had a 27-32 year pay back. (Author)

  6. BLM/OCS Southern California Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Baseline Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data in this file were produced by Science Applications, Inc., prime contractor on the Bureau of Land Management/Outer Continental Shelf - Southern California...

  7. RK-TBA studies at the RTA test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidia, S.; Anderson, D.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Houck, T.; Reginato, L.; Vanecek, D.; Westenskow, G.; Yu, S.

    1997-03-01

    Construction of a prototype RF power source based on the RK-TBA concept, called the RTA, has commenced at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This prototype will be used to study physics, engineering, and costing issues involved in the application of the RK-TBA concept to linear colliders. The status of the prototype is presented, specifically the 1-MV, 1.2-kA induction electron gun and the pulsed power system that are in assembly. The RTA program theoretical effort, in addition to supporting the development of the prototype, has been studying optimization parameters for the application of the RK-TBA concept to higher-energy linear colliders. An overview of this work is presented.

  8. An exploratory shaft facility in SALT: Draft shaft study plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    This draft Shaft Study Plan describes a program of testing and monitoring in the Exploratory Shafts of a candidate high-level nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The purpose of the programs to assist with site characterization in support of a determination of site suitability for development as a repository design and performance assessment evaluations. The program includes a variety of geological, geophysical, geomechanical, thermomechanical, and geohydrological testing and monitoring. The program is presented as a series of separate studies concerned with geological, geomechanical, and geohydrological site characterization, and with evaluating the mechanical and hydrological response of the site to construction of the shafts. The various studies, and associated test or monitoring methods are shown. The procedure used in developing the test program has been to initially identify the information necessary to satisfy (1) federal, state, and local requirements, and (2) repository program requirements. These information requirements have then been assessed to determine which requirements can be addressed wholly or in significant part by monitoring and testing from within the shafts. Test methods have been identified to address specific information requirements. 67 refs., 39 figs., 31 tabs.

  9. Development of geospatial techniques for ecological analysis: A case study of sudden oak death in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinghua

    With the recent advancement of geospatial techniques (e.g., remote sensing, Geographical Information Systems, and GPS), geodatasets have grown dramatically in size and number and become more widely distributed. This provides ecologists unprecedented opportunities to explore ecological problems at larger spatial scale than before. At the same time, the wealth of data demands improvements in geospatial techniques in order to fully explore the current data capacity. In this dissertation, I sought to refine, combine, and develop new geospatial techniques that when applied to a real-world ecological problem, generated new and more comprehensive understanding of the ecological system examined. First, I refined several commonly used spatial analytical techniques such as paired quadrat variance (PQV) and Ripley's K functions. I clarified some misinterpretations of PQV methods, and proposed a GIS approach in correcting the edge-effect problem associated with the Ripley's K function in irregular-shaped study areas. Second, I combined several methods to better understand spatial patterns: (1) I combined Ripley's K and semivariance to study point patterns, and (2) I combined PQV, two term local quadrat variance, new local variance, and their three-term counterparts to study transect data. Third, I developed a new environmental niche model to model potential niche using presence-only data. Fourth, I developed a hybrid classifier which integrated an object-based and a knowledge-based classification method in mapping dead trees from high spatial resolution images. Finally, these geospatial methods were applied to analyze and model the spread of a new forest disease "sudden oak death" in California at the landscape and regional scales. At the landscape level, I found that topographic factors were the most influential factors in controlling the presence of dead trees, followed by foliar hosts of the disease. At the regional scale, I found that the majority of disease risk would

  10. FACILE SYNTHESIS, DOCKING STUDIES AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF FGVR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himaja M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A rational designing of linear Tetrapeptide FGVR was done and was synthesized by solution phase peptide synthesis. The docking studies of designed linear tetrapeptide FGVR was carried out by using Schrodinger Software Solutions, USA. Qikprop results show the ligand FGVR mostly act as antihypertensive and anti coagulant properties. The solution phase synthesis of FGVR is carried out by using 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide (EDC as coupling agents and N-Methyl morpholine (NMM as base. Structure of synthesized FGVR was confirmed by FTIR, 1H NMR and Mass spectral data, and evaluated for antioxidant property by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH. method and the synthesized peptides FGVR possess moderate antioxidant activity.

  11. Employee motivation of senior engineers in aerospace companies in southern California: A qualitative case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banh, My-Le

    The purpose of this qualitative exploratory case study was to explore the lack of motivation of engineers with more than 15 years of experience working in aerospace companies in southern California. The sample size for this study consisted of 18 senior engineers. These participants held either a bachelor's or master's degree in engineering fields. Participants were recruited through networking with colleagues and snowball sampling. The data was collected through face-to-face and phone interviews. Participants also had the opportunity to review their responses after the interview. The data analysis resulted in 12 themes regarding the participants' perception of motivation. The top six predominant themes were (1) challenging and new assignments, (2) commitment, (3) opportunity, (4) supporting from managers, (5) team spirit, and (6) open communication. The study resulted in an in-depth understanding of how important motivation is to senior engineers. Based on the findings, leaders should create opportunities for senior employees to work on challenging assignments, acquire autonomy, and obtain more responsibilities. Providing such opportunities may motivate employees to perform well and committee with the organizations.

  12. Pesticides in house dust from urban and farmworker households in California: an observational measurement study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKone Thomas E

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies report that residential use of pesticides in low-income homes is common because of poor housing conditions and pest infestations; however, exposure data on contemporary-use pesticides in low-income households is limited. We conducted a study in low-income homes from urban and agricultural communities to: characterize and compare house dust levels of agricultural and residential-use pesticides; evaluate the correlation of pesticide concentrations in samples collected several days apart; examine whether concentrations of pesticides phased-out for residential uses, but still used in agriculture (i.e., chlorpyrifos and diazinon have declined in homes in the agricultural community; and estimate resident children's pesticide exposures via inadvertent dust ingestion. Methods In 2006, we collected up to two dust samples 5-8 days apart from each of 13 urban homes in Oakland, California and 15 farmworker homes in Salinas, California, an agricultural community (54 samples total. We measured 22 insecticides including organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, diazinon-oxon, malathion, methidathion, methyl parathion, phorate, and tetrachlorvinphos and pyrethroids (allethrin-two isomers, bifenthrin, cypermethrin-four isomers, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, imiprothrin, permethrin-two isomers, prallethrin, and sumithrin, one phthalate herbicide (chlorthal-dimethyl, one dicarboximide fungicide (iprodione, and one pesticide synergist (piperonyl butoxide. Results More than half of the households reported applying pesticides indoors. Analytes frequently detected in both locations included chlorpyrifos, diazinon, permethrin, allethrin, cypermethrin, and piperonyl butoxide; no differences in concentrations or loadings were observed between locations for these analytes. Chlorthal-dimethyl was detected solely in farmworker homes, suggesting contamination due to regional agricultural use. Concentrations in samples collected 5-8 days apart in

  13. Tethered elevator and platforms as space station facilities: Systems studies and demonstrative experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Several key concepts of the science and applications tethered platforms were studied. Some conclusions reached are herein listed. Tether elevator and platform could improve the space station scientific and applicative capabilities. The space elevator presents unique characteristics as microgravity facility and as a tethered platform servicing vehicle. Pointing platforms could represent a new kind of observation facility for large class of payloads. The dynamical, control and technological complexity of these concepts advised demonstrative experiments. The on-going tethered satellite system offers the opportunity to perform such experiments. And feasibility studies are in progress.

  14. Chronic effects of air pollution on respiratory health in Southern California children: findings from the Southern California Children's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhanghua; Salam, Muhammad T; Eckel, Sandrah P; Breton, Carrie V; Gilliland, Frank D

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution is one of the leading contributors to adverse respiratory health outcomes in urban areas around the world. Children are highly sensitive to the adverse effects of air pollution due to their rapidly growing lungs, incomplete immune and metabolic functions, patterns of ventilation and high levels of outdoor activity. The Children's Health Study (CHS) is a continuing series of longitudinal studies that first began in 1993 and has focused on demonstrating the chronic impacts of air pollution on respiratory illnesses from early childhood through adolescence. A large body of evidence from the CHS has documented that exposures to both regional ambient air and traffic-related pollutants are associated with increased asthma prevalence, new-onset asthma, risk of bronchitis and wheezing, deficits of lung function growth, and airway inflammation. These associations may be modulated by key genes involved in oxidative-nitrosative stress pathways via gene-environment interactions. Despite successful efforts to reduce pollution over the past 40 years, air pollution at the current levels still brings many challenges to public health. To further ameliorate adverse health effects attributable to air pollution, many more toxic pollutants may require regulation and control of motor vehicle emissions and other combustion sources may need to be strengthened. Individual interventions based on personal susceptibility may be needed to protect children's health while control measures are being implemented.

  15. The Southern California Sensory Integration Tests (Ayres) and the Bender Gestalt: a correlative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, J G

    1977-01-01

    The Southern California Sensory Integration Tests (SCSIT) and the Bender Gestalt are two measures used to evaluate children with suspected perceptual-motor deficits. Since these tests are used primarily by two groups of professionals, occupational therapists and psychologists, it was thought that studying the correlations between these two tests might help psychologists to know which children needed to be referred to an occupational therapist for sensory integrative evaluation, and might help the occupational therapist to understand the psychologist's use of the Bender Gestalt. The use of the Bender by the occupational therapist as a screening device for sensory integrative dysfunction was also investigated. The SCSIT and Bender were given to 26 children with suspected sensory integrative dysfunction. Scores on the Bender were found to be predictive of grouped scores on the Form and Space Perception and Praxis-Tactile sections of the SCSIT, but not of the Postural and Bilateral Integration section. It was concluded that when the Bender is used as a screening device for sensory integrative dysfunction, some measure of postural mechanisms must be included. Correlations between the Bender and individual tests of the SCSIT were also studied.

  16. Preliminary juvenile Lost River and shortnose sucker investigations in Clear Lake, California--2011 pilot study summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Summer M.; Rasmussen, Josh

    2012-01-01

    Poor recruitment appears to limit the recovery of Lost River and shortnose sucker populations in Clear Lake Reservoir, California, but the cause is unknown. Adult suckers migrate up Willow Creek and its tributaries to spawn in some years, but low flow in Willow Creek may inhibit spawning migrations in other years. It is unclear whether spawning is successful, larvae survive, or juveniles persist to adulthood. Environmental variables associated with successful spawning or young-of-year survival have not been identified and early life history for these populations is poorly understood. The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Ruby Pipeline L.L.C. Corporation (El Paso, Tex.) initiated a study in 2011 to better understand juvenile sucker life history in Clear Lake Reservoir, and to identify constraints in the early life history that may limit recruitment to the adult spawning populations. This is a report on the 2011 pilot study for this project.

  17. Menopausal hormone therapy and lung cancer-specific mortality following diagnosis: the California Teachers Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Clague

    Full Text Available Previous results from research on menopausal hormone therapy (MHT and lung cancer survival have been mixed and most have not studied women who used estrogen therapy (ET exclusively. We examined the associations between MHT use reported at baseline and lung cancer-specific mortality in the prospective California Teachers Study cohort. Among 727 postmenopausal women diagnosed with lung cancer from 1995 through 2007, 441 women died before January 1, 2008. Hazard Ratios (HR and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI for lung-cancer-specific mortality were obtained by fitting multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models using age in days as the timescale. Among women who used ET exclusively, decreases in lung cancer mortality were observed (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.52-0.93. No association was observed for estrogen plus progestin therapy use. Among former users, shorter duration (15 years was associated with a decreased risk (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.38-0.95. Smoking status modified the associations with deceases in lung cancer mortality observed only among current smokers. Exclusive ET use was associated with decreased lung cancer mortality.

  18. Magnetic and gravity studies of Mono Lake, east-central, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athens, Noah D.; Ponce, David A.; Jayko, Angela S.; Miller, Matt; McEvoy, Bobby; Marcaida, Mae; Mangan, Margaret T.; Wilkinson, Stuart K.; McClain, James S.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Denton, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    From August 26 to September 5, 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected more than 600 line-kilometers of shipborne magnetic data on Mono Lake, 20 line-kilometers of ground magnetic data on Paoha Island, 50 gravity stations on Paoha and Negit Islands, and 28 rock samples on Paoha and Negit Islands, in east-central California. Magnetic and gravity investigations were undertaken in Mono Lake to study regional crustal structures and to aid in understanding the geologic framework, in particular regarding potential geothermal resources and volcanic hazards throughout Mono Basin. Furthermore, shipborne magnetic data illuminate local structures in the upper crust beneath Mono Lake where geologic exposure is absent. Magnetic and gravity methods, which sense contrasting physical properties of the subsurface, are ideal for studying Mono Lake. Exposed rock units surrounding Mono Lake consist mainly of Quaternary alluvium, lacustrine sediment, aeolian deposits, basalt, and Paleozoic granitic and metasedimentary rocks (Bailey, 1989). At Black Point, on the northwest shore of Mono Lake, there is a mafic cinder cone that was produced by a subaqueous eruption around 13.3 ka. Within Mono Lake there are several small dacite cinder cones and flows, forming Negit Island and part of Paoha Island, which also host deposits of Quaternary lacustrine sediments. The typical density and magnetic properties of young volcanic rocks contrast with those of the lacustrine sediment, enabling us to map their subsurface extent.

  19. A comparative study of worker and general public risks from nuclear facility operation using MACCS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    East, J.M.; O`Kula, K.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Over the last five years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has attempted to establish quantitative risk indices as minimum acceptance criteria for assurance of safe operation of its nuclear facilities. The risk indices serve as aiming points or targets to include consideration of all aspects of operation including normal conditions as well as abnormal, design basis events, and beyond-design basis events. Although initial focus of the application of these safety targets had been on DOE`s reactors, more recent assessments have also considered non-reactor facilities including those encompassing storage and nuclear processing activities. Regardless of the facility`s primary function, accident progression, event tree/fault tree logic models, and probabilistic (dose) consequence assessment model must be implemented to yield a fully integrated analysis of facility operation. The primary tool for probabilistic consequence assessment in the U.S. is the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). In this study, two version of MACCS are applied to representative source terms developed in the safety analysis associated with a waste processing facility at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company`s (WSRC`s) Savannah River Site (SRS). The MACCS versions are used to estimate population dose and subsequent health effects to workers and the general public from the SRS referenced facility operation. When combined with the frequency of occurrence evaluation, the margin of compliance with the safety targets may be quantified. Additionally, numerical evaluation of the safety targets with the two code versions will serve as an indicator of the impact of the enhancements made to MACCS relative to earlier baseline software.

  20. Hydraulic Characteristics of the San Gregorio Creek Drainage Basin, California: a Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. R.; Snow, M. K.; Pestrong, R.; Sklar, L. S.; Vavro, M.; Sawachi, A.; Talapian, E.; Bailey, E.

    2004-12-01

    Population pressures within the greater San Francisco Bay Area are forcing development into nearby rural communities, and are impacting local environments. This study of the San Gregorio Creek Watershed is designed as a baseline for evaluating the effect increasing development within the drainage basin has on its river system. We hope to provide evidence for that impact through laboratory and field studies that provide a snap-shot of this drainage basin's current characteristics. The San Gregorio Creek watershed, in the Coast Ranges, is located in the southwestern portion of San Mateo County, California. It drains the western slopes of the Santa Cruz Mountains, in the Coast Ranges into the Pacific Ocean at the town of San Gregorio. Most of its fingertip tributaries flow into the trunk from the north and west, with elevations as high as 2050 feet. The watershed includes an area of approximately 51.6 square miles and San Gregorio Creek, the trunk stream, is roughly 12 miles long. San Gregorio Creek is a fourth order perennial stream. It is fed by a number of major tributaries, the largest of which are Alpine, Mindego, and La Honda creeks. The U.S. Geological Survey maintains a stream gauging station for San Gregorio Creek at the town of San Gregorio, where it has been monitoring stream flows for more than 30 years through its Water Resources Department. The resulting data indicate a mean discharge of 36.4 cfs. Map studies of hydraulic geometry for the drainage basin reveal geometric characteristics for San Gregorio Creek that coincide with similar streams in comparable climatic and environmental settings. Stream table studies are used to further investigate fundamental stream processes. Field studies at selected reaches throughout the drainage basin will document hydraulic characteristics. The results of this study will contribute to more comprehensive studies demonstrateing channel response to changing environmental conditions.

  1. Motivation and Retention of Physicians in Primary Healthcare Facilities: A Qualitative Study From Abbottabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sayed Masoom; Zaidi, Shehla; Ahmed, Jamil; Rehman, Shafiq Ur

    2016-04-09

    Workforce motivation and retention is important for the functionality and quality of service delivery in health systems of developing countries. Despite huge primary healthcare (PHC) infrastructure, Pakistan's health indicators are not impressive; mainly because of under-utilization of facilities and low patient satisfaction. One of the major underlying issues is staff absenteeism. The study aimed to identify factors affecting retention and motivation of doctors working in PHC facilities of Pakistan. An exploratory study was conducted in a rural district in Khyber Puktunkhwa (KP) province, in Pakistan. A conceptual framework was developed comprising of three organizational, individual, and external environmental factors. Qualitative research methods comprising of semi-structured interviews with doctors working in basic health units (BHUs) and in-depth interviews with district and provincial government health managers were used. Document review of postings, rules of business and policy actions was also conducted. Triangulation of findings was carried out to arrive at the final synthesis. Inadequate remuneration, unreasonable facilities at residence, poor work environment, political interference, inadequate supplies and medical facilities contributed to lack of motivation among both male and female doctors. The physicians accepted government jobs in BHUs with a belief that these jobs were more secure, with convenient working hours. Male physicians seemed to be more motivated because they faced less challenges than their female counterparts in BHUs especially during relocations. Overall, the organizational factors emerged as the most significant whereby human resource policy, career growth structure, performance appraisal and monetary benefits played an important role. Gender and marital status of female doctors was regarded as most important individual factor affecting retention and motivation of female doctors in BHUs. Inadequate remuneration, unreasonable

  2. Groundwater-quality data in the northern Coast Ranges study unit, 2009: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Dawson, Barbara J.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 633-square-mile Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from June to November 2009, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program's Priority Basin Project (PBP) and the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NOCO study unit was the thirtieth study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP.

  3. Kaiser Permanente Northern California pregnancy database: Description and proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbo, Ousseny; Chan, Berwick; Goddard, Kristin; Lewis, Ned; Bok, Karin; Klein, Nicola P; Baxter, Roger

    2016-11-04

    We describe the establishment of a dynamic database linking mothers to newborns with the goal of studying vaccine safety in both pregnant women and their children and provide results of a study utilizing this database as a proof of concept. All Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) live births and their mothers were eligible for inclusion in the pregnancy database. We used the medical record number (MRN), a unique identifier, to retrieve information about events that occurred during the pregnancy and at delivery and linked this same MRN to newborns for post-partum follow up. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the association between receipt of tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine during pregnancy and fever 0-3days after the first dose of diphtheria tetanus and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine in the infant. The study included infants who were born at ⩾37weeks gestation from January 1, 2009 - October 1, 2015 and who received their first DTaP vaccine between 6 and 10weeks of age. We utilized diagnostic codes from inpatient, emergency department, outpatient clinics, and telephone calls. We identified fever using ICD 9 code 780.6, recorded temperature ⩾101 degree Fahrenheit, or parental report. The database contained the starting and ending date of each pregnancy and basic demographic characteristics of mothers and infants. There were 859,699 women and 873,753 children in the database as of January 2016. The proof of concept study included 148,699 infants. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, Tdap vaccination during pregnancy was not associated with infant fever 0-3daysafter first dose of DTaP (adjusted odds ratio=0.92, 95% CI 0.82-1.04). The KPNC pregnancy database can be used for studies investigating exposure during pregnancy and outcomes in mothers and/or infants, particularly monitoring vaccine safety and effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. California Watershed Hydrologic Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset is intended to be used as a tool for water-resource management and planning activities, particularly for site-specific and localized studies requiring a...

  5. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  6. The Economics of Bulk Water Transport in Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hodges

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Municipalities often face increasing demand for limited water supplies with few available alternative sources. Under some circumstances, bulk water transport may offer a viable alternative. This case study documents a hypothetical transfer between a water utility district in northern California and urban communities located on the coast of central and southern California. We compare bulk water transport costs to those of constructing a new desalination facility, which is the current plan of many communities for increasing supplies. We find that using water bags to transport fresh water between northern and southern California is in some instances a low-cost alternative to desalination. The choice is constrained, however, by concerns about reliability and, thus, risk. Case-study results demonstrate the challenges of water supply augmentation in water-constrained regions.

  7. Case-control study of arsenic in drinking water and lung cancer in California and Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphiné, David C; Smith, Allan H; Yuan, Yan; Balmes, John R; Bates, Michael N; Steinmaus, Craig

    2013-08-02

    Millions of people are exposed to arsenic in drinking water, which at high concentrations is known to cause lung cancer in humans. At lower concentrations, the risks are unknown. We enrolled 196 lung cancer cases and 359 controls matched on age and gender from western Nevada and Kings County, California in 2002-2005. After adjusting for age, sex, education, smoking and occupational exposures, odds ratios for arsenic concentrations ≥85 µg/L (median = 110 µg/L, mean = 173 µg/L, maximum = 1,460 µg/L) more than 40 years before enrollment were 1.39 (95% CI = 0.55-3.53) in all subjects and 1.61 (95% CI = 0.59-4.38) in smokers. Although odds ratios were greater than 1.0, these increases may have been due to chance given the small number of subjects exposed more than 40 years before enrollment. This study, designed before research in Chile suggested arsenic-related cancer latencies of 40 years or more, illustrates the enormous sample sizes needed to identify arsenic-related health effects in low-exposure countries with mobile populations like the U.S. Nonetheless, our findings suggest that concentrations near 100 µg/L are not associated with markedly high relative risks.

  8. WRF-model data assimilation studies of landfalling atmospheric rivers and orographic precipitation over Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiserloh, Arthur J., Jr.

    In this study, data assimilation methods of 3-D variational analysis (3DVAR), observation nudging, and analysis (grid) nudging were evaluated in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for a high-impact, multi-episode landfalling atmospheric river (AR) event for Northern California from 28 November to 3 December, 2012. Eight experiments were designed to explore various combinations of the data assimilation methods and different initial conditions. The short-to-medium range quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) performances were tested for each experiment. Surface observations from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Hydrometeorology Network (HMT), National Weather Service (NWS) radiosondes, and GPS Radio Occultation (RO) vertical profiles from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) satellites were used for assimilation. Model results 2.5 days into the forecast showed slower timing of the 2nd AR episode by a few hours and an underestimation in AR strength. For the entire event forecasts, the non-grid-nudging experiments showed the lowest mean absolute error (MAE) for rainfall accumulations, especially those with 3DVAR. Higher-resolution initial conditions showed more realistic coastal QPFs. Also, a 3-h nudging time interval and time window for observation nudging and 3DVAR, respectively, may be too large for this type of event, and it did not show skill until 60-66 h into the forecast.

  9. Modeling the effects of ship emissions on coastal air quality: A case study of southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutukuru, Satish; Dabdub, Donald

    2008-05-01

    Impact of emissions from ocean-going ships on ozone and particulate matter concentrations is quantified using UCI-CIT model for the South Coast Air Basin of California (SoCAB). The modeling domain encompasses Los Angeles and Long Beach ports and part of the Pacific Ocean that is traversed by ships to visit these ports. Impacts are assessed for a base year (2002) and a future year (2020) by analyzing results from simulations of a three-day summer episode. Contribution of ship emissions to peak 1-h and 8-h ozone concentrations is predicted to be up to 29 and 24 ppb, respectively, for the year 2002. Similarly, particulate nitrate and sulfate concentrations increase up to 12.8 and 1.7 μg m-3, respectively, in the basin when ship emissions are included. Maximum impacts are predicted to occur along the coasts of Ventura and Los Angeles and also at inland locations near Simi Valley. Future year simulations show substantial increase in impacts from ships due to expected growth in ship emissions. Ozone increases are as high as 59 ppb for land-based locations when estimates of ship emissions for 2020 are included. Similarly, particulate nitrate and sulfate increase up to 14 and 2.5 μg m-3. The results of this study show that control of ship emissions is important to mitigate air pollution.

  10. Status of groundwater quality in the San Fernando--San Gabriel study unit, 2005--California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Michael; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 460-square-mile San Fernando--San Gabriel (FG) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study area is in Los Angeles County and includes Tertiary-Quaternary sedimentary basins situated within the Transverse Ranges of southern California. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA FG study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) throughout California. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 by the USGS from 35 wells and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifers were defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the FG study unit. The quality of groundwater in primary aquifers may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study assesses the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifers of the FG study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors.

  11. Prostatitis, sexually transmitted diseases, and prostate cancer: the California Men's Health Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iona Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prostatitis and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs have been positively associated with prostate cancer in previous case-control studies. However, results from recent prospective studies have been inconclusive. METHODOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the association between prostatitis, STDs, and prostate cancer among African American, Asian American, Latino, and White participants of the California Men's Health Study. Our analysis included 68,675 men, who completed a detailed baseline questionnaire in 2002-2003. We identified 1,658 incident prostate cancer cases during the follow-up period to June 30, 2006. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Overall, men having a history of prostatitis had an increased risk of prostate cancer than men with no history (RR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.10-1.54. Longer duration of prostatitis symptoms was also associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (P trend = 0.003. In addition, among men screened for prostate cancer (1 or 2 PSA tests, a non-significant positive association was observed between prostatitis and prostate cancer (RR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.75-1.63. STDs were not associated with overall prostate cancer risk. In racial/ethnic stratified analysis, Latinos reporting any STDs had an increased risk of disease than those with no STDs (RR = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.07-1.91. Interestingly, foreign-born Latinos displayed a larger risk associated with STDs (RR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.16-3.02 than U.S. born Latinos (RR = 1.15; 95% CI: 0.76-3.02. CONCLUSION: In summary, results from this prospective study suggest that prostatitis and STDs may be involved in prostate cancer susceptibility. While we cannot rule out the possible influence of incidental detection, future studies are warranted to further investigate the role of infectious agents related to prostatitis and STDs in prostate cancer development.

  12. Construction and commissioning of the PETRA pilot plant facility for waste management studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dworschak, H.; Girardi, F.; Grossi, G.

    1989-10-01

    This paper describes the PETRA hot cell facility currently undergoing commissioning test at the Joint Research Centre-Ispra Establishment (Italy) and illustrated the possibilities and objectives of experimental work that can be carried out in the field of radioactive waste management. The facility includes the typical HA-processing steps of nuclear fuel reprocessing, i.e. dissolution, filtration, co-decontamination with on-line solvent regeneration for the production of significant quantities of medium and high-level solid and liquid wastes. These wastes will be used primarily for optimization, verification and demonstration studies at full radioactivity levels in relation to the safety and reliability of waste confinement and disposal concepts. The facility operates on fuel batches of 6 kg low enriched U equivalent, in a sequential processing mode. The waste streams can be treated by further extraction, concentration, precipitation, denitration and vitrification either as a whole or as separate fractions.

  13. The CASPAR underground accelerator facility for the study of low energy nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Daniel; Couder, Manoel; Greife, Uwe; Strieder, Frank; Wiescher, Michael

    2016-09-01

    The drive of nuclear astrophysics is to push the limits of reaction measurements into the burning regime of astrophysical interest. As current laboratory experiments approach the stellar burning window, the rapid drop off of cross-sections is a significant barrier and drives the need for higher intensity accelerators, more robust and isotopically enriched target material and lower background interference. The natural background suppression of underground accelerator facilities enables the extension of current experimental data to the lower energies needed. The CASPAR facility is the first and only underground accelerator facility in the US, focused on the study of low energy reactions of nuclear astrophysical interest. Support provided by NSF Grant No. PHY 1419765, JINA-CEE Grant No. PHY 1430152 and the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority.

  14. A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems. Workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-01

    This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report.

  15. Feasibility study for a numerical aerodynamic simulation facility. Volume 2: Hardware specifications/descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, F. M.; Resnick, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    An FMP (Flow Model Processor) was designed for use in the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility (NASF). The NASF was developed to simulate fluid flow over three-dimensional bodies in wind tunnel environments and in free space. The facility is applicable to studying aerodynamic and aircraft body designs. The following general topics are discussed in this volume: (1) FMP functional computer specifications; (2) FMP instruction specification; (3) standard product system components; (4) loosely coupled network (LCN) specifications/description; and (5) three appendices: performance of trunk allocation contention elimination (trace) method, LCN channel protocol and proposed LCN unified second level protocol.

