WorldWideScience

Sample records for facility risks reduced

  1. Reduce HIV Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our research has demonstrated remarkable success in reducing HIV risk-associated sexual behaviors among African American adolescents and adults." Read More "Nursing Research" Articles Nursing Research / Improve Hospital-to-Home Transitions / Reduce ...

  2. Uncertainties in risk assessment at USDOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Rowe, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) has embarked on an ambitious program to remediate environmental contamination at its facilities. Decisions concerning cleanup goals, choices among cleanup technologies, and funding prioritization should be largely risk-based. Risk assessments will be used more extensively by the USDOE in the future. USDOE needs to develop and refine risk assessment methods and fund research to reduce major sources of uncertainty in risk assessments at USDOE facilities. The terms{open_quote} risk assessment{close_quote} and{open_quote} risk management{close_quote} are frequently confused. The National Research Council (1983) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1991a) described risk assessment as a scientific process that contributes to risk management. Risk assessment is the process of collecting, analyzing and integrating data and information to identify hazards, assess exposures and dose responses, and characterize risks. Risk characterization must include a clear presentation of {open_quotes}... the most significant data and uncertainties...{close_quotes} in an assessment. Significant data and uncertainties are {open_quotes}...those that define and explain the main risk conclusions{close_quotes}. Risk management integrates risk assessment information with other considerations, such as risk perceptions, socioeconomic and political factors, and statutes, to make and justify decisions. Risk assessments, as scientific processes, should be made independently of the other aspects of risk management (USEPA, 1991a), but current methods for assessing health risks are based on conservative regulatory principles, causing unnecessary public concern and misallocation of funds for remediation.

  3. Uncertainties in risk assessment at USDOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Rowe, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) has embarked on an ambitious program to remediate environmental contamination at its facilities. Decisions concerning cleanup goals, choices among cleanup technologies, and funding prioritization should be largely risk-based. Risk assessments will be used more extensively by the USDOE in the future. USDOE needs to develop and refine risk assessment methods and fund research to reduce major sources of uncertainty in risk assessments at USDOE facilities. The terms{open_quote} risk assessment{close_quote} and{open_quote} risk management{close_quote} are frequently confused. The National Research Council (1983) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1991a) described risk assessment as a scientific process that contributes to risk management. Risk assessment is the process of collecting, analyzing and integrating data and information to identify hazards, assess exposures and dose responses, and characterize risks. Risk characterization must include a clear presentation of {open_quotes}... the most significant data and uncertainties...{close_quotes} in an assessment. Significant data and uncertainties are {open_quotes}...those that define and explain the main risk conclusions{close_quotes}. Risk management integrates risk assessment information with other considerations, such as risk perceptions, socioeconomic and political factors, and statutes, to make and justify decisions. Risk assessments, as scientific processes, should be made independently of the other aspects of risk management (USEPA, 1991a), but current methods for assessing health risks are based on conservative regulatory principles, causing unnecessary public concern and misallocation of funds for remediation.

  4. Integrated Disposal Facility Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANN, F. M.

    2003-06-03

    An environmental risk assessment associated with the disposal of projected Immobilized Low-Activity Waste, solid wastes and failed or decommissioned melters in an Integrated Disposal Facility was performed. Based on the analyses all performance objectives associated with the groundwater, air, and intruder pathways were met.

  5. Reducing violence in healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellani, Karim H

    2014-01-01

    Looking behind the statistics on increases in healthcare violence incidents, the author finds that these incidents directly impact a small percentage of employees. However he sees an opportunity for administrators and security professionals to use this heightened awareness to collaborate on comprehensive plans to manage workplace violence, not only to reduce the direct impact of workplace violence incidents, but also to mitigate the indirect impacts such as employee morale degradation, fear of workplace violence, and costs of workplace violence. In this article he provides the elements of an effective workplace violence management plan.

  6. Risk management study for the Hanford Site facilities: Risk reduction cost comparison for the retired Hanford Site facilities. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, G.A.; Egge, R.G.; Senger, E.; Shultz, M.W.; Taylor, W.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document provides a cost-comparison evaluation for implementing certain risk-reduction measures and their effect on the overall risk of the 100 and 200 Area retired, surplus facilities. The evaluation is based on conditions that existed at the time the risk evaluation team performed facility investigations, and does not acknowledge risk-reduction measures that occurred soon after risk identification. This evaluation is one part of an overall risk management study for these facilities. The retired facilities investigated for this evaluation are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1450-km{sup 2} Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a semiarid tract of land in southeastern Washington State. The nearest population center is Richland, Washington, (population 32,000) 30 km southeast of the 200 Area. This cost-comparison evaluation (1) determines relative costs for reducing risk to acceptable levels; (2) compares the cost of reducing risk using different risk-reduction options; and (3) compares the cost of reducing risks at different facilities. The result is an identification of the cost effective risk-reduction measures. Supporting information required to develop costs of the various risk-reduction options also is included.

  7. Reducing Iatrogenic Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, E. Wesley; Speroff, Theodore; Pun, Brenda T.; Boehm, Leanne; Dittus, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    ICUs are experiencing an epidemic of patients with acute brain dysfunction (delirium) and weakness, both associated with increased mortality and long-term disability. These conditions are commonly acquired in the ICU and are often initiated or exacerbated by sedation and ventilation decisions and management. Despite > 10 years of evidence revealing the hazards of delirium, the quality chasm between current and ideal processes of care continues to exist. Monitoring of delirium and sedation levels remains inconsistent. In addition, sedation, ventilation, and physical therapy practices proven successful at reducing the frequency and severity of adverse outcomes are not routinely practiced. In this article, we advocate for the adoption and implementation of a standard bundle of ICU measures with great potential to reduce the burden of ICU-acquired delirium and weakness. Individual components of this bundle are evidence based and can help standardize communication, improve interdisciplinary care, reduce mortality, and improve cognitive and functional outcomes. We refer to this as the “ABCDE bundle,” for awakening and breathing coordination, delirium monitoring, and exercise/early mobility. This evidence-based bundle of practices will build a bridge across the current quality chasm from the “front end” to the “back end” of critical care and toward improved cognitive and functional outcomes for ICU survivors. PMID:21051398

  8. What Are Nursing Facilities Doing to Reduce Potentially Avoidable Hospitalizations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daras, Laura Coots; Wang, Joyce M; Ingber, Melvin J; Ormond, Catherine; Breg, Nathaniel W; Khatutsky, Galina; Feng, Zhanlian

    2017-05-01

    Hospitalizations among nursing facility residents are frequent and often potentially avoidable. A number of initiatives and interventions have been developed to reduce excessive hospitalizations; however, little is known about the specific approaches nursing facilities use to address this issue. The objective of this study is to better understand which types of interventions nursing facilities have introduced to reduce potentially avoidable hospitalizations of long-stay nursing facility residents. Cross-sectional survey. 236 nursing facilities from 7 states. Nursing facility administrators. Web-based survey to measure whether facilities introduced any policies or procedures designed specifically to reduce potentially avoidable hospitalizations of long-stay nursing facility residents between 2011 and 2015. We surveyed facilities about seven types of interventions and quality improvement activities related to reducing avoidable hospitalizations, including use of Interventions to Reduce Acute Care Transfers (INTERACT) and American Medical Directors Association tools. Ninety-five percent of responding nursing facilities reported having introduced at least one new policy or procedure to reduce nursing facility resident hospitalizations since January 2011. The most common practice reported was hospitalization rate tracking or review, followed by standardized communication tools, such as Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation (SBAR). We found some variation in the extent and types of these reported interventions. Nearly all facilities surveyed reported having introduced a variety of initiatives to reduce potentially avoidable hospitalizations, likely driven by federal, state, and corporate initiatives to decrease hospital admissions and readmissions. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. Biotechnology System Facility: Risk Mitigation on Mir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R., III; Galloway, Steve R.

    2003-01-01

    NASA is working with its international partners to develop space vehicles and facilities that will give researchers the opportunity to conduct scientific investigations in space. As part of this activity, NASA's Biotechnology Cell Science Program (BCSP) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is developing a world-class biotechnology laboratory facility for the International Space Station (ISS). This report describes the BCSP, including the role of the BTS. We identify the purpose and objectives of the BTS and a detailed description of BTS facility design and operational concept, BTS facility and experiment-specific hardware, and scientific investigations conducted in the facility. We identify the objectives, methods, and results of risk mitigation investigations of the effects of microgravity and cosmic radiation on the BTS data acquisition and control system. These results may apply to many other space experiments that use commercial, terrestrial-based data acquisition technology. Another focal point is a description of the end-to-end process of integrating and operating biotechnology experiments on a variety of space vehicles. The identification of lessons learned that can be applied to future biotechnology experiments is an overall theme of the report. We include a brief summary of the science results, but this is not the focus of the report. The report provides some discussion on the successful 130-day tissue engineering experiment performed in BTS on Mir and describes a seminal gene array investigation that identified a set of unique genes that are activated in space.

  10. Risk assessment of tailings facility dam failure

    OpenAIRE

    Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija; Mirakovski, Dejan; Stefanova, Violeta

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the consequences of tailings facility dam failure and therefore the needs for its risk assessment. Tailings are fine-grained wastes of the mining industry, output as slurries, due to mixing with water during mineral processing. Tailings dams vary a lot as it is affected by: tailings characteristics and mill output, site characteristics as: topography, hydrology, geology, groundwater, seismicity and available material and disposal methods. The talings which accumulat...

  11. Contralateral Risk-Reducing Mastectomy: Review of Risk Factors and Risk-Reducing Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Basu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rates of contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy have increased substantially over the last decade. Surgical oncologists are often in the frontline, dealing with requests for this procedure. This paper reviews the current evidence base regarding contralateral breast cancer, assesses the various risk-reducing strategies, and evaluates the cost-effectiveness of contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy.

  12. Risk management activities at the DOE Class A reactor facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, D.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Hill, D.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Linn, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Atkinson, S.A. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hu, J.P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and risk management group of the Association for Excellence in Reactor Operation (AERO) develops risk management initiatives and standards to improve operation and increase safety of the DOE Class A reactor facilities. Principal risk management applications that have been implemented at each facility are reviewed. The status of a program to develop guidelines for risk management programs at reactor facilities is presented.

  13. Risk management activities at the DOE Class A reactor facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, D.A. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Hill, D.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Linn, M.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Atkinson, S.A. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Hu, J.P. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and risk management group of the Association for Excellence in Reactor Operation (AERO) develops risk management initiatives and standards to improve operation and increase safety of the DOE Class A reactor facilities. Principal risk management applications that have been implemented at each facility are reviewed. The status of a program to develop guidelines for risk management programs at reactor facilities is presented.

  14. Optimal and acceptable technical facilities involving risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackwitz, Ruediger

    2004-06-01

    Economic cost-benefit optimization of technical facility requires suitable "life saving cost" and/or an appropriate acceptance criterion if human life and limb are at risk. Traditionally, acceptance criteria implicit in codes of practice, standards, or regulations for well-defined fields of application are calibrated against past and present practice. This is all but satisfying. It is unclear whether present rules are already optimal. Extrapolations into new fields of application are extremely difficult. Direct cost-benefit analysis is proposed as an alternative. Based on the recently proposed "life quality index" (LQI), a rational acceptance criterion and so-called life saving cost are derived. The classical life quality index is reviewed, modified, and imbedded in modern economics theory. The results are then applied to technical facilities. The relation between optimization and the LQI-based acceptance criterion is discussed. The relevant economics literature is reviewed with respect to discount rates applicable for long-term investments into risk reduction. They should be as low as possible according to a recent mathematical result. Modern economic growth theory decomposes the output growth rate into the rate of time preference of consumption and the rate of economical growth multiplied by the elasticity of marginal utility of consumption. It is found that the rate of time preference of consumption should be a little larger than the long-term population growth rate. The public benefit rate (output growth rate) on the other hand should be smaller than the sum of the population growth rate and the long-term growth rate of a national economy, which is around 2% for most industrial countries. Accordingly, the rate of time preference of consumption is about 1%, which is also intergenerationally acceptable from an ethical point of view. Given a certain output growth rate there is a corresponding maximum financial interest rate in order to maintain nonnegativity of

  15. Some reduce facilities for pretty printing subscripts and formal derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, B.J.A.; van Hulzen, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Some REDUCE facilities are presented for pretty printing formal (partial) derivatives, for array-and matrix subcripts and for operators with arbitrary arguments. The package is completely written in Standard LISP and can be considered as an addition to the output repertoire of the algebraic mode of

  16. Reducing Proliferation Rick Through Multinational Fuel Cycle Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amanda Rynes

    2010-11-01

    With the prospect of rapid expansion of the nuclear energy industry and the ongoing concern over weapons proliferation, there is a growing need for a viable alternative to traditional nation-based fuel production facilities. While some in the international community remain apprehensive, the advantages of multinational fuel cycle facilities are becoming increasingly apparent, with states on both sides of the supply chain able to garner the security and financial benefits of such facilities. Proliferation risk is minimized by eliminating the need of states to establish indigenous fuel production capabilities and the concept's structure provides an additional internationally monitored barrier against the misuse or diversion of nuclear materials. This article gives a brief description of the arguments for and against the implementation of a complete multinational fuel cycle.

  17. Gene Variants Reduce Opioid Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/Nicotine ... variant of the gene for the μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) with a decreased risk for addiction to ...

  18. Risk-Based Pricing and Risk-Reducing Effort: Does the Private Insurance Market Reduce Environmental Accidents?

    OpenAIRE

    Haitao Yin; Howard Kunreuther; Matthew White

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines whether risk-based pricing promotes risk-reducing effort. Such mechanisms are common in private insurance markets, but are rarely incorporated in government assurance programs. We analyze accidental underground fuel tank leaks--a source of environmental damage to water supplies--over a fourteen-year period, using disaggregate (facility-level) data and policy variation in financing the cleanup of tank leaks over time. The data suggest that eliminating a state-level governme...

  19. High-risk facilities. Emergency management in nuclear, chemical and hazardous waste facilities; Hochrisikoanlagen. Notfallschutz bei Kernkraft-, Chemie- und Sondermuellanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloepfer, Michael (ed.) [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The book on emergency management in high-risk facilities covers the following topics: Change in the nuclear policy, risk management of high-risk facilities as a constitutional problem - emergency management in nuclear facilities, operational mechanisms of risk control in nuclear facilities, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for nuclear facilities, operational mechanism of the risk control in chemical plants, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for chemical facilities, operational mechanisms of the risk control in hazardous waste facilities, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for hazardous waste facilities, civil law consequences in case of accidents in high-risk facilities, criminal prosecution in case of accidents in high-risk facilities, safety margins as site risk for emission protection facilities, national emergency management - strategic emergency management structures, warning and self-protection of the public in case of CBRN hazards including aspects of the psych-social emergency management.

  20. Risk management study for the retired Hanford Site facilities: Qualitative risk evaluation for the retired Hanford Site facilities. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, G.A.; Shultz, M.V.; Taylor, W.E.

    1993-09-01

    This document provides a risk evaluation of the 100 and 200 Area retired, surplus facilities on the Hanford Site. Also included are the related data that were compiled by the risk evaluation team during investigations performed on the facilities. Results are the product of a major effort performed in fiscal year 1993 to produce qualitative information that characterizes certain risks associated with these facilities. The retired facilities investigated for this evaluation are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1,450-km{sup 2} (570-mi{sup 2}) Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a semiarid tract of land in southeastern Washington State. The nearest population center is Richland, Washington, (population 32,000) 30-km (20 mi) southeast of the 200 Area. During walkdown investigations of these facilities, data on real and potential hazards that threatened human health or safety or created potential environmental release issues were identified by the risk evaluation team. Using these findings, the team categorized the identified hazards by facility and evaluated the risk associated with each hazard. The factors contributing to each risk, and the consequence and likelihood of harm associated with each hazard also are included in this evaluation.

  1. Does Metformin Reduce Cancer Risks? Methodologic Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golozar, Asieh; Liu, Shuiqing; Lin, Joeseph A; Peairs, Kimberly; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    The substantial burden of cancer and diabetes and the association between the two conditions has been a motivation for researchers to look for targeted strategies that can simultaneously affect both diseases and reduce their overlapping burden. In the absence of randomized clinical trials, researchers have taken advantage of the availability and richness of administrative databases and electronic medical records to investigate the effects of drugs on cancer risk among diabetic individuals. The majority of these studies suggest that metformin could potentially reduce cancer risk. However, the validity of this purported reduction in cancer risk is limited by several methodological flaws either in the study design or in the analysis. Whether metformin use decreases cancer risk relies heavily on the availability of valid data sources with complete information on confounders, accurate assessment of drug use, appropriate study design, and robust analytical techniques. The majority of the observational studies assessing the association between metformin and cancer risk suffer from methodological shortcomings and efforts to address these issues have been incomplete. Future investigations on the association between metformin and cancer risk should clearly address the methodological issues due to confounding by indication, prevalent user bias, and time-related biases. Although the proposed strategies do not guarantee a bias-free estimate for the association between metformin and cancer, they will reduce synthesis of and reporting of erroneous results.

  2. Reducing cardiovascular risk : protecting the kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobre, Daniela; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2009-01-01

    Progressive decline of renal function in chronic kidney disease (CKD), measured by a reduced glomerular filtration rate or albuminuria, is linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), most

  3. Reducing the Risk of Methadone Overdose

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-03

    This podcast is based on the July 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Approximately 14 people die every day of overdoses related to methadone. Listen to learn how to reduce your risk of an overdose.  Created: 7/3/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/3/2012.

  4. How Damage Diversification Can Reduce Systemic Risk

    CERN Document Server

    Burkholz, Rebekka; Schweitzer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of risk diversification in complex networks. Nodes represent e.g. financial actors, whereas weighted links represent e.g. financial obligations (credits/debts). Each node has a risk to fail because of losses resulting from defaulting neighbors, which may lead to large failure cascades. Classical risk diversification strategies usually neglect network effects and therefore suggest that risk can be reduced if possible losses (i.e., exposures) are split among many neighbors (exposure diversification, ED). But from a complex networks perspective diversification implies higher connectivity of the system as a whole which can also lead to increasing failure risk of a node. To cope with this, we propose a different strategy (damage diversification, DD), i.e. the diversification of losses that are imposed on neighboring nodes as opposed to losses incurred by the node itself. Here, we quantify the potential of DD to reduce systemic risk in comparison to ED. For this, we develop a branching proce...

  5. Risk Reducing Effect of AIS Implementation on Collision Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2003-01-01

    AIS (Automatic Identification System) is a transponder system developed for sea traffic purposes. The system sends and receives important ship information and other safety-related information between other ships and shore-based AIS stations. The implementation of AIS has now been initiated and......, as a result, the community will undoubtedly observe an increase in navigational safety. However, to the authors? knowledge, no study has so far rigorously quantified the risk reducing effect of using AIS as an integrated part of the navigational system. The objective of this study is to fill this gap....... The risk reducing effect of AIS is quantified by building a Bayesian network facilitating an evaluation of the effect of AIS on the navigational officer?s reaction ability in a potential, critical collision situation. The time-dependent change in the risk reducing effect on ship collisions is analysed...

  6. Reducing Organic Contamination in NASA JSC Astromaterial Curation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, M. J.; Allen, C. C.; Allton, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Future robotic and human spaceflight missions to the Moon, Mars, asteroids and comets will require handling and storing astromaterial samples with minimal inorganic and organic contamination to preserve the scientific integrity of each sample. Much was learned from the rigorous attempts to minimize and monitor organic contamination during Apollo, but it was not adequate for current analytical requirements; thus [1]. OSIRIS-REx, Hayabusa-2, and future Mars sample return will require better protocols for reducing organic contamination. Future isolation con-tainment systems for astromaterials, possibly nitrogen enriched gloveboxes, must be able to reduce organic and inorganic cross-contamination. In 2012, a baseline study established the current state of organic cleanliness in gloveboxes used by NASA JSC astromaterials curation labs that could be used as a benchmark for future mission designs [2, 3]. After standard ultra-pure water (UPW) cleaning, the majority of organic contaminates found were hydrocarbons, plasticizers, silicones, and solvents. Hydro-carbons loads (> C7) ranged from 1.9 to 11.8 ng/cm2 for TD-GC-MS wafer exposure analyses and 5.0 to 19.5 ng/L for TD-GC-MS adsorbent tube exposure. Plasticizers included nano grade solution), and heat sterilization at 130degC for 48 hours to reduce organic contamination. In addition, both heat sterilization and peracetic acid sterilization were used in the atmospheric de-contamination (R) cabinets. Later, Lunar curation gloveboxes were degreased with a pressurized Freon 113 wash. Today, UPW has replaced Freon as the standard cleaning procedure, but does not have the degreasing solvency power of Freon. Future Cleaning Studies: Cleaning experiments are cur-rently being orchestrated to study how to degrease and reduce organics in a JSC curation glovebox lower than the established baseline. Several new chemicals in the industry have replaced traditional degreasing solvents such as Freon and others that are now federally

  7. Financial incentives for reducing proliferation risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weise, Rachel A.; Hund, Gretchen

    2016-08-15

    This article submitted for publication to the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists explains the possible financial incentives for financial institutions and large integrators to reduce nuclear proliferation risks by including anti-proliferation measures in their due diligence and requiring their suppliers to meet heightened compliance standards. Because manufacturers of dual-use nuclear goods are diverse and numerous outreach is difficult. However, financial institutions and large integrators work with nearly all dual-use manufacturers, making financial institutions and integrators well-positioned to increase awareness of proliferation and trafficking risks throughout the nuclear supply chain

  8. Reducing staff turnover: a case study of dialysis facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, T W; Robinson, C D

    1998-01-01

    A multivariate logistic analysis of 42 Texas dialysis facilities indicated that younger, white, short tenure, an LVN/LPN, with less support from family and friends for emotional concerns, and less supervisor support significantly increased the likelihood of turnover (p staff turnover of these dialysis facilities increases costs and impedes the delivery of quality patient care. Managerial strategies to increase staff retention are suggested.

  9. Human health risk characterization of petroleum coke calcining facility emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Davinderjit; Johnson, Giffe T; Harbison, Raymond D

    2015-12-01

    Calcining processes including handling and storage of raw petroleum coke may result in Particulate Matter (PM) and gaseous emissions. Concerns have been raised over the potential association between particulate and aerosol pollution and adverse respiratory health effects including decrements in lung function. This risk characterization evaluated the exposure concentrations of ambient air pollutants including PM10 and gaseous pollutants from a petroleum coke calciner facility. The ambient air pollutant levels were collected through monitors installed at multiple locations in the vicinity of the facility. The measured and modeled particulate levels in ambient air from the calciner facility were compared to standards protective of public health. The results indicated that exposure levels were, on occasions at sites farther from the facility, higher than the public health limit of 150 μg/m(3) 24-h average for PM10. However, the carbon fraction demonstrated that the contribution from the calciner facility was de minimis. Exposure levels of the modeled SO2, CO, NOx and PM10 concentrations were also below public health air quality standards. These results demonstrate that emissions from calcining processes involving petroleum coke, at facilities that are well controlled, are below regulatory standards and are not expected to produce a public health risk.

  10. How damage diversification can reduce systemic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholz, Rebekka; Garas, Antonios; Schweitzer, Frank

    2016-04-01

    We study the influence of risk diversification on cascading failures in weighted complex networks, where weighted directed links represent exposures between nodes. These weights result from different diversification strategies and their adjustment allows us to reduce systemic risk significantly by topological means. As an example, we contrast a classical exposure diversification (ED) approach with a damage diversification (DD) variant. The latter reduces the loss that the failure of high degree nodes generally inflict to their network neighbors and thus hampers the cascade amplification. To quantify the final cascade size and obtain our results, we develop a branching process approximation taking into account that inflicted losses cannot only depend on properties of the exposed, but also of the failing node. This analytic extension is a natural consequence of the paradigm shift from individual to system safety. To deepen our understanding of the cascade process, we complement this systemic perspective by a mesoscopic one: an analysis of the failure risk of nodes dependent on their degree. Additionally, we ask for the role of these failures in the cascade amplification.

  11. Reducing risk where tectonic plates collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan S.; Ludwig, Kristin A.

    2017-06-19

    Most of the world’s earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, and volcanic eruptions are caused by the continuous motions of the many tectonic plates that make up the Earth’s outer shell. The most powerful of these natural hazards occur in subduction zones, where two plates collide and one is thrust beneath another. The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) “Reducing Risk Where Tectonic Plates Collide—A USGS Plan to Advance Subduction Zone Science” is a blueprint for building the crucial scientific foundation needed to inform the policies and practices that can make our Nation more resilient to subduction zone-related hazards.

  12. Screening Level Risk Assessment for the New Waste Calcining Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. L. Abbott; K. N. Keck; R. E. Schindler; R. L. VanHorn; N. L. Hampton; M. B. Heiser

    1999-05-01

    This screening level risk assessment evaluates potential adverse human health and ecological impacts resulting from continued operations of the calciner at the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The assessment was conducted in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report, Guidance for Performing Screening Level Risk Analyses at Combustion Facilities Burning Hazardous Waste. This screening guidance is intended to give a conservative estimate of the potential risks to determine whether a more refined assessment is warranted. The NWCF uses a fluidized-bed combustor to solidify (calcine) liquid radioactive mixed waste from the INTEC Tank Farm facility. Calciner off volatilized metal species, trace organic compounds, and low-levels of radionuclides. Conservative stack emission rates were calculated based on maximum waste solution feed samples, conservative assumptions for off gas partitioning of metals and organics, stack gas sampling for mercury, and conservative measurements of contaminant removal (decontamination factors) in the off gas treatment system. Stack emissions were modeled using the ISC3 air dispersion model to predict maximum particulate and vapor air concentrations and ground deposition rates. Results demonstrate that NWCF emissions calculated from best-available process knowledge would result in maximum onsite and offsite health and ecological impacts that are less then EPA-established criteria for operation of a combustion facility.

  13. Dairy food supplementation may reduce malnutrition risk in institutionalised elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuliano, Sandra; Poon, Shirley; Wang, Xiaofang; Bui, Minh; Seeman, Ego

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition in institutionalised elderly increases morbidity and care costs. Meat and dairy foods are high-quality protein sources so adequate intakes may reduce malnutrition risk. We aimed to determine whether inadequate intakes of meat and dairy foods contribute to malnutrition in institutionalised elderly. This cross-sectional study involved 215 elderly residents (70·2 % females, mean age 85·8 years) from twenty-one aged-care facilities in Melbourne, Australia. Dietary intake was assessed using observed plate waste. Food groups and serving sizes were based on the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Nutrient content was analysed using a computerised nutrient analysis software (Xyris). Malnutrition risk was assessed using the Mini Nutrition Assessment (MNA) tool; a score between 24 and 30 indicates normal nutritional status. Data were analysed using robust regression. Mean MNA score was 21·6 (sd 2·7). In total, 68 % of residents were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition (MNA score≤23·5). Protein intake was 87 (sd 28) % of the Australian recommended dietary intake (RDI). Consumption averaged 1 serving each of dairy foods and meat daily. Number of dairy and meat servings related to proportion of protein RDI (both P24 points). Provision of meat and dairy foods did not meet recommended levels. On the basis of current dietary intakes in aged-care residents, increasing consumption of dairy foods to the recommended four servings daily ensures protein adequacy and may reduce malnutrition risk in institutionalised elderly, and so reduce risk of comorbidities and costs associated with malnutrition.

  14. Reducing Operating Costs by Optimizing Space in Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    consolidation. Until the S-File can talk to other systems and pull the data this analysis must be accomplished manually . 6) Incorporate space efficiency...Reference Manual . Public Works and Government Services Canada. British Columbia. McGregor, Wes. (2000). Facilities Management and the Business of...floor plans listed in Appendix B. AutoCAD 2010 was the software used. Other software suites may differ slightly in method or terminology. Although

  15. National Ignition Facility Risk Management Plan, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brereton, S J

    2002-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Risk Management Plan (LLNL, 1997a) was originally prepared in 1997 in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Life Cycle Asset Management Good Practice Guide (DOE, 1996a) and supported NIF Critical Decision 3, approval to initiate construction (DOE, 1997a). The plan was updated in 1998 to reflect realized risks such as the finding and successful clean up of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-filled electrical capacitors at the NIF excavation during initial construction and the litigation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Stockpile Stewardship (DOE, 1996b) by a group of non-governmental organizations led by the Natural Resources Defense Council. The current update of the Risk Management Plan brings it into compliance with the applicable DOE Orders and Standards and addresses new risks, such as assuring safety during the period when construction, special equipment installation, and commissioning are occurring simultaneously at the NIF site, and the extensive use of models to manage technical performance risk. The objectives of the updated plan are to: (1) Identify the risks to the completion of the Project in terms of meeting performance and regulatory requirements, ES&H, cost, and schedule; (2) Assess or the risks in terms of likelihood of occurrence and their impact potential relative to technical performance, ES&H, costs, and schedule; and (3) Address suitable risk mitigation measures for each identified risk.

  16. Reducing the risk of Legionnaires' disease associated with cooling towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freije, M.R. [HC Information Resources Inc., Carlsbad, CA (United States)

    2008-08-15

    To reduce the health and legal risks associated with Legionnaires' disease, facility managers should take steps to minimize Legionella bacteria in plumbing systems, open industrial equipment, water features, cooling towers, and other aerosolizing water systems. The risk of Legionnaires' disease associated with cooling towers can be reduced by controlling Legionella bacteria in cooling water and preventing transmission of the bacteria from towers to people. This paper presents nine reasonable ways to accomplish these goals. (orig.)

  17. Evaluating Process Effectiveness to Reduce Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Christena C.

    2017-01-01

    It is well documented that government agencies do not have the same incentive as the private sector to focus on process effectiveness and continual improvement of those processes. It is also well documented whenever government agencies fail to deliver efficient, effective, consistent, and fair services to the citizens. In spite of the various "reinventing government" and "effectiveness initiatives" of the past decades, and in spite of the efforts on the part of many agencies to improve, government in general still lags behind industry in creating a culture of effective processes and systems. While the tragic events that unfolded recently in Flint, Michigan, teach us that running government "like a business" does not always take the needs of the citizenry into account, there are many lessons and techniques from the private sector that government agencies can use to improve. The incentive to improve, while mandated by various administrations1, needs to come from within the workforce, in order to effectively take root. The best, most effective incentive is to reduce, control or eliminate risk. Government agencies face some of the same risks as the private sector, while some are unique. While ISO 310002 has been around since 2009, risk has taken on increased visibility within the private sector with the advent of the emphasis on risk-based thinking in ISO 9001:20153. The relationship between risk-based thinking and effective processes is simple and direct. Those processes that are well thought out and standardized (i.e. Plan-Do-Check-Act), will have taken into account the applicable policy, statutory, regulatory, safety, quality and technical parameters, which may not occur to someone performing the process with minimal experience or training; and thus protect the employees, the public and the agency from statutory and regulatory violations; delay in providing services; non-delivery of services; harm to public or employee safety and health; cost overruns; breaches in

  18. Towards meaningful stakeholder comprehension of sour gas facility risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAuley, C.; Hrudey, S.E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Public Health Sciences

    2006-01-15

    This study addressed public concerns in Alberta regarding the development of sour gas projects that are in close proximity to established populations. In particular, it focused on the reasoning of different perspectives of risk assessment between proponents of a sour gas development and the stakeholders affected. The main issues reviewed in this study were the toxicity of hydrogen sulphide and the toxic load models; the specifics of risk assessment and the risk estimation associated with pipeline failures; hazard distances associated with various end-points and set-back distances; the uncertainty that a pipeline failure will occur somewhere; a comparison of other risk scenarios where there are unknown exposure populations; risk management and risk issue management for pipeline failures; the evaluation of risk communication and validation of risk reduction measures and the issue of which risks could provide a useful basis for comparison in discussion about risk acceptability. It was noted that although zero risk is impossible, it was suggested that a better communication and understanding of the health affects of hydrogen sulphide and the toxic load concept in both public and regulatory forums would reduce uncertainty in health risk estimates associated with sour gas pipeline failures. 36 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Treating Psoriasis May Reduce Risk for Other Ills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160152.html Treating Psoriasis May Reduce Risk for Other Ills This chronic ... 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Treating the skin disease psoriasis might reduce your risk for other health problems ...

  20. Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Coronary Heart Disease Risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Coronary Heart Disease Risk. ... modifications on some risk factors of CHD were studied retrospectively in 47 males and ... within a short period of time in all patients, irrespective of their initial risk status.

  1. Towards a design theory for reducing aggression in psychiatric facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Roger S; Bogren, Lennart; Lundin, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The paper proposes a tentative theory for designing psychiatric environments to foster reduced aggression and violence. A basic premise underlying the design theory is that environmental and psycho-social stressors mediate and trigger aggression. The theory posits that aggression will be reduced...... to the old hospital it replaced. By contrast, restraint use increased in the control hospital that cared for comparable psychiatric patients according to similar treatment protocols during the same period. The design theory and preliminary findings suggest the possibility that providing better psychiatric...

  2. Use of comprehensive NEPA documents to reduce program risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, T.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hansen, R.P. [Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories operates DOE`s Kauai Test Facility (KTF) on the western coast of the Hawaiian island of Kauai. In July 1992, DOE approved a comprehensive Environmental Assessment (EA) covering ongoing and future rocket launches of experimental payloads. The KTF EA fulfilled two basic objectives: Consideration of environmental values early in the planning and decision making process; and public disclosure. These objectives can also be considered to be benefits of preparing comprehensive NEPA documents. However, proponents of an action are not as dedicated to these twin NEPA objectives as they are motivated by NEPA`s ability to reduce program risks. Once the KTF environmental assessment was underway, it was apparent that reducing risks to the program, budget, and schedule was the main incentive for successful completion of the EA. The comprehensive or ``omnibus`` environmental assessment prepared for the KTF is a de facto ``detailed statement,`` and it is also a good example of a ``mitigated FONSI,`` i.e., mitigation measures are essential to render some potential impacts not significant. Because the KTF EA is a broad scope, umbrella-like, site-wide assessment, it ``bounds`` the impacts of continuing and proposed future actions. The successful completion of this document eliminated the need to review, document, and gain approval individually for numerous related actions. Also, because it supported a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) after identifying appropriate mitigation, it also eliminated the need for an environmental impact statement (EIS). This paper discusses seven specific ways in which the KTF EA reduced program risks and supported budget and schedule objectives.

  3. Reducing drinking water supply chemical contamination: risks from underground storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enander, Richard T; Hanumara, R Choudary; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Gagnon, Ronald N; Park, Eugene; Vallot, Christopher; Genovesi, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Drinking water supplies are at risk of contamination from a variety of physical, chemical, and biological sources. Ranked among these threats are hazardous material releases from leaking or improperly managed underground storage tanks located at municipal, commercial, and industrial facilities. To reduce human health and environmental risks associated with the subsurface storage of hazardous materials, government agencies have taken a variety of legislative and regulatory actions--which date back more than 25 years and include the establishment of rigorous equipment/technology/operational requirements and facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs. Given a history of more than 470,000 underground storage tank releases nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to report that 7,300 new leaks were found in federal fiscal year 2008, while nearly 103,000 old leaks remain to be cleaned up. In this article, we report on an alternate evidence-based intervention approach for reducing potential releases from the storage of petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating/fuel oil, and waste oil) in underground tanks at commercial facilities located in Rhode Island. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new regulatory model can be used as a cost-effective alternative to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs for underground storage tanks. We conclude that the alternative model, using an emphasis on technical assistance tools, can produce measurable improvements in compliance performance, is a cost-effective adjunct to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs, and has the potential to allow regulatory agencies to decrease their frequency of inspections among low risk facilities without sacrificing compliance performance or increasing public health risks.

  4. Quantitative risk analysis of oil storage facilities in seismic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbrocino, Giovanni; Iervolino, Iunio; Orlando, Francesca; Salzano, Ernesto

    2005-08-31

    Quantitative risk analysis (QRA) of industrial facilities has to take into account multiple hazards threatening critical equipment. Nevertheless, engineering procedures able to evaluate quantitatively the effect of seismic action are not well established. Indeed, relevant industrial accidents may be triggered by loss of containment following ground shaking or other relevant natural hazards, either directly or through cascade effects ('domino effects'). The issue of integrating structural seismic risk into quantitative probabilistic seismic risk analysis (QpsRA) is addressed in this paper by a representative study case regarding an oil storage plant with a number of atmospheric steel tanks containing flammable substances. Empirical seismic fragility curves and probit functions, properly defined both for building-like and non building-like industrial components, have been crossed with outcomes of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for a test site located in south Italy. Once the seismic failure probabilities have been quantified, consequence analysis has been performed for those events which may be triggered by the loss of containment following seismic action. Results are combined by means of a specific developed code in terms of local risk contour plots, i.e. the contour line for the probability of fatal injures at any point (x, y) in the analysed area. Finally, a comparison with QRA obtained by considering only process-related top events is reported for reference.

  5. Initiatives to Reduce Earthquake Risk of Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, B. E.

    2008-12-01

    The seventeen-year-and-counting history of the Palo Alto-based nonprofit organization GeoHazards International (GHI) is the story of many initiatives within a larger initiative to increase the societal impact of geophysics and civil engineering. GHI's mission is to reduce death and suffering due to earthquakes and other natural hazards in the world's most vulnerable communities through preparedness, mitigation and advocacy. GHI works by raising awareness in these communities about their risk and about affordable methods to manage it, identifying and strengthening institutions in these communities to manage their risk, and advocating improvement in natural disaster management. Some of GHI's successful initiatives include: (1) creating an earthquake scenario for Quito, Ecuador that describes in lay terms the consequences for that city of a probable earthquake; (2) improving the curricula of Pakistani university courses about seismic retrofitting; (3) training employees of the Public Works Department of Delhi, India on assessing the seismic vulnerability of critical facilities such as a school, a hospital, a police headquarters, and city hall; (4) assessing the vulnerability of the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives in Dharamsala, India; (5) developing a seismic hazard reduction plan for a nonprofit organization in Kathmandu, Nepal that works to manage Nepal's seismic risk; and (6) assisting in the formulation of a resolution by the Council of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to promote school earthquake safety among OECD member countries. GHI's most important resource, in addition to its staff and Board of Trustees, is its members and volunteer advisors, who include some of the world's leading earth scientists, earthquake engineers, urban planners and architects, from the academic, public, private and nonprofit sectors. GHI is planning several exciting initiatives in the near future. One would oversee the design and construction of

  6. Reducing the Risks of Teenage Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M. Faith

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the medical and social risks of teenage pregnancy and describes two successful programs dealing with pregnancy and parenting: the St. Paul Maternal and Infant Care Project in Minnesota and the Teenage Pregnancy and Parenting Project in San Francisco. (SK)

  7. Reducing overheating risk using ventilative cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2014-01-01

    The current trend towards nearly-zero energy buildings has led to an increased risk of overheating throughout the year. Use of the cooling potential of outdoor air can be an energy efficient passive solution to this....

  8. Reducing the Risks of Teenage Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M. Faith

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the medical and social risks of teenage pregnancy and describes two successful programs dealing with pregnancy and parenting: the St. Paul Maternal and Infant Care Project in Minnesota and the Teenage Pregnancy and Parenting Project in San Francisco. (SK)

  9. Cloud computing technology framework and reducing risks

    OpenAIRE

    Akrir, Khaled Ali Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The thesis investigates, in a qualitative way, the vectors that contribute to cloud computing risks in the areas of security, business, and compliance. The focus of this research is on the identification of risk vectors that affect cloud computing and the creation of a framework that can help IT managers in their cloud adoption process. Economic pressures on businesses are creating a demand for an alternative delivery of the model that can provide flexible payments, dramatic cuts in capital i...

  10. Diabetic dyslipidaemia: effective management reduces cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Lawrence A

    2005-05-01

    Patients with diabetes are at significantly increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD); even those patients without a history of a previous myocardial infarction (MI) have as high a risk of a fatal or nonfatal MI as nondiabetic patients with a history of previous MI. As a result it is now generally recommended that cardiovascular risk factors be treated as aggressively in patients with diabetes as in nondiabetic patients with a history of CHD. Results from the recently published Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS) and meta-analysis of primary and secondary interventions trials confirm that there is a uniform relative risk reduction across a wide range of high-risk patients including diabetes patients without established CHD. A highly significant 22-24% reduction in risk of future vascular events is evident when patients with diabetes are treated with statins in trials. Current guidelines, including the recently updated National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) guidelines, endorse aggressive, early intervention in very-high-risk patients, such as those with diabetes plus cardiovascular disease (CVD), regardless of baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level in order to achieve an LDL-C goal of 70 mg/dL (1.8 mmol/L). However, despite increasing evidence and knowledge of the value of lipid lowering, a recent survey of diabetes specialists indicates that many patients with diabetes remain untreated or undertreated. The availability of more effective statins should help to close this "action gap", in concert with other measures such as initiatives to improve patient compliance.

  11. Security 2020 Reduce Security Risks This Decade

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Doug; Schneier, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Identify real security risks and skip the hype After years of focusing on IT security, we find that hackers are as active and effective as ever. This book gives application developers, networking and security professionals, those that create standards, and CIOs a straightforward look at the reality of today's IT security and a sobering forecast of what to expect in the next decade. It debunks the media hype and unnecessary concerns while focusing on the knowledge you need to combat and prioritize the actual risks of today and beyond.IT security needs are constantly evolving; this guide examine

  12. Reducing Adolescent Risk: Toward an Integrated Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, David, Ed.

    This collection of papers focuses on common influences that result in a number of interrelated risk behaviors, summarizing presentations and discussions from a recent conference at which a group of specialists from different health traditions synthesized current knowledge on the subject. There are 39 papers in four parts. Part 1, "Adolescents…

  13. Warehouse receipts functioning to reduce market risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Daliborka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cereal production underlies the market risk to a great extent due to its elastic demand. Prices of grain have cyclic movements and significant decline in the harvest periods as a result of insufficient supply and high demand. The very specificity of agricultural production leads to the fact that agricultures are forced to sell their products at unfavorable conditions in order to resume production. The Public Warehouses System allows the agriculturers, who were previously unable to use the bank loans to finance the continuation of their production, to efficiently acquire the necessary funds, by the support of the warehouse receipts which serve as collaterals. Based on the results obtained by applying statistical methods (variance and standard deviation, as a measure of market risk under the assumption that warehouse receipts' prices will approximately follow the overall consumer price index, it can be concluded that the warehouse receipts trade will have a significant impact on risk reduction in cereal production. Positive effects can be manifested through the stabilization of prices, reduction of cyclic movements in the production of basic grains and, in the final stage, on the country's food security.

  14. Environmental risk assessment for start-up of a new consolidated maintenance facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heubach, J.G.; Wise, J.A.

    1992-10-01

    This paper summarizes a case study of a risk assessment for a consolidated maintenance facility (CMF). An interdisciplinary team was formed to identify and evaluate showstopper'' risks which could delay or prevent ontime, safe, and economical operation of a CMF and to recommend ways to mitigate the risks. The risk assessment was constrained by time, information, incomplete plans and facilities, and a concomitant major transition in manufacturing process, organization, and technology. Working within these constraints, the team integrated convergent findings into estimates of high, medium, and low risks based on the subjective likelihood of occurrence and predicted consequences of potential hazard events. The team also made risk-reduction recommendations for facility detail design and production start-up. The findings and recommendations reported in this study focus on risks related to environmental design and workstation ergonomics. Findings from the risk assessment effort should aid other constrained risk assessments and applied research on similar facilities.

  15. Risk of upper extremity biomechanical overload in automotive facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancini, Angela; Capozzella, Assunta; Caciar, Tiziana; Tomei, Francesco; Nardone, Nadia; Scala, Barbara; Fiaschetti, Maria; Cetica, Carlotta; Scimitto, Lara; Gioffrrè, PierAgostino; Sinibaldi, Federica; Di Pastena, Claudia; Corbosiero, Paola; Schifano, Maria Pia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Ciarrocca, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    To assess the risk factors for upper extremity-work-related musculoskeletal disorders (UE-WMSD) on 13 production lines in an airbag factory using the threshold limit values-American conference of industrial hygienists- hand activity level (TLV-ACGIH-HAL) method and introduce the ergonomic improvement to reduce the repetitiveness and the peak force (Pf). Professional exposure level on 13 production lines in a automobile factory was measured using the TLV-ACGIH-HAL method and a further risk was assessed according to the ergonomic improvement. The first assessment of 9 production lines showed that the professional exposure level was above the TLV or HAL limit. The second assessment showed that the professional exposure level was below the AL limit on all production lines except 1, in which the professional exposure level was between TLV and HAL. The assessment of UE-WMSD-related risk can identify the riskiest emplacements and evaluate the reduction of risk in professional exposure through interventions of structural- organizational type. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  16. The Risk of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss During Simulated Dives in Canadian Forces Hyperbaric Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The risk of noise-induced hearing loss during simulated dives in Canadian Forces hyperbaric facilities Sharon M...2012-084 October 2012 The risk of noise-induced hearing loss during simulated dives in Canadian Forces hyperbaric ...transferred into the dive chamber of a hyperbaric facility. The mechanism is audible and sufficiently high in level in adjacent areas to warrant the

  17. Analysis of the formation, expression, and economic impacts of risk perceptions associated with nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, T.; Hunter, S.; Calzonetti, F.J.

    1992-10-01

    This report investigates how communities hosting nuclear facilities form and express perceptions of risk and how these risk perceptions affect local economic development. Information was collected from site visits and interviews with plant personnel, officials of local and state agencies, and community activists in the hosting communities. Six commercial nuclear fuel production facilities and five nuclear facilities operated for the US Department of Energy by private contractors were chosen for analysis. The results presented in the report indicate that the nature of risk perceptions depends on a number of factors. These factors are (1) level of communication by plant officials within the local community, (2) track record of the facility. operator, (3) process through which community and state officials receive information and form opinions, (4) level of economic links each plant has with the local community, and (15) physical characteristics of the facility itself. This report finds that in the communities studied, adverse ask perceptions have not affected business location decisions, employment levels in the local community, tourism, or agricultural development. On the basis of case-study findings, this report recommends that nuclear facility siting programs take the following observations into account when addressing perceptions of risk. First, the quality of a facility`s participation with community activists, interest groups, and state agencies helps to determine the level of perceived risk within a community. Second, the development of strong economic links between nuclear facilities and their host communities will produce a higher level of acceptance of the nuclear facilities.

  18. Imaging the risks - risking the image: Social impact assessment of the final disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avolahti, J.; Vira, J. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-12-01

    who were there on the basis of their work position. Even if the participation was restricted, the interaction programme produced a clear list of priorities for social impact assessment. Of paramount interest on all candidate sites was the study of the impact on local image. Based on a variety of different study approaches different aspects of the possible impact on image were proposed and assessed. The picture obtained can be used to understand the various interrelationships and constituents of the image, but it hardly gives any final explanation of how the image is formed or how precisely the image would look like in reality in future. Even so, the experience obtained from the studies conducted and the discussions undertaken in the context of the EIA strongly suggests that the attempts to confine the nuclear waste issue in discussion of associated safety risks may not bring along real progress in solving the issue. What people think and feel about the nuclear waste disposal is not reducible to a single number of estimated risk.

  19. Evaluating Shielding Effectiveness for Reducing Space Radiation Cancer Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Ren, Lei

    2007-01-01

    We discuss calculations of probability distribution functions (PDF) representing uncertainties in projecting fatal cancer risk from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE). The PDF s are used in significance tests of the effectiveness of potential radiation shielding approaches. Uncertainties in risk coefficients determined from epidemiology data, dose and dose-rate reduction factors, quality factors, and physics models of radiation environments are considered in models of cancer risk PDF s. Competing mortality risks and functional correlations in radiation quality factor uncertainties are treated in the calculations. We show that the cancer risk uncertainty, defined as the ratio of the 95% confidence level (CL) to the point estimate is about 4-fold for lunar and Mars mission risk projections. For short-stay lunar missions (shielding, especially for carbon composites structures with high hydrogen content. In contrast, for long duration lunar (>180 d) or Mars missions, GCR risks may exceed radiation risk limits, with 95% CL s exceeding 10% fatal risk for males and females on a Mars mission. For reducing GCR cancer risks, shielding materials are marginally effective because of the penetrating nature of GCR and secondary radiation produced in tissue by relativistic particles. At the present time, polyethylene or carbon composite shielding can not be shown to significantly reduce risk compared to aluminum shielding based on a significance test that accounts for radiobiology uncertainties in GCR risk projection.

  20. Risk management in obstetrics: how to reduce the risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Piras

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors examined the most important factors that in the pre-conception period can interfere in the evolution of pregnancy. They also reported a method that since the first trimester of pregnancy is able to identify women at higher risk of developing preeclampsia. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Gavino Faa (Cagliari, Italy, Antonio Giordano (Philadelphia, USA

  1. Reducing cancer risk in rural communities through supermarket interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Barent N; Lyford, Conrad P; Hensarling, Natalie; Pence, Barbara; McCool, Audrey C; Thapa, Janani; Belasco, Eric; Carter, Tyra M

    2013-09-01

    Cancer risk is high, and prevention efforts are often minimal in rural communities. Feasible means of encouraging lifestyles that will reduce cancer risk for residents of rural communities are needed. This project developed and tested a model that could be feasibly adopted by rural communities to reduce cancer risk. This model focuses on incorporating multi-faceted cancer risk education in the local supermarket. As the supermarket functions both as the primary food source and an information source in small rural communities, the supermarket focus encourages the development of a community environment supportive of lifestyles that should reduce residents' risk for cancer. The actions taken to implement the model and the challenges that communities would have in implementing the model are identified.

  2. IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) conceptual design activity reduced cost report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    This report describes the results of a preliminary reevaluation of the design and cost of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) Project in response to the request from the 28th FPCC meeting in January 1999. Two major ideas have been considered: 1) reduction of the total construction cost through elimination of the previously planned facility upgrade and 2) a facility deployment in 3 stages with capabilities for limited experiments in the first stage. As a result, the size and complexity of the facility could be significantly reduced, leading to substantial cost savings. In addition to these two ideas, this study also included a critical review of the original CDA specification with the objective of elimination of nonessential items. For example, the number of lithium targets was reduced from two to one. As a result of these changes in addition to the elimination of the upgrade, the total cost estimate was very substantially reduced from 797.2 MICF to 487.8 MICF, where 1 MICF = 1 Million of the IFMIF Conversion Units (approximately $1M US January, 1996). (author)

  3. Resolve to Reduce Your Cancer Risk This Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to reduce the risk of heart disease and diabetes, and can improve hormone levels and the immune system," Vijayvergia said in a center news release. Don't use tobacco. Smoking has been linked to many types of ...

  4. Reduced risk for placental malaria in iron deficient women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senga, E.L.; Harper, G.; Koshy, G.; Kazembe, P.N.; Brabin, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Nutritional iron deficiency may limit iron availability to the malaria parasite reducing infection risk, and/or impair host immunity thereby increasing this risk. In pregnant women, there is evidence of an adverse effect with iron supplementation, but the few reported studies are strongl

  5. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report with Baseline Risk Assessment for the Fire Department Hose Training Facility (904-113G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This report documents the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation/Baseline Risk Assessment (RFI/RI/BRA) for the Fire Department Hose Training Facility (FDTF) (904-113G).

  6. Analyses in support of risk-informed natural gas vehicle maintenance facility codes and standards :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekoto, Isaac W.; Blaylock, Myra L.; LaFleur, Angela Christine; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Horne, Douglas B.

    2014-03-01

    Safety standards development for maintenance facilities of liquid and compressed gas fueled large-scale vehicles is required to ensure proper facility design and operation envelopes. Standard development organizations are utilizing risk-informed concepts to develop natural gas vehicle (NGV) codes and standards so that maintenance facilities meet acceptable risk levels. The present report summarizes Phase I work for existing NGV repair facility code requirements and highlights inconsistencies that need quantitative analysis into their effectiveness. A Hazardous and Operability study was performed to identify key scenarios of interest. Finally, scenario analyses were performed using detailed simulations and modeling to estimate the overpressure hazards from HAZOP defined scenarios. The results from Phase I will be used to identify significant risk contributors at NGV maintenance facilities, and are expected to form the basis for follow-on quantitative risk analysis work to address specific code requirements and identify effective accident prevention and mitigation strategies.

  7. Reducing Risk for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John M. Beck II; Harold J. Heydt; Emmanuel O. Opare; Kyle B. Oswald

    2010-07-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, managed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is directed by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, to research, develop, design, construct, and operate a prototype forth generation nuclear reactor to meet the needs of the 21st Century. As with all large projects developing and deploying new technologies, the NGNP has numerous risks that need to be identified, tracked, mitigated, and reduced in order for successful project completion. A Risk Management Plan (RMP) was created to outline the process the INL is using to manage the risks and reduction strategies for the NGNP Project. Integral to the RMP is the development and use of a Risk Management System (RMS). The RMS is a tool that supports management and monitoring of the project risks. The RMS does not only contain a risk register, but other functionality that allows decision makers, engineering staff, and technology researchers to review and monitor the risks as the project matures.

  8. Reducing the price of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis through the Global Drug Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunte, Kaspars; Cordier-Lassalle, Thierry; Keravec, Joel

    2015-04-01

    Many countries have limited experience of securing the best prices for drugs and have little negotiating power. This is particularly true for the complex, lengthy and expensive regimens used to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The Stop TB Partnership's Global Drug Facility is dedicated to improving worldwide access to antituberculosis medicines and diagnostic techniques that meet international quality standards. The Global Drug Facility is able to secure price reductions through competitive tendering among prequalified drug manufacturers and by consolidating orders to achieve large purchase volumes. Consolidating the market in this way increases the incentives for suppliers of quality-assured medicines. In 2013 the Global Drug Facility reduced the price of the second-line drugs it supplies for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: the overall cost of the longest and most expensive treatment regimen for a patient decreased by 26% - from 7890 United States dollars (US$) in 2011 to US$ 5822 in 2013. The price of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis supplied by the Global Drug Facility was reduced by consolidating orders to achieve large purchase volumes, by international, competitive bidding and by the existence of donor-funded medicine stockpiles. The rise in the number of suppliers of internationally quality-assured drugs was also important. The savings achieved from lower drug costs could be used to increase the number of patients on high-quality treatment.

  9. Functional neural correlates of reduced physiological falls risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Chun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is currently unclear whether the function of brain regions associated with executive cognitive processing are independently associated with reduced physiological falls risk. If these are related, it would suggest that the development of interventions targeted at improving executive neurocognitive function would be an effective new approach for reducing physiological falls risk in seniors. Methods We performed a secondary analysis of 73 community-dwelling senior women aged 65 to 75 years old who participated in a 12-month randomized controlled trial of resistance training. Functional MRI data were acquired while participants performed a modified Eriksen Flanker Task - a task of selective attention and conflict resolution. Brain volumes were obtained using MRI. Falls risk was assessed using the Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA. Results After accounting for baseline age, experimental group, baseline PPA score, and total baseline white matter brain volume, baseline activation in the left frontal orbital cortex extending towards the insula was negatively associated with reduced physiological falls risk over the 12-month period. In contrast, baseline activation in the paracingulate gyrus extending towards the anterior cingulate gyrus was positively associated with reduced physiological falls risk. Conclusions Baseline activation levels of brain regions underlying response inhibition and selective attention were independently associated with reduced physiological falls risk. This suggests that falls prevention strategies may be facilitated by incorporating intervention components - such as aerobic exercise - that are specifically designed to induce neurocognitive plasticity. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00426881

  10. Exemestane Reduces Breast Cancer Risk in High-Risk Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinical trial results presented at the 2011 ASCO annual meeting showed that the aromatase inhibitor exemestane—used to treat early and advanced breast cancer—substantially reduced the risk of invasive breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women.

  11. Risk management technique for liquefied natural gas facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, O. H.; Parsons, W. N.

    1975-01-01

    Checklists have been compiled for planning, design, construction, startup and debugging, and operation of liquefied natural gas facilities. Lists include references to pertinent safety regulations. Methods described are applicable to handling of other hazardous materials.

  12. Accessibility of sports facilities for persons with reduced mobility and assessment of their motivation for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Maria Manuel; Azevedo, Rui; Martins, Maria Cristina; Machado, Osvaldo; Tavares, João

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to create awareness, both within the scientific community and among providers of sports facilities, for individuals with impaired or reduced mobility, promoting the development of technical solutions that allow greater autonomy and social integration of people with disabilities. The purpose of this work is, on the one hand, to evaluate the accessibility of sports facilities for people with reduced mobility and, on the other hand, to investigate why this user group has such low rates of participation in sporting activities. Firstly, using the Portuguese norms and legislation transcribed from European Community directives, a check list was created comprising all the items that sports facilities should abide by in order to provide accessibility and safety to people with reduced mobility. Another questionnaire was designed aimed at this user group, with questions pertaining to their desire and ability to use sports facilities. This questionnaire was distributed in Portugal, in the greater metropolitan area of Porto, to users of Rehabilitation Centres and Physiotherapy Clinics. The results obtained from the check-list showed the compliances and non-compliances of the respective sports facilities, proving that many barriers preventing the participation of people with reduced mobility still exist. Twenty-four people with permanent impairment of the lower extremities (paraplegia) answered the questionnaire pertaining to the desire and ability to perform physical activity. Two individuals (8%) had sporting activities available to them in their area of residence and only five (21%) performed any physical activity. The main reason given for not taking part in any activity was the lack of adapted sports facilities. All the participants felt that taking part in sports is beneficial. The benefits stated were: general well-being and development of the psychomotor component (e.g. coordination, balance, body posture), of physical condition (e.g. strength, resistance

  13. Incremental Risks of Transporting NARM to the LLW Disposal Facility at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, R.F.

    1999-02-23

    This study models the incremental radiological risk of transporting NARM to the Hanford commercial LLW facility, both for incident-free transportation and for possible transportation accidents, compared with the radiological risk of transporting LLW to that facility. Transportation routes are modeled using HIGHWAY 3.1 and risks are modeled using RADTRAN 4. Both annual population doses and risks, and annual average individual doses and risks are reported. Three routes to the Hanford site were modeled from Albany, OR, from Coeur d'Alene, ID (called the Spokane route), and from Seattle, WA. Conservative estimates are used in the RADTRAN inputs, and RADTRAN itself is conservative.

  14. Reduced fracture risk in users of thiazide diuretics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejnmark, L; Vestergaard, P; Mosekilde, L

    2005-03-01

    Thiazide diuretics (TD) reduce renal calcium excretion and may increase bone mineral density. A reduced fracture risk has been reported in some but not all studies. The aim of this study was to assess fracture risk in users of TD. The study design was nationwide population-based pharmacoepidemiological case-control study with fracture in year 2000 as outcome and use of TD during the previous 5 years as the exposure variable. Individual use of TD was derived from the Danish National Pharmacological Database and related to fracture data from the National Hospital Discharge Register. These data were combined with information on use of other drugs, social status, working status, income, educational status, contacts with general practitioners and practicing specialists, and comorbidity. A total of 64,699 patients (age = 40 years) who sustained a fracture during the year 2000 were compared to 194,111 age- and gender-matched controls. After adjustment for potential confounders, current use of TD was associated with a 10% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7% to 12%) reduced risk of any fracture and a 17% (95% CI 11% to 23%) reduced risk of forearm fractures. In former TD users, the risk reduction was slightly less pronounced. Similar results were found in men and women, and in subjects younger or > or = 65 years of age. Dose-effect analysis revealed a decreased risk of any fracture and fractures at the forearm and hip with an increased number of redeemed defined daily dosages (DDDs) of TD. Therefore, use of more than 2000 DDD was associated with a 19% (95% CI 10% to 27%) decreased hip fracture risk. We conclude that use of TD is associated with a significantly reduced fracture risk.

  15. Colonoscopy Reduces Risk of Death from Colorectal Cancer in High-Risk Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term results from the National Polyp Study confirm that removing precancerous adenomas not only reduces the risk of colorectal cancer but also reduces the number of deaths from the disease by more than half.

  16. Reducing risk for ventilator associated pneumonia through nursing sensitive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micik, Svatka; Besic, Nihada; Johnson, Natalie; Han, Matilda; Hamlyn, Stephen; Ball, Hayley

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe an improvement initiative designed to implement nurse sensitive interventions known to reduce patients' risk for ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP), in cardiothoracic intensive care patients. This initiative is a part of one Australian critical care unit's efforts to identify and measure compliance with key nursing interventions known to improve cardiac surgical patients' outcomes. The premise behind the initiative is that improved nursing process and surveillance systems allow emerging trends to catalyse action and motivate nurses to reduce patients' risk for infection acquisition. At five and nine months following implementation of the initiative a>70% compliance rate in 11 out of the 15 nurse sensitive interventions known to reduce patients' risks for VAP and a drop in VAP incidence from 13.4% to 7.69% from per 1000 ventilator days was accomplished.

  17. R2 TRI facilities with 1999-2011 risk related estimates throughout the census blockgroup

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset delineates the distribution of estimate risk from the TRI facilities for 1999 - 2011 throughout the census blockgroup of the region using Office of...

  18. Reducing Spreadsheet Risk with FormulaDataSleuth

    CERN Document Server

    Bekenn, Bill

    2008-01-01

    A new MS Excel application has been developed which seeks to reduce the risks associated with the development, operation and auditing of Excel spreadsheets. FormulaDataSleuth provides a means of checking spreadsheet formulas and data as they are developed or used, enabling the users to identify actual or potential errors quickly and thereby halt their propagation. In this paper, we will describe, with examples, how the application works and how it can be applied to reduce the risks associated with Excel spreadsheets.

  19. Breast cancer after bilateral risk-reducing mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, A-B; Crüger, Dorthe Gylling; Gerster, M

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the incidence of breast cancer after risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) in healthy BRCA mutation carriers. This study is a long-term follow-up of 307 BRCA mutation carriers of whom 96 chose RRM. None of the study participants had a previous history of breast or ovarian...... cancer nor had they undergone RRM or risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) prior to the time of BRCA testing. The annual incidence of post-mastectomy breast cancer was 0.8% compared with 1.7% in the non-operated group. Implications of these findings in relation to genetic counseling...

  20. A surety engineering framework to reduce cognitive systems risks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudell, Thomas P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Peercy, David Eugene; Caldera, Eva O. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Shaneyfelt, Wendy L.

