WorldWideScience

Sample records for facility potable water

  1. Potable Water Treatment Facility General Permit (PWTF GP) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-10

    The Final PWTF GP establishes permit eligibility conditions, Notice of Intent (NOI) requirements, effluent limitations, standards, prohibitions, and best management practices for facilities that discharge to waters in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts (including both Commonwealth and Indian country lands) and the State of New Hampshire.

  2. Potable water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, R. L.; Calley, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    The history and evolution of the Apollo potable water system is reviewed. Its operation in the space environment and in the spacecraft is described. Its performance is evaluated. The Apollo potable water system satisfied the dual purpose of providing metabolic water for the crewmen and water for spacecraft cooling.

  3. Defining reclaimed water potability requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, D. S.

    1986-01-01

    Water used during previous space missions has been either carried or made aloft. Future human space endeavors will probably have to utilize some form of water reclamation and recycling. There is little applied experience in either the US or foreign space programs with this technology. Water reclamation and recycling constitutes an engineering challenge of the broadest nature and will require an intensive research and development effort if this technology is to mature in time for practical use on the proposed US spacestation. In order for this to happen, reclaimed/recycled water specification will need to be devised to guide engineering development. Perhaps the most strigent specifications will involve water to be consumed. NASA's present Potable Water Specifications are not applicable to reclaimed or recycled potable water. No specifications for reclaimed or recycled potable water presently exist either inside or outside NASA. NASA's past experience with potable water systems is reviewed, limitations of the present Potable Water Specifications are examined, present world expertise with potable water reclamation/recycling systems and system analogs is reviewed, and an approach to developing pertinent Reclaimed/Recycled Potable Water Specifications for spacecraft is presented.

  4. 21 CFR 1250.82 - Potable water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potable water systems. 1250.82 Section 1250.82... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.82 Potable water systems. The following conditions must be met by vessel water systems used for the storage and distribution of water which has...

  5. 30 CFR 57.20002 - Potable water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potable water. 57.20002 Section 57.20002....20002 Potable water. (a) An adequate supply of potable drinking water shall be provided at all active working areas. (b) The common drinking cup and containers from which drinking water must be dipped...

  6. 30 CFR 56.20002 - Potable water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potable water. 56.20002 Section 56.20002... Potable water. (a) An adequate supply of potable drinking water shall be provided at all active working areas. (b) The common drinking cup and containers from which drinking water must be dipped or poured...

  7. Drinking water storage tanks: Réservoirs d'eau potable [enregistrement video] = Tanques de almacenamiento de agua potable

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2009-01-01

    This product was created as a geneal awareness tool by the federal Interdepartmental Water Quality Training Board to provide information on water quality mangement methods for potable water systems in Federal Facilities. Cet outil...

  8. Advanced Oxidation Technology for Potable Water Disinfection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The availability of high-quality potable water is essential in crewed space missions. Closed loop water recycling systems as well as potable water holding tanks and...

  9. Public Perception of Potable Water Supply in Abeokuta South west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perception of residents towards the supply of potable water to Abeokuta was ... water related diseases as a result of the consumption of drinking water ... who relied on water from alternative sources subjected the water to treatment before ...

  10. Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization phase I, raw and potable water, subproject W-504

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, G.

    1997-06-05

    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for extension of existing Raw and Potable systems from 200-East Area systems to two new private contractor facilities for immobilization and disposal of low-activity waste (LAW). The work will include design and installation of almost 3400 m (11,200 ft) of raw water pipe and 2200 in (7,300 ft) of potable water pipe.

  11. Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization phase I, raw and potable water, subproject W-504

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, G.

    1997-06-05

    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for extension of existing Raw and Potable systems from 200-East Area systems to two new private contractor facilities for immobilization and disposal of low-activity waste (LAW). The work will include design and installation of almost 3400 m (11,200 ft) of raw water pipe and 2200 in (7,300 ft) of potable water pipe.