  16. Final Corrective Action Study for the Former CCC/USDA Facility in Hanover, Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Low concentrations of carbon tetrachloride in groundwater and vapor intrusion into a limited number of residences (attributable to the contaminant concentrations in groundwater) have been identified in Hanover, Kansas, at and near a grain storage facility formerly leased and operated by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). At the request of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE 2009h), the CCC/USDA has prepared this Corrective Action Study (CAS) for the facility. The CAS examines corrective actions to address the contamination in groundwater and soil vapor.

  17. Estimating magnetic fields of homes near transmission lines in the California Power Line Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Ximena P; Kavet, Robert; Crespi, Catherine M; Hooper, Chris; Silva, J Michael; Kheifets, Leeka

    2015-07-01

    The California Power Line Study is a case-control study investigating the relation between residences near transmission lines and risk of childhood leukemia. It includes 5788 childhood leukemia cases and 5788 matched primary controls born between 1986 and 2007. We describe the methodology for estimating magnetic fields at study residences as well as for characterizing sources of uncertainty in these estimates. Birth residences of study subjects were geocoded and their distances to transmission lines were ascertained. 302 residences were deemed sufficiently close to transmission lines to have non-zero magnetic fields attributable to the lines. These residences were visited and detailed data, describing the physical configuration and dimensions of the lines contributing to the magnetic field at the residence, were collected. Phasing, loading, and directional load flow data for years of birth and diagnosis for each subject as well as for the day of site visit were obtained from utilities when available; when yearly average load for a particular year was not available, extrapolated values based on expert knowledge and prediction models were obtained. These data were used to estimate the magnetic fields at the center, closest and farthest point of each residence. We found good correlation between calculated fields and spot measurements of fields taken on site during visits. Our modeling strategies yielded similar calculated field estimates, and they were in high agreement with utility extrapolations. Phasing was known for over 90% of the lines. Important sources of uncertainty included a lack of information on the precise location of residences located within apartment buildings or other complexes. Our findings suggest that we were able to achieve high specificity in exposure assessment, which is essential for examining the association between distance to or magnetic fields from power lines and childhood leukemia risk.

  18. Across-sectional study of prescribing patterns in chronic psychiatric patients living in sheltered housing facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schorr, S.G.; Loonen, A.J.M.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.; Taxis, K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To analyze prescribing patterns of chronic psychiatric patients living in sheltered housing facilities, to identify the extent of polypharmacy and to estimate associated risks in this patient group. Methods: In a retrospective cross-sectional study the prescription data of 323 chronic psy

  19. Building America Case Study: Indoor Heat Pump Water Heaters During Summer in a Hot-Dry Climate, Redding, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Hoeschele, M. Seitzler

    2017-06-01

    Heat pump water heaters offer a significant opportunity to improve water heating performance for the over 40% of U.S. households that heat domestic hot water using electric resistance storage water heaters. Numerous field studies have also been completed documenting performance in a variety of climates and applications. More recent evaluation efforts have focused attention on the performance of May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners.

  20. An integrated study of earth resources in the state of California using remote sensing techniques. [water and forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1974-01-01

    Progress and results of an integrated study of California's water resources are discussed. The investigation concerns itself primarily with the usefulness of remote sensing of relation to two categories of problems: (1) water supply; and (2) water demand. Also considered are its applicability to forest management and timber inventory. The cost effectiveness and utility of remote sensors such as the Earth Resources Technology Satellite for water and timber management are presented.

  1. Exhaled nitric oxide in a population-based study of southern California schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, William S; Rappaport, Edward B; Berhane, Kiros T; Bastain, Tracy M; Avol, Edward L; Gilliland, Frank D

    2009-04-21

    Determinants of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) need to be understood better to maximize the value of FeNO measurement in clinical practice and research. Our aim was to identify significant predictors of FeNO in an initial cross-sectional survey of southern California schoolchildren, part of a larger longitudinal study of asthma incidence. During one school year, we measured FeNO at 100 ml/sec flow, using a validated offline technique, in 2568 children of age 7-10 yr. We estimated online (50 ml/sec flow) FeNO using a prediction equation from a separate smaller study with adjustment for offline measurement artifacts, and analyzed its relationship to clinical and demographic characteristics. FeNO was lognormally distributed with geometric means ranging from 11 ppb in children without atopy or asthma to 16 ppb in children with allergic asthma. Although effects of atopy and asthma were highly significant, ranges of FeNO for children with and without those conditions overlapped substantially. FeNO was significantly higher in subjects aged > 9, compared to younger subjects. Asian-American boys showed significantly higher FeNO than children of all other sex/ethnic groups; Hispanics and African-Americans of both sexes averaged slightly higher than non-Hispanic whites. Increasing height-for-age had no significant effect, but increasing weight-for-height was associated with decreasing FeNO. FeNO measured offline is a useful biomarker for airway inflammation in large population-based studies. Further investigation of age, ethnicity, body-size, and genetic influences is needed, since they may contribute to substantial variation in FeNO.

  2. Sport facility proximity and physical activity: Results from the Study of Community Sports in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiujin; Dai, Jian; Xun, Pengcheng; Jamieson, Lynn M; He, Ka

    2015-01-01

    Increased sport facility proximity is associated with higher likelihood of meeting physical activity (PA) recommendations in western studies, but it is uncertain whether the findings can be generalized to the Chinese population. From September 2012 to December 2012, 3926 participants drawn from China using a multi-stage sampling strategy were invited to participate in the Study of Community Sports in China. Participants' demographics, commuting time to the nearest sport facility and PA levels were assessed. Among 3926 participants included (51.2% female) in the final analysis, 878 (22.4%) of them met the PA recommendation. Participants who spent ≥30 minutes in commuting time had 80% odds [odds ratio (OR): 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65-0.98)] of meeting the PA recommendation compared to those who spent less than 10 minutes. For every 10-minute increment in commuting time, the odds reduced by 6% [OR = 0.94 (0.88-0.99)]. The observed associations were not appreciably modified by age, gender or education level. In this cross-sectional community-based study, we found that residents in China were less likely to meet the PA recommendation if they needed more commuting time to the nearest sport facility. Increasing sport facility proximity may be effective in improving the PA levels in the Chinese population.

  3. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) test facilities study program. Final report. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-17

    A comprehensive test program has been envisioned by ERDA to accomplish the OTEC program objectives of developing an industrial and technological base that will lead to the commercial capability to successfully construct and economically operate OTEC plants. This study was performed to develop alternative non-site specific OTEC test facilities/platform requirements for an integrated OTEC test program including both land and floating test facilities. A progression of tests was established in which OTEC power cycle component designs proceed through advanced research and technology, component, and systems test phases. This progression leads to the first OTEC pilot plant and provides support for following developments which potentially reduce the cost of OTEC energy. It also includes provisions for feedback of results from all test phases to enhance modifications to existing designs or development of new concepts. The tests described should be considered as representative of generic types since specifics can be expected to change as the OTEC plant design evolves. Emphasis is placed on defining the test facility which is capable of supporting the spectrum of tests envisioned. All test support facilities and equipment have been identified and included in terms of space, utilities, cost, schedule, and constraints or risks. A highly integrated data acquisition and control system has been included to improve test operations and facility effectiveness through a centralized computer system capable of automatic test control, real-time data analysis, engineering analyses, and selected facility control including safety alarms. Electrical power, hydrogen, and ammonia are shown to be technically feasible as means for transmitting OTEC power to a land-based distribution point. (WHK)

  4. Maximizing the Impact of Digital Media Campaigns to Promote Smoking Cessation: A Case Study of the California Tobacco Control Program and the California Smokers’ Helpline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Ok; Momin, Behnoosh; Hansen, Heather; Duke, Jennifer; Harms, Kristin; McCartney, Amanda; Neri, Antonio; Kahende, Jennifer; Zhang, Lei; Stewart, Sherri L.

    2017-01-01

    Digital media are often used to encourage smoking cessation by increasing quitline call volume through direct promotion to smokers or indirect promotion to smoker proxies. The documentation of a program’s experiences utilizing digital media is necessary to develop both the knowledge base and a set of best practices. This case study highlights the use of digital media in a proxy-targeted campaign to promote the California Smokers’ Helpline to health care professionals from October 2009 to September 2012. We describe the iterative development of the campaign’s digital media activities and report campaign summaries of web metrics (website visits, webinar registrations, downloads of online materials, online orders for promotional materials) and media buy (gross impressions) tracking data. The campaign generated more than 2.7 million gross impressions from digital media sources over 3 years. Online orders for promotional materials increased almost 40% over the course of the campaign. A clearly defined campaign strategy ensured that there was a systematic approach in developing and implementing campaign activities and ensuring that lessons learned from previous years were incorporated. Discussion includes lessons learned and recommendations for future improvements reported by campaign staff to inform similar efforts using digital media. PMID:28239304

  5. Maximizing the Impact of Digital Media Campaigns to Promote Smoking Cessation: A Case Study of the California Tobacco Control Program and the California Smokers' Helpline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Ok; Momin, Behnoosh; Hansen, Heather; Duke, Jennifer; Harms, Kristin; McCartney, Amanda; Neri, Antonio; Kahende, Jennifer; Zhang, Lei; Stewart, Sherri L

    2014-01-01

    Digital media are often used to encourage smoking cessation by increasing quitline call volume through direct promotion to smokers or indirect promotion to smoker proxies. The documentation of a program's experiences utilizing digital media is necessary to develop both the knowledge base and a set of best practices. This case study highlights the use of digital media in a proxy-targeted campaign to promote the California Smokers' Helpline to health care professionals from October 2009 to September 2012. We describe the iterative development of the campaign's digital media activities and report campaign summaries of web metrics (website visits, webinar registrations, downloads of online materials, online orders for promotional materials) and media buy (gross impressions) tracking data. The campaign generated more than 2.7 million gross impressions from digital media sources over 3 years. Online orders for promotional materials increased almost 40% over the course of the campaign. A clearly defined campaign strategy ensured that there was a systematic approach in developing and implementing campaign activities and ensuring that lessons learned from previous years were incorporated. Discussion includes lessons learned and recommendations for future improvements reported by campaign staff to inform similar efforts using digital media.

  6. Reproductive factors and non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk in the California Teachers Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Prescott

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL is a malignancy etiologically linked to immunomodulatory exposures and disorders. Endogenous female sex hormones may modify immune function and influence NHL risk. Few studies have examined associations between reproductive factors, which can serve as surrogates for such hormonal exposures, and NHL risk by subtype. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Women in the California Teachers Study cohort provided detailed data in 1995-1996 on reproductive history. Follow-up through 2007 identified 574 women with incident B-cell NHL. Hazard rate ratios (RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models to assess associations between reproductive factors and all B-cell NHL combined, diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, follicular lymphomas, and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias/small lymphocytic lymphomas. Pregnancy was marginally associated with lower risk of B-cell NHL (RR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.68-1.04. Much of the reduction in risk was observed after one full-term pregnancy relative to nulligravid women (RR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.54-1.06; P for trend <0.01, particularly for diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (P for trend = 0.13, but not among women who had only incomplete pregnancies. Age at first full-term pregnancy was marginally inversely associated with B-cell NHL risk overall (P for trend = 0.08 and for diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (P for trend = 0.056. Breast feeding was not associated with B-cell NHL risk overall or by subtype. CONCLUSIONS: Full-term pregnancy and early age at first full-term pregnancy account for most of the observed reduction in B-cell NHL risk associated with gravidity. Pregnancy-related hormonal exposures, including prolonged and high-level exposure to progesterone during a full-term pregnancy may inhibit development of B-cell NHL.

  7. Report on data from the Nearshore Sediment Transport Study experiment at Leadbetter Beach, Santa Barbara, California, January-February 1980 (NODC Accession 8200080)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — THIS DATA SET CONSISTS OF THE RESULTS OF THE NEARSHORE SEDIMENT Nearshore Sediment Transport Study at Leadbetter Beach, Santa Barbara, California. These data from 28...

  8. Sea Breeze Juan de Fuca transmission project : combined interconnect impact and facility study : summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morissette, V.; Azar, R. [SNC Lavalin Transmission and Distribution, Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2009-05-08

    The Juan de Fuca (JDF) cable is a 550 MW High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) submarine transmission line that will link Port Angeles, in Washington State, to South Vancouver Island. The objective of this combined interconnection impact and facility study is to determine the impact of this interconnection to the BC Transmission Corporation (BCTC) system in early 2010, specifically on Vancouver Island. The study involved the following tasks: load flow study; transient stability study; EMTP study; harmonic impedance analysis; insulation coordination study; evaluation of remedial action schemes (RAS); interconnection impact study report; and facility project plan study. The steady state and dynamic performance of the BCTC system on central Vancouver Island were assessed based on both normal operation and the predefined contingency conditions. Three load condition cases were considered, notably heavy winter 2010, light summer 2010 and light summer 2011. Cost estimates were provided along with lead times for the construction of transmission, station, protection and control, and telecom facilities and their auxiliary systems. It was concluded that the JDF cable will complement the existing grid and will add needed reliability, capacity and flexibility to transmission operations in the region. The JDF cable will strengthen British Columbia's electrical reliability and will meet Vancouver Island's electricity needs. According to the study, the cable will not result in any considerable steady state problems under both normal and contingency conditions. refs., tabs., figs.

  9. An Experimental Study of Upward Burning Over Long Solid Fuels: Facility Development and Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Yuan, Zeng-Guang

    2011-01-01

    As NASA's mission evolves, new spacecraft and habitat environments necessitate expanded study of materials flammability. Most of the upward burning tests to date, including the NASA standard material screening method NASA-STD-6001, have been conducted in small chambers where the flame often terminates before a steady state flame is established. In real environments, the same limitations may not be present. The use of long fuel samples would allow the flames to proceed in an unhindered manner. In order to explore sample size and chamber size effects, two large chambers were developed at NASA GRC under the Flame Prevention, Detection and Suppression (FPDS) project. The first was an existing vacuum facility, VF-13, located at NASA John Glenn Research Center. This 6350 liter chamber could accommodate fuels sample lengths up to 2 m. However, operational costs and restricted accessibility limited the test program, so a second laboratory scale facility was developed in parallel. By stacking additional two chambers on top of an existing combustion chamber facility, this 81 liter Stacked-chamber facility could accommodate a 1.5 m sample length. The larger volume, more ideal environment of VF-13 was used to obtain baseline data for comparison with the stacked chamber facility. In this way, the stacked chamber facility was intended for long term testing, with VF-13 as the proving ground. Four different solid fuels (adding machine paper, poster paper, PMMA plates, and Nomex fabric) were tested with fuel sample lengths up to 2 m. For thin samples (papers) with widths up to 5 cm, the flame reached a steady state length, which demonstrates that flame length may be stabilized even when the edge effects are reduced. For the thick PMMA plates, flames reached lengths up to 70 cm but were highly energetic and restricted by oxygen depletion. Tests with the Nomex fabric confirmed that the cyclic flame phenomena, observed in small facility tests, continued over longer sample. New

  10. Instrumentation for the California Extremely Large Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Keith; McLean, Ian S.

    2003-03-01

    The Phase A study for the California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT) Project has recently been completed. As part of this exercise a working group was set-up to evolve instrumentation strategies matched to the scientific case for the CELT facility. We report here on the proposed initial instrument suite which includes not only massively multiplexed seeing-limited multi-object spectroscopy but also on plans for wide-field adaptive optics fed integral-field spectroscopy and imaging at, or approaching, CELT's diffraction limit.

  11. California School Energy Concepts, 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askin, Ralph J.; And Others

    This publication is one of the major efforts of a project designed to promote energy conservation in California schools. Suggestions are provided that can be adapted at individual school facilities to reduce energy consumption. The guide also focuses on the major concepts of the new state standards for energy conservation for new nonresidential…

  12. ESTIMATING RISK TO CALIFORNIA ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE FROM PROJECTED CLIMATE CHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT This report outlines the results of a study of the impact of climate change on the energy infrastructure of California and the San Francisco Bay region, including impacts on power plant generation; transmission line and substation capacity during heat spells; wildfires near transmission lines; sea level encroachment upon power plants, substations, and natural gas facilities; and peak electrical demand. Some end-of-century impacts were projected: Expected warming will decrease gas-fir...

  13. Erosion at decommissioned road-stream crossings: case studies from three northern California watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam A. Flanagan; David Fuller; Leonard Job; Sam Morrison

    2012-01-01

    Post-treatment erosion was observed for 41 decommissioned road stream crossings in three northern California watersheds. Sites were purposefully selected in order to characterize the nature and range of post-treatment erosional responses. Sites with the highest visible erosion were selected in order to better understand the dominant process and incorporate any...

  14. California: A Case Study in the Loss of Affirmative Action. A Policy Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the various efforts undertaken by the University of California to maintain diversity in the institution, and especially at its highly competitive flagship campuses, UCLA and Berkeley, in the face of the loss of affirmative action during the mid-1990s. It demonstrates the continuing decline in representation of…

  15. The use of GPS horizontals for loading studies, with applications to northern California and southeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahr, John; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; van Dam, Tonie;

    2013-01-01

    Shasta, and the analysis of data from a single GPS site in southeast Greenland to determine mass variability of two large, nearby outlet glaciers: Helheim Glacier and Midgaard Glacier. The California example serves largely as a proof-of-concept, where the results can be assessed by comparing...

  16. Realizing Sustainability in Facilities Management: a pilot study at the Technical University of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Møller, Jacob Steen; Jäschke, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    shared value. The paper presents a pilot case study on sustainability in facilities management and is intended for a mixed audience of practitioners and researchers. It draws upon the case study findings to establish a baseline of performance and presents practical management implications of integrating...... sustainability in facilities management (FM). Design, methodology and approach: The approach uses an action-oriented research methodology as a means of co-generation of knowledge on realization of sustainability in FM. Case studies take a phased, multi-method approach including organizational profiling...... and value: The paper is based on action research to establish a collaborative framework in late 2011 and the findings of the pilot study, and have not been published before....

  17. Building America Case Study: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-08

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16-month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  18. Building America Case Study: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Hoeschele, E. Weitzel

    2017-03-01

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16-month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  19. A case history study on causation of the landslide in Santa Clara, California, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Liao; Sadek M. Derrega; Craig A. Hall

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a case history study on the geologic investigation and numerical modeling of a reactivated landslide in the County of Santa Clara, California to identify the failure mechanism. The landslide occurred on an approximately 18.3-m high, north-facing slope during March 2011. The land-slide measured about 33.5 m in width and about 51.8 m in length. Along the toe of the slope, a residential structure with a swimming pool was built on a cut and fill pad and there are several other structures present along the western side of the pad. The landslide occurred immediately to the south of the residential building and moved northward between the County Road A and the house’s side yard. The movement of the landslide resulted in damaging the west-bound traffic lane of County Road A and encroached onto the paved driveway for the residential property. An investigation was performed to identify the failure mechanism of the landslide to conclude whether Road A re-alignment by the County or prominent cutting performed along the lower portion of the slope by the homeowner during 2000 through 2004 contributed to the reactivation of the old landslide deposit. The investigation included site reconnaissance, reviewing available published geologic information, reviewing site-specific geologic and geotechnical data developed by other consultants, and performing numerical modeling. The outcomes of the investigation indicate that the primary causation for the reactivation and failure of the subject pre-existing landslide is the prominent cutting performed along the lower portion of the slope during 2000 through 2004 and water tank cut bench. The Road A re-alignment did not contribute to the reactivation of the old landslide deposit.

  20. A case history study on causation of the landslide in Santa Clara, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Liao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case history study on the geologic investigation and numerical modeling of a reactivated landslide in the County of Santa Clara, California to identify the failure mechanism. The landslide occurred on an approximately 18.3-m high, north-facing slope during March 2011. The landslide measured about 33.5 m in width and about 51.8 m in length. Along the toe of the slope, a residential structure with a swimming pool was built on a cut and fill pad and there are several other structures present along the western side of the pad. The landslide occurred immediately to the south of the residential building and moved northward between the County Road A and the house's side yard. The movement of the landslide resulted in damaging the west-bound traffic lane of County Road A and encroached onto the paved driveway for the residential property. An investigation was performed to identify the failure mechanism of the landslide to conclude whether Road A re-alignment by the County or prominent cutting performed along the lower portion of the slope by the homeowner during 2000 through 2004 contributed to the reactivation of the old landslide deposit. The investigation included site reconnaissance, reviewing available published geologic information, reviewing site-specific geologic and geotechnical data developed by other consultants, and performing numerical modeling. The outcomes of the investigation indicate that the primary causation for the reactivation and failure of the subject pre-existing landslide is the prominent cutting performed along the lower portion of the slope during 2000 through 2004 and water tank cut bench. The Road A re-alignment did not contribute to the reactivation of the old landslide deposit.

  1. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D.E.; Pechmann, J.H.K.; Knox, J.N.; Estes, R.A.; McGregor, J.H.; Bailey, K. (ed.)

    1988-12-01

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory has completed 10 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site. This progress report examines water quality studies on streams peripheral to the DWPF construction site and examines the effectiveness of refuge ponds'' in ameliorating the effects of construction on local amphibians. Individual papers on these topics are indexed separately. 93 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs. (MHB)

  2. Linking Exposure Assessment Science With Policy Objectives for Environmental Justice and Breast Cancer Advocacy: The Northern California Household Exposure Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Zota, Ami; Brown, Phil; Pérez, Carla; Rudel, Ruthann A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We compared an urban fence-line community (neighboring an oil refinery) and a nonindustrial community in an exposure study focusing on pollutants of interest with respect to breast cancer and environmental justice. Methods. We analyzed indoor and outdoor air from 40 homes in industrial Richmond, California, and 10 in rural Bolinas, California, for 153 compounds, including particulates and endocrine disruptors. Results. Eighty compounds were detected outdoors in Richmond and 60 in Bolinas; Richmond concentrations were generally higher. Richmond's vanadium and nickel levels indicated effects of heavy oil combustion from oil refining and shipping; these levels were among the state's highest. In nearly half of Richmond homes, PM2.5 exceeded California's annual ambient air quality standard. Paired outdoor–indoor measurements were significantly correlated for industry- and traffic-related PM2.5, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, elemental carbon, metals, and sulfates (r = 0.54–0.92, P environmental injustice concerns in communities that host polluters. Community-based participatory exposure research can contribute to science and stimulate and inform action on the part of community residents and policymakers. PMID:19890164

  3. Children's hand hygiene behaviour and available facilities: an observational study in Dutch day care centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beeck, A H Elise; Zomer, Tizza P; van Beeck, Eduard F; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Voeten, Helene A C M; Erasmus, Vicki

    2016-04-01

    Children attending day care centres are at increased risk of infectious diseases, in particular gastrointestinal and respiratory infections. Hand hygiene of both caregivers and children is an effective prevention measure. This study examined hand hygiene behaviour of children attending day care centres, and describes hygiene facilities at day care centres. Data were collected at 115 Dutch day care centres, among 2318 children cared for by 231 caregivers (August to October 2010). Children's hand hygiene behaviour was observed and data on hand hygiene facilities of the day care centres collected by direct unobtrusive observation. National guidelines indicate hand hygiene is required before eating, after toilet use and after playing outside. Among 1930 observed hand hygiene opportunities for children, overall adherence to hand hygiene guidelines was 31% (95% CI: 29-33%). Adherence after both toilet use and playing outside was 48%. Hands were less frequently washed before eating, where guideline adherence was 15%. In 38% of the playrooms there was no soap within reach of children and 17% had no towel facilities. In over 40% of the playrooms, appropriate hand hygiene facilities for children were lacking. Adequate hand washing facilities were available for children in only half of the participating day care centres in our study and children washed their hands in only 15-48% of the occasions defined by official guidelines. More attention is needed to hand hygiene of children attending day care centres in the prevention of infectious diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  4. A central storage facility to reduce pesticide suicides--a feasibility study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Kumar, Shuba; Mohanraj, Rani; Devika, Shanmugasundaram; Manikandan, Sarojini

    2013-09-16

    Pesticide suicides are considered the single most important means of suicide worldwide. Centralized pesticide storage facilities have the possible advantage of delaying access to pesticides thereby reducing suicides. We undertook this study to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a centralized pesticide storage facility as a preventive intervention strategy in reducing pesticide suicides. A community randomized controlled feasibility study using a mixed methods approach involving a household survey; focus group discussions (FGDs) and surveillance were undertaken. The study was carried out in a district in southern India. Eight villages that engaged in floriculture were identified. Using the lottery method two were randomized to be the intervention sites and two villages constituted the control site. Two centralized storage facilities were constructed with local involvement and lockable storage boxes were constructed. The household survey conducted at baseline and one and a half years later documented information on sociodemographic data, pesticide usage, storage and suicides. At baseline 4446 individuals (1097 households) in the intervention and 3307 individuals (782 households) in the control sites were recruited while at follow up there were 4308 individuals (1063 households) in the intervention and 2673 individuals (632 households) in the control sites. There were differences in baseline characteristics and imbalances in the prevalence of suicides between intervention and control sites as this was a small feasibility study.The results from the FGDs revealed that most participants found the storage facility to be both useful and acceptable. In addition to protecting against wastage, they felt that it had also helped prevent pesticide suicides as the pesticides stored here were not as easily and readily accessible. The primary analyses were done on an Intention to Treat basis. Following the intervention, the differences between sites in changes in combined

  5. PHOEBUS/UHTREX: a preliminary study of a low-cost facility for transient tests of LMFBR fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, W.L. (comp.)

    1976-08-01

    The results of a brief preliminary design study of a facility for transient nuclear tests of fast breeder reactor fuel are described. The study is based on the use of a reactor building originally built for the UHTREX reactor, and the use of some reactor hardware and reactor design and fabrication technology remaining from the Phoebus-2 reactor of the Rover nulcear rocket propulsion program. The facility is therefore currently identified as the PHOEBUS/UHTREX facility. This facility is believed capable of providing early information regarding fast reactor core accident energetics issues which will be very valuable to the overall LMFBR safety program. Facility performance in conjunction with a reference 127-fuel pin experiment is described. Low cost and early availability of the facility were emphasized in the selection of design features and parameters.

  6. Survey study of communities with nuclear facilities; Oeversiktsstudie av kommuner med kaernteknisk verksamhet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, T. [ed.

    1995-05-01

    The report gives a description of the five Swedish communities that already have nuclear facilities, in order to find the potential for selecting any of these for a future Swedish nuclear waste repository. Only existing, available information has been collected for this report, with the aim to find the interest and need for more detailed localization studies. The following subjects are treated: General data like area, population, industry etc. Communications (road, rail and airports). Existing facilities. Geology. Hydrology. Experiences from rock constructions. Land use, planning, natural reserves etc. Local technical conditions for transport and construction. The following conclusions are drawn: Oskarshamn, Nykoeping and Oesthammar have good geologic potentials and should be candidates for more extensive geologic studies. The geologic potential of Varberg is less well known, and geologic mapping and geophysical measurements are needed. Kaevlinge does not have geologic or technical potentials on par with the other communities, and can be disregarded for further studies. 64 refs, 18 figs.

  7. Major- and Trace-Element Concentrations in Soils from Northern California: Results from the Geochemical Landscapes Project Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jean M.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Holloway, JoAnn M.; Smith, David B.

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), and the Mexican Geological Survey (Servicio Geologico Mexicano, or SGM) initiated pilot studies in preparation for a soil geochemical survey of North America called the Geochemical Landscapes Project. The purpose of this project is to provide a better understanding of the variability in chemical composition of soils in North America. The data produced by this survey will be used to construct baseline geochemical maps for regions within the continent. Two initial pilot studies were conducted: (1) a continental-scale study involving a north-south and east-west transect across North America and (2) a regional-scale study. The pilot studies were intended to test and refine sample design, sampling protocols, and field logistics for the full continental soils geochemical survey. Smith and others (2005) reported the results from the continental-scale pilot study. The regional-scale California study was designed to represent more detailed, higher resolution geochemical investigations in a region of particular interest that was identified from the low-sample-density continental-scale survey. A 20,000-km2 area of northern California (fig. 1), representing a wide variety of topography, climate, and ecoregions, was chosen for the regional-scale pilot study. This study area also contains diverse geology and soil types and supports a wide range of land uses including agriculture in the Sacramento Valley, forested areas in portions of the Sierra Nevada, and urban/suburban centers such as Sacramento, Davis, and Stockton. Also of interest are potential effects on soil geochemistry from historical hard rock and placer gold mining in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, historical mercury mining in the Coast Range, and mining of base-metal sulfide deposits in the Klamath Mountains to the north. This report presents the major- and trace-element concentrations from the regional-scale soil geochemical

  8. Investigating Preterm Care at the Facility Level: Stakeholder Qualitative Study in Central and Southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondwe, Austrida; Munthali, Alister; Ashorn, Per; Ashorn, Ulla

    2016-07-01

    Objectives Malawi is estimated to have one of the highest preterm birth rates in the world. However, care of preterm infants at facility level in Malawi has not been explored. We aimed to explore the views of health stakeholders about the care of preterm infants in health facilities and the existence of any policy protocol documents guiding the delivery of care to these infants. Methods We conducted 16 in-depth interviews with health stakeholders (11 service providers and 5 policy makers) using an interview guide and asked for any existing policy protocol documents guiding care for preterm infants in the health facilities in Malawi. The collected documents were reviewed and all the interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and translated. All data were analysed using content analysis approach. Results We identified four policy protocol documents and out of these, one had detailed information explaining the care of preterm infants. Policy makers reported that policy protocol documents to guide care for preterm infants were available in the health facilities but majority (63.6 %) of the service providers lacked knowledge about the existence of these documents. Health stakeholders reported several challenges in caring for preterm infants including lack of trained staff in preterm infant care, antibiotics, space, supervision and poor referral system. Conclusions Our study highlights that improving health care service provider knowledge of preterm infant care is an integral part in preterm child birth. Our findings suggests that policy makers and health decision makers should retain those trained in preterm new born care in the health facility's preterm unit.