    2008-12-01

    Cognitive science research investigates the advancement of human cognition and neuroscience capabilities. Addressing risks associated with these advancements can counter potential program failures, legal and ethical issues, constraints to scientific research, and product vulnerabilities. Survey results, focus group discussions, cognitive science experts, and surety researchers concur technical risks exist that could impact cognitive science research in areas such as medicine, privacy, human enhancement, law and policy, military applications, and national security (SAND2006-6895). This SAND report documents a surety engineering framework and a process for identifying cognitive system technical, ethical, legal and societal risks and applying appropriate surety methods to reduce such risks. The framework consists of several models: Specification, Design, Evaluation, Risk, and Maturity. Two detailed case studies are included to illustrate the use of the process and framework. Several Appendices provide detailed information on existing cognitive system architectures; ethical, legal, and societal risk research; surety methods and technologies; and educing information research with a case study vignette. The process and framework provide a model for how cognitive systems research and full-scale product development can apply surety engineering to reduce perceived and actual risks.

  1. Who delivers where? The effect of obstetric risk on facility delivery in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgo, Sandra; Gon, Giorgia; Cavallaro, Francesca L; Graham, Wendy; Woodd, Susannah

    2017-09-01

    Skilled attendance at birth is key for the survival of pregnant women. This study investigates whether women at increased risk of maternal and newborn complications in four East African countries are more likely to deliver in a health facility than those at lower risk. Demographic and Health Survey data for Kenya 2014, Rwanda 2014-15, Tanzania 2015-16 and Uganda 2011 were used to study women with a live birth in the three years preceding the survey. A three-level obstetric risk index was created using known risk factors. Generalised linear Poisson regression was used to investigate the association between obstetric risk and facility delivery. We analysed data from 13 119 women across the four countries of whom 42-45% were considered at medium risk and 12-17% at high risk, and the remainder were at low risk. In Rwanda, 93% of all women delivered in facilities but this was lower (59-66%) in the other three countries. There was no association between a woman's obstetric risk level and her place of delivery in any country; greater wealth and more education were, however, independently strongly associated with facility delivery. In four East African countries, women at higher obstetric risk were not more likely to deliver in a facility than those with lower risk. This calls for a renewed focus on antenatal risk screening and improved communication on birth planning to ensure women with an increased chance of maternal and newborn complications are supported to deliver in facilities with skilled care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A central storage facility to reduce pesticide suicides--a feasibility study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Kumar, Shuba; Mohanraj, Rani; Devika, Shanmugasundaram; Manikandan, Sarojini

    2013-09-16

    Pesticide suicides are considered the single most important means of suicide worldwide. Centralized pesticide storage facilities have the possible advantage of delaying access to pesticides thereby reducing suicides. We undertook this study to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a centralized pesticide storage facility as a preventive intervention strategy in reducing pesticide suicides. A community randomized controlled feasibility study using a mixed methods approach involving a household survey; focus group discussions (FGDs) and surveillance were undertaken. The study was carried out in a district in southern India. Eight villages that engaged in floriculture were identified. Using the lottery method two were randomized to be the intervention sites and two villages constituted the control site. Two centralized storage facilities were constructed with local involvement and lockable storage boxes were constructed. The household survey conducted at baseline and one and a half years later documented information on sociodemographic data, pesticide usage, storage and suicides. At baseline 4446 individuals (1097 households) in the intervention and 3307 individuals (782 households) in the control sites were recruited while at follow up there were 4308 individuals (1063 households) in the intervention and 2673 individuals (632 households) in the control sites. There were differences in baseline characteristics and imbalances in the prevalence of suicides between intervention and control sites as this was a small feasibility study.The results from the FGDs revealed that most participants found the storage facility to be both useful and acceptable. In addition to protecting against wastage, they felt that it had also helped prevent pesticide suicides as the pesticides stored here were not as easily and readily accessible. The primary analyses were done on an Intention to Treat basis. Following the intervention, the differences between sites in changes in combined

  3. Risk Assessment of the Chopper Dipole Kicker Magnets for the MedAustron Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, T; Barnes, M J; Benedikt, M; Fowler, T

    2011-01-01

    The MedAustron facility, to be built in Wiener Neustadt (Austria), will provide protons and ions for both cancer therapy and research [1]. Different types of kicker magnets will be used in the accelerator complex, including fast beam chopper dipoles: these allow the beam to be switched on and off for routine operational reasons or in case of emergency. Main requirements for the beam chopper system are safety and reliability. A criticality analysis, to chart the probability of failure modes against the severity of their consequences of the fault, has been carried out for the chopper dipole system. This "Failure Mode, Effects, and Criticality Analysis" (FMECA), has been used to highlight failure modes with relatively high probability and severity of consequences: conservative ratings of critical components and appropriate redundancy, together with measurements and interlocks, have been used to reduce the probability and criticality of faults. This paper gives an overview of the Risk Assessment approach and pres...

  4. The Manchester guidelines for contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Narendra Nath; Ross, G L; Evans, D G; Barr, L

    2015-08-07

    Rates of contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy (CRRM) are rising, despite a decreasing global incidence of contralateral breast cancer. Reasons for requesting this procedure are complex, and we have previously shown a variable practice amongst breast and plastic surgeons in England. We propose a protocol, based on a published systematic review, a national UK survey and the Manchester experience of CRRM. We reviewed the literature for risk factors for contralateral breast cancer and have devised a 5-step process that includes history taking, calculating contralateral breast cancer risk, cooling off period/counselling, multi-disciplinary assessment and consent. Members of the multi-disciplinary team included the breast surgeon, plastic surgeon and geneticist, who formulated guidelines. A simple formula to calculate the life-time risk of contralateral breast cancer has been devised. This allows stratification of breast cancer patients into different risk-groups: low, above average, moderate and high risk. Recommendations vary according to different risk groups. These guidelines are a useful tool for clinicians counselling women requesting CRRM. Risk assessment is mandatory in this group of patients, and our formula allows evidence-based recommendations to be made.

  5. Does a Mediterranean-Type Diet Reduce Cancer Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Hoffmann, Georg

    Overall cancer incidence has been observed to be lower in Mediterranean countries compared to that in Northern countries, such as the UK, and the USA. There is increasing evidence that adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern correlates with reduced risk of several cancer types and cancer mortality. In addition, specific aspects of the Mediterranean diet, such as high consumption of fruit and vegetables, whole grains, and low processed meat intake, are inversely associated with risk of tumor pathogenesis at different cancer sites. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available evidence regarding the association between the Mediterranean diet and cancer risk from clinical trials, prospective cohort studies, and case-control studies. Furthermore, we focused on the different definitions of a Mediterranean diet in an attempt to assess their efficiency. Observational studies provide new evidence suggesting that high adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with reduced risk of overall cancer mortality as well as a reduced risk of incidence of several cancer types (especially cancers of the colorectum, aerodigestive tract, breast, stomach, pancreas, prostate, liver, and head and neck).

  6. [Strategies for reducing risks in smoking: opportunity or threat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Rodrigo; Nerín, Isabel

    2009-12-01

    The smoking control policies recommended by the World Health Organisation have achieved a slight decrease in smoking prevalence in the developed countries, although associated mortality is still very high. The use of tobacco products other than cigarettes and even medicinal nicotine (known as nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)) has been proposed as a risk reduction strategy. Among the tobacco products with less individual risk than cigarettes would be any type of tobacco without smoke (smokeless) with a low content in nitrosamines and modified cigarettes; both forms included under the PREP (Potentially Reduced Exposure Products) concept. The idea would be to promote these products among those who cannot quit smoking or wish to reduce their risk without giving up nicotine intake. The possible effects of risk reduction strategies, including PREP, on the decreased prevalence and morbidity and mortality are reviewed, and the possible implications that this measure could have in our country are analysed. Tobacco control measures in Spain are recent and still insufficient. Therefore, the current priority in Spain is the development of policies of control that have shown to more than effective. The marketing and advertising of new tobacco products, even with reduced potential risk, seems more a serious threat than an opportunity for the development of smoking control policies.

  7. How to reduce the risk of purchasing fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Lance

    2013-07-01

    Purchasing fraud leads to significant losses for healthcare entities and damages the reputation of the industry. Designing and implementing an effective internal control environment helps reduce the risk of fraud. An effective control environment includes a variety of policies, procedures, strategies, and tactics.

  8. Reducing the Risk of Methadone Overdose PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-03

    This 60 second PSA is based on the July 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Approximately 14 people die every day of overdoses related to methadone. Listen to learn how to reduce your risk of an overdose.  Created: 7/3/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/3/2012.

  9. Healthy eating and reduced risk of cognitive decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Mahshid; O'Donnell, Martin; Anderson, Craig; Teo, Koon; Gao, Peggy; Sleight, Peter; Dagenais, Gilles; Probstfield, Jeffrey L.; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine the association of dietary factors and risk of cognitive decline in a population at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods: Baseline dietary intake and measures of the Mini-Mental State Examination were recorded in 27,860 men and women who were enrolled in 2 international parallel trials of the ONTARGET (Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial) and TRANSCEND (Telmisartan Randomised Assessment Study in ACE Intolerant Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease) studies. We measured diet quality using the modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine the association between diet quality and risk of ≥3-point decline in Mini-Mental State Examination score, and reported as hazard ratio with 95% confidence intervals with adjustment for covariates. Results: During 56 months of follow-up, 4,699 cases of cognitive decline occurred. We observed lower risk of cognitive decline among those in the healthiest dietary quintile of modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index compared with lowest quintile (hazard ratio 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.66–0.86, Q5 vs Q1). Lower risk of cognitive decline was consistent regardless of baseline cognitive level. Conclusion: We found that higher diet quality was associated with a reduced risk of cognitive decline. Improved diet quality represents an important potential target for reducing the global burden of cognitive decline. PMID:25948720

  10. Reducing the Risk of Spreadsheet Usage - a Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Glass, Mel; Dewhurst, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The frequency with which spreadsheets are used and the associated risk is well known. Many tools and techniques have been developed which help reduce risks associate with creating and maintaining spreadsheet. However, little consideration has been given to reducing the risks of routine usage by the "consumers" - for example when entering and editing data. EASA's solution, available commercially, ensures that any routine process involving spreadsheets can be executed rapidly and without errors by the end-users, often with a significant reduction in manual effort. Specifically, the technology enables the rapid creation and deployment of web-based applications, connected to one or more centralized spreadsheets; this ensures version control, easy and error free usage, and security of intellectual property contained in spreadsheets.

  11. Challenges Associated With Managing Suicide Risk in Long-Term Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Riley, Alisa; Nadorff, Michael R.; Conwell, Yeates; Edelstein, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Little information about suicidal ideation and behavior in long-term care (LTC) facilities is available. Nonetheless, the implementation of the Minimum Data Set 3.0 requires that LTC facilities screen their residents for suicide risk and have protocols in place to effectively manage residents’ responses. In this article, the authors briefly discuss the risk factors of suicide in the elderly and the problems that suicidal ideation and behavior pose in the LTC environment. The authors explain issues that arise when trying to manage suicide risk in the elderly LTC population with general, traditional approaches. These inherent issues make it difficult to develop an effective protocol for managing suicide risk in LTC facilities, leading the authors to propose their own framework for assessing and managing suicide risk in the LTC setting. PMID:27610048

  12. Economic impacts of noxious facilities: Incorporating the effects of risk aversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.

    1993-09-01

    Developing new sites for noxious facilities has become a complex process with many potential pitfalls. In addition to the need to negotiate conditions acceptable to the host community, siting success may depend on the facility proposer`s ability to identify a candidate site that not only meets technical requirements, but that is located in a community or region whose population is not highly averse to the risks associated with the type of facility being proposed. Success may also depend on the proposer accurately assessing potential impacts of the facility and offering an equitable compensation package to the people affected by it. Facility impact assessments, as typically performed, include only the effects of changes in population, employment and economic activity associated with facility construction and operation. Because of their scope, such assessments usually show a short-run, net economic benefit for the host region, making the intensely negative public reaction to some types and locations of facilities seem unreasonable. The impact component excluded from these assessments is the long-run economic effect of public perceptions of facility risk and nuisance characteristics. Recent developments in psychological and economic measurement techniques have opened the possibility of correcting this flaw by incorporating public perceptions in projections of economic impacts from noxious facilities.

  13. Vegetation conservation to reduce hidrometeorological risks on a border metropoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazmin Ochoa González

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Land cover change affects landscape dynamics, especially in big cities, which leads to increased risks when extreme meteorological events occurs and reduces resilience capacity. The Tijuana-Tecate-Rosarito metropolitan area, characterized by a rough topography, lack of green areas, high biodiversity and endemism, is prone to landslide and floods risks. To solve these problems, this study proposes a green infrastructure plan (interconnected green areas. Based on the construction of a land use-cover map using satellite images, the plan includes the conservation of risk areas of steep slopes, water courses and unique biodiversity areas and analyzes different scenarios and their legal feasibility. Results show that by enforcing legislation and not constructing on risk areas, a great part of the natural vegetation with good connectedness can be conserved. If special ecological areas are introduced, conservation areas and their connectedness increase. That said, existing regulations are insufficient, dispersed or not enforced.

  14. Incorporating uncertainties into risk assessment with an application to the exploratory studies facilities at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fathauer, Paul M. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    1995-08-01

    A methodology that incorporates variability and reducible sources of uncertainty into the probabilistic and consequence components of risk was developed. The method was applied to the north tunnel of the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. In this assessment, variability and reducible sources of uncertainty were characterized and propagated through the risk assessment models using a Monte Carlo based software package. The results were then manipulated into risk curves at the 5% and 95% confidence levels for both the variability and overall uncertainty analyses, thus distinguishing between variability and reducible sources of uncertainty. In the Yucca Mountain application, the designation of the north tunnel as an item important to public safety, as defined by 10 CFR 60, was determined. Specifically, the annual frequency of a rock fall breaching a waste package causing an off-site dose of 500 mrem (5x10-3 Sv) was calculated. The annual frequency, taking variability into account, ranged from 1.9x10-9 per year at the 5% confidence level to 2.5x10-9 per year at the 95% confidence level. The frequency range after including all uncertainty was 9.5x10-10 to 1.8x10-8 per year. The maximum observable frequency, at the 100% confidence level, was 4.9x10-8 per year. This is below the 10-6 per year frequency criteria of 10 CFR 60. Therefore, based on this work, the north tunnel does not fall under the items important to public safety designation for the event studied.

  15. Effect of Community Engagement Interventions on Patient Safety and Risk Reduction Efforts in Primary Health Facilities: Evidence from Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kaba Alhassan

    Full Text Available Patient safety and quality care remain major challenges to Ghana's healthcare system. Like many health systems in Africa, this is largely because demand for healthcare is outstripping available human and material resource capacity of healthcare facilities and new investment is insufficient. In the light of these demand and supply constraints, systematic community engagement (SCE in healthcare quality assessment can be a feasible and cost effective option to augment existing quality improvement interventions. SCE entails structured use of existing community groups to assess healthcare quality in health facilities. Identified quality gaps are discussed with healthcare providers, improvements identified and rewards provided if the quality gaps are closed.This paper evaluates whether or not SCE, through the assessment of health service quality, improves patient safety and risk reduction efforts by staff in healthcare facilities.A randomized control trail was conducted in 64 primary healthcare facilities in the Greater Accra and Western regions of Ghana. Patient risk assessments were conducted in 32 randomly assigned intervention and control facilities. Multivariate multiple regression test was used to determine effect of the SCE interventions on staff efforts towards reducing patient risk. Spearman correlation test was used to ascertain associations between types of community groups engaged and risk assessment scores of healthcare facilities.Clinic staff efforts towards increasing patient safety and reducing risk improved significantly in intervention facilities especially in the areas of leadership/accountability (Coef. = 10.4, p<0.05 and staff competencies (Coef. = 7.1, p<0.05. Improvement in service utilization and health resources could not be attributed to the interventions because these were outside the control of the study and might have been influenced by institutional or national level developments between the baseline and follow-up period

  16. Cities at risk: status of Italian planning system in reducing seismic and hydrogeological risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Di Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Italy and its urban systems are under high seismic and hydrogeological risks. The awareness about the role of human activities in the genesis of disasters is achieved in the scientific debate, as well as the role of urban and regional planning in reducing risks. The paper reviews the state of Italian major cities referred to hydrogeological and seismic risk by: 1 extrapolating data and maps about seismic hazard and landslide risk concerning cities with more than 50.000 inhabitants and metropolitan contexts, and 2 outlining how risk reduction is framed in Italian planning system (at national and regional levels. The analyses of available data and the review of the normative framework highlight the existing gaps in addressing risk reduction: nevertheless a wide knowledge about natural risks afflicting Italian territory and an articulated regulatory framework, the available data about risks are not exhaustive, and risk reduction policies and multidisciplinary pro-active approaches are only partially fostered and applied.

  17. Reduced cancer risk in vegetarians: an analysis of recent reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanou, Amy Joy; Svenson, Barbara

    2010-12-20

    This report reviews current evidence regarding the relationship between vegetarian eating patterns and cancer risk. Although plant-based diets including vegetarian and vegan diets are generally considered to be cancer protective, very few studies have directly addressed this question. Most large prospective observational studies show that vegetarian diets are at least modestly cancer protective (10%-12% reduction in overall cancer risk) although results for specific cancers are less clear. No long-term randomized clinical trials have been conducted to address this relationship. However, a broad body of evidence links specific plant foods such as fruits and vegetables, plant constituents such as fiber, antioxidants and other phytochemicals, and achieving and maintaining a healthy weight to reduced risk of cancer diagnosis and recurrence. Also, research links the consumption of meat, especially red and processed meats, to increased risk of several types of cancer. Vegetarian and vegan diets increase beneficial plant foods and plant constituents, eliminate the intake of red and processed meat, and aid in achieving and maintaining a healthy weight. The direct and indirect evidence taken together suggests that vegetarian diets are a useful strategy for reducing risk of cancer.

  18. Using epidemiology and neurotoxicology to reduce risks to young workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlman, Diane S; Nuwayhid, Iman; Ismail, Ahmed; Saddik, Basema

    2012-08-01

    Children around the world are working in hazardous or unsafe conditions and they are at risk to injury through manual labor and susceptible to poisoning due to chemical exposures in the work place. Because of their behavior and the developmental changes occurring throughout childhood and adolescence children are more vulnerable to injury. Often children work because of economic necessity, coming from families living in extreme poverty, with poor housing conditions, unsafe water supplies, poor sanitation, and inadequate food supplies making them even more vulnerable to poor developmental outcomes. This presents a multifaceted problem that can be challenging to address. Although many studies have examined occupational risks among adults very few studies have examined the impact of these risks on children. This paper reflects a summary of the talks from the symposium "Using Epidemiology and Neurotoxicology to Reduce Risks to Young Workers" presented at the 13th International Neurotoxicology Association Meeting and the 11th International Symposium on Neurobehavioral Methods and Effects in Occupational and Environmental Health in Xi'an China in June 2011. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that children are exposed to various neurotoxicants, show increased symptoms and health problems and are working in hazardous conditions with minimal safety restrictions. Other studies have identified neurotoxicology effects in children from occupational exposures. Prevention methods have potential for reducing risks to young workers short of eliminating child labor and should be addressed to multiple stakeholders, parents, employers and children.

  19. Reduced cancer risk in vegetarians: an analysis of recent reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Joy Lanou

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Amy Joy Lanou1, Barbara Svenson21Department of Health and Wellness, 2Ramsey Library, University of North Carolina Asheville, Asheville, NC, USAAbstract: This report reviews current evidence regarding the relationship between vegetarian eating patterns and cancer risk. Although plant-based diets including vegetarian and vegan diets are generally considered to be cancer protective, very few studies have directly addressed this question. Most large prospective observational studies show that vegetarian diets are at least modestly cancer protective (10%–12% reduction in overall cancer risk although results for specific cancers are less clear. No long-term randomized clinical trials have been conducted to address this relationship. However, a broad body of evidence links specific plant foods such as fruits and vegetables, plant constituents such as fiber, antioxidants and other phytochemicals, and achieving and maintaining a healthy weight to reduced risk of cancer diagnosis and recurrence. Also, research links the consumption of meat, especially red and processed meats, to increased risk of several types of cancer. Vegetarian and vegan diets increase beneficial plant foods and plant constituents, eliminate the intake of red and processed meat, and aid in achieving and maintaining a healthy weight. The direct and indirect evidence taken together suggests that vegetarian diets are a useful strategy for reducing risk of cancer.Keywords: diet, vegan, prevention

  20. Reduced cancer risk in vegetarians: an analysis of recent reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanou, Amy Joy; Svenson, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This report reviews current evidence regarding the relationship between vegetarian eating patterns and cancer risk. Although plant-based diets including vegetarian and vegan diets are generally considered to be cancer protective, very few studies have directly addressed this question. Most large prospective observational studies show that vegetarian diets are at least modestly cancer protective (10%–12% reduction in overall cancer risk) although results for specific cancers are less clear. No long-term randomized clinical trials have been conducted to address this relationship. However, a broad body of evidence links specific plant foods such as fruits and vegetables, plant constituents such as fiber, antioxidants and other phytochemicals, and achieving and maintaining a healthy weight to reduced risk of cancer diagnosis and recurrence. Also, research links the consumption of meat, especially red and processed meats, to increased risk of several types of cancer. Vegetarian and vegan diets increase beneficial plant foods and plant constituents, eliminate the intake of red and processed meat, and aid in achieving and maintaining a healthy weight. The direct and indirect evidence taken together suggests that vegetarian diets are a useful strategy for reducing risk of cancer. PMID:21407994

  1. Does retirement reduce the risk of myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kasper; Rugulies, Reiner; Rod, Naja Hulvej;

    2014-01-01

    adjusting for age, sex, income, occupational position, education, cohabitation and immigrant status. The participants were followed for up to 7 years. RESULTS: Of the study population, 3% were diagnosed with MI during follow-up. Retirement was associated with a modestly higher risk of MI with a hazard ratio......BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that retirement may have beneficial effects on health outcomes. In this study we examined whether the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) was reduced following retirement in a Danish population sample. METHODS: Participants were 617 511 Danish workers, born...

  2. Management strategies to reduce risk of postoperative infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Anat; Goldhardt, Raquel; Wellik, Sarah R.; Gregori, Ninel Z.; Flynn, Harry W.

    2013-01-01

    Postoperative infections, although rare, are still of great concern to the ophthalmologist. The incidence of post-cataract endophthalmitis is low, with a range of .28 per 1,000 to 2.99 per 1000. In addition to intraoperative considerations such as poor wound construction, vitreous loss, topical anesthesia, and prolonged surgical time, other risk factors include preoperative factors such as a diseased ocular surface and systemic immunosuppression. Potential methods of reducing risk of endophthalmitis after anterior segment surgery are discussed and available literature is summarized. PMID:24319649

  3. Determining Best Practices to Reduce Occupational Health Risks in Firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Suzanne L; Phillips, Jonathan S; Twilbeck, Travis J

    2015-07-01

    The physical demands of firefighting are extensive, and firefighters face increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease, musculoskeletal injury, and cancer. To reduce these risks, a tailored wellness initiative program (FIT Firefighter) was developed and executed. Implementation of FIT Firefighter, consisting of assessment, educational, instructional, and personal coaching and training elements regarding nutrition, health, fitness, wellness, and strength and conditioning, revealed enhanced healthy behavior change including increased motivation and marked improvements in blood pressure, resting heart rate, aerobic fitness, body mass index, waist circumference, percent body fat, back flexibility, and biceps strength among participating firefighters.

  4. The necessity of using nanotechnology to reduce environmental risks in the new city of Parand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Asadpour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of Parand formation and the pace of construction on it, in order to respond to increasing population growth, has caused the city environment against the great floodof human population and meeting the needs of urban residents, has entered additional pressure on the urban environment and has created numerous problems including traffic, noise pollution, air pollution, lack of proper facilities and infrastructure to accommodate the citizens. This is despite the fact that the use of facilities and potential and existing power of Parand city, pave the path to use some new technologies such as nanotechnology in order to reduce environmental risks.Hence, in this paper, by documentary and field survey studies have tried to evaluate the environmental and climatic potential of Parand, the current approach of building on it was pushed in the direction of peaceful coexistence between humans and nature with the use of nanotechnology and increases the quality of the urban environment.

  5. EPA Recognizes Efforts of More Than 400 Federal Facilities for Green Leadership: Reducing Pollution, Conserving Energy and Saving Money

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - Today the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recognizes the efforts of more than 400 federal facilities that took steps to reduce pollution, support renewable energy, and operate more efficiently in 2014 as part of the Federal G

  6. Low doses of radiation reduce risks in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchel, R.E.J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2004-05-01

    The 'Linear No Threshold' hypothesis, used in all radiation protection practices, assumes that all doses, no matter how low, increase risk. The protective effects of adaptive responses to radiation, shown to exist in lower organisms and in human and other mammalian cells, are inconsistent with this hypothesis. An in vivo test of the hypothesis in mice showed that a 100-mGy dose of {gamma}-radiation protected the mice by increasing latency for acute myeloid leukemia initiated by a subsequent large dose. A similar result was observed in cancer prone mice, where a 10-mGy adapting exposure prior to a large acute dose increased latency for lymphomas without altering frequency. Increasing the adapting dose to 100-mGy eliminated the protective effect. In the cancer prone mice, a 10-mGy dose alone, without a subsequent high dose, increased latency for spontaneous osteosarcomas and lymphomas without altering frequency. Increasing the dose to 100-mGy decreased latency for spontaneous osteosarcomas but still increased latency for lymphomas, indicating that this higher dose was in a transition zone between reduced and increased risk, and that the transition dose from protective to detrimental effects is tumor type specific. In genetically normal fetal mice, prior low doses also protected against radiation induced teratogenic effects. In genetically normal adult male mice, high doses induce mutations in sperm stem cells, detectable as heritable mutations in the offspring of these mice. A prior 100 mGy dose protected the male mice from induction of these heritable mutations by the large dose. We conclude that adaptive responses are induced by low doses in normal or cancer prone mice, and that these responses can reduce the risk of cancer, teratogenesis and heritable mutations. At low doses in vivo, the relationship between dose and risk is not linear, and low doses can reduce risk. (author)

  7. Medical interventional procedures--reducing the radiation risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, C. E-mail: claire.cousins@addenbrookes.nhs.uk; Sharp, C

    2004-06-01

    Over the last 40 years, the number of percutaneous interventional procedures using radiation has increased significantly, with many secondary care clinicians using fluoroscopically guided techniques. Many procedures can deliver high radiation doses to patients and staff, with the potential to cause immediate and delayed radiation effects. The challenge for interventionists is to maximize benefit, whilst minimizing radiation risk to patients and staff. Non-radiologist clinicians are often inadequately trained in radiation safety and radiobiology. However, clinical governance and legislation now requires a more rigorous approach to protecting patients and staff. Protection can be ensured, and risks can be controlled, by appropriate design, procurement and commissioning of equipment; quality assurance; and optimal operational technique, backed by audit. Interventionists need knowledge and skills to reduce the risks. Appropriate training should include awareness of the potential for radiation injury, equipment operational parameters, doses measurement and recording methods and dose reduction techniques. Clinical governance requires informed consent, appropriate patient counselling and follow-up.

  8. Natural disturbance reduces disease risk in endangered rainforest frog populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roznik, Elizabeth A; Sapsford, Sarah J; Pike, David A; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Alford, Ross A

    2015-08-21

    Natural disturbances can drive disease dynamics in animal populations by altering the microclimates experienced by hosts and their pathogens. Many pathogens are highly sensitive to temperature and moisture, and therefore small changes in habitat structure can alter the microclimate in ways that increase or decrease infection prevalence and intensity in host populations. Here we show that a reduction of rainforest canopy cover caused by a severe tropical cyclone decreased the risk of endangered rainforest frogs (Litoria rheocola) becoming infected by a fungal pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). Reductions in canopy cover increased the temperatures and rates of evaporative water loss in frog microhabitats, which reduced B. dendrobatidis infection risk in frogs by an average of 11-28% in cyclone-damaged areas, relative to unaffected areas. Natural disturbances to the rainforest canopy can therefore provide an immediate benefit to frogs by altering the microclimate in ways that reduce infection risk. This could increase host survival and reduce the probability of epidemic disease outbreaks. For amphibian populations under immediate threat from this pathogen, targeted manipulation of canopy cover could increase the availability of warmer, drier microclimates and therefore tip the balance from host extinction to coexistence.

  9. Business risks, functions, methods of assessment and ways to reduce risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Mihalchuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available For successful existence in a market economy entrepreneur have to take bold actions, and this increases the risk. The article describes the concept of entrepreneurship and business risk, positive and negative aspects of functions of risk in business. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the risk properly and be able to manage it to achieve the most effective results in the market. In market conditions the problem of assessing and accounting market becomes independent theoretical and practical significance as an important component of the theory and practice of management. Risk - a key element of business activities. Development of risk situations can lead to both the occurrence of adverse effects (losses, lost profits, and positive results for a company in the form of increased profit. This article describes: the concept of entrepreneurship, risk and business risks, characteristic of positive and negative aspects of risk functions in business, methods of assessment and risk reduction, shows formulae and examples you can use to assess risk in an enterprise. Analyzing already established methods of risk assessment a number of rules were proposed in order to reduce business risk.

  10. Geographic access to family planning facilities and the risk of unintended and teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, David C; Klerman, Lorraine V; Johnson, Kay A; Chang, Chiang-Hua; Marth, Nancy

    2007-03-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that greater geographic access to family planning facilities is associated with lower rates of unintended and teenage pregnancies. State Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and natality files in four states were used to locate unintended and teenage births, respectively. Geographic availability was measured by cohort travel time to the nearest family planning facility, the presence of a family planning facility in a ZIP area, and the supply of primary care physicians and obstetric-gynecologists. 83% of the PRAMS cohort and 80% of teenagers lived within 15 min or less of a facility and virtually none lived more than 30 min. Adjusted odds ratios did not demonstrate a statistically significant trend to a higher risk of unintended pregnancies with longer travel time. Similarly there was no association with unintended pregnancy and the presence of a family planning facility within the ZIP area of maternal residence, or with the supply of physicians capable of providing family planning services. Both crude and adjusted relative rates of teenage pregnancies were significantly lower with further distance from family planning sites and with the absence of a facility in the ZIP area of residence. In adjusted models, the supply of obstetricians-gynecologists and primary care physicians was not significantly associated with decreased teen pregnancies. This study found no relationship between greater geographic availability of family planning facilities and a risk of unintended pregnancies. Greater geographic availability of family planning services was associated with a higher risk of teenage pregnancy, although these results may be confounded by facilities locating in areas with greater family planning needs.

  11. Extreme Geohazards: Reducing the Disaster Risk and Increasing Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plag, Hans-Peter; Stein, Seth; Brocklebank, Sean; Jules-Plag, Shelley; Marsh, Stuart; Campus, Paola

    2013-04-01

    Extreme geohazards have the potential to escalate the global sustainability crisis and put us close to the boundaries of the safe operating space for humanity. Exposure of human assets to geohazards has increased dramatically in recent decades, and the sensitivity of the built environment and the embedded socio-economic fabric have changed. We are putting the urban environment, including megacities, in harm's way. Paradoxically, innovation during recent decades, in particular, urban innovation, has increased the disaster risk and coupled this risk to the sustainability crisis. Only more innovation can reduce disaster risk and lead us out of the sustainability crisis. Extreme geohazards (volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis) that occurred regularly throughout the last few millennia mostly did not cause major disasters because population density was low and the built environment was not sprawling into hazardous areas to the same extent as today. Similar extreme events today would cause unparalleled damage on a global scale and could worsen the sustainability crisis. Simulation of these extreme hazards under present conditions can help to assess the disaster risk. The Geohazards Community of Practice of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) with support from the European Science Foundation is preparing a white paper assessing the contemporary disaster risks associated with extreme geohazards and developing a vision for science and society to engage in deliberations addressing this risk (see http://www.geohazcop.org/projects/extgeowp). Risk awareness and monitoring is highly uneven across the world, and this creates two kinds of problems. Firstly, potential hazards are much more closely monitored in wealthy countries than in the developing world. But the largest hazards are global in nature, and it is critical to get as much forewarning as possible to develop an effective response. The disasters and near-misses of the past show that adherence to scientific

  12. How to reduce the risk factors of osteoporosis in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, P C; P'eng, F K

    1995-03-01

    Osteoporosis can be predicted to be a new burden to public health in Asia. Currently, the incidence of osteoporosis-related fractures is lower there than in most western communities. By the year 2050, however, 50% of the 6.3 million hip fractures which occur worldwide will be in Asians as a result of an aging population, a decrease in physical activity and westernization of lifestyles. The cost of treatment and cure of these patients will be enormous, a sufficient financial burden to consume current economic gain and cripple the future advancing development of Asian countries. Individual risk factors for osteoporosis have been identified by the extensive Mediterranean Osteoporosis Study (MEDOS). Fortunately, Asians, the rural population and farmers in particular, have the favorable lifestyle identified by the study, including high physical activity and exposure to sunlight. Strikingly, tea drinking, a daily habit in Asia, is also identified as a protective factor against osteoporosis. In addition, bioflavonoids and phytoestrogen-rich soybeans and vegetables are consumed in large quantities by Asians. A soy diet reduces mortality in breast and prostate cancer because it contains weak estrogens. The weakly estrogenic phytoestrogens require further study to demonstrate their pharmacological effect in reducing the rate of osteoporosis. Public health education, however, is needed to encourage the Asian population to maintain their traditionally good lifestyle and to reduce the risk factors for osteoporosis. In turn, these steps may reduce the public health burden by 2050.

  13. A comparative study of worker and general public risks from nuclear facility operation using MACCS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    East, J.M.; O`Kula, K.R.

    1994-10-01

    Over the last five years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has attempted to establish quantitative risk indices as minimum acceptance criteria for assurance of safe operation of its nuclear facilities. The risk indices serve as aiming points or targets to include consideration of all aspects of operation including normal conditions as well as abnormal, design basis events, and beyond-design basis events. Although initial focus of the application of these safety targets had been on DOE`s reactors, more recent assessments have also considered non-reactor facilities including those encompassing storage and nuclear processing activities. Regardless of the facility`s primary function, accident progression, event tree/fault tree logic models, and probabilistic (dose) consequence assessment model must be implemented to yield a fully integrated analysis of facility operation. The primary tool for probabilistic consequence assessment in the US is the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). In this study, two version of MACCS are applied to representative source terms developed in the safety analysis associated with a waste processing facility at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company`s (WSRC`s) Savannah River Site (SRS). The MACCS versions are used to estimate population dose and subsequent health effects to workers and the general public from the SRS referenced facility operation. When combined with the frequency of occurrence evaluation, the margin of compliance with the safety targets may be quantified.

  14. Breastfeeding reduces the risk of obesity in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni-Maria Papatesta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity has increased dramatically over the last decades, representing one of the most serious public health hazards of the 21st century. Efforts must be made by healthcare professionals to prevent it, as it is associated with short- and long-term risks for physical and mental health and because of the increased possibility to persist during adulthood. From antiquity human breast milk was considered the ideal nourishment for the newborn. Breastfeeding is beneficial for the mother-child dyad. Among others, existing data suggest that it reduces the risk for childhood and adolescence obesity. The mechanisms for this are numerous and include the feeding behavior breastfeeding infants acquire, their growth rate, the ‘early protein hypothesis’, the role of leptin that is found in increased levels in human milk, the dietary choices the breastfed infants make during childhood and adolescence and finally the differences in their bowel flora. Meta-analyses provide sufficient evidence for this protective effect, with a dose-response effect as to the duration of breastfeeding. Healthcare professionals involved in the care of the mother-infant dyad must encourage and support mothers to breastfeed their infants for a long period of time, if obesity were to be prevented. Aim of this review is to provide an account of existing data on the association of breastfeeding and the reduced risk of obesity in childhood and adulthood.

  15. Conceptual model for reducing infections and antimicrobial resistance in skilled nursing facilities: focusing on residents with indwelling devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Lona; Bradley, Suzanne F; Galecki, Andrzej; Olmsted, Russell N; Fitzgerald, James T; Kauffman, Carol A; Saint, Sanjay; Krein, Sarah L

    2011-03-01

    Infections in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) are common and result in frequent hospital transfers, functional decline, and death. Colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) - including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (R-GNB) - is also increasingly prevalent in SNFs. Antimicrobial resistance among common bacteria can adversely affect clinical outcomes and increase health care costs. Recognizing a need for action, legislators, policy-makers, and consumer groups are advocating for surveillance cultures to identify asymptomatic patients with MDROs, particularly MRSA in hospitals and SNFs. Implementing this policy for all SNF residents may be costly, impractical, and ineffective. Such a policy may result in a large increase in the number of SNF residents placed in isolation precautions with the potential for reduced attention by health care workers, isolation, and functional decline. Detection of colonization and subsequent attempts to eradicate selected MDROs can also lead to more strains with drug resistance. We propose an alternative strategy that uses a focused multicomponent bundle approach that targets residents at a higher risk of colonization and infection with MDROs, specifically those who have an indwelling device. If this strategy is effective, similar strategies can be studied and implemented for other high-risk groups.

  16. Contralateral risk reducing mastectomy in Non-BRCA-Mutated patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falco Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of contralateral risk reducing mastectomy (CRRM is indicated in women affected by breast cancer, who are at high risk of developing a contralateral breast cancer, particularly women with genetic mutation of BRCA1, BRCA2 and P53. However we should consider that the genes described above account for only 20-30% of the excess familiar risk. What is contralaterally indicated when genetic assessment results negative for mutation in a young patient with unilateral breast cancer? Is it ethically correct to remove a contralateral “healthy” breast? CRRM rates continue to rise all over the world although CRRM seems not to improve overall survival in women with unilateral sporadic breast cancer. The decision to pursue CRRM as part of treatment in women who have a low-to-moderate risk of developing a secondary cancer in the contralateral breast should consider both breast cancer individual-features and patients preferences, but should be not supported by the surgeon and avoided as first approach with the exception of women highly worried about cancer. Prospective studies are needed to identify cohorts of patients most likely to benefit from CRRM.

  17. Interventions to reduce risks associated with vehicle incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, Jon S; Tung, Gregory J; Kromm, Jonathan N

    2012-01-01

    Occupants of smaller, lighter passenger cars are more likely to be killed or injured in collisions with larger, heavier sport utility vehicles and light trucks than in collisions with other cars. Interventions are needed to reduce this vehicle "incompatibility" and its consequences. The authors conducted a systematic literature review to identify evaluations of interventions to reduce incompatibility. They reviewed engineering, biomedical, and other technical literature. To be included, a study must have 1) evaluated an intervention to reduce vehicle incompatibility, or its consequences, in a crash; 2) reported new research; and 3) been published in English from 1990 to 2010. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Interventions were designed to reduce the aggressivity of larger vehicles or improve the crashworthiness of smaller vehicles. Effective interventions included 1) modified bumper heights, 2) improved side strength of smaller vehicles, 3) side-impact air bags, 4) changes to vehicle stiffness, and 5) modifications of other front-end structures. Some of the interventions shown to be effective are now in wide use. However, others have yet to be required by regulators or voluntarily agreed to by manufacturers. If larger, heavier vehicles remain on the nation's roads, countermeasures will be needed to reduce risks for occupants of other vehicles.

  18. Reducing e-commerce risks using digital certificates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piščević Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce means buying and selling goods and services across the Internet. Secured communication in e-commerce, across unsecured medium, such as the Internet, represents one of the major components in a domain of providing necessary security- critical demands, so the flow of information could go in a secure way. The Internet, as a global computer network must provide five major security services: confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, availability, and non-repudiation of information. Without guaranteeing aformentioned security goals, risks may be very high in e-commerce systems. A possible way to reduce these risks is to use digital certificates. Digital certificates provide a means of proving identity in electronic transactions, and from the point of view of computer communication they are irreplacable, but nevertheless they provide a good mechanism for implementing the major part of this security goal, and therefore, their usage in e-commerce is the major topic of this paper.

  19. Quantitative basin evaluation, a tool for reducing exploration risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Over the last decade, the evaluation of the petroleum potential of sedimentary basins has shifted from a qualitative to a quantitative approach. This new perspective has led to the elaboration of basin simulators and a new discipline emerged: the basin modeling which is nowadays massively used by the oil industry. This methodology is an integration platform including geology, geochemistry and physics. Combined with uncertainty assessments, it is a powerful tool for reducing exploration risks. In this respect, IFP dedicates one of its IFP Sessions to 'Quantitative Basin Evaluation, a Tool for Reducing Exploration Risks'. This session was held on 18 June, 2001. The purpose of this workshop is to review the most modern advances used by professionals in the oil industry to improve the rate of hydrocarbon discovery and to lower exploration costs in frontier areas. IFP Sessions are conferences held for decision-makers and technical leaders to promote exchanges among involved parties: oil and gas companies, petroleum services and supply industries, engineering firms and research centers. Program: quantitative basin evaluation: the Berkine basin and its results; application of 2-D and 3-D basin modelling in the Gulf of Mexico; 2-D modelling in Brazilian sedimentary basins: lessons from recent case histories; quantitative modelling in the North Sea: towards a more confident assessment of the critical risks (*); uncertainties evaluation in petroleum system modelling (*); prediction of hydrocarbon type in the deep-water, Gulf of Mexico (*); constraining source and charge risk in deep-water areas - the Gulf of Mexico and offshore Angola (*); an overview of basin modelling and geochemistry activities in PDO; quantitative basin evaluation: how does it affect decision in exploration (*); panel discussion: evolution of the modelling tools. Abstracts are available only for 5 presentations (marked with (*)). (J.S.)

  20. Reducing The Risk Of Fires In Conveyor Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheremushkina, M. S.; Poddubniy, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with the actual problem of increasing the safety of operation of belt conveyors in mines. Was developed the control algorithm that meets the technical requirements of the mine belt conveyors, reduces the risk of fires of conveyors belt, and enables energy and resource savings taking into account random sort of traffic. The most effective method of decision such tasks is the construction of control systems with the use of variable speed drives for asynchronous motors. Was designed the mathematical model of the system "variable speed multiengine drive - conveyor - control system of conveyors", that takes into account the dynamic processes occurring in the elements of the transport system, provides an assessment of the energy efficiency of application the developed algorithms, which allows to reduce the dynamic overload in the belt to (15-20)%.

  1. Can helmet design reduce the risk of concussion in football?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M; Greenwald, Richard M; Beckwith, Jonathan G; Chu, Jeffrey J; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Mihalik, Jason P; Crisco, Joseph J; Wilcox, Bethany J; McAllister, Thomas W; Maerlender, Arthur C; Broglio, Steven P; Schnebel, Brock; Anderson, Scott; Brolinson, P Gunnar

    2014-04-01

    Of all sports, football accounts for the highest incidence of concussion in the US due to the large number of athletes participating and the nature of the sport. While there is general agreement that concussion incidence can be reduced through rule changes and teaching proper tackling technique, there remains debate as to whether helmet design may also reduce the incidence of concussion. A retrospective analysis was performed of head impact data collected from 1833 collegiate football players who were instrumented with helmet-mounted accelerometer arrays for games and practices. Data were collected between 2005 and 2010 from 8 collegiate football teams: Virginia Tech, University of North Carolina, University of Oklahoma, Dartmouth College, Brown University, University of Minnesota, Indiana University, and University of Illinois. Concussion rates were compared between players wearing Riddell VSR4 and Riddell Revolution helmets while controlling for the head impact exposure of each player. A total of 1,281,444 head impacts were recorded, from which 64 concussions were diagnosed. The relative risk of sustaining a concussion in a Revolution helmet compared with a VSR4 helmet was 46.1% (95% CI 28.1%-75.8%). When controlling for each player's exposure to head impact, a significant difference was found between concussion rates for players in VSR4 and Revolution helmets (χ(2) = 4.68, p = 0.0305). This study illustrates that differences in the ability to reduce concussion risk exist between helmet models in football. Although helmet design may never prevent all concussions from occurring in football, evidence illustrates that it can reduce the incidence of this injury.

  2. Reduced cost design of liquid lithium target for international fusion material irradiation facility (IFMIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Ida, Mizuho; Sugimoto, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Hiroshi [Department of Fussion Engineering Research, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Yutani, Toshiaki [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is being jointly planned to provide an accelerator-based D-Li neutron source to produce intense high energy neutrons (2 MW/m{sup 2}) up to 200 dpa and a sufficient irradiation volume (500 cm{sup 3}) for testing the candidate materials and components up to about a full lifetime of their anticipated use in ITER and DEMO. To realize such a condition, 40 MeV deuteron beam with a current of 250 mA is injected into high speed liquid lithium flow with a speed of 20 m/s. Following Conceptual Design Activity (1995-1998), a design study with focus on cost reduction without changing its original mission has been done in 1999. The following major changes to the CAD target design have been considered in the study and included in the new design: i) number of the Li target has been changed from 2 to 1, ii) spare of impurity traps of the Li loop was removed although the spare will be stored in a laboratory for quick exchange, iii) building volume was reduced via design changes in lithium loop length. This paper describes the reduced cost design of the lithium target system and recent status of Key Element Technology activities. (author)

  3. Statins Reduce the Risks of Relapse to Addiction in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet, Claudia; Nicolas, Celine; Lafay-Chebassier, Claire; Jaber, Mohamed; Thiriet, Nathalie; Solinas, Marcello

    2016-05-01

    Statins are drugs that have been used for decades in humans for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. More recently, several lines of evidence demonstrate that statins, in addition to their peripheral effects, produce a wide variety of effects in the brain and may be beneficial in neurological and psychiatric conditions. In this study, we allowed rats to self-administer cocaine for several weeks and, at the end of self-administration training, we treated them with low doses of statins daily for a 21-day period of abstinence. Chronic administration of brain-penetrating statins, simvastatin (1 mg/kg) and atorvastatin (1 mg/kg), reduced cocaine seeking compared with vehicle, whereas administration of pravastatin (2 mg/kg), a statin with low brain penetrability, did not. Importantly, the effects of brain-penetrating statins persisted even after discontinuation of the treatment and were specific for drug seeking because drug taking was not altered by simvastatin treatment. Finally, the effects of simvastatin were found to generalize to another drug of abuse such as nicotine, but not to food reward, and to reinstatement of cocaine seeking induced by stress. These results demonstrate that brain-penetrating statins can reduce risks of relapse to addiction. Given their well-known safety profile in humans, statins could be a novel effective treatment for relapse to cocaine and nicotine addiction and their use could be implemented in clinical settings without major health risks.

  4. Acid mine drainage risks - A modeling approach to siting mine facilities in Northern Minnesota USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Tom

    2016-02-01

    Most watershed-scale planning for mine-caused contamination concerns remediation of past problems while future planning relies heavily on engineering controls. As an alternative, a watershed scale groundwater fate and transport model for the Rainy Headwaters, a northeastern Minnesota watershed, has been developed to examine the risks of leaks or spills to a pristine downstream watershed. The model shows that the risk depends on the location and whether the source of the leak is on the surface or from deeper underground facilities. Underground sources cause loads that last longer but arrive at rivers after a longer travel time and have lower concentrations due to dilution and attenuation. Surface contaminant sources could cause much more short-term damage to the resource. Because groundwater dominates baseflow, mine contaminant seepage would cause the most damage during low flow periods. Groundwater flow and transport modeling is a useful tool for decreasing the risk to downgradient sources by aiding in the placement of mine facilities. Although mines are located based on the minerals, advance planning and analysis could avoid siting mine facilities where failure or leaks would cause too much natural resource damage. Watershed scale transport modeling could help locate the facilities or decide in advance that the mine should not be constructed due to the risk to downstream resources.

  5. Hospital readmission from post-acute care facilities: risk factors, timing, and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Robert E.; Whitfield, Emily A.; Hittle, David; Min, Sung-joon; Levy, Cari; Prochazka, Allan V.; Coleman, Eric A.; Schwartz, Robert; Ginde, Adit A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Hospital discharges to post-acute care (PAC) facilities have increased rapidly. This increase may lead to more hospital readmissions from PAC facilities, which are common and poorly understood. We sought to determine the risk factors and timing for hospital readmission from PAC facilities and evaluate the impact of readmission on patient outcomes. Design Retrospective analysis of Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) from 2003–2009. Setting The MCBS is a nationally-representative survey of beneficiaries matched with claims data. Participants Community-dwelling beneficiaries who were hospitalized and discharged to a PAC facility for rehabilitation. Intervention/Exposure Potential readmission risk factors included patient demographics, health utilization, active medical conditions at time of PAC admission, and PAC characteristics. Measurements Hospital readmission during the PAC stay, return to community residence, and all-cause mortality. Results Of 3246 acute hospitalizations followed by PAC facility stays, 739 (22.8%) included at least 1 hospital readmission. The strongest risk factors for readmission included impaired functional status (HR 4.78, 95% CI 3.21–7.10), markers of increased acuity such as need for intravenous medications in PAC (1.63, 1.39–1.92), and for-profit PAC ownership (1.43, 1.21–1.69). Readmitted patients had a higher mortality rate at both 30 days (18.9 vs. 8.6%, p<0.001) and 100 days (39.9 vs. 14.5%, p<0.001) even after adjusting for age, comorbidities, and prior health care utilization (30 days: OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.60–2.54; 100 days: OR 3.79, 95% CI 3.13–4.59). Conclusions Hospital readmission from PAC facilities is common and associated with a high mortality rate. Readmission risk factors may signify inadequate transitional care processes or a mismatch between patient needs and PAC resources. PMID:26715357

  6. Propranolol Reduces Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ping-Ying; Huang, Wen-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Wu, Yi-Ying; Chen, Jia-Hong; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-07-01

    β-Blockers have been reported to exhibit potential anticancer effects in cancer cell lines and animal models. However, clinical studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding cancer outcomes and cancer risk when β-blockers were used. This study investigated the association between propranolol and cancer risk.Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2011, a patient cohort was extracted from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, a subset of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A propranolol cohort (propranolol usage >6 months) and nonpropranolol cohort were matched using a propensity score. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cancer associated with propranolol treatment.The study sample comprised 24,238 patients. After a 12-year follow-up period, the cumulative incidence for developing cancer was low in the propranolol cohort (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.67-0.85; P propranolol treatment exhibited significantly lower risks of cancers in head and neck (HR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35-0.95), esophagus (HR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.13-0.96), stomach (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30-0.98), colon (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.49-0.93), and prostate cancers (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.33-0.83). The protective effect of propranolol for head and neck, stomach, colon, and prostate cancers was most substantial when exposure duration exceeded 1000 days.This study supports the proposition that propranolol can reduce the risk of head and neck, esophagus, stomach, colon, and prostate cancers. Further prospective study is necessary to confirm these findings.

  7. Influenza Vaccination Reduces Dementia Risk in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ju-Chi; Hsu, Yi-Ping; Kao, Pai-Feng; Hao, Wen-Rui; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Lin, Chao-Feng; Sung, Li-Chin; Wu, Szu-Yuan

    2016-03-01

    Taiwan has the highest prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) worldwide. CKD, a manifestation of vascular diseases, is associated with a high risk of dementia. Here, we estimated the association between influenza vaccination and dementia risk in patients with CKD. Data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan were used in this study. The study cohort included all patients diagnosed with CKD (according to International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes) at healthcare facilities in Taiwan (n = 32,844) from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2007. Each patient was followed up to assess dementia risk or protective factors: demographic characteristics of age and sex; comorbidities of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cerebrovascular diseases, parkinsonism, epilepsy, substance and alcohol use disorders, mood disorder, anxiety disorder, psychotic disorder, and sleep disorder; urbanization level; monthly income; and statin, metformin, aspirin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) use. A propensity score was derived using a logistic regression model for estimating the effect of vaccination by accounting for covariates that predict receiving the intervention (vaccine). A time-dependent Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of dementia among vaccinated and unvaccinated CKD patients. The study population comprised 11,943 eligible patients with CKD; 5745 (48%) received influenza vaccination and the remaining 6198 (52%) did not. The adjusted HRs (aHRs) of dementia decreased in vaccinated patients compared with those in unvaccinated patients (influenza season, noninfluenza season, and all seasons: aHRs = 0.68, 0.58, and 0.64; P dementia in various models. A stronger protective effect against dementia risk was demonstrated during the noninfluenza season. Regardless of comorbidities or drug use, influenza vaccination was an independent protective factor and

  8. Facile preparation of reduced graphene oxide - ruthenium oxide nanocomposite electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Fatima; Pham, Viet; Dickerson, James; Winthrop University Team; CFN-Brookhaven National Lab Team

    2015-03-01

    Herein we report a facile approach of synthesis of graphene oxide (GO) sheets modified with ruthenium oxide (RuO2) nanoparticles, followed by a reduction of graphene oxide in an alkaline medium. The as-prepared reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/ruthenium oxide (RuO2) nanocomposite was used for the fabrication of a symmetric supercapacitor. The specific capacitance and charge-discharge periods of the supercapacitor were found to be dependent on both the structural and morphological properties, and the electrolytes used. Surface morphology analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows the RuO2 nanoparticles decorating rGO sheets, comprising a highly porous surface. Structural analysis obtained by x-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed an amorphous structure that is necessary to achieve a high cycling rate capability. The electrochemical properties of rGO/RuO2 were measured in a two electrodes system, using two different electrolytes: H2SO4andNa2SO4. The specific capacitance of rGO/RuO2 in H2SO4 was found to be 318 F/g, and is much higher than that of Na2SO4 (184 F/g).

  9. Reducing adolescent clients' anger in a residential substance abuse treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Robert; McGee, Patricia; Power, Robert; Hanson, Cathy

    2005-06-01

    Sundown Ranch, a residential behavioral health care treatment facility for adolescents, tracked the progress and results of treatment by selecting performance measures from a psychosocial screening inventory. The temper scale was one of the two highest scales at admission and the highest scale at discharge. A clinical performance improvement (PI) project was conducted to assess improvements in clients' ability to manage anger after the incorporation of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) into treatment. Eighteen months of baseline data (July 1, 1999 - February 1, 2001) were collected, and 20 months of data (May 1, 2001 - December 31, 2002) were collected after the introduction of the PI activity. In all, data were collected for 541 consecutive admissions. A comparison of five successive quarterly reviews indicated average scores of 1.4 standard deviations (SDs) above the mean on the temper scale before the PI activity and .45 SD above the mean after. The performance threshold of reduction of the average temper scale score to < or =1 SD was met for 17 of 20 months. The fact that the PI activity reduced the temper scale elevations by almost one full SD is highly suggestive of the efficacy of REBT with the treatment population. After the project was completed, REBT was promoted as an additional therapeutic modality within the treatment program.

  10. Facile fabrication of reduced graphene oxide-encapsulated silica: a sorbent for solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan-Bo; Zhu, Gang-Tian; Li, Xiao-Shui; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2013-07-19

    In this study, a facile hydrothermal reduction strategy was developed for the preparation of reduced graphene oxide-encapsulated silica (SiO2@rGO). Compared with other conventional methods for the synthesis of SiO2@rGO, the proposed strategy endowed the obtained SiO2@rGO with larger amount of immobilized rGO. The prepared functionalized silica shows remarkable adsorption capacity toward chlorophenols (CPs) and peptides. When it was used as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent, a superior recovery could be obtained compared to commercial sorbents, such as C18 silica, graphitized carbon black and carbon nanotubes. Based on these, the prepared material was used as SPE sorbent for the enrichment of CPs, and a method for the analysis of CPs in water samples was established by coupling SPE with high performance liquid chromatography-ultra violet detection (SPE-HPLC/UV). In addition, the obtained SiO2@rGO was further successfully extended to the enrichment of peptides in bovine serum albumin (BSA) digests.

  11. A comparative study of worker and general public risks from nuclear facility operation using MACCS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    East, J.M.; O`Kula, K.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Over the last five years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has attempted to establish quantitative risk indices as minimum acceptance criteria for assurance of safe operation of its nuclear facilities. The risk indices serve as aiming points or targets to include consideration of all aspects of operation including normal conditions as well as abnormal, design basis events, and beyond-design basis events. Although initial focus of the application of these safety targets had been on DOE`s reactors, more recent assessments have also considered non-reactor facilities including those encompassing storage and nuclear processing activities. Regardless of the facility`s primary function, accident progression, event tree/fault tree logic models, and probabilistic (dose) consequence assessment model must be implemented to yield a fully integrated analysis of facility operation. The primary tool for probabilistic consequence assessment in the U.S. is the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). In this study, two version of MACCS are applied to representative source terms developed in the safety analysis associated with a waste processing facility at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company`s (WSRC`s) Savannah River Site (SRS). The MACCS versions are used to estimate population dose and subsequent health effects to workers and the general public from the SRS referenced facility operation. When combined with the frequency of occurrence evaluation, the margin of compliance with the safety targets may be quantified. Additionally, numerical evaluation of the safety targets with the two code versions will serve as an indicator of the impact of the enhancements made to MACCS relative to earlier baseline software.

  12. Public support for policies to reduce risk after Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Michael R; Weiner, Marc D; Noland, Robert; Herb, Jeanne; Kaplan, Marjorie; Broccoli, Anthony J

    2014-06-01

    A phone survey was conducted in New Jersey in 2013 four months after the second of two major devastating tropical storms (Sandy in 2012 and Irene in 2011). The objective was to estimate public support for restricting land uses in flood zones, requiring housing to be built to resist storm waters, and otherwise increasing mitigation and resilience. Respondents who supported these mitigation and resilience policies disproportionately were concerned about global climate change, trusted climate scientists and the federal government, and were willing to contribute to a redevelopment program through taxes, bonds, and fees. They also tended to have collectivist and egalitarian worldviews. Half of the respondents supported at least four of the seven risk-reducing policies. How their support translates into public policy remains to be seen. Lack of willingness to personally fund these policies is an obstacle.

  13. [Air transport biomechanical risk: reduced mobility passengers' handling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draicchio, F; Campoli, G; Silvetti, A; Badellino, E; Forzano, F; Ranavolo, A; Iavicoli, S; Campagna, G; Raffaele, G; Gismondi, M

    2012-01-01

    As the airport traffic increases there is a continuous increase of passengers with different motor disabilities. Disabled passenger's assistance causes a biomechanical overload in airport workers. Some disabled passengers are classified by IATA as WCHC (wheel chair in cabin or Charlie). Our study, was performed in one of the most important Italian airport on Charlie passengers (about 10% of all assistances). We identified four critical points: 1) wheelchair and baggage moving (unstable load), 2) inclined ramps with worker's backwards steps and braked wheelchair to prevent passenger tipping or falling, 3) transfer from standard wheelchair to bicycle wheelchair, specifically designed for the aisle; 4.) transfer from bicycle wheelchair to aircraft seat. The last two points required sometimes to lift passengers over the armrest and positioning them on a window side seat, causing a serious increase of biomechanical load. For each critical point we have proposed technical and organizational measures to reduce airport worker's biomechanical risk.

  14. Household sanitation facilities and women's risk of non-partner sexual violence in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Apoorva; Weitzman, Abigail; Smith-Greenaway, Emily

    2016-11-08

    Globally, one in ten individuals practice open defecation. Despite media speculation that it increases women's risk of sexual violence, little empirical evidence supports the claims. We investigate the relationship between household sanitation facilities and women's risk of non-partner sexual violence (NPSV) in India, where nearly half of the population lives without a pit or toilet. We use the most recent NPSV data, from the National Family Health Survey-III, to estimate logistic regression models of the effects of household sanitation facilities (toilet, pit, or none) on NPSV in the last year among women who have resided in their current home for one year or more. These effects are estimated net of other socioeconomic factors, compared to effects of household sanitation facilities on child diarrhea, and, as a falsification test, compared to effects of household sanitation facilities on intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV) in the last year. Net of their socioeconomic status, women who use open defecation are twice as likely to face NPSV as women with a household toilet. This is twice the association between open defecation and child diarrhea. The results of our falsification test indicate that open defecation is not correlated with IPSV, thus disconfirming a simultaneous selection of women into open defecation and sexual violence. Our findings provide empirical evidence that lacking household sanitation is associated with higher risk of NPSV.

  15. Accident Precursor Analysis and Management: Reducing Technological Risk Through Diligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phimister, James R. (Editor); Bier, Vicki M. (Editor); Kunreuther, Howard C. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    Almost every year there is at least one technological disaster that highlights the challenge of managing technological risk. On February 1, 2003, the space shuttle Columbia and her crew were lost during reentry into the atmosphere. In the summer of 2003, there was a blackout that left millions of people in the northeast United States without electricity. Forensic analyses, congressional hearings, investigations by scientific boards and panels, and journalistic and academic research have yielded a wealth of information about the events that led up to each disaster, and questions have arisen. Why were the events that led to the accident not recognized as harbingers? Why were risk-reducing steps not taken? This line of questioning is based on the assumption that signals before an accident can and should be recognized. To examine the validity of this assumption, the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) undertook the Accident Precursors Project in February 2003. The project was overseen by a committee of experts from the safety and risk-sciences communities. Rather than examining a single accident or incident, the committee decided to investigate how different organizations anticipate and assess the likelihood of accidents from accident precursors. The project culminated in a workshop held in Washington, D.C., in July 2003. This report includes the papers presented at the workshop, as well as findings and recommendations based on the workshop results and committee discussions. The papers describe precursor strategies in aviation, the chemical industry, health care, nuclear power and security operations. In addition to current practices, they also address some areas for future research.

  16. TOMATO BENEFITS IN REDUCING THE RISK OF PROSTAT CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Wisnu Mataram

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Consumption of fresh and processed tomato products is associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer. The emerging hypothesis is that lycopene, the primary red carotenoid in tomatoes, may be the principle phytochemical responsible for this reduction in risk. A number of potential mechanisms by which lycopene may act have emerged, including serving as an important in vivo antioxidant, enhancing cell-to-cell communication via increasing gap junctions between cells, and modulating cell-cycle progression. Although the effect of lycopene is biologically relevant, the tomato is also an excellent source of nutrients, including folate, vitamin C, and various other carotenoids and phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, which also may be associated with lower cancer risk. Tomatoes also contain significant quantities of potassium, as well as some vitamin A and vitamin E. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  17. Does landscape diversity reduce the risk of catastrophic tipping points?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, Arnaud; Baartman, Jantiene; Saco, Patricia; Nijp, Jelmer; Langston, Abigail

    2016-04-01

    Most studies about tipping points are based on computer simulations. These simulations, based on first principles of vegetation growth and competition, are not only able to explain a surprising number of vegetation patterns occurring in natural ecosystems, but they also predict shifts between multiple stable states that may be catastrophic. Initially, such studies were performed on simplistic 'non-landscapes' - flats or straight slopes. Recently, we have been able to resolve geomorphic redistribution processes more accurately, so that vegetation patterning can be simulated in more complex landscapes. Here, we present a first look into how such 'real landscapes' affect the risk of catastrophic shifts. We test the hypothesis that increasing complexity and organisation in a landscape reduce the risk of catastrophic shifts by effectively creating mini-refugia where vegetation persists over a wider range of boundary conditions such as precipitation. Depending on the extent of a study area, large complexity could even change the system from one with multiple stable states into one with only one stable state.