  12. ISS Potable Water Quality for Expeditions 26 through 30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Schultz, John R.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2012-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) Expeditions 26-30 spanned a 16-month period beginning in November of 2010 wherein the final 3 flights of the Space Shuttle program finished ISS construction and delivered supplies to support the post-shuttle era of station operations. Expedition crews relied on several sources of potable water during this period, including water recovered from urine distillate and humidity condensate by the U.S. water processor, water regenerated from humidity condensate by the Russian water recovery system, and Russian ground-supplied potable water. Potable water samples collected during Expeditions 26-30 were returned on Shuttle flights STS-133 (ULF5), STS-134 (ULF6), and STS-135 (ULF7), as well as Soyuz flights 24-27. The chemical quality of the ISS potable water supplies continued to be verified by the Johnson Space Center s Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL) via analyses of returned water samples. This paper presents the chemical analysis results for water samples returned from Expeditions 26-30 and discusses their compliance with ISS potable water standards. The presence or absence of dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) is specifically addressed, since DMSD was identified as the primary cause of the temporary rise and fall in total organic carbon of the U.S. product water that occurred in the summer of 2010.

  13. Sustainable Water Supplies:Reducing The Organic Matter Content of Potable Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Mary

    2009-07-01

    As freshwater becomes a limiting factor in sustainable development, water treatment processes which can efficiently oxidize both anthropogenic and natural sources of organic matter are becoming crucial. While many anthropogenic organic compounds found in freshwater pose a direct risk to human health, natural organic matter such as humic acids, pose an indirect risk through the production of disinfection byproducts resulting from chlorination. Removal of dissolved natural organic matter before disinfection of potable water is recommended for the production of potable water in water treatment facilities. Several promising developments in dissolved organic matter oxidation are described including hydroxyl radical, advanced oxidation processes and ferrate (VI). The feasibility of applying these processes to water treatment on a large scale is largely dependent on cost.

  14. International Space Station USOS Potable Water Dispenser Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Laura A.; Barreda, Jose L.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Russian Segment currently provides potable water dispensing capability for crewmember food and beverage rehydration. All ISS crewmembers rehydrate Russian and U.S. style food packages from this location. A new United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) is under development. This unit will provide additional potable water dispensing capability to support an onorbit crew of six. The PWD is designed to provide incremental quantities of hot and ambient temperature potable water to U.S. style food packages. It will receive iodinated water from the Fuel Cell Water Bus in the U.S. Laboratory element. The unit will provide potable-quality water, including active removal of biocidal iodine prior to dispensing. A heater assembly contained within the unit will be able to supply up to 2.0 liters of hot water (65 to 93oC) every thirty minutes. This quantity will allow three to four crewmembers to rehydrate their food and beverages from this location during a single meal. The unit is designed to remain functional for up to ten years with replacement of limited life items such as filters. It will be the size of two stacked Shuttle Middeck lockers (approximately the size of two small suitcases) and integrated into a science payload rack in the U.S. Laboratory element. Providing potable-quality water at the proper temperature for food and beverage reconstitution is critical to maintaining crew health and well-being. The numerous engineering challenges as well as human factors and safety considerations during the concept, design, and prototyping are outlined in this paper.

  15. Strategic Siting of Contingency Bases: Assessing Options for Potable Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Army already has algorithms for calculating its drinking water needs given usage per soldier, the population of the CB, and the du- ration of occupancy...acquisition, management, and use of potable water in support of the operations and maintenance of a CB throughout its life cy- cle (see Chapter 3...Assessing Options for Potable Water Co ns tr uc tio n En gi ne er in g R es ea rc h La bo ra to ry Lucy A. Whalley, David A. Krooks, and

  16. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Rodriguez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed.

  17. Indirect potable reuse: a sustainable water supply alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Blair, Palenque; Devine, Brian; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip

    2009-03-01

    The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed.

  18. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Blair, Palenque; Devine, Brian; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed. PMID:19440440

  19. Ionic Characteristics of Potable Water of Mardan District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *S. Nosheen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Water samples from different localities of Mardan were evaluated for determination of inorganic contents. It discusses the potability and quality of water, elaborates the methodology employed and presents results to attain the objectives of a survey conducted towards assessing the quality of potable water in the sample area. Potable water quality of different areas of Mardan was monitored for various physical and chemical parameters. The importance of this reference data related to the water quality of Mardan was felt after spreading of some water borne disease in the area. Ground water samples from 16 tubewells of surrounding areas of district Mardan District were collected and analyzed for pH, conductivity, total hardness, chloride contents, alkalinity, nitrites, fluorides, sulphates, TDS, TSS and inorganic contents Na and K. The value was compared with the standards of WHO and were found within the permissible limits. The toxic effects of these parameters have also been discussed. It concludes that water of all the tube well of Mardan is safe for human consumption provided the supply lines and storage tanks are prevented from being contaminated. Water resources of Mardan were almost free from any pollution.