  9. Motivation and Retention of Physicians in Primary Healthcare Facilities: A Qualitative Study From Abbottabad, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sayed Masoom; Zaidi, Shehla; Ahmed, Jamil; Rehman, Shafiq Ur

    2016-01-01

    Background: Workforce motivation and retention is important for the functionality and quality of service delivery in health systems of developing countries. Despite huge primary healthcare (PHC) infrastructure, Pakistan’s health indicators are not impressive; mainly because of under-utilization of facilities and low patient satisfaction. One of the major underlying issues is staff absenteeism. The study aimed to identify factors affecting retention and motivation of doctors working in PHC facilities of Pakistan. Methods: An exploratory study was conducted in a rural district in Khyber Puktunkhwa (KP) province, in Pakistan. A conceptual framework was developed comprising of three organizational, individual, and external environmental factors. Qualitative research methods comprising of semi-structured interviews with doctors working in basic health units (BHUs) and in-depth interviews with district and provincial government health managers were used. Document review of postings, rules of business and policy actions was also conducted. Triangulation of findings was carried out to arrive at the final synthesis. Results: Inadequate remuneration, unreasonable facilities at residence, poor work environment, political interference, inadequate supplies and medical facilities contributed to lack of motivation among both male and female doctors. The physicians accepted government jobs in BHUs with a belief that these jobs were more secure, with convenient working hours. Male physicians seemed to be more motivated because they faced less challenges than their female counterparts in BHUs especially during relocations. Overall, the organizational factors emerged as the most significant whereby human resource policy, career growth structure, performance appraisal and monetary benefits played an important role. Gender and marital status of female doctors was regarded as most important individual factor affecting retention and motivation of female doctors in BHUs. Conclusion

  10. Motivation and Retention of Physicians in Primary Healthcare Facilities: A Qualitative Study From Abbottabad, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Masoom Shah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Workforce motivation and retention is important for the functionality and quality of service delivery in health systems of developing countries. Despite huge primary healthcare (PHC infrastructure, Pakistan’s health indicators are not impressive; mainly because of under-utilization of facilities and low patient satisfaction. One of the major underlying issues is staff absenteeism. The study aimed to identify factors affecting retention and motivation of doctors working in PHC facilities of Pakistan. Methods: An exploratory study was conducted in a rural district in Khyber Puktunkhwa (KP province, in Pakistan. A conceptual framework was developed comprising of three organizational, individual, and external environmental factors. Qualitative research methods comprising of semi-structured interviews with doctors working in basic health units (BHUs and in-depth interviews with district and provincial government health managers were used. Document review of postings, rules of business and policy actions was also conducted. Triangulation of findings was carried out to arrive at the final synthesis. Results: Inadequate remuneration, unreasonable facilities at residence, poor work environment, political interference, inadequate supplies and medical facilities contributed to lack of motivation among both male and female doctors. The physicians accepted government jobs in BHUs with a belief that these jobs were more secure, with convenient working hours. Male physicians seemed to be more motivated because they faced less challenges than their female counterparts in BHUs especially during relocations. Overall, the organizational factors emerged as the most significant whereby human resource policy, career growth structure, performance appraisal and monetary benefits played an important role. Gender and marital status of female doctors was regarded as most important individual factor affecting retention and motivation of female doctors in BHUs

  11. TGF-alpha genotypes, oral clefts, and environmental risk factors: A population-based California study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, G.M.; Wasserman, C.R. [CA Birth Defects Monitoring Program, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lammer, E.J. [Stanford Univ., Palo Alto, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Several studies have shown a relation between genetic variation at the TGF-alpha locus and oral clefts. These studies had limited sample sizes and also lacked data on additional factors potentially related to clefting. We investigated the influence on clefting from risk factors, such as maternal smoking, dependent on TFG-alpha genotype. This was accomplished using a large population-bases case-control study of fetuses and liveborn infants with oral clefts among a 1987-89 cohort of California births (N=548,844). To obtain data on potential risk factors, telephone interviews were conducted with mothers of 731 (84.5% of eligible) cleft cases, and 734 (78.2%) nonmalformed controls. DNA was obtained from newborn screening bloodspots and genotyped by using SSCP designed to detect the Taq1 RFLP. Among mothers who completed an interview, genotyping results were available for 571 (78.1%) cases and 640 (87.2%) controls. Compared to controls, the risk estimate for TGF-alpha polymorphism as measured by the odds ratio was: 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.64, 1.5) for isolated cleft lip {plus_minus}palate; 0.88 (0.33, 2.2) for nonisolated cleft lip {plus_minus}palate; 1.6 (0.94, 2.8) for isolated cleft palate; 1.9 (0.82, 4.3) for nonisolated cleft palate; and 2.2 (0.99, 5.0) for clefts with known etiology. This dataset also revealed 1.4 to 2-fold increased risks for maternal cigarette smoking > 19 cigs/day in early pregnancy. Among these heavy smokers, risk of clefting was even more increased for infants with the TGF-alpha polymorphism. Our data suggest an association between the TGF-alpha uncommon allele and some phenotypic subgroups as well as provide evidence for a genetic-environment interaction between maternal smoking and the variant in the etiology of clefting. The fraction of cases possibly attributed to this interaction, however, was small.

  12. Alignment between chronic disease policy and practice: case study at a primary care facility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire A Draper

    Full Text Available Chronic disease is by far the leading cause of death worldwide and of increasing concern in low- and middle-income countries, including South Africa, where chronic diseases disproportionately affect the poor living in urban settings. The Provincial Government of the Western Cape (PGWC has prioritized the management of chronic diseases and has developed a policy and framework (Adult Chronic Disease Management Policy 2009 to guide and improve the prevention and management of chronic diseases at a primary care level. The aim of this study is to assess the alignment of current primary care practices with the PGWC Adult Chronic Disease Management policy.One comprehensive primary care facility in a Cape Town health district was used as a case study. Data was collected via semi-structured interviews (n = 10, focus groups (n = 8 and document review. Participants in this study included clinical staff involved in chronic disease management at the facility and at a provincial level. Data previously collected using the Integrated Audit Tool for Chronic Disease Management (part of the PGWC Adult Chronic Disease Management policy formed the basis of the guide questions used in focus groups and interviews.The results of this research indicate a significant gap between policy and its implementation to improve and support chronic disease management at this primary care facility. A major factor seems to be poor policy knowledge by clinicians, which contributes to an individual rather than a team approach in the management of chronic disease patients. Poor interaction between facility- and community-based services also emerged. A number of factors were identified that seemed to contribute to poor policy implementation, the majority of which were staff related and ultimately resulted in a decrease in the quality of patient care.Chronic disease policy implementation needs to be improved in order to support chronic disease management at this facility. It is possible

  13. Reasons rural Laotians choose home deliveries over delivery at health facilities: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sychareun Vanphanom

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality among poor rural women in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR is among the highest in Southeast Asia, in part because only 15% give birth at health facilities. This study explored why women and their families prefer home deliveries to deliveries at health facilities. Methods A qualitative study was conducted from December 2008 to February 2009 in two provinces of Lao PDR. Data was collected through eight focus group discussions (FGD as well as through in-depth interviews with 12 mothers who delivered at home during the last year, eight husbands and eight grandmothers, involving a total of 71 respondents. Content analysis was used to analyze the FGD and interview transcripts. Results Obstacles to giving birth at health facilities included: (1 Distance to the health facilities and difficulties and costs of getting there; (2 Attitudes, quality of care, and care practices at the health facilities, including a horizontal birth position, episiotomies, lack of privacy, and the presence of male staff; (3 The wish to have family members nearby and the need for women to be close to their other children and the housework; and (4 The wish to follow traditional birth practices such as giving birth in a squatting position and lying on a “hot bed” after delivery. The decision about where to give birth was commonly made by the woman’s husband, mother, mother-in-law or other relatives in consultation with the woman herself. Conclusion This study suggests that the preference in rural Laos for giving birth at home is due to convenience, cost, comfort and tradition. In order to assure safer births and reduce rural Lao PDR’s high maternal mortality rate, health centers could consider accommodating the wishes and traditional practices of many rural Laotians: allowing family in the birthing rooms; allowing traditional practices; and improving attitudes among staff. Traditional birth attendants, women, and

  14. Motivation and Retention of Physicians in Primary Healthcare Facilities: A Qualitative Study From Abbottabad, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed Masoom Shah; Shehla Zaidi; Jamil Ahmed; Shafiq Ur Rehman

    2016-01-01

    Background: Workforce motivation and retention is important for the functionality and quality of service delivery in health systems of developing countries. Despite huge primary healthcare (PHC) infrastructure, Pakistan’s health indicators are not impressive; mainly because of under-utilization of facilities and low patient satisfaction. One of the major underlying issues is staff absenteeism. The study aimed to identify factors affecting retention and motivation of doctors workin...

  15. A combined radio- and stable-isotopic study of a California coastal aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, Peter W.; Baskaran, Mark; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Edwards, Brian D.; Land, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Stable and radioactive tracers were utilized in concert to characterize geochemical processes in a complex coastal groundwater system and to provide constraints on the kinetics of rock/water interactions. Groundwater samples from wells within the Dominguez Gap region of Los Angeles County, California were analyzed for a suite of major cations (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+) and anions (Cl−, SO42−), silica, alkalinity, select trace elements (Ba, B, Sr), dissolved oxygen, stable isotopes of hydrogen (δD), oxygen (δ18O), dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC), and radioactive isotopes (3H, 222Rn and 223,224,226,228Ra). In the study area, groundwater may consist of a complex mixture of native groundwater, intruded seawater, non-native injected water, and oil-field brine water. In some wells, Cl− concentrations attained seawater-like values and in conjunction with isotopically heavier δ18O values, these tracers provide information on the extent of seawater intrusion and/or mixing with oil-field brines. Groundwater 3H above 1 tritium unit (TU) was observed only in a few select wells close to the Dominguez Gap area and most other well groundwater was aged pre-1952. Based on an initial 14C value for the study site of 90 percent modern carbon (pmc), groundwater age estimates likely extend beyond 20 kyr before present and confirm deep circulation of some native groundwater through multiple aquifers. Enriched values of groundwater δ13CDIC in the absence of SO42− imply enhanced anaerobic microbial methanogenesis. While secular equilibrium was observed for 234U/238U (activity ratios ~1) in host matrices, strong isotopic fractionation in these groundwater samples can be used to obtain information of adsorption/desorption kinetics. Calculated Ra residence times are short, and the associated desorption rate constant is about three orders of magnitude slower than that of the adsorption rate constant. Combined stable- and radio-isotopic results provide unique insights into aquifer

  16. A Combined Radio- and Stable-Isotopic Study of a California Coastal Aquifer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Land

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Stable and radioactive tracers were utilized in concert to characterize geochemical processes in a complex coastal groundwater system and to provide constraints on the kinetics of rock/water interactions. Groundwater samples from wells within the Dominguez Gap region of Los Angeles County, California were analyzed for a suite of major cations (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and anions (Cl−, SO42−, silica, alkalinity, select trace elements (Ba, B, Sr, dissolved oxygen, stable isotopes of hydrogen (δD, oxygen (δ18O, dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC, and radioactive isotopes (3H, 222Rn and 223,224,226,228Ra. In the study area, groundwater may consist of a complex mixture of native groundwater, intruded seawater, non-native injected water, and oil-field brine water. In some wells, Cl− concentrations attained seawater-like values and in conjunction with isotopically heavier δ18O values, these tracers provide information on the extent of seawater intrusion and/or mixing with oil-field brines. Groundwater 3H above 1 tritium unit (TU was observed only in a few select wells close to the Dominguez Gap area and most other well groundwater was aged pre-1952. Based on an initial 14C value for the study site of 90 percent modern carbon (pmc, groundwater age estimates likely extend beyond 20 kyr before present and confirm deep circulation of some native groundwater through multiple aquifers. Enriched values of groundwater δ13CDIC in the absence of SO42− imply enhanced anaerobic microbial methanogenesis. While secular equilibrium was observed for 234U/238U (activity ratios ~1 in host matrices, strong isotopic fractionation in these groundwater samples can be used to obtain information of adsorption/desorption kinetics. Calculated Ra residence times are short, and the associated desorption rate constant is about three orders of magnitude slower than that of the adsorption rate constant. Combined stable- and radio-isotopic results provide unique insights

  17. Groundwater quality in the Western San Joaquin Valley study unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-09

    Water quality in groundwater resources used for public drinking-water supply in the Western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV) was investigated by the USGS in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) as part of its Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project. The WSJV includes two study areas: the Delta–Mendota and Westside subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley groundwater basin. Study objectives for the WSJV study unit included two assessment types: (1) a status assessment yielding quantitative estimates of the current (2010) status of groundwater quality in the groundwater resources used for public drinking water, and (2) an evaluation of natural and anthropogenic factors that could be affecting the groundwater quality. The assessments characterized the quality of untreated groundwater, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water distributors.The status assessment was based on data collected from 43 wells sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey for the GAMA Priority Basin Project (USGS-GAMA) in 2010 and data compiled in the SWRCB Division of Drinking Water (SWRCB-DDW) database for 74 additional public-supply wells sampled for regulatory compliance purposes between 2007 and 2010. To provide context, concentrations of constituents measured in groundwater were compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and SWRCB-DDW regulatory and non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. The status assessment used a spatially weighted, grid-based method to estimate the proportion of the groundwater resources used for public drinking water that has concentrations for particular constituents or class of constituents approaching or above benchmark concentrations. This method provides statistically unbiased results at the study-area scale within the WSJV study unit, and permits comparison of the two study areas to other areas assessed by the GAMA Priority Basin Project

  18. Deconstructing energy use in microelectronics manufacturing: an experimental case study of a MEMS fabrication facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branham, Matthew S; Gutowski, Timothy G

    2010-06-01

    Semiconductors are quite energy intensive to manufacture on the basis of energy required per mass of material processed. This analysis draws on original data from a case study of the Analog Devices Micromachined Products Division MEMS fabrication facility to examine the consequence of process rate on the energy intensity of semiconductor manufacturing. We trace the impact of process rate on energy intensity at different length scales, first presenting top-down data, then results of a bottom-up study, and concluding with individual process analyses. Interestingly, while production increased by almost a factor of 2 over the course of the study, energy demand remained virtually constant. At its most efficient, 270 kWh of electricity were required per six inch wafer in the manufacture of the MEMS devices produced at the fabrication facility. In part, the large amount of energy required per unit output is a function of the preponderance of energy used by support equipment; our data show that the facility support equipment is responsible for 58% of total energy requirements.

  19. A facility for studying irradiation accelerated corrosion in high temperature water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiman, Stephen S.; Flick, Alexander; Toader, Ovidiu; Wang, Peng; Samad, Nassim A.; Jiao, Zhijie; Was, Gary S.

    2014-08-01

    A facility for the study of irradiation accelerated corrosion in high temperature water using in situ proton irradiation has been developed and validated. A specially designed beamline and flowing-water corrosion cell added to the 1.7 MV tandem accelerator at the Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory provide the capability to study the simultaneous effects of displacement damage and radiolysis on corrosion. A thin sample serves as both a “window” into the corrosion cell through which the proton beam passes completely, and the sample for assessing irradiation accelerated corrosion. The facility was tested by irradiating stainless steel samples at beam current densities between 0.5 and 10 μA/cm2 in 130 °C and 320 °C deaerated water, and 320 °C water with 3 wppm H2. Increases in the conductivity and dissolved oxygen content of the water varied with the proton beam current, suggesting that proton irradiation was accelerating the corrosion of the sample. Conductivity increases were greatest at 320 °C, while DO increases were highest at 130 °C. The addition of 3 wppm H2 suppressed DO below detectable levels. The facility will enable future studies into the effect of irradiation on corrosion in high temperature water with in situ proton irradiation.

  20. Exploring local adaptation and the ocean acidification seascape – studies in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Hofmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME, a temperate marine region dominated by episodic upwelling, is predicted to experience rapid environmental change in the future due to ocean acidification. Aragonite saturation state within the California Current System is predicted to decrease in the future, with near-permanent undersaturation conditions expected by the year 2050. Thus, the CCLME is a critical region to study due to the rapid rate of environmental change that resident organisms will experience and because of the economic and societal value of this coastal region. Recent efforts by a research consortium – the Ocean Margin Ecosystems Group for Acidification Studies (OMEGAS – has begun to characterize a portion of the CCLME; both describing the mosaic of pH in coastal waters and examining the responses of key calcification-dependent benthic marine organisms to natural variation in pH and to changes in carbonate chemistry that are expected in the coming decades. In this review, we present the OMEGAS strategy of co-locating sensors and oceanographic observations with biological studies on benthic marine invertebrates, specifically measurements of functional traits such as calcification-related processes and genetic variation in populations that are locally adapted to conditions in a particular region of the coast. Highlighted in this contribution are (1 the OMEGAS sensor network that spans the west coast of the US from central Oregon to southern California, (2 initial findings of the carbonate chemistry amongst the OMEGAS study sites, (3 an overview of the biological data that describes the acclimatization and the adaptation capacity of key benthic marine invertebrates within the CCLME.

  1. A new facility for high-energy neutron-induced fission studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokofiev, A.V. [The Svedberg Lab., Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)]|[V.G. Khlopin Radium Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Pomp, S.; Bergenwall, B.; Hildebrand, A.; Johansson, C.; Mermod, P.; Oesterlund, M.; Blomgren, J. [Dept. of Neutron Research, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden); Tippawan, U. [Dept. of Neutron Research, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)]|[Fast Neutron Research Facility, Chiang Mai Univ., Chiang Mai (Thailand); Dangtip, S. [Fast Neutron Research Facility, Chiang Mai Univ., Chiang Mai (Thailand); Einarsson, L. [The Svedberg Lab., Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden); Gavrikov, Yu.A.; Kotov, A.A.; Vaishnene, L.A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Gatchina, Leningrad District (Russian Federation); Germann, T. [Univ. of Konstanz, Konstanz (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    A new facility is constructed for measurements of neutron-induced fission cross-sections in the 20-180 MeV energy region versus the np scattering cross-section, which is adopted as the primary neutron standard. The advantage of the experiment compared to earlier studies is that the fission-fragment detection and the neutron-flux measurement via np scattering are performed simultaneously and at the same position in the beam, and, therefore, many sources of systematic errors cancel out. Further reduction of systematic errors is achieved due to ''embedded'' determination of effective solid angle of particle detectors using {alpha}-particles from the radioactive decay of the target nuclei. The performance of the facility is illustrated by first data obtained for angular distributions of fission fragments in the {sup 238}U(n,f) reaction. (orig.)

  2. A study of residence time distribution using radiotracer technique in the large scale plant facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetchagarun, S.; Tippayakul, C.; Petchrak, A.; Sukrod, K.; Khoonkamjorn, P.

    2017-06-01

    As the demand for troubleshooting of large industrial plants increases, radiotracer techniques, which have capability to provide fast, online and effective detections to plant problems, have been continually developed. One of the good potential applications of the radiotracer for troubleshooting in a process plant is the analysis of Residence Time Distribution (RTD). In this paper, the study of RTD in a large scale plant facility using radiotracer technique was presented. The objective of this work is to gain experience on the RTD analysis using radiotracer technique in a “larger than laboratory” scale plant setup which can be comparable to the real industrial application. The experiment was carried out at the sedimentation tank in the water treatment facility of Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (Public Organization). Br-82 was selected to use in this work due to its chemical property, its suitable half-life and its on-site availability. NH4Br in the form of aqueous solution was injected into the system as the radiotracer. Six NaI detectors were placed along the pipelines and at the tank in order to determine the RTD of the system. The RTD and the Mean Residence Time (MRT) of the tank was analysed and calculated from the measured data. The experience and knowledge attained from this study is important for extending this technique to be applied to industrial facilities in the future.

  3. Light ion production for a future radiobiological facility at CERN: preliminary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford-Haworth, Joshua; Bellodi, Giulia; Küchler, Detlef; Lombardi, Alessandra; Röhrich, Jörg; Scrivens, Richard

    2014-02-01

    Recent medical applications of ions such as carbon and helium have proved extremely effective for the treatment of human patients. However, before now a comprehensive study of the effects of different light ions on organic targets has not been completed. There is a strong desire for a dedicated facility which can produce ions in the range of protons to neon in order to perform this study. This paper will present the proposal and preliminary investigations into the production of light ions, and the development of a radiobiological research facility at CERN. The aims of this project will be presented along with the modifications required to the existing linear accelerator (Linac3), and the foreseen facility, including the requirements for an ion source in terms of some of the specification parameters and the flexibility of operation for different ion types. Preliminary results from beam transport simulations will be presented, in addition to some planned tests required to produce some of the required light ions (lithium, boron) to be conducted in collaboration with the Helmholtz-Zentrum für Materialien und Energie, Berlin.

  4. Improving pedestrian facilities in congested urban areas: a case study of Chennai city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, B.; Prasanna Kumar, R.

    2017-07-01

    Traffic congestion and lack of public pedestrian space are some problems faced by most urban metropolises. Conventionally walking has been a mode of transportation in Indian cities. The percentage of pedestrians may vary from 16 to 57 depending upon the city. Encounters between vehicular traffic and pedestrian traffic are at its rise currently. Rapid industrialization and urbanization in India has resulted in neglecting of pedestrian facilities. Consequently pedestrian are at greater risk for their safety more especially in the commercial zones of large cities. A change in perspective spotlight will create a sense of awareness that the pedestrian traffic is also vital as the vehicular traffic. Soothing the traffic would moderately cut the driving expediency but the pedestrians will get a much safer and peaceful route to their terminuses. Safety and comfort are the two pans of a balance while considering the pedestrian traffic. Considering these aspects, this study deals a study in improving pedestrian facilities by analysing the existing skeleton of the selected locations. The adequacy of facility is checked based on IRC latest guidelines and counteractive measures are postulated.

  5. Predictors for health facility delivery in Busia district of Uganda: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyait Agnes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the factors contributing to the high maternal morbidity and mortality in Uganda is the high proportion of pregnant women who do not deliver under supervision in health facilities. This study aimed to identify the independent predictors of health facility delivery in Busia a rural district in Uganda with a view of suggesting measures for remedial action. Methods In a cross sectional survey, 500 women who had a delivery in the past two years (from November 16 2005 to November 15 2007 were interviewed regarding place of delivery, demographic characteristics, reproductive history, attendance for antenatal care, accessibility of health services, preferred delivery positions, preference for disposal of placenta and mother’s autonomy in decision making. In addition the household socio economic status was assessed. The independent predictors of health facility delivery were identified by comparing women who delivered in health facilities to those who did not, using bivariate and binary logistic regression analysis. Results Eight independent predictors that favoured delivery in a health facility include: being of high socio-economic status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.8 95% Confidence interval [95% CI]1.2–6.3, previous difficult delivery (AOR 4.2, 95% CI 3.0–8.0, parity less than four (AOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.6–5.6, preference of supine position for second stage of labour (AOR 5.9, 95% CI 3.5–11.1 preferring health workers to dispose the placenta (AOR 12.1, 95% CI 4.3–34.1, not having difficulty with transport (AOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2–3.5, being autonomous in decision to attend antenatal care (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1–3.4 and depending on other people (e.g. spouse in making a decision of where to deliver from (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.4–4.6. A model with these 8 variables had an overall correct classification of 81.4% (chi square = 230.3, P  Conclusions These data suggest that in order to increase health facility deliveries

  6. Study on the facilities and procedures for meltwater erosion of thawed soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyun Ban

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High erosion rate of seasonal thawed soils by snow- and ice-melting runoff in the high altitude and latitude cold regions has great impacts on ecological systems, industries, agriculture and various manmade infrastructures as well as people's lives. The facilities and procedures are of great importance for the studies on simulating erosion processes of melt-frozen soil. This study focuses on the method and facility for simulating the thawing process of frozen soil. The facility includes soil freezing system, melt-water supply system and experimental flume system for thawed soil erosion. The soil freezing system provides enough space to freeze soil columns in flumes. The water supply system deliveries snow- or ice-melting water flow of constant-rate at 0 °C. The soil flumes of 200 or 300 cm long, 10 cm wide and 12 cm high are designed to be assemble and convenient for soil freezing before they are thawed in one-dimensional manner from top to bottom. The one-dimensional thawing process is realized as follows. The frozen soil flume is put on ice boxes and thermally insulated with heat-insulating materials all around to prevent frozen soil from being thawed from sidewalls and bottom. The soil thaws with this system shows that it can meet the requirements of simulating the process of soil thawing from top to bottom. The thawed soil flumes are connected from end to end to form rills of 6–8 m long to run the erosion experiments under different designed hydraulic condition. The equipment provides facility, method and operation process for simulating one-dimensional soil thawing to serve research on the effect of thawed soil depth on erosion process.

  7. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    The following chapters are included in this study: (1) fusion nuclear issues, (2) survey of experimental needs, (3) requirements of the experiments, (4) non-fusion facilities, (5) fusion facilities for nuclear experiments, and (6) fusion research and development scenarios. (MOW)

  8. Parametric study of an ODW scramaccelerator for hypersonic test facilities. [obligation detonation wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Joseph W.

    1990-01-01

    A parametric study has been conducted for an oblique detonation-wave (ODW) 'scramaccelerator' suitable for projectile aerothermodynamics studies in real gas hypersonic test facilities. The results of the present analytical design evaluation indicate that an ODW scramaccelerator using conventional gaseous propellants can accelerate projectiles of 0.1 to 1000 kg masses to speeds in the 6-10 km/sec range. Potential applications for such an accelerator encompass a hypersonic ballistic test range, kinetic energy weapon accelerators, mass drivers to LEO, projectile terminal ballistics testing, projectile/target interaction studies, inertial welders, and shock compactors.

  9. Public perception of odour and environmental pollution attributed to MSW treatment and disposal facilities: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Feo, Giovanni, E-mail: g.defeo@unisa.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, via Ponte don Melillo 1, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); De Gisi, Sabino [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, via Ponte don Melillo 1, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Williams, Ian D. [Waste Management Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Effects of closing MSW facilities on perception of odour and pollution studied. ► Residents’ perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished post closure. ► Odour perception showed an association with distance from MSW facilities. ► Media coverage increased knowledge about MSW facilities and how they operate. ► Economic compensation possibly affected residents’ views and concerns. - Abstract: If residents’ perceptions, concerns and attitudes towards waste management facilities are either not well understood or underestimated, people can produce strong opposition that may include protest demonstrations and violent conflicts such as those experienced in the Campania Region of Italy. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the closure of solid waste treatment and disposal facilities (two landfills and one RDF production plant) on public perception of odour and environmental pollution. The study took place in four villages in Southern Italy. Identical questionnaires were administered to residents during 2003 and after the closure of the facilities occurred in 2008. The residents’ perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished between 2003 and 2009 for the nearest villages, with odour perception showing an association with distance from the facilities. Post closure, residents had difficulty in identifying the type of smell due to the decrease in odour level. During both surveys, older residents reported most concern about the potentially adverse health impacts of long-term exposure to odours from MSW facilities. However, although awareness of MSW facilities and concern about potentially adverse health impacts varied according to the characteristics of residents in 2003, substantial media coverage produced an equalisation effect and increased knowledge about the type of facilities and how they operated. It is possible that residents of the village nearest to the facilities reported lower awareness of and concern about

  10. Numerical simulation of groundwater artificial recharge in a semiarid-climate basin of northwest Mexico, case study the Guadalupe Valley Aquifer, Baja California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Gaytan, J. R.; Herrera-Oliva, C. S.