  18. Reducing Youth Risk Behaviors Through Interactive Theater Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J. Watson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of risk behaviors in secondary schools is a key concern for parents, teachers, and school administrators. School is one of the primary contexts of socialization for young people; thus, the investment in school-based programs to reduce risk behaviors is essential. In this study, we report on youth who participated in an intervention designed to improve decision-making skills based on positive youth development approaches. We examine changes in decision-making skills before and after involvement in the Teen Interactive Theater Education (TITE program and retrospective self-assessment of change in knowledge, abilities, and beliefs as a result of participating in TITE (n = 127. Youth that reported increases in knowledge, abilities, and beliefs due to the intervention (n = 89 were more likely to think about the consequences of their decisions and list options before making a decision compared to their counterparts that reported less overall learning (n = 38. Implications for intervention research and stakeholders are discussed.

  19. A micro-environmental intervention to reduce the harms associated with drug-related overdose: evidence from the evaluation of Vancouver's safer injection facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Thomas; Small, Will; Moore, David; Wood, Evan

    2007-01-01

    Conventional drug overdose prevention strategies have been criticised for failing to address the macro- and micro-environmental factors that shape drug injecting practices and compromise individual ability to reduce the risks associated with drug-related overdose. This in turn has led to calls for interventions that address overdose risks by modifying the drug-using environment, including the social dynamics within them. Safer injection facilities (SIFs) constitute one such intervention, although little is known about the impact of such facilities on factors that mediate risk for overdose. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with fifty individuals recruited from a cohort of SIF users in Vancouver, the Scientific Evaluation Of Supervised Injecting (SEOSI). Audio recorded interviews elicited injection drug users' (IDU) accounts of overdoses as well as perspectives regarding the impact of SIF use on overdose risk and experiences of overdose. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and a thematic analysis was conducted. Fifty IDU, including 21 women, participated in this study. The perspectives of participants suggest that the Vancouver SIF plays an important role in mediating various risks associated with overdose. In particular, the SIF addresses many of the unique contextual risks associated with injection in public spaces, including the need to rush injections due to fear of arrest. Further, SIF use appears to enable overdose prevention by simultaneously offsetting potential social risks associated with injecting alone and injecting in the presence of strangers. The immediate emergency response offered by nurses at the SIF was also valued highly, especially when injecting adulterated drugs and drugs of unknown purity and composition. The perspectives of IDU participating in this study suggest that SIFs can address many of the micro-environmental factors that drive overdose risk and limit individual ability to employ overdose prevention practices

  20. Education to reduce potentially harmful medication use among residents of assisted living facilities: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkälä, Kaisu H; Juola, Anna-Liisa; Kautiainen, Hannu; Soini, Helena; Finne-Soveri, U Harriet; Bell, J Simon; Björkman, Mikko

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the effect of nurse training on the use of potentially harmful medications; and (2) to explore the effect of nurse training on residents' health-related quality of life (HRQoL), health service utilization, and mortality. A randomized controlled trial. In total, 227 residents in 20 wards of assisted living facilities in Helsinki were recruited. The 20 wards were randomized into those in which (1) staff received two 4-hour training sessions on appropriate medication treatment (intervention group), and (2) staff received no additional training and continued to provide routine care (control group). Two 4-hour interactive training sessions for nursing staff based on constructive learning theory to recognize potentially harmful medications and corresponding adverse drug events. Use of potentially harmful medications, HRQoL assessed using the 15 dimensional instrument of health-related quality of life, health service utilization, and mortality assessed at baseline, and 6 and 12 months. During the 12-month follow-up, the mean number of potentially harmful medications decreased in the intervention wards [-0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.71 to -0.15] but remained constant in the control wards (+0.11, 95% CI -0.09 to +0.31) (P = .004, adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities). HRQoL declined more slowly in the intervention wards (-0.038 (95% CI -0.054 to -0.022) than in the control wards (-0.072 (95% CI -0.089 to -0.055) (P = .005, adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities). Residents of the intervention wards had significantly less hospital days (1.4 days/person/year, 95% CI 1.2-1.6) than in the control wards (2.3 days/person/year; 95% CI 2.1-2.7) (relative risk 0.60, 95% CI 0.49-0.75, P < .001, adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities). Activating learning methods directed at nurses in charge of comprehensive care can reduce the use of harmful medications, maintain HRQoL, and reduce hospitalization in residents of

  1. Assessment of risk of potential exposures on facilities industries; Estimativa do risco de exposicao potencial em instalacoes industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leocadio, Joao Carlos

    2007-03-15

    This work develops a model to evaluate potential exposures on open facilities of industrial radiography in Brazil. This model will decisively contribute to optimize operational, radiological protection and safety procedures, to prevent radiation accidents and to reduce human errors in industrial radiography. The probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology was very useful to assess potential exposures. The open facilities of industrial radiography were identified as the scenario to be analyzed in what concerns the evaluation of potential exposures, due to their high accidents indices. The results of the assessment of potential exposures confirm that the industrial radiography in Brazil is a high-risk practice as classified by the IAEA. The risk of potential exposure was estimated to be 40,5 x 10{sup -2} per year in Brazil, having as main consequences injuries to the workers' hands and arms. In the world scene, the consequences are worst, leading to fatalities of people, thus emphasizing the high risk of industrial radiography. (author)

  2. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Facility Registry Service (FRS) Emergency Response (ER) Risk Management Plan (RMP) Facilities - Oil and Hazardous Materials

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The purpose of this web feature service is to provide users with access to integrated facility information from FRS, limited to the subset of facilities that link to...

  3. How School Facilities Managers and Business Officials Are Reducing Operating Costs and Saving Money. Energy-Smart Building Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This guide addresses contributions that school facility administrators and business officials can make in an effort to reduce operating costs and free up money for capital improvements. The guide explores opportunities available to utilize energy-saving strategies at any stage in a building's life, from its initial design phase through renovation.…

  4. Role of probiotics in reducing the risk of gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isolauri, E; Rautava, S; Collado, M C; Salminen, S

    2015-08-01

    Overweight and obesity currently constitute a major threat to human well-being. Almost half of the female population are currently overweight. Pregnant overweight women are at risk of gestational diabetes affecting the health of the mother and the child, in both the short and long term. Notwithstanding the extensive scientific interest centred on the problem, research efforts have thus far been unable to devise preventive strategies. Recent scientific advances point to a gut microbiota dysbiosis, with ensuing low-grade inflammation as a contributing element, in obesity and its comorbidities. Such findings would suggest a role for specific probiotics in the search for preventive and therapeutic adjunct applications in gestational diabetes. The aim of the present paper was to critically review recent demonstrations of the role of intestinal microbes in immune and metabolic regulation, which could be exploited in nutritional management of pregnant women by probiotic bacteria. By modulating specific target functions, probiotic dietary intervention may exert clinical effects beyond the nutritional impact of food. As this approach in pregnancy is new, an overview of the role of gut microbiota in shaping host metabolism, together with the definition of probiotics are presented, and finally, specific targets and potential mechanisms for probiotics in pregnancy are discussed. Pregnancy appears to be the most critical stage for interventions aiming to reduce the risk of non-communicable disease in future generations, beyond the immediate dangers attributable to the health of the mother, labour and the neonate. Specific probiotic interventions during pregnancy provide an opportunity, therefore, to promote the health not only of the mother but also of the child.

  5. Mitochondrial Polymorphisms Significantly Reduce the Risk of Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Walt, Joelle M.; Nicodemus, Kristin K.; Martin, Eden R.; Scott, William K.; Nance, Martha A.; Watts, Ray L.; Hubble, Jean P.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Koller, William C.; Lyons, Kelly; Pahwa, Rajesh; Stern, Matthew B.; Colcher, Amy; Hiner, Bradley C.; Jankovic, Joseph; Ondo, William G.; Allen Jr., Fred H.; Goetz, Christopher G.; Small, Gary W.; Mastaglia, Frank; Stajich, Jeffrey M.; McLaurin, Adam C.; Middleton, Lefkos T.; Scott, Burton L.; Schmechel, Donald E.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Vance, Jeffery M.

    2003-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) impairment, particularly within complex I of the electron transport system, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). More than half of mitochondrially encoded polypeptides form part of the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase (NADH) complex I enzyme. To test the hypothesis that mtDNA variation contributes to PD expression, we genotyped 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that define the European mtDNA haplogroups in 609 white patients with PD and 340 unaffected white control subjects. Overall, individuals classified as haplogroup J (odds ratio [OR] 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34–0.91; P=.02) or K (OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.30–0.90; P=.02) demonstrated a significant decrease in risk of PD versus individuals carrying the most common haplogroup, H. Furthermore, a specific SNP that defines these two haplogroups, 10398G, is strongly associated with this protective effect (OR 0.53; 95% CI 0.39–0.73; P=.0001). SNP 10398G causes a nonconservative amino acid change from threonine to alanine within the NADH dehydrogenase 3 (ND3) of complex I. After stratification by sex, this decrease in risk appeared stronger in women than in men (OR 0.43; 95% CI 0.27–0.71; P=.0009). In addition, SNP 9055A of ATP6 demonstrated a protective effect for women (OR 0.45; 95% CI 0.22–0.93; P=.03). Our results suggest that ND3 is an important factor in PD susceptibility among white individuals and could help explain the role of complex I in PD expression. PMID:12618962

  6. Impact of Breast Density Legislation on Breast Cancer Risk Assessment and Supplemental Screening: A Survey of 110 Radiology Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Lina; Miyake, Kanae K; Leung, Jessica W T; Price, Elissa R; Liu, Yueyi I; Joe, Bonnie N; Sickles, Edward A; Thomas, William R; Lipson, Jafi A; Daniel, Bruce L; Hargreaves, Jonathan; Brenner, R James; Bassett, Lawrence W; Ojeda-Fournier, Haydee; Lindfors, Karen K; Feig, Stephen A; Ikeda, Debra M

    2016-09-01

    Breast density notification laws, passed in 19 states as of October 2014, mandate that patients be informed of their breast density. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of this legislation on radiology practices, including performance of breast cancer risk assessment and supplemental screening studies. A 20-question anonymous web-based survey was emailed to radiologists in the Society of Breast Imaging between August 2013 and March 2014. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test. Around 121 radiologists from 110 facilities in 34 USA states and 1 Canadian site responded. About 50% (55/110) of facilities had breast density legislation, 36% of facilities (39/109) performed breast cancer risk assessment (one facility did not respond). Risk assessment was performed as a new task in response to density legislation in 40% (6/15) of facilities in states with notification laws. However, there was no significant difference in performing risk assessment between facilities in states with a law and those without (p facilities in states with laws implemented handheld whole breast ultrasound (WBUS), automated WBUS, and tomosynthesis, respectively. The ratio of facilities offering handheld WBUS was significantly higher in states with a law than in states without (p facilities are offering supplemental screening with WBUS and tomosynthesis, and many are performing formal risk assessment for determining patient management.

  7. Race, region and risk: An examination of minority proximity to noxious facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The past decade has given rise to terms like environmental racism, eco-racism, and environmental inequities to characterize a disproportional distribution of environmental disamenities among minority communities. Much of the literature supports the contention that racial and ethnic minorities and low-income groups bear a disproportionate burden of risk from hazardous activities and substances in the environment. This study expands the scope of prior studies by employing county-level data for the entire nation and including a broad range of facility types associated with environmental disamenities. In addition, it addresses the issue of the distribution of noxious facilities among white and non-white populations in an attempt to determine the relative exposure to risk among different racial and ethnic groups. In addition, the authors also explore the relative importance of nonurban versus urban residence.

  8. Accident Management & Risk-Based Compliance With 40 CFR 68 for Chemical Process Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Kula, K.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Taylor, R.P. Jr.; Ashbaugh, S.G. [Innovative Technology Solutions, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-08-23

    A risk-based logic model is suggested as an appropriate basis for better predicting accident progression and ensuing source terms to the environment from process upset conditions in complex chemical process facilities. Under emergency conditions, decision-makers may use the Accident Progression Event Tree approach to identify the best countermeasure for minimizing deleterious consequences to receptor groups before the atmospheric release has initiated. It is concluded that the chemical process industry may use this methodology as a supplemental information provider to better comply with the Environmental Protection Agency`s proposed 40 CFR 68 Risk Management Program rule. An illustration using a benzene-nitric acid potential interaction demonstrates the value of the logic process. The identification of worst-case releases and planning for emergency response are improved through these methods, at minimum. It also provides a systematic basis for prioritizing facility modifications to correct vulnerabilities.

  9. Improving Resource Allocation Decisions to Reduce the Risk of Terrorist Attacks on Passenger Rail Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    cause changes to the threat landscape . Several methods are used to assess the risk to passenger rail systems. A short discussion of these methods...accessibility of passenger rail facilities are attractive to adversaries. This thesis reviews the current approach to risk assessment used by system...14. SUBJECT TERMS passenger rail security, decision making, risk assessment , rail systems, metro, mass transit, subway, risk management, game

  10. Public Health Risks from Mismanagement of Healthcare Wastes in Shinyanga Municipality Health Facilities, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kizito Kuchibanda; Mayo, Aloyce W.

    2015-01-01

    The increase of healthcare facilities in Shinyanga municipality has resulted in an increase of healthcare wastes, which poses serious threats to the environment, health workers, and the general public. This research was conducted to investigate management practices of healthcare wastes in Shinyanga municipality with a view of assessing health risks to health workers and the general public. The study, which was carried out in three hospitals, involved the use of questionnaires, in-depth interv...

  11. The Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akerblom, H K; Krischer, J; Virtanen, Virpi Susanna;

    2011-01-01

    The Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR) study was designed to establish whether weaning to a highly hydrolysed formula in infancy subsequently reduces the risk of type 1 diabetes.......The Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR) study was designed to establish whether weaning to a highly hydrolysed formula in infancy subsequently reduces the risk of type 1 diabetes....

  12. Fuzzy-based risk prioritization for a hydrogen refueling facility in Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hue-yee CHONG; Mahidzal DAHARI; Hwa-jen YAP; Ying-tai LOONG

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen is starting to be mentioned as an alternative fuel to replace the fossil fuel in future transportation applications due to its characteristics of zero greenhouse gas emission and high energy efficiency.Before hydrogen fuel and its facilities can be introduced to the public,relevant safety issues and its hazards must be assessed in order to avoid any chance of injury or loss.While a traditional risk assessment has difficulty in prioritizing the risk of failure modes,this paper proposes a new fuzzy-based risk evaluation technique which uses fuzzy value to prioritize the risk of various scenarios.In this study,the final risk of each failure modes was prioritized by using the MATLAB fuzzy logic tool box with a combination of two assessments.The first assessment was concerned with the criteria which affected the actual probability of occurrence.This assessment considered the availability of the standard that was applied to prevent the likelihood of the scenario occurring.On the other hand,the second assessment was focused on evaluating the consequence of the failure by taking into account the availability of detection and the complexity of the failure rather than only the severity of the scenarios.A total of 87 failure scenarios were identified using failure modes and effect analysis(FMEA)procedures on hydrogen refueling station models.Fuzzy-based assessments were performed through risk prioritizing various failure scenarios with a fuzzy value(0 to 1)and risk level(low,medium,and high)while a traditional risk assessment approach presented the risks only in forms of level(low,medium,and/or high).Availability of the fuzzy value enabled further prioritizing on the risk results that fell in the same level of risk.This study concluded that fuzzy-based risk evaluation is able to further prioritize the decisions when compared with a traditional risk assessment method.

  13. Risk Factors for Birth Asphyxia in an Urban Health Facility in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Chiabi, Andreas; Nguefack, Seraphin; Evelyne MAH; NODEM, Sostenne; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Mbonda, Elie; TCHOKOTEU, Pierre-Fernand; Anderson DOH

    2013-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Chiabi A, Nguefack S, Mah E, Nodem S, Mbuagbaw L, Mbonda E, Tchokoteu PF, Doh A. Risk Factors for Birth Asphyxia in an Urban Health Facility in Cameroon. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Summer; 7(3):46-54.ObjectiveThe World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 4 million children are born with asphyxia every year, of which 1 million die and an equal number survive with severe neurologic sequelae. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors of birth asphyx...

  14. The Careful Puppet Master: Reducing risk and fortifying acceptance testing with Jenkins CI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason A.; Richman, Gabriel; DeStefano, John; Pryor, James; Rao, Tejas; Strecker-Kellogg, William; Wong, Tony

    2015-12-01

    Centralized configuration management, including the use of automation tools such as Puppet, can greatly increase provisioning speed and efficiency when configuring new systems or making changes to existing systems, reduce duplication of work, and improve automated processes. However, centralized management also brings with it a level of inherent risk: a single change in just one file can quickly be pushed out to thousands of computers and, if that change is not properly and thoroughly tested and contains an error, could result in catastrophic damage to many services, potentially bringing an entire computer facility offline. Change management procedures can—and should—be formalized in order to prevent such accidents. However, like the configuration management process itself, if such procedures are not automated, they can be difficult to enforce strictly. Therefore, to reduce the risk of merging potentially harmful changes into our production Puppet environment, we have created an automated testing system, which includes the Jenkins CI tool, to manage our Puppet testing process. This system includes the proposed changes and runs Puppet on a pool of dozens of RedHat Enterprise Virtualization (RHEV) virtual machines (VMs) that replicate most of our important production services for the purpose of testing. This paper describes our automated test system and how it hooks into our production approval process for automatic acceptance testing. All pending changes that have been pushed to production must pass this validation process before they can be approved and merged into production.

  15. Citizen perceptions of information flow around a nuclear facility: A study in risk communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, M.O. [Delgado Community Coll., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Responses of focus group members from the region around a Nuclear Facility provide the data for this qualitative study concerning citizen perceptions of available site information. Analyses of three of the focus group discussion questions and the answers they elicited showed a dominant perception among participants of insufficient easily available information about the site. These respondents also indicated that most of them obtain site information through mass media and hearsay, that many lack trust in the information they have and would trust only an independent entity to provide accurate information. A new area in communication studies, variously called environmental risk communication, risk communication and health risk communication, continues to evolve among those working in various allied disciplines, some far removed from communication. As science attempts to solve environmental problems caused by technological advances, this field acquires numerous practitioners. Some of these risk communication experts may however, be overlooking basic and necessary components of effective communication, because their expertise is in another discipline. One result of this can be communication breakdown in which those involved, assume that meaning is shared, when in fact the opposite is true. This paper seeks to clarify a necessary ingredient of effective interpersonal risk communication, using data obtained from citizens living around one of the nation`s nuclear facilities as an example.

  16. Risk perception and public acceptance toward a highly protested Waste-to-Energy facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiangyu; Che, Yue; Yang, Kai; Tao, Yun

    2016-02-01

    The application of Waste-to-Energy treatment in Municipal Solid Waste faces strong protest by local communities, especially in cities with high population densities. This study introduces insight into the public awareness, acceptance and risk perception toward Waste-to-Energy through a structured questionnaire survey around a Waste-to-Energy facility in Shanghai, China. The Dichotomous-Choice contingent valuation method was applied to study the willingness to accept of residents as an indicator of risk perception and tolerance. The factors influencing risk perception and the protest response choice were analyzed. The geographical distributions of the acceptance of Waste-to-Energy facility and protest response were explored using geographical information systems. The findings of the research indicated an encouraging vision of promoting Waste-to-Energy, considering its benefits of renewable energy and the conservation of land. A high percentage of protest willingness to accept (50.94%) was highlighted with the effect of income, opinion about Waste-to-Energy, gender and perceived impact. The fuzzy classification among people with different opinions on compensation (valid 0, positive or protest willingness to accept) revealed the existing yet rejected demand of compensation among protesters. Geographical distribution in the public attitude can also be observed. Finally significant statistical relation between knowledge and risk perception indicates the need of risk communication, as well as involving public into whole management process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. New Guidelines for Reducing Stroke Risks Unique to Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the risk of stroke and a four-fold risk of high blood pressure later in life. Therefore, preeclampsia should be recognized ... stroke during or after delivery, premature birth, and risk for stroke well after ... by high blood pressure and high protein levels in the urine, and ...

  18. A historical application of social amplification of risk model: Economic impacts of risk events at nuclear weapons facilities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, W.C.

    1996-12-31

    Public perceptions of risk have proven to be a critical barrier to the federal government`s extensive, decade-long, technical and scientific effort to site facilities for the interim storage and permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The negative imagery, fear, and anxiety that are linked to ``nuclear`` and ``radioactive`` technologies, activities, and facilities by the public originate from the personal realities and experiences of individuals and the information they receive. These perceptions continue to be a perplexing problem for those responsible for making decisions about federal nuclear waste management policies and programs. The problem of understanding and addressing public perceptions is made even more difficult because there are decidedly different opinions about HLW held by the public and nuclear industry and radiation health experts.

  19. Decommissioning Programme Management: reducing risk and cost while accelerating schedules through improved planning, Earned Value Management and safe work execution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, S.E. [CH2M Hill International Nuclear Services (United States)

    2008-07-01

    CH2M HILL experience includes more than two decades of managing nuclear facilities and providing clean-up and operations support for commercial and government facilities worldwide. Our expertise ranges from decommissioning and defence sector businesses to nuclear technology development and innovation. Our approach places top priority on the safe execution of work while reducing both risk and cost. Our nuclear services include: programme management, nuclear safety analysis, radiological protection, radioactive waste management, nuclear remediation, nuclear materials and waste transportation management, nuclear safeguards and security services, and nuclear decontamination and decommissioning. This paper will discuss our approach which has resulted in a strong track record of accelerating schedules and reducing costs of major nuclear programmes, including Rocky Flats, Idaho, and our work at UKAEA sites. (author)

  20. Incidence and risk factors for unplanned transfers to acute general hospitals from an intermediate care and rehabilitation geriatric facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colprim, Daniel; Inzitari, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Unplanned acute hospital transfers (AT) from post-acute or long-term care facilities represent critical transitions, which expose patients to negative health outcomes and increase the burden of the emergency departments that receive these patients. We aim at determining incidence and risk factors for AT during the first 30 days of admission at an intermediate care and rehabilitation geriatric facility (ICGF). Prospective cohort study conducted in an ICGF of Barcelona, Spain. Sociodemographics, main diagnostics, and variables of the comprehensive geriatric assessment were recorded at admission. At the moment of AT, suspected diagnostic motivating the transfer was recorded. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the association between admission characteristics and AT. We included 1505 patients (mean age + standard deviation = 81.31 ± 7.06, 65.7% women). AT were 217 (14.4%, 5.64/1000 days of stay) resulting in only 81 final hospitalizations (37% of AT), whereas 136 patients returned to ICGF after visiting the emergency department. Principal triggers of AT were cardiovascular, falls/orthopedic, and gastrointestinal problems. Being admitted to ICGF after a general surgery [hazard ratio (HR) 1.88; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-2.94; P hospital, suggesting perhaps some avoidable AT. Identification of risk factors might be relevant to design strategies to reduce AT. Copyright © 2014 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Towards landscape design guidelines for reducing Lyme disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Laura E; Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Thomas, James C

    2006-04-01

    Incidence of Lyme disease in the US continues to grow. Low-density development is also increasing in endemic regions, raising questions about the relationship between development pattern and disease. This study sought to model Lyme disease incidence rate using quantitative, practical metrics of regional landscape pattern. The objective was to progress towards the development of design guidelines that may help minimize known threats to human and environmental health. Ecological analysis was used to accommodate the integral landscape variables under study. Case data derived from passive surveillance reports across 12 counties in the US state of Maryland during 1996-2000; 2,137 cases were spatially referenced to residential addresses. Major roads were used to delineate 514 landscape analysis units from 0.002 to 580 km(2). The parameter that explained the most variation in incidence rate was the percentage of land-cover edge represented by the adjacency of forest and herbaceous cover [R(2) = 0.75; rate ratio = 1.34 (1.26-1.43); P landscape in forest cover (cumulative R(2) = 0.82), which exhibited a quadratic relationship with incidence rate. Modelled relationships applied throughout the range of landscape sizes. Results begin to provide quantitative landscape design parameters for reducing casual peridomestic contact with tick and host habitat. The final model suggests that clustered forest and herbaceous cover, as opposed to high forest-herbaceous interspersion, would minimize Lyme disease risk in low-density residential areas. Higher-density development that precludes a large percentage of forest-herbaceous edge would also limit exposure.

  2. Decision-Making for Risk Management in Sustainable Renewable Energy Facilities: A Case Study in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido C. Guerrero-Liquet

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, Renewable Energy Sources (RES are a key pillar to achieving sustainable development, which is the main reason why energy projects are being carried out not only in developed countries but also in many emerging countries. Since the technical and financial risk remains a major barrier to financing renewable energy projects, several mechanisms are available to reduce risks on investment into clean energy projects. This paper discusses risk management tools in solar photovoltaic facilities based on the guide to the Project Management (PMBOK Guide. To do this, a combination of different decision-making methodologies will be carried out. These methodologies enable to not only extract the knowledge by experts but also to know the causes and effects that help to make the best decision. In order to do so, techniques to seek information (Delphi and Checklist as well as diagram techniques such as cause and effect diagrams or Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities and Threats (SWOT are applied. The categorization and prioritization of risks will be carried out through the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Finally, a sensitivity analysis will allow for providing consistency to the obtained results. A real case in the Dominican Republic will also be presented as case study.

  3. Reducing Disaster Risk through Vulnerability Assessment: An Agricultural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koos van Zyl

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing population, economic and environmental losses due to natural or human-made disasters, provides the need for a systematic approach to the management of risks. It is generally accepted that a multi-disciplinary understanding of disaster risk management is required.

  4. Inflammation reduces HDL protection against primary cardiac risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corsetti, James P.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Sparks, Charles E.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2010-01-01

    P>Background We recently reported high high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol as a predictor of recurrent risk in a subgroup of postinfarction patients defined by hypercholesterolemia and high C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. We investigated whether a similar high-risk subgroup might exist for i

  5. Inflammation reduces HDL protection against primary cardiac risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corsetti, James P.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Sparks, Charles E.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    P>Background We recently reported high high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol as a predictor of recurrent risk in a subgroup of postinfarction patients defined by hypercholesterolemia and high C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. We investigated whether a similar high-risk subgroup might exist for

  6. Outdoor Play: Does Avoiding the Risks Reduce the Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Helen; Wyver, Shirley

    2008-01-01

    Although the term "risk-taking" often has negative connotations, the reality is that the willingness to engage in some risky activities provides opportunities to learn new skills, try new behaviours and ultimately reach our potential. Challenge and risk, in particular during outdoor play, allows children to test the limits of their physical,…

  7. Seismic risk analysis for the Atomics International Nuclear Materials Development Facility, Santa Susana California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-29

    This report presents the results of a detailed seismic risk analysis of the Nuclear Materials Development Facility (NMDF) operated by Atomics International at Santa Susana, California. The historical seismic record was established after a review of available literature, consultation with operators of local seismic arrays and examination of appropriate seismic data bases including the USGS, California Institute of Technology and NEIS data bases. The resulting seismic record, covering the period 1969 to 1977, was used to identify all possible sources of seismicity that could affect the site. The best estimate curve indicates that the facility will experience 30% g with a return period of 55 years and 60% g with a return period of 750 years.

  8. NSR&D Program Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 Call for Proposals Mitigation of Seismic Risk at Nuclear Facilities using Seismic Isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Justin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Seismic isolation (SI) has the potential to drastically reduce seismic response of structures, systems, or components (SSCs) and therefore the risk associated with large seismic events (large seismic event could be defined as the design basis earthquake (DBE) and/or the beyond design basis earthquake (BDBE) depending on the site location). This would correspond to a potential increase in nuclear safety by minimizing the structural response and thus minimizing the risk of material release during large seismic events that have uncertainty associated with their magnitude and frequency. The national consensus standard America Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Standard 4, Seismic Analysis of Safety Related Nuclear Structures recently incorporated language and commentary for seismically isolating a large light water reactor or similar large nuclear structure. Some potential benefits of SI are: 1) substantially decoupling the SSC from the earthquake hazard thus decreasing risk of material release during large earthquakes, 2) cost savings for the facility and/or equipment, and 3) applicability to both nuclear (current and next generation) and high hazard non-nuclear facilities. Issue: To date no one has evaluated how the benefit of seismic risk reduction reduces cost to construct a nuclear facility. Objective: Use seismic probabilistic risk assessment (SPRA) to evaluate the reduction in seismic risk and estimate potential cost savings of seismic isolation of a generic nuclear facility. This project would leverage ongoing Idaho National Laboratory (INL) activities that are developing advanced (SPRA) methods using Nonlinear Soil-Structure Interaction (NLSSI) analysis. Technical Approach: The proposed study is intended to obtain an estimate on the reduction in seismic risk and construction cost that might be achieved by seismically isolating a nuclear facility. The nuclear facility is a representative pressurized water reactor building nuclear power plant (NPP) structure

  9. Risk-based investment trade-off related to building facility management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taillandier, F. [Departement TIDS, Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, 06904 Sophia Antipolis (France); Laboratoire Optimisation de la conception et Ingenierie de l' environnement, Polytech' Savoie, Universite de Savoie, 73376 Le Bourget du lac (France)], E-mail: franck.taillandier@univ-savoie.fr; Sauce, G. [Laboratoire Optimisation de la conception et Ingenierie de l' environnement, Polytech' Savoie, Universite de Savoie, 73376 Le Bourget du lac (France); Bonetto, R. [Departement TIDS, Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, 06904 Sophia Antipolis (France)

    2009-04-15

    Due to his or her profession, any building facility manager has to face many decision-making situations. One of the most important to be mentioned is the arbitration of a multi-year maintenance plan for buildings. Deciding between proposed maintenance actions, according to several constraints, so as to aim at satisfying corporate strategy is a complex choice. Risk approaches can be particularly effective because of their ability to handle complexity and uncertainties. The problem is then to be able to propose a method considering risks, adapted to the specific context of building facility management. Our method, regarded as a traditional approach, includes needed resources (i.e. costs) according to constraints (i.e. budget), but it also considers several risk domains (safety, technical preservation, client satisfaction, etc.), through the consequences (gain and loss). It proposes an ergonomic arbitration system based on filters following two complementary approaches: a selection of the fundamental actions and then an optimization of the plan (in a global view). The aim, for decision-makers, is to build their own solution by testing multiple angles of vision in simulation logic. This article presents the principles of the method, illustrated by an example of a real case conducted for a leading French company.

  10. Modelling obesity outcomes: reducing obesity risk in adulthood may have grater impact than reducing obesity prevalence in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lhachimi, S.K.; Nusselder, W.J.; Lobstein, T.J.; Smit, H.A.; Baili, P.; Bennett, K.; Kulik, M.C.; Jackson-Leach, R.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Mackenbach, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    A common policy response to the rise in obesity prevalence is to undertake interventions in childhood, but it is an open question whether this is more effective than reducing the risk of becoming obese during adulthood. In this paper, we model the effect on health outcomes of (i) reducing the

  11. Modelling obesity outcomes : reducing obesity risk in adulthood may have greater impact than reducing obesity prevalence in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lhachimi, S. K.; Nusselder, W. J.; Lobstein, T. J.; Smit, H. A.; Baili, P.; Bennett, K.; Kulik, M. C.; Jackson-Leach, R.; Boshuizen, H. C.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    A common policy response to the rise in obesity prevalence is to undertake interventions in childhood, but it is an open question whether this is more effective than reducing the risk of becoming obese during adulthood. In this paper, we model the effect on health outcomes of (i) reducing the preval

  12. Modelling obesity outcomes: reducing obesity risk in adulthood may have grater impact than reducing obesity prevalence in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lhachimi, S.K.; Nusselder, W.J.; Lobstein, T.J.; Smit, H.A.; Baili, P.; Bennett, K.; Kulik, M.C.; Jackson-Leach, R.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Mackenbach, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    A common policy response to the rise in obesity prevalence is to undertake interventions in childhood, but it is an open question whether this is more effective than reducing the risk of becoming obese during adulthood. In this paper, we model the effect on health outcomes of (i) reducing the preval

  13. Religion and reduced cancer risk: what is the explanation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Andreas; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Ross, Lone

    2008-01-01

    was also made for healthy habits, no reduction in risk for cancer was observed. We conclude that the most important factor in the correlation between membership in a religious Christian community and risk for cancer is the healthy lifestyle inherent in religious practice in these communities...... 40 years. In the studies in which adjustment was made only for age and sex, reductions were observed in the risks for lifestyle-associated cancers, i.e. those associated with tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, physical activity and reproductive factors. In the studies in which adjustment....... The epidemiological studies reviewed did not, however, differentiate the effect on cancer risk of the meaning that a certain lifestyle can give to an individual....

  14. Reducing mortality for high risk surgical patients in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, B A; Carrothers, A D; Jones, Chris

    2012-06-01

    Over 40 million surgical procedures are performed per annum in the USA and Europe, including several million patients who are considered to be high risk (Bennett-Guerrero et al 2003). Overall, the risk of death or major complications after surgery in the general surgical patient population is low, with a post-operative mortality rate of less than1% during the same hospital admission (Niskanen et al 2001).

  15. Intake risk and dose evaluation methods for workers in radiochemistry labs of a medical cyclotron facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandrino, Riccardo; del Vecchio, Antonella; Savi, Annarita; Todde, Sergio; Belloli, Sara

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the risks and doses for the internal contamination of the radiochemistry staff in a high workload medical cyclotron facility. The doses from internal contamination derive from the inhalation of radioactive gas leakage from the cells by personnel involved in the synthesis processes and are calculated from urine sample measurements. Various models are considered for the calculation of the effective committed dose from the analysis of these urine samples, and the results are compared with data obtained from local environmental measurement of the radioactivity released inside the lab.

  16. The care of Filipino juvenile offenders in residential facilities evaluated using the risk-need-responsivity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruit, Anouk; Wissink, Inge B; Stams, Geert Jan J M

    2016-01-01

    According to the risk-need-responsivity model of offender, assessment and rehabilitation treatment should target specific factors that are related to re-offending. This study evaluates the residential care of Filipino juvenile offenders using the risk-need-responsivity model. Risk analyses and criminogenic needs assessments (parenting style, aggression, relationships with peers, empathy, and moral reasoning) have been conducted using data of 55 juvenile offenders in four residential facilities. The psychological care has been assessed using a checklist. Statistical analyses showed that juvenile offenders had a high risk of re-offending, high aggression, difficulties in making pro-social friends, and a delayed socio-moral development. The psychological programs in the residential facilities were evaluated to be poor. The availability of the psychological care in the facilities fitted poorly with the characteristics of the juvenile offenders and did not comply with the risk-need-responsivity model. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  17. Risk analysis in support of improved safety at US department of energy hot cell facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felder, F.A.; Golay, M.W. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Phillips, Jerold; Leahy, Timothy

    2000-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (US-DOE) manages diverse facilities ranging from laboratory complexes to nuclear reactors and waste repositories. It is self-regulating in the areas of radiological safety, occupational protection and environmental disturbances. In these areas the US-DOE has obtained mostly good results, but at high expense by using conservative and unsystematic approaches. In an effort to improve both safety and use of resources a project has been undertaken to understand better how to utilize risk assessment techniques to obtain improved safety outcomes and their regulation. The example of the Test Reactor Area Hot Cell (TRAHC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is the subject of a simple probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in the areas of radiological releases to the environment and of occupational hazards. To our knowledge this is the first attempt to utilize quantitative risk analyses for management of non-radiological occupational risks. Its purpose is to examine the feasibility of utilizing risk assessment as a technique to supplant the currently employed, less formal, hazard analysis as the basis for allocating safety-related resources. Problems of data and modeling adequacy have proven to be important; results to-date indicate areas where revised resource allocation should be considered. (author)

  18. How to reduce your cancer risk: mechanisms and myths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahleh Z

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Zeina Nahleh1, Narinder Singh Bhatti2, Meenakshi Mal21Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, TTUHSC-Paul L Foster School of Medicine, El Paso, TX, USA; 2Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, IndiaAbstract: Cancer prevention continues to be a high research priority and the most optimal way to ultimately lower the economic and psychological burden of cancer. Many known risk factors associated with cancer are related to dietary and lifestyle factors and can be avoided. These risk factors include among others, smoking, obesity, alcohol, physical inactivity, and carcinogens in diet. This article reviews the biological mechanisms leading to cancer in association with these factors, highlights important achievable cancer prevention methods, addresses commonly asked questions about lifestyle and cancer, and dispels some of the myths about cancer prevention.Keywords: cancer prevention, cancer risk, lifestyle, diet

  19. Seismic risk analysis for General Electric Plutonium Facility, Pleasanton, California. Final report, part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-27

    This report is the second of a two part study addressing the seismic risk or hazard of the special nuclear materials (SNM) facility of the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center at Pleasanton, California. The Part I companion to this report, dated July 31, 1978, presented the seismic hazard at the site that resulted from exposure to earthquakes on the Calaveras, Hayward, San Andreas and, additionally, from smaller unassociated earthquakes that could not be attributed to these specific faults. However, while this study was in progress, certain additional geologic information became available that could be interpreted in terms of the existance of a nearby fault. Although substantial geologic investigations were subsequently deployed, the existance of this postulated fault, called the Verona Fault, remained very controversial. The purpose of the Part II study was to assume the existance of such a capable fault and, under this assumption, to examine the loads that the fault could impose on the SNM facility. This report first reviews the geologic setting with a focus on specifying sufficient geologic parameters to characterize the postulated fault. The report next presents the methodology used to calculate the vibratory ground motion hazard. Because of the complexity of the fault geometry, a slightly different methodology is used here compared to the Part I report. This section ends with the results of the calculation applied to the SNM facility. Finally, the report presents the methodology and results of the rupture hazard calculation.

  20. Study Shows Aspirin Reduces Colorectal Cancer in Those at High Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findings from the first large clinical trial of its kind indicate that taking high doses of aspirin daily for at least 2 years substantially reduces the risk of colorectal cancer among people at increased risk of the disease.

  1. Reducing software security risk through an integrated approach research initiative model based verification of the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, John D.

    2003-01-01

    This document discusses the verification of the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) communication protocol as a demonstration of the Model Based Verification (MBV) portion of the verification instrument set being developed under the Reducing Software Security Risk (RSSR) Trough an Integrated Approach research initiative. Code Q of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) funds this project. The NASA Goddard Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) facility manages this research program at the NASA agency level and the Assurance Technology Program Office (ATPO) manages the research locally at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (California institute of Technology) where the research is being carried out.

  2. Reducing software security risk through an integrated approach research initiative model based verification of the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, John D.

    2003-01-01

    This document discusses the verification of the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) communication protocol as a demonstration of the Model Based Verification (MBV) portion of the verification instrument set being developed under the Reducing Software Security Risk (RSSR) Trough an Integrated Approach research initiative. Code Q of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) funds this project. The NASA Goddard Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) facility manages this research program at the NASA agency level and the Assurance Technology Program Office (ATPO) manages the research locally at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (California institute of Technology) where the research is being carried out.

  3. Tips to Reduce Your Risk of Salmonella from Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Salmonella and Eggs Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... can I reduce my chance of getting a Salmonella infection? Keep eggs refrigerated at 40°F (4° ...

  4. Management strategies to reduce conception/creation risks of intellectual property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona PAKOCS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on finding the best management strategies to reduce conception/creation risks of intellectual property. For this we performed a SWOT analysis of conception /creation risks of intellectual property, which was analysed in a Brainstorming session, where several management strategies for risk reduction were found. Then a multi-criterion analysis was conducted which resulted in finding the best management strategy to reduce conception/creation risks of intellectual property.

  5. Sun Exposure and Reduced Risk of Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The association between red hair color (RHC melanocortin 1 receptor genotype, past environmental sun exposure, and risk of multiple sclerosis (MS was investigated in a population-based case-control study in Tasmania, Australia, involving 136 cases with MS and 272 controls.

  6. Prevention: Reducing the risk of CVD in patients with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genco, Robert J; Van Dyke, Thomas E

    2010-09-01

    The association between periodontitis and other chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus, could be related to systemic inflammation initiated by a local inflammatory challenge. Oliveira et al. have added lack of oral hygiene, and its link with systemic inflammation, to the spectrum of risk factors for CVD.

  7. PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AS A MECHANISM TO REDUCE SOCIAL RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Oleynik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of public-private partnership in the overall development of the country and its regions is determined in the article. The opinions of foreign and domestic scientists on the interpretation of the concept of PPP are analyzed, the main causes and social factors in favor of the introduction of PPP in Ukraine are determined. Singled out the main components of the PPP in the social sphere, including: public-regulation, public policy, transparency and accountability of PPP, financing and benefits of the project, the division of responsibilities between the public and private partners, taking into account the interests of consumers. Author determined the main provisions of the law of Ukraine “On Public Private Partnership”. The essence of social risk factors that cause them, their main features are determined. Differentiated concept of social risk and social insurance risk, the role of insurance in PPP agreements and key factors for cooperation between the state and the insurance segment are determined. Risk sharing agreement between the parties to the PPP when the state is a partner insurance company or other private partner is demonstrated.

  8. Plan Your Marketing: Enhance Profits and Reduce Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, William; And Others

    This marketing unit was developed to help farm families formulate a step-by-step plan for marketing their commodities in order to help remove much of the guesswork and anxiety from the process. The unit is organized in the following eight sections: introduction; sources of risk; pricing alternatives; developing a plan (10 steps); summary;…

  9. Reduce Fraud Risk in Your District with Stronger Internal Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okrzesik, Daryl J.; Nuehring, Bert G.

    2011-01-01

    Internal accounts offer schools a faster, more convenient way to handle the income and expenses that result from student fees, school clubs and organizations, field trips, fund-raising, and similar activities. But this convenience also incurs the added risk of fraud. Fortunately, there are proven ways to strengthen internal controls and reduce…

  10. Green nanotech can reduce risks to poor nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been major breakthroughs in nanomaterials for use in healthcare situations and some of these have already moved beyond the laboratory into the 'real world'. Now we need to pay serious attention to their potential risk to health and to the environment, both of which are...

  11. High IQ May Link to Reduced Risk Of Death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Dr. David Batty,a research fellow at the MRC Social and Public Health Sciences Unit in Glasgow found that a lower IQ was strongly (1) a____with a higher risk of death from causes such as accidents,coronary heart disease and suicide.

  12. Facile hydrothermal preparation of titanium dioxide decorated reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Betty Yea Sze; Huang, Nay Ming; An’amt, Mohd Nor; Marlinda, Abdul Rahman; Norazriena, Yusoff; Muhamad, Muhamad Rasat; Harrison, Ian; Lim, Hong Ngee; Chia, Chin Hua

    2012-01-01

    A simple single-stage approach, based on the hydrothermal technique, has been introduced to synthesize reduced graphene oxide/titanium dioxide nanocomposites. The titanium dioxide nanoparticles are formed at the same time as the graphene oxide is reduced to graphene. The triethanolamine used in the process has two roles. It acts as a reducing agent for the graphene oxide as well as a capping agent, allowing the formation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution (~20 nm). Transmission electron micrographs show that the nanoparticles are uniformly distributed on the reduced graphene oxide nanosheet. Thermogravimetric analysis shows the nanocomposites have an enhanced thermal stability over the original components. The potential applications for this technology were demonstrated by the use of a reduced graphene oxide/titanium dioxide nanocomposite-modified glassy carbon electrode, which enhanced the electrochemical performance compared to a conventional glassy carbon electrode when interacting with mercury(II) ions in potassium chloride electrolyte. PMID:22848166

  13. Aerobic exercise reduces biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Blue-collar workers have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, elevated levels of biomarkers related to risk of cardiovascular disease, such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein, have been observed among blue-collar workers. The objective was to examine whether....... The reference group (n = 59) received lectures, and the aerobic exercise group (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week). Levels of biomarkers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride) were collected...... at baseline and after 4 months. A repeated-measure, multi-adjusted, mixed-model intention-to-treat analysis was applied to compare between-group differences. The study was registered as ISRCTN86682076. RESULTS: Significant (p high...

  14. Facile hydrothermal preparation of niobium pentaoxide decorated reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, M.; Kumar, R. Mohan; Alsalme, Ali; Alghamdi, Abdulaziz; Jayavel, R.

    2016-04-01

    Facile synthesis of graphene-Nb2O5 composite has been reported. Graphene oxide was prepared by the modified Hummer's method. The metal oxide (Nb2O5) was introduced to the graphene to form the composite by the hydrothermal method. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM and TEM results revealed that the metal oxide particles are uniformly dispersed on the surface of thin sheets of well-defined multilayered graphene structure. Thermal stability of the graphene metal oxide nanocomposites was also investigated. The CV measurements reveal a significant enhancement in the specific capacitance reaching 321 Fg-1 at a scan rate of 10 mV s-1. With promising electrochemical characteristics, Nb2O5 decorated graphene nanocomposite are explored as potential electrode material for supercapacitor applications.

  15. Does a vegan diet reduce risk for Parkinson's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, M F

    2001-09-01

    Three recent case-control studies conclude that diets high in animal fat or cholesterol are associated with a substantial increase in risk for Parkinson's disease (PD); in contrast, fat of plant origin does not appear to increase risk. Whereas reported age-adjusted prevalence rates of PD tend to be relatively uniform throughout Europe and the Americas, sub-Saharan black Africans, rural Chinese, and Japanese, groups whose diets tend to be vegan or quasi-vegan, appear to enjoy substantially lower rates. Since current PD prevalence in African-Americans is little different from that in whites, environmental factors are likely to be responsible for the low PD risk in black Africans. In aggregate, these findings suggest that vegan diets may be notably protective with respect to PD. However, they offer no insight into whether saturated fat, compounds associated with animal fat, animal protein, or the integrated impact of the components of animal products mediates the risk associated with animal fat consumption. Caloric restriction has recently been shown to protect the central dopaminergic neurons of mice from neurotoxins, at least in part by induction of heat-shock proteins; conceivably, the protection afforded by vegan diets reflects a similar mechanism. The possibility that vegan diets could be therapeutically beneficial in PD, by slowing the loss of surviving dopaminergic neurons, thus retarding progression of the syndrome, may merit examination. Vegan diets could also be helpful to PD patients by promoting vascular health and aiding blood-brain barrier transport of L-dopa. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  16. Educational strategies to reduce risk: a choice of social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica La Longa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study develops the critical reflections of the activities for information, training and education that have been conducted by a group of researchers of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia in recent years. In particular, from an epistemological point of view, our analysis involves: (i science outreach, the link between science and the world; (ii science teaching and its role in the contact between science and schools; and (iii risk education, seen as a process that can develop a culture of risk in relation to the territory in which we live. These issues are critically analyzed on the basis of experience gained since 1995. The educational methodologies tested in ‘peacetime’ (in the absence of seismic events with the EDURISK Project are compared with those experienced during an emergency in Abruzzo, Italy. Today, we increasingly refer to prevention as the primary strategy of defense against risk. However, very often the responsibility of prevention falls on others, such as the government, institutions and/or local authorities. The citizens then perceive themselves as powerless against the inevitability of natural events, and they refer to these ‘rulers’ for the implementation of effective prevention policies. So, as researchers, what are the most effective actions we can take to influence risk reduction and to motivate the choices of the people? Must the effectiveness of our interventions be based on scientific information or on specific training, or must it be reached through the development of values, actions and awareness? Must our interventions be oriented and developed to inform, to train or to educate?

  17. Natural disturbance reduces disease risk in endangered rainforest frog populations

    OpenAIRE

    Roznik, Elizabeth A; Sarah J. Sapsford; Pike, David A; Lin Schwarzkopf; Ross A Alford

    2015-01-01

    Natural disturbances can drive disease dynamics in animal populations by altering the microclimates experienced by hosts and their pathogens. Many pathogens are highly sensitive to temperature and moisture, and therefore small changes in habitat structure can alter the microclimate in ways that increase or decrease infection prevalence and intensity in host populations. Here we show that a reduction of rainforest canopy cover caused by a severe tropical cyclone decreased the risk of endangere...

  18. Effectiveness of Changing Wind Turbine Cut-in Speed to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huso, Manuela M. P. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Hayes, John P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2009-04-01

    This report details an experiment on the effectiveness of changing wind turbine cut-in speed on reducing bat fatality from wind turbines at the Casselman Wind Project in Somerset County, Pennsylvania.

  19. Context dependency and consumer acceptance of risk reducing strategies - a choice experiment study on salmonella risks in pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Christensen, Tove; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates to what extent context dependency is present, when consumers are introduced to different risk reducing technologies and how this will affect their preferences for reductions in food risks. In particular, choice experiments are used to elicit consumer preferences for reducin...... findings of bad news having greater effect than good news – now applied to context dependency of preferences for food safety technologies.......The paper investigates to what extent context dependency is present, when consumers are introduced to different risk reducing technologies and how this will affect their preferences for reductions in food risks. In particular, choice experiments are used to elicit consumer preferences for reducing...... Salmonella risks in pork using farm level interventions vs. decontamination of meat at the abattoir. We found an interesting asymmetry in the context dependency. The presence of the least preferred risk reduction technology (lactic acid decontamination) affected the relative preferences for the two most...

  20. Saturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: Replacements for Saturated Fat to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Michelle A; Petersen, Kristina S; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2017-06-21

    Dietary recommendations to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have focused on reducing intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) for more than 50 years. While the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advise substituting both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids for SFA, evidence supports other nutrient substitutions that will also reduce CVD risk. For example, replacing SFA with whole grains, but not refined carbohydrates, reduces CVD risk. Replacing SFA with protein, especially plant protein, may also reduce CVD risk. While dairy fat (milk, cheese) is associated with a slightly lower CVD risk compared to meat, dairy fat results in a significantly greater CVD risk relative to unsaturated fatty acids. As research continues, we will refine our understanding of dietary patterns associated with lower CVD risk.

  1. The analysis of environmental risk for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste vitrification facility of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Dae Seok; Lee, Kun Jai [KAIST, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Chun Hyung; Lee, Kyung Ho; Maeng, Sung Jun; Lee, Myung Chan [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    A vitrification facility for thetreatment of radioactive waste is under development by Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). The facility is designed to vitrify low- and intermediate- level radioactive waste (LILW) generated from the nuclear power plants in Korea. During the operation of the facility, radioactive nuclides and hazardous chemicals are to be released to the environment and residents near the facility can be exposed to those materials. A computer code, VERAS(vitrification Facility's Environmental Risk Assessment System) was developed, based on GENII (B. A. Napier, et al. 1988) to calculate both radioactive and non-radioactive chemical risks from the operation of the vitrification facility. Only atmospheric release was taken into consideration in the code where Gaussian plume model was applied. For the dose calculation, methodologies of ICRP 26 and 30 was used whereas risks caused by chemical elements are calculated in terms of cancer risk increase. Safety assessment was made on a sample case of the postulated vitrification plant using the VERAS. The results showed that the vitrification system was environmentally safe. (author). 6 refs., 8 tabs., 2 figs.

  2. Evaluation of an initiative to reduce radiation exposure from CT to children in a non-pediatric-focused facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumfield, Einat; Zember, Jonathan; Guelfguat, Mark; Blumfield, Amit; Goldman, Harold

    2015-12-01

    We would like to share our experience of reducing pediatric radiation exposure. Much of the recent literature regarding successes of reducing radiation exposure has come from dedicated children's hospitals. Nonetheless, over the past two decades, there has been a considerable increase in CT imaging of children in the USA, predominantly in non-pediatric-focused facilities where the majority of children are treated. In our institution, two general hospitals with limited pediatric services, a dedicated initiative intended to reduce children's exposure to CT radiation was started by pediatric radiologists in 2005. The initiative addressed multiple issues including eliminating multiphase studies, decreasing inappropriate scans, educating referring providers, training residents and technologists, replacing CT with ultrasound or MRI, and ensuring availability of pediatric radiologists for consultation. During the study period, the total number of CT scans decreased by 24 %. When accounting for the number of scans per visit to the emergency department (ED), the numbers of abdominal and head CT scans decreased by 37.2 and 35.2 %, respectively. For abdominal scans, the average number of phases per scan decreased from 1.70 to 1.04. Upon surveying the pediatric ED staff, it was revealed that the most influential factors on ordering of scans were daily communication with pediatric radiologists, followed by journal articles and lectures by pediatric radiologists. We concluded that a non-pediatric-focused facility can achieve dramatic reduction in CT radiation exposure to children; however, this is most effectively achieved through a dedicated, multidisciplinary process led by pediatric radiologists.

  3. Meta-analysis of studies using statins as a reducer for primary liver cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guo-Chao; Liu, Yan; Ye, Yuan-Yuan; Hao, Fa-Bao; Wang, Kang; Gong, Jian-Ping

    2016-01-01

    A protective effect of statins on primary liver cancer (PLC) risk has been suggested. However, issues about the dose–response relationship, the protective effect of individual statins, and PLC risk reduction among at-risk populations remain unsolved. Therefore, a meta-analysis was conducted. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for studies providing the risk ratio (RR) on statins and PLC risk. Summary RRs were calculated using a random-effects model. Twenty-five studies were identified. Stain use was significantly associated with a reduced risk of PLC (RR = 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.53–0.69). The summary RR for every additional 50 cumulative defined daily doses per year was 0.87 (95% CI = 0.83–0.91). Evidence of a non-linear dose–response relationship between statins and PLC risk was found (Pnon-linearity < 0.01). All individual statins significantly reduced PLC risk, and the risk reduction was more evident with rosuvastatin. The inverse association between statins and PLC risk remained among populations with common risk factors. Subgroup analyses revealed more significant reduction in PLC risk by statins in high- versus non-high-risk populations (Pinteraction = 0.02). Overall, these findings add to our understanding of the association between statins and PLC risk. Whether statin use is causally associated with a reduced risk of PLC should be further studied. PMID:27198922

  4. Mandatory Risk Assessment Reduces Venous Thromboembolism in Bariatric Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimeri, Abdelrahman A; Bautista, Jejomar; Ibrahim, Maha; Philip, Ruby; Al Shaban, Talat; Maasher, Ahmed; Altinoz, Ajda

    2017-08-23

    Bariatric surgery patients are at high risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE), and chemoprophylaxis is recommended. Sheikh Khalifa Medical City (SKMC) is an American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) member since 2009. We report the rates of VTE in bariatric surgery patients from 2010 to 2016 compared to ACS NSQIP bariatric surgery programs before and after switching from heparin to low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), initiating mandatory risk assessment using Caprini scoring for VTE and adopting an aggressive strategy for high-risk patients regarding dosage of LMWH and chemoprophylaxis after discharge. During the study period, there were 1152 cases (laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) 625 and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) 527) at Bariatric & Metabolic Institute (BMI) Abu Dhabi compared to 65,693 cases (LRYGB 32,130 and LSG 33,563) at ACS NSQIP bariatric surgery programs. VTE rates remained stable at ACS NSQIP bariatric surgery programs from 2010 to 2016 (0.45, 0.45, 0.45, 0.25, 0.35, 0.3, and 0.3%). In contrast, VTE rates at BMI Abu Dhabi decreased from 2.2% in 2011 to 0.35% after we adopted an aggressive strategy to VTE without an increase in bleeding complications. LRYGB patients with VTE had higher OR time, leak, collection, and mortality at ACS NSQIP hospitals compared to those at BMI Abu Dhabi. In contrast, rates were similar in LSG patients with VTE. Changing our approach to VTE management led our VTE rates to decrease and become like those of ACS NSQIP bariatric surgery patients in LSG and LRYGB.

  5. Emergency obstetric care in Pakistan: potential for reduced maternal mortality through improved basic EmOC facilities, services, and access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M; Hotta, M; Kuroiwa, C; Ushijima, H

    2005-10-01

    To ascertain and compare compliance with UN emergency obstetric care (EmOC) recommendations by public health care centers in Pakistan's Punjab and Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP) provinces. Cross-sectional data were collected from July through September 2003 using UN process indicators. From each province, 30% of districts (n=19); were randomly selected; all public health facilities providing EmOC services (n=170) were included. The study found that out of 170 facilities only 22 were providing basic and 37 comprehensive EmOC services in the areas studied. Only 5.7% of births occurred in EmOC health facilities. Met need was 9% and 0.5% of women gave birth by cesarean section. The case fatality rate was a low 0.7%, probably due to poor record keeping. Access and several indicators were better in NWFP than in Punjab. Almost all indicators were below UN recommendations. Health policy makers and planners must take immediate, appropriate measures at district and hospital levels to reduce maternal mortality.

  6. Extreme Geohazards: Reducing Disaster Risk and Increasing Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plag, Hans-Peter; Stein, Seth; Brocklebank, Sean; Jules-Plag, Shelley; Campus, Paola

    2014-05-01

    Extreme natural hazards have the potential to cause global disasters and to lead to an escalation of the global sustainability crisis. Floods and droughts pose threats that could reach planetary extent, particularly through secondary economic and social impacts. Earthquakes and tsunamis cause disasters that could exceed the immediate coping capacity of the global economy, particularly in hazardous areas containing megacities, that can be particularly vulnerable to natural hazards if proper emergency protocols and infrastructures are not set in place. Recent events illustrate the destruction extreme hazards can inflict, both directly and indirectly, through domino effects resulting from the interaction with the built environment. Unfortunately, the more humanity learns to cope with relatively frequent (50 to 100 years) natural hazard events, the less concerns remain about the low-probability (one in a few hundred or more years) high-impact events. As a consequence, threats from low-probability extreme floods, droughts, and volcanic eruptions are not appropriately accounted for in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) discussions. With the support of the European Science Foundation (ESF), the Geohazards Community of Practice (GHCP) of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) has developed a White Paper (WP) on the risk associated with low-probability, high-impact geohazards. These events are insufficiently addressed in risk management, although their potential impacts are comparable to those of a large asteroid impact, a global pandemic, or an extreme drought. The WP aims to increase awareness of the risk associated with these events as a basis for a comprehensive risk management. Extreme geohazards have occurred regularly throughout the past, but mostly did not cause major disasters because the exposure of human assets to such hazards and the global population density were much lower than today. The most extreme events during the last 2,000 years would cause today unparalleled

  7. Facile synthesis of graphene from graphite using ascorbic acid as reducing agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrijanto, Eko; Shoelarta, Shoerya; Subiyanto, Gatot; Rifki, Sadur

    2016-04-01

    Graphene has attracted a tremendous attention in recent years due to its unique properties such as mechanical, thermal, optical and electrical properties. However, a large scale production of this material is still an issue and subjected to intense research efforts. Here, we show a simple and green approach of the graphene synthesis from graphene oxide using ascorbic acid as reduction agent. A facile synthesis of graphene (rGO) through chemical oxidation of graphite into graphene oxide (GO) was described using modified Hummers method (Improved Tour Method/ITM). The ITM method does not produce toxic gas and the temperature of the oxidation is easily controlled using ice bath. The synthesized of graphene oxide was highly soluble and stable in water. The reduction of graphene oxide into graphene was performed using ascorbic acid (AA) in mild condition. The combined ITM method and green reduction using ascorbic acid open the avenue of replacing hydrazine in the reduction of graphite oxide into graphene and may be very important step for bulk production of graphene.

  8. Control de configuraciones peligrosas en instalaciones con riesgo asociado // Hazardous configurations control in risk related facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Torres - Valle

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl control de configuraciones peligrosas en instalaciones con riesgo asociado es una aplicación delos Análisis Probabilistas de Seguridad (APS previos de las mismas. Una opción de mayor alcancees el uso de monitores de riesgo los que permiten la detección en tiempo real de talesconfiguraciones. Dada la complejidad de los APS y de los monitores de riesgo, esta tarea requiere depersonal experto. El documento presenta un método cualitativo de control de configuracionespeligrosas basado en matrices de dependencias. El algoritmo, informatizado en el códigoCONFIGURACION, puede ser aplicado sin necesidad de APS previos ni uso de monitores de riesgo.La sencillez del método justifica su extensión a instalaciones donde tales herramientas no se handesarrollado, permitiendo así la detección de las configuraciones peligrosas durante su explotación yelevando la seguridad de las plantas. Un sistema similar al descrito se utiliza como ayuda en laoperación de la central nuclear de Embalse. El artículo muestra el uso del método utilizando comobase un sistema de seguridad simplificado.Palabras claves: control de configuración, Análisis Probabilista de Seguridad (APS, matriz de___________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe hazardous configurations control in risk related facilities is an application of the previousProbabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA. A more complete option is the risk monitoring for the on-linedetection of these configurations. The expert personnel are required for this task take into account thecomplexity of the PSA and risk monitor. The paper presents a method of configuration control, basedon dependence matrixes. The algorithm is included in a computer code called CONFIGURACION, todetermine these situations in a qualitative way, without previous PSA results or using a Risk Monitor.The simplicity of the method warrants its application to facilities where these tools have not

  9. Facile hydrothermal preparation of titanium dioxide decorated reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang BYS

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Betty Yea Sze Chang,1 Nay Ming Huang,1 Mohd Nor An' amt,2 Abdul Rahman Marlinda,1 Yusoff Norazriena,1 Muhamad Rasat Muhamad,3 Ian Harrison,4 Hong Ngee Lim,5 Chin Hua Chia61Low Dimensional Materials Research Center, Physics Department, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur; 2Faculty of Agro Industry and Natural Resources (FASA, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Kota Bharu, Kelantan; 3The Chancellery Building, Multimedia University, Persiaran Multimedia, Cyberjaya, Selangor; 4School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Semenyih, Selangor; 5Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 6School of Applied Physics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, MalaysiaAbstract: A simple single-stage approach, based on the hydrothermal technique, has been introduced to synthesize reduced graphene oxide/titanium dioxide nanocomposites. The titanium dioxide nanoparticles are formed at the same time as the graphene oxide is reduced to graphene. The triethanolamine used in the process has two roles. It acts as a reducing agent for the graphene oxide as well as a capping agent, allowing the formation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution (~20 nm. Transmission electron micrographs show that the nanoparticles are uniformly distributed on the reduced graphene oxide nanosheet. Thermogravimetric analysis shows the nanocomposites have an enhanced thermal stability over the original components. The potential applications for this technology were demonstrated by the use of a reduced graphene oxide/titanium dioxide nanocomposite-modified glassy carbon electrode, which enhanced the electrochemical performance compared to a conventional glassy carbon electrode when interacting with mercury(II ions in potassium chloride electrolyte.Keywords: graphene oxide, titanium oxide, hydrothermal, nanocomposite

  10. Reducing the risk to Mars: The gas core nuclear rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, S. D.; DeVolder, B.; Thode, L.; Zerkle, D.

    1998-01-01

    The next giant leap for mankind will be the human exploration of Mars. Almost certainly within the next thirty years, a human crew will brave the isolation, the radiation, and the lack of gravity to walk on and explore the Red planet. However, because the mission distances and duration will be hundreds of times greater than the lunar missions, a human crew will face much greater obstacles and a higher risk than those experienced during the Apollo program. A single solution to many of these obstacles is to dramatically decrease the mission duration by developing a high performance propulsion system. The gas-core nuclear rocket (GCNR) has the potential to be such a system. The authors have completed a comparative study of the potential impact that a GCNR could have on a manned Mars mission. The total IMLEO, transit times, and accumulated radiation dose to the crew will be compared with the NASA Design Reference Missions.