  20. ISS Potable Water Sampling and Chemical Analysis Results for 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Wallace William T.; Alverson, James T.; Benoit, Mickie J.; Gillispie, Robert L.; Hunter, David; Kuo, Mike; Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Hudson, Edgar K.; Loh, Leslie J.; Gazda, Daniel B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper continues the annual tradition of summarizing at this conference the results of chemical analyses performed on archival potable water samples returned from the International Space Station (ISS). 2016 represented a banner year for life on board the ISS, including the successful conclusion for two crew members of a record one-year mission. Water reclaimed from urine and/or humidity condensate remained the primary source of potable water for the crew members of ISS Expeditions 46-50. The year 2016 was also marked by the end of a long-standing tradition of U.S. sampling and monitoring of Russian Segment potable water sources. Two water samples taken during Expedition 46 in February 2016 and returned on Soyuz 44, represented the final Russian Segment samples to be collected and analyzed by the U.S. side. Although anticipated for 2016, a rise in the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the product water from the U.S. water processor assembly due to breakthrough of organic contaminants from the system did not materialize, as evidenced by the onboard TOC analyzer and archive sample results.

  1. Quality of Potable Water in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzia M. Al-Ruwaih

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Kuwait is an arid country with limited natural water resources. As such, Kuwait produces its drinking water using the Multi-Stage-Flash method (MSF in distillation plants to produce distilled water from sea water. The distilled water is blended with the brackish groundwater in different blending ratios, to produce drinking water, as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO. Approach: The main purposes of this study were to determine the best blending ratios in the blending plants of Kuwait to get the best quality of drinking water according to the WHO guidelines and to reveal and control the corrosivity of the produced drinking water. In order to find out the best blending ratio, samples of drinking water from the different blending plants and groundwater samples from water well fields have been collected during 2007-2008 and analyzed for the determination of basic cations and anions. Moreover, water samples collected from the main pump stations were analyzed for Langelier Index, to reveal the corossivity level of the drinking water. Results: It was found that the best blending ratio between distilled water and brackish groundwater to obtain drinking water is in the range of 7-8% at Shuwaikh blending plant, 8-9% at Shuaiba blending plant and 8% at Doha blending plant respectively. While the best blending ratio at Az-Zour blending lines is between 3-4% and between 4-5% at Sabiya blending lines. Conclusion: It was found that the produced distilled water is corrosive and causing red water problem. In addition, it was found that the mean value of the Langelier Index at Shuaiba pump station is (-0.6 and the mean value of the total alkalinity is 21.4 mg L-1 as CaCO3, which reveals that the drinking water from Shuaiba plant is more corrosive than the drinking water from the other plants.

  2. Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Potable Water System Verification Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Laurie; DeVera, Jean; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Nik; Steele, John; Gazda, Daniel; Roberts, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), also known as Orion, will ferry a crew of up to six astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS), or a crew of up to four astronauts to the moon. The first launch of CEV is scheduled for approximately 2014. A stored water system on the CEV will supply the crew with potable water for various purposes: drinking and food rehydration, hygiene, medical needs, sublimation, and various contingency situations. The current baseline biocide for the stored water system is ionic silver, similar in composition to the biocide used to maintain quality of the water transferred from the Orbiter to the ISS and stored in Contingency Water Containers (CWCs). In the CEV water system, the ionic silver biocide is expected to be depleted from solution due to ionic silver plating onto the surfaces of the materials within the CEV water system, thus negating its effectiveness as a biocide. Since the biocide depletion is expected to occur within a short amount of time after loading the water into the CEV water tanks at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), an additional microbial control is a 0.1 micron point of use filter that will be used at the outlet of the Potable Water Dispenser (PWD). Because this may be the first time NASA is considering a stored water system for longterm missions that does not maintain a residual biocide, a team of experts in materials compatibility, biofilms and point of use filters, surface treatment and coatings, and biocides has been created to pinpoint concerns and perform testing to help alleviate those concerns related to the CEV water system. Results from the test plans laid out in the paper presented to SAE last year (Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Potable Water System Verification Coordination, 2008012083) will be detailed in this paper. Additionally, recommendations for the CEV verification will be described for risk mitigation in meeting the physicochemical and microbiological requirements on the CEV PWS.