    2013-05-01

    In this study was analyzed through a regional groundwater flow model the effects on groundwater levels caused by the application of different future groundwater management scenarios (2007-2025) at the Guadalupe Valley, in Baja California, Mexico. Among these studied alternatives are those scenarios designed in order to evaluate the possible effects generated for the groundwater artificial recharge in order to satisfy a future water demand with an extraction volume considered as sustainable. The State of Baja California has been subject to an increment of the agricultural, urban and industrials activities, implicating a growing water-demand. However, the State is characterized by its semiarid-climate with low surface water availability; therefore, has resulted in an extensive use of groundwater in local aquifer. Water level measurements indicate there has been a decline in water levels in the Guadalupe Valley for the past 30 years. The Guadalupe Valley aquifer represents one the major sources of water supply in Ensenada region. It supplies about 25% of the water distributed by the public water supplier at the city of Ensenada and in addition constitutes the main water resource for the local wine industries. Artificially recharging the groundwater system is one water resource option available to the study zone, in response to increasing water demand. The existing water supply system for the Guadalupe Valley and the city of Ensenada is limited since water use demand periods in 5 to 10 years or less will require the construction of additional facilities. To prepare for this short-term demand, one option available to water managers is to bring up to approximately 3.0 Mm3/year of treated water of the city of Ensenada into the valley during the low-demand winter months, artificially recharge the groundwater system, and withdraw the water to meet the summer demands. A 2- Dimensional groundwater flow was used to evaluate the effects of the groundwater artificial recharge

  11. Feasibility study for a biomedical experimental facility based on LEIR at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Abler, Daniel; Carli, Christian; Dosanjh, Manjit; Peach, Ken; Orecchia, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    In light of the recent European developments in ion beam therapy, there is a strong interest from the biomedical research community to have more access to clinically relevant beams. Beamtime for pre-clinical studies is currently very limited and a new dedicated facility would allow extensive research into the radiobiological mechanisms of ion beam radiation and the development of more refined techniques of dosimetry and imaging. This basic research would support the current clinical efforts of the new treatment centres in Europe (for example HIT, CNAO and MedAustron). This paper presents first investigations on the feasibility of an experimental biomedical facility based on the CERN Low Energy Ion Ring LEIR accelerator. Such a new facility could provide beams of light ions (from protons to neon ions) in a collaborative and cost-effective way, since it would rely partly on CERN’s competences and infrastructure. The main technical challenges linked to the implementation of a slow extraction scheme for LEIR an...

  12. A Study on the Allowable Safety Factor of Cut-Slopes for Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Soo; Yee, Eric [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, the issues of allowable safety factor design criteria for cut-slopes in nuclear facilities is derived through case analysis, a proposed construction work slope design criteria that provides relatively detailed conditions can be applied in case of the dry season and some unclear parts of slope design criteria be modified in case of the rainy season. This safety factor can be further subdivided into two; normal and earthquake factors, a factor of 1.5 is applied for normal conditions and a factor of 1.2 is applied for seismic conditions. This safety factor takes into consideration the effect of ground water and rainfall conditions. However, no criteria for the case of cut-slope in nuclear facilities and its response to seismic conditions is clearly defined, this can cause uncertainty in design. Therefore, this paper investigates the allowable safety factor for cut-slopes in nuclear facilities, reviews conditions of both local and international cut-slope models and finally suggests an alternative method of analysis. It is expected that the new design criteria adequately ensures the stability of the cut-slope to reflect clear conditions for both the supervising and design engineers.

  13. A comparative study on crash-influencing factors by facility types on urban expressway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Wu; Hideki Nakamura; Miho Asano

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at identifying crash-influencing factors by facility type of Nagoya Urban Expressway, considering the interaction of geometry, traffic flow, and ambient conditions. Crash rate (CR) model is firstly developed separately at four facility types: basic, merge, and diverge segments and sharp curve. Traffic flows are thereby categorized, and based on the traffic categories, the significances of factors affecting crashes are analyzed by principal component analysis. The results reveal that, the CR at merge segment is significantly higher than those at basic and diverge segments in uncongested flow, while the value is not significantly different at the three facility types in congested flow. In both un-and congested flows, sharp curve has the worst safety performance in view of its highest CR. Regarding influencing factors, geometric design and traffic flow are most significant in un- and congested flows, respectively. As mainline flow increases, the effect of merging ratio affecting crash is on the rise at basic and merge segments as opposed to the decreasing significance of diverging ratio at diverge segment. Mean-while, longer acceleration and deceleration lanes are adverse to safety in uncongested flow, while shorter acceleration and deceleration lanes are adverse in con-gested flow. Due to its special geometric design, crashes at sharp curve are highly associated with the large centrifugal force and heavy restricted visibility.

  14. Feasibility study for a biomedical experimental facility based on LEIR at CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, Daniel; Garonna, Adriano; Carli, Christian; Dosanjh, Manjit; Peach, Ken

    2013-07-01

    In light of the recent European developments in ion beam therapy, there is a strong interest from the biomedical research community to have more access to clinically relevant beams. Beamtime for pre-clinical studies is currently very limited and a new dedicated facility would allow extensive research into the radiobiological mechanisms of ion beam radiation and the development of more refined techniques of dosimetry and imaging. This basic research would support the current clinical efforts of the new treatment centres in Europe (for example HIT, CNAO and MedAustron). This paper presents first investigations on the feasibility of an experimental biomedical facility based on the CERN Low Energy Ion Ring LEIR accelerator. Such a new facility could provide beams of light ions (from protons to neon ions) in a collaborative and cost-effective way, since it would rely partly on CERN's competences and infrastructure. The main technical challenges linked to the implementation of a slow extraction scheme for LEIR and to the design of the experimental beamlines are described and first solutions presented. These include introducing new extraction septa into one of the straight sections of the synchrotron, changing the power supply configuration of the magnets, and designing a new horizontal beamline suitable for clinical beam energies, and a low-energy vertical beamline for particular radiobiological experiments.

  15. Implementation of a Zebrafish Health Program in a Research Facility: A 4-Year Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Ana C; Pereira, Nuno; Franco, Maysa; Vale, Liliana; Pereira, Margarida; Cunha, Mónica V; Amaro, Ana; Albuquerque, Teresa; Rebelo, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    In the past two decades, zebrafish (Danio rerio)-based research has contributed to significant scientific advances. Still, husbandry and health programs did not evolve at the same pace, as evidenced by the absence of general guidelines. Health monitoring is essential to animal welfare, to permit animal exchanges across facilities, to contribute to robust experimental results, and for data reproducibility. In this study, we report a health program implemented in a zebrafish research facility to prevent, monitor, and control pathogen, and disease dissemination. This program includes quarantine, routine health screening of sentinels, and nonroutine screenings of retired animals and sick/moribund individuals. An extensive list of clinical signs, lesions, and pathogens was monitored based on: daily observation of fish, necropsy, histology, and bacterial culture. The results indicate that the combined analysis of sentinels with the evaluation of sick/moribund animals enables a comprehensive description not only of pathogen prevalence but also of clinical and histopathologic lesions of resident animals. The establishment of a quarantine program revealed to be effective in the reduction of Pseudoloma neurophilia frequency in the main aquaria room. Finally, characterization of the colony health status based on this multiapproach program shows a low prevalence of lesions and pathogens in the facility.

  16. Robotic Seals as Therapeutic Tools in an Aged Care Facility: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Birks

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Robots, including robotic seals, have been used as an alternative to therapies such as animal assisted therapy in the promotion of health and social wellbeing of older people in aged care facilities. There is limited research available that evaluates the effectiveness of robot therapies in these settings. The aim of this study was to identify, explore, and describe the impact of the use of Paro robotic seals in an aged care facility in a regional Australian city. A qualitative, descriptive, exploratory design was employed. Data were gathered through interviews with the three recreational therapists employed at the facility who were also asked to maintain logs of their interactions with the Paro and residents. Data were transcribed and thematically analysed. Three major themes were identified from the analyses of these data: “a therapeutic tool that’s not for everybody,” “every interaction is powerful,” and “keeping the momentum.” Findings support the use of Paro as a therapeutic tool, revealing improvement in emotional state, reduction of challenging behaviours, and improvement in social interactions of residents. The potential benefits justify the investment in Paro, with clear evidence that these tools can have a positive impact that warrants further exploration.

  17. Are healthcare aides underused in long-term care? A cross-sectional study on continuing care facilities in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Mubashir A; Deutschlander, Siegrid; Charland, Paola

    2017-05-17

    Over the last 10 years, appropriate workforce utilisation has been an important discussion among healthcare practitioners and policy-makers. The role of healthcare aides (HCAs) has also expanded to improve their utilisation. This evolving role of HCAs in Canada has prompted calls for standardised training, education and scope of practice for HCAs. The purpose of this research was to examine the differences in HCAs training and utilisation in continuing care facilities. From June 2014 to July 2015, we conducted a mixed-method study on HCA utilisation in continuing care. This paper presents findings gathered solely from the prospective cross-sectional survey of continuing care facilities (long-term care (LTC) and supportive living (SL)) on HCA utilisation. We conducted this study in a Western Canadian province. The managers of the continuing care facilities (SL and LTC) were eligible to participate in the survey. The pattern of HCAs involvement in medication assistance and other care activities in SL and LTC facilities. We received 130 completed surveys (LTC=64 and SL=52). Our findings showed that approximately 81% of HCAs were fully certified. We found variations in how HCAs were used in SL and LTC facilities. Overall, HCAs in SL were more likely to be involved in medication management such as assisting with inhaled medication and oral medication delivery. A significantly larger proportion of survey respondents from SL facilities reported that medication assistance training was mandatory for their HCAs (86%) compared with the LTC facilities (50%) (p value facilities. HCAs in SL facilities may be considered better used according to their required educational training and competencies. Expanding the role of HCAs in LTC facilities may lead to a cost-effective and more efficient utilisation of workforce in continuing care facilities. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial

  18. Accreditation Status and Geographic Location of Outpatient Echocardiographic Testing Facilities Among Medicare Beneficiaries: The VALUE-ECHO Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott C; Wang, Kefeng; Dong, Chuanhui; Yi, Li; Marinovic Gutierrez, Carolina; Di Tullio, Marco R; Farrell, Mary Beth; Burgess, Pamela; Gornik, Heather L; Hamburg, Naomi M; Needleman, Laurence; Orsinelli, David; Robison, Susana; Rundek, Tatjana

    2017-08-08

    Accreditation of echocardiographic testing facilities by the Intersocietal Accreditation Commission (IAC) is supported by the American College of Cardiology and American Society of Echocardiography. However, limited information exists on the accreditation status and geographic distribution of echocardiographic facilities in the United States. Our study aimed to identify (1) the proportion of outpatient echocardiography facilities used by Medicare beneficiaries that are IAC accredited, (2) their geographic distribution, and (3) variations in procedure type and volume by accreditation status. As part of the VALUE-ECHO (Value of Accreditation, Location, and Utilization Evaluation-Echocardiography) study, we examined the proportion of IAC-accredited echocardiographic facilities performing outpatient echocardiography in the 2013 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services outpatient limited data set (100% sample) and their geographic distribution using geocoding in ArcGIS (ESRI, Redlands, CA). Among 4573 outpatient facilities billing Medicare for echocardiographic testing in 2013, 99.6% (n = 4554) were IAC accredited (99.7% in the 50 US states and 86.2% in Puerto Rico). The proportion IAC-accredited echocardiographic facilities varied by region, with 98.7%, 99.9%, 99.9%, 99.5%, and 86.2% of facilities accredited in the Northeast, South, Midwest, West, and Puerto Rico, respectively (P facilities. Most procedures (90.9%) were transthoracic echocardiograms, of which 99.7% were conducted in IAC-accredited echocardiographic facilities. Almost all outpatient echocardiographic facilities billed by Medicare are IAC accredited. This accreditation rate is substantially higher than previously reported for US outpatient vascular testing facilities (13% IAC accredited). The uniformity of imaging and interpretation protocols from a single accrediting body is important to facilitate optimal cardiovascular care. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  19. Safety study of a radioactive facility with TLD dosimetry; Estudio de seguridad de una instalacion radiactiva con dosimetria TLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez Villafanez, M.; Benavente Ruiz, M. A.; Ruiz Penalba, F. J.; Enriquez Payan, F.; Sotelo Garcia, O.; Rey Martinez, M.; Pardos Ibanez, R.

    2011-07-01

    The project purpose is to confirm experimentally the radiation safety using the technique of thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD), using the reference desk study carried out for gamma irradiation room in the Safety Study was authorized by the radioactive facility.

  20. A scoping study on energy-efficiency market transformation by California Utility DSM Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, J.; Prahl, R.; Schlegel, J.

    1996-07-01

    Market transformation has emerged as a central policy objective for future publicly-funded energy-efficiency programs in California. California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) Decision 95-12-063 calls for public funding to shift to activities designed to transform the energy-efficiency market. The CPUC envisions that funding {open_quotes}would only be needed for specific and limited periods of time to cause the market to be transformed{close_quotes}. At the same time, the CPUC also acknowledges that {open_quotes}there are many definitions of market transformation{close_quotes} ... and does {open_quotes}not attempt to refine those definitions today{close_quotes}. We argue that a definition of market transformation is essential. The literature is now replete with definitions, and an operational definition is needed for the CPUC to decide on which programs should be supported with public funds. The CPUC decision initially indicated a preference for programs that do not provide financial assistance 4-efficiency programs that rely on financial assistance to customers. However, energy customers have traditionally accounted for a substantial portion of California utility`s DSM programs, so the CPUC`s direction to use ratepayer funds to support programs that will transform the market raises critical questions about how to analyze what has happened in order to plan effectively for the future: Which utility energy-efficiency programs, including those that provide financial assistance to customers, have had market transforming effects? To what extent do current regulatory rules and practices encourage or discourage utilities from running programs that are designed to transform the market? Should the rules and programs be modified, and, if so, how, to promote market transformation?

  1. Ostracode Paleoecology and Trace Element Shell Chemistry: A case study from Laguna Salada, Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Mayen, V.; Bernal, J.; Palacios-Fest, M.; Carreno, A.

    2007-05-01

    The Laguna Salada Basin in northeastern Baja California constitutes the southwestern limit of the Salton Trough and provides insights into the evolution of marine and non-marine sedimentary basins during the latest Neogene at the head of the Gulf of California. A 43 m long core (LS04-1) recovered from the Basin consisted of alternating clay, silt and sand beds with gypsum lenses. Three radiocarbon dates provided the age control: 41,520±790 cal years BP at 30.21 m, 25,590±320 cal years BP at 26.60 m and 15,150±70 cal years BP at 7.50 m. A total of 103 samples were analyzed for taxonomy, taphonomy and geochemistry. Eighteen marine and brackish- water ostracode species and nine benthic foraminifera species were identified. Faunal changes suggest variations in the water source with the opening of the basin to the Gulf of California. The Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios of valves of two ostracode species (Limnocythere staplini and Cyprideis castus) were measured using ICPMS. Based on the Mg/Ca ratios, water paleotemperatures were estimated using a regression model. Shell chemistry shows mixed results. Some intervals fit an acceptable range, whereas other are unrealistic. Analysis of Sr/Ca ratios ostracode valves from the conflicting horizons show evidence of diagenetic effects. The fossil assemblages indicate two dry periods: prior to the 41,520 cal years BP and after the 15 ,150 cal years BP, with the maximum highstand of the basin between 25,590 and 15,150 cal years BP. Given the diagenetic effects at Laguna Salada, ostracode shell chemistry paleotemperature estimates may not be warranted in attempting to determine this parameter from the dry periods shown by faunal assemblages.

  2. A scoping study on energy-efficiency market transformation by California Utility DSM Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, J.; Prahl, R.; Schlegel, J.

    1996-07-01

    Market transformation has emerged as a central policy objective for future publicly-funded energy-efficiency programs in California. California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) Decision 95-12-063 calls for public funding to shift to activities designed to transform the energy-efficiency market. The CPUC envisions that funding {open_quotes}would only be needed for specific and limited periods of time to cause the market to be transformed{close_quotes}. At the same time, the CPUC also acknowledges that {open_quotes}there are many definitions of market transformation{close_quotes} ... and does {open_quotes}not attempt to refine those definitions today{close_quotes}. We argue that a definition of market transformation is essential. The literature is now replete with definitions, and an operational definition is needed for the CPUC to decide on which programs should be supported with public funds. The CPUC decision initially indicated a preference for programs that do not provide financial assistance 4-efficiency programs that rely on financial assistance to customers. However, energy customers have traditionally accounted for a substantial portion of California utility`s DSM programs, so the CPUC`s direction to use ratepayer funds to support programs that will transform the market raises critical questions about how to analyze what has happened in order to plan effectively for the future: Which utility energy-efficiency programs, including those that provide financial assistance to customers, have had market transforming effects? To what extent do current regulatory rules and practices encourage or discourage utilities from running programs that are designed to transform the market? Should the rules and programs be modified, and, if so, how, to promote market transformation?

  3. Comprehensive Condition Survey and Storm Waves, Circulation, and Sedimentation Study, Dana Point Harbor, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    were estimated by wave hindcast in deep water , wave transformation that accounts for offshore island sheltering, and the CMS-Wave simulations that... waters of Southern California very often remain unaffected under the influence of the Catalina eddy circulation. Waves traveling at a variance to the...located west of San Nicholas Island at 33.125°N (latitude) and 120.0°W (longitude) in a water depth of 1,000 meters (3,300 feet). The 39-year GROW

  4. A Cultural Resource Reconnaissance Study of Proposed Dredging and Construction Areas at Mission Bay Harbor, California,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-16

    Park 23 4.5 Existing Project Area Jetties 24 4.6 Dredging History 24 4.7 Historic Vessel Losses 25 5.0 SURVEY METHODOLOGY 27 5.1 Remote Sensing 29...basement rocks of the San Diego coastal area are a complex series of metamorphics and granitics formed in the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. The surface...the sea. No evidence of its presence now exists within the project areas. 4.4 MISSION BAY PARK The California Division of Parks acquired miscellaneous

  5. Post project evaluation, Miller Creek, California : assessment of stream bed morphology, and recommendations for future study

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Wan-chih; Pope-Daum, Caitilin

    2004-01-01

    Miller creek is located in Marin County, California, and runs east from Big Rock Ridge through the Laws Gallinas Valley and into the San Pablo Bay. The Miller Creek watershed has been grazed continuously since the 1800s, and the creek has experienced sever widening and down cutting as a result. The miller Creek restoration Project, located in the Lucas Valley Estates subdivision and designed and built from 1979 to 1989, employed a multi-stage channel approach to restore and protect a riparian...

  6. A Study of Critical Flowrate in the Integral Effect Test Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeongsik; Ryu, Sunguk; Cho, Seok; Yi, Sungjae; Park, Hyunsik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In earlier studies, most of the information available in the literature was either for a saturated two-phase flow or a sub-cooled water flow at medium pressure conditions, e. g., up to about 7.0 MPa. The choking is regarded as a condition of maximum possible discharge through a given orifice and/or nozzle exit area. A critical flow rate can be achieved at a choking under the given thermo-hydraulic conditions. The critical flow phenomena were studied extensively in both single-phase and two-phase systems because of its importance in the LOCA analyses of light water reactors and in the design of other engineering areas. Park suggested a modified correlation for predicting the critical flow for sub-cooled water through a nozzle. Recently, Park et al. performed an experimental study on a two-phase critical flow with a noncondensable gas at high pressure conditions. Various experiments of critical flow using sub-cooled water were performed for a modeling of break simulators in thermohydraulic integral effect test facilities for light water reactors, e. g., an advanced power reactor 1400MWe (APR1400) and a system-integrated modular advanced reactor (SMART). For the design of break simulators of SBLOCA scenarios, the aspect ratio (L/D) is considered to be a key parameter to determine the shape of a break simulator. In this paper, an investigation of critical flow phenomena was performed especially on break simulators for LOCA scenarios in the integral effect test facilities of KAERI, such as ATLAS and FESTA. In this study, various studies on the critical flow models for sub-cooled and/or saturated water were reviewed. For a comparison among the models for the selected test data, discussions of the comparisons on the effect of the diameters, predictions of critical flow models, and break simulators for SBLOCA in the integral effect test facilities were presented.

  7. Public perception of odour and environmental pollution attributed to MSW treatment and disposal facilities: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, Giovanni; De Gisi, Sabino; Williams, Ian D

    2013-04-01

    If residents' perceptions, concerns and attitudes towards waste management facilities are either not well understood or underestimated, people can produce strong opposition that may include protest demonstrations and violent conflicts such as those experienced in the Campania Region of Italy. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the closure of solid waste treatment and disposal facilities (two landfills and one RDF production plant) on public perception of odour and environmental pollution. The study took place in four villages in Southern Italy. Identical questionnaires were administered to residents during 2003 and after the closure of the facilities occurred in 2008. The residents' perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished between 2003 and 2009 for the nearest villages, with odour perception showing an association with distance from the facilities. Post closure, residents had difficulty in identifying the type of smell due to the decrease in odour level. During both surveys, older residents reported most concern about the potentially adverse health impacts of long-term exposure to odours from MSW facilities. However, although awareness of MSW facilities and concern about potentially adverse health impacts varied according to the characteristics of residents in 2003, substantial media coverage produced an equalisation effect and increased knowledge about the type of facilities and how they operated. It is possible that residents of the village nearest to the facilities reported lower awareness of and concern about odour and environmental pollution because the municipality received economic compensation for their presence.

  8. Integrating with users is one thing, but living with them? A case study on loss of space from the Medical Center Library, University of California, San Diego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Craig

    2010-01-01

    The University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Medical Center is the primary hospital for the UCSD School of Medicine. The UCSD Medical Center Library (MCL), a branch of the campus's biomedical library, is located on the medical center campus. In 2007, the medical center administration made a request to MCL for space in its facility to relocate pharmacy administration from the hospital tower. The university librarian brought together a team of library managers to deliberate and develop a proposal, which ultimately accommodated the medical center's request and enhanced some of MCL's public services.

  9. Feasibility study for a recirculating linac-based facility for femtosecond dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Corlett, J N; Barry, W; Byrd, J M; De Santis, S; Doolittle, L; Fawley, W; Green, M A; Hartman, N; Heimann, P A; Kairan, D; Kujawski, E; Li, D; Lidia, S M; Luft, P; McClure, R; Parmigiani, F; Petroff, Y; Pirkl, Werner; Placidi, Massimo; Ratti, A; Reavill, D; Reichel, I; Rimmer, R A; Robinson, K E; Sannibale, F; Schönlein, R W; Staples, J; Tanabe, J; Truchlikova, D; Wan, W; Wang, S; Wells, R; Wolski, A; Zholents, A

    2002-01-01

    LBNL is pursuing design studies and the scientific program for a facility of the production of x-ray pulses with ultra-short time duration, for application in dynamical studies of processes in physics, biology, and chemistry. The proposed x-ray facility has the short x-ray pulse length (approx 60 fs FWHM) necessary to study very fast dynamics, high flux (up to approximately 10E11 photons/sec/0.1 percentBW) to study weakly scattering systems, and tuneability over 1-12 keV photon energy. The hard x-ray photon production section of the machine accommodates seven 2-m long undulators. Design studies for longer wavelength sources, using high-gain harmonic generation, are in progress. The x-ray pulse repetition rate of 10 kHz is matched to studies of dynamical processes (initiated by ultra-short laser pulses) that typically have a long recovery time or are not generally cyclic or reversible and need time to allow relaxation, replacement, or flow of the sample. The technique for producing ultra-short x-ray pulses use...

  10. Groundwater-Quality Data in the South Coast Range-Coastal Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Burton, Carmen A.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 766-square-mile South Coast Range-Coastal (SCRC) study unit was investigated from May to December 2008, as part of the Priority Basins Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basins Project was developed in response to legislative mandates (Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act 1999-00 Fiscal Year; and, the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 [Sections 10780-10782.3 of the California Water Code, Assembly Bill 599]) to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater in California, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The SCRC study unit was the 25th study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA Priority Basins Project. The SCRC study unit was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated groundwater quality in the primary aquifer systems and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) were defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the SCRC study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from the quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the SCRC study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 70 wells in two study areas (Basins and Uplands) in Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 15 wells were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). In addition to

  11. Occupational disease surveillance of an aircraft rework facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, F; Bundy, M; Kennon, R

    1990-11-01

    Analysis of the 1987-1988 morbidity data of an aircraft rework facility's 6,672 employees identified 118 patients with occupational diseases. In our study, 61 cases (52%) involved eye and skin conditions. This was comparable to the State of California occupational diseases report. However, systemic conditions appeared to be higher (24% vs. 7%) in the study group, and this finding may need further investigation to clarify its significance. Patients employed as craftworkers accounted for nearly half of all reported occupational diseases. Federal workers in this facility appeared to have a higher percentage (70%) of "no time lost" when compared with that of the State of California report (54%). The utility of morbidity data in the prevention of occupational diseases is discussed.

  12. SIRIUS-T: A study of a symmetrically illuminated inertial confinement fusion tritium production facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, B.; Sviatoslavksy, I.N.; Bruggink, D.; Engelstad, R.L.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Larsen, E.M.; Lovell, E.G.; MacFarlane, J.J.; Mogahed, E.A.; Moses, G.A.; Moucha, A.; Peterson, R.R.; Powers, J.; Sawan, M.E.; Wittenberg, L.J.

    1990-12-01

    The aging US tritium production reactors are slowly being phased out and the US Department of Energy has initiated a New Production Reactors Program'' which will provide for the design, construction and operation of new facilities for the production of tritium and other special nuclear materials. Preliminary requirements are currently being prepared, leading to construction and operation by the year 2000. Unfortunately, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) cannot possibly be ready to perform such a task on this short time scale. However, it is instructive to see how well it can do in producing tritium when ICF has been demonstrated and a comparison with the proposed production schemes is conducted here. SIRIUS-T is conceptual design study of a tritium production facility utilizing direct drive symmetrically illuminated inertial confinement fusion. The T'' designation distinguishes it from SIRIUS-M, a materials facility, and SIRIUS-C, a commercial power plant. As in any other fusion related design study, a certain amount of technical extrapolation has been made in SIRIUS-T. It should be said early on, however, that in areas of uncertainty, we have always taken the conservative approach. This is evident in our choice of target gain, number of beams selected for symmetric illumination and elsewhere throughout the study. In performing the economic analysis we have also attempted to err on the conservative side. This too is evident in our costing of the driver and the reactor chamber. For these reasons, we feel that this study projects enough confidence as to make it worthy of comparison with the other proposed production systems.

  13. Groundwater-Quality Data in the South Coast Interior Basins Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Ray, Mary C.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 653-square-mile South Coast Interior Basins (SCI) study unit was investigated from August to December 2008, as part of the Priority Basins Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basins Project was developed in response to Legislative mandates (Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act 1999-00 Fiscal Year; and, the Groundwater-Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 [Sections 10780-10782.3 of the California Water Code, Assembly Bill 599]) to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater used as public supply for municipalities in California, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). SCI was the 27th study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA Priority Basins Project. This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater used for public water supplies within SCI, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 54 wells within the three study areas [Livermore, Gilroy, and Cuyama] of SCI in Alameda, Santa Clara, San Benito, Santa Barbara, Ventura, and Kern Counties. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 19 were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, polar pesticides and metabolites, and pharmaceutical compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [trace elements, nutrients, major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids (TDS), and alkalinity

  14. Investigating Public Facility Characteristics from a Spatial Interaction Perspective: A Case Study of Beijing Hospitals Using Taxi Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Kong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Services provided by public facilities are essential to people’s lives and are closely associated with human mobility. Traditionally, public facility access characteristics, such as accessibility, equity issues and service areas, are investigated mainly based on static data (census data, travel surveys and particular records, such as medical records. Currently, the advent of big data offers an unprecedented opportunity to obtain large-scale human mobility data, which can be used to study the characteristics of public facilities from the spatial interaction perspective. Intuitively, spatial interaction characteristics and service areas of different types and sizes of public facilities are different, but how different remains an open question, so we, in turn, examine this question. Based on spatial interaction, we classify public facilities and explore the differences in facilities. In the research, based on spatial interaction extracted from taxi data, we introduce an unsupervised classification method to classify 78 hospitals in 6 districts of Beijing, and the results better reflect the type of hospital. The findings are of great significance for optimizing the spatial configuration of medical facilities or other types of public facilities, allocating public resources reasonably and relieving traffic pressure.

  15. Studies of timing properties for a TOF counter at an external target facility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yu-Hong; XU Hua-Gen; XU Hu-Shan; ZHAN Wen-Long; SUN Zhi-Yu; GUO Zhong-Yan; HU Zheng-Guo; CHEN Jun-Ling; TANG Shu-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Timing and amplitude properties of a prototype scintillator TOF counter at an external target facility are studied with a cosmic rays test. The dependence of signal pulse height and time resolution on the coordinate along the scintillator TOF counter is investigated with two different discriminators. A time resolution of 165 ps can be achieved at the center of the counter with a constant fraction discriminator. Time resolution better than 150 ps is obtained at the center with a leading edge discriminator after time walk correction is applied for off-line analysis.