  11. Scientific Opportunities to Reduce Risk in Nuclear Process Science - 9279

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredt, Paul R.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Poloski, Adam P.; Vienna, John D.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Hobbs, David; Wilmarth, B.; Mcilwain, Michael; Subramanian, K.; Krahn, Steve; Machara, N.

    2009-03-01

    In this document, we propose that scientific investments for the disposal of nuclear and hazardous wastes should not be focused solely on what may be viewed as current Department of Energy needs, but also upon longer-term investments in specific areas of science that underpin technologies presently in use. In the latter regard, we propose four science theme areas: 1) the structure and dynamics of materials and interfaces, 2) coupled chemical and physical processes, 3) complex solution phase phenomena, and 4) chemical recognition phenomena. The proposed scientific focus for each of these theme areas and the scientific opportunities are identified, along with links to major risks within the initiative areas identified in EM’s Engineering and Technology Roadmap.

  12. EFEHR - the European Facilities for Earthquake Hazard and Risk: beyond the web-platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danciu, Laurentiu; Wiemer, Stefan; Haslinger, Florian; Kastli, Philipp; Giardini, Domenico

    2017-04-01

    European Facilities for Earthquake Hazard and Risk (EEFEHR) represents the sustainable community resource for seismic hazard and risk in Europe. The EFEHR web platform is the main gateway to access data, models and tools as well as provide expertise relevant for assessment of seismic hazard and risk. The main services (databases and web-platform) are hosted at ETH Zurich and operated by the Swiss Seismological Service (Schweizerischer Erdbebendienst SED). EFEHR web-portal (www.efehr.org) collects and displays (i) harmonized datasets necessary for hazard and risk modeling, e.g. seismic catalogues, fault compilations, site amplifications, vulnerabilities, inventories; (ii) extensive seismic hazard products, namely hazard curves, uniform hazard spectra and maps for national and regional assessments. (ii) standardized configuration files for re-computing the regional seismic hazard models; (iv) relevant documentation of harmonized datasets, models and web-services. Today, EFEHR distributes full output of the 2013 European Seismic Hazard Model, ESHM13, as developed within the SHARE project (http://www.share-eu.org/); the latest results of the 2014 Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME14), derived within the EMME Project (www.emme-gem.org); the 2001 Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Project (GSHAP) results and the 2015 updates of the Swiss Seismic Hazard. New datasets related to either seismic hazard or risk will be incorporated as they become available. We present the currents status of the EFEHR platform, with focus on the challenges, summaries of the up-to-date datasets, user experience and feedback, as well as the roadmap to future technological innovation beyond the web-platform development. We also show the new services foreseen to fully integrate with the seismological core services of European Plate Observing System (EPOS).

  13. Innovative cement plug setting process reduces risk and lowers NPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, T.; Rogers, H.; Lloyd, S.; Quinton, C. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Tetrault, N. [Apache Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    With increased drilling in mature fields and unconventional reservoirs, Canadian operators are experiencing a higher rate of lost circulation events. When drilling into lower fracture-gradient zones, operators face the risk of drilling through shallower depleted zones. The unique challenges associated with setting cement plugs in such open hole wells were described. The best solution to address lost circulation events is a properly designed cement slurry where cement can be squeezed into the lost circulation zones to strengthen the wellbore when set. The cement plug is drilled through, leaving the residual cement setting inside the problem zones. Since cement plugs are used for a wide range of reasons, such as healing losses, abandonment, and directional drilling, it is important that a competent cement plug is placed the first time. This paper presented a newly developed tool and a special process designed to meet the challenges associated with setting cement plugs. It is based on a tubing-release tool (TRT) in which a sacrificial tubing is placed into the lost circulation zone to balance the cement plug. The sacrificial tubing is released from the drillstring and remains in the wellbore. The TRT has been used as a plug-setting aid for lost-circulation plugs; shallow-water shut-off; kick-off plug placement; and multizone plugs to abandon. An overview of the TRT features was presented. The tool and process has been used by more than 20 operating companies around the world to successfully place cement plugs downhole on the first attempt. The disconnect has been used successfully in more than 120 wells throughout North and South America, Europe, the Middle East, and Australia. It has proven to lower the risk and non-productive time associated with drilling in mature fields and unconventional reservoirs. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Reducing acquisition risk through integrated systems of systems engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Andrew; Hobson, Brian; Bouwens, Christina

    2016-05-01

    In the fall of 2015, the Joint Staff J7 (JS J7) sponsored the Bold Quest (BQ) 15.2 event and conducted planning and coordination to combine this event into a joint event with the Army Warfighting Assessment (AWA) 16.1 sponsored by the U.S. Army. This multipurpose event combined a Joint/Coalition exercise (JS J7) with components of testing, training, and experimentation required by the Army. In support of Assistant Secretary of the Army for Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology (ASA(ALT)) System of Systems Engineering and Integration (SoSE&I), Always On-On Demand (AO-OD) used a system of systems (SoS) engineering approach to develop a live, virtual, constructive distributed environment (LVC-DE) to support risk mitigation utilizing this complex and challenging exercise environment for a system preparing to enter limited user test (LUT). AO-OD executed a requirements-based SoS engineering process starting with user needs and objectives from Army Integrated Air and Missile Defense (AIAMD), Patriot units, Coalition Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (CISR), Focused End State 4 (FES4) Mission Command (MC) Interoperability with Unified Action Partners (UAP), and Mission Partner Environment (MPE) Integration and Training, Tactics and Procedures (TTP) assessment. The SoS engineering process decomposed the common operational, analytical, and technical requirements, while utilizing the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Distributed Simulation Engineering and Execution Process (DSEEP) to provide structured accountability for the integration and execution of the AO-OD LVC-DE. As a result of this process implementation, AO-OD successfully planned for, prepared, and executed a distributed simulation support environment that responsively satisfied user needs and objectives, demonstrating the viability of an LVC-DE environment to support multiple user objectives and support risk mitigation activities for systems in the acquisition process.

  15. Reducing the Risk of Hypoglycemia Associated With Intravenous Insulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Victoria; Misiasz, Meaghan R.; Jones, Jocelyn

    2014-01-01

    Computerized insulin infusion protocols have facilitated more effective blood glucose (BG) control in intensive care units (ICUs). This is particularly important in light of the risks associated with hypoglycemia. End stage renal disease (ESRD) increases the risk of insulin-induced hypoglycemia. We evaluated BG control in 210 patients in 2 medical ICUs and in 2 surgical ICUs who were treated with a computerized insulin infusion program (CIIP). Our CIIP was programmed for a BG target of 140-180 mg/dL for medical ICU patients or 120-160 mg/dL for surgical ICU patients. In addition, we focused on BG control in the 11% of our patients with ESRD. Mean BG was 147 ± 20 mg/dL for surgical ICU patients and 171 ± 26 mg/dL for medical ICU patients. Of both surgical and medical ICU patients, 17% had 1 or more BG 60-79 mg/dL, while 3% of surgical ICU and 8% of medical ICU patients had 1 or more BG < 60 mg/dL. Mean BG in ESRD patients was 147 ± 16 mg/dL similar to 152 ± 23 mg/dL in patients without ESRD. Of ESRD patients, 41% had 1 or more BG < 79 mg/dL as compared with 17.8% of non-ESRD patients (P < .01). A higher BG target for medical ICU patients as compared with surgical ICU patients yielded comparably low rates of moderate or severe hypoglycemia. However, hypoglycemia among ESRD patients was more common compared to non-ESRD patients, suggesting a need for a higher BG target specific to ESRD patients. PMID:25172875

  16. Does avian conspicuous colouration increase or reduce predation risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, M; Avilés, J M; Cuervo, J J; Parejo, D; Ruano, F; Zamora-Muñoz, C; Sergio, F; López-Jiménez, L; Tanferna, A; Martín-Vivaldi, M

    2013-09-01

    Animals often announce their unprofitability to predators through conspicuous coloured signals. Here we tested whether the apparently conspicuous colour designs of the four European Coraciiformes and Upupiformes species may have evolved as aposematic signals, or whether instead they imply a cost in terms of predation risk. Because previous studies suggested that these species are unpalatable, we hypothesized that predators could avoid targeting them based on their colours. An experiment was performed where two artificial models of each bird species were exposed simultaneously to raptor predators, one painted so as to resemble the real colour design of these birds, and the other one painted using cryptic colours. Additionally, we used field data on the black kite's diet to compare the selection of these four species to that of other avian prey. Conspicuous models were attacked in equal or higher proportions than their cryptic counterparts, and the attack rate on the four species increased with their respective degree of contrast against natural backgrounds. The analysis of the predator's diet revealed that the two least attacked species were negatively selected in nature despite their abundance. Both conspicuous and cryptic models of one of the studied species (the hoopoe) received fewer attacks than cryptic models of the other three species, suggesting that predators may avoid this species for characteristics other than colour. Globally, our results suggest that the colour of coraciiforms and upupiforms does not function as an aposematic signal that advises predators of their unprofitability, but also that conspicuous colours may increase predation risk in some species, supporting thus the handicap hypothesis.

  17. Cereal fiber intake may reduce risk of gastric adenocarcinomas : The EPIC-EURGAST study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendez, M. A.; Pera, Guillem; Aguclo, Antonio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Palli, Domenico; Boeing, Heiner; Carneiro, Ftima; Berrino, Franco; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Berglund, Goeran; Manjer, Jonas; Johansson, Ingegerd; Stenling, Roger; Martinez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tormo, Maria J.; Quiros, Jose R.; Allen, Naomi; Key, Timothy J.; Bingham, Sheila; Linseisen, Jakob; Kaaks, Rudolf; Overvad, Kim; Jensen, Majken; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Numans, Mattijs E.; Ocke, Marga C.; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lund, Eiliv; Slimani, Nadia; Jenab, Mazda; Ferrari, Pietro; Riboli, Elio; Gonzalez, Carlos A.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous case-control studies suggest dietary fiber may reduce risk of gastric cancer, but this has not been confirmed prospectively. A previous case-control study reported reduced risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinomas associated with cereal fiber, but not with fruit or vegetable fiber. To date, di

  18. Financial Risk Factor Analysis for Facility Gas Leakages of H2 and NG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Bok Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fuel cells may be the key to a more environmentally-friendly future because they emit low carbon dioxide per unit of energy supplied. However, little work has investigated the potential financial risks pertaining to fuel cell systems. Often used in the analysis of the safety of systems involving flammable or hazardous materials, risk factor analysis has recently been used to analyze the potential financial losses that may occur from industrial hazards. Therefore, this work undertakes a financial risk factor analysis to determine the costs of leakages of hydrogen and natural gas, which are used in fuel cell systems. Total leakage was calculated from an analysis of several leakage rates and modes. The impact of applying appropriate detection and prevention systems was also investigated. The findings were then used to analyze the consequences for various sections of the system and to calculate the overall cost based on facility outage or damage, and the cost of taking safety precautions. This provides a basis for comparison among proposed potential reactionary measures.

  19. Effects of Collateral Pledges in Reducing Credit Risks - Confronting Banks in Jordan, as Lending Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ahmad Z.  Siam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available he research aims at investigating the effects of Collaterals pledges in reducing credit Risks .To achieve research goals data were collected from all commercial banks operating in Jordan. Research concluded that banks in Jordan use collaterals effectively and in a wide range, and collaterals size have a direct impact on credit risk. Credit risk differs with collaterals.

  20. Interventions for reducing extinction risk in chytridiomycosis-threatened amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheele, Ben C; Hunter, David A; Grogan, Laura F; Berger, Lee; Kolby, Jon E; McFadden, Michael S; Marantelli, Gerry; Skerratt, Lee F; Driscoll, Don A

    2014-10-01

    Wildlife diseases pose an increasing threat to biodiversity and are a major management challenge. A striking example of this threat is the emergence of chytridiomycosis. Despite diagnosis of chytridiomycosis as an important driver of global amphibian declines 15 years ago, researchers have yet to devise effective large-scale management responses other than biosecurity measures to mitigate disease spread and the establishment of disease-free captive assurance colonies prior to or during disease outbreaks. We examined the development of management actions that can be implemented after an epidemic in surviving populations. We developed a conceptual framework with clear interventions to guide experimental management and applied research so that further extinctions of amphibian species threatened by chytridiomycosis might be prevented. Within our framework, there are 2 management approaches: reducing Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (the fungus that causes chytridiomycosis) in the environment or on amphibians and increasing the capacity of populations to persist despite increased mortality from disease. The latter approach emphasizes that mitigation does not necessarily need to focus on reducing disease-associated mortality. We propose promising management actions that can be implemented and tested based on current knowledge and that include habitat manipulation, antifungal treatments, animal translocation, bioaugmentation, head starting, and selection for resistance. Case studies where these strategies are being implemented will demonstrate their potential to save critically endangered species.

  1. Reducing cardiovascular risk in spouses of cardiac patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Bernice C; Rowland, Sheri; Mancuso, Kerry; Kupzyk, Kevin A; Norman, Joseph F; Shurmur, Scott; Tesina, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined risk-reducing interventions in spouses of coronary artery bypass patients. This study examined the effects of the Partners Together in Health (PaTH) intervention versus usual care on cardiovascular risk factors. Spouses in the experimental group (n = 17/group) attended cardiac rehabilitation with patients and made the same physical activity and healthy eating changes as patients. Spouses in the usual care group attended educational classes with patients. Spouses' 30-year cardiovascular risk was calculated using the Lifetime Risk Scale before and after cardiac rehabilitation (3 months), and at 6 months. Spouses in both groups significantly reduced 30-year risk scores at 3 and 6 months. Exercise was the key ingredient in lowering risk. There was a trend toward reduction in systolic blood pressure and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in both groups. Although there were no group differences, having spouses participate in cardiac rehabilitation with the patient was effective for reducing spouses' cardiovascular risk.

  2. COMPARISON OF VISUAL ACUITY IN REDUCED LUMINATION AND FACILITY OF OCULAR ACCOMMODATION IN TABLE TENNIS CHAMPIONS AND NON- PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Jafarzadehpur

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A table tennis player should fixate at different distances; track the objects with different speed, and in different visual environment. Their visual skills must be well developed for these capabilities. Therefore, visual acuity in reduced lumination and facility of ocular accommodation those are two criteria for visual skills have been compared in table tennis players and normal non-players. Twenty-nine young table tennis champions and 29 normal matched non-players (did not take part in any racket sports game were evaluated. Basic visual and eye examinations were done for both of them. Normal results in basic examination were fundamental requirement for all the subjects. +/-2.00 sphere lenses for accommodation facility are used. An electrical current regulator changed the output light intensity of a conventional chart projector (Topcon. Light intensity decreased to 10 cd·m-2 and visual acuity tested. In comparison of visual acuity in reduced lumination and facility of ocular accommodation in table tennis champions and non-players there are significant differences (p < 0.001. In the preliminary visual tests there was not any significant different in the two groups but the results in the top level table tennis player was very uniform and in every test and the standard deviation was lesser in tennis player group than non-players. These results show that motor and sensorial functions of expert players are well developed. That is consistent with other researchers. This result was interpreted as reflecting a better perceptual system of experts to the constraints encountered during table tennis and its use in practical settings for evaluating athletes or detecting sport talents. However some visual and perceptual training that usually used in orthoptics can be used for novice table tennis player to improve their abilities

  3. Routine delivery of artemisinin-based combination treatment at fixed health facilities reduces malaria prevalence in Tanzania: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatib Rashid A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT has been promoted as a means to reduce malaria transmission due to their ability to kill both asexual blood stages of malaria parasites, which sustain infections over long periods and the immature derived sexual stages responsible for infecting mosquitoes and onward transmission. Early studies reported a temporal association between ACT introduction and reduced malaria transmission in a number of ecological settings. However, these reports have come from areas with low to moderate malaria transmission, been confounded by the presence of other interventions or environmental changes that may have reduced malaria transmission, and have not included a comparison group without ACT. This report presents results from the first large-scale observational study to assess the impact of case management with ACT on population-level measures of malaria endemicity in an area with intense transmission where the benefits of effective infection clearance might be compromised by frequent and repeated re-infection. Methods A pre-post observational study with a non-randomized comparison group was conducted at two sites in Tanzania. Both sites used sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP monotherapy as a first-line anti-malarial from mid-2001 through 2002. In 2003, the ACT, artesunate (AS co-administered with SP (AS + SP, was introduced in all fixed health facilities in the intervention site, including both public and registered non-governmental facilities. Population-level prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum asexual parasitaemia and gametocytaemia were assessed using light microscopy from samples collected during representative household surveys in 2001, 2002, 2004, 2005 and 2006. Findings Among 37,309 observations included in the analysis, annual asexual parasitaemia prevalence in persons of all ages ranged from 11% to 28% and gametocytaemia prevalence ranged from Interpretation The introduction of ACT at

  4. 6 CFR 27.200 - Information regarding security risk for a chemical facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... information from chemical facilities that may reflect potential consequences of or vulnerabilities to a... chemical facility. 27.200 Section 27.200 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.200 Information...

  5. Los Alamos neutron science user facility - control system risk mitigation & updates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieck, Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-05

    LANSCE User Facility is seeing continuing support and investments. The investment will sustain reliable facility operations well into the next decade. As a result, the LANSCE User Facility will continue to be a premier Neutron Science Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  6. A facile route to porous beta-gallium oxide nanowires-reduced graphene oxide hybrids with enhanced photocatalytic efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, X. [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Lei, M., E-mail: minglei@bupt.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Huang, K.; Liang, C.; Xu, J.C.; Shangguan, Z.C. [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Yuan, Q.X. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Zhengzhou Institute of Aeronautical Industry Management, Zhengzhou 450015 (China); Ma, L.H. [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Du, Y.X., E-mail: duyinxiao@zzia.edu.cn [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Zhengzhou Institute of Aeronautical Industry Management, Zhengzhou 450015 (China); Fan, D.Y.; Yang, H.J.; Wang, Y.G.; Tang, W.H. [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2015-02-25

    Highlights: • A facile route was developed to fabricate porous β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} NWs-rGO hybrids. • Supercritical water can act as an efficient reductant to situ-reduce GO into RGO. • The Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} NWs attach on the surface of RGO through a strong coupling forces. • The photocatalytic performance of the hybrids can be obviously improved. - Abstract: A facile route was developed to fabricate porous beta-gallium oxide nanowires (β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} NWs)-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hybrids using β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} NWs and graphene oxide (GO) as raw materials. The characterization results indicate that supercritical water can act as an efficient reductant to situ-reduce GO into rGO, and porous β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} NWs can further attach on the surface of as-reduced rGO through a strong coupling forces between the β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} NWs and rGO. The photocatalytic performance of the hybrids can be obviously improved (about 74%) for the decomposition of methylene blue (MB) solution after coupling with 1 wt% rGO compared with the pure β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} NWs. The enhanced photocatalytic activity can be attributed to the synergistic effect of extended optical absorption band, the enrichment of MB molecular on the rGO and the valid inhibition of recombination of photo-generated electron–hole pairs induced by the strong coupling interaction between rGO nanosheets and porous β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} NWs.

  7. [Risks associated with unrestricted consumption of alkaline-reduced water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Marc; Chambron, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of alkaline reduced water produced by domestic electrolysis devices was approved in Japan in 1965 by the Minister of Health, Work and Wellbeing, for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Today, these devices are also freely available in France. The commercial information provided with the devices recommends the consumption of 1 to 1.5 liters per day, not only for gastrointestinal disorders but also for numerous other illnesses such as diabetes, cancer and inflammation. Academic research on this subject has been undergoing in Japan since 1990, and has established that the active ingredient is dissolved dihydrogen, which eliminates the free radical HO· in vivo. It has also been shown that electrode degradation during use of the devices releases highly reactive platinum nanoparticles, the toxicity of which is unknown. The authors of this report recommend alerting the French health authorities to the uncontrolled availability of these devices that generate drug substances and should therefore be subject to regulatory requirements.

  8. Situation of the companies of hygienic maintenance of facilities of risk of legionelosis in Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo de Garrastazu Díaz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The control of the hygienic maintenance of the facilities of legionelosis risk is verified through three types of performances: the notifications of cooling towers and evaporative condensers, the registry of the companies that make these treatments and the regulated formation of the personnel who makes these. In addition, by means of the sanitary inspection the correct operation of this mechanism of monitoring and control is verified.In relation to the companies that make the hygienic maintenance, it has been made a temporary analysis front to other companies of biocidas services, being stated that is basically that already they made biocide control services (companies DDD. In the Community of Madrid and as opposed to the criteria adopted by other communities, it is demanded that these companies count on warehouse own or subcontracted or that justify an adapted product management, so that it is always under the supervision off personnel specialized for his use. Also, it is demanded that this companies have a Technical Director, who takes responsibility of the procedures of performance and made treatments. In whatever to the accomplishment of treatments by part of companies registered in other communities, at the moment is not necessary registry of these in Madrid if they do not have social or industrial address, being able to make the maintenance if this activity is properly registered in the community where they are located.The Community of Madrid is accredited for the authorization of courses for personnel who conducts operations of hygienic maintenance of facilities of risk of Legionella, counting at the present with 26 courses authorized. The pursuit of these courses is made by means of the exigency of a previous notification to the edition celebration and the accomplishment of inspection and audit to the teaching institutions.

  9. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hazardous waste management facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S. III; Baum, J.W. [and others

    1998-03-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an {open_quotes}As Low as Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique.

  10. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hazardous waste management facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S.C. III; Baum, J.W. [and others

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an {open_quotes}As Low as Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique. This document contains the Appendices for the report.

  11. Understanding and reducing the risk of supply chain disruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters can wreck havoc on business operations. When civil unrest swept the UK in August 2011, the effect on business was stark, losing the retail sector £300m in unexpected costs and lost revenues. On the other side of the world, the natural disaster that hit Japan in early 2011 is estimated to have run up costs in the region of £189bn in repairs. Beyond this, the earthquake and its aftermath shattered supply chains, with technology companies expecting delays of up to six months before business could resume fully. It is impossible to predict incidents like these, but businesses can help mitigate disruption in the supply chain by undertaking business continuity management (BCM). A flexible supply chain is essential when it comes to BCM - whether it means being able to cope with altering transport routes at short notice, or finding or replacing a supplier at the last minute. Understanding the supply chain is critical when responding to major impacts that affect supply chains in multiple points - like IT system failures and country-wide fuel strikes. Businesses should carry out detailed business impact assessments and risk assessments right across the end-to-end supply chain and not just at key single points of failure. It is an intensive process that needs dedicated resources and ownership at the highest level. Recognising this, DHL has designed a 10-step process, which it has implemented across its global supply chain business. This paper provides an overview of what a supply chain really looks like, what can cause disruptions and how far up/down the supply chain companies need to go with their BCM planning.

  12. Pico hydro. Reducing technical risks for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.A. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Simpson, R. [Renewable Energy division, EnergyAustralia, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2009-08-15

    Very small hydropower (pico hydro) schemes, with an output of less than 5 kW, can be a cost-effective option for the electrification of remote rural communities. Despite the fact that each hydropower site is unique, there is potential for using standardised equipment and low-cost approaches to scheme design. Relatively low equipment costs are possible, particularly if locally manufactured in a developing country, which enable costs per unit of energy output to be lower than small petrol or diesel generators, wind turbines or PV systems. Nevertheless, it is important not to compromise on technical quality of pico hydro schemes, as this may lead to poor efficiency or long periods when the scheme cannot operate, which will affect the financial success of the scheme. In the longer term, inappropriate cost reductions may lead to reduced uptake of the technology. The challenge is therefore to provide engineering designs and implementation methods that can effectively be customised for a wide range of schemes. This paper describes research and development of successful approaches that have been used to enable pico hydropower to be implemented in diverse situations around the globe. It includes an analysis of penstock pipe sizing to achieve optimum economic design. (author)

  13. Pathogen Inactivation Technologies: The Advent of Pathogen-Reduced Blood Components to Reduce Blood Safety Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Dana V; Schubert, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Pathogen inactivation technologies represent a shift in blood safety from a reactive approach to a proactive protective strategy. Commercially available technologies demonstrate effective killing of most viruses, bacteria, and parasites and are capable of inactivating passenger leukocytes in blood products. The use of pathogen inactivation causes a decrease in the parameters of products that can be readily measured in laboratory assays but that do not seem to cause any alteration in hemostatic effect of plasma or platelet transfusions. Effort needs to be made to further develop these technologies so that the negative quality impact is ameliorated without reducing the pathogen inactivation effectiveness.

  14. Scientific Opportunities to Reduce Risk in Nuclear Process Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredt, Paul R.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Poloski, Adam P.; Vienna, John D.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Hobbs, David; Wilmarth, B.; Mcilwain, Michael; Subramanian, K.; Krahn, Steve; Machara, N.

    2009-08-28

    overall intent of this paper is to foster a dialogue on how basic scientific research can assist DOE in executing its cleanup and environmental management mission. In this paper, we propose that such scientific investments not be focused solely on what may be viewed as current DOE needs, but also be based upon longer-term investments in specific areas of science that underpin technologies presently in use. In the latter regard, we propose four science theme areas: 1) the structure and dynamics of materials and interfaces, 2) coupled chemical and physical processes, 3) complex solution phase phenomena, and 4) chemical recognition phenomena. The proposed scientific focus for each of these theme areas and the scientific opportunities are identified, along with links to major risks within the initiative areas identified in EM’s Engineering and Technology Roadmap.

  15. ZBLAN glass synthesis in reduced gravity at the QUT Drop Tower Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Martin; Steinberg, Theodore; Ong, Teng-Cheong

    Silica fibers are currently limited by having a relatively small bandwidth. The theoretical loss within silica glass is {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}0.14 dB/km at a wavelength of 1.55 µm, however the practical lowest loss of fused silica glass fiber is {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}0.2 dB/km [1]. Therefore, a silica glass fiber can transmit irradiation by a 1.5 µm wavelength InGaAsP semiconductor laser at a distance of 15 to 25 km. The strength of the laser beam damps down at a distance of more than 15 to 25 km due to scattering losses and an associated increase in noise to signal ratio. To transmit significant amounts of data without noise, an extremely low-loss optical waveguide is needed to replace silica glass fibers. Fluoride glass fibers are considered to be the most promising candidate for an extremely low-loss optical waveguide. The theoretical loss of typical fluoride glass, ZBLAN (53ZrF_{text{4}}-20BaF_{text{2}}-4LaF_{text{3}}-3AlF_{text{3}}-20NaF) glass, is less than 0.01 and greater than 0.001 dB/km. This value is in excess of 100 times lower than that of fused silica fibers because of low Rayleigh scattering within the fiber. However, the losses of fabricated fluoride glass fibers are rather high and {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}0.65 dB/km are reported as the best data transfer rates at present [1]. One of the causes of these high losses in silica fibers is thought to be the excess scattering loss induced by crystallites which were nucleated inside the glasses by the reheating around fiber-drawing temperatures. In general, the temperature of glass transition of fluoride glasses is {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}259ºC and is lower than the onset of the melting temperature of {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}360ºC. This means fluoride glasses can crystallize easily. It is proposed that crystallization is caused by the viscoelastic forces between the dense elements settling in the glass at different rates due to gravity. In reduced gravity, convection in the glass melt is

  16. Facile synthesis of iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites: application for electromagnetic wave absorption at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Yu, Xinxin; Hu, Hongrui; Li, Yang; Wu, Mingzai; Wang, Zhongzhu; Li, Guang; Sun, Zhaoqi; Chen, Changle

    2015-03-01

    Iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites were synthesized by facile thermochemical reactions of graphite oxide and FeSO4.7H2O. By adjusting reaction temperature, α-Fe2O3/reduced graphene oxide and Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide composites can be obtained conveniently. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide sheets were demonstrated to regulate the phase transition from α-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 via γ-Fe2O3, which was reported for the first time. The hydroxyl groups attached on the graphene oxide sheets and H2 gas generated during the annealing of graphene oxide are believed to play an important role during these phase transformations. These samples showed good electromagnetic wave absorption performance due to their electromagnetic complementary effect. These samples possess much better electromagnetic wave absorption properties than the mixture of separately prepared Fe3O4 with rGO, suggesting the crucial role of synthetic method in determining the product properties. Also, these samples perform much better than commercial absorbers. Most importantly, the great stability of these composites is highly advantageous for applications as electromagnetic wave absorption materials at high temperatures.

  17. Facile synthesis of iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites: application for electromagnetic wave absorption at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Yu, Xinxin; Hu, Hongrui; Li, Yang; Wu, Mingzai; Wang, Zhongzhu; Li, Guang; Sun, Zhaoqi; Chen, Changle

    2015-03-19

    Iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites were synthesized by facile thermochemical reactions of graphite oxide and FeSO4 · 7H2O. By adjusting reaction temperature, α-Fe2O3/reduced graphene oxide and Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide composites can be obtained conveniently. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide sheets were demonstrated to regulate the phase transition from α-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 via γ-Fe2O3, which was reported for the first time. The hydroxyl groups attached on the graphene oxide sheets and H2 gas generated during the annealing of graphene oxide are believed to play an important role during these phase transformations. These samples showed good electromagnetic wave absorption performance due to their electromagnetic complementary effect. These samples possess much better electromagnetic wave absorption properties than the mixture of separately prepared Fe3O4 with rGO, suggesting the crucial role of synthetic method in determining the product properties. Also, these samples perform much better than commercial absorbers. Most importantly, the great stability of these composites is highly advantageous for applications as electromagnetic wave absorption materials at high temperatures.

  18. Facile synthesis of cobalt oxide/reduced graphene oxide composites for electrochemical capacitor and sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Toan; Nguyen, Van Hoa; Deivasigamani, Ranjith Kumar; Kharismadewi, Dian; Iwai, Yoshio; Shim, Jae-Jin

    2016-03-01

    Reduced graphene oxide sheets decorated with cobalt oxide nanoparticles (Co3O4/rGO) were produced using a hydrothermal method without surfactants. Both the reduction of GO and the formation of Co3O4 nanoparticles occurred simultaneously under this condition. At the same current density of 0.5 A g-1, the Co3O4/rGO nanocomposites exhibited much a higher specific capacitance (545 F g-1) than that of bare Co3O4 (100 F g-1). On the other hand, for the detection of H2O2, the peak current of Co3O4/rGO was 4 times higher than that of Co3O4. Moreover, the resulting composite displayed a low detection limit of 0.62 μM and a high sensitivity of 28,500 μA mM-1cm-2 for the H2O2 sensor. These results suggest that the Co3O4/rGO nanocomposite is a promising material for both supercapacitor and non-enzymatic H2O2 sensor applications.

  19. Site specific risk assessment of an energy-from-waste thermal treatment facility in Durham Region, Ontario, Canada. Part A: Human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollson, Christopher A; Knopper, Loren D; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Jayasinghe, Ruwan

    2014-01-01

    The regions of Durham and York in Ontario, Canada have partnered to construct an energy-from-waste thermal treatment facility as part of a long term strategy for the management of their municipal solid waste. This paper presents the results of a comprehensive human health risk assessment for this facility. This assessment was based on extensive sampling of baseline environmental conditions (e.g., collection and analysis of air, soil, water, and biota samples) as well as detailed site specific modeling to predict facility-related emissions of 87 identified contaminants of potential concern. Emissions were estimated for both the approved initial operating design capacity of the facility (140,000 tonnes per year) and for the maximum design capacity (400,000 tonnes per year). For the 140,000 tonnes per year scenario, this assessment indicated that facility-related emissions are unlikely to cause adverse health risks to local residents, farmers, or other receptors (e.g., recreational users). For the 400,000 tonnes per year scenarios, slightly elevated risks were noted with respect to inhalation (hydrogen chloride) and infant consumption of breast milk (dioxins and furans), but only during predicted 'upset conditions' (i.e. facility start-up, shutdown, and loss of air pollution control) that represent unusual and/or transient occurrences. However, current provincial regulations require that additional environmental screening would be mandatory prior to expansion of the facility beyond the initial approved capacity (140,000 tonnes per year). Therefore, the potential risks due to upset conditions for the 400,000 tonnes per year scenario should be more closely investigated if future expansion is pursued.

  20. Facile preparation of three-dimensional multilayer porous MnO2/reduced graphene oxide composite and its supercapacitive performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiju; Wang, Guiling; Ye, Ke; Cheng, Kui; Pan, Yue; Yan, Peng; Yin, Jinling; Cao, Dianxue

    2014-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) multilayer porous MnO2/reduced graphene oxide composites are coated on a nickel foam substrate (denoted as MnO2/R-GO@Ni-foam) by a facile and scalable spray method following by low temperature annealing. The composite electrodes are characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The content of MnO2 in the MnO2/R-GO@Ni-foam composites is determined by thermal gravimetric analysis. The supercapacitive performance of the composite electroides is investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that the MnO2/R-GO@Ni-foam composite displays a high specific capacitance of 267 F g-1 at 0.25 A g-1 and excellent capacitance retention of 89.5% after 1000 cycles. This study provides a facile way for the preparation of composite electrodes for high-performance supercapacitor.

  1. Age and other risk factors of pneumonia among residents of Polish long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójkowska-Mach, Jadwiga; Gryglewska, Barbara; Romaniszyn, Dorota; Natkaniec, Joanna; Pobiega, Monika; Adamski, Paweł; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Kubicz, Dariusz; Heczko, Piotr B

    2013-01-01

    Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the elderly population. Nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) is probably the largest health problem in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). It is the second most common infection in LTCFs and frequently requires hospitalization. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence rate of NHAP among LTCF residents, its microbial etiology, and the frequency of multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Risk factors for NHAP were analyzed. This was a prospective study conducted on a group of 217 elderly subjects aged ≥65 years, recruited from the inhabitants of LTCFs, with disabled elderly individuals living in the community serving as controls. Continuous surveillance was carried out from December 1, 2009 to November 30, 2010. The incidence rate of NHAP in the observed population of Polish residents was 0.6/1000 resident-days. Vulnerability to NHAP was due to the poor general condition of residents, expressed by low Barthel index values (relative risk (RR) 1.6), the activities of daily living (ADL) score (RR 1.7), the Katz scale (RR 1.2), and limited physical activity (RR 1.6). Also significant were malnutrition (RR 2.3), the use of a bladder catheter (RR 1.3), dysphagia (RR 1.7), tracheotomy tube (RR 3.1), and gastric feeding tube (RR 3.5). Enterobacteriaceae were the predominant etiological agents of NHAP (56.3%). The significance of risk factors for NHAP among residents in LTCFs was confirmed. Unfortunately, we also found that a lack of proper supervision with regard to the microbiology of infections is characteristic of Polish health care and LTCFs. There is an opportunity to improve the medical care of patients with severe disabilities, limit the rise in antimicrobial resistance and the need for hospitalization, and improve the prognosis. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Site specific risk assessment of an energy-from-waste/thermal treatment facility in Durham Region, Ontario, Canada. Part B: Ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollson, Christopher A; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Knopper, Loren D; Dan, Tereza

    2014-01-01

    The regions of Durham and York in Ontario, Canada have partnered to construct an energy-from-waste (EFW) thermal treatment facility as part of a long term strategy for the management of their municipal solid waste. In this paper we present the results of a comprehensive ecological risk assessment (ERA) for this planned facility, based on baseline sampling and site specific modeling to predict facility-related emissions, which was subsequently accepted by regulatory authorities. Emissions were estimated for both the approved initial operating design capacity of the facility (140,000 tonnes per year) and the maximum design capacity (400,000 tonnes per year). In general, calculated ecological hazard quotients (EHQs) and screening ratios (SRs) for receptors did not exceed the benchmark value (1.0). The only exceedances noted were generally due to existing baseline media concentrations, which did not differ from those expected for similar unimpacted sites in Ontario. This suggests that these exceedances reflect conservative assumptions applied in the risk assessment rather than actual potential risk. However, under predicted upset conditions at 400,000 tonnes per year (i.e., facility start-up, shutdown, and loss of air pollution control), a potential unacceptable risk was estimated for freshwater receptors with respect to benzo(g,h,i)perylene (SR=1.1), which could not be attributed to baseline conditions. Although this slight exceedance reflects a conservative worst-case scenario (upset conditions coinciding with worst-case meteorological conditions), further investigation of potential ecological risk should be performed if this facility is expanded to the maximum operating capacity in the future.

  3. Dietary manipulation to reduce aerial ammonia concentrations in nursery pig facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colina, J J; Lewis, A J; Miller, P S; Fischer, R L

    2001-12-01

    Two 4-wk trials (preliminary study) and three 5-wk trials (major study) were conducted to determine the effects of adding Yucca schidigera extract or anhydrous calcium chloride to nursery diets on the growth performance of nursery pigs and aerial ammonia concentration. The pigs were weaned between 13 and 15 d of age and had an initial BW of 3 to 6 kg. In each trial, pigs were allotted to three identical pig nursery rooms that were environmentally regulated. There were three diets (one diet per room): 1) control, containing 23% CP; 2) control plus 125 ppm of Yucca schidigera extract; and 3) control plus 1.95% anhydrous calcium chloride. Growth performance was recorded weekly. Aerial ammonia concentration was measured daily using aspiration detector tubes and during the last week of each trial using diffusion tubes. Manure samples were collected twice a week during the experimental period to determine ammonia and N concentrations and pH. Plasma urea concentration was determined in blood samples collected from the pigs at the end of each trial. Data were analyzed using split-plot and Latin square designs for the preliminary and major studies, respectively. Feed intake was similar among pigs fed all three diets. There were no differences in ADG and ADG/ADFI (G/F) between pigs fed the control diet and pigs fed the yucca extract diet (P > or = 0.41). In all trials, pigs fed the calcium chloride diet had lower ADG and G/F than pigs fed the other two diets (P yucca extract diet (P = 0.08) and the calcium chloride diet (P = 0.11). In the major study, aerial ammonia increased weekly (diet x week; P or = 0.10), manure ammonia and N concentrations (P > or = 0.50), and manure pH (P > or = 0.78). Although aerial ammonia concentrations were relatively low, the addition of Yucca schidigera extract or calcium chloride to the diet of nursery pigs reduced ammonia concentrations in the nursery rooms.

  4. Laser Coupling to Reduced-Scale Targets at the Early Light Program of the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkel, D E; Schneider, M B; Baldis, H A; Bower, D; Campbell, K M; Celeste, J R; Compton, S; Costa, R; Dewald, E L; Dixit, S; Eckart, M J; Eder, D C; Edwards, M J; Ellis, A; Emig, J; Froula, D H; Glenzer, S H; Hargrove, D; Haynam, C A; Heeter, R F; Holder, J P; Holtmeier, G; James, L; Jancaitis, K S; Kalantar, D H; Kauffman, R L; Kimbrough, J; Kirkwood, R K; Koniges, A E; Kamperschroer, J; Landen, O L; Landon, M; Langdon, A B; Lee, F D; MacGowan, B J; MacKinnon, A J; Manes, K R; May, M J; McDonald, J W; Munro, D H; Murray, J R; Niemann, C; Pellinen, D; Rekow, V; Ruppe, J A; Schein, J; Shepherd, R; Singh, M S; Springer, P T; Still, C H; Suter, L J; Turner, R E; Wallace, R J; Warrick, A; Watts, P; Weber, F; Williams, E A; Young, B K; Young, P E

    2004-11-18

    A platform for analysis of material properties under extreme conditions, where a sample is bathed in radiation with a high temperature, is under development. This hot environment is produced with a laser by depositing maximum energy into a small, high-Z can. Such targets were recently included in an experimental campaign using the first four of the 192 beams of the National Ignition Facility, under construction at the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These targets demonstrate good laser coupling, reaching a radiation temperature of 340 eV. In addition, there is a unique wavelength dependence of the Raman backscattered light that is consistent with Brillouin backscatter of Raman forward scatter [A. B. Langdon and D. E. Hinkel, Physical Review Letters 89, 015003 (2002)]. Finally, novel diagnostic capabilities indicate that 20% of the direct backscatter from these reduced-scale targets is in the polarization orthogonal to that of the incident light.

  5. Facile synthesis of binder-free reduced graphene oxide/silicon anode for high-performance lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zuo, Pengjian; Chen, Cheng; Ma, Yulin; Cheng, Xinqun; Du, Chunyu; Gao, Yunzhi; Yin, Geping

    2016-04-01

    A novel binder-free reduced graphene oxide/silicon (RGO/Si) composite anode has been fabricated by a facile doctor-blade coating method. The relatively low C/O ratio plays an important role for the fabrication of the bind-free multilayered RGO/Si electrode with silicon nanoparticles encapsulating among the RGO sheet layers. The RGO provides the electron transport pathway and prevents the electrode fracture caused by the volume changes of active silicon particles during cycling. The RGO/Si composite anode with a silicon content of 66.7% delivers a reversible capacity of 1931 mAh g-1 at 0.2 A g-1 and still remains 92% of the initial capacity after 50 cycles.

  6. Technology demonstration for reducing mercury emissions from small-scale gold refining facilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habegger, L. J.; Fernandez, L. E.; Engle, M.; Bailey, J. L.; Peterson, D. P.; MacDonell, M. M.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    2008-06-30

    coagulation and collection of the mercury aerosols in exhaust ducts, which is dependent on the hood and collector configuration, was also evaluated. Prototype demonstration tests verified the theoretical basis for mercury aerosol capture that can be used to optimize the baffle plate design, flow rates, and hood exhaust ducts and plenum to achieve 80% or higher removal efficiencies. Results indicated that installation configuration significantly influences a system's capture efficiency. Configurations that retained existing inlet ducts resulted in system efficiencies of more than 80%, whereas installation configurations without inlet ducts significantly reduced capture efficiency. As an alternative to increasing the volume of inlet ducts, the number of baffle plates in the system baffle assembly could be doubled to increase efficiency. Recommended installation and operation procedures were developed on the basis of these results. A water-based mercury capture system developed in Indonesia for installation in smaller shops was also tested and shown to be effective for certain applications. The cost of construction and installation of the baffle plate prototype was approximately US$400. These costs were reported as acceptable by local gold shop owners and government regulators, and were significantly lower than the cost of an alternate charcoal/copper mesh mercury filter available in the region, which costs about US$10,000. A sampling procedure that consists of a particle filter combined with a vapor analyzer was demonstrated as an effective procedure for analyzing both the aerosol and vapor components of the mercury concentrations. Two key findings for enhancing higher mercury collection were identified. First, the aerosol/vapor mercury emissions must be given sufficient time for the mercury particles to coagulate to a size that can be readily captured by the baffle plates. An interval of at least 6 seconds of transit time between the point of evaporation and contact with

  7. Technology demonstration for reducing mercury emissions from small-scale gold refining facilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habegger, L. J.; Fernandez, L. E.; Engle, M.; Bailey, J. L.; Peterson, D. P.; MacDonell, M. M.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    2008-06-30

    coagulation and collection of the mercury aerosols in exhaust ducts, which is dependent on the hood and collector configuration, was also evaluated. Prototype demonstration tests verified the theoretical basis for mercury aerosol capture that can be used to optimize the baffle plate design, flow rates, and hood exhaust ducts and plenum to achieve 80% or higher removal efficiencies. Results indicated that installation configuration significantly influences a system's capture efficiency. Configurations that retained existing inlet ducts resulted in system efficiencies of more than 80%, whereas installation configurations without inlet ducts significantly reduced capture efficiency. As an alternative to increasing the volume of inlet ducts, the number of baffle plates in the system baffle assembly could be doubled to increase efficiency. Recommended installation and operation procedures were developed on the basis of these results. A water-based mercury capture system developed in Indonesia for installation in smaller shops was also tested and shown to be effective for certain applications. The cost of construction and installation of the baffle plate prototype was approximately US$400. These costs were reported as acceptable by local gold shop owners and government regulators, and were significantly lower than the cost of an alternate charcoal/copper mesh mercury filter available in the region, which costs about US$10,000. A sampling procedure that consists of a particle filter combined with a vapor analyzer was demonstrated as an effective procedure for analyzing both the aerosol and vapor components of the mercury concentrations. Two key findings for enhancing higher mercury collection were identified. First, the aerosol/vapor mercury emissions must be given sufficient time for the mercury particles to coagulate to a size that can be readily captured by the baffle plates. An interval of at least 6 seconds of transit time between the point of evaporation and contact with

  8. Facile fabrication of graphene/nickel oxide composite with superior supercapacitance performance by using alcohols-reduced graphene as substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Peng [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhang, Haiyan, E-mail: hyzhang@gdut.edu.cn [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen, Yiming [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li, Zhenghui; Huang, Zhikun; Xu, Xingfa [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li, Yunyong; Shi, Zhicong [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • G/NiO was synthesized by using alcohols-reduced graphene as substrate. • G/NiO presents a globule-on-sheet structure and reveals a synergistic effect. • G/NiO displays high specific capacitance and superior cycling stability. - Abstract: Graphene/nickel oxide composite (G/NiO) was synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method and subsequently microwave thermal treatment by using alcohols-reduced graphene as substrate. The as-prepared G/NiO was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The results indicate that the graphene oxide has been successfully reduced to graphene, and NiO nanoparticles are homogeneous anchored on the surface of graphene, forming a globule-on-sheet structure. The loading content of NiO nanoparticles anchoring on the surface of graphene nanosheets can be controlled by adjusting the hydrothermal temperature. The G/NiO displays superior electrochemical performance with a specific capacitance of 530 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1} in 2 M of NaOH. After 5000 cycles, the supercapacitor still maintains a specific capacitance of 490 F g{sup −1} (92% retention of the initial capacity), exhibiting excellent cycling stability.

  9. Nuclear-fuel-cycle risk assessment: descriptions of representative non-reactor facilities. Sections 1-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.

    1982-09-01

    The Fuel Cycle Risk Assessment Program was initiated to provide risk assessment methods for assistance in the regulatory process for nuclear fuel cycle facilities other than reactors. This report, the first from the program, defines and describes fuel cycle elements that are being considered in the program. One type of facility (and in some cases two) is described that is representative of each element of the fuel cycle. The descriptions are based on real industrial-scale facilities that are current state-of-the-art, or on conceptual facilities where none now exist. Each representative fuel cycle facility is assumed to be located on the appropriate one of four hypothetical but representative sites described. The fuel cycles considered are for Light Water Reactors with once-through flow of spent fuel, and with plutonium and uranium recycle. Representative facilities for the following fuel cycle elements are described for uranium (or uranium plus plutonium where appropriate): mining, milling, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, mixed-oxide fuel refabrication, fuel reprocessing, spent fuel storage, high-level waste storage, transuranic waste storage, spent fuel and high-level and transuranic waste disposal, low-level and intermediate-level waste disposal, and transportation. For each representative facility the description includes: mainline process, effluent processing and waste management, facility and hardware description, safety-related information and potential alternative concepts for that fuel cycle element. The emphasis of the descriptive material is on safety-related information. This includes: operating and maintenance requirements, input/output of major materials, identification and inventories of hazardous materials (particularly radioactive materials), unit operations involved, potential accident driving forces, containment and shielding, and degree of hands-on operation.

  10. Risk factors for fecal colonization with multiple distinct strains of Escherichia coli among long-term care facility residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenbach, Ebbing; Tolomeo, Pam; Black, Nicole; Maslow, Joel N

    2009-05-01

    Of 49 long-term care facility residents, 21 (43%) were colonized with 2 or more distinct strains of Escherichia coli. There were no significant risk factors for colonization with multiple strains of E. coli. These results suggest that future efforts to efficiently identify the diversity of colonizing strains will be challenging.

  11. Residential proximity to industrial combustion facilities and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.; Nuckols, J.R.; Roos, A.J. de; Airola, M.; Colt, J.S.; Cerhan, J.R.; Morton, L.; Cozen, W.; Severson, R.; Blair, A.; Cleverly, D.; Ward, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Residence near municipal solid waste incinerators, a major historical source of dioxin emissions, has been associated with increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in European studies. The aim of our study was to evaluate residence near industrial combustion facilities and estimates

  12. Residential proximity to industrial combustion facilities and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.; Nuckols, J.R.; Roos, A.J. de; Airola, M.; Colt, J.S.; Cerhan, J.R.; Morton, L.; Cozen, W.; Severson, R.; Blair, A.; Cleverly, D.; Ward, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Residence near municipal solid waste incinerators, a major historical source of dioxin emissions, has been associated with increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in European studies. The aim of our study was to evaluate residence near industrial combustion facilities and estimates

  13. Evaluating Potential Human Health Risks Associated with the Development of Utility-Scale Solar Energy Facilities on Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, J. -J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chang, Y. -S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hartmann, H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wescott, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kygeris, C. [Indiana Univ. of Pennsylvania, PA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report presents a general methodology for obtaining preliminary estimates of the potential human health risks associated with developing a utility-scale solar energy facility on a contaminated site, based on potential exposures to contaminants in soils (including transport of those contaminants into the air).

  14. Healthy Pre-Pregnancy Diet and Exercise May Reduce Risk of Gestational Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Interviews & Selected Staff Profiles Multimedia Healthy Pre-Pregnancy Diet and Exercise May Reduce Risk of Gestational Diabetes Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content ​NICHD Studies May ...

  15. Aspirin for Reducing Your Risk of Heart Attack and Stroke: Know the Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the-Counter Medicines Safe Daily Use of Aspirin Aspirin for Reducing Your Risk of Heart Attack and ... any pharmacy, grocery or convenience store and buy aspirin without a prescription. The Drug Facts label on ...

  16. Reducing the Risk of Tick-Borne Diseases through Smart, Safe and Sustainable Pest Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year PestWise programs form new partnerships to address ongoing and emerging issues. Reducing the risk from ticks and tick-borne disease is an issue of importance and EPA is contributing to a larger federal effort.

  17. A Collision Risk Model to Predict Avian Fatalities at Wind Facilities: An Example Using Golden Eagles, Aquila chrysaetos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie New

    Full Text Available Wind power is a major candidate in the search for clean, renewable energy. Beyond the technical and economic challenges of wind energy development are environmental issues that may restrict its growth. Avian fatalities due to collisions with rotating turbine blades are a leading concern and there is considerable uncertainty surrounding avian collision risk at wind facilities. This uncertainty is not reflected in many models currently used to predict the avian fatalities that would result from proposed wind developments. We introduce a method to predict fatalities at wind facilities, based on pre-construction monitoring. Our method can directly incorporate uncertainty into the estimates of avian fatalities and can be updated if information on the true number of fatalities becomes available from post-construction carcass monitoring. Our model considers only three parameters: hazardous footprint, bird exposure to turbines and collision probability. By using a Bayesian analytical framework we account for uncertainties in these values, which are then reflected in our predictions and can be reduced through subsequent data collection. The simplicity of our approach makes it accessible to ecologists concerned with the impact of wind development, as well as to managers, policy makers and industry interested in its implementation in real-world decision contexts. We demonstrate the utility of our method by predicting golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos fatalities at a wind installation in the United States. Using pre-construction data, we predicted 7.48 eagle fatalities year-1 (95% CI: (1.1, 19.81. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service uses the 80th quantile (11.0 eagle fatalities year-1 in their permitting process to ensure there is only a 20% chance a wind facility exceeds the authorized fatalities. Once data were available from two-years of post-construction monitoring, we updated the fatality estimate to 4.8 eagle fatalities year-1 (95% CI: (1.76, 9.4; 80th

  18. Simple risk stratification at admission to identify patients with reduced mortality from primary angioplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thune, Jens Jakob; Hoefsten, Dan Eik; Lindholm, Matias Greve

    2005-01-01

    a patient group with reduced mortality from an invasive strategy would be important for early triage. The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score is a simple validated integer score that makes it possible to identify high-risk patients on admission to hospital. We hypothesized that a high-risk...... with primary angioplasty (25.3% versus 36.2%; P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Risk stratification at admission based on the TIMI risk score identifies a group of high-risk patients who have a significantly reduced mortality with an invasive strategy of primary angioplasty.......BACKGROUND: Randomized trials comparing fibrinolysis with primary angioplasty for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction have demonstrated a beneficial effect of primary angioplasty on the combined end point of death, reinfarction, and disabling stroke but not on all-cause death. Identifying...

  19. Implementing Filters to Identify and Prioritize Industrial Base Risk: Rules of Thumb to Reduce Cognitive Overload (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 USD(AT&L) MIBP • Background – Risk in the industrial base – Risk assessment process – Continuous improvement...Conduct FaC Matrix Assessment Facilitated scoring, based on standardized criteria, by SMEs FaC Risk Matrix Validate & Mitigate High Risk Issues...Develop Mitigation Strategy(ies) SME “deep dive” into IB risk areas; facility visits High Risk IB Issues Process for Assessing IB Risk FaC Risk

  20. A Brief Intervention to Reduce Suicide Risk in Military Service Members and Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Fort Detrick, MD. Ghahramanlou-Holloway, M. (2014, April). Treatment needs of suicidal military personnel and family members. Invited...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-09-2-0129 TITLE: A Brief Intervention to Reduce Suicide Risk in Military...3. DATES COVERED 25 Sep 2013 to 24 Sep 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Brief Intervention to Reduce Suicide Risk in Military 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  1. Reducing Risk in DoD Software-Intensive Systems Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    appropriate. The purpose of this research is to analyze why DoD risk management processes have not been more effective in reducing software...every software-intensive weapon system development. • Given that the software technical risk cannot be effectively managed , risk reduction is...Test and Evaluations and Logistics fields. He earned a Master of Science degree in Systems Acquisition Management (with Distinction) from the Naval

  2. Reduced 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated as a risk factor for dementia in several cross-sectional studies. We tested the hypothesis that reduced plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia in the general...

  3. PROVIDING SOLUTIONS FOR A BETTER TOMORROW: REDUCING THE RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH LEAD IN SOIL; URL:

    Science.gov (United States)

    This brief publication describes, in general language, the health risks associated with exposure to soil and dust contaminated with lead as well as an innovative method to immobilize lead contaminants in the soil (and thereby reduce the risk of exposure) at Superfund sites. Also ...

  4. Family-centered brief intervention for reducing obesity and cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duncan, Scott; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; McPhee, Julia

    2016-01-01

    a cluster randomized controlled trial design with two treatment conditions: a CVD risk assessment and one-time consultation ("usual care" control) and a CVD risk assessment and up to five home sessions that aimed to reduce obesity by encouraging physical activity and healthy eating (intervention). Three...

  5. Risk-reducing mastectomy in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers : Factors influencing uptake and timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, Catheleine M.; Eltahir, Yassir; de Vries, J; Jaspers, Jan P.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Mourits, Marian J.; de Bock, Geertruida H.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Strategies in case of high risk of breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers are either intensive breast cancer screening or risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM). Both options have a high physical and psychosexual impact. The aim of this study is to investigate who chooses when to undergo R

  6. Probabilistic Risk Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Thoma; John Veil; Fred Limp; Jackson Cothren; Bruce Gorham; Malcolm Williamson; Peter Smith; Bob Sullivan

    2009-05-31

    This report describes work performed during the initial period of the project 'Probabilistic Risk Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems.' The specific region that is within the scope of this study is the Fayetteville Shale Play. This is an unconventional, tight formation, natural gas play that currently has approximately 1.5 million acres under lease, primarily to Southwestern Energy Incorporated and Chesapeake Energy Incorporated. The currently active play encompasses a region from approximately Fort Smith, AR east to Little Rock, AR approximately 50 miles wide (from North to South). The initial estimates for this field put it almost on par with the Barnett Shale play in Texas. It is anticipated that thousands of wells will be drilled during the next several years; this will entail installation of massive support infrastructure of roads and pipelines, as well as drilling fluid disposal pits and infrastructure to handle millions of gallons of fracturing fluids. This project focuses on gas production in Arkansas as the test bed for application of proactive risk management decision support system for natural gas exploration and production. The activities covered in this report include meetings with representative stakeholders, development of initial content and design for an educational web site, and development and preliminary testing of an interactive mapping utility designed to provide users with information that will allow avoidance of sensitive areas during the development of the Fayetteville Shale Play. These tools have been presented to both regulatory and industrial stakeholder groups, and their feedback has been incorporated into the project.

  7. Chemical Risk Evaluation: A Case Study in an Automotive Air Conditioner Production Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Hanidza T.I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been limited knowledge on worker’s exposure to chemicals used in the automotive industries. The purpose of this study is to assess chemical risk and to determine the adequacy of the existing control measures to reduce chemical exposure. A cross sectional survey was conducted in a factory involving installation and servicing of automotive air conditioner units. Qualitative exposure assessment was carried out following the Malaysian Chemical Health Risk Assessment Manual (CHRA. There were 180 employees, 156 workers worked in the production line, which constitutes six work units Tube fin pressed, Brazing, Welding, Final assembly, Piping and Kit II. From the chemical risk evaluation for each work unit, 26 chemical compounds were used. Most of the chemicals were irritants (eye and skin and some were asphyxiants and sensitizers. Based on the work assignment, 93 out of 180 (51.67% of the workers were exposed to chemicals. The highest numbers of workers exposed to chemicals were from the Brazing section (22.22% while the Final Assembly section was the lowest (1.67%. Health survey among the workers showed occurrence of eye irritation, skin irritation, and respiratory irritation, symptoms usually associated with chemical exposure. Using a risk rating matrix, several work process were identified as having ‘significant risk’. For these areas, the workers are at risk of adverse health effects since chemical exposure is not adequately controlled. This study recommends corrective actions be taken in order to control the level of exposure and to provide a safe work environment for workers.

  8. Toxic chemical hazard classification and risk acceptance guidelines for use in DOE facilities. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, D.K. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Davis, J.S. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Prowse, J. [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hoffman, P.W. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1995-03-24

    The concentration-limit guidelines presented in this document apply to airborne releases of chemicals evaluated with respect to human health effects for the purposes of hazard classification and categorization, risk assessment and safety analysis. They apply to all DOE facilities and operations involving the use of potentially hazardous chemicals. The guidelines do not address other nonradiological hazards such as fire, pressure releases (including explosions), and chemical reactivity, but the guidelines are applicable to hazardous chemical releases resulting from these events. This report presents the subcommittee`s evaluation and recommendations regarding analyses of accidentally released toxic chemicals. The premise upon which these recommendations are based is that the mechanism of action of toxic chemicals is fundamentally different from that associated with radionuclides, with the exception of carcinogens. The recommendations reported herein are restricted to the airborne pathway because in an accident scenario this typically represents the most immediately significant route of public exposure. However, the subcommittee recognizes that exposure to chemicals through other pathways, in particular waterborne, can have significant impacts on human health and the environment. Although there are a number of chemicals for which absorption through the skin can contribute measurably to the total dose in chronic (e.g., occupational) exposure situations, this pathway has not been considered for the acute exposure scenarios considered in this report. Later studies. will address these issues if it appears desirable.

  9. Public Health Risks from Mismanagement of Healthcare Wastes in Shinyanga Municipality Health Facilities, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchibanda, Kizito; Mayo, Aloyce W

    2015-01-01

    The increase of healthcare facilities in Shinyanga municipality has resulted in an increase of healthcare wastes, which poses serious threats to the environment, health workers, and the general public. This research was conducted to investigate management practices of healthcare wastes in Shinyanga municipality with a view of assessing health risks to health workers and the general public. The study, which was carried out in three hospitals, involved the use of questionnaires, in-depth interview, and observation checklist. The results revealed that healthcare wastes are not quantified or segregated in all the three hospitals. Healthcare wastes at the Shinyanga Regional Referral Hospital are disposed of by on-site incineration and burning and some wastes are disposed off-site. At Kolandoto DDH only on-site burning and land disposal are practiced, while at Kambarage UHC healthcare solid wastes are incinerated, disposed of on land disposal, and burned. Waste management workers do not have formal training in waste management techniques and the hospital administrations pay very little attention to appropriate management of healthcare wastes. In light of this, it is evident that management of healthcare solid wastes is not practiced in accordance with the national and WHO's recommended standards.

  10. Public Health Risks from Mismanagement of Healthcare Wastes in Shinyanga Municipality Health Facilities, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizito Kuchibanda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase of healthcare facilities in Shinyanga municipality has resulted in an increase of healthcare wastes, which poses serious threats to the environment, health workers, and the general public. This research was conducted to investigate management practices of healthcare wastes in Shinyanga municipality with a view of assessing health risks to health workers and the general public. The study, which was carried out in three hospitals, involved the use of questionnaires, in-depth interview, and observation checklist. The results revealed that healthcare wastes are not quantified or segregated in all the three hospitals. Healthcare wastes at the Shinyanga Regional Referral Hospital are disposed of by on-site incineration and burning and some wastes are disposed off-site. At Kolandoto DDH only on-site burning and land disposal are practiced, while at Kambarage UHC healthcare solid wastes are incinerated, disposed of on land disposal, and burned. Waste management workers do not have formal training in waste management techniques and the hospital administrations pay very little attention to appropriate management of healthcare wastes. In light of this, it is evident that management of healthcare solid wastes is not practiced in accordance with the national and WHO’s recommended standards.

  11. Primary Dietary Intervention Study to Reduce the Risk of Islet Autoimmunity in Children at Increased Risk for Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Hummel, Sandra; Pflüger, Maren; Hummel, Michael; Bonifacio, Ezio; Ziegler, Anette-G.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether delaying the introduction of gluten in infants with a genetic risk of islet autoimmunity is feasible, safe, and may reduce the risk of type 1 diabetes–associated islet autoimmunity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 150 infants with a first-degree family history of type 1 diabetes and a risk HLA genotype were randomly assigned to a first gluten exposure at age 6 months (control group) or 12 months (late-exposure group) and were followed 3 monthly until the ...