  3. Heavy Metal Concentrations in Maltese Potable Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Bugeja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the levels of aluminum (Al, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, lead (Pb, nickel (Ni and zinc (Zn in tap water samples of forty localities from around the Maltese Islands together with their corresponding service supply reservoirs. The heavy metal concentrations obtained indicated that concentrations of the elements were generally below the maximum allowed concentration established by the Maltese legislation. In terms of the Maltese and EU water quality regulations, 17.5% of the localities sampled yielded water that failed the acceptance criteria for a single metal in drinking water. Higher concentrations of some metals were observed in samples obtained at the end of the distribution network, when compared to the concentrations at the source. The observed changes in metal concentrations between the localities’ samples and the corresponding supply reservoirs were significant. The higher metal concentrations obtained in the samples from the localities can be attributed to leaching in the distribution network.

  4. Potable Water Quality Management Guidance Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    of lime-softened waters (increasing turbidity) may also be noticed. o For systems utilizing alum as their coagulant, aluminum carryover should be...unlike MF/UF), the reject stream could potentially have salts , metals and soluble organic compounds, resulting in more difficult and costly disposal

  5. Lithium content in potable water, surface water, ground water, and mineral water on the territory of Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Kostik; Biljana Bauer; Zoran Kavrakovski

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine lithium concentration in potable water, surface water, ground, and mineral water on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as multiple public water supply systems located in 13 cities, wells boreholes located in 12 areas, lakes and rivers located in three different areas. Determination of lithium concentration in potable water, surface water was performed by the technique of inductively coupl...

  6. Potable water supply in U.S. manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Straub, John E., II

    1992-01-01

    A historical review of potable water supply systems used in the U.S. manned flight program is presented. This review provides a general understanding of the unusual challenges these systems have presented to the designers and operators of the related flight hardware. The presentation concludes with the projection of how water supply should be provided in future space missions - extended duration earth-orbital and interplanetary missions and lunar and Mars habitation bases - and the challenges to the biomedical community that providing these systems can present.

  7. Bounding the marginal cost of producing potable water including the use of seawater desalinization as a backstop potable water production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James J.

    2014-04-01

    The analysis presented in this technical report should allow for the creation of high, medium, and low cost potable water prices for GCAM. Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) based desalinization should act as a backstop for the cost of producing potable water (i.e., the literature seems clear that SWRO should establish an upper bound for the plant gate cost of producing potable water). Transporting water over significant distances and having to lift water to higher elevations to reach end-users can also have a significant impact on the cost of producing water. The three potable fresh water scenarios describe in this technical report are: low cost water scenario ($0.10/m3); medium water cost scenario ($1.00/m3); and high water cost scenario ($2.50/m3).

  8. Distributed optimal technology networks: a concept and strategy for potable water sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, W J

    2002-01-01

    Viable strategies for ensuring adequate supplies of potable water are essential to long-term societal sustainability. The steadily increasing necessity for multiple reuse of water in urban societies is even now taxing our technical and financial abilities to meet ongoing needs for water suitable for human consumption. As a consequence, the current practice of treating the entire water demands of urban communities to the increasingly stringent standards required for drinking water is becoming an unsustainable practice, and thus a questionable strategy for planning and development of urban water systems. An innovative technology-based concept for implementation of a more sustainable strategy and practice for potable water is developed here. The concept is predicated on the inherent advantages of flexibility and responsiveness associated with decentralization of complex functions and operations. Specifically, it calls for strategic dispersal of flexible advanced treatment and control technologies throughout urban water transport and storage networks. This is in direct contradistinction to current strategies and practices of centralized and inflexible monolithic facilities. By integrating use-related satellite systems with critical components of existing systems and infrastructures, the concept can enable and facilitate optimal cost-effective applications of highly sophisticated advanced treatment and on-line monitoring and control technologies to in-place infrastructures in a holistic and sustainable manner.

  9. 42 CFR 71.45 - Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and... Inspection § 71.45 Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports. (a) Every seaport and airport... Food and Drugs, Food and Drug Administration, in accordance with standards established in title...

  10. Crew Exploration Vehicle Potable Water System Verification Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, George; Peterson, Laurie J.; Vega, Leticia M.