  16. Study of 234U(n,f) Resonances Measured at the CERN n_TOF Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Cidoncha, E; Paradela, C; Tarrío, D; Leong, L S; Audouin, L; Tassan-Got, L; Praena, J; Berthier, B; Ferrant, L; Isaev, S; Le Naour, C; Stephan, C; Trubert, D; Abbondanno, U; Aerts, G; Álvarez, H; Álvarez-Velarde, F; Andriamonje, S; Andrzejewski, J; Badurek, G; Baumann, P; Bečvář, F; Berthoumieux, E; Calviño, F; Calviani, M; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Carrapiço, C; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N; Cortes, G; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M; David, S.; Dillmann, I; Domingo-Pardo, C; Dridi, W; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid-Segura, M; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R; Fujii, K; Furman, W; Gonçalves, I; González-Romero, E; Gramegna, F; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Haas, B; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Kerveno, M; Koehler, P; Kossionides, E; Krtička, M; Lampoudis, C; Leeb, H; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Marganiec, J; Marrone, S; Martínez, T; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Moreau, C; Mosconi, M; Neves, F; Oberhummer, H; O'Brien, S; Oshima, M; Pancin, J; Papadopoulos, C; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L; Pigni, M T; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Santos, C; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Vannini, G; Vaz, P; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D; Vincente, M C; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K

    2014-01-01

    We present the analysis of the resolved resonance region for the U-234(n,f) cross section data measured at the CERN n\\_TOF facility. The resonance parameters in the energy range from 1 eV to 1500 eV have been obtained with the SAMMY code by using as initial parameters for the fit the resonance parameters of the JENDL-3.3 evaluation. In addition, the statistical analysis has been accomplished, partly with the SAMDIST code, in order to study the level spacing and the Mehta-Dyson correlation.

  17. Preliminary Studies on Bioconcentration of Heavy Metals in Nile Tilapia from Tono Irrigation Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apori Ntiforo Sam-Quarcoo Dotse

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study has identified and measured the concentrations of heavy metals in the body tissue of Nile Tilapia from the Tono Irrigation facility located in the Kassena-Nankana East District of the Upper East Region of Ghana. Using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA, Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Nickel, Vanadium and Zinc were identified and their mean concentrations were 0.23, 0.02, 0.2, 1.03, 45.95, 19, 0.21, 0.27 and 12.76 :g/g, respectively. The order of mean concentration of heavy metals in fish samples was Cd

  18. Fundraising Practices of the University of California, the California State University, and California Private Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsevar, Kent J.

    2012-01-01

    Factors such as a declining tax revenues and an underperforming economy have been justifying the need for additional external private funding to meet the increasing needs of a growing California higher education system and ethnically diverse student body. The purpose of this study was to examine ways in which California private higher education…

  19. Planning Considerations for a Mars Sample Receiving Facility: Summary and Interpretation of Three Design Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, David W.; Allen, Carlton C.; Bass, Deborah S.; Buxbaum, Karen L.; Campbell, James K.; Lindstrom, David J.; Miller, Sylvia L.; Papanastassiou, Dimitri A.

    2009-10-01

    It has been widely understood for many years that an essential component of a Mars Sample Return mission is a Sample Receiving Facility (SRF). The purpose of such a facility would be to take delivery of the flight hardware that lands on Earth, open the spacecraft and extract the sample container and samples, and conduct an agreed-upon test protocol, while ensuring strict containment and contamination control of the samples while in the SRF. Any samples that are found to be non-hazardous (or are rendered non-hazardous by sterilization) would then be transferred to long-term curation. Although the general concept of an SRF is relatively straightforward, there has been considerable discussion about implementation planning. The Mars Exploration Program carried out an analysis of the attributes of an SRF to establish its scope, including minimum size and functionality, budgetary requirements (capital cost, operating costs, cost profile), and development schedule. The approach was to arrange for three independent design studies, each led by an architectural design firm, and compare the results. While there were many design elements in common identified by each study team, there were significant differences in the way human operators were to interact with the systems. In aggregate, the design studies provided insight into the attributes of a future SRF and the complex factors to consider for future programmatic planning.

  20. Planning considerations for a Mars Sample Receiving Facility: summary and interpretation of three design studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, David W; Allen, Carlton C; Bass, Deborah S; Buxbaum, Karen L; Campbell, James K; Lindstrom, David J; Miller, Sylvia L; Papanastassiou, Dimitri A

    2009-10-01

    It has been widely understood for many years that an essential component of a Mars Sample Return mission is a Sample Receiving Facility (SRF). The purpose of such a facility would be to take delivery of the flight hardware that lands on Earth, open the spacecraft and extract the sample container and samples, and conduct an agreed-upon test protocol, while ensuring strict containment and contamination control of the samples while in the SRF. Any samples that are found to be non-hazardous (or are rendered non-hazardous by sterilization) would then be transferred to long-term curation. Although the general concept of an SRF is relatively straightforward, there has been considerable discussion about implementation planning. The Mars Exploration Program carried out an analysis of the attributes of an SRF to establish its scope, including minimum size and functionality, budgetary requirements (capital cost, operating costs, cost profile), and development schedule. The approach was to arrange for three independent design studies, each led by an architectural design firm, and compare the results. While there were many design elements in common identified by each study team, there were significant differences in the way human operators were to interact with the systems. In aggregate, the design studies provided insight into the attributes of a future SRF and the complex factors to consider for future programmatic planning.

  1. Distribution of Urban Services and Facilities on the basis of Social Justice (Case Study: Yasouj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Tirban

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   In recent years urban studies with a view of social justice is known to be one of the most important approaches. In this approach, different indices are given attention, among which access to urban services and added values of land are the most important two. One of the best optimal ways to provide urban services is to divide a city, as a system, into different parts and distribute services in proportion to demographic characteristics of each part. The present paper is based on an applied research and is descriptive-case study in nature. The data was collected through the use of existence resources, and was based on field impressions. Also, the measurement tool is based on Askalvgram and Moris taxonomy, Coefficiency, standardization of different data, and central location. The findings of the study show that urban areas of Yasouj are not different in terms of accessibility to urban services and facilities. Land price, and as a result the added value of land, follow the discussed indicators in a meaningful way. And urban services are distributed justly in different parts of the city according to the situation. As a result, first parts 1 and 2 of the city and then part 3 and 4 have received facilities and added value.

  2. Wii-Fit for Improving Gait and Balance in an Assisted Living Facility: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana P. Padala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the effects on balance and gait of a Wii-Fit program compared to a walking program in subjects with mild Alzheimer’s dementia (AD. Methods. A prospective randomized (1 : 1 pilot study with two intervention arms was conducted in an assisted living facility with twenty-two mild AD subjects. In both groups the intervention occurred under supervision for 30 minutes daily, five times a week for eight weeks. Repeated measures ANOVA and paired t-tests were used to analyze changes. Results. Both groups showed improvement in Berg Balance Scale (BBS, Tinetti Test (TT and Timed Up and Go (TUG over 8 weeks. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups over time. Intragroup analysis in the Wii-Fit group showed significant improvement on BBS (P=0.003, and TT (P=0.013. The walking group showed a trend towards improvement on BBS (P=0.06 and TUG (P=0.07 and significant improvement in TT (P=0.006. Conclusion. This pilot study demonstrates the safety and efficacy of Wii-Fit in an assisted living facility in subjects with mild AD. Use of Wii-Fit resulted in significant improvements in balance and gait comparable to those in the robust monitored walking program. These results need to be confirmed in a larger, methodologically sound study.

  3. Building America Case Study: Indoor Heat Pump Water Heaters During Summer in a Hot-Dry Climate, Redding, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-15

    Heat pump water heaters offer a significant opportunity to improve water heating performance for the over 40% of U.S. households that heat domestic hot water using electric resistance storage water heaters. Numerous field studies have also been completed documenting performance in a variety of climates and applications. More recent evaluation efforts have focused attention on the performance of May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners. Summer results show favorable system performance with extrapolated annual water heating savings of 1,466 to 2,300 kWh per year, based on the observed hot water loads. Additional summer space cooling benefits savings of 121 to 135 kWh per year were projected, further increasing the water heating savings by 5-9%. Given the project schedule for 2014 completion, no heating season impacts were able to be monitored. May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners. Summer results show favorable system performance with extrapolated annual water heating savings of 1,466 to 2,300 kWh per year, based on the observed hot water loads. Additional summer space cooling benefits savings of 121 to 135 kWh per year were projected, further increasing the water heating savings by 5-9%. Given the project schedule for 2014 completion, no heating season impacts were able to be monitored.

  4. Does Moral Distress Differ Between California Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists in Independent Versus Medically Supervised Practice: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumouchel, Michael; Boytim, Michael; Gorman, Nicholas; Weismuller, Penny

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this exploratory, descriptive study was to determine if moral distress levels differed between certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs) working in medically supervised versus independent practice in California. A 63-question survey was administered to 1,190 California CRNAs. Moral distress was measured by the included Ethics Stress Scale. The response rate was 14.7%, yielding demographic and Ethics Stress scores for 175 respondents. Sixty-five participants answered an open-ended question about moral distress yielding qualitative data. Medically supervised CRNAs had a lower mean moral distress scores (176.8) versus independent practice CRNAs (187.8) (p = .002). Lower scores on the ESS indicate higher moral distress. Qualitative data demonstrated that CRNAs experienced moral distress in the following situations: when pressured to give anesthesia to unoptimized patients, when differences of opinion regarding anesthetic plans occurred, in dealing with end-of-life issues, when working with incompetent providers, and during interprofessional struggles between CRNAs and anesthesiologists. In order to reduce moral distress among CRNAs, implications for practice include increased administrative support, increased communication and reciprocated collegial respect between anesthesiologists and CRNAs, and CRNA representation on ethics committees.

  5. Final corrective action study for the former CCC/USDA facility in Ramona, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-04-20

    Past operations at a grain storage facility formerly leased and operated by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) in Ramona, Kansas, resulted in low concentrations of carbon tetrachloride in groundwater that slightly exceed the regulatory standard in only one location. As requested by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment, the CCC/USDA has prepared a Corrective Action Study (CAS) for the facility. The CAS examines corrective actions to address groundwater impacted by the former CCC/USDA facility but not releases caused by other potential groundwater contamination sources in Ramona. Four remedial alternatives were considered in the CAS. The recommended remedial alternative in the CAS consists of Environmental Use Control to prevent the inadvertent use of groundwater as a water supply source, coupled with groundwater monitoring to verify the continued natural improvement in groundwater quality. The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) has directed Argonne National Laboratory to prepare a Corrective Action Study (CAS), consistent with guidance from the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE 2001a), for the CCC/USDA grain storage facility formerly located in Ramona, Kansas. This effort is pursuant to a KDHE (2007a) request. Although carbon tetrachloride levels at the Ramona site are low, they remain above the Kansas Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5 {micro}g/L (Kansas 2003, 2004). In its request for the CAS, the KDHE (2007a) stated that, because of these levels, risk is associated with potential future exposure to contaminated groundwater. The KDHE therefore determined that additional measures are warranted to limit future use of the property and/or exposure to contaminated media as part of site closure. The KDHE further requested comparison of at least two corrective

  6. Groundwater-quality data in the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau study unit, 2010-Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 39,000-square-kilometer Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau (CAMP) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from July through October 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The CAMP study unit is the thirty-second study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA PBP. The GAMA CAMP study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the open or screened intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the CAMP study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from the quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the CAMP study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 90 wells and springs in 6 study areas (Sacramento Valley Eastside, Honey Lake Valley, Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau Low Use Basins, Shasta Valley and Mount Shasta Volcanic Area, Quaternary Volcanic Areas, and Tertiary Volcanic Areas) in Butte, Lassen, Modoc, Plumas, Shasta, Siskiyou, and Tehama Counties. Wells and springs were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Groundwater samples were analyzed for field water-quality indicators, organic constituents, perchlorate, inorganic constituents

  7. Descriptive study of California egg layer premises and analysis of risk factors for Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis as characterized by manure drag swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellan, David M; Kinde, Hailu; Kass, Philip H; Cutler, Gregg; Breitmeyer, Richard E; Bell, Donald D; Ernst, Ralph A; Kerr, David C; Little, Herbert E; Willoughby, David; Riemann, Hans P; Ardans, Alex; Snowdon, Jill A; Kuney, Douglas R

    2004-09-01

    This cross-sectional, double-blind study reports the prevalence of Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis (SE) on California egg layer premises using single vs. pooled manure drag swabs and presents a description of egg production and management systems in the state and an initial analysis of risk factors for SE. The study included 91% of all known eligible egg premises in California, representing the majority of eggs produced in the state. The overall prevalence of SE on California egg layer premises was 10.5%, while 1.1% of all rows sampled were positive for SE. The percentage of positive rows for SE on any premises never exceeded 25% of the 16 swabs collected per premises. A description of egg production and management on California egg layer premises is presented. Statistically significant associations for SE were not evident and were limited because of sample size and the low prevalence of SE on California egg layer premises. Several biological and management factors, such as flock health, stage of production, manure management, ventilation, and watering systems, show trend associations with premises positive for SE and require further investigation. Manure drag swabs serve as a useful tool to validate the core components of an egg quality assurance program for SE based on process control principles.

  8. Morphology and Mixing of Black Carbon Particles Collected in Central California During the CARES Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffet, Ryan; O' Brien, Rachel; Alpert, Peter A.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Pham, Don Q.; Gilles, Mary K.; Knopf, Daniel A.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-11-23

    Aerosol absorption is strongly dependent on the internal heterogeneity (mixing state) and morphology of individual particles containing black carbon (BC) and other non-absorbing species. Here, we examine an extensive microscopic data set collected in the California central valley during the CARES 2010 field campaign. During a period of high photochemical activity and pollution buildup, the particle mixing state and morphology were characterized using Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) at the carbon K-edge. Observations of compacted BC core morphologies and thick organic coatings at both urban and rural sites provide evidence of the aged nature of the particles. Based on the observation of thick coatings and more convex BC inclusion morphology, the contribution of fresh BC emissions at the urban site was relatively small. These measurements of BC morphology and mixing state provide important constraints for the morphological effects on BC optical properties expected in aged urban plumes.

  9. Low-income Renewable Energy Programs: Case Studies of State Policy in California and Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kaitlin

    Energy policies aimed at reducing the burden of monthly utility costs on low-income families have been established since the 1970s. Energy use impacts low-income families and organizations through housing specific costs, health and wellness, and opportunity costs. States have begun to run renewable energy installation programs aimed at reducing costs for low-income communities. This thesis examines two of these programs, the solar photovoltaic policies in California as part of the Single Family Affordable Solar Housing and Multi-family Affordable Solar Housing programs, and the Low-income Solar Housing program in Massachusetts. Lessons learned from reviewing these programs are that renewable energy programs are an effective strategy for reducing utility costs for low-income communities, but that the total effectiveness of the program is dependent on removing cost barriers, implementing energy efficiency improvements, and increasing consumer education through established community networks and relationships.

  10. Demand management of city gas per season and study of estimating proper size of LNG storage facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Y.H.; Kim, S.D. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    LNG storage facilities are indispensable to satisfy demand throughout the year by saturating the time difference of supply and demand that appears due to seasonal factors. The necessity of storage facilities is more important in a country like Korea where LNG is not produced at all and imports are relied upon. The problem of deciding how much storage facilities to keep and in what pattern to import LNG is a question to solve in order to minimize the costs related to the construction of LNG storage facilities while not causing any problem in the supply and demand of LNG. This study analyzes how the import of LNG and the consumption pattern of LNG for power generation affect the decision on the size of storage facilities. How the shipping control, and how LNG demand for power generation affect the decision of requirement of storage facilities, and why the possibility of shipping control should be investigated in the aspect of costs is investigated. As a result of this study, I presented necessary basic data for drafting a policy by assessing the minimum requirements of storage facilities needed for balancing the supply and demand with the various shipping control and LNG consumption patterns through simulation up to the year 2010. 10 refs., 33 figs., 66 tabs.

  11. Estimating the impacts of fishing on dependent predators: a case study in the California Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J C; MacCall, A D; Bradley, R W; Sydeman, W J

    2010-12-01

    Juvenile rockfish (Sebastes spp.) are important prey to seabirds in the California Current System, particularly during the breeding season. Both seabird breeding success and the abundance of pelagic juvenile rockfish show high interannual variability. This covariation is largely a response to variable ocean conditions; however, fishing on adult rockfish may have had consequences for seabird productivity (e.g., the number of chicks fledged per breeding pair) by reducing the availability of juvenile rockfish to provisioning seabird parents. We tested the hypothesis that fishing has decreased juvenile rockfish availability and thereby limited seabird productivity over the past 30 years. We quantified relationships between observed juvenile rockfish relative abundance and seabird productivity, used fisheries stock assessment approaches to estimate the relative abundance of juvenile rockfish in the absence of fishing, and compared the differences in seabird productivity that would have resulted without rockfish fisheries. We examined the abundance of juvenile rockfish and the corresponding productivity of three seabird species breeding on Southeast Farallon Island (near San Francisco, California, USA) from the early 1980s to the present. Results show that while the relative abundance of juvenile rockfish has declined to approximately 50% of the estimated unfished biomass, seabirds achieved 75-95% of the estimated un-impacted levels of productivity, depending upon the species of bird and various model assumptions. These results primarily reflect seabirds with "conservative" life histories (one egg laid per year) and may be different for species with more flexible life history strategies (greater reproductive effort). Our results are consistent with the premise that the impacts of local rockfish fisheries on seabird productivity are less than impacts that have occurred to the prey resources themselves due to ocean climate and the ability of seabirds to buffer against

  12. A comparative study on the metering accuracy for given installation conditions of metering facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Her, Jae Young; Lee, Seung Jun; Ha, Young Cheol; Ahn, Seung Hee; Lee, Cheol Gu [R and D Center, Korea Gas Co., (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    The object of this study is to improve metering facilities of Korea Gas Corporation(KOGAS) metering station which are being operated in unfavorable straight pipe length condition (metropolitan area). For experiment, a test facilities was modeled based on Dogsan metering station (one of KOGAS metering stations) which has the most unfavorable conditions in metropolitan area. The test facilities was set up in Jungdong metering station (one of KOGAS metering stations) supplying natural gas to a power plant and city gas companies. The tests were performed with flowconditioner which was installed in the former straight pipe of a turbine meter and an Orifice meter, and the tests keep going with changing both diameter ratio({beta} = d/D) and flowrate(Q{sub v}). In other words, the tests were performed according to flowrate change for fixed diameter ratio. After the test was completed, the diameter ratio was increased by 0.1 and the same procedures were conducted again. The test was conducted for diameter ratio from 0.3 to 0.7. For Orifice meter, the error showed 0.4 %(Test maximum flowrate=3,030 Nm{sup 3}/h) and 0.8 %(Test maximum flowrate=9,204 Nm{sup 3}/h) for {beta}=0.3 and 0.7, respectively. For Turbine meter, the error showed -0.5 %(Test maximum flowrate=3,030 Nm{sup 3}/h) and -0.1 %(Test maximum flowrate=9,204 Nm{sup 3}/h) for {beta}=0.3 and 0.7, respectively. 44 refs., 32 figs., 27 tabs.

  13. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Sierra Nevada Regional study unit, 2008: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Sierra Nevada Regional (SNR) study unit was investigated as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board’s Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Program Priority Basin Project. The study was designed to provide statistically unbiased assessments of the quality of untreated groundwater within the primary aquifer system of the Sierra Nevada. The primary aquifer system for the SNR study unit was delineated by the depth intervals over which wells in the State of California’s database of public drinking-water supply wells are open or screened. Two types of assessments were made: (1) a status assessment that described the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) an evaluation of relations between groundwater quality and potential explanatory factors that represent characteristics of the primary aquifer system. The assessments characterize untreated groundwater quality, rather than the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water distributors.

  14. Walk-through survey report, Ford Motor Company, Los Angeles Assembly Plant, Pico Rivera, California, January 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matanoski, G.; Whitman, N.

    1979-07-01

    Worker exposures to painting materials were studied at the Ford Motor Company, Los Angeles Assembly Facility in Pico Rivera, California on January 30, 1979. The company was under consideration for inclusion in a NIOSH study of health hazards in the painting trade. Approximately 99 of the employees at the facility were assigned to the painting operations that were surveyed. The company had a safety and industrial hygiene program. Medical services were furnished by one full-time physician and three nurses. Various types of paint primers, solvents, and enamel paints were used during painting operations. The authors recommend that the facility be considered for the painting-hazards study.

  15. Citizen perceptions of information flow around a nuclear facility: A study in risk communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, M.O. [Delgado Community Coll., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Responses of focus group members from the region around a Nuclear Facility provide the data for this qualitative study concerning citizen perceptions of available site information. Analyses of three of the focus group discussion questions and the answers they elicited showed a dominant perception among participants of insufficient easily available information about the site. These respondents also indicated that most of them obtain site information through mass media and hearsay, that many lack trust in the information they have and would trust only an independent entity to provide accurate information. A new area in communication studies, variously called environmental risk communication, risk communication and health risk communication, continues to evolve among those working in various allied disciplines, some far removed from communication. As science attempts to solve environmental problems caused by technological advances, this field acquires numerous practitioners. Some of these risk communication experts may however, be overlooking basic and necessary components of effective communication, because their expertise is in another discipline. One result of this can be communication breakdown in which those involved, assume that meaning is shared, when in fact the opposite is true. This paper seeks to clarify a necessary ingredient of effective interpersonal risk communication, using data obtained from citizens living around one of the nation`s nuclear facilities as an example.

  16. Study on patient-induced radioactivity during proton treatment in hengjian proton medical facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingbiao; Wang, Qingbin; Liang, Tianjiao; Zhang, Gang; Ma, Yinglin; Chen, Yu; Ye, Rong; Liu, Qiongyao; Wang, Yufei; Wang, Huaibao

    2016-09-01

    At present, increasingly more proton medical facilities have been established globally for better curative effect and less side effect in tumor treatment. Compared with electron and photon, proton delivers more energy and dose at its end of range (Bragg peak), and has less lateral scattering for its much larger mass. However, proton is much easier to produce neutron and induced radioactivity, which makes radiation protection for proton accelerators more difficult than for electron accelerators. This study focuses on the problem of patient-induced radioactivity during proton treatment, which has been ignored for years. However, we confirmed it is a vital factor for radiation protection to both patient escort and positioning technician, by FLUKA's simulation and activation formula calculation of Hengjian Proton Medical Facility (HJPMF), whose energy ranges from 130 to 230MeV. Furthermore, new formulas for calculating the activity buildup process of periodic irradiation were derived and used to study the relationship between saturation degree and half-life of nuclides. Finally, suggestions are put forward to lessen the radiation hazard from patient-induced radioactivity.

  17. Feasibility study for a recirculating linac-based facility for femtosecond dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corlett, J.N.; Barry, W.; Barletta, W.A.; Byrd, J.M.; DeSantis, S.; Doolittle, L.; Fawley, W.; Green, M.A.; Hartman, N.; Heimann, P.; Kairan, D.; Kujawski, E.; Li, D.; Lidia, S.; Luft, P.; McClure, R.; Parmigiani, F.; Petroff, Y.; Pirkl, W.; Placidi, M.; Reavill, D.; Reichel, I.; Rimmer, R.A.; Ratti, A.; Robinson, K.E.; Sannibale, F.; Schoenlein, R.; Staples, J.; Tanabe, J.; Truchlikova, D.; Wan, W.; Wang, S.; Wells, R.; Wolski, A.; Zholents, A.

    2002-12-21

    LBNL is pursuing design studies and the scientific program for a facility dedicated to the production of x-ray pulses with ultra-short time duration, for application in dynamical studies of processes in physics, biology, and chemistry. The proposed x-ray facility has the short x-ray pulse length ({approx}60 fs FWHM) necessary to study very fast dynamics, high flux (up to approximately 10E11 photons/sec/0.1 percentBW) to study weakly scattering systems, and tuneability over 1-12 keV photon energy. The hard x-ray photon production section of the machine accommodates seven 2-m long undulators. Design studies for longer wavelength sources, using high-gain harmonic generation, are in progress. The x-ray pulse repetition rate of 10 kHz is matched to studies of dynamical processes (initiated by ultra-short laser pulses) that typically have a long recovery time or are not generally cyclic or reversible and need time to allow relaxation, replacement, or flow of the sample. The technique for producing ultra-short x-ray pulses uses relatively long electron bunches to minimize high-peak-current collective effects, and the ultimate x-ray duration is achieved by a combination of bunch manipulation and optical compression. Synchronization of x-ray pulses to sample excitation signals is expected to be of order 50 - 100 fs. Techniques for making use of the recirculating geometry to provide beam-based signals from early passes through the machine are being studied.

  18. SCANDAL -- A facility for elastic neutron scattering studies in the 50--130 MeV range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klug, J.; Blomgren, J.; Atac, A.; Bergenwall, B.; Dangtip, S.; Elmgren, K.; Johansson, C.; Olsson, N.; Prokofiev, A.V.; Rahm, J. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Neutron Research; Jonsson, O.; Nilsson, L.; Renberg, P.U. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). The Svedberg Laboratory; Nadel-Turonski, P. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Sciences; Ringbom, A. [Swedish Defence Research Establishment (FOA), Stockholm (Sweden); Oberstedt, A.; Tovesson, F. [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Technology and Science; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lecolley, F.R.; Louvel, M.; Marie, N.; Schweitzer, C.; Varignon, C. [Univ. de Caen (France); Eudes, Ph.; Haddad, F.; Kerveno, M.; Kirchner, T.; Lebrun, C. [Univ. de Nantes (France); Stuttge, L. [IReS, Strasbourg (France); Slypen, I. [Univ. Catholique de Louvain (Belgium). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Smirnov, A.N. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Michel, R.; Neumann, S. [Univ. Hannover (Germany). Zentrum fuer Strahlenschutz und Radiooekologie; Herpers, U. [Univ. Cologne (Germany). Abteilung Nuklearchemie

    2001-01-01

    A facility for detection of scattered neutrons in the energy interval 50--130 MeV, SCANDAL (SCAttered Nucleon Detection AssembLy), has recently been installed at the 20--180 MeV neutron beam facility of the The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala. It is primarily intended for studies of elastic neutron scattering, but can be used for the (n,p) and (n,d) reaction experiments as well. The performance of the spectrometer is illustrated in measurements of the (n,p) and (n,n) reactions on {sup 1}H and {sup 12}C. In addition, the neutron beam facility is described in some detail.

  19. Hypothesis-based research on the causes of sick building symptoms: A design for Phases 2 and 3 of the California Healthy Building Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, W.J.; Hodgson, A.T.; Daisey, J.M.; Faulkner, D. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Macher, J.M. (California Dept. of Health Services, Berkeley, CA (United States). Air and Industrial Hygiene Lab.); Mendell, M.J. (National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Industrywide Studies Branch)

    1992-07-01

    The California Healthy Building Study (CHBS) is a multidisciplinary research based in 12 office buildings within California. The overall goal the CHBS is to elucidate relationships between occurrences of office worker health symptoms and characteristics of the workers' buildings, ventilation systems, work spaces, jobs, and indoor environments. A Phase-1 study was completed during 1990. The California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE), through its Exploratory Research Program, supported the design of research plans for two future phases of the CHBS. The intent of the CIEE-supported effort was to design research to be conducted in the Phase-1 buildings that capitalizes on the Phase-1 research findings and also on recently-published results of research from other institutions. This report describes the research plans developed with CIEE support and presents the rationale for these research plans.

  20. Hypothesis-based research on the causes of sick building symptoms: A design for Phases 2 and 3 of the California Healthy Building Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, W.J.; Hodgson, A.T.; Daisey, J.M.; Faulkner, D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Macher, J.M. [California Dept. of Health Services, Berkeley, CA (United States). Air and Industrial Hygiene Lab.; Mendell, M.J. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Industrywide Studies Branch

    1992-07-01

    The California Healthy Building Study (CHBS) is a multidisciplinary research based in 12 office buildings within California. The overall goal the CHBS is to elucidate relationships between occurrences of office worker health symptoms and characteristics of the workers` buildings, ventilation systems, work spaces, jobs, and indoor environments. A Phase-1 study was completed during 1990. The California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE), through its Exploratory Research Program, supported the design of research plans for two future phases of the CHBS. The intent of the CIEE-supported effort was to design research to be conducted in the Phase-1 buildings that capitalizes on the Phase-1 research findings and also on recently-published results of research from other institutions. This report describes the research plans developed with CIEE support and presents the rationale for these research plans.