  12. 60 Million non-facility births: who can deliver in community settings to reduce intrapartum-related deaths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmstadt, Gary L; Lee, Anne C C; Cousens, Simon; Sibley, Lynn; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Donnay, France; Osrin, Dave; Bang, Abhay; Kumar, Vishwajeet; Wall, Steven N; Baqui, Abdullah; Lawn, Joy E

    2009-10-01

    For the world's 60 million non-facility births, addressing who is currently attending these births and what effect they have on birth outcomes is a key starting point toward improving care during childbirth. We present a systematic review of evidence for the effect of community-based cadres-community-based skilled birth attendants (SBAs), trained traditional birth attendants (TBAs), and community health workers (CHWs)-in improving perinatal and intrapartum-related outcomes. The evidence for providing skilled birth attendance in the community is low quality, consisting of primarily before-and-after and quasi-experimental studies, with a pooled 12% reduction in all cause perinatal mortality (PMR) and a 22%-47% reduction in intrapartum-related neonatal mortality (IPR-NMR). Low/moderate quality evidence suggests that TBA training may improve linkages with facilities and improve perinatal outcomes. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) of TBA training showed a 30% reduction in PMR, and a meta-analysis demonstrated an 11% reduction in IPR-NMR. There is moderate evidence that CHWs have a positive impact on perinatal-neonatal outcomes. Meta-analysis of CHW packages (2 cluster randomized controlled trials, 2 quasi-experimental studies) showed a 28% reduction in PMR and a 36% reduction in early neonatal mortality rate; one quasi-experimental study showed a 42% reduction in IPR-NMR. Skilled childbirth care is recommended for all pregnant women, and community strategies need to be linked to prompt, high-quality emergency obstetric care. CHWs may play a promising role in providing pregnancy and childbirth care, mobilizing communities, and improving perinatal outcomes in low-income settings. While the role of the TBA is still controversial, strategies emphasizing partnerships with the health system should be further considered. Innovative community-based strategies combined with health systems strengthening may improve childbirth care for the rural poor, help reduce gross

  13. An emotion regulation intervention to reduce risk behaviors among at-risk early adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Christopher D.; Hadley, Wendy; Barker, David; Brown, Larry K.; Hancock, Evan; Almy, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate an intervention designed to enhance early adolescents’ emotion regulation skill use and to decrease risk behaviors. Adolescents 12 to 14 years old (N = 420; 53% male) with mental health symptoms were referred for participation in either an Emotion Regulation (ER) or Health Promotion (HP) intervention consisting of twelve after-school sessions. Participants completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires on laptop computers. Using a generalized analysis of covariance controlling for baseline scores, participants in the ER intervention were less likely to be sexually active and engage in other risk behaviors, such as fighting, at the conclusion of the program. Additionally, participants in the ER intervention reported greater use of emotion regulation strategies and more favorable attitudes toward abstinence. Interventions directly targeting emotion regulation may be useful in addressing health risk behaviors of adolescents with mental health symptoms. PMID:26297499

  14. Efficiency in reducing lost-time injuries of a nurse-based and a first-aid-based on-site medical facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Søren; Mikkelsen, Kim L; Kines, Pete; Dyreborg, Johnny

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of two standards for on-site medical facilities in reducing lost-time injuries during the construction of the link across the Oresund sound between Sweden and Denmark. One medical facility employed licensed nurses, who had advanced medical assistance at their disposal. The other medical facility utilized first-aid-trained watchmen. The on-site medical facilities aimed both at providing immediate medical assistance to workers subjected to occupational injuries and at reducing lost worktime. The distributions of injuries treated on-site (the worker resumed work after treatment) and injuries sent to hospitals or to specialists were compared for each type of injury and for each category of injured body part. The on-site medical facilities dealt, in particular, with the treatment of ocular injuries (21%), wounds (21%), and sprains or strains (15%). The study showed a statistically significant on-site treatment (and resume work) rate ratio of 3.3 between the nurse-based (76%) and the first-aid-based (23%) medical facility. The construction of the Oresund Link shows a need for on-site medical facilities, particularly at remote construction sites, and that it is essential that the medical personnel have both the qualifications and authorization to treat site-specific workplace injuries effectively in order to obtain high on-site treatment rates.

  15. The efficiency of asset management strategies to reduce urban flood risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Veldhuis, J A E; Clemens, F H L R

    2011-01-01

    In this study, three asset management strategies were compared with respect to their efficiency to reduce flood risk. Data from call centres at two municipalities were used to quantify urban flood risks associated with three causes of urban flooding: gully pot blockage, sewer pipe blockage and sewer overloading. The efficiency of three flood reduction strategies was assessed based on their effect on the causes contributing to flood risk. The sensitivity of the results to uncertainty in the data source, citizens' calls, was analysed through incorporation of uncertainty ranges taken from customer complaint literature. Based on the available data it could be shown that increasing gully pot blockage is the most efficient action to reduce flood risk, given data uncertainty. If differences between cause incidences are large, as in the presented case study, call data are sufficient to decide how flood risk can be most efficiently reduced. According to the results of this analysis, enlargement of sewer pipes is not an efficient strategy to reduce flood risk, because flood risk associated with sewer overloading is small compared to other failure mechanisms.

  16. Motivational interviewing to reduce cardiovascular risk in African American and Latina women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Dawn R; Lindquist, Ruth; Treat-Jacobson, Diane; Boucher, Jackie L; Konety, Suma H; Savik, Kay

    2013-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for women, and disproportionally so for African American and Latina women. CVD is largely preventable and many risks can be attributable to health behaviors, implementing and sustaining positive health behaviors is a challenge. Motivational interviewing is one promising intervention for initiating behavior change. The purpose of this review was to identify, synthesize, and critically analyze the existing literature on the use of motivational interviewing as a behavioral intervention to reduce CVD risk among African American and Latina women. Seven studies were identified that met inclusion criteria. Results of this review suggest that motivational interviewing has mixed results when used to reduce cardiovascular risk factors in African American and Latina women. More research using a standardized motivational interviewing approach is needed to definitively determine if it is an effective behavioral intervention to reduce CVD risk when used in populations of African American and Latina women.

  17. Lived experiences of reducing environmental risks in an environmental justice community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dory

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental risks cause physical and psychological distresses to individuals who live in environmental justice (EJ communities and significantly affect their perception of wellbeing. Little is known about how these individuals perceive and manage to reduce environmental risks. The study utilizes a phenomenological approach to explore and describe these individuals' perceived environmental risk and their experience of reducing such risks. A qualitative and longitudinal design with a descriptive phenomenological method was used to recruit 23 participants living in a known EJ community in the Ironbound, New Jersey. A total of 43 indepth interviews were completed, audio recorded, and transcribed. Interview transcripts and field notes were the data sources. Data was analyzed to identify the essential structure of their experience. Participants described their awareness and perception of environmental risks in their community and the strategies they purposively assumed to protect themselves. Three essential intentional risk reduction strategies undertaken by the participants were: reducing personal exposure to environmental hazards, trying to work with the community to improve environmental conditions, and taking individual action to improve the community. The environmental risks perceived by participants tended to be small and insignificant in scale and local in space, but directly affect their wellbeing. To enhance individuals' intentional risk reduction strategies and optimize the living experiences in EJ communities, future research and policy making should focus on comprehensive strategies that incorporate individuals' perceptions and intentional strategies to develop community specific environmental policy and action plans.

  18. Meta-analyses on behavioral interventions to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergidis, Paschalis I; Falagas, Matthew E

    2009-06-01

    Different behavioral interventions have found to be efficacious in reducing high-risk sexual activity. Interventions have been evaluated in both original research and meta-analytic reviews. Most of the studies have shown that interventions are efficacious among different study populations. In adolescents, both in- and out-of-the classroom interventions showed a decrease in the risk of unprotected sex. In African Americans, greater efficacy was found for interventions including peer education. For Latinos, effect was larger in interventions with segmentation in the same gender. Geographic and social isolation are barriers in approaching MSM. For IDUs, interventions provided within a treatment program have an impact on risk reduction above that produced by drug treatment alone. Finally, people diagnosed with HIV tend to reduce their sexual risk behavior. However, adherence to safe sex practices for life can be challenging. Relentless efforts for implementation of behavioral interventions to decrease high-risk behavior are necessary to decrease HIV transmission.

  19. Compensation for risks: host community benefits in siting locally unwanted facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelberger, Jeffery J.; Ratick, Samuel J.; White, Allen L.

    1991-09-01

    This article analyzes the recent negotiations connected with siting 24 solid-waste landfills in Wisconsin. We examine the association between the type and amount of compensation paid to host communities by facility developers and the size of facilities, certain facility characteristics, the timing of negotiated agreements, the size of the host community, and the socioeconomic status of the host area. Our findings suggest that the level of compensation after adjusting for landfill capacity is positively associated with the percentage of total facility capacity dedicated to host community use, positively associated with the percentage of people of the host area who are in poverty, and larger for public facilities that accept municipal wastes. Other explanatory variables we examined, whose association with levels of compensation proved statistically insignificant, were facility size, facility status (new vs expansion), facility use (countyonly vs multicounty), timing of negotiation, host community size, and the host area education level, population density, and per capita income. We discuss the policy implications of our principal findings and future research questions in light of the persistent opposition surrounding the siting of solid-waste and other waste-management facilities.

  20. Unobserved heterogeneity and risk in wage variance: Does more schooling reduce earnings risk?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Mazza; H. van Ophem; J. Hartog

    2013-01-01

    We apply a recently proposed method to disentangle unobserved heterogeneity from risk in returns to education to data for the USA, the UK and Germany. We find that in residual wage variation, uncertainty by far dominates unobserved heterogeneity. The relation between uncertainty and level of educati

  1. Risk assessment of CST-7 proposed waste treatment and storage facilities Volume I: Limited-scope probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of proposed CST-7 waste treatment & storage facilities. Volume II: Preliminary hazards analysis of proposed CST-7 waste storage & treatment facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasser, K.

    1994-06-01

    In FY 1993, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Management Group [CST-7 (formerly EM-7)] requested the Probabilistic Risk and Hazards Analysis Group [TSA-11 (formerly N-6)] to conduct a study of the hazards associated with several CST-7 facilities. Among these facilities are the Hazardous Waste Treatment Facility (HWTF), the HWTF Drum Storage Building (DSB), and the Mixed Waste Receiving and Storage Facility (MWRSF), which are proposed for construction beginning in 1996. These facilities are needed to upgrade the Laboratory`s storage capability for hazardous and mixed wastes and to provide treatment capabilities for wastes in cases where offsite treatment is not available or desirable. These facilities will assist Los Alamos in complying with federal and state requlations.

  2. Perceptions of Risk of Developing Skin Cancer for Diverse Audiences: Enhancing Relevance of Sun Protection to Reduce the Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, June K; Friedewald, John; Gordon, Elisa J

    2016-03-01

    Sixty-five percent of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) develop squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Perceptions of risk of developing skin cancer, amelioration of this risk with sun protection, and having choices among sun protection strategies may enhance sun protection use by KTRS, who are at greater risk than the general population. Thirty KTRs stratified among non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, and Hispanic/Latinos evaluated three versions of the interactive, web-based, electronic sun protection program and suggested refinements. The sequence of content presentation prepared the participant to accept the credibility, accuracy, and relevance of the message. Beginning with informing participants that using sun protection reduces the chance of developing skin cancer made the information credible to KTRs. Showing skin cancer on all skin types and patient testimonials enhanced participants' awareness of their susceptibility to develop skin cancer and primed patients to receive their personal risk of developing skin cancer. Coupling presentation of knowledge about the benefits of sun protection in reducing the risk of developing skin cancer with the personal risk of getting the disease was essential to KTRs believing that they could influence their health outcome.

  3. Environmental health-risk assessment for tritium releases from the National Tritium Labeling Facility (NTLF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.; Brand, K.P.

    1994-12-01

    This report is a health risk assessment that addresses continuous releases of tritium to the environment from the National Tritium Labeling Facility (NTLF) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The NTLF contributes approximately 95% of all tritium releases from LBL. Transport and transformation models were used to determine the movement of tritium releases from the NRLF to the air, surface water, soils, and plants and to determine the subsequent doses to humans. These models were calibrated against environmental measurements of tritium levels in the vicinity of the NTLF and in the surrounding community. Risk levels were determined for human populations in each of these zones. Risk levels to both individuals and populations were calculated. In this report population risks and individual risks were calculated for three types of diseases--cancer, heritable genetic effects, and developmental and reproductive effects.

  4. Are environmental risk estimations linked to the actual environmental impact? Application to an oil handling facility (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdor, Paloma F; Puente, Araceli; Gómez, Aina G; Ondiviela, Bárbara; Juanes, José A

    2017-01-30

    The environmental risk analysis of aquatic systems includes the evaluation of the likelihood that adverse ecological effects may occur as a result of exposure to one or more stressors. In harbor areas, pollution is provided by a complex mixture of substances with different levels of toxicity, persistence and bioaccumulation, which complicates the hazards characterization and their multiple effects. A study of the relationship between the environmental impact and the environmental risk assessment at a specific isolated oil handling facility was undertaken. The environmental risk of the oil handling facility, considering the consequences of specific pollutants, was estimated and the associated environmental impact was quantified based on a 'weights of evidence' approach. The contamination quantified at the potentially affected area around the monobuoy of Tarragona has proved to be related with environmental risk estimations but the lines of evidence obtained do not allow us to assert that the activity developed at this facility has an associated environmental impact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reducing sexual risk behavior among high-risk couples in Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah; Bagga, Rashmi; Nehra, Ritu; Deepika; Sethi, Sunil; Walia, Kamini; Kumar, Mahendra; Villar-Loubet, Olga; Lopez, Maria; Weiss, Stephen M

    2013-09-01

    With a population of 1.1 billion, India is considered to be a country in which effective prevention interventions could contain the development of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. Heterosexual transmission accounts for 85 % of the extant HIV infections. This study sought to assess the feasibility of conducting a group, culturally tailored behavioral intervention and its impact on sexual barrier use, self-efficacy, knowledge, conflict resolution, and coping among high-risk heterosexual couples in Northern India. This pilot study was conducted at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India from February 2008 to January 2009. Thirty sexually active high-risk couples were drawn from a convenience sample of PGIMER patients attending infectious disease and family planning clinics. Couples participated in 1 month of three weekly gender-concordant behavioral intervention groups and were individually administered assessments preintervention and post-intervention. The intervention was tailored to the Northern Indian context and addressed sexual barrier use, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection transmission, and cognitive behavioral skill building focusing on sexual negotiation and communication. The participants had a mean age of 32 years (men) and 29 years (women), and the majority had at least 10 years of education. At baseline, the majority reported inconsistent condom use (communication without increasing intimate partner violence in high-risk couples may be an important adjunct to preventing the development of a generalized epidemic in India.

  6. Policies for Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickson, D.; Johnson, S.

    2014-12-01

    Hurricane- and coastal storm-related economic losses have increased substantially over the past century, largely due to expanding population and development in susceptible coastal areas. Concurrent with this growth, the federal government has assumed an increasing proportion of the financial responsibility associated with U.S. coastal storms, which may discourage state and local governments from taking appropriate actions to reduce risk and enhance resilience. Strategies to manage coastal storm risks fall into two categories: reducing the probability of flooding or wave impact (such as seawalls, storm surge barriers, beach nourishment, dune building, restoration/expansion of oyster reefs, salt marshes, and mangroves) and reducing the number or vulnerability of people or structures (such as relocation, land-use planning, and elevating or floodproofing buildings). Over the past century, most coastal risk management programs have emphasized coastal armoring, while doing little to decrease development in harm's way. This National Research Council report calls for the development of a national vision for managing coastal risks that includes a long-term view, regional solutions, and recognition of all benefits. A national coastal risk assessment is needed to identify high priority areas. Benefit-cost analysis provides a reasonable framework to evaluate national investments in coastal risk reduction, if constrained by other important environmental, social, and life-safety factors. Extensive collaboration and additional policy changes will be necessary to move from a nation that is primarily reactive to coastal disasters to one that invests wisely in coastal risk reduction and builds resilience among coastal communities.

  7. Facile synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-modified, nitrogen-doped carbon xerogel with enhanced electrochemical capacitance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Gang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Hu, Xiaoyong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Peng, Zhiguang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Hu, Jiawen, E-mail: jwhu@hnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Liu, Hongtao, E-mail: liuht@csu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2014-12-15

    In this contribution, we report a reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-modified nitrogen-doped carbon xerogel, which could be easily prepared by pyrolysis of melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resins that are polymerized hydrothermally in an aqueous GO dispersion. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transformed infrared spectrometry, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption method were employed to reveal the morphologies and structures of the prepared carbon xerogel. Cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge–discharge were used to investigate the electrochemical properties. The results showed that the charge transfer barrier of the mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon xerogel was decreased evidently, owing to the modification of a layer of rGO on its wall, and the xerogel demonstrated a capacitance of as high as 205 F g{sup −1} at the current of 1 A g{sup −1}. - Graphical abstract: A facile synthesis of rGO-modified, N-doped carbon material for supercapacitor application. - Highlights: • Nitrogen-doping and graphene-attachment in the carbon material are simultaneously achieved. • A thin layer of graphene attached on the wall of the mesoporous carbon material speeds up the charge transfer. • The graphene-modified nitrogen-doped carbon xerogel shows great potential for supercapacitor application.

  8. Highly Stretchable, Ultrasensitive, and Wearable Strain Sensors Based on Facilely Prepared Reduced Graphene Oxide Woven Fabrics in an Ethanol Flame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Biao; Wen, Yanwei; Hong, Tao; Xie, Zhongshuai; Yuan, Guoliang; Ji, Qingmin; Jia, Hongbing

    2017-09-11

    The recent booming development of wearable electronics urgently calls for high-performance flexible strain sensors. To date, it is still a challenge to manufacture flexible strain sensors with superb sensitivity and a large workable strain range simultaneously. Herein, a facile, quick, cost-effective, and scalable strategy is adopted to fabricate novel strain sensors based on reduced graphene oxide woven fabrics (GWF). By pyrolyzing commercial cotton bandages coated with graphene oxide (GO) sheets in an ethanol flame, the reduction of GO and the pyrolysis of the cotton bandage template can be synchronously completed in tens of seconds. Due to the unique hierarchical structure of the GWF, the strain sensor based on GWF exhibits large stretchability (57% strain) with high sensitivity, inconspicuous drift, and durability. The GWF strain sensor is successfully used to monitor full-range (both subtle and vigorous) human activities or physical vibrational signals of the local environment. The present work offers an effective strategy to rapidly prepare low-cost flexible strain sensors with potential applications in the fields of wearable electronics, artificial intelligence devices, and so forth.

  9. Diarrheal Disease in Rural Mozambique: Burden, Risk Factors and Etiology of Diarrheal Disease among Children Aged 0-59 Months Seeking Care at Health Facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tacilta Nhampossa

    Full Text Available Diarrheal disease remains a leading cause of illness and death, particularly in low-income countries. Its burden, microbiological causes and risk factors were examined in children aged 0-59 months living in Manhiça, rural southern Mozambique.Trends of diarrhea-related burden of disease were estimated during the period 2001-2012. A prospective, age-stratified and matched (by age, gender and geographical origin, case-control study was conducted during 2007-2011. Clinical, epidemiology, anthropometric measurement and fecal samples obtained from recruited children were used to estimate moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD weighted attributable fractions.Over the last decade the incidence of acute diarrhea has dropped by about 80%. Incidence of MSD per 100 child years at risk for the period 2007-2011 was 9.85, 7.73 and 2.10 for children aged 0-11, 12-23 and 24-59 months respectively. By adjusted population attributable fractions, most cases of MSD were due to rotavirus, Cryptosporidium, ETEC ST (ST only or ST/LT, Shigella and Adenovirus 40/41. Washing hands and having facilities to dispose child's stools were associated with a reduced risk of MSD, while giving stored water to the child was associated with an increased risk of MSD.Despite the predominantly decreasing trends observed throughout the last decade, diarrheal diseases remain today a major cause of morbidity among children aged 0-59 months living in this rural Mozambican area. Rotavirus, cryptosporidium, Shigella, ETEC ST and Adenovirus 40/41 were the most important aetiologies of MSD. Thus, well-known preventive strategies such as washing hands, improving the treatment of stored water, having facilities to dispose children stools, and accelerating the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine should be promoted on a wider scale to reduce the current burden of diarrheal diseases.

  10. Does atorvastatin work more effectively than biguanides in reducing cardiovascular risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiq, Afshan; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Baig, Sadia Ghousia

    2011-04-01

    Increased risk of coronary artery disease in diabetic persons is associated with increased level of lipoproteins. Usually, such risks are reverted with glycemic control by antidiabetic medicines in Type I diabetes millitus. However, in Type II diabetes mellitus lipid values can be improved using antidiabetics but still the risk of coronary artery disease remains. The initial approach for reducing lipid contents in diabetic patients should include glycemic control, diet, weight loss, and exercise. But if it fails then lipid-lowering agents like fibrate and HMG CoA reductase (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase) inhibitors should work effectively. In the present study results of atorvastatin compared with biguanides proved atorvastatin as a more effective lipid-lowering agent along with antidiabetic activity so it can effectively help in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

  11. Does atorvastatin work more effectively than biguanides in reducing cardiovascular risk factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshan Siddiq

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased risk of coronary artery disease in diabetic persons is associated with increased level of lipoproteins. Usually, such risks are reverted with glycemic control by antidiabetic medicines in Type I diabetes millitus. However, in Type II diabetes mellitus lipid values can be improved using antidiabetics but still the risk of coronary artery disease remains. The initial approach for reducing lipid contents in diabetic patients should include glycemic control, diet, weight loss, and exercise. But if it fails then lipid-lowering agents like fibrate and HMG CoA reductase (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors should work effectively. In the present study results of atorvastatin compared with biguanides proved atorvastatin as a more effective lipid-lowering agent along with antidiabetic activity so it can effectively help in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD.

  12. Review article Homebound instruction for students with chronic illness: reducing risk outside of the box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Shaw

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Students with chronic illness are at risk for a host of academic and social problems. The risk is exacerbated when students are unable to attend school short term or long term due to medical problems. Educators may be able to reduce academic and social risk for students with chronic illness through effective homebound instruction. However, there remain many barriers to effective homebowund instruction. Effective interdisciplinary and community coordination, development of policies, teacher support, inclusion of families, and use of technology can be combined to overcome these barriers and create effective homebound programs and policies. The result is reduced risk for the large and vulnerable population of students with chronic illness.

  13. Reproductive health and access to healthcare facilities: risk factors for depression and anxiety in women with an earthquake experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadoul Ahmed

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reproductive and mental health of women contributes significantly to their overall well-being. Three of the eight Millennium Development Goals are directly related to reproductive and sexual health while mental disorders make up three of the ten leading causes of disease burden in low and middle-income countries. Among mental disorders, depression and anxiety are two of the most prevalent. In the context of slower progress in achieving Millennium Development Goals in developing countries and the ever-increasing man-made and natural disasters in these areas, it is important to understand the association between reproductive health and mental health among women with post-disaster experiences. Methods This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 387 women of reproductive age (15-49 years randomly selected from the October 2005 earthquake affected areas of Pakistan. Data on reproductive health was collected using the Centers for Disease Control reproductive health assessment toolkit. Depression and anxiety were measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, while earthquake experiences were captured using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. The association of either depression or anxiety with socio-demographic variables, earthquake experiences, reproductive health and access to health facilities was estimated using multivariate logistic regression. Results Post-earthquake reproductive health events together with economic deprivation, lower family support and poorer access to health care facilities explained a significant proportion of differences in the experiencing of clinical levels of depression and anxiety. For instance, women losing resources for subsistence, separation from family and experiencing reproductive health events such as having a stillbirth, having had an abortion, having had abnormal vaginal discharge or having had genital ulcers, were at significant risk of depression and anxiety. Conclusion The

  14. Information Technology Role in Reducing E-Banking Services Risk in Jordanian Banking Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Y. Areiqat; Aymen M. Abu-Errub; Badi S. AL-Rawashdeh; Mohammad Dbbaghieh

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: This study aims to highlight the role of information technology in reducing risk of electronic banking services in the Jordanian banking sector. The study was conducted on three banks as a sample representative of the Jordanian banking sector. Approach: Data collection was through conducting personal interviews with the operations managers in the three banks (HBTF, JC Bank and Audi Bank). Results: The results showed that Jordanian banks showed highest attention toward risk ...

  15. Modifying eating behavior: novel approaches for reducing body weight, preventing weight regain, and reducing chronic disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gletsu-Miller, Nana; McCrory, Megan A

    2014-11-01

    This article is a summary of the symposium "Modifying Eating Behavior: Novel Approaches for Reducing Body Weight, Preventing Weight Regain, and Reducing Chronic Disease Risk" held 29 April 2014 at the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2014 in San Diego, CA. In this symposium, novel approaches to modifying eating behavior were highlighted, including 1) alteration of meal timing and macronutrient composition and 2) retraining and provision of feedback about eating behavior. Dr. Ciampolini discussed a method for teaching individuals to recognize a decrease in blood glucose concentration, and therefore the need for energy, by learning the associated physical sensations (signifying hunger). Dr. Madar and Sigal Sofer presented their work on reducing hunger during energy reduction by feeding carbohydrate only in the evening. Dr. Hamilton-Shield reviewed studies on the Mandometer (Mikrodidakt), a device for training individuals to slow eating rate. Finally, Dr. Sazonov presented information on a wearable device, the Automatic Ingestion Monitor, which senses jaw motion and/or hand-to-mouth gestures to detect and characterize food intake. His goal is to use the instrument to prevent overeating by providing feedback to the user to stop ingestion at a predetermined limit. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. The Role of Health Education in Reducing Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Mahdi Hazavehei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are one of the 10 leading causes of death in the world and the first leading cause of death in Iran. Controlling the risk factors for these diseases can reduce more than 50% of disabilities resulted from these illnesses. In this regard, it is important to consider the behaviors associated with individuals’ lifestyles. The purpose of this study is to review the studies that have used educational interventions in order to reduce risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, based on methods, application of models, and theories of health education and health promotion and the effect of intervention on reducing risk factors. Methods: Electronic search of databases was performed using the key words in English and Persian. Databases reviewed were, Scientific Information Database (SID, Iran Medex, PubMed, Ebsco and Cochrane. The databases search was conducted from February 2012 to May 2012. Results: Interventions to reduce risk factors of cardiovascular diseases were divided into two types based on use of models and theories of health education and without use of models and theories of health education. In the 19 articles reviewed, 9 studies were conducted based on theories and models of health education,and 10 studies did not use theories and models of health education. Conclusion: The results indicate that training based on theories and models of health education and using the standardized programs have a greater impact on reducing risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Time, place and length of intervention, the characteristics of the individuals and use of modern methods of training are important for some of the audience with regard to the effectiveness of the training in order to reduce risk factors.

  17. Risk factors for visual impairment and blindness amongst black adult diabetis receiving treatment at Government healthcare facilitis in Mopani District, Limpopo province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond G. Mabaso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a common systemic disease amongst Black South Africans. It may lead to diabetic retinopathy (DR, a common cause of visual impairment (VI and blindness. DR may signifiantly increase the prevalence of VI and blindness.Aim: To assess risk factors for VI and blindness amongst a black diabetic South African population aged ≥ 40 years.Setting: The study was conducted in seven Government healthcare facilities (two hospitals, four clinics and one health centre in Mopani District, Limpopo province, South Africa.Methods: This was a cross-sectional health facility-based quantitative study. Structured interviews were used to obtain information, which included sociodemographic profie, knowledge about DM and its ocular complications, presence of hypertension and accessibility to health facilities. Subsequently participants were examined for VI and blindness using an autorefractor, pinhole disc, ophthalmoscope and logMAR visual acuity chart. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight and waist were also taken. Associations between 31 risk factors and VI as well as blindness were statistically examined.Results: Participants (N = 225 included 161 women and 64 men aged 40–90 years (mean 61.5 ± 10.49 years; 41.3% of them had VI and 3.6% were blind. Cataracts (76.8% and DR (7.1% were the common causes of compensated VI and blindness. Risk factors that were associated with VI and blindness were age, monthly income, compliance with losing weight and physical activity.Conclusion: Findings suggest that lifestyle intervention and appropriate eyecare programmes may reduce VI and blindness in this population.

  18. [Estimation of cost-saving for reducing radioactive waste from nuclear medicine facilities by implementing decay in storage (DIS) in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Tetsuo; Hiraki, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Ichirou; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    DIS has not yet been implemented in Japan as of 2011. Therefore, even if risk was negligible, medical institutions have to entrust radioactive temporal waste disposal to Japan Radio Isotopes Association (JRIA) in the current situation. To decide whether DIS should be implemented in Japan or not, cost-saving effect of DIS was estimated by comparing the cost that nuclear medical facilities pay. By implementing DIS, the total annual cost for all nuclear medical facilities in Japan is estimated to be decreased to 30 million yen or less from 710 million yen. DIS would save 680 million yen (96%) per year.

  19. What can individuals do to reduce personal health risks from air pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumbach, Robert; Meng, Qingyu; Kipen, Howard

    2015-01-01

    In many areas of the world, concentrations of ambient air pollutants exceed levels associated with increased risk of acute and chronic health problems. While effective policies to reduce emissions at their sources are clearly preferable, some evidence supports the effectiveness of individual actions to reduce exposure and health risks. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution can be reduced on high air pollution days by staying indoors, reducing outdoor air infiltration to indoors, cleaning indoor air with air filters, and limiting physical exertion, especially outdoors and near air pollution sources. Limited evidence suggests that the use of respirators may be effective in some circumstances. Awareness of air pollution levels is facilitated by a growing number of public air quality alert systems. Avoiding exposure to air pollutants is especially important for susceptible individuals with chronic cardiovascular or pulmonary disease, children, and the elderly. Research on mechanisms underlying the adverse health effects of air pollution have suggested potential pharmaceutical or chemopreventive interventions, such as antioxidant or antithrombotic agents, but in the absence of data on health outcomes, no sound recommendations can be made for primary prevention. Health care providers and their patients should carefully consider individual circumstances related to outdoor and indoor air pollutant exposure levels and susceptibility to those air pollutants when deciding on a course of action to reduce personal exposure and health risks from ambient air pollutants. Careful consideration is especially warranted when interventions may have unintended negative consequences, such as when efforts to avoid exposure to air pollutants lead to reduced physical activity or when there is evidence that dietary supplements, such as antioxidants, have potential adverse health effects. These potential complications of partially effective personal interventions to reduce exposure or

  20. Facile and straightforward synthesis of superparamagnetic reduced graphene oxide-Fe3O4 hybrid composite by a solvothermal reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue-Wen; Guan, Meng-Xue; Feng, Lan; Deng, Shun-Liu; Bao, Jian-Feng; Xie, Su-Yuan; Chen, Zhong; Huang, Rong-Bin; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2013-01-18

    A superparamagnetic reduced graphene oxide-Fe(3)O(4) hybrid composite (rGO-Fe(3)O(4)) was prepared via a facile and straightforward method through the solvothermal reaction of iron (III) acetylacetonate (Fe(acac)(3)) and graphene oxide (GO) in ethylenediamine (EDA) and water. By this method, chemical reduction of GO as well as the formation of Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles (NPs) can be achieved in one step. The Fe(3)O(4) NPs are firmly deposited on the surfaces of rGO, avoiding their reassembly to graphite. The rGO sheets prevent the agglomeration of Fe(3)O(4) NPs and enable a uniform dispersion of these metal oxide particles. The size distribution and coverage density of Fe(3)O(4) NPs deposited on rGO can be controlled by varying the initial mass ratio of GO and iron precursor, Fe(acac)(3). With an initial mass ratio of GO and Fe(acac)(3) of 5:5, the surfaces of rGO sheets are densely covered by spherical Fe(3)O(4) NPs with an average size of 19.9 nm. The magnetic-functionalized rGO hybrid exhibits a good magnetic property and the specific saturation magnetization (M(s)) is 13.2 emu g(-1). The adsorption test of methylene blue from aqueous solution demonstrates the potential application of this rGO-Fe(3)O(4) hybrid composite in removing organic dyes from polluted water.

  1. Meta-analysis: Does garlic intake reduce risk of gastric cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodali, R T; Eslick, Guy D

    2015-01-01

    In the past 2 decades, various epidemiological studies investigated whether garlic can positively modify the risk of gastric cancer. Garlic contains numerous sulfide compounds, including diallyl trisulfide, which have anticarcinogenic properties. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine if garlic intake reduces the risk of gastric cancer. An electronic search of MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE to June 2014 was completed. There were 14 case control studies, 2 randomized controlled studies, and 1 cohort study that fulfilled our inclusion criteria. We used a random effects model to calculate pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of gastric cancer with garlic consumption. Meta-analysis of a total of 8,621 cases and 14,889 controls was conducted. Significant variability in duration of garlic intake and reference categories for amount of intake was noted. High, low, and any garlic intake were all associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer. High intake had the most significant risk reduction, OR = 0.49 (95% CI: 0.38-0.62). Heterogeneity was low (I² = 30.85, P = 0.17). A more modest risk reduction was associated with low intake, OR = 0.75 (95% CI: 0.58-0.97). Half of the studies did not separate garlic intake into high or low amounts, intake was only noted as consumption vs. non-consumption. Any amount of consumption still showed a risk reduction similar to low intake, OR = 0.77 (95% CI: 0.60-1.00). Low and any amount of consumption showed moderate heterogeneity (58% and 45%, respectively). Garlic intake appears to be associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer. Further high quality studies are required to confirm this finding and to assess the amount of garlic that needs to be consumed for protective effect.

  2. Use of medications that antagonize mediators of inflammatory responses may reduce the risk of delirium in older adults: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Martin G; McCusker, Jane; Wilchesky, Machelle; Voyer, Philippe; Monette, Johanne; Champoux, Nathalie; Vu, Minh; Ciampi, Antonio; Belzile, Eric

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study is to explore whether the use of medications that antagonize mediators of inflammatory responses reduces the risk of delirium in older adults. A nested case-control study was conducted using data from a prospective study of delirium in older long-term care residents from 7 long-term care facilities in Montreal and Quebec City, Canada. The Confusion Assessment Method was used to diagnose incident delirium. The use of medications that antagonize mediators of inflammatory responses was determined by examining facility pharmacy databases and coding medications received daily by each resident. Risk sets were built using incidence density sampling: each risk set consisted of a case with incident delirium and all controls without incident delirium at the same date and facility. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess the association of exposure to inflammation antagonist medications with the incidence of delirium. Of 254 residents, 95 developed incident delirium during 24 weeks (cases); each case was matched with up to 35 controls. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) of delirium for residents exposed to at least one inflammation antagonist medication were 0.53 (0.34, 0.81) and 0.60 (0.38, 0.92), respectively. Estimates of the risk of incident delirium associated with specific medications and medication classes were mostly protective but not statistically significant. The use of medications that antagonize mediators of inflammatory responses may reduce the risk of delirium in older adults. Despite study limitations, the findings merit further investigation using larger patient samples, more precise measures of exposure and better control of potential confounding variables. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Root Cause Analyses of Transfers of Skilled Nursing Facility Patients to Acute Hospitals: Lessons Learned for Reducing Unnecessary Hospitalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouslander, Joseph G; Naharci, Ilkin; Engstrom, Gabriella; Shutes, Jill; Wolf, David G; Alpert, Graig; Rojido, Carolina; Tappen, Ruth; Newman, David

    2016-03-01

    Performing root cause analyses (RCA) on transfers of skilled nursing facility (SNF) patients to acute hospitals can help identify opportunities for care process improvements and education that may help prevent unnecessary emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and hospital readmissions. To describe the results of structured, retrospective RCAs performed by SNF staff on hospital transfers to identify lessons learned for reducing these transfers. SNFs enrolled in a randomized, controlled implementation trial of the INTERACT (Interventions to Reduce Acute Care Transfers) quality improvement program submitted RCAs on hospital transfers during a 12-month implementation period. SNFs from across the United States that volunteered and met the enrollment criteria for the implementation trial. Sixty-four of 88 SNFs randomized to the intervention group performed and submitted retrospective RCAs on hospital transfers. SNFs received education and technical assistance in INTERACT implementation. Data were summarized from the INTERACT Quality Improvement (QI) tool, a structured, retrospective RCA on hospital transfers. A total of 4856 QI tools were submitted during the 12-month implementation period. Most transfers were precipitated by multiple symptoms and signs, many of them nonspecific. Patient and/or family preference or insistence was noted to have played a role in 16% of the transfers. Hospital transfers were relatively equally distributed among days of the week, and 29% occurred on the night or evening shift. Approximately 1 in 5 transfers occurred within 6 days of SNF admission from a hospital, and 1 in 10 occurred within 2 days of SNF admission. After completing the RCA, SNF staff identified 1044 (23%) of the transfers as potentially preventable. Common reasons for these ratings included recognition that the condition could have been detected earlier and/or could have been managed safely in the SNF, and that earlier advance care planning and discussions with

  4. Bone mineral density and fractures after risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in women at increased risk for breast and ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fakkert, Ingrid E.; Abma, Elske Marije; Westrik, Iris G.; Lefrandt, Joop D.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; van der Veer, Eveline; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Mourits, Marian J. E.

    AIM: Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) reduces ovarian cancer risk in BRCA mutation carriers. RRSO is assumed to decrease bone mineral density (BMD) and increase fracture risk more than natural menopause. We aimed to compare BMD and fracture incidence after premenopausal RRSO to general

  5. The Effectiveness of Different Diet Strategies to Reduce Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Megan L.; Garnett, Sarah P.; Baur, Louise A.; Lister, Natalie B.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents has become a prominent clinical issue in recent decades. Increasing numbers of young people have risk factors for type 2 diabetes, particularly obesity, indicating the need for effective type 2 diabetes prevention strategies. The aim of this review was to identify specific dietary strategies that optimize improvements in risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth and hence reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes development. Our review of the current literature indicates that dietary interventions lead to weight loss when intervention adherence is high. However, in addition to weight loss, a diet that is reduced in carbohydrates may optimize improvements in other type 2 diabetes risk factors, including insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. While further research is needed to confirm this finding, reduced carbohydrate diets may include a very low-carbohydrate diet, a very low-energy diet, a lower-glycemic-index diet, and/or an intermittent fasting diet. This array of dietary strategies provides a suite of intervention options for clinicians to recommend to young people at risk of type 2 diabetes. However, these findings are in contrast to current guidelines for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in adults which recommends a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet. PMID:27517953

  6. The Effectiveness of Different Diet Strategies to Reduce Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Megan L; Garnett, Sarah P; Baur, Louise A; Lister, Natalie B

    2016-08-09

    Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents has become a prominent clinical issue in recent decades. Increasing numbers of young people have risk factors for type 2 diabetes, particularly obesity, indicating the need for effective type 2 diabetes prevention strategies. The aim of this review was to identify specific dietary strategies that optimize improvements in risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth and hence reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes development. Our review of the current literature indicates that dietary interventions lead to weight loss when intervention adherence is high. However, in addition to weight loss, a diet that is reduced in carbohydrates may optimize improvements in other type 2 diabetes risk factors, including insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. While further research is needed to confirm this finding, reduced carbohydrate diets may include a very low-carbohydrate diet, a very low-energy diet, a lower-glycemic-index diet, and/or an intermittent fasting diet. This array of dietary strategies provides a suite of intervention options for clinicians to recommend to young people at risk of type 2 diabetes. However, these findings are in contrast to current guidelines for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in adults which recommends a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet.

  7. POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK REDUCTION ARISING FROM REDUCED MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T. M.; Lipfert, F. W.; Morris, S. C.; Moskowitz, P. D.

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced plans to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA has not prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. To address this issue, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in human health risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. The primary pathway for Hg exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to Hg exposure is the fetus. Therefore the risk assessment focused on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Dose response factors were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions. Three scenarios for reducing Hg emissions from coal plants were considered: (1) A base case using current conditions; (2) A 50% reduction; and, (3) A 90% reduction. These reductions in emissions were assumed to translate linearly into a reduction in fish Hg levels of 8.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Population risk estimates were also calculated for two subsistence fisher populations. These groups of people consume substantially more fish than the general public and, depending on location, the fish may contain higher Hg levels than average. Risk estimates for these groups were calculated for the three Hg levels used for the general population analyses. Analysis shows that the general population risks for exposure of the fetus to Hg are small. Estimated risks under current conditions (i.e., no

  8. Obesity increases the risk for high-grade prostate cancer: results from the REDUCE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Adriana C; Howard, Lauren E; Moreira, Daniel M; Castro-Santamaria, Ramiro; Andriole, Gerald L; Freedland, Stephen J

    2014-12-01

    Studies suggest that obesity is associated with lower risk of prostate cancer but more aggressive cancers. As obesity lowers PSA levels, these observations may be influenced by detection bias. We examined the association between obesity and risk of low- and high-grade prostate cancer in REDUCE, in which biopsies were largely independent of PSA. The REDUCE study tested dutasteride for prostate cancer risk reduction in men with a PSA of 2.5 to 10.0 ng/mL and a negative biopsy. Study participants included 6,729 men who underwent at least one on-study biopsy. The association between baseline body mass index (BMI obese) and risk of high-grade (Gleason ≥7) or low-grade prostate cancer (Gleason prostate cancer was examined using multinomial logistic regression. Overall, 1,739 men (27%) were normal weight, 3,384 (53%) overweight, and 1,304 (20%) were obese. Obesity was associated with lower risk of low-grade prostate cancer in both univariable (OR, 0.74; P = 0.001) and multivariable analyses (OR, 0.79; P = 0.01). In univariable analysis, obesity was not associated with high-grade prostate cancer (OR, 1.08; P = 0.50). However, in multivariable analysis, obesity was associated with increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer (OR, 1.28; P = 0.042). This analysis was not able to address how obesity may influence prostate cancer progression. Obesity is associated with decreased risk of low-grade and increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer. These data provide further support to the hypothesis that obesity is associated with aggressive prostate cancer. Obesity is linked with aggressive prostate cancer. Avoiding obesity may prevent the risk of developing high-grade prostate cancer. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Influences on Adaptive Planning to Reduce Flood Risks among Parishes in South Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Paille

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Residents of south Louisiana face a range of increasing, climate-related flood exposure risks that could be reduced through local floodplain management and hazard mitigation planning. A major incentive for community planning to reduce exposure to flood risks is offered by the Community Rating System (CRS of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP. The NFIP encourages local collective action by offering reduced flood insurance premiums for individual policy holders of communities where suggested risk-reducing measures have been implemented. This preliminary analysis examines the extent to which parishes (counties in southern Louisiana have implemented the suggested policy actions and identifies key factors that account for variation in the implementation of the measures. More measures implemented results in higher CRS scores. Potential influences on scores include socioeconomic attributes of residents, government capacity, average elevation and past flood events. The results of multiple regression analysis indicate that higher CRS scores are associated most closely with higher median housing values. Furthermore, higher scores are found in parishes with more local municipalities that participate in the CRS program. The number of floods in the last five years and the revenue base of the parish does not appear to influence CRS scores. The results shed light on the conditions under which local adaptive planning to mitigate increasing flood risks is more likely to be implemented and offer insights for program administrators, researchers and community stakeholders.

  10. Reducing Environmental Risks by Information Disclosure: Evidence in Residential Lead Paint Disclosure Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyunhoe

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there has been a surge in environmental regulations that require information disclosure. However, existing empirical evidence is limited to certain applications and has yet to generalize the effectiveness of this approach as a policy strategy to reduce environmental risks. This study evaluates the disclosure rule of the residential lead…

  11. NIH study finds regular aspirin use may reduce ovarian cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women who take aspirin daily may reduce their risk of ovarian cancer by 20 percent, according to a study by scientists at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health. However, further research is needed before clinical r

  12. Do Differences in Childhood Diet Explain the Reduced Overweight Risk in Breastfed Children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Salome; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriette A.; Gast, Gerrie-Cor M.; Hoekstra, Maarten O.; De Jongste, Johan C.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Seidell, Jaap C.; Wijga, Alet H.

    2008-01-01

    Breastfeeding has been associated with a reduced risk of overweight later in life. This study investigates whether differences in diet and lifestyle at 7 years of age between breastfed and formula-fed children can explain the difference in overweight prevalence at 8 years of age. We studied 2,043 Du

  13. Do Differences in Childhood Diet Explain the Reduced Overweight Risk in Breastfed Children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Salome; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriette A.; Gast, Gerrie-Cor M.; Hoekstra, Maarten O.; De Jongste, Johan C.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Seidell, Jaap C.; Wijga, Alet H.

    2008-01-01

    Breastfeeding has been associated with a reduced risk of overweight later in life. This study investigates whether differences in diet and lifestyle at 7 years of age between breastfed and formula-fed children can explain the difference in overweight prevalence at 8 years of age. We studied 2,043

  14. Potential Mediating Pathways through Which Sports Participation Relates to Reduced Risk of Suicidal Ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Miller, M. David; Pigg, R. Morgan; Dodd, Virginia J.

    2010-01-01

    Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death for American youth. Researchers examining sport participation and suicidal behavior have regularly found inverse relationships. This study represents the first effort to test a model depicting potential mechanisms through which sport participation relates to reduced risk of suicidal ideation. The…

  15. Group Intervention to Reduce HIV Transmission Risk Behavior Among Persons Living With HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Rompa, David; Cage, Marjorie

    2005-01-01

    Results of a randomized controlled trial show that a behavioral intervention grounded in social cognitive theory reduces unprotected sexual behaviors among men and women living with HIV infection, with the greatest reductions in HIV transmission risk behaviors occurring with non-HIV-positive sex partners. In this article, the authors describe the…

  16. A Community Health Advisor Program to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk among Rural African-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, C. E.; Littleton, M. A.; Greene, P. G.; Pulley, L.; Brownstein, J. N.; Sanderson, B. K.; Stalker, V. G.; Matson-Koffman, D.; Struempler, B.; Raczynski, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The Uniontown, Alabama Community Health Project trained and facilitated Community Health Advisors (CHAs) in conducting a theory-based intervention designed to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rural African-American women. The multiphased project included formative evaluation and community organization, CHA recruitment and…

  17. ACCURATE FORECAST AS AN EFFECTIVE WAY TO REDUCE THE ECONOMIC RISK OF AGRO-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kymratova A. M.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the ways of reducing the financial, economic and social risks on the basis of an accurate prediction. We study the importance of natural time series of winter wheat yield, minimum winter, winter-spring daily temperatures. The feature of the time series of this class is disobeying a normal distribution, there is no visible trend

  18. Physical activity reduces hippocampal atrophy in elders at genetic risk for Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Carson eSmith

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined the impact of physical activity (PA on longitudinal change in hippocampal volume in cognitively intact older adults at varying genetic risk for the sporadic form of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Hippocampal volume was measured from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans administered at baseline and at an 18-month follow-up in 97 healthy, cognitively intact older adults. Participants were classified as High or Low PA based on a self-report questionnaire of frequency and intensity of exercise. Risk status was defined by the presence or absence of the apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4 (APOE-ε4 allele. Four subgroups were studied: Low Risk/High PA (n = 24, Low Risk/Low PA (n = 34, High Risk/High PA (n = 22, and High Risk/Low PA (n = 17. Over the 18 month follow-up interval, hippocampal volume decreased by 3% in the High Risk/Low PA group, but remained stable in the three remaining groups. No main effects or interactions between genetic risk and PA were observed in control brain regions, including the caudate, amygdala, thalamus, precentral gyrus, caudal middle frontal gyrus, cortical white matter, and total grey matter. These findings suggest that PA may help to preserve hippocampal volume in individuals at increased genetic risk for AD. The protective effects of PA on hippocampal atrophy were not observed in individuals at low risk for AD. These data suggest that individuals at genetic risk for AD should be targeted for increased levels of PA as a means of reducing atrophy in a brain region critical for the formation of episodic memories.

  19. A research program to reduce interior noise in general aviation airplanes. Design of an acoustic panel test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, J.; Muirhead, V. U.; Smith, H. W.; Henderson, T. D.

    1977-01-01

    The design, construction, and costs of a test facility for determining the sound transmission loss characteristics of various panels and panel treatments are described. The pressurization system and electronic equipment used in experimental testing are discussed as well as the reliability of the facility and the data gathered. Tests results are compared to pertinent acoustical theories for panel behavior and minor anomalies in the data are examined. A method for predicting panel behavior in the stiffness region is also presented.

  20. Reduced risk of axillary lymphatic spread in triple-negative breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Rasmussen, Emil Villiam; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Balslev, Eva

    2015-01-01

    involvement at diagnosis compared to a HER2-negative status (OR 1.37; 95 % CI 1.24-1.50; P negative patients (P triple-negative...... of tumor subtypes in ALN involvement. The risk of ALN metastases at the time of diagnosis was significantly reduced in HR-negative patients compared to HR-positive patients [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.69; 95 % CI 0.63-0.76; P = 0.0009]. A HER2-positive status was associated with an increased risk of ALN...... breast cancer (TNBC) patients showed a significantly reduced risk of ALN involvement at the time of diagnosis compared to patients with HR-positive/HER2-negative tumors (OR 0.55; 95 % CI 0.49-0.62; P

  1. Digoxin in Heart Failure with a Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Risk Factor or a Risk Marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, Dimitrios M; Karvounis, Haralambos; Giannakoulas, George

    2016-01-01

    Digoxin is one of the oldest compounds used in cardiovascular medicine. Nevertheless, its mechanism of action and most importantly its clinical utility have been the subject of an endless dispute. Positive inotropic and neurohormonal modulation properties are attributed to digoxin, and it was the mainstay of heart failure therapeutics for decades. However, since the institution of β-blockers and aldosterone antagonists as part of modern heart failure medical therapy, digoxin prescription rates have been in free fall. The fact that digoxin is still listed as a valid therapeutic option in both American and European heart failure guidelines has not altered clinicians' attitude towards the drug. Since the publication of original Digitalis Investigation Group trial data, a series of reports based predominately on observational studies and post hoc analyses have raised concerns about the clinical efficacy and long-term safety of digoxin. In the present review, we will attempt a critical appraisal of the available clinical evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of digoxin in heart failure patients with a reduced ejection fraction. The methodological issues, strengths, and limitations of individual studies will be highlighted.

  2. Risk Factors for Birth Asphyxia in an Urban Health Facility in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas CHIABI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Chiabi A, Nguefack S, Mah E, Nodem S, Mbuagbaw L, Mbonda E, Tchokoteu PF, Doh A. Risk Factors for Birth Asphyxia in an Urban Health Facility in Cameroon. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Summer; 7(3:46-54.ObjectiveThe World Health Organization (WHO estimates that 4 million children are born with asphyxia every year, of which 1 million die and an equal number survive with severe neurologic sequelae. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors of birth asphyxia and the hospital outcome of affected neonates.Materials & MethodsThis study was a prospective case-control study on term neonates in a tertiary hospital in Yaounde, with an Apgar score of < 7 at the 5th minute as the case group, that were matched with neonates with an Apgar score of ≥ 7 at the 5th minute as control group. Statistical analysis of relevant variables of the mother and neonates was carried out to determine the significant risk factors.ResultsThe prevalence of neonatal asphyxia was 80.5 per 1000 live births. Statistically significant risk factors were the single matrimonial status, place of antenatal visits, malaria, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, prolonged labor, arrest of labour,prolonged rupture of membranes, and non-cephalic presentation. Hospital mortality was 6.7%, that 12.2% of them had neurologic deficits and/or abnormal transfontanellar ultrasound/electroencephalogram on discharge, and 81.1% hada satisfactory outcome.ConclusionThe incidence of birth asphyxia in this study was 80.5% per1000 live birth with a mortality of 6.7%. Antepartum risk factors were: place of antenatal visit, malaria during pregnancy, and preeclampsia/eclampsia. Whereas prolonged labor, stationary labor, and term prolonged rupture of membranes were intrapartum risk faktors. Preventive measures during prenatal  visits through informing and communicating with pregnant women should be reinforced. References1. World Health Organisation. Perinatal mortality: a listingof

  3. Immediate Antiretroviral Therapy Reduces Risk of Infection-Related Cancer During Early HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Babiker, Abdel G;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  In the Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment (START) study, immediate combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation reduced cancer risk by 64%. We hypothesized that risk reduction was higher for infection-related cancer and determined by differences in CD4 cell counts...... and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA between the study arms. METHODS:  Incident malignancies in START were categorized into infection-related and infection-unrelated cancer. We used Cox models to assess factors associated with both cancer categories. We used sequential adjustment for baseline...... covariates, cancer risk factors, and HIV-specific variables to investigate potential mediators of cancer risk reduction with immediate cART. RESULTS:  There were 14 cancers among persons randomized to immediate cART (6 infection-related and 8 infection-unrelated) and 39 cancers in the deferred arm (23...

  4. Health risks for the population living in the vicinity of an Integrated Waste Management Facility: Screening environmental pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo, José L., E-mail: joseluis.domingo@urv.cat [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Rovira, Joaquim [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Vilavert, Lolita; Nadal, Martí [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Figueras, María J. [Microbiology Unit, School of Medicine, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Schuhmacher, Marta [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2015-06-15

    We performed a screening investigation to assess the human health risks of the Integrated Waste Management Facility (IWMF: mechanical–biological treatment (MBT) plant plus municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI); Ecoparc-3) of Barcelona (Spain). Air concentrations of pollutants potentially released by the MBT plant (VOCs and bioaerosols) and the MSWI (trace elements, PCDD/Fs and PCBs) were determined. Trace elements, PCDD/Fs and PCBs were also analyzed in soil samples. The concentrations of trace elements and bioaerosols were similar to those previously reported in other areas of similar characteristics, while formaldehyde was the predominant VOC. Interestingly, PCDD/F concentrations in soil and air were the highest ever reported near a MSWI in Catalonia, being maximum concentrations 10.8 ng WHO-TEQ/kg and 41.3 fg WHO-TEQ/m{sup 3}, respectively. In addition, there has not been any reduction in soils, even after the closure of a power plant located adjacently. Human health risks of PCDD/F exposure in the closest urban nucleus located downwind the MSWI are up to 10-times higher than those nearby other MSWIs in Catalonia. Although results must be considered as very preliminary, they are a serious warning for local authorities. We strongly recommend to conduct additional studies to confirm these findings and, if necessary, to implement measures to urgently mitigate the impact of the MSWI on the surrounding environment. We must also state the tremendous importance of an individual evaluation of MSWIs, rather than generalizing their environmental and health risks. - Highlights: • Health risks of an Integrated Waste Management Facility in Catalonia are assessed. • PCDD/F exposure near this facility is up to 10-times higher than that near others. • Environmental monitoring of incineration plants should be performed case-by-case. • Since results are very preliminary, confirmatory studies should be conducted.

  5. Short-term surgical outcome and safety of risk reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenkhuis, M. J. A.; de Bock, G. H.; Elferink, P. Oude; Arts, H. J. G.; Oosterwijk, J. C.; Jansen, L.; Mourits, M. J. E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Women with a BRCA1/2 mutation or members of a hereditary breast ovarian cancer family (HBOC) have an increased risk of developing ovarian cancer. The only effective strategy to reduce this risk is a risk reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO). The aim of this study was to evaluate the shor

  6. Risk Management Plan (RMP) Facility Points, Region 9, 2014, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Risk Management Plan (RMP): Under the Clean Air Act, Section 112(r), the EPA established a program requiring risk management plans to be provided to the EPA by...

  7. Damage-reducing measures to manage flood risks in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Bubeck, Philip; Van Vliet, Mathijs; De Moel, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Damage due to floods has increased during the last few decades, and further increases are expected in several regions due to climate change and a growing vulnerability. To address the projected increase in flood risk, a combination of structural and non-structural flood risk mitigation measures is considered as a promising adaptation strategy. Such a combination takes into account that flood defence systems may fail, and prepare for unexpected crisis situations via land-use planning, building construction, evacuation and disaster response. Non-structural flood risk mitigation measures like shielding with water shutters or sand bags, building fortification or safeguarding of hazardous substances are often voluntary: they demand self-dependent action by the population at risk (Bubeck et al. 2012; 2013). It is believed that these measures are especially effective in areas with frequent flood events and low flood water levels, but some types of measures showed a significant damage-reducing effect also during extreme flood events, such as the Elbe River flood in August 2002 in Germany (Kreibich et al. 2005; 2011). Despite the growing importance of damage-reducing measures, information is still scarce about factors that motivate people to undertake such measures, the state of implementation of various non-structural measures in different countries and their damage reducing effects. Thus, we collected information and undertook an international review about this topic in the framework of the Dutch KfC project "Climate proof flood risk management". The contribution will present an overview about the available information on damage-reducing measures and draw conclusions for practical flood risk management in a changing climate. References: Bubeck, P., Botzen, W. J. W., Suu, L. T. T., Aerts, J. C. J. H. (2012): Do flood risk perceptions provide useful insights for flood risk management? Findings from central Vietnam. Journal of Flood Risk Management, 5, 4, 295-302 Bubeck, P

  8. The Potential Role of Tree Diversity in Reducing Shallow Landslide Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yuta; Mori, Akira S

    2017-05-01

    Recently, interest in utilizing ecosystems for disaster risk reduction has increased, even though there remains considerable uncertainty regarding the role of ecosystems in buffering against natural hazards. This ecosystem role can be considered an ecosystem service. Although a strong body of evidence shows that biodiversity enhances ecosystem services, there are only a few studies of the relationship between biodiversity and the role of the ecosystem in reducing the risk of natural disasters. To explore the desired state of an ecosystem for disaster risk reduction we applied the finding that biodiversity enhances ecosystem services to evaluate the role of woody vegetation in reducing the frequency and severity of shallow landslides. Using information related to shallow landslides and woody vegetation in Japan as a case study, we compared the severity of shallow landslides (i.e., landslide volume) with tree species richness. Although we provide no direct evidence that tree species richness reduces shallow landslide volume, we found that the predictability of the model, which evaluated relationships between landslide volume and environmental variables in watersheds throughout the Japanese Archipelago, increased with tree species richness. This finding suggests that biodiversity is likely associated with shallow landslide risk reduction, emphasizing a possible reduction of spatial and temporal uncertainty in the roles of woody vegetation. Our study identifies a need for socioecological systems to build new approaches found on the functionality of such ecosystems.

  9. Development of the scenario-based training system to reduce hazards and prevent accidents during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, KwanSeong; Choi, Jong-Won; Moon, JeiKwon; Choi, ByungSeon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, IkJune; Kim, GeunHo; Kang, ShinYoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Decommissioning of nuclear facilities has to be accomplished by assuring the safety of workers. Decommissioning workers need familiarization with working environments because working environment is under high radioactivity and work difficulty during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. On-the-job training of decommissioning works could effectively train decommissioning workers but this training approach could consume much costs and poor modifications of scenarios. The efficiency of virtual training system could be much better than that of physical training system. This paper was intended to develop the training system to prevent accidents for decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The requirements for the training system were drawn. The data management modules for the training system were designed. The training system of decommissioning workers was developed on the basis of virtual reality which is flexibly modified. The visualization and measurement in the training system were real-time done according as changes of the decommissioning scenario. It can be concluded that this training system enables the subject to improve his familiarization about working environments and to prevent accidents during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. In the end, the safety during decommissioning of nuclear facilities will be guaranteed under the principle of ALARA.

  10. The approach taken to reducing the risk of transfusion related acute lung injury in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Growe G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI has become a major reported cause of severe transfusion reactions and mortality. Over the past four years significant changes have been taken in Canada in order both to improve the recognition of the risk and to decrease its incidence. An international meeting was held in April of 2004 entitled "Towards an Understanding of TRALI". As a result of the analysis and recommendations from this meeting, the Canadian Blood Services established an ongoing review committee and established a laboratory diagnostic facility to identify at risk donors and recipients. A system has been developed to identify implicated donors and exclude them from the blood donor pool. Other steps have been taken to exclude potentially high risk donors, such as previously pregnant females, from the plasma and platelet donor pool. A considerable amount of education also has been offered to clinical services in the country. This paper summarizes the definitions, categorizations of implicated donors, and the ongoing precautionary activities related to plasma products. Noted within the article are the methods used for locating and selecting data. These were primarily based on the international TRALI conference in 2004, and from ongoing discussions and information provided by the Canadian Blood Services TRALI Review Committee. No ethics referral or approval was requested, and a summary is included in the article.

  11. Acceptability of mobile health interventions to reduce inactivity-related health risk in central Pennsylvania adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsiang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient physical activity and excessive sedentary behavior elevate health risk. Mobile applications (apps provide one mode for delivering interventions to modify these behaviors and reduce health risk. The purpose of this study was to characterize the need for and acceptability of health behavior interventions among rural adults and evaluate the interest in and the value of app-based interventions in this population. Central Pennsylvania adults with smartphones (N = 258 completed a brief web survey in October–November 2012. Most adults report one or both inactivity-related behavioral risk factors, would use a free app to modify those risk behaviors, and would pay a small amount for that app. Low-cost, efficacious apps to increase physical activity or reduce sedentary behavior should be promoted in public health practice. User experience should be at the forefront of this process to increase value and minimize burden in the service of long-term engagement, behavior change, and health risk reduction.

  12. Risk management in facility transition and management decision making: Needs and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stillwell, W.; Seaver, D.; Keller, J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Smith, D. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Weaver, D.; Sanders, T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thullen, P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-02-01

    An overall approach to risk management is described in this paper. Many of these concepts have been developed and applied as part of Hanford Mission Planning (HMP) (Hanford Mission Plan, 1992). At Hanford, HMP provides a mechanism for integrating planning across all the missions and programs of the site. This paper discusses the decision context within which EM must make and defend decisions, the types of decisions that are being and will need to be made in order to progress with the cleanup of the DOE complex, and the resulting need for risk management. Risk management, in turn, requires quality health and ecological risk information to make these decisions. Other types of information are also needed, but the risk information is typically the most important and the most difficult to obtain. The paper then describes a general technical approach to risk management, including particular methods for developing the high quality of human health and ecological risk information that will be needed to support risk management. We next turn to several special issues that make risk management more complex than many other decisions. We discuss these issues and offer some practical suggestions with respect to addressing them in the risk management framework. Finally, we conclude with some discussion of other opportunities for applying risk management.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of newborn circumcision in reducing lifetime HIV risk among U.S. males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L Sansom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV incidence was substantially lower among circumcised versus uncircumcised heterosexual African men in three clinical trials. Based on those findings, we modeled the potential effect of newborn male circumcision on a U.S. male's lifetime risk of HIV, including associated costs and quality-adjusted life-years saved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Given published estimates of U.S. males' lifetime HIV risk, we calculated the fraction of lifetime risk attributable to heterosexual behavior from 2005-2006 HIV surveillance data. We assumed 60% efficacy of circumcision in reducing heterosexually-acquired HIV over a lifetime, and varied efficacy in sensitivity analyses. We calculated differences in lifetime HIV risk, expected HIV treatment costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs among circumcised versus uncircumcised males. The main outcome measure was cost per HIV-related QALY saved. Circumcision reduced the lifetime HIV risk among all males by 15.7% in the base case analysis, ranging from 7.9% for white males to 20.9% for black males. Newborn circumcision was a cost-saving HIV prevention intervention for all, black and Hispanic males. The net cost of newborn circumcision per QALY saved was $87,792 for white males. Results were most sensitive to the discount rate, and circumcision efficacy and cost. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Newborn circumcision resulted in lower expected HIV-related treatment costs and a slight increase in QALYs. It reduced the 1.87% lifetime risk of HIV among all males by about 16%. The effect varied substantially by race and ethnicity. Racial and ethnic groups who could benefit the most from circumcision may have least access to it due to insurance coverage and state Medicaid policies, and these financial barriers should be addressed. More data on the long-term protective effect of circumcision on heterosexual males as well as on its efficacy in preventing HIV among MSM would be useful.