    2010-01-01

    A stored water system on the crew exploration vehicle (CEV) will supply the crew with potable water for: drinking and food rehydration, hygiene, medical needs, sublimation, and various contingency situations. The current baseline biocide for the stored water system is ionic silver, similar in composition to the biocide used to maintain the quality of the water, transferred from the orbiter to the International Space Station, stored in contingency water containers. In the CEV water system, a depletion of the ionic silver biocide is expected due to ionic silver-plating onto the surfaces of materials within the CEV water system, thus negating its effectiveness as a biocide. Because this may be the first time NASA is considering a stored water system for long-term missions that do not maintain a residual biocide, a team of experts in materials compatibility, biofilms and point-of-use filters, surface treatment and coatings, and biocides has been created to pinpoint concerns and perform the testing that will help alleviate concerns related to the CEV water system.

  11. Challenges in the potable water industry due to changes in source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges in the potable water industry due to changes in source water quality: ... with the South African National Standard (SANS) 241:2015 for drinking water. ... this process was confirmed during a brief maintenance shutdown during 2015.

  12. TWRS privatization phase I - raw and potable water service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shord, A.L.

    1996-09-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy has chosen to accomplish the Tank Waste Remediation System disposal mission via privatization. The disposal mission has been divided into two phases. Phase 1, a `proof of concept` phase, will establish and demonstrate the technical, commercial, and procurement capabilities necessary for privatization to proceed. Once established on this relatively small scale, privatization will be expanded, through a second competition, in the form of a second phase (Phase II) to dispose of the remainder of the tank waste. The Phase I privatization site will be located in the former Grout Disposal Site area. To prepare the site for use for the private contractors, utilities must be extended from the 200 East Area infrastructure. This study evaluates and recommends the systems to supply raw, fire suppression, and sanitary (potable) water services to the boundary of the area to be assigned to each private contractor.

  13. Removal of trace metal contaminants from potable water by electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Joe; Marhefke, Matt; Mayer, Brooke K.

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of four operational and environmental variables on the removal of trace metal contaminants from drinking water by electrocoagulation (EC). Removal efficiencies for five metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel) were compared under varying combinations of electrode material, post-treatment, water composition and pH. Iron electrodes out-performed aluminum electrodes in removing chromium and arsenic. At pH 6.5, aluminum electrodes were slightly more effective at removing nickel and cadmium, while at pH 8.5, iron electrodes were more effective for these metals. Regardless of electrode, cadmium and nickel removal efficiencies were higher at pH 8.5 than at pH 6.5. Post-EC treatment using membrane filtration (0.45 μm) enhanced contaminant removal for all metals but nickel. With the exception of lead, all metals exhibited poorer removal efficiencies as the ionic strength of the background electrolyte increased, particularly in the very high-solids synthetic groundwaters. Residual aluminum concentrations were lowest at pH 6.5, while iron residuals were lowest in low ionic strength waters. Both aluminum and iron residuals required post-treatment filtration to meet drinking water standards. EC with post-treatment filtration appears to effectively remove trace metal contaminants to potable water standards, but both reactor and source water parameters critically impact removal efficiency.

  14. Inhibition of Copper Pitting Corrosion in Aggressive Potable Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Sarver

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper pitting corrosion can lead to premature plumbing failures, and can be caused by aggressive potable waters characterized by high pH, free chlorine residual and low alkalinity. In such waters and under continuous flow, certain inhibitors including phosphate, silica or natural organic matter may greatly reduce pitting occurrence. In the current work, 1 mg/L phosphate (as P completely prevented initiation of pits, and 5 mg/L silica (as Si significantly decelerated pitting. However, much lower doses of these inhibitors had little benefit and actually accelerated the rate of attack in some cases. Effects of organic matter were dependent on both the type (e.g., natural versus ozonated humic substances and dosage. Dose-response effects of free chlorine and alkalinity were also investigated. Based on electrochemical data, pits initiated more rapidly with increased free chlorine, but even moderate levels of chlorine (~0.4 mg/L eventually caused severe pitting. High alkalinity decreased pit propagation rates but did not prevent pit formation.