  1. Groundwater-quality data in the Santa Barbara study unit, 2011: results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 48-square-mile Santa Barbara study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from January to February 2011, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Santa Barbara study unit was the thirty-fourth study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA Santa Barbara study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the Santa Barbara study unit. Groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the quality in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the Santa Barbara study unit located in Santa Barbara and Ventura Counties, groundwater samples were collected from 24 wells. Eighteen of the wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and six wells were selected to aid in evaluation of water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds); constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]); naturally occurring inorganic constituents (trace

  2. Feasibility Study of Contamination Remediation at Naval Weapons Station, Concord, California. Volume 1. Remedial Action Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    few years, particularly along the Port Chicago Highway across from the main gate of NWS Concord. Phillips Petroleum Company and Monsanto--V 2.23 %" r...acci- dental disturbance of the monofill. ,p Grading and Revegetation. See Alternative 3-3A. Operation and Maintenance of Remediation Area. See...washing process; b. Site preparation and support facilities; c. Excavation of contaminated materials; d. Classification of contaminated materialL ; e

  3. Muon Beam Studies in the H4 beam line and the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++)

    CERN Document Server

    Margraf, Rachel; CERN. Geneva. EN Department

    2017-01-01

    In this report, I summarize my work of detailed study and optimization of the muon beam configuration of H4 beam line in SPS North Area. Using Monte-Carlo simulations, I studied the properties and behavior of the muon beam in combination with the field of the large, spectrometer “ GOLIATH” magnet at -1.5, -1.0, 0, 1.0 and 1.5 Tesla, which is shown to affect the central x position of the muon beam that is delivered to the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++). I also studied the muon beam for different configurations of the two XTDV beam dumps upstream of GIF++ in the H4 beam line. I will also discuss my role in mapping the magnetic field of the GOLIATH magnet in the H4 beam line.

  4. SECONDARY WASTE/ETF (EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY) PRELIMINARY PRE-CONCEPTUAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY TH; GEHNER PD; STEGEN GARY; HYMAS JAY; PAJUNEN AL; SEXTON RICH; RAMSEY AMY

    2009-12-28

    This pre-conceptual engineering study is intended to assist in supporting the critical decision (CD) 0 milestone by providing a basis for the justification of mission need (JMN) for the handling and disposal of liquid effluents. The ETF baseline strategy, to accommodate (WTP) requirements, calls for a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the ETF to provide the needed additional processing capability. This STU is to process the ETF evaporator concentrate into a cement-based waste form. The cementitious waste will be cast into blocks for curing, storage, and disposal. Tis pre-conceptual engineering study explores this baseline strategy, in addition to other potential alternatives, for meeting the ETF future mission needs. Within each reviewed case study, a technical and facility description is outlined, along with a preliminary cost analysis and the associated risks and benefits.

  5. Development of a mechanical alcove excavator for the Yucca Mountain Exploratory Study Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennkvist, E.; Ozdemir, L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Friant, J.E. [Excavation Engineering Associates, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A 25 ft (7.6 m) diameter tunnel, bored nearly 26,000 ft (8 km) long, is planned as the initial opening into a rather thick strata of welded tuff rock, known as Topopah Springs (TSw2). The near term purpose of the tunnel is to examine the geology to determine if the selected formation is suitable to be used as a nuclear waste repository. In addition to the tunnel, some 30 to 40 alcoves are envisioned along the tunnel which will serve as rooms in and from which the various scientists can conduct their analytical experiments. In addition, a series of rooms and hallways are planned in an area set aside as {open_quotes}the main test facility{close_quotes}. The overall site is known as The Exploratory Studies Facilities (ESF). The mission of this study program was to determine if a mechanical means of constructing the alcoves, rooms and hallways was feasible. Of particular interest were the alcoves which exit directly off of the main tunnel. The work for this study included determining a somewhat standard size for the initial alcove, determining whether existing equipment and/or technology was available, and determining if such equipment could be transported and launched from the main tunnel with minimum to no interruption to the main TBM operation. The study determined that no off the shelf equipment was both capable of effectively cutting welded tuff, and sufficiently mobile to meet the minimum interruption requirements. The study did determine that suitable technology was available, and that a special purpose machine was feasible. This paper describes the trade off studies conducted on various excavation methods, the system selected for conceptual design and the potential performance of a mobile alcove excavator.

  6. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Eurasian Collared Doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and Retrospective Study of Avian Yersiniosis at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System (1990-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoute, Simone T; Cooper, George L; Bickford, Arthur A; Carnaccini, Silvia; Shivaprasad, H L; Sentíes-Cué, C Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    In February 2015, two Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) were submitted dead to the California Animal Health and Food Safety (CAHFS) Laboratory, Turlock branch, from a private aviary experiencing sudden, high mortality (4/9) in adult doves. In both doves, the gross and histologic lesions were indicative of acute, fatal septicemia. Grossly, there were numerous pale yellow foci, 1 to 2 mm in diameter, in the liver and spleen. Microscopically, these foci were composed of acute severe multifocal coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes and splenic pulp with infiltration of heterophils mixed with fibrin and dense colonies of gram-negative bacteria. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was isolated from the lung, liver, spleen, heart, ovary, kidney, and trachea. The organism was susceptible to most antibiotics it was tested against, except erythromycin. Based on a retrospective study of necropsy submissions to CAHFS between 1990 and 2015, there were 77 avian case submissions of Y. pseudotuberculosis. There were 75/77 cases identified from a wide range of captive avian species from both zoo and private facilities and 2/77 cases from two backyard turkeys submitted from one premise. The largest number of cases originated from psittacine species (31/77). The lesions most commonly described were hepatitis (63/77), splenitis (49/77), pneumonia (30/77), nephritis (16/77), and enteritis (12/77). From 1990 to 2015, there was an average of three cases of avian pseudotuberculosis per year at CAHFS. Although there were no cases diagnosed in 1993 and 1994, in all other years, there were between one and eight cases of Y. pseudotuberculosis detected from avian diagnostic submissions.

  7. Study of the influential leaders, power structure, community decisions, and geothermal energy development in Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, E.W.; Hall, C.H.; Pick, J.B.

    1980-04-01

    The economy of Imperial County, California, is now dominated by agriculture, but economic studies indicate that the emerging geothermal sector could grow to a size comparable to that of agriculture. The purpose of this study is to discover the kind of power structure operating in Imperial County, the influential leaders, the source of their power, their probable reactions to geothermal development, and the possible effects geothermal development will have on the power structure. Several social science research methods are used to identify the influential leaders and to describe the power structure in Imperial County. An analysis of the opinions of leadership and the public shows the likely response to geothermal development. The power structure analysis, combined with forecasts of the economic effects of geothermal development, indicates the ways in which the power structure itself may change.

  8. Building America Case Study: Zero Energy Ready Home Multifamily Project: Mutual Housing at Spring Lake, Woodland, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    Building cost effective, high performance homes that provide superior comfort, health, and durability is the goal of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Zero Energy Ready Homes (ZERH) program. Through Building America research and other innovative programs throughout the country, many of the technical challenges to building to the ZERH standard have been addressed. This case study describes the development of a 62-unit multifamily community constructed by nonprofit developer Mutual Housing at the Spring Lake subdivision in Woodland, CA. The Spring Lake project is expected to be the first ZERH-certified multifamily project nationwide. Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation worked with Mutual Housing throughout the project. The case study discusses challenges encountered, lessons learned, and how obstacles were overcome. An objective of this project was to gain a highly visible foothold for residential buildings built to the DOE ZERH specification that can be used to encourage participation by other California builders.

  9. Quality of antenatal and childbirth care in rural health facilities in Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duysburgh, Els; Temmerman, Marleen; Yé, Maurice; Williams, Afua; Massawe, Siriel; Williams, John; Mpembeni, Rose; Loukanova, Svetla; Haefeli, Walter E; Blank, Antje

    2016-01-01

    To assess the impact of an intervention consisting of a computer-assisted clinical decision support system and performance-based incentives, aiming at improving quality of antenatal and childbirth care. Intervention study in rural primary healthcare (PHC) facilities in Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania. In each country, six intervention and six non-intervention PHC facilities, located in one intervention and one non-intervention rural districts, were selected. Quality was assessed in each facility by health facility surveys, direct observation of antenatal and childbirth care, exit interviews, and reviews of patient records and maternal and child health registers. Findings of pre- and post-intervention and of intervention and non-intervention health facility quality assessments were analysed and assessed for significant (P < 0.05) quality of care differences. Post-intervention quality scores do not show a clear difference to pre-intervention scores and scores at non-intervention facilities. Only a few variables had a statistically significant better post-intervention quality score and when this is the case this is mostly observed in only one study-arm, being pre-/post-intervention or intervention/non-intervention. Post-intervention care shows similar deficiencies in quality of antenatal and childbirth care and in detection, prevention, and management of obstetric complications as at baseline and non-intervention study facilities. Our intervention study did not show a significant improvement in quality of care during the study period. However, the use of new technology seems acceptable and feasible in rural PHC facilities in resource-constrained settings, creating the opportunity to use this technology to improve quality of care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Study of radiation effects on structural materials at the Moscow Meson Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravchuk, L.V.; Lebedev, S.G.; Matveev, V.A.; Perekrestenko, A.D.; Rakseev, A.V.; Stavissky, Y.Y. [Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation). Inst. for Nuclear Research

    1998-12-31

    Three intense medium-energy proton accelerators are operating and available at present in the Unites States, Switzerland, and Canada. Analogous construction work at the research complex at the Moscow Meson Facility (MMF) of the Institute for Nuclear Research at the Russian Academy of Sciences (INR RAS) has been finished also. At this time, the first part of the MMF works at an energy of 400 MeV and a proton current up to 0.07 mA. The experimental investigations carried out at the meson physics facilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Villigen (Switzerland) have demonstrated the effectiveness of using of these accelerators for research on radiation effects in alloys. At high-energy, high-power accelerators such as TRIUMF, SIN, ISIS, and LAMPF, the environment for materials is similar to that at fusion reactors, especially in the case of internal targets and beam stops. Here, materials are subjected to a substantial fluence of high-energy particles, primarily protons and neutrons generated through spallation reactions. The high-energy particles produce higher energy primary atom recoils and damage states than do neutrons from a fission reactor environment. Transmutation atom impurity production is also substantially increased relative to a fission reactor environment. The authors now have the complementary possibility for radiation damage study at the MMF.

  11. The consequences of poor communication during transitions from hospital to skilled nursing facility: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Barbara J; Gilmore-Bykovskyi, Andrea L; Roiland, Rachel A; Polnaszek, Brock E; Bowers, Barbara J; Kind, Amy J H

    2013-07-01

    To examine how skilled nursing facility (SNF) nurses transition the care of individuals admitted from hospitals, the barriers they experience, and the outcomes associated with variation in the quality of transitions. Qualitative study using grounded dimensional analysis, focus groups, and in-depth interviews. Five Wisconsin SNFs. Twenty-seven registered nurses. Semistructured questions guided the focus group and individual interviews. SNF nurses rely heavily on written hospital discharge communication to transition individuals into the SNF effectively. Nurses cited multiple inadequacies of hospital discharge information, including regular problems with medication orders (including the lack of opioid prescriptions for pain), little psychosocial or functional history, and inaccurate information regarding current health status. These communication inadequacies necessitated repeated telephone clarifications, created care delays (including delays in pain control), increased SNF staff stress, frustrated individuals and family members, contributed directly to negative SNF facility image, and increased risk of rehospitalization. SNF nurses identified a specific list of information and components that they need to facilitate a safe, high-quality transition. Nurses note multiple deficiencies in hospital-to-SNF transitions, with poor quality discharge communication being identified as the major barrier to safe and effective transitions. This information should be used to refine and support the dissemination of evidence-based interventions that support transitions of care, including the Interventions to Reduce Acute Care Transfers program. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  12. Conceptualization and development of the Household/Neighborhood Model for skilled nursing facilities: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Arthur Green

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The conceptualization of the Household/Neighborhood Model for skilled nursing facilities began in 1987 at Evergreen Retirement Community in Oshkosh, WI, USA in the search for the “perfect” nursing home. Being able to see perfection required being freed from the mental constraints of regulations, reimbursement systems, and existing staff training programs so that visionary thinking was possible. Conceptualization was followed by a pilot project to test various aspects of the vision. The result was (1 a management philosophy built on Continuous Quality Improvement, (2 a team-based organization structure, (3 cross-functional staff roles, (4 social-model activity programming, and (5 a residential style physical setting that won strong support from the State of Wisconsin. With this support, we had the opportunity to open in 1997 the first full-scale model of a Household/Neighborhood in the United States based upon providing “resident and relationship centered services and care”. The model was validated through a year-long evaluative research study. In 2004 we opened a second full-scale model incorporating significant improvements identified through experience. The opportunity to further develop the model has been provided through its adoption in China by China Senior Care, which will open their first facility in 2014.

  13. 1994 Baseline biological studies for the Device Assembly Facility at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Y.E. [ed.; Woodward, B.D.; Hunter, R.B.; Greger, P.D.; Saethre, M.B.

    1995-02-01

    This report describes environmental work performed at the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) in 1994 by the Basic Environmental Monitoring and Compliance Program (BECAMP). The DAF is located near the Mojave-Great Basin desert transition zone 27 km north of Mercury. The area immediately around the DAF building complex is a gentle slope cut by 1 to 3 m deep arroyos, and occupied by transitional vegetation. In 1994, construction activities were largely limited to work inside the perimeter fence. The DAF was still in a preoperational mode in 1994, and no nuclear materials were present. The DAF facilities were being occupied so there was water in the sewage settling pond, and the roads and lights were in use. Sampling activities in 1994 represent the first year in the proposed monitoring scheme. The proposed biological monitoring plan gives detailed experimental protocols. Plant, lizard, tortoise, small mammal, and bird surveys were performed in 1994. The authors briefly outline procedures employed in 1994. Studies performed on each taxon are reviewed separately then summarized in a concluding section.

  14. Design studies related to an in vivo neutron activation analysis facility for measuring total body nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatelatos, I E; Chettle, D R; Green, S; Scott, M C

    1992-08-01

    Design studies relating to an in vivo prompt capture neutron activation analysis facility measuring total body nitrogen are presented. The basis of the design is a beryllium-graphite neutron collimator and reflector configuration for (alpha, n) type radionuclide neutron sources (238PuBe or 241AmBe), so as to reflect leaking, or out-scattered, neutrons towards the subject. This improves the ratio of thermal neutron flux to dose and the spatial distribution of thermal flux achieved with these sources, whilst retaining their advantage of long half-lives as compared to 252Cf based systems. The common problem of high count-rate at the detector, and therefore high nitrogen region of interest background due to pile-up, is decreased by using a set of smaller (5.1 cm diameter x 10.2 cm long) NaI(Tl) detectors instead of large ones. The facility described presents a relative error of nitrogen measurement of 3.6% and a nitrogen to background ratio of 2.3 for 0.45 mSv skin dose (assuming ten 5.1 cm x 10.2 cm NaI(Tl) detectors).

  15. Design studies related to an in vivo neutron activation analysis facility for measuring total body nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamatelatos, I.E.M.; Chettle, D.R.; Green, S.; Scott, M.C. (Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Space Research)

    1992-08-01

    Design studies relating to an in vivo prompt capture neutron activation analysis facility measuring total body nitrogen are presented. The basis of the design is a beryllium-graphite neutron collimator and reflector configuration for ({alpha}, n) type radionuclide neutron sources ({sup 238}PuBe or {sup 241}AmBe), so as to reflect leaking, or out-scattered, neutrons towards the subject. This improves the ratio of thermal neutron flux to dose and the spatial distribution of thermal flux achieved with these sources, whilst retaining their advantage of long half-lives as compared to {sup 252}Cf based systems. The common problem of high count-rate at the detector, and therefore high nitrogen region of interest background due to pile-up, is decreased by using a set of smaller (5.1 cm diameter x 10.2 cm long) NaI(Tl) detectors instead of large ones. The facility described presents a relative error of nitrogen measurement of 3.6% and a nitrogen to background ratio of 2.3 for 0.45 mSv skin dose (assuming ten 5.1 cm x 10.2 cm NaI(Tl) detectors). (author).

  16. Benchmarking study and its application for shielding analysis of large accelerator facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee-Seock; Kim, Dong-hyun; Oranj, Leila Mokhtari; Oh, Joo-Hee; Lee, Arim; Jung, Nam-Suk [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Shielding Analysis is one of subjects which are indispensable to construct large accelerator facility. Several methods, such as the Monte Carlo, discrete ordinate, and simplified calculation, have been used for this purpose. The calculation precision is overcome by increasing the trial (history) numbers. However its accuracy is still a big issue in the shielding analysis. To secure the accuracy in the Monte Carlo calculation, the benchmarking study using experimental data and the code comparison are adopted fundamentally. In this paper, the benchmarking result for electrons, protons, and heavy ions are presented as well as the proper application of the results is discussed. The benchmarking calculations, which are indispensable in the shielding analysis were performed for different particles: proton, heavy ion and electron. Four different multi-particle Monte Carlo codes, MCNPX, FLUKA, PHITS, and MARS, were examined for higher energy range equivalent to large accelerator facility. The degree of agreement between the experimental data including the SINBAD database and the calculated results were estimated in the terms of secondary neutron production and attenuation through the concrete and iron shields. The degree of discrepancy and the features of Monte Carlo codes were investigated and the application way of the benchmarking results are discussed in the view of safety margin and selecting the code for the shielding analysis. In most cases, the tested Monte Carlo codes give proper credible results except of a few limitation of each codes.

  17. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Middle Sacramento Valley Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Stephen J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,340 square mile Middle Sacramento Valley study unit (MSACV) was investigated from June through September, 2006, as part of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Middle Sacramento Valley study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within MSACV, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 108 wells in Butte, Colusa, Glenn, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. Seventy-one wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), 15 wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths (flow-path wells), and 22 were shallow monitoring wells selected to assess the effects of rice agriculture, a major land use in the study unit, on ground-water chemistry (RICE wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks

  18. [Marketing macroenvironment of a sanatorium and spa facility as a study object and a factor of strategic decision making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaskin, D V

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of marketing macroenvironment is an important stage in the formulation of the strategy for the development and operation of a therapeutic and preventive healthcare facility making possible rapid adjustment to sharply changing marketing conditions. The possibility of using expert evaluation for the analysis of the marketing macroenvironment of a sanatorium and spa facility and a concrete medical care service provided (peloidotherapy) is illustrated. The study covers five aspects of marketing macroenvironment, viz. socio-demographic, technological, economic, political and ecological.

  19. A hot-cell facility for waste management studies at the J. R. C. Ispra establishment (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, B.A.; Dworschak, H.; Bertelli, S.; Magni, G.; Girardi, F.; Nannicini, R.

    1989-06-01

    The hot-cell facility, constructed and commissioned at the Joint Research Centre of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy), will be utilised for research on radioactive waste management with emphasis on verification, demonstration and optimization of concepts already under study. The facility will produce various types of fully active waste in order to verify potentially suitable process modes to minimize waste production and improve waste quality in function of both effectiveness and safety of final disposal.

  20. Renewable Energy Feasibility Study Leading to Development of the Native Spirit Solar Energy Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carolyn Stewart; Tracey LeBeau

    2008-01-31

    DOE-funded renewable energy feasibility study conducted by Red Mountain Tribal Energy on behalf of the Southwest Tribal Energy Consortium (SWTEC). During the course of the study, SWTEC members considered multiple options for the organization structure, selected a proposed organization structure, and drafted a Memorandum of Understanding for the SWTEC organization. High-level resource assessments for SWTEC members were completed; surveys were developed and completed to determine each member’s interest in multiple participation options, including on-reservation projects. With the survey inputs in mind, multiple energy project options were identified and evaluated on a high-level basis. That process led to a narrowing of the field of technology options to solar generation, specifically, utility-scale Concentrating Solar-Powered Generation projects, with a specific, tentative project location identified at the Fort Mojave Indian Reservation -- the Native Spirit Solar Energy Facility.

  1. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 860 square-mile Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated from June to November of 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Coastal Los Angeles Basin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CLAB, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 69 wells in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (?grid wells?). Fourteen additional wells were selected to evaluate changes in ground-water chemistry or to gain a greater understanding of the ground-water quality within a specific portion of the Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit ('understanding wells'). Ground-water samples were analyzed for: a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides, polar pesticides, and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicators]; constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)]; inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements]; radioactive constituents [gross-alpha and gross-beta radiation, radium isotopes, and radon-222]; and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and activities of tritium and carbon-14

  2. Introduction to the geologic and geophysical studies of Fort Irwin, California: Chapter A in Geology and geophysics applied to groundwater hydrology at Fort Irwin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesch, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Geologic and geophysical investigations in the vicinity of Fort Irwin National Training Center, California, have been completed in support of groundwater investigations, and are presented in eight chapters of this report. A generalized surficial geologic map along with field and borehole investigations conducted during 2010–11 provide a lithostratigraphic and structural framework for the area during the Cenozoic. Electromagnetic properties of resistivity were measured in the laboratory on hand and core samples, and compared to borehole geophysical resistivity data. These data were used in conjunction with ground-based time-domain and airborne data and interpretations to provide a framework for the shallow lithologic units and structure. Gravity and aeromagnetic maps cover areas ~4 to 5 times that of Fort Irwin. Each chapter includes hydrogeologic applications of the data or model results.

  3. Experimental Study of the APR+ Direct ECC Bypass in the Air-water Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kihwan; Choi, Hae-Seob; Park, Kil-won; Kwon, Tae-Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The APR+ is an improved Korean Nuclear Power Reactor, which has been developed as a two loop evolutionary PWR (Pressure Water Reactor) with a number of advanced design features to enhance safety based on the APR-1400 technology. The emergency core cooling system (ECC) of the APR+ is different with that of the APR-1400, though the APR+ adopted a direct vessel injection (DVI) system which is the same design features of the APR-14000. The main difference of the DVI+ is the emergency core barrel duct (ECBD) which is designed to increase the amount of the injection water to the core region. The performance of the DVI system has been an important issues for past decades, and many researchers have studied the related thermal-hydraulic technical issues such as the ECC bypass fraction, the steam condensation effect, temperature distribution, sub-cooling margin, and etc. However, the previous research cannot be directly applicable to the APR+ owing to the unique features of the DVI+. The current study will elaborate on the experimental evaluation of the direct ECC bypass performance. The 1/5 ECC bypass test facility which is designed with a linearly reduced 1/5 scale referring to the APR+ was used to investigate the effect of the DVI+ injection nozzle location and the broken cold leg velocity on the direct ECC bypass fraction. However, air is used as a working fluid to simulate the steam flow induced from the broken cold leg, and thus, the direct contact condensation effect is not considered in this study. Experimental study for the direct ECC bypass phenomena has been carryout out with various the injection mode and air velocity conditions. The tests were performed in the 1/5 scale ECC bypass test facility, and the test condition was defined using a scaling law referring to the APR+ reactor. Test results showed that the direct ECC bypass fraction was greatly enhanced compared with the reference test (w/o ECBD)

  4. The 2010 California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerson, T. B.; Andrews, A. E.; Angevine, W. M.; Bates, T. S.; Brock, C. A.; Cairns, B.; Cohen, R. C.; Cooper, O. R.; Gouw, J. A.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Ferrare, R. A.; Fischer, M. L.; Flagan, R. C.; Goldstein, A. H.; Hair, J. W.; Hardesty, R. M.; Hostetler, C. A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Langford, A. O.; McCauley, E.; McKeen, S. A.; Molina, L. T.; Nenes, A.; Oltmans, S. J.; Parrish, D. D.; Pederson, J. R.; Pierce, R. B.; Prather, K.; Quinn, P. K.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Senff, C. J.; Sorooshian, A.; Stutz, J.; Surratt, J. D.; Trainer, M.; Volkamer, R.; Williams, E. J.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2013-06-01

    The California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field study was conducted throughout California in May, June, and July of 2010. The study was organized to address issues simultaneously relevant to atmospheric pollution and climate change, including (1) emission inventory assessment, (2) atmospheric transport and dispersion, (3) atmospheric chemical processing, and (4) cloud-aerosol interactions and aerosol radiative effects. Measurements from networks of ground sites, a research ship, tall towers, balloon-borne ozonesondes, multiple aircraft, and satellites provided in situ and remotely sensed data on trace pollutant and greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol chemical composition and microphysical properties, cloud microphysics, and meteorological parameters. This overview report provides operational information for the variety of sites, platforms, and measurements, their joint deployment strategy, and summarizes findings that have resulted from the collaborative analyses of the CalNex field study. Climate-relevant findings from CalNex include that leakage from natural gas infrastructure may account for the excess of observed methane over emission estimates in Los Angeles. Air-quality relevant findings include the following: mobile fleet VOC significantly declines, and NOx emissions continue to have an impact on ozone in the Los Angeles basin; the relative contributions of diesel and gasoline emission to secondary organic aerosol are not fully understood; and nighttime NO3 chemistry contributes significantly to secondary organic aerosol mass in the San Joaquin Valley. Findings simultaneously relevant to climate and air quality include the following: marine vessel emissions changes due to fuel sulfur and speed controls result in a net warming effect but have substantial positive impacts on local air quality.

  5. Facilities & Leadership

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The facilities web service provides VA facility information. The VA facilities locator is a feature that is available across the enterprise, on any webpage, for the...

  6. Integrating multimodal transport into cellulosic biofuel supply chain design under feedstock seasonality with a case study based on California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fei; Huang, Yongxi; Eksioglu, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    A multistage, mixed integer programing model was developed that fully integrates multimodal transport into the cellulosic biofuel supply chain design under feedstock seasonality. Three transport modes are considered: truck, single railcar, and unit train. The goal is to minimize the total cost for infrastructure, feedstock harvesting, biofuel production, and transportation. Strategic decisions including the locations and capacities of transshipment hubs, biorefineries, and terminals and tactical decisions on system operations are optimized in an integrated manner. When the model was implemented to a case study of cellulosic ethanol production in California, it was found that trucks are convenient for short-haul deliveries while rails are more effective for long-haul transportation. Taking the advantage of these benefits, the multimodal transport provides more cost effective solutions than the single-mode transport (truck).

  7. Study of the structural control of fluid flow within the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Baja California, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, J.E.; Manon, M.A.; Lippmann, M.J.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1977-10-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the Comision Federal de Electricidad of Mexico are conducting a joint investigation of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, located approximately 35 km south of Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico, in the Sea of Cortez-Salton Trough. Recent analyses of various geophysical/electrical logs, temperature logs, production and geochemical data and the subsequently developed preliminary model of the structure of the geothermal system and the distribution of geothermal fluids are presented. Techniques routinely applied to petroleum exploration were successfully used in the development of a preliminary model of this water-dominated system. The study indicates the upwelling of geothermal fluids along an east bounding fault from a deep, as yet unexplored source. The fluids dissipate into various sand horizons at various depths. The resulting stratigraphic and fluid flow model is of importance in planning additional developments of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field.

  8. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Kern County Subbasin Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Pimentel, Isabel; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,000 square-mile Kern County Subbasin study unit (KERN) was investigated from January to March, 2006, as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Kern County Subbasin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw (untreated) ground-water quality within KERN, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 50 wells within the San Joaquin Valley portion of Kern County. Forty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide a statistical representation of the ground-water resources within the study unit. Three additional wells were sampled to aid in the evaluation of changes in water chemistry along regional ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and laboratory matrix spikes) were collected and analyzed at approximately 10 percent of

  9. Energetics Conditioning Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetics Conditioning Facility is used for long term and short term aging studies of energetic materials. The facility has 10 conditioning chambers of which 2...

  10. Energetics Conditioning Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetics Conditioning Facility is used for long term and short term aging studies of energetic materials. The facility has 10 conditioning chambers of which 2...

  11. Socioeconomic Impact Analysis Study. Disposal and Reuse of Norton Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    The clinic at Norton offers outpatient-medical, I dental , and pharmaceutical services. On-base recreational facilities include a 2-8 Socioeconomic...units. 1990 dolor .. (d) Renter-occupied unite, 1990 dollars (by month). Sources: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1982b, 1991. I increased markedly in all... dental outpatients in FY 1989, for an average of slightly more than 20,000 visits per month (U.S. Air Force, 1990b). The clinic’s staff conducted

  12. Study on the fire-protection-system for interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel and transportation ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. O; Choi, M. H.; Lee, S. C. and others [Dongbang Electron Industry Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-15

    This study consists of : the fire risk and it's fire protection for the storage facilities and transportation equipments of dangerous goods, the fire risk and it's fire protection for the interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel, the fire risk and it's fire protection for the dangerous goods transportation ships, the necessary equipment for safety of ships and regulations of fire fighting equipment for ships, technical specification of spent nuclear fuel transportation ships which are operated in foreign countries, draft of fire protection guideline for interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel, inspection items of fire fighting equipment, scope of education and training. On the basis of the aforementioned, a draft of fire protection guideline for interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel is proposed and the regulations for ship engaged in the a carrage of dangerous goods that should be considered in design and operation stage are proposed.