  14. RISK ASSESSMENT BY STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND VIBRATION MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT OPERATING AT OIL FACILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius STAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Vibration analysis applications in operation is one of the diagnostic methods ofoperation of the facility. Analysis of these types of failures indicated the existence of specificfeatures prints and related equipment vibration spectra. Modeling and identification of theseparticular aspects in the spectrum of vibration machines help to control the operation of oilfacilities built safely.

  15. Environmental health-risk assessment for tritium releases at the National Tritium Labeling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.; Brand, K.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Health and Ecological Assessment Div.; Shan, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

    1997-04-01

    This risk assessment calculates the probability of experiencing health effects, including cancer incidence due to tritium exposure for three groups of people: (1) LBNL workers near the LBNL facility--Building 75--that uses tritium; (2) other workers at LBNL and nearby neighbors; and (3) people who use the UC Berkeley campus area, and some Berkeley residents. All of these groups share the same probability of health effects from the background radiation from natural sources in the Berkeley area environment, including an increased risk of developing a cancer of 11,000 chances per million. In calculating risk the authors assumed continuous operation in Building 75 for at least a human lifetime. Under this assumption, LBNL workers located near Building 75 have an additional risk of 60 chances out of one million to suffer a cancer; other workers at LBNL and people who live near LBNL have an additional risk of six chances out of one million over a lifetime of exposure; and users of the UC Berkeley campus area and other residents of Berkeley have an additional risk of less than once chance out of one million over a lifetime.

  16. [New guidelines for reducing the risk of sudden infant death. "Triple risk model" provide the basis for prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennergren, Göran

    The Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare has presented new advice to reduce the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, SIDS, supplemented with factual material for health personnel. The advice state: 1) The infant should sleep on its back, 2) parents should refrain from nicotine, 3) the infant’s face should be kept free, overheating avoided and movements not restrained, 4) the safest place to sleep for an infant under three months is in its own cot, 5) breast-feed if possible, and 6) pacifier (dummy) can be used when the infant is going to sleep. Apparent life-threatening events in the maternity ward are discussed. In early breast-feeding attempts, it should be checked that breathing is free to avoid suffocation accidents. The best hypothesis of SIDS pathogenesis seems to be offered by the triple risk model, suggesting that an interaction of different risk factors leads to SIDS: 1) a critical developmental period, 2) a vulnerable infant and 3) an exogenous stressor (extrinsic risk factor).

  17. Strontium ranelate reduces the risk of vertebral fractures in patients with osteopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Ego; Devogelaer, Jean-Pierre; Lorenc, Roman; Spector, Timothy; Brixen, Kim; Balogh, Adam; Stucki, Gerold; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2008-03-01

    Many fractures occur in women with moderate fracture risk caused by osteopenia. Strontium ranelate was studied in 1431 postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Vertebral fracture risk reduction of 41-59% was shown depending on the site and fracture status at baseline. This is the first report of antivertebral fracture efficacy in women with vertebral osteopenia. Women with osteoporosis are at high risk for fracture. However, more than one half of all fractures in the community originate from the larger population at more moderate risk of fracture caused by osteopenia. Despite this, evidence for antifracture efficacy in these persons is limited. The aim of this study was to determine whether strontium ranelate, a new drug that reduces fracture risk in women with osteoporosis, is also effective in women with osteopenia. Data from the Spinal Osteoporosis Therapeutic Intervention study (SOTI; n = 1649) and the TReatment Of Peripheral OSteoporosis (TROPOS; n = 5091) were pooled to evaluate the antivertebral fracture efficacy of strontium ranelate in women with lumbar spine (LS) osteopenia with any BMD value at the femoral neck (FN; N = 1166) and in 265 women with osteopenia at both sites (intention-to-treat analysis). The women were randomized to strontium ranelate 2 g/d orally or placebo for 3 yr. No group differences were present in baseline characteristics that may influence fracture outcome independent of therapy. In women with LS osteopenia, treatment reduced the risk of vertebral fracture by 41% (RR = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.43-0.82), by 59% (RR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17-0.99) in the 447 patients with no prevalent fractures, and by 38% (RR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.44-0.88) in the 719 patients with prevalent fractures. In women with osteopenia at both sites, treatment reduced the risk of fracture by 52% (RR = 0.48; 95% CI, 0.24-0.96). Strontium ranelate safely reduces the risk of vertebral fractures in women with osteopenia with or without a prevalent fracture.

  18. Measuring and monitoring to understand and reduce the fall-of-ground risk

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vogt, D

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available -1 ICSMRI 2013: 35th International Conference of Safety in Mines Research Institutes, Central Hall, Westminster, London, UK, 15-17 October 2013 Measuring and monitoring to understand and reduce the fall-of-ground risk Declan Vogt, CSIR Centre...-of-ground still constitute the single largest cause of fatalities. The data show that small falls of between 4 m2 and 10 m2, affecting single people, are the major cause of fatalities. The critical parameters that characterize the risk of rockfalls are: rock...

  19. Failures of foreseeability: Risk management considerations in reducing allegations of sexual violence in psychiatric units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banja, John D

    2017-01-01

    This article begins with a brief discussion of findings on causal factors leading to allegations of sexual violence in health care facilities and then offers the author's account of 4 such cases that he reviewed, 3 of which occurred in psychiatric units. These cases show remarkably similar variables, especially involving decisions to allow male and female patients to commingle, the inadequate physical layout of the units, poor or absent video surveillance, and staff unacquainted with institutional policies on patient safety or refusing to enforce relevant rules. These variables arguably amount to "failures of foreseeability" that reasonably cautious health care personnel should recognize as facilitating or enabling sexual violence. As such, the proactive message of this article for health care risk management urges critical and robust attention paid to a unit's environmental/physical design as well as to performance factors among personnel so as to prevent sexual attacks and diminish the probability of malpractice actions.

  20. Medical weather forecast as the risk management facilities of meteopathia with population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimenko, Natalya; Chalaya, Elena; Povolotskaia, Nina; Senik, Irina; Topuriya, David

    2013-04-01

    surface atmosphere. The correlation of the results of the research of external respiration function, cardiovascular and central nervous systems with people suffering from DA (187 people) made in days with favorable weathers, but different in natural anion quantity in the surface atmosphere, allowed us to develop similar physiological processes at the phenomena of natural deionization. When the anions amount reduces from 1255±38 ion/cm3 to 190±13 ion/cm3, we have detected the increase of tension of vegetative index (from 458±24 to 802±44), the decrease in efficiency of neurohumoral regulation (from 0,25±0,08 to 0,06±0,02), the increase of spectrum excitability of cortical activity in the wave range of delta 0 0.4 Hz by 29%, the decrease in cortical activity in the wave range of theta 4 … 8 Hz, alpha 8 … 13 Hz beta 13 … 19 Hz, gamma 19 … 25Hz by 4-10%; the decrease in organism adaptation layer by 14% and integrated health indicator by 18%. We have also detected similar processes in cardiovascular and respiratory systems. So the problem of creation of high-quality system of medical weather forecast for the population demands the performance of interdisciplinary researches in the field of medicine, biology, meteorology and the development of DMR risk management programs at various natural and anthropogenic stressors. The studies were performed by support of the Program "Basic Sciences for Medicine" and RFBR project No.10-05-01014_a.

  1. Reducing the Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases in Non-selected Outpatients With Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Peter; Juel, Anette; Hansen, Mette Vinther

    2017-01-01

    Background: The most common cause of premature death in people with schizophrenia is cardiovascular disease, partially explained by an unhealthy lifestyle, smoking, poor diet and sedentary behavior. We aimed to reduce cardiovascular risk factors. Method: Naturalistic follow-up study with 54 long...... increased their waist circumference by 3.3. cm (P = 0.590). Patients' consumption of fast food was reduced from 1.2 to 0.8 times/week (P = 0.016), just as their consumption of soft drinks was reduced from 0.7 to 0.1. l/day (P = 0.006). Their consumption of coffee increased from 1.6 to 2.5 cups/day (P = 0.......086). The time women spent on light physical activity increased from 134 to 469. min/week (P = 0.055). The number of daily cigarettes smoked was reduced by 25.7% for all smokers. Conclusions: Our program showed that it is possible for women but not for men to reduce their risk factors for developing...

  2. Potato extract as reducing agent and stabiliser in a facile green one-step synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buazar, Foad; Bavi, M.; Kroushawi, Feisal;

    2016-01-01

    A facile green recipe was developed to synthesise highly pure, safe and durable zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO Nps) using homemade starch-rich potato extract. The ZnO Nps were synthesised using zinc nitrate and potato extract, and the whole reaction is carried out for 30 min at 80 °C. In the synth...

  3. Low-Cost, Class D Testing of Spacecraft Photovoltaic Systems Can Reduce Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgione, Joshua B.; Kojima, Gilbert K.; Hanel, Robert; Mallinson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The end-to-end verification of a spacecraft photovoltaic power generation system requires light! A lowcost, portable, and end-to-end photovoltaic-system test appropriate for NASA's new generation of Class D missions is presented. High risk, low-cost, and quick-turn satellites rarely have the resources to execute the traditional approaches from higher-class (A-C) missions. The Class D approach, as demonstrated on the Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), utilizes a portable, metalhalide, theatre lamp for an end-to-end photovoltaic system test. While not as precise and comprehensive as the traditional Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulator (LAPSS) test, the LADEE method leverages minimal resources into an ongoing assessment program that can be applied through numerous stages of the mission. The project takes a true Class D approach in assessing the technical value of a costly, highfidelity performance test versus a simpler approach with less programmatic risk. The resources required are a fraction of that for a LAPSS test, and is easy to repeat due to its portability. Further, the test equipment can be handed down to future projects without building an on-site facility. At the vanguard of Class D missions, the LADEE team frequently wrestled with and challenged the status quo. The philosophy of risk avoidance at all cost, typical to Class A-C missions, simply could not be executed. This innovative and simple testing solution is contextualized to NASA Class D programs and a specific risk encountered during development of the LADEE Electrical Power System (EPS). Selection of the appropriate lamp and safety concerns are discussed, with examples of test results. Combined with the vendor's panellevel data and periodic inspection, the method ensures system integrity from Integration and Test (I&T) through launch. Following launch, mission operations tools are utilized to assess system performance based on a scant amount of available data.

  4. Ozone risk assessment for plants: Central role of metabolism-dependent changes in reducing power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dizengremel, Pierre [Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, UMR1137 Ecologie et Ecophysiologie Forestieres, Nancy-Universite, BP239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)], E-mail: pierre.dizengremel@scbiol.uhp-nancy.fr; Le Thiec, Didier [INRA, UMR1137 Ecologie et Ecophysiologie Forestieres, Centre INRA de Nancy, F-54280 Champenoux (France)], E-mail: le_thiec@nancy.inra.fr; Bagard, Matthieu [Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, UMR1137 Ecologie et Ecophysiologie Forestieres, Nancy-Universite, BP239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)], E-mail: matthieu.bagard@scbiol.uhp-nancy.fr; Jolivet, Yves [Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, UMR1137 Ecologie et Ecophysiologie Forestieres, Nancy-Universite, BP239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)], E-mail: yves.jolivet@scbiol.uhp-nancy.fr

    2008-11-15

    The combination of stomatal-dependent ozone flux and total ascorbate level is currently presented as a correct indicator for determining the degree of sensitivity of plants to ozone. However, the large changes in carbon metabolism could play a central role in the strategy of the foliar cells in response to chronic ozone exposure, participating in the supply of reducing power and carbon skeletons for repair and detoxification, and modifying the stomatal mode of functioning. To reinforce the accuracy of the definition of the threshold for ozone risk assessment, it is proposed to also consider the redox pool (NAD(P)H), the ratio between carboxylases and the water use efficiency as indicators of the differential ozone tolerance of plants. - We propose reducing power, Rubisco/PEPc ratio and water use efficiency as additional indicators in ozone risk assessment for plants.

  5. Reduced risk estimations after remediation of lead (Pb) in drinking water at two US school districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllidou, Simoni; Le, Trung; Gallagher, Daniel; Edwards, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The risk of students to develop elevated blood lead from drinking water consumption at schools was assessed, which is a different approach from predictions of geometric mean blood lead levels. Measured water lead levels (WLLs) from 63 elementary schools in Seattle and 601 elementary schools in Los Angeles were acquired before and after voluntary remediation of water lead contamination problems. Combined exposures to measured school WLLs (first-draw and flushed, 50% of water consumption) and home WLLs (50% of water consumption) were used as inputs to the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model for each school. In Seattle an average 11.2% of students were predicted to exceed a blood lead threshold of 5 μg/dL across 63 schools pre-remediation, but predicted risks at individual schools varied (7% risk of exceedance at a "low exposure school", 11% risk at a "typical exposure school", and 31% risk at a "high exposure school"). Addition of water filters and removal of lead plumbing lowered school WLL inputs to the model, and reduced the predicted risk output to 4.8% on average for Seattle elementary students across all 63 schools. The remnant post-remediation risk was attributable to other assumed background lead sources in the model (air, soil, dust, diet and home WLLs), with school WLLs practically eliminated as a health threat. Los Angeles schools instead instituted a flushing program which was assumed to eliminate first-draw WLLs as inputs to the model. With assumed benefits of remedial flushing, the predicted average risk of students to exceed a BLL threshold of 5 μg/dL dropped from 8.6% to 6.0% across 601 schools. In an era with increasingly stringent public health goals (e.g., reduction of blood lead safety threshold from 10 to 5 μg/dL), quantifiable health benefits to students were predicted after water lead remediation at two large US school systems.

  6. Reduced risk of UC in families affected by appendicitis: a Danish national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyboe Andersen, Nynne; Gørtz, Sanne; Frisch, Morten; Jess, Tine

    2017-08-01

    The possible aetiological link between appendicitis and UC remains unclear. In order to investigate the hereditary component of the association, we studied the risk of UC in family members of individuals with appendicitis. A cohort of 7.1 million individuals was established by linkage of national registers in Denmark with data on kinship and diagnoses of appendicitis and UC. Poisson regression models were used to calculate first hospital contact rate ratios (RR) for UC with 95% CIs between individuals with or without relatives with a history of appendicitis. During 174 million person-years of follow-up between 1977 and 2011, a total of 190 004 cohort members developed appendicitis and 45 202 developed UC. Individuals having a first-degree relative with appendicitis before age 20 years had significantly reduced risk of UC (RR 0.90; 95% CI 0.86 to 0.95); this association was stronger in individuals with a family predisposition to UC (RR 0.66; 95% CI 0.51 to 0.83). Individuals with a first-degree relative diagnosed with appendicitis before age 20 years are at reduced risk of UC, particularly when there is a family predisposition to UC. Our findings question a previously hypothesised direct protective influence of appendicitis on inflammation of the large bowel. Rather, genetic or environmental factors linked to an increased risk of appendicitis while being protective against UC may explain the repeatedly reported reduced relative risk of UC in individuals with a history of appendicitis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Does nerve identification during open inguinal herniorrhaphy reduce the risk of nerve damage and persistent pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, J M; Aasvang, E K; Kehlet, H

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Nerve identification during open inguinal hernia herniorrhaphy has been suggested as one of the factors that may reduce the risk of development of persistent postherniorrhaphy pain. In this prospective study, we evaluated whether intraoperative inguinal nerve identification influenced...... the risk of development of persistent postherniorrhaphy pain, sensory dysfunction in the groin and functional ability score after open hernia repair. METHODS: A total of 244 men with a primary inguinal hernia underwent open Lichtenstein repair in a high-volume hernia surgery centre, where information.......0 %) had substantial pain-related functional impairment at 6 months follow-up. There was no difference in risk of development of substantial pain-related functional impairment in patients with identification compared with non-identification of the iliohypogastric nerve (P = 1.0), the ilioinguinal nerve (P...

  8. Flexible Self-Managing Pipe-line Framework Reducing Development Risk to Improve Software Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Deepak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Risk identification and assessment in today‘s scenario play a vital role in any software/web application development industry. Many process models deliver the process related to development life cycle, but the risk assessment at an early stage is still an issue and is a significant subject for research. In this paper, an approach based on MVC architecture by embedding spiral process, which is verified and validated by V-shape model is proposed. By using this approach development efficiency will increase due to less burdened working team(s, reduces stressful maintenance effort that causes reduction in risk factors because of beautifully distributed human effort to improve software quality. Besides, the efficiency of our approach is manifested by the preliminary experiment.

  9. Forest species diversity reduces disease risk in a generalist plant pathogen invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Sarah E.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Rizzo, David M.; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2011-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that biodiversity loss can increase disease transmission, yet our understanding of the 'diversity-disease hypothesis' for generalist pathogens in natural ecosystems is limited. We used a landscape epidemiological approach to examine two scenarios regarding diversity effects on the emerging plant pathogen Phytophthora ramorum across a broad, heterogeneous ecoregion: (1) an amplification effect exists where disease risk is greater in areas with higher plant diversity due to the pathogen's wide host range, or (2) a dilution effect where risk is reduced with increasing diversity due to lower competency of alternative hosts. We found evidence for pathogen dilution, whereby disease risk was lower in sites with higher species diversity, after accounting for potentially confounding effects of host density and landscape heterogeneity. Our results suggest that although nearly all plants in the ecosystem are hosts, alternative hosts may dilute disease transmission by competent hosts, thereby buffering forest health from infectious disease.

  10. Reducing cardiovascular risk factors in non-selected outpatients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Vinther; Hjorth, Peter; Kristiansen, Christina Blanner;

    2016-01-01

    glucose, serum lipids, and information on smoking and alcohol were obtained. Results: On average, small significant increases in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumferences were observed while small non-significant improvements in other cardiovascular risk factors were seen. Patients with high baseline......Objectives: Cardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of premature death in patients with schizophrenia. We aimed at reducing cardiovascular risk factors in non-selected outpatients with schizophrenia using methods proven effective in short-term trials. Furthermore, we examined whether any...... motivated to participate in the interventions, and it was difficult to monitor the recommended metabolic risk measures in the patient group. Future research should focus on simple strategies in health promotion that can be integrated into routine care....

  11. Bacteria and derived products to strengthen defences and reduce risk of illness

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz, Yolanda; Palma, Giada de; Sánchez Sánchez, Esther; Medina, Marcela Susana

    2008-01-01

    [EN] This invention provides a new strain of the genus Bifidobacterium and the components of the cultivation supernatants thereof in the form of diverse preparations (functional and new foods, probiotics, symbiotics, supplements, nutraceuticals and drugs) destined to improve defences and reduce the risk of illness. The mechanisms of action thereof include: (i) regulation of intestinal glycosylation promoting that of healthy individuals, (ii) modulation of interactions between epithelial ce...

  12. Intervening to Reduce Suicide Risk in Veterans with Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Treatment. The proposed research study addresses this gap by testing the efficacy of a targeted intervention designed to reduce suicide risk in...will be used to track participants throughout the study. We are optimistic that we will be able to achieve our goals as outlined in our SOW to...difficult for them to participate in research despite their interest in the project. In order to ensure that we will be able to achieve our

  13. Identifying prevention strategies for adolescents to reduce their risk of depression: A Delphi consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Kathryn E; Yap, Marie B H; Reavley, Nicola J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2015-09-01

    Adolescence is a peak time for the onset of depression, but little is known about what adolescents can do to reduce their own level of risk. This study employed the Delphi methodology to establish expert consensus on self-help prevention strategies for adolescent depression. A literature search identified 194 recommendations for adolescents. These were presented over three questionnaire rounds to panels of 32 international research and practice experts and 49 consumer advocates, who rated the preventive importance of each recommendation and the feasibility of their implementation by adolescents. 145 strategies were endorsed as likely to be helpful in reducing adolescents׳ risk of developing depression by ≥80% of both panels. Endorsed strategies included messages on mental fitness, personal identity, life skills, healthy relationships, healthy lifestyles, and recreation and leisure. 127 strategies were endorsed as likely to be helpful in reducing risks for depression for both junior and senior adolescents. One strategy was rated as likely to be helpful during the period of junior adolescence only, and 17 strategies were endorsed for the senior adolescent period only. Ratings of the ease of implementing the strategies during the adolescent period accorded by panellists were typically moderate. This study used experts from developed, English-speaking countries; hence the strategies identified may not be for relevant or minority cultures within these countries or for other countries. This study produced a set of self-help preventive strategies for depression that are supported by research evidence and/or international experts, which can now be promoted in developed English-speaking communities to help adolescents reduce their risk of depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Does the Consumption of Green Tea Reduce the Risk of Lung Cancer among Smokers?

    OpenAIRE

    Wenbin Liang; Binns, Colin W; Le Jian; Lee, Andy H

    2007-01-01

    Experimental and epidemiological studies were reviewed to assess whether the consumption of green tea could reduce the risk of lung cancer in smokers. Articles published since 1990 were located by searching electronic databases PubMed, Ovid and Science Direct, using keywords ‘lung cancer’, ‘tea’ and ‘smoking’ without any restriction on language. After relevant articles had been located, further papers were obtained from their reference lists. Evidence from experimental studies (in vitro anima...

  15. Management and Risk Assessment of Sabellid Polychaete Infestations in Abalone Mariculture Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kuris, Armand M.

    1996-01-01

    In October 1993, growers at some commercial abalone mariculture facilities (AMFs) in Southern California brought an interesting sabellid polychaete to our attention. The worm infested shells of cultured red abalone, Haliotis rufescens. Heavily infested abalone ceased growth. Their shells exhibited domed teratology often lacking respiratory holes. The worms appeared to bore into the shell. We discovered that all AMFs in California were infested; several were so heavily infest...

  16. Reducing infection risk in implant-based breast-reconstruction surgery: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ooi ASH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adrian SH Ooi,1,2 David H Song1 1Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Chicago Medicine and Biological Sciences, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore Abstract: Implant-based procedures are the most commonly performed method for ­postmastectomy breast reconstruction. While donor-site morbidity is low, these procedures are associated with a higher risk of reconstructive loss. Many of these are related to infection of the implant, which can lead to prolonged antibiotic treatment, undesired additional surgical procedures, and unsatisfactory results. This review combines a summary of the recent literature regarding implant-related breast-reconstruction infections and combines this with a practical approach to the patient and surgery aimed at reducing this risk. Prevention of infection begins with appropriate reconstructive choice based on an assessment and optimization of risk factors. These include patient and disease characteristics, such as smoking, obesity, large breast size, and immediate reconstructive procedures, as well as adjuvant therapy, such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. For implant-based breast reconstruction, preoperative planning and organization is key to reducing infection. A logical and consistent intraoperative and postoperative surgical protocol, including appropriate antibiotic choice, mastectomy-pocket creation, implant handling, and considered acellular dermal matrix use contribute toward the reduction of breast-implant infections. Keywords: implant infection, risk reduction, acellular dermal matrix

  17. Mitigating threat and risk in nuclear facilities through convergence of security systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Daniel John [Florida Institute of Technology (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The advancement of sensor and subsystems integration, facility network infrastructures, and situational awareness platforms now enable an integrated view of a comprehensive security solution on a single screen. A Radar Video Surveillance (RVS) system converges these aspects of security systems into a Geographic Information System (GIS) view, which conveys overall security status and reacts to potential threats. An overhead GIS view of the facility is populated with security sensors, including perimeter security sensors, CCTV cameras, access control equipment, radar sensors, and life safety equipment. The status and location of these sensors is displayed on the map, as well as the data from these sensors, such as intruder locations and live CCTV images. The software automatically directs PTZ cameras to the current location of a potential incident, displays that image, records it, and initiates an alarm and an automated response. This paper describes the concept of comprehensive security convergence, including sensor integration, situational awareness, automation of responses and notification, and the challenges and opportunities in providing true convergence as well as the benefits this approach delivers in a nuclear facility. (authors)

  18. Does Chocolate Intake During Pregnancy Reduce the Risks of Preeclampsia and Gestational Hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saftlas, Audrey F.; Triche, Elizabeth W.; Beydoun, Hind; Bracken, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Chocolate consumption is associated with favorable levels of blood pressure and other cardiovascular disease risk markers. We analyzed a prospective cohort study to determine if regular chocolate intake during pregnancy is associated with reduced risks of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension (GH). Methods Subjects were recruited from 13 prenatal care practices in Connecticut (1988-1991). In-person interviews were administered at Chocolate consumption (servings/week) during the 1st and 3rd trimesters was ascertained at initial interview and immediately postpartum, respectively. Consumers of Chocolate intake was more frequent among normotensives (80.7%) than preeclamptics (62.5%) or GH women (75.8%), and associated with reduced odds of preeclampsia (1st trimester: aOR=0.55, 95% CI: 0.32-0.95; 3rd trimester: aOR=0.56, 95% CI: 0.32-0.97). Only 1st trimester intake was associated with reduced odds of GH (aOR=0.65, 95% CI: 0.45-0.87). Conclusions These findings provide additional evidence of the benefits of chocolate. Prospective studies are needed to confirm and delineate protective effects of chocolate intake on risk of preeclampsia. PMID:20609337

  19. Interventions to reduce zoonotic and pandemic risks from avian influenza in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, J S Malik; Cowling, Benjamin J; Wu, Joseph T; Feng, Luzhao; Guan, Yi; Yu, Hongjie; Leung, Gabriel M

    2016-02-01

    Novel influenza viruses continue to emerge, posing zoonotic and potentially pandemic threats, such as with avian influenza A H7N9. Although closure of live poultry markets (LPMs) in mainland China stopped H7N9 outbreaks temporarily, closures are difficult to sustain, in view of poultry production and marketing systems in China. In this Personal View, we summarise interventions taken in mainland China, and provide evidence for other more sustainable but effective interventions in the live poultry market systems that reduce risk of zoonotic influenza including rest days, and banning live poultry in markets overnight. Separation of live ducks and geese from land-based (ie, non-aquatic) poultry in LPM systems can reduce the risk of emergence of zoonotic and epizootic viruses at source. In view of evidence that H7N9 is now endemic in over half of the provinces in mainland China and will continue to cause recurrent zoonotic disease in the winter months, such interventions should receive high priority in China and other Asian countries at risk of H7N9 through cross-border poultry movements. Such generic measures are likely to reduce known and future threats of zoonotic influenza.

  20. Strategies of reducing the carcinogenic risk of cytostatic agents on the basis of bioassay evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, M R

    1991-01-01

    This article described strategies that can be used to reduce the carcinogenic risk of cytostatic chemotherapy and summarizes our recent experimental results. Reduction of neoplasms caused by the carcinogenic potency inherent in cytostatic agents can be obtained. (A) by chemical modifications such as: (1) exchanging a chlorine atom in N, N'-bis-(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea (BCNU) in the chloroethyl group at N'-position for a hydroxyl group to form the less carcinogenic analog N-(2-chloroethyl)-N'-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N-nitrosourea (HECNU); (2) linking chlorambucil to the steroid prednisolone to obtain a conjugate (prednimustine) with distinctly lower carcinogenic potential than chlorambucil; (3) progressive ring halogenation of phenyl-triazenes to generate agents with decreased long-term toxic risk; (B) by replacing cyclophosphamide within the carcinogenic drug combination of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil (CMF) by vincristine to form the combination VMF which has no detectable carcinogenic potential; (C) by coadministration of cyclophosphamide and mesna to achieve a dose-related reduction of cyclophosphamide-induced urinary bladder carcinomas; (D) by administration of dinaline, a compound which reduces the spontaneous incidence of malignant tumors in rats. These examples demonstrate that the carcinogenic risk of single agents and drug combinations used for antineoplastic chemotherapy has successfully been reduced, as assessed in long-term bioassays. Such strategies should be considered in the treatment of patients with long life expectancy following cytotoxic chemotherapy.

  1. Polymorphisms of the DNA methyltransferase 1 associated with reduced risks of Helicobacter pylori infection and increased risks of gastric atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Jiang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: DNA methyltransferase-1(DNMT1 is an important enzyme in determining genomic methylation patterns in mammalian cells. We investigated the associations between SNPs in the DNMT1 gene and risks of developing H. pylori seropositivity, gastric atrophy and gastric cancer in the Chinese population. METHODS: The study consisted of 447 patients with gastric cancer; 111 patients with gastric atrophy; and 961 healthy controls. Five SNPs, rs10420321, rs16999593, rs8101866, rs8111085 and rs2288349 of the DNMT1 gene were genotyped. Anti-H.pylori IgG was detected by ELISA. Gastric atrophy was screened by the level of serum pepsinogen Ι and II and then confirmed by endoscopy and histopatholgical examinations. RESULTS: The age- and sex-adjusted OR of H. pylori seropositivity was 0.67 (95%CI: 0.51-0.87 for rs8111085 TC/CC genotypes, significantly lower than the TT genotype in healthy controls. The adjusted OR of H.pylori seropositivity was 0.68 (95%CI: 0.52-0.89 for rs10420321 AG/GG genotypes. In addition, patients carrying rs2228349 AA genotype have a significantly increased risk for H.pylori seropositivity (OR=1.67; 95%CI: 1.02-2.75. Further haplotype analyses also showed that the ATTTG and ATCTA are significantly associated with increased risks in H.pylori infection compared to the GTCCG haplotype (OR=1.38, 95%CI: 1.08-1.77; OR=1.40, 95% CI: 1.09-1.80. The adjusted ORs of gastric atrophy were 1.66 (95%CI: 1.06-2.61 for rs10420321 GG genotype, and 1.67 (95%CI 1.06-2.63, P=0.03 for rs8111085 CC genotype, but no association was found between SNPs in the DNMT1 gene and risk of developing gastric cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with rs10420321 GG and rs8111085 CC genotype of the DNMT1 gene were associated with reduced risks for H.pylori infection. On the other hand, higher risks of gastric atrophy were found in the carriers with these two genotypes compared to other genotypes. Our results suggested that SNPs of DNMT1 could be used as genotypic

  2. Risk factors and outcomes associated with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus infections with reduced susceptibilities to linezolid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santayana, Elena M; Grim, Shellee A; Janda, William M; Layden, Jennifer E; Lee, Todd A; Clark, Nina M

    2012-09-01

    A retrospective matched case-control study of hospitalized patients with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) infection with reduced susceptibility to linezolid was performed in order to identify risk factors for this infection and describe patient outcomes. Forty-eight linezolid nonsusceptible VRE cases were identified between January 1, 2000, and September 30, 2008, and compared to 96 controls with linezolid-susceptible VRE, matched based on culture date and anatomic site of infection. Demographic, clinical and microbiological data were collected. On univariable analysis, risk factors for reduced linezolid susceptibility included allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant and/or solid organ transplant (odds ratio [OR]: 2.63; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-6.15; P = 0.025), receipt of immunosuppressive medications (OR: 2.39; 95% CI: 1.08-5.29; P = 0.032) including corticosteroids (OR: 2.40; 95% CI: 1.03-5.58; P = 0.042) and noncorticosteroid immunosuppressives (OR: 2.31; 95% CI: 1.00-5.30; P = 0.049), and receipt of linezolid within 1 year prior to infection (OR: 34.50, 95% CI: 4.60-259.02; P < 0.001). On multivariable analysis, only receipt of linezolid within 1 year remained an independent risk factor for reduced linezolid susceptibility (OR: 31.84; 95% CI: 4.20-241.39; P < 0.001), although most patients with VRE with reduced linezolid susceptibility had not received linezolid in the year prior. Reduced linezolid susceptibility did not impact patient outcomes including clinical or microbiological cure, hospital length of stay, or all-cause mortality.

  3. Use of Biostratigraphy to Increase Production, Reduce Operating Costs and Risks and Reduce Environmental Concerns in Oil Well Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Marks

    2005-09-09

    out at the top of the late Miocene, early Mohnian: Bolivina aff hughesi, Rotalia becki, Suggrunda californica, Virgulina grandis, Virgulina ticensis, Bulimina ecuadorana, Denticula lauta and Nonion medio-costatum. Please see Appendix B, Fig. 1, Neogene Zones, p. 91 and Appendix C, chart 5, p. 99 By the use of Stratigraphy, employing both Paleontology and Lithology, we can increase hydrocarbon production, reduce operating costs and risks by the identification of the productive sections, and reduce environmental concerns by drilling less dry holes needlessly.

  4. An optimization-based approach for facility energy management with uncertainties, and, Power portfolio optimization in deregulated electricity markets with risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun

    Topic 1. An Optimization-Based Approach for Facility Energy Management with Uncertainties. Effective energy management for facilities is becoming increasingly important in view of the rising energy costs, the government mandate on the reduction of energy consumption, and the human comfort requirements. This part of dissertation presents a daily energy management formulation and the corresponding solution methodology for HVAC systems. The problem is to minimize the energy and demand costs through the control of HVAC units while satisfying human comfort, system dynamics, load limit constraints, and other requirements. The problem is difficult in view of the fact that the system is nonlinear, time-varying, building-dependent, and uncertain; and that the direct control of a large number of HVAC components is difficult. In this work, HVAC setpoints are the control variables developed on top of a Direct Digital Control (DDC) system. A method that combines Lagrangian relaxation, neural networks, stochastic dynamic programming, and heuristics is developed to predict the system dynamics and uncontrollable load, and to optimize the setpoints. Numerical testing and prototype implementation results show that our method can effectively reduce total costs, manage uncertainties, and shed the load, is computationally efficient. Furthermore, it is significantly better than existing methods. Topic 2. Power Portfolio Optimization in Deregulated Electricity Markets with Risk Management. In a deregulated electric power system, multiple markets of different time scales exist with various power supply instruments. A load serving entity (LSE) has multiple choices from these instruments to meet its load obligations. In view of the large amount of power involved, the complex market structure, risks in such volatile markets, stringent constraints to be satisfied, and the long time horizon, a power portfolio optimization problem is of critical importance but difficulty for an LSE to serve the

  5. Intake of Japanese and Chinese teas reduces risk of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keiko; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Fukushima, Wakaba; Sasaki, Satoshi; Kiyohara, Chikako; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Yamada, Tatsuo; Oeda, Tomoko; Miki, Takami; Kawamura, Nobutoshi; Sakae, Nobutaka; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Hirota, Yoshio; Nagai, Masaki

    2011-07-01

    Studies that have addressed the association between the intake of coffee or caffeine and Parkinson's disease (PD) were conducted mainly in Western countries. Little is known about this relationship in an Asian population. Therefore, we performed an assessment of the association of the intake of coffee, other caffeine-containing beverages, and caffeine with the risk of PD in Japan. The study involved 249 PD cases and 368 control subjects. Information on dietary factors was obtained through a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Adjustment was made for sex, age, region of residence, educational level, pack-years of smoking, body mass index, the dietary glycemic index, and intake of cholesterol, vitamin E, β-carotene, vitamin B(6,) alcohol, and iron. Intake of coffee, black tea, and Japanese and Chinese teas was significantly inversely associated with the risk of PD: the adjusted odds ratios in comparison of the highest with the lowest quartile were 0.52, 0.58, and 0.59, respectively (95% confidence intervals = 0.30-0.90, 0.35-0.97, and 0.35-0.995, respectively). A clear inverse dose-response relationship between total caffeine intake and PD risk was observed. We confirmed that the intake of coffee and caffeine reduced the risk of PD. Furthermore, this is the first study to show a significant inverse relationship between the intake of Japanese and Chinese teas and the risk of PD.

  6. Sudden cardiac death in hemodialysis patients: a comprehensive care approach to reduce risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Patrick H; Middleton, John P

    2012-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death is a major problem in hemodialysis patients, and our understanding of this disease is underdeveloped. The lack of a precise definition tailored for use in the hemodialysis population limits the reliability of epidemiologic reports. Efforts should be directed toward an accurate classification of all deaths that occur in this vulnerable population. The traditional paradigm of disease pathophysiology based on known cardiac risk factors appears to be inadequate to explain the magnitude of sudden cardiac death risk in chronic kidney disease, and numerous unique cofactors and exposures appear to determine risk in this population. Well-designed cohort studies will be needed for a basic understanding of disease pathophysiology and risk factors, and randomized intervention trials will be needed before best management practices can be implemented. This review examines available data to describe the characteristics of the high-risk patient and suggests a comprehensive common sense approach to prevention using existing cardiovascular medications and reducing and monitoring potential dialysis-related arrhythmic triggers. Other unproven cardiovascular therapies such as implantable cardioverter defibrillators should be used on a case-by-case basis, with recognition of the associated hazards that these devices carry among hemodialysis patients.

  7. Information Technology Role in Reducing E-Banking Services Risk in Jordanian Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Y. Areiqat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study aims to highlight the role of information technology in reducing risk of electronic banking services in the Jordanian banking sector. The study was conducted on three banks as a sample representative of the Jordanian banking sector. Approach: Data collection was through conducting personal interviews with the operations managers in the three banks (HBTF, JC Bank and Audi Bank. Results: The results showed that Jordanian banks showed highest attention toward risk management of e-banking, through their commitment to Basel Standards on risk management. Conclusion: Through the study, it will be clear that Jordanian banks committed to the standards of the Basel committee on safety and security of electronic banking services. These banks take into account all the potential risks before applying any system of electronic services. It is irrefutable evidence on the banks of Jordan keenness on protecting themselves and their customers from risk of theft through electronic means, the banks included their websites with detailed instructions to ensure that no customer fall prey to hackers.

  8. Design of a risk matrix to assess sterile formulations at health care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M.ª Martín de Rosales Cabrera

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To design a matrix allowing classifying sterile formulationsprepared at the hospital with different risk levels. Material and methods: i Literature search and critical appraisalof the model proposed by the European Resolution CM/ResAp(20111, ii Identification of the risk associated to the elaborationprocess by means of the AMFE methodology (ModalAnalysis of Failures and Effects, iii estimation of the severityassociated to the risks detected. After initially trying a model ofnumeric scoring, the classification matrix was changed to analphabetical classification, grading each criterion from A to D.Each preparation assessed is given a 6-letter combination withthree possible risk levels: low, intermediate, and high. Thismodel was easier for risk assignment, and more reproducible. Results: The final model designed analyzes 6 criteria: formulationprocess, administration route, the drug’s safety profile, amountprepared, distribution, and susceptibility for microbiological contamination.The risk level obtained will condition the requirementsof the formulation area, validity time, and storing conditions. Conclusions: The matrix model proposed may help health careinstitutions to better assess the risk of sterile formulations prepared,and provides information about the acceptable validitytime according to the storing conditions and the manufacturingarea. Its use will increase the safety level of this procedure aswell as help in resources planning and distribution.

  9. The KnowRISK project - Know your city, Reduce seISmic risK through non-structural elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa Oliveria, Carlos; Amaral Ferreira, Mónica; Lopez, Mário; Sousa Silva, Delta; Musacchio, Gemma; Rupakhety, Rajesh; Falsaperla, Susanna; Meroni, Fabrizio; Langer, Horst

    2016-04-01

    Historically, there is a tendency to focus on seismic structural performance of buildings, neglecting the potential for damage of non-structural elements. In particular, non-structural elements of buildings are their architectural parts (i.e. partitions, ceilings, cladding), electrical and mechanical components (i.e., distribution panels, piping, plumbing), and contents (e.g., furniture, bookcases, computers and desktop equipment). Damage of these elements often contributes significantly to earthquake impacts. In the 1999 Izmit Earthquake, Turkey, 50% of the injuries and 3% of human losses were caused by non-structural failures. In the 2010-2011 Christchurch Earthquakes (New Zealand), 40% of building damage was induced by non-structural malfunctions. Around 70%-85% of construction cost goes into these elements, and their damage can strongly influence the ability of communities to cope with and recover from earthquakes. The project Know your city, Reduce seISmic risK through non-structural elements (KnowRISK) aims at facilitating local communities' access to expert knowledge on non-structural seismic protection solutions. The project will study seismic scenarios critical for non-structural damage, produce a portfolio of non-structural protection measures and investigate the level of awareness in specific communities. We will implement risk communication strategies that will take into account the social and cultural background and a participatory approach to raise awareness in local communities. The paradox between the progress of scientific knowledge and the ongoing increase of losses from natural disasters worldwide is a well-identified gap in the UN Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015, in which one of the main priorities is the investment on "knowledge use, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience". The KnowRISK is well aligned with these priorities and will contribute to participatory action aimed at: i) transferring expert knowledge

  10. BCG vaccination reduces risk of tuberculosis infection in vaccinated badgers and unvaccinated badger cubs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Carter

    Full Text Available Wildlife is a global source of endemic and emerging infectious diseases. The control of tuberculosis (TB in cattle in Britain and Ireland is hindered by persistent infection in wild badgers (Meles meles. Vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG has been shown to reduce the severity and progression of experimentally induced TB in captive badgers. Analysis of data from a four-year clinical field study, conducted at the social group level, suggested a similar, direct protective effect of BCG in a wild badger population. Here we present new evidence from the same study identifying both a direct beneficial effect of vaccination in individual badgers and an indirect protective effect in unvaccinated cubs. We show that intramuscular injection of BCG reduced by 76% (Odds ratio = 0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.11-0.52 the risk of free-living vaccinated individuals testing positive to a diagnostic test combination to detect progressive infection. A more sensitive panel of tests for the detection of infection per se identified a reduction of 54% (Odds ratio = 0.46, 95% CI 0.26-0.88 in the risk of a positive result following vaccination. In addition, we show the risk of unvaccinated badger cubs, but not adults, testing positive to an even more sensitive panel of diagnostic tests decreased significantly as the proportion of vaccinated individuals in their social group increased (Odds ratio = 0.08, 95% CI 0.01-0.76; P = 0.03. When more than a third of their social group had been vaccinated, the risk to unvaccinated cubs was reduced by 79% (Odds ratio = 0.21, 95% CI 0.05-0.81; P = 0.02.

  11. Artistic occupations are associated with a reduced risk of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaxma, Charlotte A; Borm, George F; van der Linden, Dimitri; Kappelle, Arnoud C; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2015-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is preceded by a premotor phase of unknown duration. Dopaminergic degeneration during this phase may lead to subtle cognitive and behavioural changes, such as decreased novelty seeking. Consequently, premotor subjects might be most comfortable in jobs that do not require optimal dopamine levels, leading to an overrepresentation in structured and predictable occupations, or an underrepresentation in artistic occupations. In a case-control study, 750 men with PD (onset ≥40 years) and 1300 healthy men completed a validated questionnaire about their lifetime occupational status. Occupations were classified using the RIASEC model. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for the conventional and artistic categories, both for the most recent occupation before symptom onset, and for the very first occupation. Because farming has been associated with a PD risk, ORs were calculated separately for farming. A reduced risk of PD was found for men with an artistic occupation late in life (OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.04-0.53), while an artistic first occupation did not prevent PD (OR 0.72, CI 0.32-1.59). Conventional occupations showed no increased risk (recent: OR 1.07, CI 0.70-1.64; first: OR 1.14, CI 0.77-1.71). In support of previous reports, farming was associated with an increased risk of PD (recent: OR 2.6, CI 1.4-4.6; first: OR 2.7, CI 1.6-4.5). PD patients were older than controls, but various statistical corrections for age all lead to similar results. Artistic occupations late in life are associated with a reduced risk of subsequent PD, perhaps because this reflects a better preserved dopaminergic state. No initial occupation predicted PD, suggesting that the premotor phase starts later in life.

  12. Use of Potassium Citrate to Reduce the Risk of Renal Stone Formation During Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Jones, J. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hudson, E. K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: NASA s Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA s objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre, in, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all inflight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that

  13. Effects of HIV status notification on reducing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Yugang; Jing Jun; Zhang Yanhui; Li Huasheng; Feng Liangui; Ning Zhen; Tan Hongzhuan

    2014-01-01

    Background The risk of HIV sexual transmission is much higher among people unaware of their HIV status than among those aware.Only a few studies have indicated that the incidence of unsafe sex can be reduced when people know their HIV status.This study was to investigate this effect in China.Methods A cohort study consisting of two surveys was conducted at two different times among a group of people living with HIV/AIDS,whose status was newly diagnosed with HIV via sexual contact,in Shanghai,Chongqing,and Kunming.The first survey was conducted among 823 people tested positive for HIV before notifying them of the HIV status.The second survey was conducted among 650 HIV-positive people at six months following the first survey (after notification of HIV status).The scope of survey covered unsafe sex practices,number of unsafe sexual partners,and frequency of unsafe sexual behaviors over the prior six months.Unsafe sex is defined as unprotected anal or vaginal sex with partners who are HIV positive or whose HIV status is unknown.Results The proportion of unsafe sex was reduced by about 85% after HIV status notification.The risk of HIV sexual transmission was 15 times higher among persons unaware of their HIV status than among those aware.Approximately 95% of new sexually transmitted HIV infections stemmed from 56% of the infected persons unaware of their HIV status in China.Conclusion Timely HIV status notification has the potential to significantly reduce unsafe sex among HIV-infected persons and reduce the risk for HIV transmission via unsafe sex.

  14. Assessment of environmental risk for red mud storage facility in China: a case study in Shandong Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhi-Chao; Ma, Shu-Hua; Zheng, Shi-Li; Zhang, Yi; Liang, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Red mud storage facility (RM-SF) pollution remains a serious problem in China mainly due to the RM's huge quantity, little recyclability, and high alkalinity. And, there is also a risk of dam failure because almost all RM-SFs are processed by damming. In order to address this challenge and improve the level of risk management, it is necessary to evaluate the environmental risk of RM-SFs systematically. So, this paper firstly designs a comprehensive evaluation index system with a three-level evaluation index in the terms of RM characteristics, RM-SF characteristics, ambient environment of RM-SF, the management of RM-SF, and the application aspect of RM by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method. Then, a case of RM-SF from a typical alumina production enterprise is studied according to this system, as is assisted by several experts from different fields when determining the weights of all indicators. The results show that the risk of selected RM-SF primarily depends on the former factors, that is, RM and RM-SF characteristics, while the contributions of the other factors are quite smaller.

  15. Delivery and Payment Redesign to Reduce Disparities in High Risk Postpartum Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Elizabeth A; Padrón, Norma A; Beane, Susan J; Stone, Joanne; Walther, Virginia; Balbierz, Amy; Kumar, Rashi; Pagán, José A

    2017-01-28

    Purpose This paper describes the implementation of an innovative program that aims to improve postpartum care through a set of coordinated delivery and payment system changes designed to use postpartum care as an opportunity to impact the current and future health of vulnerable women and reduce disparities in health outcomes among minority women. Description A large health care system, a Medicaid managed care organization, and a multidisciplinary team of experts in obstetrics, health economics, and health disparities designed an intervention to improve postpartum care for women identified as high-risk. The program includes a social work/care management component and a payment system redesign with a cost-sharing arrangement between the health system and the Medicaid managed care plan to cover the cost of staff, clinician education, performance feedback, and clinic/clinician financial incentives. The goal is to enroll 510 high-risk postpartum mothers. Assessment The primary outcome of interest is a timely postpartum visit in accordance with NCQA healthcare effectiveness data and information set guidelines. Secondary outcomes include care process measures for women with specific high-risk conditions, emergency room visits, postpartum readmissions, depression screens, and health care costs. Conclusion Our evidence-based program focuses on an important area of maternal health, targets racial/ethnic disparities in postpartum care, utilizes an innovative payment reform strategy, and brings together insurers, researchers, clinicians, and policy experts to work together to foster health and wellness for postpartum women and reduce disparities.

  16. SEPT14 Is Associated with a Reduced Risk for Parkinson's Disease and Expressed in Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenkrantz, Liron; Gan-Or, Ziv; Gana-Weisz, Mali; Mirelman, Anat; Giladi, Nir; Bar-Shira, Anat; Orr-Urtreger, Avi

    2016-07-01

    Genes involved in cytoskeletal stability and trafficking, such as MAPT and SNCA, are important risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD). Two members of the cytoskeletal Septin family, SEPT4 and SEPT5, were implicated in PD pathobiology. We aimed to determine whether Septin genes are associated with Parkinson's disease. To this end, six SNPs located in four different Septin loci were analyzed in 720 PD patients and 740 controls, all of Ashkenazi-Jewish origin. In addition, SEPT14 was sequenced and its expression was determined in different human tissues. Our results revealed that two SNPs in the SEPT14 locus, rs11981883 and rs10241628, were associated with a reduced risk for PD (p = 0.02 and p = 0.005). A third SNP, rs77231105, was localized in the putative promoter of SEPT14 and was predicted to affect the binding of the transcription factor Nkx2.5. This SNP was also associated with a reduced risk for PD (OR = 0.28, p Parkinson's disease pathogenesis, yet more studies are necessary to validate these results.

  17. Reducing infection risk in implant-based breast-reconstruction surgery: challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Adrian SH; Song, David H

    2016-01-01

    Implant-based procedures are the most commonly performed method for postmastectomy breast reconstruction. While donor-site morbidity is low, these procedures are associated with a higher risk of reconstructive loss. Many of these are related to infection of the implant, which can lead to prolonged antibiotic treatment, undesired additional surgical procedures, and unsatisfactory results. This review combines a summary of the recent literature regarding implant-related breast-reconstruction infections and combines this with a practical approach to the patient and surgery aimed at reducing this risk. Prevention of infection begins with appropriate reconstructive choice based on an assessment and optimization of risk factors. These include patient and disease characteristics, such as smoking, obesity, large breast size, and immediate reconstructive procedures, as well as adjuvant therapy, such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. For implant-based breast reconstruction, preoperative planning and organization is key to reducing infection. A logical and consistent intraoperative and postoperative surgical protocol, including appropriate antibiotic choice, mastectomy-pocket creation, implant handling, and considered acellular dermal matrix use contribute toward the reduction of breast-implant infections. PMID:27621667

  18. Using the Design for Demise Philosophy to Reduce Casualty Risk Due to Reentering Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Recently the reentry of a number of vehicles has garnered public attention due to their risk of human casualty due to fragments surviving reentry. In order to minimize this risk for their vehicles, a number of NASA programs have actively sought to minimize the number of components likely to survive reentry at the end of their spacecraft's life in order to meet and/or exceed NASA safety standards for controlled and uncontrolled reentering vehicles. This philosophy, referred to as "Design for Demise" or D4D, has steadily been adopted, to at least some degree, by numerous programs. The result is that many programs are requesting evaluations of components at the early stages of vehicle design, as they strive to find ways to reduce the number surviving components while ensuring that the components meet the performance requirements of their mission. This paper will discuss some of the methods that have been employed to ensure that the consequences of the vehicle s end-of-life are considered at the beginning of the design process. In addition this paper will discuss the technical challenges overcome, as well as some of the more creative solutions which have been utilized to reduce casualty risk.

  19. Does the Consumption of Green Tea Reduce the Risk of Lung Cancer among Smokers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Liang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and epidemiological studies were reviewed to assess whether the consumption of green tea could reduce the risk of lung cancer in smokers. Articles published since 1990 were located by searching electronic databases PubMed, Ovid and Science Direct, using keywords ‘lung cancer’, ‘tea’ and ‘smoking’ without any restriction on language. After relevant articles had been located, further papers were obtained from their reference lists. Evidence from experimental studies (in vitro animal and human trials suggested that regular intake of green tea may be protective against tobacco carcinogens. However, the mechanism behind the protective effect is only partly understood. In most of the epidemiological studies reviewed, the green tea exposure was within 5 years of the interview or follow-up, which would coincide with the induction period and latent period of lung cancer. Longer term studies are thus needed to further quantify the cancer risk. There is some evidence suggesting regular intake of green tea at high level (>3 cups per day may reduce the risk of smokers developing lung cancer. Improvement in measuring green tea intake is required in order to confirm the evidence from epidemiological studies.

  20. Does the consumption of green tea reduce the risk of lung cancer among smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenbin; Binns, Colin W; Jian, Le; Lee, Andy H

    2007-03-01

    Experimental and epidemiological studies were reviewed to assess whether the consumption of green tea could reduce the risk of lung cancer in smokers. Articles published since 1990 were located by searching electronic databases PubMed, Ovid and Science Direct, using keywords 'lung cancer', 'tea' and 'smoking' without any restriction on language. After relevant articles had been located, further papers were obtained from their reference lists. Evidence from experimental studies (in vitro animal and human trials) suggested that regular intake of green tea may be protective against tobacco carcinogens. However, the mechanism behind the protective effect is only partly understood. In most of the epidemiological studies reviewed, the green tea exposure was within 5 years of the interview or follow-up, which would coincide with the induction period and latent period of lung cancer. Longer term studies are thus needed to further quantify the cancer risk. There is some evidence suggesting regular intake of green tea at high level (>3 cups per day) may reduce the risk of smokers developing lung cancer. Improvement in measuring green tea intake is required in order to confirm the evidence from epidemiological studies.

  1. Layout Improvement Study to Reduce Staff Walking Distance in a Large Health Care Facility: How to Not Walk an Extra 4740 Miles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley-Chavez, Adriana; Hmar-Lagroun, Tatiana; Douglas-Ntagha, Pamela; Cumbo, Charlotte L

    2016-01-01

    Inefficient facility layouts have been found to be a challenge in health care, with excessive walking adding to the demands of staff and creating delays, which can impact the quality of care. Minimizing unnecessary transportation during care delivery improves efficiency, reduces delays, and frees up resources for use on value-added activities. This article presents a methodology and application of facility design to improve responsiveness and efficiency at a large hospital. The approach described provides the opportunity to improve existing layouts in facilities in which the floor plan is already defined, but there is some flexibility to relocate key areas. The existing physical constraints and work flows are studied and taken into consideration, and the volume of traffic flow throughout the facility guides the decision of where to relocate areas for maximum efficiency. Details on the steps followed and general recommendations to perform the necessary process and data analyses are provided. We achieved a 34.8% reduction in distance walked (4740 miles saved per year) and a 30% reduction in floors traveled in elevators (344 931 floors, which translate to 842 hours spent using elevators) by relocating 4 areas in which frequently used resources are housed.

  2. Breast cancer screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers after risk reducing salpingo-oophorectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fakkert, I.E.; Jansen, L.; Meijer, K.; Kok, Theo; Oosterwijk, J.C.; Mourits, M.J.E.; de Bock, G.H.

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer screening is offered to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers from the age of 25 years because of their increased risk of breast cancer. As ovarian cancer screening is not effective, risk-reducing salpingho-oophorectomy (RRSO) is offered after child bearing age. RRSO before menopause reduc

  3. New Study Shows Flu Vaccine Reduced Children's Risk of Intensive Care Unit Flu Admission by Three-Fourths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Image Library (PHIL) New Study Shows Flu Vaccine Reduced Children’s Risk of Intensive Care Unit Flu Admission by ... Media Relations (404) 639-3286 Getting a flu vaccine reduces a child's risk of flu-related intensive care hospitalization by ...

  4. Low-Cost, Class D Testing of Spacecraft Photovoltaic Systems Can Reduce Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgione, Joshua B.; Kojima, Gilbert K.; Hanel, Robert; Mallinson, Mark V.

    2014-01-01

    at the appropriate solar array switch in the power system. A metal-halide bulb, infrared imagers, and onboard spacecraft measurements are utilized to minimize risk of thermal damage during test. Data is provided to support test results for both passing and marginal panels. Prior to encapsulation in the launch vehicle, each panel is inspected for damage by the panel manufacturer. Cracked cells or other damage is amended on-site. Because the photovoltaic test system is inexpensive and portable, each repaired panel can be re-verified immediately. Post-launch, the photovoltaic system is again characterized for per-panel deviations from the manufacturer's performance test. This proved especially tricky as the LADEE spacecraft performs only one current measurement on the entire array. The algorithm for Matlab tools to assess panel performance based on spacecraft attitude is discussed. While not as precise and comprehensive as LAPSS, the LADEE approach leverages minimal resources into an ongoing assessment program that can be applied through numerous stages of the mission. The project takes a true Class D approach in assessing the technical value of a spacecraft level performance test versus the programmatic risk of shipping the spacecraft to another facility. The resources required are a fraction of that for a LAPSS test, and is easy to repeat. Further, the test equipment can be handed down to future projects without building an on-site facility.

  5. Coffee reduces the risk of death after acute myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Oliver I; Allgar, Victoria; Wong, Kenneth Y-K

    2016-11-01

    Habitual coffee consumption is protective against coronary heart disease in women; however, it is not clear whether such cardioprotection is conferred on those who have already experienced an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Our aim was to investigate whether coffee consumption affected mortality after AMI. We carried out a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies that examined the relationship between coffee intake and mortality after an AMI. Using a defined-search strategy, electronic databases (MEDLINE and Embase) were searched for papers published between 1946 and 2015. Two eligible studies investigating post-AMI mortality risk against coffee consumption were identified and assessed using set criteria. Combined, these studies recruited a total of 3271 patients and 604 died. The hazard ratios for the following experimental groups were defined: light coffee drinkers (1-2 cups/day) versus noncoffee drinkers, heavy coffee drinkers (>2 cups/day) versus noncoffee drinkers and heavy coffee drinkers versus light coffee drinkers. A statistically significant inverse correlation was observed between coffee drinking and mortality; all three groups showed a significant reduction in risk ratio. Light coffee drinkers versus noncoffee drinkers were associated with a risk ratio of 0.79 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66-0.94, P=0.008]; heavy coffee drinkers versus noncoffee drinkers were associated with a risk ratio of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.45-0.65, Pcoffee drinkers versus light coffee drinkers were associated with a risk ratio of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.58-0.83, Pcoffee habitually following AMI was associated with a reduced risk of mortality.

  6. A Healthy Dietary Pattern Reduces Lung Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlai Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diet and nutrients play an important role in cancer development and progress; a healthy dietary pattern has been found to be associated with several types of cancer. However, the association between a healthy eating pattern and lung cancer risk is still unclear. Objective: Therefore, we conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis to evaluate whether a healthy eating pattern might reduce lung cancer risk. Methods: We identified relevant studies from the PubMed and Embase databases up to October 2015, and the relative risks were extracted and combined by the fixed-effects model when no substantial heterogeneity was observed; otherwise, the random-effects model was employed. Subgroup and publication bias analyses were also performed. Results: Finally, eight observational studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled relative risk of lung cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of healthy dietary pattern was 0.81 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.75–0.86, and no significant heterogeneity was detected. The relative risks (RRs for non-smokers, former smokers and current smokers were 0.89 (95% CI: 0.63–1.27, 0.74 (95% CI: 0.62–0.89 and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.79–0.93, respectively. The results remained stable in subgroup analyses by other confounders and sensitivity analysis. Conclusions: The results of our meta-analysis suggest that a healthy dietary pattern is associated with a lower lung cancer risk, and they provide more beneficial evidence for changing the diet pattern in the general population.

  7. Early Warning System for reducing disaster risk: the technological platform DEWETRA for the Republic of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massabo, Marco; Molini, Luca; Kostic, Bojan; Campanella, Paolo; Stevanovic, Slavimir

    2015-04-01

    Disaster risk reduction has long been recognized for its role in mitigating the negative environmental, social and economic impacts of natural hazards. Flood Early Warning System is a disaster risk reduction measure based on the capacities of institutions to observe and predict extreme hydro-meteorological events and to disseminate timely and meaningful warning information; it is furthermore based on the capacities of individuals, communities and organizations to prepare and to act appropriately and in sufficient time to reduce the possibility of harm or loss. An operational definition of an Early Warning System has been suggested by ISDR - UN Office for DRR [15 January 2009]: "EWS is the set of capacities needed to generate and disseminate timely and meaningful warning information to enable individuals, communities and organizations threatened by a hazard to prepare and to act appropriately and in sufficient time to reduce the possibility of harm or loss.". ISDR continues by commenting that a people-centered early warning system necessarily comprises four key elements: 1-knowledge of the risks; 2-monitoring, analysis and forecasting of the hazards; 3-communication or dissemination of alerts and warnings; and 4- local capabilities to respond to the warnings received." The technological platform DEWETRA supports the strengthening of the first three key elements of EWS suggested by ISDR definition, hence to improve the capacities to build real-time risk scenarios and to inform and warn the population in advance The technological platform DEWETRA has been implemented for the Republic of Serbia. DEWETRA is a real time-integrate system that supports decision makers for risk forecasting and monitoring and for distributing warnings to end-user and to the general public. The system is based on the rapid availability of different data that helps to establish up-to-date and reliable risk scenarios. The integration of all relevant data for risk management significantly

  8. Can Avoiding Light at Night Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshet-Sitton, Atalya; Or-Chen, Keren; Yitzhak, Sara; Tzabary, Ilana; Haim, Abraham

    2016-06-01

    Excessive exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) suppresses nocturnal melatonin (MLT) production in the pineal gland and is, therefore, associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (BC). We examined indoor and outdoor light habits of 278 women, BC patients (n = 93), and controls (n = 185; 2010-2014). Cases and controls were age and residential area matched. Data regarding behavior in the sleeping habitat in a 5-year period, 10 to 15 years prior to disease diagnosis, were collected using a questionnaire. Sleep quality, bedtime, sleep duration, TV watching habits, presleeping reading habits, subjective illumination intensity, and type of illumination were collected. Binary logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (ORs with 95% CIs) for BC patients in relation to those habits. OR results revealed that women who had slept longer (controls), 10 to 15 years before the time of the study, in a period of 5 years, had a significant (OR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.57-0.97; P light (reading lamp) illumination and women who had slept with closed shutters reduced their BC risk: OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.67-0.97, P light exposure will diminish BC risk and incidence. This hypothesis needs to be tested directly using available testing strategies and technologies that continuously measure an individual's light exposure, its timing, and sleep length longitudinally and feed this information back to the individual, so that BC risk can be distinguished prospectively.

  9. Which types of mental work demands may be associated with reduced risk of dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Then, Francisca S; Luck, Tobias; Heser, Kathrin; Ernst, Annette; Posselt, Tina; Wiese, Birgitt; Mamone, Silke; Brettschneider, Christian; König, Hans-Helmut; Weyerer, Siegfried; Werle, Jochen; Mösch, Edelgard; Bickel, Horst; Fuchs, Angela; Pentzek, Michael; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin; Wagner, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that an overall high level of mental work demands decreased dementia risk. In our study, we investigated whether this effect is driven by specific mental work demands and whether it is exposure dependent. Patients aged 75+ years were recruited from general practitioners and participated in up to seven assessment waves (every 1.5 years) of the longitudinal AgeCoDe study. Analyses of the impact of specific mental work demands on dementia risk were carried out via multivariate regression modeling (n = 2315). We observed a significantly lower dementia risk in individuals with a higher level of "information processing" (HR, 0.888), "pattern detection" (HR, 0.878), "mathematics" (HR, 0.878), and "creativity" (HR, 0.878). Yet, exposure-dependent effects were only significant for "information processing" and "pattern detection." Our longitudinal observations suggest that dementia risk may be reduced by some but not all types of mental work demands. Copyright © 2016 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Simulating Pelletization Strategies to Reduce the Biomass Supply Risk at America’s Biorefineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Shane Carnohan; Andrew Ford; Allyson Beall

    2014-07-01

    Demand for cellulosic ethanol and other advanced biofuels has been on the rise, due in part to federal targets enacted in 2005 and extended in 2007. The industry faces major challenges in meeting these worthwhile and ambitious targets. The challenges are especially severe in the logistics of timely feedstock delivery to biorefineries. Logistical difficulties arise from seasonal production that forces the biomass to be stored in uncontrolled field-side environments. In this storage format physical difficulties arise; transportation is hindered by the low bulk density of baled biomass and the unprotected material can decay leading to unpredictable losses. Additionally, uncertain yields and contractual difficulties can exacerbate these challenges making biorefineries a high-risk venture. Investors’ risk could limit business entry and prevent America from reaching the targets. This paper explores pelletizer strategies to convert the lignocellulosic biomass into a denser form more suitable for storage. The densification of biomass would reduce supply risks, and the new system would outperform conventional biorefinery supply systems. Pelletizer strategies exhibit somewhat higher costs, but the reduction in risk is well worth the extra cost if America is to grow the advanced biofuels industry in a sustainable manner.

  11. Soap opera video on handheld computers to reduce young urban women's HIV sex risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a soap opera video, A Story about Toni, Mike, and Valerie, designed to communicate HIV risk reduction themes. The study evaluated viewing the video and responding to audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) on a handheld computer. The sample was 76 predominately African American women, aged 18-29, in sexual relationships with men. Data were collected in urban neighborhoods in the northeastern United States. A pretest-posttest control group design with systematic assignment indicated statistically significant reduction in expectations to engage in unprotected sex in the experimental group. The handheld computer was found to be acceptable to view the near feature length video and complete ACASI. To date, no study has reported on use of video and ACASI on a handheld device to reduce HIV risk. The significance is the potential to stream health promotion videos to personal devices, such as cell phones.

  12. A novel safety mechanism to reduce the risk of inadvertent electrosurgical injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duren, Bernard Hendrik; van Boxel, Gijsbert Isaac; Hart, Alister; Newton, Nick

    2016-07-01

    Thousands of laparoscopic procedures requiring the use of electrosurgical devices are performed worldwide on a daily basis. The use of electrosurgery carries with it inherent risks related to the use of an energy source within the abdomen. Inadvertent tissue injury due to the use of electrosurgical devices is rare, but is associated with a high morbidity and mortality if undetected. This paper describes a novel, yet simple method using instrument markers and image processing algorithms to reduce the risk of unsafe activation of electrosurgical instruments during laparoscopy. The method was tested in a simulated environment and measured against the decision of an experienced laparoscopic surgeon. Results showed that the position of an instrument in a visual field could be accurately determined using an image processing algorithm to ascertain whether it was safe for activation in agreement with the decisions made by manual inspection.

  13. New hope for correctional officers: an innovative program for reducing stress and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCraty, Rollin; Atkinson, Mike; Lipsenthal, Lee; Arguelles, Lourdes

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the impact of a new stress management program on physiological and psychological stress and health risk factors among 75 correctional officers. The experimental group received training in emotion self-regulation techniques intended to reduce stress and health risk factors. Practice of the techniques was enhanced by heart rate variability feedback, which helped participants learn and sustain use of the self-management tools. Measures of physiological stress included cortisol, DHEA, cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose levels, 10-min resting electrocardiogram, heart rate variability, and blood pressure. Three psychological questionnaires assessed emotional stress and work-related variables. There were significant improvements in the experimental group in cholesterol, glucose, heart rate, blood pressure and positive outlook and significant reductions in overall psychological distress. There were significant increases in productivity, motivation, goal clarity, and perceived support. The mean difference between pre- and post-intervention projected health care costs was calculated to be $1,179 per employee per year.

  14. Health behavior segmentation and campaign planning to reduce cardiovascular disease risk among Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J E; Flora, J A

    1995-02-01

    Using the social marketing principle of audience segmentation, a Hispanic audience was disaggregated to examine heterogeneous behaviors and lifestyles that could guide planning for public information campaigns designed to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Signal detection analysis resulted in six mutually exclusive subgroups, based on self-reported behavioral changes to improve health. Subgroups differed significantly in communication, behavioral, psychological, and demographic dimensions, indicating they may require unique campaign planning strategies. To determine whether subgroups were meaningful relative to external health-related criteria, they were compared as to health knowledge and status on cardiovascular disease risk factors. The results showed significant differences among audience subgroups in plasma high-density lipoprotein levels and hypertensive status. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for campaign planning and the need for public health campaigns to diversify strategies when targeting Hispanic audiences.

  15. Hormones and breast cancer: can we use them in ways that could reduce the risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Mahmud

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many hormones promote or inhibit breast cancer in different ways. These effects and the mechanisms involved are reviewed in order to suggest a potentially safer use of hormones. Natural estrogens, administered transdermally, and natural progesterone may be the safest combination of female hormones. Increased intake of cruciferous vegetables could provide additional safety by improving 2-hydoxyestrone and diminishing 16 alphahydroxyestrone. Testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA may directly inhibit breast cancer, but could potentially stimulate it by being aromatized into estrogen in the breast. Modest doses with blood level monitoring appear logical. Melatonin and oxytocin are inhibitory to breast and other cancers. Insulin is a growth factor for breast cancer. Managing insulin resistance before the onset of diabetes could reduce the risk. Tri-iodothyronine (T3 has multiple anti-breast cancer effects. Synthroid may not increase T3 levels adequately. Human growth hormone does not appear to increase risk; but it should not be given for performance enhancement.

  16. Regulatory risk assessments: Is there a need to reduce uncertainty and enhance robustness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodin, D J

    2015-12-01

    A critical evaluation of several recent regulatory risk assessments has been undertaken. These relate to propyl paraben (as a food additive, cosmetic ingredient or pharmaceutical excipient), cobalt (in terms of a safety-based limit for pharmaceuticals) and the cancer Threshold of Toxicological Concern as applied to food contaminants and pharmaceutical impurities. In all cases, a number of concerns can be raised regarding the reliability of the current assessments, some examples being absence of data audits, use of single-dose and/or non-good laboratory practice studies to determine safety metrics, use of a biased data set and questionable methodology and lack of consistency with precedents and regulatory guidance. Drawing on these findings, a set of recommendations is provided to reduce uncertainty and improve the quality and robustness of future regulatory risk assessments.

  17. Lifestyle interventions to reduce risk of diabetes among women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    While lifestyle interventions involving exercise and a healthy diet in high-risk adults have been found to reduce progression to type 2 diabetes by >50%, little attention has been given to the potential benefits of such strategies in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We conducted a literature search of PubMed for English language studies of randomized controlled trials of lifestyle interventions among women with a history of GDM. In total, nine studies were identified which fulfilled the eligibility criteria. The majority of randomized trials of lifestyle interventions in women with GDM have been limited to pilot or feasibility studies. However, preliminary findings suggest that such interventions can improve diabetes risk factors in women with a history of GDM. Larger, well-designed controlled randomized trials are needed to assess the effects of lifestyle interventions on preventing subsequent progression to type 2 diabetes among women with GDM.

  18. Tank Waste Transport, Pipeline Plugging, and the Prospects for Reducing the Risk of Waste Transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, T.D.

    2001-09-27

    This report provides an overview of the capabilities and limitations of some current models being applied to the analysis of waste transfers; identifies the modeling capabilities needed to reduce the risk of pipeline plugging during tank waste transfers; and summarizes ongoing, planned, and future work needed to add these capabilities. Development of improved waste transport modeling tools with these capabilities will also help with waste transfer planning and evaluation, process control, and diagnosis of plugging events. Other potential applications include evaluation of waste-mixing scenarios, analysis of waste transfer stability, analysis of waste-unplugging alternatives, minimization of water addition, maximization of system availability, evaluation of risk-reduction strategies, and evaluation of cost-reduction strategies.

  19. Peanut consumption and reduced risk of colorectal cancer in women: A prospective study in Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chih-Ching Yeh; San-Lin You; Chien-Jen Chen; Fung-Chang Sung

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To examine whether peanut consumption is associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer in a prospective cohort with a 10-year follow-up.METHODS: In 1990-1992, residents (12026 men and 11917 women aged 30 to 65 years) in 7 townships,Taiwan, were interviewed and recruited into a cancerscreening cohort and annually followed up. Colorectal cancer cases in this cohort were identified from cancer registry and death certificates. Incidence rates of this disease by the end of 2001 were calculated by gender for the primary study variable and covariates. The dietary intake was assessed by means of weekly food frequency measures, including frequently consumed food groups and folk dishes including sweet potato, bean products,peanut products, pickled foodstuffs, nitrated or smoked foodstuffs.RESULTS: During the study period, 107 new colorectal cancer cases (68 men and 39 women) were confirmed.The multivariate Cox's proportional hazard model showed that the relative risk (RR) of peanut consumption was 0.73[95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.44-1.21] for men and 0.42 (95% CI = 0.21-0.84) for women. However, frequent intake of pickled foodstuffs was harmful for women (RR=2.15, 95% CI=0.99-4.65). The risk of colorectal cancer was also elevated among cigarette smokers but not significant (P< 0.05).CONCLUSION: This study suggests that frequent intake of peanut and its products may reduce colorectal cancer risk in women, demonstrating the anti-proliferating effect of peanut intake.

  20. The KnowRISK project: Tools and strategies to reduce non-structural damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa Oliveira, Carlos; Lopes, Mário; Mota de Sá, Francisco; Amaral Ferreia, Mónica; Candeias, Paulo; Campos Costa, Alfredo; Rupakhety, Rajesh; Meroni, Fabrizio; Azzaro, Raffaele; D'Amico, Salvatore; Langer, Horst; Musacchio, Gemma; Sousa Silva, Delta; Falsaperla, Susanna; Scarfì, Luciano; Tusa, Giuseppina; Tuvé, Tiziana

    2016-04-01

    The project KnowRISK (Know your city, Reduce seISmic risK through non-structural elements) is financed by the European Commission to develop prevention measures that may reduce non-structural damage in urban areas. Pilot areas of the project are within the three European participating countries, namely Portugal, Iceland and Italy. Non-structural components of a building include all those components that are not part of the structural system, more specifically the architectural, mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems, as well as furniture, fixtures, equipment, and contents. Windows, partitions, granite veneer, piping, ceilings, air conditioning ducts and equipment, elevators, computer and hospital equipment, file cabinets, and retail merchandise are all examples of non-structural components that are vulnerable to earthquake damage. We will use the experience gained during past earthquakes, which struck in particular Iceland, Italy and Portugal (Azores). Securing the non-structural elements improves the safety during an earthquake and saves lives. This paper aims at identifying non-structural seismic protection measures in the pilot areas and to develop a portfolio of good practices for the most common and serious non-structural vulnerabilities. This systematic identification and the portfolio will be achieved through a "cross-knowledge" strategy based on previous researches, evidence of non-structural damage in past earthquakes. Shake table tests of a group of non-structural elements will be performed. These tests will be filmed and, jointly with portfolio, will serve as didactic supporting tools to be used in workshops with building construction stakeholders and in risk communication activities. A Practical Guide for non-structural risk reduction will be specifically prepared for citizens on the basis of the outputs of the project, taking into account the local culture and needs of each participating country.

  1. Diabetic nephropathy: new approaches for improving glycemic control and reducing risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schernthaner, Guntram; Schernthaner, Gerit Holger

    2013-01-01

    Nephropathy is a common consequence of diabetes, with a high prevalence in patients with type 1 (15%-25%) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; 30%-40%). Nephropathy is associated with a poor prognosis and high economic burden. The risk of developing nephropathy increases with the duration of diabetes, and early diagnosis and treatment of risk factors for nephropathy (e.g., tight control of glycemia and hypertension) can reduce the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of renal complications associated with diabetes and the etiology of nephropathy have identified additional risk factors for nephropathy, and novel therapeutic options are being explored. This review discusses the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy and common risk factors. Furthermore, we discuss emerging treatments for T2DM that could potentially slow or prevent the progression of diabetic nephropathy. The use of incretin-based therapies, such as the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs, is growing in patients with T2DM, due to their efficacy and tolerability profiles. As renal safety is a key factor when choosing treatment options to manage patients with T2DM, drugs that are suitable for use in patients with varying degrees of renal impairment without a requirement for dose adjustment, such as the DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin, are of particular use. The ongoing advances in T2DM therapy may allow optimization of glycemic control in a wide range of patients, thereby helping to reduce the increasing morbidity and mortality associated with diabetic nephropathy.

  2. User involvement in structured violence risk management within forensic mental health facilities -- a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidhammer, Gunnar; Fluttert, Frans A J; Bjørkly, Stål

    2014-10-01

    To examine empirical literature on user involvement in collaboration between patients and nurses. The scope of the review was limited to structured violence risk management interventions in forensic mental health settings. Violence in forensic mental health settings represents a significant problem for patients and staff. Structured violence risk management interventions in forensic mental health have been reported to ignore patient participation, despite the growing attention on user involvement in clinical practice. A systematic review. Searches were conducted in six databases: the Cochrane Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, CINAHL, ProQuest, ScienceDirect and PsycINFO. Papers were assessed according to a predetermined set of inclusion and exclusion criteria. After searches of the reference lists of retrieved articles were conducted, only three papers met the inclusion criteria. This review has shown that empirical research on the topic of risk management interventions in which patients are involved is scarce. There is barely any research evidence of the clinical effect of user involvement approaches on violence risk management in forensic mental health practice. Therefore, we suggest that clinicians may learn from positive experiences concerning user involvement in general psychiatry and carefully adapt and test them out in the forensic treatment context. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. [Working conditions and professional risk for operational personnel of energy facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirov, N Kh; Ilyukhin, N E; Rusin, M N; Krasnoshchekova, V N

    2013-01-01

    Features of working conditions and a state of health of operation personnel of the network companies of power industry were studied for the purpose of justification and introduction of preventive actions for the decrease in influence of factors of professional risk.

  4. Reduced lung function and risk of atrial fibrillation in the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, P; Friberg, J; Scharling, H

    2003-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been associated with a high frequency of arrhythmias. Few studies have analysed the role of reduced lung function in predicting atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between forced expiratory volume......-80% of predicted compared with FEV1 > or = 80% after adjustment for sex, age, smoking, blood pressure, diabetes and body mass index. The risk of AF hospitalisation was 1.3-times higher for FEV1 between 60-80% and 1.8-times higher for FEV1 or = 80%, when additional adjustment was made...... for education, treatment with diuretics and chest pain at activity. The authors conclude that reduced lung function is an independent predictor for incident atrial fibrillation....

  5. Insights and perspectives on dietary modifications to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, David J; Rice Bradley, Beth H; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Mente, Andrew; de Oliveira Otto, Marcia

    2014-09-01

    This article summarizes presentations from “Insights and Perspectives on Dietary Modifications to Reduce the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease,” a symposium held at the ASN Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions in conjunction with Experimental Biology 2014 in San Diego, CA on 26 April 2014. Presenters reviewed historic and current evidence on the relation between diet and cardiovascular disease (CVD) to identify gaps in knowledge, discuss the promises and pitfalls of macronutrient replacement strategies in the diet, and suggest various options for issuing dietary guidance aimed at reducing the burden of CVD morbidity and mortality. Observational studies and clinical trials indicate that overall diet quality have a marked impact on health benefits, which is shifting the emphasis on recommending healthful dietary patterns to focusing only on single nutrients or foods.

  6. Blocking Surgically Induced Lysyl Oxidase Activity Reduces the Risk of Lung Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Rachman-Tzemah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Surgery remains the most successful curative treatment for cancer. However, some patients with early-stage disease who undergo surgery eventually succumb to distant metastasis. Here, we show that in response to surgery, the lungs become more vulnerable to metastasis due to extracellular matrix remodeling. Mice that undergo surgery or that are preconditioned with plasma from donor mice that underwent surgery succumb to lung metastases earlier than controls. Increased lysyl oxidase (LOX activity and expression, fibrillary collagen crosslinking, and focal adhesion signaling contribute to this effect, with the hypoxic surgical site serving as the source of LOX. Furthermore, the lungs of recipient mice injected with plasma from post-surgical colorectal cancer patients are more prone to metastatic seeding than mice injected with baseline plasma. Downregulation of LOX activity or levels reduces lung metastasis after surgery and increases survival, highlighting the potential of LOX inhibition in reducing the risk of metastasis following surgery.

  7. Arsenic Transport in Rice and Biological Solutions to Reduce Arsenic Risk from Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanshan; Han, Yong-He; Cao, Yue; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Ma, Lena Q.

    2017-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) feeds ∼3 billion people. Due to the wide occurrence of arsenic (As) pollution in paddy soils and its efficient plant uptake, As in rice grains presents health risks. Genetic manipulation may offer an effective approach to reduce As accumulation in rice grains. The genetics of As uptake and metabolism have been elucidated and target genes have been identified for genetic engineering to reduce As accumulation in grains. Key processes controlling As in grains include As uptake, arsenite (AsIII) efflux, arsenate (AsV) reduction and AsIII sequestration, and As methylation and volatilization. Recent advances, including characterization of AsV uptake transporter OsPT8, AsV reductase OsHAC1;1 and OsHAC1;2, rice glutaredoxins, and rice ABC transporter OsABCC1, make many possibilities to develop low-arsenic rice. PMID:28298917

  8. Soya and isoflavone intakes associated with reduced risk of oesophageal cancer in north-west China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li; Lee, Andy H; Xu, Fenglian; Zhang, Taotao; Lei, Jun; Binns, Colin W

    2015-01-01

    To ascertain the association between soya consumption, isoflavone intakes and oesophageal cancer risk in remote north-west China, where the incidence of oesophageal cancer is known to be high. Case-control study. Information on habitual consumption of soya foods and soya milk was obtained by personal interview. The intakes of isoflavones were then estimated using the US Department of Agriculture nutrient database. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between soya consumption, isoflavone intakes and oesophageal cancer risk. Urumqi and Shihezi, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. Participants were 359 incident oesophageal cancer patients and 380 hospital-based controls. The oesophageal cancer patients consumed significantly less (P soya foods (mean 57·2 (sd 119·0) g/d) and soya milk (mean 18·8 (sd 51·7) ml/d) than the controls (mean 93·3 (sd 121·5) g/d and mean 35·7 (sd 73·0) ml/d). Logistic regression analyses showed an inverse association between intake of soya products and the risk of oesophageal cancer. The adjusted odds were OR = 0·33 (95 % CI 0·22, 0·49) and OR = 0·48 (95 % CI 0·31, 0·74) for consuming at least 97 g of soya foods and 60 ml of soya milk daily (the highest tertiles of consumption), respectively, relative to the lowest tertiles of consumption. Similarly, inverse associations with apparent dose-response relationships were found between isoflavone intakes and oesophageal cancer risk. Habitual consumption of soya products appears to be associated with reduced risk of oesophageal cancer in north-west China.

  9. Development of a Risk-adjustment Model for the Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility Discharge Self-care Functional Status Quality Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Anne; Pardasaney, Poonam; Iriondo-Perez, Jeniffer; Ingber, Melvin J; Porter, Kristie A; McMullen, Tara

    2017-07-01

    Functional status measures are important patient-centered indicators of inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF) quality of care. We developed a risk-adjusted self-care functional status measure for the IRF Quality Reporting Program. This paper describes the development and performance of the measure's risk-adjustment model. Our sample included IRF Medicare fee-for-service patients from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' 2008-2010 Post-Acute Care Payment Reform Demonstration. Data sources included the Continuity Assessment Record and Evaluation Item Set, IRF-Patient Assessment Instrument, and Medicare claims. Self-care scores were based on 7 Continuity Assessment Record and Evaluation items. The model was developed using discharge self-care score as the dependent variable, and generalized linear modeling with generalized estimation equation to account for patient characteristics and clustering within IRFs. Patient demographics, clinical characteristics at IRF admission, and clinical characteristics related to the recent hospitalization were tested as risk adjusters. A total of 4769 patient stays from 38 IRFs were included. Approximately 57% of the sample was female; 38.4%, 75-84 years; and 31.0%, 65-74 years. The final model, containing 77 risk adjusters, explained 53.7% of variance in discharge self-care scores (P<0.0001). Admission self-care function was the strongest predictor, followed by admission cognitive function and IRF primary diagnosis group. The range of expected and observed scores overlapped very well, with little bias across the range of predicted self-care functioning. Our risk-adjustment model demonstrated strong validity for predicting discharge self-care scores. Although the model needs validation with national data, it represents an important first step in evaluation of IRF functional outcomes.

  10. Risk factors for urosepsis following percutaneous nephrolithotomy: role of 1 week of nitrofurantoin in reducing the risk of urosepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Bag, Sanand; Ganesamoni, Raguram; Mandal, Arup K; Taneja, Neelam; Singh, Shrawan Kumar

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the various risk factors for urosepsis following percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) and to study the role of 1-week nitrofurantoin before PNL in reducing the risk of urosepsis. All patients undergoing PNL from April 2007 to November 2008 were prospectively included and grouped into four cohorts according to the following inclusion criteria: group A: stones ≤ 2.5 cm, no hydronephrosis, sterile urine; group B: diabetes mellitus, serum creatinine > 2 mg/dl, positive urine culture, stag horn stones, presence of nephrostomy or simultaneous bilateral PNL; group C: stones ≥ 2.5 cm and/or hydronephrosis, sterile urine; group D: similar to group C, but received nitrofurantoin 100 mg bid for 7 days before operation. Preoperative urine culture, intraoperative renal pelvic urine culture and stone cultures were obtained. Fever > 380°C and leukocyte counts > 12,000 were considered as systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Endotoxemia was assessed in serum samples. A total of 205 patients were included in the study and grouped into four cohorts as group A (n = 50), group B (n = 54), group C (n = 53) and group D (n = 48). Overall 23% patients had positive renal pelvic urine and/or stone culture, 25% had endotoxemia and 34% developed SIRS. Female gender, chronic renal failure, anemia, hydronephrosis, stones larger than 2.5 cm and prolonged surgery were found to be risk factors associated with urosepsis. Nitrofurantoin prophylaxis resulted in decreased culture positivity (30.2 vs. 8.3%, odds ratio 0.36, p = 0.087), endotoxemia (41.9 vs. 17.5%, odds ratio 0.22, p = 0.001) and SIRS (49 vs. 19%, odds ratio 0.31, p = 0.01). In conclusion, female gender, chronic renal failure, anemia, hydronephrosis, stones larger than 2.5 cm and prolonged surgery were risk factors for urosepsis. Nitrofurantoin is beneficial in the prevention of endotoxemia and urosepsis especially in patients with larger stones and hydronephrosis.

  11. An integrated approach to risk-based remediation of a former bulk fuel storage facility adjacent a marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, L.; Hers, I. [Golder Associates Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An integrated approach to risk-based remediation of a former bulk fuel storage facility adjacent to a marine environment was discussed. The presentation provided an introduction and illustration to the site location and history, located close to Skagway, Alaska and northwestern British Columbia. The site investigation and conceptual model were also presented. The remedial approach was also described with reference to a risk-based action approach, remedial objectives, soil vapour extraction (SVE)-bioventing, and air sparging-biosparging. The objectives were to minimize potential exposure to aquatic receptors by minimizing non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) mobility and dissolved transport of petroleum hydrocarbons. Groundwater modeling to assess the attenuation rate and to determine remedial targets was also discussed. Model validation and results of groundwater modeling as well as remediation system details and performance were then provided. It was determined that significant attenuation is occurring and that effective mass removal and concentrations have been decreasing over time. It was demonstrated that risk-based remedial goals and hydrogeology can change with land use/development. tabs., figs.

  12. Risk Factors for Reduced Salivary Flow Rate in a Japanese Population: The Hisayama Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Takeuchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine distinct risk factors causing reduced salivary flow rate in a community-dwelling population using a prospective cohort study design. This was a 5-year follow-up survey of 1,377 community-dwelling Japanese individuals aged ≥40 years. The salivary flow rate was evaluated at baseline and follow-up by collecting stimulated saliva. Data on demographic characteristics, use of medication, and general and oral health status were obtained at baseline. The relationship between reduced salivary flow rate during the follow-up period and its predictors was evaluated after adjustment for confounding factors. In a multivariate logistic regression model, higher age and plaque score and lower serum albumin levels were significantly associated with greater odds of an obvious reduction in salivary flow rate (age per decade, odds ratio [OR] = 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03–1.51; serum albumin levels <4 g/dL, OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.04–2.46; plaque score ≥1, OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.04–2.24. In a multivariate linear regression model, age and plaque score remained independently associated with the increased rate of reduced salivary flow. These results suggest that aging and plaque score are important predictors of reduced salivary flow rate in Japanese adults.

  13. Legionella and risk management in hospitals-A bibliographic research methodology for people responsible for built environment and facility management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiblein, Thomas W; Tucker, Matthew; Ashall, Mal; Lee, Susanne B; Gollnisch, Carsten; Hofer, Susanne

    2016-11-01

    An ongoing research project investigates the roles and duties of persons responsible for the built environment with respect to risk management of water systems and Legionella prevention from a facility management's perspective. Our literature review provides an approach for selecting and analysing abstracts of initially 177 journal articles, subjected to certain topic-specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Different decision strategies of either logic 'yes/no', Boolean operators 'OR' or 'AND' and decisions for single counts or cumulative counts of the identified three principal keywords 'Legionella', 'hospital' and 'water', were completed. A final list of ten principal reference articles from 29 journals was compiled. It suggests that the interconnected perspective of water systems, Legionella and hospitals seems to be underrepresented in the field of the built environment and facility management. The term 'stakeholder', which would refer to decision-makers, was not found more than once. Our result is a useful summary of established sources of information on environmental Legionella research. The results can be helpful for those new to the topic.

  14. A facile and green method for synthesis of reduced graphene oxide/Ag hybrids as efficient surface enhanced Raman scattering platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qingli; Wang, Jiaming; Wei, Wenxian; Yan, Qiuxiang; Wu, Changle; Zhu, Xiashi

    2015-01-01

    Reduced graphene oxide/Ag nanoparticles hybrids (rGO/AgNPs) were fabricated via a green and facile hydrothermal method. The as-synthesized materials were characterized in detail using various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Under a suitable dosage of silver ions, well-dispersed AgNPs on the reduced graphene oxide sheets were obtained. The surface plasmon resonance properties of AgNPs on graphene show that there is an interaction between AgNPs and graphene. Trace detection of organic dyes is studied based on rGO/AgNPs hybrids as efficient surface enhanced Raman scattering platforms. It has been found that the suitable experiment parameter is crucial to trace detection of organic dyes molecules. This work is of importance in the practical application in device-design based on the SERS effect of noble metal/reduced oxide graphene (or oxide graphene) hybrids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Universal Rig for Supporting Large Hammer Drills: Reduced Injury Risk and Improved Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, David; Barr, Alan

    2015-10-01

    Drilling holes into concrete with heavy hammer and rock drills is one of the most physically demanding tasks performed in commercial construction and poses risks for musculoskeletal disorders, noise induced hearing loss, hand arm vibration syndrome and silicosis. The aim of this study was to (1) use a participatory process to develop a rig to support pneumatic rock drills or large electric hammer drills in order to reduce the health risks and (2) evaluate the usability of the rig. Seven prototype rigs for supporting large hammer drills were developed and modified with feedback from commercial contractors and construction workers. The final design was evaluated by laborers and electricians (N=29) who performed their usual concrete drilling with the usual method and the new rig. Subjective regional fatigue was significantly less in the neck, shoulders, hands and arms, and lower back) when using the universal rig compared to the usual manual method. Usability ratings for the rig were significantly better than the usual method on stability, control, drilling, accuracy, and vibration. Drilling time was reduced by approximately 50% with the rig. Commercial construction contractors, laborers and electricians who use large hammer drills for drilling many holes should consider using such a rig to prevent musculoskeletal disorders, fatigue, and silicosis.

  16. Vegetarian diet and reduced uterine fibroids risk: A case-control study in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yang; Wu, Yanting; Lu, Qing; Ren, Mulan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a vegetarian diet correlates with a potential reduced risk of uterine fibroids. We used data from a case-control study conducted in Southeast University Zhongda Hospital between February 2010 and December 2014. Cases included 600 Chinese Han women with uterine fibroids (case group) whose clinical diagnosis dated back no more than 1 year. Controls were 600 patients without uterine fibroids as well as healthy volunteers (control group). All of the information gathered through the questionnaire survey was analyzed for the risk factors of the uterine fibroids pathogenesis. The multifactor analysis showed that women with uterine fibroids reported a less frequent consumption of broccoli (odds ratio [OR]: 0.552; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.316-0.964), cabbage (OR: 0.446; 95%CI: 0.211-0.943), Chinese cabbage (OR: 0.311; 95%CI: 0.102-0.946), tomato (OR: 0.453; 95%CI: 0.241-0.853), and apple (OR: 0.416; 95%CI: 0.213-0.814) (P < 0.05). The original evidence from this epidemiological investigation shows that a high consumption of broccoli, cabbage, Chinese cabbage, tomato and apple seems to be a protective factor for uterine fibroids. We suggest that greater intake of fresh fruits and cruciferous vegetables may be able to reduce the incidence of uterine fibroids. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Reducing drug–herb interaction risk with a computerized reminder system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sheng-Shing; Tsai, Chiu-Lin; Tu, Ching-Yeh; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine are both popular in Taiwan. Approximately 14.1% of Taiwanese residents use Western drugs and Chinese herbs concurrently; therefore, drug–herb interaction is critical to patient safety. This paper presents a new procedure for reducing the risk of drug interactions. Methods Hospital computer systems are modified to ensure that drug–herb interactions are automatically detected when a TCM practitioner is writing a prescription. A pop-up reminder appears, warning of interactions, and the practitioner may adjust doses, delete herbs, or leave the prescription unchanged. A pharmacist will receive interaction information through the system and provide health education to the patient. Results During the 2011–2013 study period, 256 patients received 891 herbal prescriptions with potential drug–herb interactions. Three of the 50 patients who concurrently used ginseng and antidiabetic drugs manifested hypoglycemia (fasting blood sugar level ≤70 mg/dL). Conclusion Drug–herb interactions can cause adverse reactions. A computerized reminder system can enable TCM practitioners to reduce the risk of drug–herb interactions. In addition, health education for patients is crucial in avoiding adverse reaction by the interactions. PMID:25733840

  18. A Universal Rig for Supporting Large Hammer Drills: Reduced Injury Risk and Improved Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, David; Barr, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Drilling holes into concrete with heavy hammer and rock drills is one of the most physically demanding tasks performed in commercial construction and poses risks for musculoskeletal disorders, noise induced hearing loss, hand arm vibration syndrome and silicosis. The aim of this study was to (1) use a participatory process to develop a rig to support pneumatic rock drills or large electric hammer drills in order to reduce the health risks and (2) evaluate the usability of the rig. Seven prototype rigs for supporting large hammer drills were developed and modified with feedback from commercial contractors and construction workers. The final design was evaluated by laborers and electricians (N=29) who performed their usual concrete drilling with the usual method and the new rig. Subjective regional fatigue was significantly less in the neck, shoulders, hands and arms, and lower back) when using the universal rig compared to the usual manual method. Usability ratings for the rig were significantly better than the usual method on stability, control, drilling, accuracy, and vibration. Drilling time was reduced by approximately 50% with the rig. Commercial construction contractors, laborers and electricians who use large hammer drills for drilling many holes should consider using such a rig to prevent musculoskeletal disorders, fatigue, and silicosis. PMID:26005290

  19. Reducing the public health risk of cryptosporidiosis by optimizing treatment processes at a military water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Steven H

    2011-01-01

    Safe drinking water supplies are critical to public health and mission success. One of the primary goals of water treatment is to effectively reduce the acute health risks posed by pathogenic microorganisms present in our raw, untreated water supplies. As a result of recent drinking water regulations, a military water system identified significant levels of Cryptosporidium in their raw water supply requiring additional or improved treatment to remove. Cryptosporidium, the pathogenic microorganism that causes Cryptosporidiosis, has been indicated in numerous waterborne outbreaks worldwide, including the United States. The US Army Public Health Command conducted a year-long study evaluating the ability of the water system to provide improved treatment by optimizing the existing treatment processes. Study results show that optimizing existing treatment processes and switching to an alternative coagulant chemical will achieve the Cryptosporidium removal required to comply with drinking water regulations, with subsequent reduction in the risk of Cryptosporidiosis. These improvements will also ensure effective treatment in all raw water quality conditions and reduce overall chemical costs without increasing operational and maintenance burdens. The optimization evaluation and techniques used for this water system can be applied to all military-owned water systems to help ensure the protection of public health and mission success.

  20. The role of exercise in reducing the risks of gestational diabetes mellitus in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artal, Raul

    2015-01-01

    The global obesity epidemic continues unabated, now rapidly expanding to developing countries. Multiple comorbidities and premature mortality are associated with obesity, most frequently diabetes. The associated financial and economical burden is escalating as well. The sedentary lifestyle adopted by many pregnant women because of traditional practices and the current recommendation for gestational weight gain are contributing factors to the obesity and diabetes epidemic. Physical inactivity is recognized as an independent risk factor for obesity insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; the physiological and hormonal changes associated with pregnancy magnify this risk. Conversely, evidence and accumulated experience indicate that antenatal lifestyle interventions that include physical activity and judicious dieting could improve the pregnancy outcome and reduce the risk of gestational diabetes and is effective as an adjunctive therapy for diabetes in pregnancy. All major professional organizations, among them American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), American Diabetes Association (ADA), Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG), and Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC), recommend lifestyle interventions that include diet and exercise to prevent or manage gestational diabetes or diabetes mellitus.

  1. Effectiveness of a volunteer-delivered lifestyle modification program for reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Paul; Morton, Darren P; Diehl, Hans; Gobble, John; Morey, Peter; Chang, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Lifestyle modification has been demonstrated to effectively reduce the risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, but there is a perception that it is costly to administer and resource. The present study examined the results achieved by a 30-day lifestyle modification program (Coronary Health Improvement Project) delivered by volunteers in a community setting. Changes in selected biometric measures of 5,070 participants in the Coronary Health Improvement Project programs delivered throughout North America (January 2006 to October 2009), were assessed. Overall, significant reductions (p fasting plasma glucose (-6.1%). Stratification of the data revealed more dramatic responses in those presenting with the greatest risk factor levels. Those presenting with cholesterol levels >280 mg/dl recorded an average reduction of 19.8%. A mean decrease of 16.1% in low-density lipoprotein levels was observed among those who entered the program with a low-density lipoprotein level >190 mg/dl. Individuals who presented with triglycerides >500 mg/dl recorded a mean reduction of 44.1%. The Framingham assessment forecast that approximately 70 cardiac events would be averted during the subsequent decade in the cohort because of the program. In conclusion, significant reductions in cardiovascular disease risk factors can be achieved in a 30-day lifestyle intervention delivered by volunteers, providing a cost-effective mode of administering lifestyle medicine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship satisfaction predicts sexual activity following risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Tierney; McGregor, Bonnie; Swisher, Elizabeth

    2014-06-01

    Changes in sexual function are a common outcome following risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO), a prophylactic surgery for women at high risk of ovarian and other gynecologic cancers. Despite the known importance of sexuality in patients' quality of life and satisfaction with surgery, little is known about what predicts sexual activity following RRSO. The present study examined how mental and physical health variables predicted sexual activity before and after RRSO. We conducted a secondary analysis of quality of life measures collected in 85 women at high risk for ovarian cancer. Participants completed validated measures of mental, physical, and relationship health 1-2 weeks before surgery, and 2, 6 and 12 months following surgery. Across analyses, relationship satisfaction emerged as the most significant predictor of change in sexual activity: women with high relationship satisfaction were more likely to continue to have regular sexual activity following RRSO, even in the presence of vaginal menopausal symptoms. The effect of depression, anxiety and overall physical health on sexual activity was non-significant when controlling for relationship satisfaction. When counseling women about RRSO and its impact on sexual activity, clinicians should discuss the effect of the patient's relationship health on this outcome.

  3. Effectiveness of online silt traps in reducing localised and catchment scale flood risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Sarah; Pattison, Ian; Sander, Graham

    2017-04-01

    Geomorphological drivers are often neglected when proposing methods to reduce flood risk. Understanding the connections between hydrology, geomorphology and engineering is fundamental to predicating sediment transfer within river catchments and thus successfully implementing sustainable flood management. Fine sediment erosion is a continuing concern in the River Eye, Leicestershire. The predominately rural catchment has a history of flooding within the town of Melton Mowbray. Fine sediment connectivity has been recognised by stakeholders as a contributing factor to flood risk and the degradation of the SSSI. In response, two online silt traps were installed to inhibit sediment connectivity within the channel and prevent loss of channel capacity. The artificially widened and deepened areas of the channel have been excavated once since there installation in 2002. Time integrated mass suspended sediment samplers have been installed upstream and downstream of both silt traps to quantify the reduction in suspended sediment over a 12 month period. The sediment has been subjected to laboratory analysis to determine the size of suspended sediment particles and organic content, providing an estimate in distance travelled from the source. Due to their rarity, the silt traps provide a unique opportunity to explore their impact on local hydrology. Four monitoring stations have been installed above the largest silt trap to record river stage and to ascertain whether flood risk is locally increased as a result of their placement. These results have been combined to determine the overall success of the natural flood management scheme.

  4. Understanding your supply chain to reduce the risk of supply chain disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildgoose, Nick; Brennan, Patrick; Thompson, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Supply chains are at the heart of the way in which organisations operate and compete today; they also play a critical role in overall organisation performance. In the context of increasingly complex and global supply chains, the actions taken to drive down costs are likely to drive risk into the supply chain. The frequency of supply chain disruptions is high and this paper offers practical advice to help reduce the frequency and cost associated with these. There is advice to help with the understanding of how to identify critical suppliers. The reader is guided through comprehensive risk assessment and mitigation approaches and a selection of practical risk solutions and tools that you can use is described. There is a section on the 'dos and don'ts' relating to supplier due diligence. For those organisations facing the challenge of drawing up a business case relating to investment in improving supply chain resiliency, there is also a section outlining some of the business benefits of improving supply chain resiliency.

  5. Algorithm of actions to identify and reduce risks in the production of milk and plant products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Glagoleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Foods with a new generation of functional and improved consumer properties, corresponds to the modern concepts of nutrition science and consumer needs. functional food production is a major global trend in food science and the subject of innovation. One of the important trends is the use of plant complexes and plant food systems. Using the plant complexes (PC and plant food systems (PFS provides a number of benefits: improved consumer properties of the product, do not need to change the process, it is possible to control directional rheological properties and consistency of the finished products, reduced the number of risk points in the production cycle. This paper describes the development of an algorithm of action to identify and mitigate risks in the production of milk and plant products. Also conducted a risk analysis, identified and assessed the risks in the process of production, installed capacity of available resources to reduce the level of risk. Established and submitted to the critical control points in production processes, as well as the critical limits for each critical control points, and the procedure for corrective action in case of violations of the past. During the study, measured changes in the quantitative and qualitative composition of microflora of semi-finished and Quantity of Mesophilic Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Microorganisms (QMAFAnM. To determine QMAFAnM samples were taken: 1 – cheesecakes (control, 2 – cheesecakes with RPS. Microbiological studies analyzed frozen-conjugated semi-finished products was determined within 90 days. It is clear from the data that the cottage cheese with semi-finished products have a lower RPM 11.7%. Analyzing the data, it is possible to conclude that the physico-chemical, organoleptic and microbiological indicators of products was developed to set standards on cheese semi-finished products. multilevel structure that characterizes the quality indicators has been developed and is

  6. On the risk management of property equipment and facilities%物业设备设施管理中的风险管理探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程宝庭

    2011-01-01

    在物业设备设施管理过程中。蕴含着很多的风险因素。识别并控制风险源,是物业设备设施管理同行需要重点关注的一个课题。本文重点介绍了物业设备设施管理中的风险管理类别、组织措施及管理要点。%equipment and facilities in the property management process, contains a lot of risk factors. How toidentify and control sources of risk, the property management equipment and facilities need to focus on a peer issues. This paper focuses on equipment and facilities management of property risk management categories, organizational measures and management points.

  7. Effectiveness of physical exercise to reduce cardiovascular risk factors in youths: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesa, Claudia Ciceri; Barbiero, Sandra Mari; Petkowicz, Rosemary de Oliveira; Martins, Carla Correa; Marques, Renata das Virgens; Andreolla, Allana Abreu Martins; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to test the effectiveness of a physical activity and exercise-based program in a clinical context to reduce cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. A randomized clinical trial was conducted in a pediatric preventive outpatient clinic. Intervention was 14 weeks of exercise for the intervention group or general health advice for the control group. The primary and the secondary outcomes were reduction of cardiovascular risk factors and the feasibility and the effectiveness of clinical advice plan to practice physical exercises at home. A total of 134 children were screened; 26 met eligibility criteria. Of these, 10 were allocated in the exercise intervention group and nine were included in the control group until the end of the intervention. Those patients who discontinued the intervention had the lowest scores of z-BMI (P = 0.033) and subscapular skin fold (P = 0.048). After 14 weeks of intervention, no statistical differences were found between the groups. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was higher in the exercise group, with a mild tendency to be significant (P = 0.066). Patients who adhere to treatment had diastolic blood pressure decreased from baseline to the end of the follow-up period in the control group (P = 0.013). Regardless of this result, the other comparisons within the group were not statistically different between T0 and T14. A low-cost physical activity advice intervention presented many barriers for implementation in routine clinical care, limiting its feasibility and evaluation of effectiveness to reduce cardiovascular risk factors.

  8. Cruciferous vegetables reduce morphological markers of colon cancer risk in dimethylhydrazine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikawa, Andrea Y; Gallaher, Daniel D

    2008-03-01

    Consumption of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with reduced colon cancer risk in human populations. However, little experimental evidence exists to support this association. Here, we report the effects of diets containing cruciferous vegetables on colon cancer risk. In Expt. 1, rats were fed a vegetable-free (basal) diet or diets containing different lyophilized cruciferous vegetables in concentrations between 4 and 10%. In Expt. 2, rats were fed the basal diet or diets containing 10-22.6% fresh cruciferous vegetables. Diets were fed for 2 wk (Expt. 1) or 3 wk (Expt. 2) before and 7 wk (Expt. 1) or 12 wk (Expt. 2) after administration of the colon carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Rats fed fresh vegetables were also injected with a low dose of carcinogen 18-24 h prior to termination. Groups fed lyophilized vegetables did not differ in aberrant crypt foci (ACF), sialomucin-producing foci, or mucin-depleted foci (MDF) numbers. However, all fresh vegetable diets significantly decreased ACF (approximately 40%) and MDF numbers. Activities of the hepatic phase I enzyme CYP2E1 did not differ among groups in either experiment. Hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) and quinone reductase activities did not differ among groups fed fresh vegetables, whereas the lyophilized cabbage diets decreased GST activity compared with the basal diet. Groups did not differ in apoptosis and cell proliferation labeling indices in colonic mucosa. This study indicates that fresh but not lyophilized cruciferous vegetables reduce colon cancer risk in rats. These results do not support changes in hepatic carcinogen metabolism or colonic crypt cytokinetics as a mechanism.

  9. Inheritance of Chiari-Like Malformation: Can a Mixed Breeding Reduce the Risk of Syringomyelia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowler, Susan P; v/d Berg, Henny; McFadyen, Angus; La Ragione, Roberto M; Rusbridge, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Canine Chiari-like malformation (CM) is a complex abnormality of the skull and craniocervical junction associated with miniaturization and brachycephaly which can result in the spinal cord disease syringomyelia (SM). This study investigated the inheritance of CM in a Griffon Bruxellois (GB) family and feasibility of crossbreeding a brachycephalic CM affected GB with a mesaticephalic normal Australian terrier and then backcrossing to produce individuals free of the malformation and regain GB breed characteristics. The study family cohort (n = 27) included five founder dogs from a previous baseline study of 155 GB which defined CM as a global malformation of the cranium and craniocervical junction with a shortened skull base and increased proximity of the cervical vertebrae to the skull. T1-weighted sagittal DICOM images of the brain and craniocervical junction were analysed for five significant traits (two angles, three lines) identified from the previous study and subsequent Qualitative Trait Loci analysis. Mean measurements for mixed breed, pure-breed and baseline study groups were compared. Results indicated that mixed breed traits posed less risk for CM and SM and were useful to distinguish the phenotype. Moreover on the MR images, the filial relationships displayed by the traits exhibited segregation and those presenting the greatest risk for CM appeared additive towards the severity of the condition. The external phenotypes revealed that by outcrossing breed types and with careful selection of appropriate conformation characteristics in the first generation, it is possible to regain the GB breed standard and reduce the degree of CM. The four GB affected with SM in the study all exhibited reduced caudal skull development compared to their relatives. The craniocervical traits may be useful for quantifying CM and assessing the possibility of SM thus assisting breeders with mate selection. However, such a system requires validation to ensure appropriateness for

  10. Inheritance of Chiari-Like Malformation: Can a Mixed Breeding Reduce the Risk of Syringomyelia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan P Knowler

    Full Text Available Canine Chiari-like malformation (CM is a complex abnormality of the skull and craniocervical junction associated with miniaturization and brachycephaly which can result in the spinal cord disease syringomyelia (SM. This study investigated the inheritance of CM in a Griffon Bruxellois (GB family and feasibility of crossbreeding a brachycephalic CM affected GB with a mesaticephalic normal Australian terrier and then backcrossing to produce individuals free of the malformation and regain GB breed characteristics. The study family cohort (n = 27 included five founder dogs from a previous baseline study of 155 GB which defined CM as a global malformation of the cranium and craniocervical junction with a shortened skull base and increased proximity of the cervical vertebrae to the skull. T1-weighted sagittal DICOM images of the brain and craniocervical junction were analysed for five significant traits (two angles, three lines identified from the previous study and subsequent Qualitative Trait Loci analysis. Mean measurements for mixed breed, pure-breed and baseline study groups were compared. Results indicated that mixed breed traits posed less risk for CM and SM and were useful to distinguish the phenotype. Moreover on the MR images, the filial relationships displayed by the traits exhibited segregation and those presenting the greatest risk for CM appeared additive towards the severity of the condition. The external phenotypes revealed that by outcrossing breed types and with careful selection of appropriate conformation characteristics in the first generation, it is possible to regain the GB breed standard and reduce the degree of CM. The four GB affected with SM in the study all exhibited reduced caudal skull development compared to their relatives. The craniocervical traits may be useful for quantifying CM and assessing the possibility of SM thus assisting breeders with mate selection. However, such a system requires validation to ensure

  11. Severe Calorie Restriction Reduces Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Protects Rat Hearts from Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Dirceu S.; Costa-Pereira, Liliane V.; Santos, Carina S.; Mendes, Bruno F.; Costa, Karine B.; Santos, Cynthia Fernandes F.; Rocha-Vieira, Etel; Magalhães, Flávio C.; Esteves, Elizabethe A.; Ferreira, Anderson J.; Guatimosim, Sílvia; Dias-Peixoto, Marco F.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Recent studies have proposed that if a severe caloric restriction (SCR) is initiated at the earliest period of postnatal life, it can lead to beneficial cardiac adaptations later on. We investigated the effects of SCR in Wistar rats from birth to adult age on risk factors for cardiac diseases (CD), as well as cardiac function, redox status, and HSP72 content in response to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods and Results: From birth to the age of 3 months, CR50 rats were fed 50% of the food that the ad libitum group (AL) was fed. Food intake was assessed daily and body weight were assessed weekly. In the last week of the SCR protocol, systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured and the double product index was calculated. Also, oral glucose and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests were performed. Thereafter, rats were decapitated, visceral fat was weighed, and blood and hearts were harvested for biochemical, functional, tissue redox status, and western blot analyzes. Compared to AL, CR50 rats had reduced the main risk factors for CD. Moreover, the FR50 rats showed increased cardiac function both at baseline conditions (45% > AL rats) and during the post-ischemic period (60% > AL rats) which may be explained by a decreased cardiac oxidative stress and increased HSP72 content. Conclusion: SCR from birth to adult age reduced risk factors for CD, increased basal cardiac function and protected hearts from the I/R, possibly by a mechanism involving ROS. PMID:27092082

  12. Acid-reducing vagotomy is associated with reduced risk of subsequent ischemic heart disease in complicated peptic ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Shih-Chi; Fang, Chu-Wen; Chen, William Tzu-Liang; Muo, Chih-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Persistent exacerbation of a peptic ulcer may lead to a complicated peptic ulcer (perforation or/and bleeding). The management of complicated peptic ulcers has shifted from acid-reducing vagotomy, drainage, and gastrectomy to simple local suture or non-operative (endoscopic/angiographic) hemostasis. We were interested in the long-term effects of this trend change. In this study, complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy were compared with those who receive...

  13. Organizational risk management of resistance to care episodes in health facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kable, Ashley; Guest, Maya; McLeod, Mary

    2012-09-01

    This article reports a study of organizational risk management approaches to resistance to care episodes in specific clinical areas: prevention measures, provision of subsequent support and follow-up by management and resultant organizational change. Resistance to care describes a patient's unwillingness to be assisted by healthcare staff and is manifested in defensive behaviours ranging from minor non-compliance/dissent to aggression. It has previously been studied in aged care settings and focused on patient behaviours and appropriate responses. This was a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of nurses (n = 5044) who were members of the New South Wales Nurses' Association in Australia, in 2008-2009. Of 1132 participants, 80% reported being involved in resistance to care episodes during the previous month and this was higher in some settings. Episodes were not routinely reported internally, and often did not lead to organizational change. Nurses reported that talking with other staff was the most effective action in dealing with the consequences of these episodes. Half of the respondents considered that they were provided with sufficient support and follow-up after a resistance to care episode. Prevention measures and follow-up strategies adopted by employers varied across clinical settings. Resistance to care is not confined to aged care settings, and risk management of resistance to care can increase safety in the workplace. Preventive strategies such as increased staff, training and security should be focused on high risk clinical areas; and appropriate support, follow-up and organizational change instituted in response to these episodes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Inclusive anti-bullying policies and reduced risk of suicide attempts in lesbian and gay youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Keyes, Katherine M

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate whether anti-bullying policies that are inclusive of sexual orientation are associated with a reduced prevalence of suicide attempts among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths. A total of 31,852 11th-grade public school students (1,413 lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals; 4.4%) in Oregon completed the Oregon Healthy Teens survey in 2006-2008. The independent variable was the proportion of school districts in the 34 counties participating in the Oregon Healthy Teens survey that adopted anti-bullying policies inclusive of sexual orientation. The outcome measure was any self-reported suicide attempt in the past 12 months. We stratified results by sexual orientation. Lesbian and gay youths living in counties with fewer school districts with inclusive anti-bullying policies were 2.25 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-4.49) more likely to have attempted suicide in the past year compared with those living in counties where more districts had these policies. Inclusive anti-bullying policies were significantly associated with a reduced risk for suicide attempts among lesbian and gay youths, even after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity) and exposure to peer victimization (odds ratio, .18; 95% CI, .03-.92). In contrast, anti-bullying policies that did not include sexual orientation were not associated with lower suicide attempts among lesbian and gay youths (odds ratio, .38; 95% CI, .02-7.33). Inclusive anti-bullying policies may exert protective effects for the mental health of lesbian and gay youths, including reducing their risk for suicide attempts. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Attitudes to contralateral risk reducing mastectomy among breast and plastic surgeons in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, NN; Littlechild, S; Barr, L; Ross, GL; Evans, DG

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rates of contralateral risk reducing mastectomy (CRRM) are rising despite a paucity of data to support this practice. Surgeons work as part of the multidisciplinary team (MDT). They may counsel women on these requests without the benefit of established guidelines or agreed protocol. This study assessed the practices and perceptions of breast and plastic surgeons in England on CRRM. Methods A postal questionnaire was sent to 455 breast and 364 plastic surgeons practising in England. Basic demographics, trends in CRRM, risk assessment, role of the MDT and knowledge base were assessed. Results The response rate among breast surgeons was 48.3% (220/455) and 12.6% (46/364) among plastic surgeons. Nearly half (44%) of the respondents felt there had been an increase in rates of CRRM over the last three years. Seventy-one per cent of those surveyed performed 1–5 CRRMs annually while sixteen per cent did not perform this procedure at all. A third (32%) of respondents correctly quoted their patients an annual risk of 0.5–0.7%. Funding was refused in 4% of cases and 43% of the surgeons felt that in the future they would have to apply to relevant clinical commissioning groups. Over half (58%) of all respondents reported that decisions for CRRM are always discussed in the MDT meeting but 6% stated that these cases are never discussed by the MDT. BRCA mutation was perceived as the main risk factor for contralateral breast cancer by 81% of respondents. Surgeons felt that women requested CRRM mainly to alleviate anxiety. The next most common reasons were carriage of BRCA mutation and a desire to have reconstructions match. Conclusions A wide variation of surgical practices and perceptions exist in assessing women for CRRM. Guidelines to standardise practices are required. PMID:26741657

  16. Reducing volcanic risk on Fogo Volcano, Cape-Verde, through a participatory approach: which out coming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texier-Teixeira, P.; Chouraqui, F.; Perrillat-Collomb, A.; Lavigne, F.; Cadag, J. R.; Grancher, D.

    2013-11-01

    This research paper presents the outcomes of the Work Package 5 (Socio-economical Vulnerability Assessment and Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction) of the MIAVITA Research Program (MItigate and Assess risk from Volcanic Impact on Terrain and human Activities) conducted in Fogo Volcano, Cape-Verde. The study lasted for almost 3 yr (May 2010-January 2012) of which most of the time was spent in the village of Chã das Caldeiras, situated within the 9 km-wide caldera of the volcano inside the Fogo Natural Park. The objectives of the program included assessment of the vulnerability of the community at risk in terms of livelihoods, access to resources, and power relations between the local people and the different public and private institutions. These are important factors that need to be investigated in order to understand the root causes of vulnerability of the local people. This case study shows that the voluntary exposure of people at volcanic threats is linked with daily access to sources of livelihood specially agriculture and tourism. This is despite the perception of people of the risk on their lives and properties. In order to counter the factors of vulnerability, the study also aimed to identify and enhance local capacities. To achieve such objective, a Participatory 3-Dimensional Mapping (P3DM) activity was conducted to facilitate the dialogue between the local people and the different stakeholders as well as to prepare plans and measures to reduce volcanic risk. The P3DM was a half success considering that it has not yet led to an operational plan which takes into account the local capacities. The main reasons included (1) the non-participative aspect of the project at the beginning which should have identified priorities for people and let them lead the project to ensure the sustainability (2) deep conflicts within the community which complicated the focus group discussions around the 3-D map, and the difficulties to involve more marginalized people

  17. Reducing volcanic risk on Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde, through a participatory approach: which outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texier-Teixeira, P.; Chouraqui, F.; Perrillat-Collomb, A.; Lavigne, F.; Cadag, J. R.; Grancher, D.

    2014-09-01

    This research paper presents the outcomes of Work Package 5 (socio-economical vulnerability assessment and community-based disaster risk reduction) of the MIAVITA (MItigate and Assess risk from Volcanic Impact on Terrain and human Activities) research programme conducted on Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde. The study lasted for almost 3 years (May 2010 to January 2012), of which most of the time was spent in the village of Chã das Caldeiras, situated within the 9 km wide caldera of the volcano inside Fogo Natural Park. The objectives of the programme included assessment of the vulnerability of the community at risk in terms of livelihoods, access to resources, and power relations between the local people and the different public and private institutions. These are important factors that need to be investigated in order to understand the root causes of vulnerability of the local people. This case study shows that the voluntary exposure of people to volcanic threats is linked to daily access to sources of livelihood, especially agriculture and tourism. This is despite the perception of people of the risk to their lives and properties. In order to counter the factors of vulnerability, the study also aimed to identify and enhance local capacities. To achieve such an objective, a participatory three-dimensional mapping (P3DM) activity was conducted to facilitate the dialogue between the local people and the different stakeholders as well as to prepare plans and measures to reduce volcanic risk. The P3DM was a half success considering that it has not yet led to an operational plan which takes into account the local capacities. The main reasons included (1) the non-participatory aspect of the project at the beginning which should have identified priorities for people and let them lead the project to ensure the sustainability of (2) deep conflicts within the community which complicated the focus group discussions around the 3-D map, and the difficulties in involving more

  18. Reducing volcanic risk on Fogo Volcano, Cape-Verde, through a participatory approach: which out coming?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Texier-Teixeira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research paper presents the outcomes of the Work Package 5 (Socio-economical Vulnerability Assessment and Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction of the MIAVITA Research Program (MItigate and Assess risk from Volcanic Impact on Terrain and human Activities conducted in Fogo Volcano, Cape-Verde. The study lasted for almost 3 yr (May 2010–January 2012 of which most of the time was spent in the village of Chã das Caldeiras, situated within the 9 km-wide caldera of the volcano inside the Fogo Natural Park. The objectives of the program included assessment of the vulnerability of the community at risk in terms of livelihoods, access to resources, and power relations between the local people and the different public and private institutions. These are important factors that need to be investigated in order to understand the root causes of vulnerability of the local people. This case study shows that the voluntary exposure of people at volcanic threats is linked with daily access to sources of livelihood specially agriculture and tourism. This is despite the perception of people of the risk on their lives and properties. In order to counter the factors of vulnerability, the study also aimed to identify and enhance local capacities. To achieve such objective, a Participatory 3-Dimensional Mapping (P3DM activity was conducted to facilitate the dialogue between the local people and the different stakeholders as well as to prepare plans and measures to reduce volcanic risk. The P3DM was a half success considering that it has not yet led to an operational plan which takes into account the local capacities. The main reasons included (1 the non-participative aspect of the project at the beginning which should have identified priorities for people and let them lead the project to ensure the sustainability (2 deep conflicts within the community which complicated the focus group discussions around the 3-D map, and the difficulties to involve more

  19. Medication incident reporting in residential aged care facilities: Limitations and risks to residents’ safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Amina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medication incident reporting (MIR is a key safety critical care process in residential aged care facilities (RACFs. Retrospective studies of medication incident reports in aged care have identified the inability of existing MIR processes to generate information that can be used to enhance residents’ safety. However, there is little existing research that investigates the limitations of the existing information exchange process that underpins MIR, despite the considerable resources that RACFs’ devote to the MIR process. The aim of this study was to undertake an in-depth exploration of the information exchange process involved in MIR and identify factors that inhibit the collection of meaningful information in RACFs. Methods The study was undertaken in three RACFs (part of a large non-profit organisation in NSW, Australia. A total of 23 semi-structured interviews and 62 hours of observation sessions were conducted between May to July 2011. The qualitative data was iteratively analysed using a grounded theory approach. Results The findings highlight significant gaps in the design of the MIR artefacts as well as information exchange issues in MIR process execution. Study results emphasized the need to: a design MIR artefacts that facilitate identification of the root causes of medication incidents, b integrate the MIR process within existing information systems to overcome key gaps in information exchange execution, and c support exchange of information that can facilitate a multi-disciplinary approach to medication incident management in RACFs. Conclusions This study highlights the advantages of viewing MIR process holistically rather than as segregated tasks, as a means to identify gaps in information exchange that need to be addressed in practice to improve safety critical processes.

  20. Right to know: reducing risks of fecal pathogen exposure for ED patients and staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Molly Bridget

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the literature regarding the multiple challenges that contribute to ED bedside toileting and examine best practices that will reduce fecal exposure, cross-contamination among patients, and employee splash injuries. We searched the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE, and Cochrane database for information about the multiple challenges involved in bedside toileting, using the following search terms: bedside toileting, gastroenteritis, macerator, sluice machine, fecal pathogen exposure, and splash injury. In addition, costs and benefits of reusable versus disposable bedside toileting equipment were compared and contrasted. Emergency departments have a higher exposure rate to fecal pathogens with current methods of bedside toileting. Short incubation periods may not allow the proper lead time needed for patients to access primary care providers. As a result, emergency departments and urgent care centers become a likely point of entry into the health care system. Although most inpatient rooms have built-in bathrooms, most emergency departments and outpatient examination rooms do not. Although many patients are ambulatory, restrictive monitoring equipment is required. For safety reasons, staff must bring toileting equipment to the bedsides of both ambulatory and non-ambulatory patients. Hopper dependence creates longer walking distances and delays. These delays may lead to incontinence events, skin breakdown, more frequent bed changes, and higher linen and labor costs. Reusable bedside toileting equipment is associated with at-risk behaviors. Examples are procrastination and sanitization shortcuts. These behaviors risk cross-contamination of patients especially when urgent situations require equipment to be reused in the interim. ED patients and staff are 5 times more likely to undergo fecal exposure. The 5 phases of ED bedside toileting at which risks occur are as follows: equipment setup, transport

  1. Coexistence of silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles: enhancing or reducing environmental risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaoyan; Shi, Junpeng; Zhang, Hongwu

    2014-09-01

    Due to their bactericidal and photocatalytic characteristics, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used in the fields of environment and physiology. Once these untreated nanoparticles are released into an aquatic environment and encounter one another, there is more uncertainty about their fate and ecotoxicological risks compared with the single nanoparticles. To expand our knowledge of the health and environmental impacts of nanoparticles, we investigated the possible risk of the co-existence of TiO2 NPs and Ag NPs in an aquatic environment using ciliated protozoa (Tetrahymena pyriformis) as an aquatic animal model. In this study, silver ion (Ag(+)) release and physicochemical properties, as well as their effect on oxidative stress biomarkers, were monitored. Continuous illumination (12,000 lx) led to the 20.0% decrease in Ag(+) release in comparison with dark conditions, while TiO2 NPs and continuous illumination resulted in decreasing the Ag(+) concentration to 64.3% in contrast with Ag NPs-only suspensions. Toxicity tests indicated that different illumination modes exerted distinct effects of TiO2 NPs on the toxicity of Ag NPs: no effects, antagonism and synergism in dark, natural light and continuous light, respectively. In the presence of 1.5mg/L (18.8 μM) TiO2 NPs, the toxicity of 1.5 mg/L (13.9 μM) Ag NPs was reduced by 28.7% and increased by 6.93% in natural light and 12,000 lx of continuous light, respectively. After culturing in 12,000 lx continuous light for 24h, SOD activity of the light control surged to 1.96 times compared to the dark control (PTiO2-Ag NPs complexes in continuous light. The existence of TiO2 NPs in various illumination modes changed the surface chemistry of Ag NPs and then led to different toxicity effects. TiO2 NPs reduce the environmental risks of Ag NPs in natural light, but in continuous light, TiO2 NPs enhance the environmental risks of Ag NPs.