  13. Preventative disease management and grower decision making: A case study of California winegrape growers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, Vicken; Lubell, Mark; Kaplan, Jonathan; Baumgartner, Kendra

    2017-02-07

    Preventative disease management is challenging to farmers because it requires paying immediate costs in the hopes of returning uncertain future benefits. Understanding farmer decision making about prevention has the potential to reduce disease incidence and minimize the need for more costly post-infection practices. For example, the grapevine trunk-disease complex (Esca, Botryosphaeria dieback, Eutypa dieback, Phomopsis dieback) significantly impacts vineyard productivity and longevity. Given the chronic nature of the infections and inability to eradicate the fungal pathogens, the preventative practices of delayed pruning, applications of pruning-wound protectants, and double pruning (a.k.a. pre-pruning) are the most effective means of management. We surveyed wine-grape growers in six regions of California on their usage of these three practices. In spite of acknowledging the yield impacts of trunk diseases, a substantial number of respondents either choose not to use preventative practices or incorrectly adopt them in mature vineyards, too late in the disease cycle to be effective. Growers with more negative perceptions of cost-efficacy were less likely to adopt preventative practices or were more likely to time adoption incorrectly in mature vineyards. In general, preventative management may require strong intervention in the form of policy or extension to motivate behavioral change.

  14. Morphology and mixing of black carbon particles collected in central California during the CARES field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffet, Ryan C.; O'Brien, Rachel E.; Alpert, Peter A.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Pham, Don Q.; Gilles, Mary K.; Knopf, Daniel A.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Aerosol absorption is strongly dependent on the internal heterogeneity (mixing state) and morphology of individual particles containing black carbon (BC) and other non-absorbing species. Here, we examine an extensive microscopic data set collected in the California Central Valley during the CARES 2010 field campaign. During a period of high photochemical activity and pollution buildup, the particle mixing state and morphology were characterized using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at the carbon K-edge. Observations of compacted BC core morphologies and thick organic coatings at both urban and rural sites provide evidence of the aged nature of particles, highlighting the importance of highly aged particles at urban sites during periods of high photochemical activity. Based on the observation of thick coatings and more convex BC inclusion morphology, either the aging was rapid or the contribution of fresh BC emissions at the urban site was relatively small compared to background concentrations. Most particles were observed to have the BC inclusion close to the center of the host. However, host particles containing inorganic rich inclusions had the BC inclusion closer to the edge of the particle. These measurements of BC morphology and mixing state provide important constraints for the morphological effects on BC optical properties expected in aged urban plumes.

  15. Multiscale site-response mapping: A case study of Parkfield, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, E.M.; Baise, L.G.; Kayen, R.E.; Morgan, E.C.; Kaklamanos, J.

    2011-01-01

    The scale of previously proposed methods for mapping site-response ranges from global coverage down to individual urban regions. Typically, spatial coverage and accuracy are inversely related.We use the densely spaced strong-motion stations in Parkfield, California, to estimate the accuracy of different site-response mapping methods and demonstrate a method for integrating multiple site-response estimates from the site to the global scale. This method is simply a weighted mean of a suite of different estimates, where the weights are the inverse of the variance of the individual estimates. Thus, the dominant site-response model varies in space as a function of the accuracy of the different models. For mapping applications, site-response models should be judged in terms of both spatial coverage and the degree of correlation with observed amplifications. Performance varies with period, but in general the Parkfield data show that: (1) where a velocity profile is available, the square-rootof- impedance (SRI) method outperforms the measured VS30 (30 m divided by the S-wave travel time to 30 m depth) and (2) where velocity profiles are unavailable, the topographic slope method outperforms surficial geology for short periods, but geology outperforms slope at longer periods. We develop new equations to estimate site response from topographic slope, derived from the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) database.

  16. A case study of alternative site response explanatory variables in Parkfield, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, E.M.; Baise, L.G.; Kayen, R.E.; Morgan, E.C.; Kaklamanos, J.

    2011-01-01

    The combination of densely-spaced strong-motion stations in Parkfield, California, and spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) profiles provides an ideal dataset for assessing the accuracy of different site response explanatory variables. We judge accuracy in terms of spatial coverage and correlation with observations. The performance of the alternative models is period-dependent, but generally we observe that: (1) where a profile is available, the square-root-of-impedance method outperforms VS30 (average S-wave velocity to 30 m depth), and (2) where a profile is unavailable, the topographic-slope method outperforms surficial geology. The fundamental site frequency is a valuable site response explanatory variable, though less valuable than VS30. However, given the expense and difficulty of obtaining reliable estimates of VS30 and the relative ease with which the fundamental site frequency can be computed, the fundamental site frequency may prove to be a valuable site response explanatory variable for many applications. ?? 2011 ASCE.

  17. California coast nearshore processes study. [nearshore currents, sediment transport, estuaries, and river discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Large scale sediment plumes from intermittent streams and rivers form detectable seasonal patterns on ERTS-1 imagery. The ocean current systems, as plotted from three California coast ERTS mosaics, were identified. Offshore patterns of sediment in areas such as the Santa Barbara Channel are traceable. These patterns extend offshore to heretofore unanticipated ranges as shown on the ERTS-1 imagery. Flying spot scanner enhancements of NASA tapes resulted in details of subtle and often invisible (to the eye) nearshore features. The suspended sediments off San Francisco and in Monterey Bay are emphasized in detail. These are areas of extremely changeable offshore sediment transport patterns. Computer generated contouring of radiance levels resulted in maps that can be used in determining surface and nearsurface suspended sediment distribution. Tentative calibrations of ERTS-1 spectral brightness against sediment load have been made using shipboard measurements. Information from the combined enhancement and interpretation techniques is applicable to operational coastal engineering programs.

  18. The Study on the Subjective Life Satisfaction That the Elderly Perceives in Long-term Care Facility and on the Influence Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Chu- yong; Jung, Yun-Tae

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to evaluate influences of environmental factors in elderly long-term care facility on life satisfaction of the elderly who live in the facility; to derive major determinants that affect level of life satisfaction; and thus to provide fundamental information for use in improving life satisfaction of the elderly in currently operating long-term care facilities as well as newly constructed elderly long-term care facilities. This study targeted at 252 of the elder...

  19. California Political Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....

  20. California teachers' perceptions of standards-based reform in middle school science: A mixed-methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Allison Gail Wilson

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 presented one of the most significant and comprehensive literacy reforms in many years (McDonnell, 2005; U.S. Department of Education, 2006). The era of school accountability and standards based reform has brought many challenges and changes to public schools. Increasingly, public officials and educational administrators are asked to use standards based assessments to make high-stakes decisions, such as whether a student will move on to the next grade level or receive a diploma (American Psychological Association, 2005). It is important to understand any shifts in teachers' perceptions and to identify the changes teachers are making as they implement standards-based reform. This mixed-methods study was designed to assess teachers' perceptions of changes related to standards-based reform as supported by Fullan's (2001) change theory and transformational leadership theory. Survey questions sought to identify teacher perceptions of changes in curriculum, instruction and daily practice as schools documented and incorporated standards-based reform and began focusing on preparing students for the California Standards Test in Science (CSTS). Using descriptive statistical analysis and in-depth interviews, results show favorable insight towards standards-based reform. The survey was distributed to 30 middle school science teachers from 10 low-performing schools in Los Angeles, California. Results were analyzed using Spearman rank-ordered correlations. Interviews were conducted on middle school teachers represented by each grade level. Teachers who receive more support from administrators have more positive attitudes toward all aspects of SBR and the CSTS as measured in this study. No school should overlook the potential of a supportive administration in its effort to improve school programs.

  1. Biochemistry Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Biochemistry Facility provides expert services and consultation in biochemical enzyme assays and protein purification. The facility currently features 1) Liquid...

  2. Evaluating facility-based antiretroviral therapy programme effectiveness: a pilot study comparing viral load suppression and retention rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duber, Herbert C; Roberts, D Allen; Ikilezi, Gloria; Fullman, Nancy; Gasasira, Anne; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Haakenstad, Annie; J Levine, Aubrey; Achan, Jane

    2016-06-01

    Increased demand for antiretroviral therapy (ART) services combined with plateaued levels of development assistance for HIV/AIDS requires that national ART programmes monitor programme effectiveness. In this pilot study, we compared commonly utilised performance metrics of 12- and 24-month retention with rates of viral load (VL) suppression at 15 health facilities in Uganda. Retrospective chart review from which 12- and 24-month retention rates were estimated, and parallel HIV RNA VL testing on consecutive adult patients who presented to clinics and had been on ART for a minimum of six months. Rates of VL suppression were then calculated at each facility and compared to retention rates to assess the correlation between performance metrics. Multilevel logistic regression models predicting VL suppression and 12- and 24-month retention were constructed to estimate facility effects. We collected VL samples from 2961 patients and found that 88% had a VL ≤1000 copies/ml. Facility rates of VL suppression varied between 77% and 96%. When controlling for patient mix, a significant variation in facility performance persisted. Retention rates at 12 and 24 months were 91% and 79%, respectively, with a comparable facility-level variation. However, neither 12-month (ρ = 0.16) nor 24-month (ρ = -0.19) retention rates were correlated with facility rates of VL suppression. Retaining patients in care and suppressing VL are both critical outcomes. Given the lack of correlation noted in this study, the utilisation of VL monitoring may be necessary to truly assess the effectiveness of health facilities delivering ART services. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Characterization of seepage in the exploratory studies facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, T.A.; Whelan, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Following a 5-month period of above-average precipitation during the winter of 2004-2005, water was observed seeping into the South Ramp section of the Exploratory Studies Facility of the proposed repository for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Samples of the seepage were collected and analyzed for major ions, trace metals, and delta deuterium and delta oxygen-18 values in an effort to characterize the water and assess the interaction of seepage with anthropogenic materials used in the construction of the proposed repository. As demonstrated by the changes in the chemistry of water dripping from a rock bolt, interaction of seepage with construction materials can alter solution chemistry and oxidation state.

  4. Eco-labelling of accommodation facilities and its perception by rural tourists: Case study of Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradić Milan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With transportation, hotel industry eco-efficiency forms the basis of the eco-efficiency in tourism operations. Although the tourism industry is a huge consumer, very few studies has been published on energy saving and renewables in terms of stakeholders' attitudes on the topic. One of the ultimate goals of sustainable development is to foster responsible environmental behaviour not only for tourism operators, but also for tourists themselves. This paper represents the results of qualitative and quantitative research that was conducted in 59 accommodation facilities in rural areas of Vojvodina. The main task of the research was to explore possibilities of improving the environmental aspects of environmental responsible consumer behaviour in the hospitality industry. The aim of the research is to improve the tourism and hospitality market participants understanding of the relationship between positive consumer environmental protection attitude and responsibility with business standards in hospitality industry in rural areas. The research findings show the nature of such relationships.

  5. Study on the RF power necessary to ignite plasma for the ICP test facility at HUST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Haikun [School of Electronic Information and Communications, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Li, Dong; Wang, Chenre; Li, Xiaofei; Chen, Dezhi; Liu, Kaifeng; Zhou, Chi; Pan, Ruimin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2015-10-15

    An Radio-Frequency (RF) Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) ion source test facility has been successfully developed at Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). As part of a study on hydrogen plasma, the influence of three main operation parameters on the RF power necessary to ignite plasma was investigated. At 6 Pa, the RF power necessary to ignite plasma influenced little by the filament heating current from 5 A to 9 A. The RF power necessary to ignite plasma increased rapidly with the operation pressure decreasing from 8 Pa to 4 Pa. The RF power necessary to ignite plasma decreased with the number of coil turns from 6 to 10. During the experiments, plasma was produced with the electron density of the order of 10{sup 16}m{sup -3} and the electron temperature of around 4 eV. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study Equipment Testing at the Tanks Technology Cold Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burks, BL

    2001-02-27

    This report provides a summary of the cold tests performed on the equipment to be used in the Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study. The testing was performed from June 1996 to May 1997 at the Tanks Technology Cold Test Facility located at the 7600 complex at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Testing of specific equipment grouped into the following sections: (1) Modified Light-Duty Utility Arm Testing, (2) Remotely Operated Vehicle Testing, (3) Waste Dislodging and Conveyance System and Balance of Plant Equipment Testing, (4) Camera and Lighting System Testing, and (5) Characterization End-Effector Testing. Each section contains descriptions of a series of tests that summarize the test objectives, testing performed, and test results. General conclusions from the testing are also provided.

  7. Charecterization of Seepage in the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.A. Oliver; J.F. Whelan

    2006-03-20

    Following a 5-month period of above-average precipitation during the winter of 2004-2005, water was observed seeping into the South Ramp section of the Exploratory Studies Facility of the proposed repository for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Samples of the seepage were collected and analyzed for major ions, trace metals, and delta deuterium and delta oxygen-18 values in an effort to characterize the water and assess the interaction of seepage with anthropogenic materials used in the construction of the proposed repository. As demonstrated by the changes in the chemistry of water dripping from a rock bolt, interaction of seepage with construction materials can alter solution chemistry and oxidation state.

  8. LUCI: A facility at DUSEL for large-scale experimental study of geologic carbon sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, C. A.; Dobson, P.F.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Wang, J. S. Y.; Onstott, T.C.; Scherer, G.W.; Freifeld, B.M.; Ramakrishnan, T.S.; Stabinski, E.L.; Liang, K.; Verma, S.

    2010-10-01

    LUCI, the Laboratory for Underground CO{sub 2} Investigations, is an experimental facility being planned for the DUSEL underground laboratory in South Dakota, USA. It is designed to study vertical flow of CO{sub 2} in porous media over length scales representative of leakage scenarios in geologic carbon sequestration. The plan for LUCI is a set of three vertical column pressure vessels, each of which is {approx}500 m long and {approx}1 m in diameter. The vessels will be filled with brine and sand or sedimentary rock. Each vessel will have an inner column to simulate a well for deployment of down-hole logging tools. The experiments are configured to simulate CO{sub 2} leakage by releasing CO{sub 2} into the bottoms of the columns. The scale of the LUCI facility will permit measurements to study CO{sub 2} flow over pressure and temperature variations that span supercritical to subcritical gas conditions. It will enable observation or inference of a variety of relevant processes such as buoyancy-driven flow in porous media, Joule-Thomson cooling, thermal exchange, viscous fingering, residual trapping, and CO{sub 2} dissolution. Experiments are also planned for reactive flow of CO{sub 2} and acidified brines in caprock sediments and well cements, and for CO{sub 2}-enhanced methanogenesis in organic-rich shales. A comprehensive suite of geophysical logging instruments will be deployed to monitor experimental conditions as well as provide data to quantify vertical resolution of sensor technologies. The experimental observations from LUCI will generate fundamental new understanding of the processes governing CO{sub 2} trapping and vertical migration, and will provide valuable data to calibrate and validate large-scale model simulations.

  9. TRI{mu}P facility for the study of fundamental interaction and symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shidling, P.D.; Giri, G.S.; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W.L.; Sohani, M.; Hoek, D.J. van der; Versolato, O.O.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H.W. [KVI, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    Rare and short lived radioactive isotopes provide unique possibility for the study of fundamental interaction and symmetries. At TRI{mu}P different radioactive isotopes are produced in inverse kinematics mode. Dual magnetic separator is used for separating fast radioactive isotopes of interest from the primary beam. For example, {sup 21}Na are produced with a yield of 10{sup 4}/s/pnA (of primary beam) in the {sup 20}Ne({sup 2}H,n){sup 21}Na reaction. Produced fast radioactive isotopes are converted into low energy ion beams in thermal ionizer. This allows one to collect efficiently and transport the ions into magneto-Optical Trap (MOT) and ions are neutralized in MOT chamber. We will measure {beta}-{nu} energy and angular correlation measurement in {beta} decay for {sup 21}Na. From this measurement, deviation from the weak interaction (V-A type) can be studied. One of the other measurements which are of our particular interest is search of permanent electric dipole moment, and to improve the value for parity non conservation in Ra. Different radium isotopes have been produced in inverse kinematics. {sup 213}Ra has been produced with a typical yield of 10{sup 3} /s/pnA (Pb beam) in {sup 206}Pb({sup 12}C,5n) {sup 213}Ra reaction. A procedure to trap Ra effectively has been successfully developed by the first time trapping of Ba. Details on the facility and new technological approaches for several units of the TRI{mu}P facility are presented.

  10. A Case Study of Bi-Literacy Development among Children Enrolled in an Italian-English Dual Language Program in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Simona

    2014-01-01

    This study examines bi-literacy development among 60 children enrolled in an Italian-English dual language (DL) program in Southern California. Using a variety of measures including (1) oral reading fluency (ORF), (2) accuracy scores, and (3) standardized test for the assessment of reading (STAR) test's estimates of reading ability for English,…

  11. A Study of the Job Satisfaction of Special Education Local Plan Area (SELPA) Directors and Local School District Special Education Directors in Four Counties of Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gregory Haynes, III

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare the perceived level of job satisfaction of SELPA directors with that of local school district special education directors in the counties of Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Orange of Southern California and to identify factors that contribute to their job satisfaction. Additionally, this…

  12. Case Study of Leadership Practices and School-Community Interrelationships in High-Performing, High-Poverty, Rural California High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumoto, Marcia; Brown-Welty, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Many rural California high schools are impacted by the disadvantages of poverty, non-English speaking students, limited resources, changing demographics, and challenges of the rural context. Focusing on contemporary leadership theories and school-community interrelationships, this qualitative study examines the practices of educational leaders in…

  13. A Study of the Educational and Professional Backgrounds of Journalism Teachers in California Public High Schools with Enrollments of One Thousand or More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, David Clement

    Undertaken in April and May of 1974, this study utilized a two-page, 52-item questionnaire which was mailed to 300 high school journalism teachers in the state of California. The teachers were selected by random sampling and represent 78 percent of the estimated 382 who teach at schools with enrollments of 1000 or more. One hundred seventy-six…

  14. Use of the University of California Los Angeles integrated staging system to predict survival in renal cell carcinoma: an international multicenter study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patard, J.J.; Kim, H.L.; Lam, J.; Dorey, F.J.; Pantuck, A.J.; Zisman, A.; Ficarra, V.; Han, K.R.; Cindolo, L.; Taille, A. De La; Tostain, J.; Artibani, W.; Dinney, C.P.; Wood, C.G.; Swanson, D.A.; Abbou, C.C.; Lobel, B.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Chopin, D.K.; Figlin, R.A.; Belldegrun, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate ability of the University of California Los Angeles Integrated Staging System (UISS) to stratify patients with localized and metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) into risk groups in an international multicenter study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 4,202 patients from eight internationa

  15. District Allocation of Human Resources Utilizing the Evidence Based Model: A Study of One High Achieving School District in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Amber Marie

    2013-01-01

    This study applies the Gap Analysis Framework to understand the gaps that exist in human resource allocation of one Southern California school district. Once identified, gaps are closed with the reallocation of human resources, according to the Evidenced Based Model, requiring the re-purposing of core classroom teachers, specialists, special…

  16. Breschini and Haversat, eds.: Analysis of South-Central California Shell Artifacts: Studies from Santa Cruz, Monterey, San Luis Obispo, and Santa Barbara Counties

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Richard E.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of South-Central Californian Shell Artifacts: Studies from Santa Cruz, Monterey, San Luis Obispo, and Santa Barbara Counties. Gary S. Breschmi and Trudy Haversat, eds. Salinas: Coyote Press Archives of California Prehistory No. 23, 1988, xiv + 105 pp., 21 figs., 28 tables, $8.70, (paper).

  17. A Case Study of Key Stakeholders' Perceptions of the Learning Center's Effectiveness for English Learners at a District in Central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Norma Leticia

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study explored stakeholders' (administrators, teachers, and parents) perspectives of English learners in the learning center, a response to intervention model, at a school district in Central California. Research existed concerning the yearly academic growth of students in a learning center, but there was a lack of knowledge about…

  18. Case Study of Leadership Practices and School-Community Interrelationships in High-Performing, High-Poverty, Rural California High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumoto, Marcia; Brown-Welty, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Many rural California high schools are impacted by the disadvantages of poverty, non-English speaking students, limited resources, changing demographics, and challenges of the rural context. Focusing on contemporary leadership theories and school-community interrelationships, this qualitative study examines the practices of educational leaders in…

  19. Summary of the Script and Program Review of Sesame Street by the Chicano Study Center, University of California in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Television Workshop, New York, NY.

    The Sesame Street research staff summarizes comments on the fourth season of the program by the Chicano Study Center of the University of California at Los Angeles. Included are reviews of Sesame Street scripts and programs containing Spanish content; sex role observations; examples of modeling behavior; and comments on segments which challenge…

  20. Exploring Weighted Student Formulas as a Policy for Improving Equity for Distributing Resources to Schools: A Case Study of Two California School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jay G.; Levin, Jesse D.; Shambaugh, Larisa

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of two California school districts, San Francisco and Oakland, each of which have implemented their own versions of what is popularly known as a weighted student formula (WSF). One primary goal of the WSF policy is to increase the equity with which resources are distributed to schools. With respect to equity, the…

  1. District Allocation of Human Resources Utilizing the Evidence Based Model: A Study of One High Achieving School District in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Amber Marie

    2013-01-01

    This study applies the Gap Analysis Framework to understand the gaps that exist in human resource allocation of one Southern California school district. Once identified, gaps are closed with the reallocation of human resources, according to the Evidenced Based Model, requiring the re-purposing of core classroom teachers, specialists, special…

  2. Proximity of food retailers to schools and rates of overweight ninth grade students: an ecological study in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Philip H; Fitzpatrick, Margaret; Fulfrost, Brian

    2011-01-31

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight in youth has increased dramatically since the 1980s, and some researchers hypothesize that increased consumption of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods is a key contributor. The potential importance of food retailers near schools has received increasing attention, but public health research and policy has focused primarily on fast food restaurants. Less is known about the relationship between overweight/obesity and other types of retailers. This study aims to investigate the potential associations between nearby 1) fast food restaurants, 2) convenience stores, and 3) supermarkets, and rates of overweight students in California schools. We examined the rate of overweight ninth grade students in public schools in 2007 using linear regression. The percentage of overweight students per school was determined by a state required physical fitness test, with three different options for measuring individual body composition. Our key independent variables were the presence of three different types of retailers within 800 m network buffers of the schools. Additional independent variables included school ethnic, gender and socioeconomic composition, as well as urban/non-urban location. We obtained the data from the California Department of Education and ESRI, Inc. The presence of a convenience store within a 10-minute walking distance of a school was associated with a higher rate of overweight students than schools without nearby convenience stores, after controlling for all school-level variables in the regression (1.2%, 95% confidence interval 0.03, 2.36). Nearby fast food restaurants and supermarkets, however, were not associated with school rates of overweight students. Public health researchers and policy-makers interested in the food environments outside schools should expand their recent focus on nearby fast food restaurants to include convenience stores, which may also be important sources of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods for

  3. Proximity of food retailers to schools and rates of overweight ninth grade students: an ecological study in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulfrost Brian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight in youth has increased dramatically since the 1980s, and some researchers hypothesize that increased consumption of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods is a key contributor. The potential importance of food retailers near schools has received increasing attention, but public health research and policy has focused primarily on fast food restaurants. Less is known about the relationship between overweight/obesity and other types of retailers. This study aims to investigate the potential associations between nearby 1 fast food restaurants, 2 convenience stores, and 3 supermarkets, and rates of overweight students in California schools. Methods We examined the rate of overweight ninth grade students in public schools in 2007 using linear regression. The percentage of overweight students per school was determined by a state required physical fitness test, with three different options for measuring individual body composition. Our key independent variables were the presence of three different types of retailers within 800 m network buffers of the schools. Additional independent variables included school ethnic, gender and socioeconomic composition, as well as urban/non-urban location. We obtained the data from the California Department of Education and ESRI, Inc. Results The presence of a convenience store within a 10-minute walking distance of a school was associated with a higher rate of overweight students than schools without nearby convenience stores, after controlling for all school-level variables in the regression (1.2%, 95% confidence interval 0.03, 2.36. Nearby fast food restaurants and supermarkets, however, were not associated with school rates of overweight students. Conclusions Public health researchers and policy-makers interested in the food environments outside schools should expand their recent focus on nearby fast food restaurants to include convenience stores, which may also

  4. Counterpart experimental study of ISP-42 PANDA tests on PUMA facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jun, E-mail: toyangjun@gmail.com [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1290 (United States); Choi, Sung-Won; Lim, Jaehyok; Lee, Doo-Yong; Rassame, Somboon; Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1290 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Counterpart tests were performed on two large-scale BWR integral facilities. ► Similarity of post-LOCA system behaviors observed between two tests. ► Passive core and containment cooling systems work as design in both tests. -- Abstract: A counterpart test to the Passive Nachwärmeabfuhr und Druckabbau Test Anlage (Passive Decay Heat Removal and Depressurization Test Facility, PANDA) International Standard Problem (ISP)-42 test was conducted at the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA) facility. Aimed to support code validation on a range of light water reactor (LWR) containment issues, the ISP-42 test consists of six sequential phases (Phases A–F) with separately defined initial and boundary conditions, addressing different stages of anticipated accident scenario and system responses. The counterpart test was performed from Phases A to D, which are within the scope of the normal integral tests performed on the PUMA facility. A scaling methodology was developed by using the PANDA facility as prototype and PUMA facility as test model, and an engineering scaling has been applied to the PUMA facility. The counterpart test results indicated that functions of passive safety systems, such as passive containment cooling system (PCCS) start-up, gravity-driven cooling system (GDCS) discharge, PCCS normal operation and overload function were confirmed in both the PANDA and PUMA facilities with qualitative similarities.

  5. Studies of Plasma Instability Processes Excited by Ground Based High Power HF ("Heating") Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    and Megill, 1974; Carlson, 1974; Bernhardt et al., 1989). During the last years new interesting results have been obtained at HAARP facility (Peterson...Haslett and Megill, 1974; Carlson, 1974; Bernhardt et al., 1989). During the last years new interesting results have been obtained at HAARP facility

  6. Acquisition of a SAXS Facility for the Study of Novel Polymer Nanocomposite Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-19

    the nanoscale regarding: size, shape, morphology and even particle interaction. This facility will 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12. DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT 6. AUTHORS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES AND ADDRESSES 15. SUBJECT TERMS b...provide valuable information at the nanoscale regarding: size, shape, morphology and even particle interaction. This facility will further advance

  7. A method for studying the development pattern of urban commercial service facilities based on customer reviews from social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. D. Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is one of the most important human social activities in the 21st century (Chaolin et al., 2012. With an increasing number of people visiting cities, the provision of adequate urban service facilities, including public and commercial service facilities, in locations where people live has become an important guarantee of the success of urbanization. Exploring the commercial service facilities in a specific area of a city can help us understand the progress and trends of urban renewal in the area, provide a quantitative basis for evaluating the rationality of planning implementation, and facilitate an analysis of the effects of different factors on the regional development of a city (Schor et al. 2003. In this paper, we proposed a data processing and analysis method for studying the distribution and development pattern of urban commercial facilities based on customer reviews. In addition, based on road network constraints, we explored the patterns contained in customer reviews data, including patterns for the spatial distribution and spatial-temporal evolution of facilities as well as the number of facilities and degree of satisfaction.

  8. A method for studying the development pattern of urban commercial service facilities based on customer reviews from social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. D.; Jiang, B. T.; Ye, X. Y.

    2016-06-01

    Urbanization is one of the most important human social activities in the 21st century (Chaolin et al., 2012). With an increasing number of people visiting cities, the provision of adequate urban service facilities, including public and commercial service facilities, in locations where people live has become an important guarantee of the success of urbanization. Exploring the commercial service facilities in a specific area of a city can help us understand the progress and trends of urban renewal in the area, provide a quantitative basis for evaluating the rationality of planning implementation, and facilitate an analysis of the effects of different factors on the regional development of a city (Schor et al. 2003). In this paper, we proposed a data processing and analysis method for studying the distribution and development pattern of urban commercial facilities based on customer reviews. In addition, based on road network constraints, we explored the patterns contained in customer reviews data, including patterns for the spatial distribution and spatial-temporal evolution of facilities as well as the number of facilities and degree of satisfaction.