  2. 核燃料元件制造厂 UF6气化工序风险分析%Risk Assessment of UF6 Vaporization Process in Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阙骥; 何玮; 蒋婧; 张敏

    2015-01-01

    A variety of hazards coexist in nuclear fuel fabrication facilities , so risk assessment is necessary .There are a variety of risk assessment methodologies for risk assessment of nuclear fuel fabrication facilities .HAZOP and LOPA method were select‐ed for UF6 vaporization process which is the most important in risk assessment of nucle‐ar fuel fabrication facilities . The process deviations which have serious consequences were obtained by HAZOP .The risk reduced by independent protection layers and the residual risk of UF6 vaporization process were obtained by LOPA .%多种危险并存于核燃料元件制造厂,因此有必要对核燃料元件厂进行风险分析。目前有多种风险评估方法适用于核燃料元件制造厂风险评估,本文选取HAZOP和LOPA方法,对核燃料元件制造厂风险评估中的最重要工艺UF6气化工序进行了分析。 HAZOP分析得到了可能产生严重后果的工艺偏离。LOPA分析得到了针对工艺偏离所采取的独立保护层措施所降低的风险和 UF6气化工序的残余风险。

  3. Supply Chain Network Design Heuristics for Capacitated Facilities under Risk of Supply Disruptions

    CERN Document Server

    Madadi, AliReza; Mason, Scott J; Taaffe, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    Recent events such as the Heparin tragedy, in which patients lost their lives due to tainted pharmaceuticals, highlight the necessity for supply chain designers and planners to consider the risk of even low probability disruptions in supply chains. One of the most effective ways to hedge against supply chain network disruptions is to robustly design the supply chain network. This involves both strategic decisions (e.g., which suppliers to source from, plant locations, etc.) and tactical decisions (e.g., capacity allocation, etc.). Since disruptions are modeled as events which occur randomly and may have a random length, we consider a mixed-integer stochastic model. However, such network design problems belong to the class of NP-hard problems. Accordingly, we develop efficient heuristic algorithms and a metaheuristic approach to obtain acceptable solutions to these types of problems in reasonable runtimes so that the process of decision making becomes facilitated with no drastic sacrifices in solution quality.

  4. Acid-reducing vagotomy is associated with reduced risk of subsequent ischemic heart disease in complicated peptic ulcer: An Asian population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shih-Chi; Fang, Chu-Wen; Chen, William Tzu-Liang; Muo, Chih-Hsin

    2016-12-01

    Persistent exacerbation of a peptic ulcer may lead to a complicated peptic ulcer (perforation or/and bleeding). The management of complicated peptic ulcers has shifted from acid-reducing vagotomy, drainage, and gastrectomy to simple local suture or non-operative (endoscopic/angiographic) hemostasis. We were interested in the long-term effects of this trend change. In this study, complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy were compared with those who received simple suture/hemostasis to determine the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD).This retrospective cohort study analyzed 335,680 peptic ulcer patients recorded from 2000 to 2006 versus 335,680 age-, sex-, comorbidity-, and index-year matched comparisons. Patients with Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection were excluded. In order to identify the effect of vagus nerve severance, patients who received gastrectomy or antrectomy were also excluded. The incidence of IHD in both cohorts, and in the complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy versus those who received simple suture or hemostasis was evaluated.The overall incidence of IHD was higher in patients with peptic ulcer than those without peptic ulcer (17.00 vs 12.06 per 1000 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 1.46 based on multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis controlling for age, sex, Charlson's comorbidity index, and death (competing risk). While comparing peptic ulcer patients with acid-reducing vagotomy to those with simple suture/hemostasis or those without surgical treatment, the aHR (0.58) was the lowest in the acid-reducing vagotomy group.Patients with peptic ulcer have an elevated risk of IHD. However, complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy were associated with reduced risk of developing IHD.

  5. Can a GIS toolbox assess the environmental risk of oil spills? Implementation for oil facilities in harbors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdor, Paloma F; Gómez, Aina G; Velarde, Víctor; Puente, Araceli

    2016-04-01

    Oil spills are one of the most widespread problems in port areas (loading/unloading of bulk liquid, fuel supply). Specific environmental risk analysis procedures for diffuse oil sources that are based on the evolution of oil in the marine environment are needed. Diffuse sources such as oil spills usually present a lack of information, which makes the use of numerical models an arduous and occasionally impossible task. For that reason, a tool that can assess the risk of oil spills in near-shore areas by using Geographical Information System (GIS) is presented. The SPILL Tool provides immediate results by automating the process without miscalculation errors. The tool was developed using the Python and ArcGIS scripting library to build a non-ambiguous geoprocessing workflow. The SPILL Tool was implemented for oil facilities at Tarragona Harbor (NE Spain) and validated showing a satisfactory correspondence (around 0.60 RSR error index) with the results obtained using a 2D calibrated oil transport numerical model.

  6. Monoclonal antibody for reducing the risk of respiratory syncytial virus infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andabaka, Tea; Nickerson, Jason W; Rojas-Reyes, Maria Ximena; Rueda, Juan David; Bacic Vrca, Vesna; Barsic, Bruno

    2013-04-30

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important viral pathogens causing acute respiratory infections in children. It results in about 3.4 million hospitalisations annually in children under five. Palivizumab is an anti-RSV monoclonal antibody, administered intramuscularly at a dose of 15 mg/kg once every 30 days. The efficacy and safety of palivizumab has been evaluated in multicentre, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and a large number of economic evaluations (EEs) have tested its cost-effectiveness. To assess the effectiveness and safety of palivizumab prophylaxis compared with placebo, or another type of prophylaxis, in reducing the risk of complications (hospitalisation due to RSV infection) in high-risk infants and children. To assess the cost-effectiveness (or cost-utility) of palivizumab prophylaxis compared with no prophylaxis in infants and children in different risk groups. We searched CENTRAL 2012, Issue 7, MEDLINE (1996 to July week 4, 2012), EMBASE (1996 to August 2012), CINAHL (1996 to August 2012) and LILACS (1996 to August 2012) for studies of effectiveness and safety. We searched the NHS Economic Evaluations Database (NHS EED 2012, Issue 4), Health Economics Evaluations Database (HEED, 9 August 2012) and Paediatric Economic Database Evaluations (PEDE, 1980 to 2009), MEDLINE (1996 to July week 4, 2012) and EMBASE (1996 to August 2012) for economic evaluations. We included RCTs comparing palivizumab prophylaxis with a placebo, no prophylaxis or another type of prophylaxis in preventing serious lower respiratory tract disease caused by RSV in paediatric patients at high risk. We included cost-effectiveness analyses and cost-utility analyses comparing palivizumab prophylaxis with no prophylaxis. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias for the included studies and extracted data for both the RCTs and EEs. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) and their associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dichotomous outcomes and for

  7. Reduced Order Model Implementation in the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization Toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rinaldi, Ivan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Dan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Bei [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pascucci, Valerio [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhao, Haihua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The RISMC project aims to develop new advanced simulation-based tools to perform Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) for the existing fleet of U.S. nuclear power plants (NPPs). These tools numerically model not only the thermo-hydraulic behavior of the reactor primary and secondary systems but also external events temporal evolution and components/system ageing. Thus, this is not only a multi-physics problem but also a multi-scale problem (both spatial, µm-mm-m, and temporal, ms-s-minutes-years). As part of the RISMC PRA approach, a large amount of computationally expensive simulation runs are required. An important aspect is that even though computational power is regularly growing, the overall computational cost of a RISMC analysis may be not viable for certain cases. A solution that is being evaluated is the use of reduce order modeling techniques. During the FY2015, we investigated and applied reduced order modeling techniques to decrease the RICM analysis computational cost by decreasing the number of simulations runs to perform and employ surrogate models instead of the actual simulation codes. This report focuses on the use of reduced order modeling techniques that can be applied to any RISMC analysis to generate, analyze and visualize data. In particular, we focus on surrogate models that approximate the simulation results but in a much faster time (µs instead of hours/days). We apply reduced order and surrogate modeling techniques to several RISMC types of analyses using RAVEN and RELAP-7 and show the advantages that can be gained.

  8. Vegan proteins may reduce risk of cancer, obesity, and cardiovascular disease by promoting increased glucagon activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, M F

    1999-12-01

    coupled with exercise training; such regimens also tend to markedly improve diabetic control and lower elevated blood pressure. Risk of many other degenerative disorders may be decreased in vegans, although reduced growth factor activity may be responsible for an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke. By altering the glucagon/insulin balance, it is conceivable that supplemental intakes of key non-essential amino acids could enable omnivores to enjoy some of the health advantages of a vegan diet. An unnecessarily high intake of essential amino acids--either in the absolute sense or relative to total dietary protein--may prove to be as grave a risk factor for 'Western' degenerative diseases as is excessive fat intake.

  9. Reducing racial/ethnic disparities in childhood obesity: the role of early life risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveras, Elsie M; Gillman, Matthew W; Kleinman, Ken P; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L

    2013-08-01

    . CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Racial/ethnic disparities in childhood adiposity and obesity are determined by factors operating in infancy and early childhood. Efforts to reduce obesity disparities should focus on preventing early life risk factors.

  10. Nursing handover from ICU to cardiac ward: Standardised tools to reduce safety risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graan, Sher Michael; Botti, Mari; Wood, Beverley; Redley, Bernice

    2016-08-01

    Standardising handover processes and content, and using context-specific checklists are proposed as solutions to mitigate risks for preventable errors and patient harm associated with clinical handovers. Adapt existing tools to standardise nursing handover from the intensive care unit (ICU) to the cardiac ward and assess patient safety risks before and after pilot implementation. A three-stage, pre-post interrupted time-series design was used. Data were collected using naturalistic observations and audio-recording of 40 handovers and focus groups with 11 nurses. In Stage 1, examination of existing practice using observation of 20 handovers and a focus group interview provided baseline data. In Stage 2, existing tools for high-risk handovers were adapted to create tools specific to ICU-to-ward handovers. The adapted tools were introduced to staff using principles from evidence-based frameworks for practice change. In Stage 3, observation of 20 handovers and a focus group with five nurses were used to verify the design of tools to standardise handover by ICU nurses transferring care of cardiac surgical patients to ward nurses. Stage 1 data revealed variable and unsafe ICU-to-ward handover practices: incomplete ward preparation; failure to check patient identity; handover located away from patients; and information gaps. Analyses informed adaptation of process, content and checklist tools to standardise handover in Stage 2. Compared with baseline data, Stage 3 observations revealed nurses used the tools consistently, ward readiness to receive patients (10% vs 95%), checking patient identity (0% vs 100%), delivery of handover at the bedside (25% vs 100%) and communication of complete information (40% vs 100%) improved. Clinician adoption of tools to standardise ICU-to-ward handover of cardiac surgical patients reduced handover variability and patient safety risks. The study outcomes provide context-specific tools to guide handover processes and delivery of verbal

  11. Reducing the Risk of Damage to Power Transformers of 110 kV and Above Accompanying Internal Short Circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L’vova, M. M. [JSC “R& D Center at Federal Grid Company of the Unified Power System” (Russian Federation); L’vov, S. Yu. [Presselektro LLC (Russian Federation); Komarov, V. B. [IPCE RAS (Russian Federation); Lyut’ko, E. O. [JSC “R& D Center at Federal Grid Company of the Unified Power System” (Russian Federation); Vdoviko, V. P. [EMA Ltd. (Russian Federation); Demchenko, V. V. [JSC “Boguchanskaya HPP” (Russian Federation); Belyaev, S. G. [PKF Konif Ltd. (Russian Federation); Savel’ev, V. A. [Ivanovo State Power University (Russian Federation); L’vov, M. Yu., E-mail: timashova@nte-power.ru; L’vov, Yu. N. [JSC “R& D Center at Federal Grid Company of the Unified Power System” (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Methods of increasing the operating reliability of power transformers, autotransformers and shunting reactors in order to reduce the risk of damage, which accompany internal short circuits and equipment fires and explosions, are considered.

  12. Optimize Deployment of Renewable Energy Technologies for Government Agencies, Industrial Facilities, and Military Installations: NREL Offers Proven Tools and Resources to Reduce Energy Use and Improve Efficiency (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Lab provides expertise, facilities, and technical assistance to campuses, facilities, and government agencies to apply renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies.

  13. REDUCING THE IMPACT OF RADIATION FACTORS IN AREAS WITH HIGH LEVEL OF RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Zaredinov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the modern problems of radioecology. The study reveals the problems of radioecological situation in some regions of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The main attention of the authors is paid to the ecologically hazardous objects in the uranium mining industry. The characteristics of wastes from uranium mining and stages of development of the mining industry are described. The historical background of the accumulation of the wastes in dumps, the ore-bearing rocks, and other off-balance ores is given. The practical experience and directions radio-ecological safety are generalized, achieving improvements of the environmental quality in areas with high risk. In conclusion, the authors recommend carrying out some measures to reduce an impact of the radiation factor on human health and to stabilize the radioecological situation at the studied regions.

  14. Meeting Summary of Kitchen Cabinet on Financial Due Diligence to Reduce Proliferation Risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, Gretchen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weise, Rachel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carr, Geoffrey A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory convened the Kitchen Cabinet (KC) to facilitate a candid discussion about the role of financial institutions (FIs) in antiproliferation efforts to reduce nuclear proliferation risks by identifying suspicious business transactions and exports when making lending or insurance decisions. The meeting brought together a group of export control specialists, largely representatives from the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) Participating Governments (PGs) and finance experts representing banks and insurance companies. By assembling a KC of experts, the group could understand what suspicious transactions look like from each other’s perspectives and better inform each of their operations. The goal was to develop red flags FIs could use to identify suspicious proliferation-related transactions and to help governments gain a clearer picture of proliferation using financial information.

  15. Male spiders reduce pre- and postmating sexual investment in response to sperm competition risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuni, Cristina; Weber, Sabrina; Bilde, Trine

    2017-01-01

    food donations (i.e., nuptial gifts), pre- and postmating responses may be aligned, as nuptial gifts have the dual function of facilitating both mate acquisition and sperm transfer. In the spider Pisaura mirabilis, nuptial gifts consist of silk-wrapped prey. We tested whether males respond...... to a competitor by altering: 1) premating investment in the gift, 2) postmating sperm investment, and 3) whether pre- and postmating responses are coupled and respond to competition in the same direction or not. Under competition risk males silk-wrapped their gifts for significantly shorter time and transferred...... less sperm to females, pointing to a reduction of both pre- and postmating responses. Because silk is not a target of female choice, reducing gift construction may speed up mate acquisition. In accordance with models of sperm allocation, perceived high levels of competition and/or sperm priority...

  16. TWO-LAYER SECURE PREVENTION MECHANISM FOR REDUCING E-COMMERCE SECURITY RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen-Tarng Lai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce is an important information system in the network and digital age. However, the network intrusion, malicious users, virus attack and system security vulnerabilities have continued to threaten the operation of the e-commerce, making e-commerce security encounter serious test. How to improve ecommerce security has become a topic worthy of further exploration. Combining routine security test and security event detection procedures, this paper proposes the Two-Layer Secure Prevention Mechanism (TLSPM. Applying TLSPM, routine security test procedure can identify security vulnerability and defect, and develop repair operations. Security event detection procedure can timely detect security event, and assist follow repair. TLSPM can enhance the e-commerce security and effectively reduce the security risk of e-commerce critical data and asset.

  17. Reducing risky driver behaviour through the implementation of a driver risk management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Luke

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has one of the highest incidences of road accidents in the world. Most accidents are avoidable and are caused by driver behaviour and errors. The purpose of this article was to identify the riskiest driver behaviours in commercial fleets in South Africa, to determine the business impact of such behaviour, to establish a framework for the management of risky driver behaviour and to test the framework by applying a leading commercial driver behaviour management system as a case study. The case study comprised three South African commercial fleets. Using data from these fleets, critical incident triangles were used to determine the ratio data of risky driver behaviour to near-collisions and collisions. Based on managing the riskiest driver behaviours as causes of more serious incidents and accidents, the results indicated that through the implementation of an effective driver risk management system, risky incidents were significantly reduced.

  18. Facile One-Step Microwave-Assisted Route towards Ni Nanospheres/Reduced Graphene Oxide Hybrids for Non-Enzymatic Glucose Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojiao Zhou

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a facile one-step microwave-assisted method for deposition of monodisperse Ni nanospheres on reduced graphene oxide (rGO sheets to form Ni-rGO nanohybrids is discussed. In the presence of hydrazine monohydrate, Ni nanospheres are grown onto rGO sheets using nickel precursor and GO as starting materials in ethylene glycol (EG solution under a low level of microwave irradiation (300 W for 20 min, during which GO is also reduced to rGO. The as-prepared nanohybrids exhibit well-dispersed Ni nanosphere (about 80 nm in diameter loadings and effective reduction of graphene oxide. The resulting Ni-rGO nanohybrids-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE shows significantly improved electrochemical performance in nonenzymatic amperometric glucose detection. In addition, interference from the oxidation of common interfering species under physiological conditions, such as ascorbic acid (AA and uric acid (UA, is effectively avoided.

  19. Facile, low temperature synthesis of SnO2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chau-Chung; Brahma, Sanjaya; Weng, Shao-Chieh; Chang, Chia-Chin; Huang, Jow-Lay

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate a facile, single step, low temperature and energy efficient strategy for the synthesis of SnO2-reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposite where the crystallization of SnO2 nanoparticles and the reduction of graphene oxide takes place simultaneously by an in situ chemical reduction process. The electrochemical property of the SnO2-RGO composite prepared by using low concentrations of reducing agent shows better Li storage performance, good rate capability (378 mAh g-1 at 3200 mA g-1) and stable capacitance (522 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles). Increasing the reductant concentration lead to crystallization of high concentration of SnO2 nanoparticle aggregation and degrade the Li ion storage property.

  20. Facile synthesis of highly active reduced graphene oxide-CuI catalyst through a simple combustion method for photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjun; Li, Yingjie; Zhang, Xiaoxiong; Li, Cuiluo

    2017-09-01

    We report a facile combustion method synthesis of reduced graphene oxide/CuI composites as a photocatalyst, in which CuI nanoparticles were homogeneously distributed on the surface of reduced graphene oxide (rGO), showing a good visible light response. The rGO-supported and unsupported CuI hybrids were tested over the photocatalytic reduction of CO2 for methanol evolution in visible light. In the current study rGO-CuI composites have shown excellent yields (19.91 μmol g-cat-1). rGO provides a light-weight, charge complementary and two-dimensional material that interacts effectively with the CuI nanoparticles.

  1. Multidisciplinary therapy reduces risk factors for metabolic syndrome in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Josiane Aparecida Alves; da Silva, Danilo Fernandes; Nardo, Claudia Christina Sanchez; Carolino, Idalina Diair Regla; Hernandes, Florencio; Nardo, Nelson

    2013-02-01

    This study aims to assess the effects of a 16-week multidisciplinary program of obesity treatment on the control of metabolic syndrome (MS) and dyslipidemia in obese adolescents. Eighty-six adolescents aged 10-18 years were allocated in either the intervention group (IG; n = 44) or control group (CG; n = 42). IG was submitted to a multidisciplinary intervention based on cognitive behavioral therapy that aimed to modify eating habits and exercise behavior. We analyzed, before and after the intervention period, anthropometric parameters, body composition, bone mineral density, cardiorespiratory fitness, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, and lipid profile of the subjects. MS was classified according to International Diabetes Federation (2007) and the presence of dyslipidemia according to Back et al. (Arq Bras Cardiol 85:4-36, 2005). In the beginning of the intervention, the median number (range) of risk factors for MS present was 2.0 (0.0-5.0) in the IG and 2.0 (0.0-4.0) in the CG. After the intervention, this parameter reduced significantly in the IG (1.0 (0.0-5.0); p = 0.004) while no change was observed in the CG (2.0 (0.0-4.0); p = 0.349). In addition, we observed improvements in body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, maximal oxygen uptake, absolute and relative body fat, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol in the IG which was not identified in the CG. Conclusio n: We suggest that a 16-week multidisciplinary intervention based on cognitive behavioral therapy was adequate to reduce risk factors for MS in obese adolescents.

  2. Reducing drug–herb interaction risk with a computerized reminder system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin SS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sheng-Shing Lin,1,2 Chiu-Lin Tsai,3 Ching-Yeh Tu,3 Ching-Liang Hsieh2,4,5 1Graduate Institute of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, 2Department of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, 3Division of Chinese Medicine, Department of Pharmacy, China Medical University Hospital, 4Graduate Institute of Integrated Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, 5Research Center for Chinese Medicine and Acupuncture, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan Background: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM and Western medicine are both popular in Taiwan. Approximately 14.1% of Taiwanese residents use Western drugs and Chinese herbs concurrently; therefore, drug–herb interaction is critical to patient safety. This paper presents a new procedure for reducing the risk of drug interactions.Methods: Hospital computer systems are modified to ensure that drug–herb interactions are automatically detected when a TCM practitioner is writing a prescription. A pop-up reminder appears, warning of interactions, and the practitioner may adjust doses, delete herbs, or leave the prescription unchanged. A pharmacist will receive interaction information through the system and provide health education to the patient.Results: During the 2011–2013 study period, 256 patients received 891 herbal prescriptions with potential drug–herb interactions. Three of the 50 patients who concurrently used ginseng and antidiabetic drugs manifested hypoglycemia (fasting blood sugar level ≤70 mg/dL.Conclusion: Drug–herb interactions can cause adverse reactions. A computerized reminder system can enable TCM practitioners to reduce the risk of drug–herb interactions. In addition, health education for patients is crucial in avoiding adverse reaction by the interactions. Keywords: Traditional Chinese medicine, Western medicine, adverse reaction

  3. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SPORTS SPECIFIC BALANCE TRAINING PROGRAM IN REDUCING RISK OF ANKLE SPRAIN IN BASKETBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Choo LEE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the effectiveness of four weeks sports specific balance training program to improve balance, thus reducing the risk of ankle sprain among Sultan Idris Education University basketball players. Method: There were 20 males basketball players (aged 19-24 years volunteered in this study. After screening process, there were14 male players met the inclusion criteria. They were randomized into two groups i.e experimental group (EG: n=7 and control group (CG: n=7. The EG undergone the four weeks sports specific balance training program three times per week while the CG followed their normal standard basketball training program. Balance Error Scoring System (BESS was used to assess static balance while Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT is utilized to examine the dynamic balance. Pretest and posttest of balance measures were recorded using BESS and SEBT for both EG and CG. The data were analyzed using independent sample t-test (p=0.05. Results: The study findings indicated that there were significant differences between EG and CG for the static balance on firm surface (t=-4.642, p=0.001 and on foam surface (t=-8.590, P=0.000 as well as dynamic balance on left leg stance (t=2.350, P=0.037 and on right leg stance (t=3.145, P=0.008. Conclusion: The study findings indicated that the four weeks sports specific balance training program could improve balance ability in male basketball players, thus may reducing the risk of ankle sprain.

  4. Home Monitoring Program Reduces Mortality in High-Risk Sociodemographic Single-Ventricle Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Daniel Alexander; Herrington, Cynthia; Adler, Stacey; Haas, Karen; Ram Kumar, S; Kung, Grace C

    2016-12-01

    A clinician-driven home monitoring program can improve interstage outcomes in single-ventricle patients. Sociodemographic factors have been independently associated with mortality in interstage patients. We hypothesized that even in a population with high-risk sociodemographic characteristics, a home monitoring program is effective in reducing interstage mortality. We defined interstage period as the time period between discharge following Norwood palliation and second-stage surgery. We reviewed the charts of patients for the three-year period before (group 1) and after (group 2) implementation of the home monitoring program. Clinical variables around Norwood palliation, during the interstage period, and at the time of second-stage surgery were analyzed. There were 74 patients in group 1 and 52 in group 2. 59 % patients were Hispanic, and 84 % lived in neighborhoods where over 5 % families lived below poverty line. There was no significant difference in pre-Norwood variables, Norwood discharge variables, age at second surgery, or outcomes at second surgery. There were more Sano shunts performed at the Norwood procedure as the source of pulmonary blood flow in group 2 (p value <0.05). There were more unplanned hospital admissions and percutaneous re-interventions in group 2. Patients in group 2 whose admission criteria included desaturation had a 45 % likelihood of having an unplanned re-intervention. Group 2 noted an 80 % relative reduction in interstage mortality (p < 0.01). In a multiple regression analysis, after accounting for ethnicity, socio-economic status, and source of pulmonary blood flow, enrollment in a home monitoring program independently predicted improved interstage survival (p < 0.01). A clinician-driven home monitoring program reduces interstage mortality even when the majority of patients has high-risk sociodemographic characteristics.

  5. Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Sexual Risk Behavior in Adults with HIV/AIDS Receiving HIV Care: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Raag, Mait; Rosenthal, Marika; Uusküla, Anneli

    2015-01-01

    Regular interactions with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who are receiving care provide caregivers opportunities to deliver interventions to reduce HIV-related risks. We conducted a systematic review of behavioral interventions for PLWHA (provided at individual level by caregivers at HIV care settings) to determine their efficacy in reducing sexual risk behavior. Conference websites and biomedical literature databases were searched for studies from 1981 to 2013. Randomized and quasi-rand...

  6. Controlled whole-body vibration training reduces risk of falls among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feng; King, George A; Dillon, Loretta; Su, Xiaogang

    2015-09-18

    The primary purpose of this study was to systematically examine the effects of an 8-week controlled whole-body vibration training on reducing the risk of falls among community-dwelling adults. Eighteen healthy elderlies received vibration training which was delivered on a side alternating vibration platform in an intermittent way: five repetitions of 1 min vibration followed by a 1 min rest. The vibration frequency and amplitude were 20 Hz and 3.0mm respectively. The same training was repeated 3 times a week, and the entire training lasted for 8 weeks for a total of 24 training sessions. Immediately prior to (or pre-training) and following (or post-training) the 8-week training course, all participants' risk of falls were evaluated in terms of body balance, functional mobility, muscle strength and power, bone density, range of motion at lower limb joints, foot cutaneous sensation level, and fear of falling. Our results revealed that the training was able to improve all fall risk factors examined with moderate to large effect sizes ranging between 0.55 and 1.26. The important findings of this study were that an 8-week vibration training could significantly increase the range of motion of ankle joints on the sagittal plane (6.4° at pre-training evaluation vs. 9.6° at post-training evaluation for dorsiflexion and 45.8° vs. 51.9° for plantar-flexion, pvibration training paradigm for fall prevention among older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Four weeks of Nordic hamstring exercise reduce muscle injury risk factors in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breno de A R Alvares, João; Marques, Vanessa Bernardes; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini

    2017-04-26

    The Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) is a field-based exercise designed for knee-flexor eccentric strengthening, aimed at muscle strains prevention. However, possible effects of NHE programmes on other hamstring injury risk factors remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a NHE training programme on multiple hamstring injury risk factors. Twenty physically active young adults were allocated into two equal sized groups: control group (CG) and training group (TG). The TG was engaged in a 4-week NHE programme, twice a week, 3 sets of 6-10 repetitions; while CG received no exercise intervention. The knee flexor and extensor strength was assessed through isokinetic dynamometry, the biceps femoris long head muscle architecture through ultrasound images, and the hamstring flexibility through sit-and-reach test. The results showed that CG subjects had no significant change in any outcome. TG presented higher percent changes than CG for hamstring isometric peak torque (9%; effect size=0.27), eccentric peak torque (13%; effect size=0.60), eccentric work (18%; effect size=0.86), and functional hamstring-to-quadriceps torque ratio (13%; effect size=0.80). The NHE programme led also to increased fascicle length (22%; effect size=2.77) and reduced pennation angle (-17%; effect size=1.27) in biceps femoris long head of the TG, without significant changes on muscle thickness. In conclusion, a short-term NHE training programme (4 weeks; 8 training sessions) counteracts multiple hamstring injury risk factors in physically active young adults.

  8. Numerical analysis of an osseointegrated prosthesis fixation with reduced bone failure risk and periprosthetic bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, P K; van Diest, M; Bulstra, S K; Verdonschot, N; Verkerke, G J

    2012-07-26

    Currently available implants for direct attachment of prosthesis to the skeletal system after transfemoral amputation (OPRA system, Integrum AB, Sweden and ISP Endo/Exo prosthesis, ESKA Implants AG, Germany) show many advantages over the conventional socket fixation. However, restraining biomechanical issues such as considerable bone loss around the stem and peri-prosthetic bone fractures are present. To overcome these limiting issues a new concept of the direct intramedullary fixation was developed. We hypothesize that the new design will reduce the peri-prosthetic bone failure risk and adverse bone remodeling by restoring the natural load transfer in the femur. Generic CT-based finite element models of an intact femur and amputated bones implanted with 3 analyzed implants were created and loaded with a normal walking and a forward fall load. The strain adaptive bone remodeling theory was used to predict long-term bone changes around the implants and the periprosthetic bone failure risk was evaluated by the von Mises stress criterion. The results show that the new design provides close to physiological distribution of stresses in the bone and lower bone failure risk for the normal walking as compared to the OPRA and the ISP implants. The bone remodeling simulations did not reveal any overall bone loss around the new design, as opposed to the OPRA and the ISP implants, which induce considerable bone loss in the distal end of the femur. This positive outcome shows that the presented concept has a potential to considerably improve safety of the rehabilitation with the direct fixation implants.

  9. Occult and subsequent cancer incidence following risk-reducing surgery in BRCA mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhour, Mae; Danovitch, Yael; Lester, Jenny; Rimel, B J; Walsh, Christine S; Li, Andrew J; Karlan, Beth Y; Cass, Ilana

    2016-11-01

    To report the frequency and features of occult carcinomas and the incidence of subsequent cancers following risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) in BRCA mutation carriers. 257 consecutive women with germline BRCA mutations who underwent RRSO between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014 were identified in an Institutional Review Board approved study. All patients were asymptomatic with normal physical exams, CA 125 values, and imaging studies preoperatively, and had at least 12months of follow-up post-RRSO. All patients had comprehensive adnexal sectioning performed. Patient demographics and clinico-pathologic characteristics were extracted from medical and pathology records. The cohort included 148 BRCA1, 98 BRCA2, 6 BRCA not otherwise specified (NOS), and 5 BRCA1 and 2 mutation carriers. Occult carcinoma was seen in 14/257 (5.4%) of patients: 9 serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC), 3 tubal cancers, 1 ovarian cancer, and 1 endometrial cancer. Three patients (1.2%) with negative pathology at RRSO subsequently developed primary peritoneal serous carcinoma (PPSC), and 2 of 9 patients (22%) with STIC subsequently developed pelvic serous carcinoma. 110 women (43%) were diagnosed with breast cancer prior to RRSO, and 14 of the remaining 147 (9.5%) developed breast cancer following RRSO. Median follow-up of the cohort was 63months. In this cohort, 5.4% of asymptomatic BRCA mutation carriers had occult carcinomas at RRSO, 86% of which were tubal in origin. The risk of subsequent PPSC for women with benign adnexa at RRSO is low; however, the risk of pelvic serous carcinoma among women with STIC is significantly higher. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Novel J stents reduce the risk of embolic stroke in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoli, Carlo R. [University of Louisville, M.D./Ph.D. Program, Louisville, KY (United States); Spence, Paul A. [SCR Inc., Louisville, KY (United States); Giridharan, Guruprasad A. [Cardiovascular Innovation Institute, University of Louisville, Department of Bioengineering, Louisville, KY (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Two and a half million Americans with atrial fibrillation are at an elevated risk for embolic stroke. Warfarin therapy is standard treatment for high-risk patients, yet 40-65% of elderly patients do not receive anticoagulation therapy due to bleeding complications. To address this clinical need, we are evaluating a minimally invasive stent-based stroke prevention device to divert emboli from entering the arterial supply of the brain. The feasibility of a J-shaped stroke prevention device was tested in a mock circulatory loop. Sixteen sets of 100 simulated emboli (1-5 mm{sup 3}) were injected into the left atrium with and without J stents protecting the aortic arch vessels. To determine efficacy, emboli were trapped in filters in the aortic arch vessels and distal aorta for manual counting. J stents decreased the number of emboli that entered the brachiocephalic trunk by 93.7% (p<0.0001), left common carotid artery by 79.8% (p<0.0001), and left subclavian artery by 89.7% (p<0.0001). In a mock circulation, J stents positioned in the aortic arch vessels and oriented downstream of aortic flow significantly decreased the number of emboli that entered the aortic arch vessels. These results warrant further investigation to determine the safety and efficacy of this prophylactic intervention to reduce embolic events, and chronic large animal studies are underway. (orig.)

  11. Postmenopausal vegetarians' low serum ferritin level may reduce the risk for metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bae, Yun Jung

    2012-10-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the serum ferritin status between the postmenopausal vegetarians and non-vegetarians and to identify the relation of serum ferritin with metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors in postmenopausal women. The two study groups consisted of postmenopausal vegetarians (n=59) who maintained a vegetarian diet for over 20 years and age-matched non-vegetarian controls (n=48). Anthropometric measurements, dietary intakes, serum metabolic syndrome-related parameters, and serum ferritin level between the two groups were compared. The vegetarians exhibited significantly lower weight (pvegetarians (33.9 %) than in non-vegetarians (47.9 %). Vegetarians had significantly lower serum level of ferritin (pvegetarians. In the correlation analysis, serum ferritin was positively related to fasting glucose (r=0.264, pvegetarians had lower MetS presence and a lower serum ferritin level compared to non-vegetarians. Furthermore, vegetarians' low serum ferritin level may reduce the risk of MetS in postmenopausal women.

  12. Active dorsiflexing prostheses may reduce trip-related fall risk in people with transtibial amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah J. Rosenblatt, PhD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available People with amputation are at increased risk of falling compared with age-matched, nondisabled individuals. This may partly reflect amputation-related changes to minimum toe clearance (MTC that could increase the incidence of trips and fall risk. This study determined the contribution of an active dorsiflexing prosthesis to MTC. We hypothesized that regardless of speed or incline the active dorsiflexion qualities of the ProprioFoot would significantly increase MTC and decrease the likelihood of tripping. Eight people with transtibial amputation walked on a treadmill with their current foot at two grades and three velocities, then repeated the protocol after 4 wk of accommodation with the ProprioFoot. A mixed-model, repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare MTC. Curves representing the likelihood of tripping were derived from the MTC distributions and a multiple regression was used to determine the relative contributions of hip, knee, and ankle angles to MTC. Regardless of condition, MTC was approximately 70% larger with the ProprioFoot (p < 0.001 and the likelihood of tripping was reduced. Regression analysis revealed that MTC with the ProprioFoot was sensitive to all three angles, with sensitivity of hip and ankle being greater. Overall, the ProprioFoot may increase user safety by decreasing the likelihood of tripping and thus the pursuant likelihood of a fall.

  13. Surveillance Recommendations in Reducing Risk of and Optimally Managing Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostby, Pamela L.; Armer, Jane M.; Dale, Paul S.; Van Loo, Margaret J.; Wilbanks, Cassie L.; Stewart, Bob R.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer survivors are at increased risk for the development of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), a chronic, debilitating, and disfiguring condition that is progressive and requires lifelong self-management of symptoms. It has been reported that over 40% of the 2.5 million breast cancer survivors in the United States may meet the criteria for BCRL during their lifetimes. Ongoing surveillance, beginning with pre-operative assessment, has been effective in identifying subclinical lymphedema (LE). A prospective model for surveillance is necessary in order to detect BCRL at an early stage when there is the best chance to reduce risk or slow progression. Physical methods for monitoring and assessment, such as circumferential arm measures, perometry, bioimpedance; exercise programs; prophylactic and early-intervention compression garments; and referral for complete decongestive therapy are all interventions to consider in the development of a BCRL surveillance program. In addition, supportive-educative programs and interactive engagement for symptom self-management should also be implemented. The importance of interdisciplinary collaboration is integral to the success of an effective personalized medicine program in breast cancer-related lymphedema surveillance. PMID:25563360

  14. Active dorsiflexing prostheses may reduce trip-related fall risk in people with transtibial amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Noah J; Bauer, Angela; Rotter, David; Grabiner, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    People with amputation are at increased risk of falling compared with age-matched, nondisabled individuals. This may partly reflect amputation-related changes to minimum toe clearance (MTC) that could increase the incidence of trips and fall risk. This study determined the contribution of an active dorsiflexing prosthesis to MTC. We hypothesized that regardless of speed or incline the active dorsiflexion qualities of the ProprioFoot would significantly increase MTC and decrease the likelihood of tripping. Eight people with transtibial amputation walked on a treadmill with their current foot at two grades and three velocities, then repeated the protocol after 4 wk of accommodation with the ProprioFoot. A mixed-model, repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare MTC. Curves representing the likelihood of tripping were derived from the MTC distributions and a multiple regression was used to determine the relative contributions of hip, knee, and ankle angles to MTC. Regardless of condition, MTC was approximately 70% larger with the ProprioFoot (p < 0.001) and the likelihood of tripping was reduced. Regression analysis revealed that MTC with the ProprioFoot was sensitive to all three angles, with sensitivity of hip and ankle being greater. Overall, the ProprioFoot may increase user safety by decreasing the likelihood of tripping and thus the pursuant likelihood of a fall.

  15. Susceptibility of Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to two new reduced-risk insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sial, Ashfaq A; Brunner, Jay F; Doerr, Michael D

    2010-02-01

    The response of field-collected populations of the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, spinosad, and azinphosmethyl was assessed using a diet incorporation bioassay. Populations of obliquebanded leafroller were collected from nine orchards in Chelan, Douglas, Grant, and Okanogan counties of Washington. The neonates of the F1 or F2 generation were used in all assays. The parameters of probit regression lines were estimated and lethal concentration ratios were calculated for all populations compared with a susceptible laboratory population. Significant variation was detected in response to all four insecticides including chlorantraniliprole and spinetoram, which had never been used in the field, lethal concentration ratios were 3.9-39.7 for azinphosmethyl, 0.5-3.6 for spinosad, 1.2-5.3 for chlorantraniliprole, and 0.5-4.1 for spinetoram. Correlation analysis indicated possibility of cross-resistance between spinosad and spinetoram, which are both members of spinosyn class. The occurrence of low but significant levels of resistance against chlorantraniliprole and spinetoram in field-collected populations of C. rosaceana before their first field application indicates that the risk of resistance evolution against these two new reduced-risk insecticides exists. However, it is likely that these low levels of resistance can be managed if the insecticides are used judiciously in conjunction with sound resistance management programs. Implications of these results for developing and implementing resistance management strategies are discussed.

  16. The MABIC project: An effectiveness trial for reducing risk factors for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Carracedo, David; Fauquet, Jordi; López-Guimerà, Gemma; Leiva, David; Puntí, Joaquim; Trepat, Esther; Pàmias, Montserrat; Palao, Diego

    2016-02-01

    Challenges in the prevention of disordered eating field include moving from efficacy to effectiveness and developing an integrated approach to the prevention of eating and weight-related problems. A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory, reduced risk factors for disordered eating, but it is unclear whether this program has effects under more real-world conditions. This effectiveness trial tested whether this program has effects when previously trained community providers in an integrated approach to prevention implement the intervention. The research design involved a multi-center non-randomized controlled trial with baseline, post-test and 1-year follow-up measures. The sample included girls in the 8th grade from six schools (n = 152 girls) in a city near Barcelona (intervention group), and from eleven schools (n = 413 girls) in four neighboring towns (control group). The MABIC risk factors of disordered eating were assessed as main outcomes. Girls in the intervention group showed significantly greater reductions in beauty ideal internalization, disordered eating attitudes and weight-related teasing from pretest to 1-year follow-up compared to girls in the control group, suggesting that this program is effective under real-world conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Checklist Usage as a Guidance on Read-Back Reducing the Potential Risk of Medication Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus N. Maharjana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hospital as a last line of health services shall provide quality service and oriented on patient safety, one responsibility in preventing medication errors. Effective collaboration and communication between the profession needed to achieve patient safety. Read-back is one way of doing effective communication. Before-after study with PDCA TQM approach. The samples were on the medication chart patient medical rd rd records in the 3 week of May (before and the 3 week in July (after 2013. Treatment using the check list, asked for time 2 minutes to read-back by the doctors and nurses after the visit together. Obtained 57 samples (before and 64 samples (after. Before charging 45.54% incomplete medication chart on patient medical records that have the potential risk of medication error to 10.17% after treatment with a read back check list for 10 weeks, with 77.78% based on the achievement of the PDCA TQM approach. Checklist usage as a guidance on Read-back as an effective communication can reduce charging incompleteness drug records on medical records that have the potential risk of medication errors, 45.54% to 10.17%.

  18. Reduced ADAMTS13 activity is associated with thrombotic risk in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Rodriguez, S; Reverter, J C; Tàssies, D; Espinosa, G; Heras, M; Pino, M; Escolar, G; Diaz-Ricart, M

    2015-10-01

    Severe deficiency of ADAMTS13 activity leads to von Willebrand factor (VWF) ultralarge multimers with high affinity for platelets, causing thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Other pathological conditions with moderate ADAMTS13 activity exhibit a thrombotic risk. We examined the ADAMTS13 activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its value as a thrombotic biomarker. ADAMTS13 activity, VWF antigen and multimeric structure, and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) were measured in plasma samples from 50 SLE patients and 50 healthy donors. Disease activity (systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index; SLEDAI) and organ damage (systemic lupus international collaborating clinics) scores, thrombotic events, antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) were registered. SLE patients showed decreased ADAMTS13 activity and high VWF levels compared with controls (66 ± 27% vs. 101 ± 8%, P 60%, 60-40% and <40%), comparative analysis showed significant association between ADAMTS13 activity and SLEDAI (P < 0.05), presence of aPLs (P < 0.001), APS (P < 0.01) and thrombotic events (P < 0.01). Reduced ADAMTS13 activity together with increased VWF levels were especially notable in patients with active disease and with aPLs. ADAMTS13 activity, in combination with other laboratory parameters, could constitute a potential prognostic biomarker of thrombotic risk in SLE. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Chronotherapy improves blood pressure control and reduces vascular risk in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Ramón C; Ayala, Diana E; Smolensky, Michael H; Mojón, Artemio; Fernández, José R; Crespo, Juan J; Moyá, Ana; Ríos, María T; Portaluppi, Francesco

    2013-06-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), the prevalence of increased blood pressure during sleep and blunted sleep-time-relative blood pressure decline (a nondipper pattern) is very high and increases substantially with disease severity. Elevated blood pressure during sleep is the major criterion for the diagnoses of hypertension and inadequate therapeutic ambulatory blood pressure control in these patients. Substantial, clinically meaningful ingestion-time-dependent differences in the safety, efficacy, duration of action and/or effects on the 24 h blood pressure pattern of six different classes of hypertension medications and their combinations have been substantiated. For example, bedtime ingestion of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers is more effective than morning ingestion in reducing blood pressure during sleep and converting the 24 h blood pressure profile into a dipper pattern. We have identified a progressive reduction in blood pressure during sleep--a novel therapeutic target best achieved by ingestion of one or more hypertension medications at bedtime--as the most significant predictor of decreased cardiovascular risk in patients with and without CKD. Recent findings suggest that in patients with CKD, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring should be used for the diagnosis of hypertension and assessment of cardiovascular disease risk, and that therapeutic strategies given at bedtime rather than on awakening are preferable for the management of hypertension.

  20. REDUCING THE RISKS POSED BY DUTCH RETURNEES FROM SYRIA BY TRANSFERRING GERMANY’S EXPERIENCES IN THEIR FIGHT AGAINST THE RADICAL RIGHT TO THE NETHERLANDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Franssens

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates one aspect of what the Dutch government can do to reduce the risks posed by Dutch jihadists who are currently fighting in Syria. The Dutch government has developed a comprehensive action programme to combat jihadism which outlines measures designed to combat the jihadist movement in the Netherlands. The comprehensive action programme includes plans to develop an exit facility to help people leaving the jihadist movement. Furthermore, a support facility needs to be created, based on the German network model. Of this network the Hayat programme will be analysed in-depth together with the EXIT-Deutschland programme. Hayat is a civil society programme that includes working with relatives of radicalised individuals and tries to de-radicalise these individuals. Hayat’s programme is amongst others based on experiences gained from EXIT-Deutschland, a de-radicalisation programme focusing on de-radicalising individual members of the radical right movement. The exit-facility that the Dutch government wants to create and the support facility are only explained vaguely and have not yet been introduced. This research investigates how and to what extent Hayat’s and EXIT-Deutschland’s elements can successfully be transferred to the Netherlands. This research recommends focusing on disengaging instead of de-radicalisation. The programme should be executed by an NGO with expert witness status. Furthermore, an active approach to contacting returnees is considered best in line with the Dutch government’s objectives. Important elements of the German programme can be transferred to the Netherlands. These elements include using a personal approach, providing returnees with alternatives and family counselling, and generally - apart from the already existing repressive measures - focusing on positive measures. This article also outlines the ways in which such a transfer of best practises can be best achieved.

  1. Target intervention against multiple-risk markers to reduce cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaede, Peter; Pedersen, Oluf

    2004-01-01

    The risk of cardiovascular disease is markedly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes with a prevalence twice as high compared to the background population. With the recognition of multiple concomitant risk factors for both microvascular as well as cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic pa...... factors for cardiovascular disease is capable of reducing the risk for a combined endpoint of cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, coronary interventions, revascularisation to legs, and amputations by 50%....

  2. Breast cancer screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers after risk reducing salpingo-oophorectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fakkert, I.E.; Jansen, L.; Meijer, K.; Kok, Theo; Oosterwijk, J.C.; Mourits, M.J.E.; de Bock, G.H.

    Breast cancer screening is offered to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers from the age of 25 years because of their increased risk of breast cancer. As ovarian cancer screening is not effective, risk-reducing salpingho-oophorectomy (RRSO) is offered after child bearing age. RRSO before menopause

  3. Support of the 'fallopian tube hypothesis' in a prospective series of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, Welmoed; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Bart, Joost; Hollema, Harry; Mourits, Marian J. E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence, localisation and type of occult (non) invasive cancer in risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) specimens in BRCA-mutation carriers and high-risk women from BRCA-negative families. Methods: A consecutive series of RRSO specimens of asymptomatic, screen-neg

  4. Increased Rate of Adenoma Detection Associates With Reduced Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Michal F; Wieszczy, Paulina; Rupinski, Maciej; Wojciechowska, Urszula; Didkowska, Joanna; Kraszewska, Ewa; Kobiela, Jaroslaw; Franczyk, Robert; Rupinska, Maria; Kocot, Bartlomiej; Chaber-Ciopinska, Anna; Pachlewski, Jacek; Polkowski, Marcin; Regula, Jaroslaw

    2017-07-01

    The quality of endoscopists' colonoscopy performance is measured by adenoma detection rate (ADR). Although ADR is associated inversely with interval colorectal cancer and colorectal cancer death, the effects of an increasing ADR have not been shown. We investigated whether increasing ADRs from individual endoscopists is associated with reduced risks of interval colorectal cancer and subsequent death. We performed a prospective cohort study of individuals who underwent a screening colonoscopy within the National Colorectal Cancer Screening Program in Poland, from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2008. We collected data from 146,860 colonoscopies performed by 294 endoscopists, with each endoscopist having participated at least twice in annual editions of primary colonoscopy screening. We used annual feedback and quality benchmark indicators to improve colonoscopy performance. We used ADR quintiles in the whole data set to categorize the annual ADRs for each endoscopist. An increased ADR was defined as an increase by at least 1 quintile category, or the maintenance of the highest category in subsequent screening years. Multivariate frailty models were used to evaluate the effects of increased ADR on the risk of interval colorectal cancer and death. Throughout the enrollment period, 219 endoscopists (74.5%) increased their annual ADR category. During 895,916 person-years of follow-up evaluation through the National Cancer Registry, we identified 168 interval colorectal cancers and 44 interval cancer deaths. An increased ADR was associated with an adjusted hazard ratio for interval colorectal cancer of 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45-0.88; P = .006), and for cancer death of 0.50 (95% CI, 0.27-0.95; P = .035). Compared with no increase in ADR, reaching or maintaining the highest quintile ADR category (such as an ADR > 24.56%) decreased the adjusted hazard ratios for interval colorectal cancer to 0.27 (95% CI, 0.12-0.63; P = .003), and 0.18 (95% CI, 0

  5. Increased respiratory disease mortality at a microwave popcorn production facility with worker risk of bronchiolitis obliterans.

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    Cara N Halldin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis obliterans, an irreversible lung disease, was first associated with inhalation of butter flavorings (diacetyl in workers at a microwave popcorn company. Excess rates of lung-function abnormalities were related to cumulative diacetyl exposure. Because information on potential excess mortality would support development of permissible exposure limits for diacetyl, we investigated respiratory-associated mortality during 2000-2011 among current and former workers at this company who had exposure to flavorings and participated in cross-sectional surveys conducted between 2000-2003. METHODS: We ascertained workers' vital status through a Social Security Administration search. Causes of death were abstracted from death certificates. Because bronchiolitis obliterans is not coded in the International Classification of Disease 10(th revision (ICD-10, we identified respiratory mortality decedents with ICD-10 codes J40-J44 which encompass bronchitis (J40, simple and mucopurulent chronic bronchitis (J41, unspecified chronic bronchitis (J42, emphysema (J43, and other chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (J44. We calculated expected number of deaths and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs with 95% confidence intervals (CI to determine if workers exposed to diacetyl experienced greater respiratory mortality than expected. RESULTS: We identified 15 deaths among 511 workers. Based on U.S. population estimates, 17.39 deaths were expected among these workers (SMR = 0.86; CI:0.48-1.42. Causes of death were available for 14 decedents. Four deaths among production and flavor mixing workers were documented to have a multiple cause of 'other COPD' (J44, while 0.98 'other COPD'-associated deaths were expected (SMR = 4.10; CI:1.12-10.49. Three of the 4 'other COPD'-associated deaths occurred among former workers and workers employed before the company implemented interventions reducing diacetyl exposure in 2001. CONCLUSION: Workers

  6. Reducing Fall Risk with Combined Motor and Cognitive Training in Elderly Fallers

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    Barban, Francesco; Annicchiarico, Roberta; Melideo, Matteo; Federici, Alessia; Lombardi, Maria Giovanna; Giuli, Simone; Ricci, Claudia; Adriano, Fulvia; Griffini, Ivo; Silvestri, Manuel; Chiusso, Massimo; Neglia, Sergio; Ariño-Blasco, Sergio; Cuevas Perez, Raquel; Dionyssiotis, Yannis; Koumanakos, Georgios; Kovačeić, Milo; Montero-Fernández, Nuria; Pino, Oscar; Boye, Niels; Cortés, Ulises; Barrué, Cristian; Cortés, Atia; Levene, Peter; Pantelopoulos, Stelios; Rosso, Roberto; Serra-Rexach, José Antonio; Sabatini, Angelo Maria; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Background. Falling is a major clinical problem in elderly people, demanding effective solutions. At present, the only effective intervention is motor training of balance and strength. Executive function-based training (EFt) might be effective at preventing falls according to evidence showing a relationship between executive functions and gait abnormalities. The aim was to assess the effectiveness of a motor and a cognitive treatment developed within the EU co-funded project I-DONT-FALL. Methods. In a sample of 481 elderly people at risk of falls recruited in this multicenter randomised controlled trial, the effectiveness of a motor treatment (pure motor or mixed with EFt) of 24 one-hour sessions delivered through an i-Walker with a non-motor treatment (pure EFt or control condition) was evaluated. Similarly, a 24 one-hour session cognitive treatment (pure EFt or mixed with motor training), delivered through a touch-screen computer was compared with a non-cognitive treatment (pure motor or control condition). Results. Motor treatment, particularly when mixed with EFt, reduced significantly fear of falling (F(1,478) = 6.786, p = 0.009) although to a limited extent (ES −0.25) restricted to the period after intervention. Conclusions. This study suggests the effectiveness of motor treatment empowered by EFt in reducing fear of falling. PMID:28208604

  7. IS A COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOURAL BIOFEEDBACK INTERVENTION USEFUL TO REDUCE INJURY RISK IN JUNIOR FOOTBALL PLAYERS?

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    Arne Edvardsson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Athletes participating in sport are exposed to a relatively high injury risk. Previous research has suggested that it could be possible to reduce sports injuries through psychological skills training. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which a cognitive behavioural biofeedback intervention could reduce the number of sports injuries in a sample of players in Swedish elite football high schools. Participants from four elite football high schools (16-19 years old were divided into one experiment (n = 13 and one control group (n = 14. Participants were asked to complete three questionnaires to assess anxiety level (Sport Anxiety Scale, history of stressors (Life Event Scale for Collegiate Athletes and coping skills (Athletic Coping Skills Inventory - 28 in a baseline measure. Mann-Whitney U-tests showed no significant differences in pre-intervention scores based on the questionnaires. The experimental group participated in a nine-week intervention period consisting of seven sessions, including: somatic relaxation, thought stopping, emotions/problem focused coping, goal setting, biofeedback training as well as keeping a critical incident diary. A Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant difference between the control and experimental group U (n1 = 13, n2 = 14 = 51.00, p = 0.054. However, considering the small sample, the statistical power (0.05 for present study, to detect effects was low. The results of the study are discussed from a psychological perspective and proposals for future research are given

  8. Reducing Fall Risk with Combined Motor and Cognitive Training in Elderly Fallers

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    Francesco Barban

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Falling is a major clinical problem in elderly people, demanding effective solutions. At present, the only effective intervention is motor training of balance and strength. Executive function-based training (EFt might be effective at preventing falls according to evidence showing a relationship between executive functions and gait abnormalities. The aim was to assess the effectiveness of a motor and a cognitive treatment developed within the EU co-funded project I-DONT-FALL. Methods. In a sample of 481 elderly people at risk of falls recruited in this multicenter randomised controlled trial, the effectiveness of a motor treatment (pure motor or mixed with EFt of 24 one-hour sessions delivered through an i-Walker with a non-motor treatment (pure EFt or control condition was evaluated. Similarly, a 24 one-hour session cognitive treatment (pure EFt or mixed with motor training, delivered through a touch-screen computer was compared with a non-cognitive treatment (pure motor or control condition. Results. Motor treatment, particularly when mixed with EFt, reduced significantly fear of falling (F(1,478 = 6.786, p = 0.009 although to a limited extent (ES −0.25 restricted to the period after intervention. Conclusions. This study suggests the effectiveness of motor treatment empowered by EFt in reducing fear of falling.

  9. Risk of spider predation alters food web structure and reduces local herbivory in the field.

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    Bucher, Roman; Menzel, Florian; Entling, Martin H

    2015-06-01

    Predators can indirectly enhance plant performance via herbivore suppression, with both prey consumption and changes in prey traits (e.g. changes in foraging behaviour) contributing to the reduction in herbivory. We performed a field experiment to determine the extent of such non-consumptive effects which consisted of repeatedly placing spiders (Pisaura mirabilis) on enclosed plants (Urtica dioica) for cue deposition. Control plants were enclosed in the same way but without spiders. After cue deposition, the enclosures were removed to allow arthropods to colonize the plants and feed on them. Arthropods were removed from the plants before the subsequent spider deposition or control enclosure. During six cycles of enclosure, we quantified leaf damage on the plants. After a seventh cycle, the colonizing arthropods were sampled to determine community composition in relation to the presence/absence of spider cues. We found that the presence of chemotactile spider cues reduced leaf damage by 50 %. In addition, spider cues led to changes in the arthropod community: smaller spiders avoided plants with spider cues. In contrast, the aphid-tending ant Myrmica rubra showed higher recruitment of workers on cue-bearing plants, possibly to protect aphids. Our results show that the risk of spider predation can reduce herbivory on wild plants and also demonstrate that non-consumptive effects can be particularly strong within the predator guild.

  10. Early Heparin Administration Reduces Risk for Left Atrial Thrombus Formation during Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Procedures

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    Stefan Asbach

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Despite the use of anticoagulation during left atrial (LA ablation procedures, ischemic cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs are recognized as a serious complication. Heparin is usually given after safe transseptal access has been obtained, resulting in a short unprotected dwell time of catheters within the LA, which may account for CVAs. We investigated the frequency of CVAs and LA thrombus formation as detected by intracardiac ultrasound (ICE depending on the timing of heparin administration. Methods and Results. Sixty LA ablation procedures with the use of ICE were performed in 55 patients. Patients were grouped by heparin administration after (Group I, =13 and before (Group II, =47 transseptal access. Group I patients were younger (56.6±13.7 versus 65.9±9.9 years, =.01; other clinical and echocardiographic characteristics did not differ between groups. Early thrombus formation was observed in 2 (15.4% of group I patients as compared to 0% of group II patients (=.04. One CVA (2.1% occurred in one group II patient without prior thrombus detection, and none occurred in group I patients (=ns. Conclusion. Early administration of heparin reduces the risk of early intracardiac thrombus formation during LA ablation procedures. This did not result in reduced rate of CVAs.

  11. Facile one-step electrochemical deposition of copper nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide as nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor

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    Moozarm Nia, Pooria; Woi, Pei Meng; Alias, Yatimah

    2017-08-01

    For several decades, hydrogen peroxide has exhibited to be an extremely significant analyte as an intermediate in several biological devices as well as in many industrial systems. A straightforward and novel one-step technique was employed to develop a sensitive non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensor by simultaneous electrodeposition of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The electroreduction performance of the CuNPs-rGO for hydrogen peroxide detection was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (AMP) methods The CuNPs-rGO showed a synergistic effect of reduced graphene oxide and copper nanoparticles towards the electroreduction of hydrogen peroxide, indicating high reduction current. At detection potential of -0.2 V, the CuNPs-rGO sensor demonstrated a wide linear range up to 18 mM with a detection limit of 0.601 mM (S/N = 3). Furthermore, with addition of hydrogen peroxide, the sensor responded very quickly (<3 s). The CuNPs-rGO presents high selectivity, sensitivity, stability and fast amperometric sensing towards hydrogen peroxide which makes it favorable for the development of non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor.

  12. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Malaria in Beninese Infants.

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    Violeta Moya-Alvarez

    Full Text Available Elevated blood lead levels (BLL and malaria carry an important burden of disease in West Africa. Both diseases might cause anemia and they might entail long-term consequences for the development and the health status of the child. Albeit the significant impact of malaria on lead levels described in Nigeria, no evaluation of the effect of elevated BLL on malaria risk has been investigated so far.Between 2010 and 2012, blood lead levels of 203 Beninese infants from Allada, a semi-rural area 50km North from Cotonou, were assessed at 12 months of age. To assess lead levels, blood samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. In parallel, clinical, microbiological and hematological data were collected. More precisely, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, folate levels, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed and stool samples were also analyzed.At 12 months, the mean BLL of infants was 7.41 μg/dL (CI: 65.2; 83, and 128 infants (63% had elevated blood lead levels, defined by the CDC as BLL>5 μg/dL. Lead poisoning, defined as BLL>10 μg/dL, was found in 39 infants (19%. Twenty-five infants (12.5% had a positive blood smear at 12 months and 144 infants were anemic (71%, hemoglobin<110 g/L. Elevated blood lead levels were significantly associated with reduced risk of a positive blood smear (AOR = 0.38, P-value = 0.048 and P. falciparum parasite density (beta-estimate = -1.42, P-value = 0.03 in logistic and negative binomial regression multivariate models, respectively, adjusted on clinical and environmental indicators.Our study shows for the first time that BLL are negatively associated with malarial risk considering other risk factors. Malaria is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in infants under 5 years worldwide, and lead poisoning is the 6th most important contributor to the global burden of diseases measured in disability adjusted life years (DALYs according to the Institute of Health Metrics. In conclusion, due

  13. Triglyceride-lowering therapies reduce cardiovascular disease event risk in subjects with hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Guyton, John R; Orringer, Carl E; Hamilton-Craig, Ian; Alexander, Dominik D; Davidson, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular outcomes trials of fibrates, niacin, or omega-3 fatty acids alone, or added to a statin, have not consistently demonstrated reduced risk, but larger, statistically significant clinical benefits have been reported in subgroups with elevated triglycerides (TG) and/or elevated TG plus low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). To perform a meta-analysis of the effects of therapies targeting TG and TG-rich lipoprotein cholesterol on cardiovascular disease event risk in subjects with elevated TG or elevated TG paired with low HDL-C. Publications were identified using PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, clinicaltrials.gov, the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and Internet Stroke Center. Random-effects meta-analysis models were used to generate summary relative risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals. Heterogeneity was assessed by χ(2) and I(2) statistics, and the impact of each trial was assessed in one study-removed sensitivity analyses. Six trials of fibrates, 2 of niacin, 1 of fibrate + niacin, and 1 of omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl esters were identified. For the prespecified primary cardiovascular disease or coronary heart disease end point used in each trial, the summary relative risk estimate (95% confidence interval) for subjects with elevated TG was 0.82 (0.73-0.91), p-heterogeneity = 0.13, I(2) = 36.2, and for subjects with elevated TG and low-HDL-C, it was 0.71 (0.63-0.81), p-heterogeneity = 0.52, I(2) = 0.0. There was no evidence of publication bias, and the results remained statistically significant when each individual trial was removed. Drugs that substantially, but not exclusively, lower TG and TG-rich lipoprotein cholesterol may have cardiovascular benefits in individuals with elevated TG, particularly if accompanied by low HDL-C. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Health risks, correlates, and interventions to reduce sedentary behavior in young people.

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    Salmon, Jo; Tremblay, Mark S; Marshall, Simon J; Hume, Clare

    2011-08-01

    Opportunities for young people to be sedentary have increased during leisure time, study time, and transportation time. This review paper focuses on sedentary behaviors among young people aged 2-18 years and includes evidence of the relationship between sedentary behavior and health risk indicators, an overview of public health recommendations, the prevalence of key sedentary behaviors, evidence of correlates of sedentary behavior and the effectiveness of interventions to reduce sedentary behaviors. Although this is a narrative style review and not systematic, where possible, findings from relevant review papers were summarized and a search of more recent literature was performed using computer-based databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, ERIC, PsycINFO, Social Science Index, SportDiscus, and Health Reference Center - Academic. Young people spend 2-4 hours per day in screen-based behaviors and 5-10 hours per day sedentary. Ethnicity, sociodemographic status, having a TV set in the bedroom, and parental behavior appear to be the most consistent correlates of TV viewing time; however, few recent studies aiming to reduce TV viewing or sedentary time among young people have been successful. A growing body of evidence supports the development of public health recommendations to limit the time spent in screen-based behaviors. More research is needed to examine the prospective and experimental evidence of associations between overall sedentary time and health, determinants of sedentary behaviors other than screen-based behaviors, and interventions to reduce overall sedentary time or even alternative sedentary behaviors, such as transport- or education-related sitting time. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Supplementation of Powdered Black Cumin (Nigella sativa Seeds Reduces the Risk of Hypercholesterolemia

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    M. Tauseef Sultan