  9. Polluting of Winter Convective Clouds upon Transition from Ocean Inland Over Central California: Contrasting Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Chemke, Rei; Prather, Kimberly; Suski, Kaitlyn; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Jonsson, Haf

    2014-01-01

    In-situ aircraft measurements of aerosol chemical and cloud microphysical properties were conducted during the CalWater campaign in February and March 2011 over the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the coastal waters of central California. The main objective was to elucidate the impacts of aerosol properties on clouds and precipitation forming processes. In order to accomplish this, we compared contrasting cases of clouds that ingested aerosols from different sources. The results showed that clouds containing pristine oceanic air had low cloud drop concentrations and started to develop rain 500 m above their base. This occurred both over the ocean and over the Sierra Nevada, mainly in the early morning when the radiatively cooled stable continental boundary layer was decoupled from the cloud base. Supercooled rain dominated the precipitation that formed in growing convective clouds in the pristine air, up to the -21°C isotherm level. A contrasting situation was documented in the afternoon over the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, when the clouds ingested high pollution aerosol concentrations produced in the Central Valley. This led to slow growth of the cloud drop effective radius with height and suppressed and even prevented the initiation of warm rain while contributing to the development of ice hydrometeors in the form of graupel. Our results show that cloud condensation and ice nuclei were the limiting factors that controlled warm rain and ice processes, respectively, while the unpolluted clouds in the same air mass produced precipitation quite efficiently. These findings provide the motivation for deeper investigations into the nature of the aerosols seeding clouds.

  10. Iron-binding ligands in the southern California Current System: mechanistic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randelle M Bundy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The distributions of dissolved iron and organic iron-binding ligands were examined in water column profiles and deckboard incubation experiments in the southern California Current System (sCCS along a transition from coastal to semi-oligotrophic waters. Analysis of the iron-binding ligand pool by competitive ligand exchange-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-ACSV using multiple analytical windows (MAWs revealed three classes of iron-binding ligands present throughout the water column (L1-L3, whose distributions closely matched those of dissolved iron and nitrate. Despite significant biogeochemical gradients, ligand profiles were similar between stations, with surface minima in strong ligands (L1 and L2, and relatively constant concentrations of weaker ligands (L3 down to 500 m. A phytoplankton grow-out incubation, initiated from an iron-limited water mass, showed dynamic temporal cycling of iron-binding ligands. A biological iron model was able to capture the patterns of the strong ligands in the grow-out incubation relatively well with only the microbial community as a biological source. An experiment focused on remineralization of particulate organic matter showed production of both strong and weak iron-binding ligands by the heterotrophic community, supporting a mechanism for in-situ production of both strong and weak iron-binding ligands in the subsurface water column. Photochemical experiments showed a variable influence of sunlight on the degradation of natural iron-binding ligands, providing some evidence to explain differences in surface ligand concentrations between stations. Patterns in ligand distributions between profiles and in the incubation experiments were primarily related to macronutrient concentrations, suggesting microbial remineralization processes might dominate on longer time-scales over short-term changes associated with photochemistry or phytoplankton growth.

  11. Bed composition generation for morphodynamic modeling: Case study of San Pablo Bay in California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wegen, M.; Dastgheib, A.; Jaffe, B.E.; Roelvink, D.

    2011-01-01

    Applications of process-based morphodynamic models are often constrained by limited availability of data on bed composition, which may have a considerable impact on the modeled morphodynamic development. One may even distinguish a period of "morphodynamic spin-up" in which the model generates the bed level according to some ill-defined initial bed composition rather than describing the realistic behavior of the system. The present paper proposes a methodology to generate bed composition of multiple sand and/or mud fractions that can act as the initial condition for the process-based numerical model Delft3D. The bed composition generation (BCG) run does not include bed level changes, but does permit the redistribution of multiple sediment fractions over the modeled domain. The model applies the concept of an active layer that may differ in sediment composition above an underlayer with fixed composition. In the case of a BCG run, the bed level is kept constant, whereas the bed composition can change. The approach is applied to San Pablo Bay in California, USA. Model results show that the BCG run reallocates sand and mud fractions over the model domain. Initially, a major sediment reallocation takes place, but development rates decrease in the longer term. Runs that take the outcome of a BCG run as a starting point lead to more gradual morphodynamic development. Sensitivity analysis shows the impact of variations in the morphological factor, the active layer thickness, and wind waves. An important but difficult to characterize criterion for a successful application of a BCG run is that it should not lead to a bed composition that fixes the bed so that it dominates the "natural" morphodynamic development of the system. Future research will focus on a decadal morphodynamic hindcast and comparison with measured bathymetries in San Pablo Bay so that the proposed methodology can be tested and optimized. ?? 2010 The Author(s).

  12. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, J.P.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Gillies, D.C. [eds.

    1999-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the US Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the US Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Shallow infiltration is not discussed in detail in this report because the focus in on three major aspects of the deep unsaturated-zone system: geologic framework, the gaseous-phase system, and the aqueous-phase system. However, because the relation between shallow infiltration and deep percolation is important to an overall understanding of the unsaturated-zone flow system, a summary of infiltration studies conducted to date at Yucca Mountain is provided in the section titled Shallow Infiltration. This report describes results of several Site Characterization Plan studies that were ongoing at the time excavation of the ESF North Ramp began and that continued as excavation proceeded.

  13. Groundwater-quality data in the Klamath Mountains study unit, 2010: results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 8,806-square-mile Klamath Mountains (KLAM) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from October to December 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The KLAM study unit was the thirty-third study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA Klamath Mountains study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined by the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the KLAM study unit. Groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the quality in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the KLAM study unit, groundwater samples were collected from sites in Del Norte, Siskiyou, Humboldt, Trinity, Tehama, and Shasta Counties, California. Of the 39 sites sampled, 38 were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the primary aquifer system in the study unit (grid sites), and the remaining site was non-randomized (understanding site). The groundwater samples were analyzed for basic field parameters, organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs] and pesticides and pesticide degradates), inorganic constituents (trace elements, nutrients, major and minor ions, total dissolved solids [TDS]), radon-222, gross alpha and gross beta

  14. Characteristics of AVIRIS Band Measurements in Desert Agroecosystems in the Area of Blythe, California. 1; Studies of Cotton Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Safwat H. Shakir

    2001-01-01

    Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data from Blythe, California, were acquired in June 1997 to study agricultural spectra from different crops and to identify crops in other areas with similar environmental factors and similar spectral properties. The main objectives of this study are: (1) to compare the spectral and radiometric characteristics of AVIRIS data from agriculture crops with ground spectra measured by a FieldSpec ASD spectrometer; (2) to explore the use of AVIRIS spectral images for identifying agricultural crops; (3) to study the spectral expression of environmental factors on selected crops; and (4) to build a spectral library for the crops that were studied. A long-term goal is to extend the spectral library for different vegetation or crops in different stages of growth. To support our study, on July 18 and 19, 2000, we collected spectra using the FieldSpec spectrometer from selected fields with different crops in the Blythe area of California (longitude 114 deg 33.28 W and latitude 33 deg 25.42 N to longitude 1140 44.53 W and latitude 33 deg 39.77 N). These crops were cotton in different stages of growth, varieties of grass pure or mixed, Sudan grass, Bermuda grass, Teff grass, and alfalfa. Some of the fields were treated with different types of irrigation (i.e., wet to dry conditions). Additional parameters were studied such as the soil water content (WC), pH, and organic matter (OM). The results of this study showed that for crops known to be similar, there is a significant correlation between the spectra that were collected by AVIRIS in 1997 and spectra measured by the FieldSpec (registered) spectrometer in 2000. This correlation allowed development of a spectral library to be used in ENVI-IDL analysis software. This library was used successfully to identify different crops. Furthermore, using IDL algorithms of Spectral Angle Mapper classification (SAM), spectral feature fitting (SFF) and spectral binary encoding (SPE

  15. Prevalence of herbal medicine use and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care at public health facilities in Hossana Town, Southern Ethiopia: facility based cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laelago, Tariku; Yohannes, Tadele; Lemango, Fiseha

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal medicine has been on increase in many developing and industrialized countries. More pregnant women use herbal remedies to treat pregnancy related problems due to cost-effectiveness of therapy and easy access of these products. We sought to assess the prevalence of herbal medicine use and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of public health facilities. Facility based cross sectional study was conducted among 363 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics from May to June 2015 at public health facilities in Hossana town, Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia. Pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data from each study subject. Bivariate logistic regression analysis was used to see significance of association between the outcome and independent variables. Odds ratios at 95 % CI were computed to measure the strength of the association between the outcome and the independent variables. P-value ginger (55.8 %), garlic (69.8 %), eucalyptus (11.6 %), tenaadam (rutachalenssis) (26.4 %), damakesse (ocimumlamiifolium) (22.8 %), feto (3.5 %) and omore (3.1 %). Being students (AOR: (5.68, 95 % CI: (1.53, 21.13), second trimester of pregnancy (AOR: 0.22, 95 % CI: (0.08, 0.76), sufficient knowledge on herbal medicine (AOR: 0.37, 95 % CI: (0.19, 0.79), no formal education (AOR: 4.41, 95 % CI: (1.11, 17.56), primary education (AOR: 4.15, 95 % CI: (1.51, 11.45) and secondary education (AOR: 2.55, 95 % CI: (1.08,6.03) were significantly associated with herbal medicine use. The findings of this study showed that herbal medicine use during pregnancy is a common experience. Commonly used herbal medicines during current pregnancy were garlic, ginger, tenaadam, damakasse and eucalyptus. Educational status, occupation, knowledge on herbal medicine and second trimester of pregnancy were the major factors affecting use of herbal medicine. Health education about the effects of herbal medicine on pregnancy should be given

  16. Groundwater-quality data for the Sierra Nevada study unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Munday, Cathy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 25,500-square-mile Sierra Nevada study unit was investigated in June through October 2008, as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Sierra Nevada study was designed to provide statistically robust assessments of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems in the study unit, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, primary aquifers) are defined by the depth of the screened or open intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database of wells used for public and community drinking-water supplies. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. In the Sierra Nevada study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 84 wells (and springs) in Lassen, Plumas, Butte, Sierra, Yuba, Nevada, Placer, El Dorado, Amador, Alpine, Calaveras, Tuolumne, Madera, Mariposa, Fresno, Inyo, Tulare, and Kern Counties. The wells were selected on two overlapping networks by using a spatially-distributed, randomized, grid-based approach. The primary grid-well network consisted of 30 wells, one well per grid cell in the study unit, and was designed to provide statistical representation of groundwater quality throughout the entire study unit. The lithologic grid-well network is a secondary grid that consisted of the wells in the primary grid-well network plus 53 additional wells and was designed to provide statistical representation of groundwater quality in each of the four major lithologic units in the Sierra

  17. Reliable Facility Location Problem with Facility Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Luohao; Zhu, Cheng; Lin, Zaili; Shi, Jianmai; Zhang, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies a reliable facility location problem with facility protection that aims to hedge against random facility disruptions by both strategically protecting some facilities and using backup facilities for the demands. An Integer Programming model is proposed for this problem, in which the failure probabilities of facilities are site-specific. A solution approach combining Lagrangian Relaxation and local search is proposed and is demonstrated to be both effective and efficient based on computational experiments on random numerical examples with 49, 88, 150 and 263 nodes in the network. A real case study for a 100-city network in Hunan province, China, is presented, based on which the properties of the model are discussed and some managerial insights are analyzed.

  18. Groundwater-Quality Data in the Colorado River Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 188-square-mile Colorado River Study unit (COLOR) was investigated October through December 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is the technical project lead. The Colorado River study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within COLOR, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 28 wells in three study areas in San Bernardino, Riverside, and Imperial Counties. Twenty wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the Study unit; these wells are termed 'grid wells'. Eight additional wells were selected to evaluate specific water-quality issues in the study area; these wells are termed `understanding wells.' The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichlorpropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents. Concentrations of naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, approximately 220 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and matrix spikes) were collected at

  19. Adopting and implementing nutrition guidelines in recreational facilities: public and private sector roles. A multiple case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Raine, Kim D; McCargar, Linda J

    2012-05-25

    Recreational facilities are an important community resource for health promotion because they provide access to affordable physical activities. However, despite their health mandate, many have unhealthy food environments that may paradoxically increase the risk of childhood obesity. The Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth (ANGCY) are government-initiated, voluntary guidelines intended to facilitate children's access to healthy food and beverage choices in schools, childcare and recreational facilities, however few recreational facilities are using them. We used mixed methods within an exploratory multiple case study to examine factors that influenced adoption and implementation of the ANGCY and the nature of the food environment within three cases: an adopter, a semi-adopter and a non-adopter of the ANGCY. Diffusion of Innovations theory provided the theoretical platform for the study. Qualitative data were generated through interviews, observations, and document reviews, and were analysed using directed content analysis. Set theoretic logic was used to identify factors that differentiated adopters from the non-adopter. Quantitative sales data were also collected, and the quality of the food environment was scored using four complementary tools. The keys to adoption and implementation of nutrition guidelines in recreational facilities related to the managers' nutrition-related knowledge, beliefs and perceptions, as these shaped his decisions and actions. The manager, however, could not accomplish adoption and implementation alone. Intersectoral linkages with schools and formal, health promoting partnerships with industry were also important for adoption and implementation to occur. The food environment in facilities that had adopted the ANGCY did not appear to be superior to the food environment in facilities that had not adopted the ANGCY. ANGCY uptake may continue to falter under the current voluntary approach, as the environmental supports for

  20. Groundwater Quality Data for the Tahoe-Martis Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Munday, Cathy; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Tahoe-Martis study unit was investigated in June through September 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within the Tahoe-Martis study unit (Tahoe-Martis) and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 52 wells in El Dorado, Placer, and Nevada Counties. Forty-one of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 11 were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, strontium isotope ratio, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen of water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, 240 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) each were collected at 12 percent of the wells, and the

  1. Volatile organic compounds and particulate matter in child care facilities in the District of Columbia: Results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirós-Alcalá, L; Wilson, S; Witherspoon, N; Murray, R; Perodin, J; Trousdale, K; Raspanti, G; Sapkota, A

    2016-04-01

    Many young children in the U.S. spend a significant portion of their day in child care facilities where they may be exposed to contaminants linked to adverse health effects. Exposure data on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM) in these settings is scarce. To guide the design of a larger exposure assessment study in urban child care facilities, we conducted a pilot study in which we characterized indoor concentrations of select VOCs and PM. We recruited 14 child care facilities in the District of Columbia (Washington, DC) and measured indoor concentrations of seven VOCs (n=35 total samples; 2-5 samples per facility): benzene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, p-xylene, and toluene in all facilities; and collected real-time PM measurements in seven facilities. We calculated descriptive statistics for contaminant concentrations and computed intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) to evaluate the variability of VOC levels indoors. We also administered a survey to collect general health information on the children attending these facilities, and information on general housekeeping practices and proximity of facilities to potential sources of target contaminants. We detected six of the seven VOCs in the majority of child care facilities with detection frequencies ranging from 71% to 100%. Chloroform and toluene were detected in all samples. Median (range) concentrations for toluene, chloroform, benzene, o-xylene, ethylbenzene, and carbon tetrachloride were: 5.6µg/m(3) (0.6-16.5µg/m(3)), 2.8µg/m(3) (0.4-53.0µg/m(3)), 1.4µg/m(3) (below the limit of detection or facility median concentrations for PM2.5 and PM10 were 20.1µg/m(3) and 26.3µg/m(3), respectively. Chlorine bleach, a source of chloroform, was

  2. A study on the direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. DUPIC facility engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Lee, Jae Sul; Choi, Jong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    This report summarizes the second year progress of phase II of DUPIC program which aims to verify experimentally the feasibility of direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. The project is to provide the experimental facilities and technologies that are required to perform the DUPIC experiment. As an early part of the project, engineering analysis of those facilities and construction of mock-up facility are described. Another scope of the project is to assess the DUPIC fuel cycle system and facilitate international cooperation. The progresses in this scope of work made during the fiscal year are also summarized in the report. 38 figs, 44 tabs, 8 refs. (Author).

  3. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Madera, Chowchilla Study Unit, 2008: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth; Jurgens, Bryant C.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 860-square-mile Madera and Chowchilla Subbasins (Madera-Chowchilla study unit) of the San Joaquin Valley Basin was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in California's Central Valley region in parts of Madera, Merced, and Fresno Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Project was designed to provide statistically robust assessments of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems in California. The primary aquifer system within each study unit is defined by the depth of the perforated or open intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database of wells used for municipal and community drinking-water supply. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifer system; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. The assessments for the Madera-Chowchilla study unit were based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 35 wells during April-May 2008 and water-quality data reported in the CDPH database. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) understanding, identification of natural factors and human activities affecting groundwater quality. The primary aquifer system is represented by the grid wells, of which 90 percent (%) had depths that ranged from about 200 to 800 feet (ft) below land surface and had depths to the top of perforations that ranged from about 140 to 400 ft below land surface. Relative-concentrations (sample concentrations divided by benchmark concentrations) were used for

  4. A national study on nurses' retention in healthcare facilities in underserved areas in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Alameddine, Mohamad; Jamal, Diana; Dimassi, Hani; Dumit, Nuhad Y; McEwen, Mary K; Jaafar, Maha; Murray, Susan F

    2013-09-30

    Nursing shortages and maldistribution are priority issues for healthcare systems around the globe. Such imbalances are often aggravated in underserved areas, especially in developing countries. Despite the centrality of this issue, there is a dearth of studies that examine the retention of nurses in underserved areas in the Middle East Region. This study investigates the characteristic and the factors associated with the retention of nurses working in rural areas in Lebanon. This study uses a non-experimental cross-sectional design to survey nurses working in underserved areas of Lebanon. Underserved areas in Lebanon were identified using WHO definition. A total of 103 health facilities (hospitals and primary healthcare centers) located in these areas were identified and all nurses working at these facilities received a copy of the survey questionnaire. The questionnaire included five sections: demographic, work-life, career plan, job satisfaction, and assessment of work environment. Analysis included univariate and bivariate (chi-square, Student's t-test and ANOVA) tests to describe the respondents and examine the significance between nurses' characteristics and their intent to stay. A logistic regression model was constructed to identify factors associated with nurses' intent to stay in underserved areas. A total of 857 nurses from 63 Primary Healthcare (PHC) centers and hospitals responded to the questionnaire (75.5% response rate). Only 35.1% of nurses indicated their intent to stay in their current job over the coming one to three years. Surveyed nurses were most satisfied with relationship with co-workers and least satisfied with extrinsic rewards. Rural nurses working in PHC centers were more satisfied than their hospital counterparts on all aspects of work and had significantly higher intention to stay (62.5% compared to 31.5% in hospitals, P Lebanon, especially in the hospital sector. The status quo is disquieting as it reflects an unstable and

  5. A national study on nurses’ retention in healthcare facilities in underserved areas in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Nursing shortages and maldistribution are priority issues for healthcare systems around the globe. Such imbalances are often aggravated in underserved areas, especially in developing countries. Despite the centrality of this issue, there is a dearth of studies that examine the retention of nurses in underserved areas in the Middle East Region. This study investigates the characteristic and the factors associated with the retention of nurses working in rural areas in Lebanon. Methods This study uses a non-experimental cross-sectional design to survey nurses working in underserved areas of Lebanon. Underserved areas in Lebanon were identified using WHO definition. A total of 103 health facilities (hospitals and primary healthcare centers) located in these areas were identified and all nurses working at these facilities received a copy of the survey questionnaire. The questionnaire included five sections: demographic, work-life, career plan, job satisfaction, and assessment of work environment. Analysis included univariate and bivariate (chi-square, Student’s t-test and ANOVA) tests to describe the respondents and examine the significance between nurses’ characteristics and their intent to stay. A logistic regression model was constructed to identify factors associated with nurses’ intent to stay in underserved areas. Results A total of 857 nurses from 63 Primary Healthcare (PHC) centers and hospitals responded to the questionnaire (75.5% response rate). Only 35.1% of nurses indicated their intent to stay in their current job over the coming one to three years. Surveyed nurses were most satisfied with relationship with co-workers and least satisfied with extrinsic rewards. Rural nurses working in PHC centers were more satisfied than their hospital counterparts on all aspects of work and had significantly higher intention to stay (62.5% compared to 31.5% in hospitals, P Lebanon, especially in the hospital sector. The status quo is disquieting as it

  6. Groundwater-Quality Data in the Antelope Valley Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Stephen J.; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,600 square-mile Antelope Valley study unit (ANT) was investigated from January to April 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within ANT, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 57 wells in Kern, Los Angeles, and San Bernardino Counties. Fifty-six of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized, grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and one additional well was selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding well). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline additives and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, fumigants, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity, radium isotopes, and radon-222). Naturally occurring isotopes (strontium, tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, 239 constituents and water-quality indicators (field parameters) were investigated. Quality

  7. Groundwater-Quality Data in the Madera-Chowchilla Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 860-square-mile Madera-Chowchilla study unit (MADCHOW) was investigated in April and May 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within MADCHOW, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 35 wells in Madera, Merced, and Fresno Counties. Thirty of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and five more were selected to provide additional sampling density to aid in understanding processes affecting groundwater quality (flow-path wells). Detection summaries in the text and tables are given for grid wells only, to avoid over-representation of the water quality in areas adjacent to flow-path wells. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], low-level 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane [DBCP] and 1,2-dibromoethane [EDB], pesticides and pesticide degradates, polar pesticides and metabolites, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], perchlorate, and low-level 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (uranium isotopes, and gross alpha and gross beta particle activities). Naturally occurring isotopes and geochemical tracers (stable isotopes of hydrogen

  8. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coachella Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 820 square-mile Coachella Valley Study Unit (COA) was investigated during February and March 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground water used for public-water supplies within the Coachella Valley, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of ground-water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 35 wells in Riverside County. Nineteen of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Sixteen additional wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along selected ground-water flow paths, examine land use effects on ground-water quality, and to collect water-quality data in areas where little exists. These wells were referred to as 'understanding wells'. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (uranium, tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and boron), and dissolved noble gases (the last in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled

  9. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Santa Clara River Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrella, Joseph; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Santa Clara River Valley study unit (SCRV) was investigated from April to June 2007 as part of the statewide Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw ground water used for public water supplies within SCRV, and to facilitate a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Fifty-seven ground-water samples were collected from 53 wells in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties. Forty-two wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells). Eleven wells (understanding wells) were selected to further evaluate water chemistry in particular parts of the study area, and four depth-dependent ground-water samples were collected from one of the eleven understanding wells to help understand the relation between water chemistry and depth. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, potential wastewater-indicator compounds, and pharmaceutical compounds), a constituent of special interest (perchlorate), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial constituents. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-13, carbon-14 [abundance], stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, chlorine-37, and bromine-81), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source

  10. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Matthew J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 950 square kilometer (370 square mile) Central Sierra study unit (CENSIE) was investigated in May 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw ground water used for drinking-water supplies within CENSIE, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of ground-water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from thirty wells in Madera County. Twenty-seven of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and three were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). Ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (N-nitrosodimethylamine, perchlorate, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. In total, over 250 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately one-sixth of the wells, and

  11. Residential proximity to industrial combustion facilities and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.; Nuckols, J.R.; Roos, A.J. de; Airola, M.; Colt, J.S.; Cerhan, J.R.; Morton, L.; Cozen, W.; Severson, R.; Blair, A.; Cleverly, D.; Ward, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Residence near municipal solid waste incinerators, a major historical source of dioxin emissions, has been associated with increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in European studies. The aim of our study was to evaluate residence near industrial combustion facilities and estimates

  12. The diesel exhaust in miners study: IV. Estimating historical exposures to diesel exhaust in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, R.; Coble, J.B.; Lubin, J.H.; Portengen, L.; Blair, A.; Attfield, M.D.; Silverman, D.T.; Stewart, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposures to respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, including lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners at eight non-metal mining facilities [the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS)]. Because there were no histori

  13. Residential proximity to industrial combustion facilities and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.; Nuckols, J.R.; Roos, A.J. de; Airola, M.; Colt, J.S.; Cerhan, J.R.; Morton, L.; Cozen, W.; Severson, R.; Blair, A.; Cleverly, D.; Ward, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Residence near municipal solid waste incinerators, a major historical source of dioxin emissions, has been associated with increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in European studies. The aim of our study was to evaluate residence near industrial combustion facilities and estimates

  14. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,800 square-mile Southern Sierra study unit (SOSA) was investigated in June 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Southern Sierra study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SOSA, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from fifty wells in Kern and Tulare Counties. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area, and fifteen were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and wastewater-indicator compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected for approximately one-eighth of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Assessment of the

  15. Ground-Water Quality Data in the San Francisco Bay Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 620-square-mile San Francisco Bay study unit (SFBAY) was investigated from April through June 2007 as part of the Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples in SFBAY were collected from 79 wells in San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa Counties. Forty-three of the wells sampled were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Thirty-six wells were sampled to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, trace elements, chloride and bromide isotopes, and uranium and strontium isotopes), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14 isotopes, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, boron, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases (noble gases were analyzed in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blank samples

  16. Planning of public healthcare facility using a location allocation modelling: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, S. Sarifah Radiah; Moin, Noor Hasnah; Omar, Mohd

    2014-09-01

    Finding the correct location of any facility and determining the demands which are to be assigned to it is very crucial in public health service. This is to ensure that the public gain maximum benefits. This article analyzes the previous location decisions of public primary healthcare (PHC) facilities in the district of Kuala Langat, Malaysia. With total population of 220214 (in 2010), the PHC in the district is currently served by 28 facilities. The percentages of total population covered (in 2007) within the maximum allowable distance of 3km and 5km are 69.7 percent and 77.8 percent respectively. This is very low compared to the Malaysian National Health Policy of Health for All or 100 percent coverage. The determination of health facility location should be planned carefully to further increase effective primary health service to the nation that is required for economic sustainability.

  17. Maternal death audit in Rwanda 2009-2013: a nationwide facility-based retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sayinzoga, F.; Bijlmakers, L.A.; Dillen, J. van; Mivumbi, V.; Ngabo, F.; Velden, K. van der

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Presenting the results of 5 years of implementing health facility-based maternal death audits in Rwanda, showing maternal death classification, identification of substandard (care) factors that have contributed to death, and conclusive recommendations for quality improvements in maternal

  18. Screening study for waste biomass to ethanol production facility using the Amoco process in New York State. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This report evaluates the economic feasibility of locating biomass-to-ethanol waste conversion facilities in New York State. Part 1 of the study evaluates 74 potential sites in New York City and identifies two preferred sites on Staten, the Proctor Gamble and the Arthur Kill sites, for further consideration. Part 2 evaluates upstate New York and determines that four regions surrounding the urban centers of Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse provide suitable areas from which to select specific sites for further consideration. A separate Appendix provides supplemental material supporting the evaluations. A conceptual design and economic viability evaluation were developed for a minimum-size facility capable of processing 500 tons per day (tpd) of biomass consisting of wood or paper, or a combination of the two for upstate regions. The facility would use Amoco`s biomass conversion technology and produce 49,000 gallons per day of ethanol and approximately 300 tpd of lignin solid by-product. For New York City, a 1,000-tpd processing facility was also evaluated to examine effects of economies of scale. The reports evaluate the feasibility of building a biomass conversion facility in terms of city and state economic, environmental, and community factors. Given the data obtained to date, including changing costs for feedstock and ethanol, the project is marginally attractive. A facility should be as large as possible and located in a New York State Economic Development Zone to take advantage of economic incentives. The facility should have on-site oxidation capabilities, which will make it more financially viable given the high cost of energy. 26 figs., 121 tabs.

  19. Comprehensive facilities plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory`s Comprehensive Facilities Plan (CFP) document provides analysis and policy guidance for the effective use and orderly future development of land and capital assets at the Berkeley Lab site. The CFP directly supports Berkeley Lab`s role as a multiprogram national laboratory operated by the University of California (UC) for the Department of Energy (DOE). The CFP is revised annually on Berkeley Lab`s Facilities Planning Website. Major revisions are consistent with DOE policy and review guidance. Facilities planing is motivated by the need to develop facilities for DOE programmatic needs; to maintain, replace and rehabilitate existing obsolete facilities; to identify sites for anticipated programmatic growth; and to establish a planning framework in recognition of site amenities and the surrounding community. The CFP presents a concise expression of the policy for the future physical development of the Laboratory, based upon anticipated operational needs of research programs and the environmental setting. It is a product of the ongoing planning processes and is a dynamic information source.

  20. A Study on Applicability of Distributed Energy Generation, Storage and Consumption within Small Scale Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rodríguez-Molina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Distributed generation and storage of energy, conceived as one of the prominent applications of the Smart Grid, has become one of the most popular ways for generation and usage of electricity. Not only does it offer environmental advantages and a more decentralized way to produce energy, but it also enables former consumers to become producers (thus turning them into prosumers. Alternatively, regular power production and consumption is still widely used in most of the world. Unfortunately, accurate business models representations and descriptive use cases for small scale facilitates, either involved in distributed energy or not, have not been provided in a descriptive enough manner. What is more, the possibilities that electricity trade and its storage and consumption activities offer for small users to obtain profits are yet to be addressed and offered to the research community in a thorough manner, so that small consumers will use them to their advantage. This paper puts forward a study on four different business models for small scale facilities and offers an economical study on how they can be deployed as a way to offer profitability for end users and new companies, while at the same time showing the required technological background to have them implemented.