  15. Chemical Analysis Results for Potable Water from ISS Expeditions 21 Through 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Schultz, John R.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2011-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL) performed detailed ground-based analyses of archival water samples for verification of the chemical quality of the International Space Station (ISS) potable water supplies for Expeditions 21 through 25. Over a 14-month period the Space Shuttle visited the ISS on four occasions to complete construction and deliver supplies. The onboard supplies of potable water available for consumption by the Expeditions 21 to 25 crews consisted of Russian ground-supplied potable water, Russian potable water regenerated from humidity condensate, and US potable water recovered from urine distillate and condensate. Chemical archival water samples that were collected with U.S. hardware during Expeditions 21 to 25 were returned on Shuttle flights STS-129 (ULF3), STS-130 (20A), STS-131 (19A), and STS-132 (ULF4), as well as on Soyuz flights 19-23. This paper reports the analytical results for these returned potable water archival samples and their compliance with ISS water quality standards.

  16. Determination of viable Salmonellae from potable and source water through PMA assisted qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gulshan; Vajpayee, Poornima; Bhatti, Saurabh; Ronnie, Nirmala; Shah, Nimish; McClure, Peter; Shanker, Rishi

    2013-07-01

    Resource constrained countries identified as endemic zones for pathogenicity of Salmonella bear an economic burden due to recurring expenditure on medical treatment. qPCR used for Salmonella detection could not discriminate between viable and nonviable cells. Propidium monoazide (PMA) that selectively penetrates nonviable cells to cross-link their DNA, was coupled with ttr gene specific qPCR for quantifying viable salmonellae in source/potable waters collected from a north Indian city. Source water (raw water for urban potable water supply) and urban potable water exhibited viable salmonellae in the range of 2.1×10(4)-2.6×10(6) and 2-7160CFU/100mL, respectively. Potable water at water works exhibited DNA from dead cells but no viable cells were detected. PMA assisted qPCR could specifically detect low numbers of live salmonellae in Source and potable waters. This strategy can be used in surveillance of urban potable water distribution networks to map contamination points for better microbial risk management.

  17. Lithium content in potable water, surface water, ground water, and mineral water on the territory of Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Kostik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine lithium concentration in potable water, surface water, ground, and mineral water on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as multiple public water supply systems located in 13 cities, wells boreholes located in 12 areas, lakes and rivers located in three different areas. Determination of lithium concentration in potable water, surface water was performed by the technique of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, while in ground water samples from wells boreholes and mineral waters with the technique of ion chromatography. The research shows that lithium concentration in potable water ranging from 0.1 to 5.2 μg/L; in surface water from 0.5 to 15.0 μg/L; ground water from wells boreholes from 16.0 to 49.1 μg/L and mineral water from 125.2 to 484.9 μg/L. Obtained values are in accordance with the relevant international values for the lithium content in water.

  18. [Fluoride content in potable water and drinks. Connection with dental caries prevention and dental fluorosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borinskiĭ, Iu N; Rumiantsev, V A; Borinskaia, E Iu; Beliaev, V V

    2009-01-01

    Content of fluoride by ion selective electrode in potable water (municipal water supply, bottled, from draw-wells and springs), in juices of industrial and compotes of domestic preparation, in drinks of various grades of the tea made by water with unequal contents of fluorine was analyzed. Fluoride entered organism of the population in non-control mode more often in minimum quantities that explained, in certain measures a wide caries incidence. Granting of the information upon concentration of fluorides in potable water, juices and drinks used by population would allow people to adjust this microelement intake in the organism with the purpose of preventing of dental caries and fluorosis.

  19. Uncertainty analysis of daily potable water demand on the performance evaluation of rainwater harvesting systems in residential buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Arthur Santos; Ghisi, Enedir

    2016-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to perform a sensitivity analysis of design variables and an uncertainty analysis of daily potable water demand to evaluate the performance of rainwater harvesting systems in residential buildings. Eight cities in Brazil with different rainfall patterns were analysed. A numeric experiment was performed by means of computer simulation of rainwater harvesting. A sensitivity analysis was performed using variance-based indices for identifying the most important design parameters for rainwater harvesting systems when assessing the potential for potable water savings and underground tank capacity sizing. The uncertainty analysis was performed for different scenarios of potable water demand with stochastic variations in a normal distribution with different coefficients of variation throughout the simulated period. The results have shown that different design variables, such as potable water demand, number of occupants, rainwater demand, and roof area are important for obtaining the ideal underground tank capacity and estimating the potential for potable water savings. The stochastic variations on the potable water demand caused amplitudes of up to 4.8% on the potential for potable water savings and 9.4% on the ideal underground tank capacity. Average amplitudes were quite low for all cities. However, some combinations of parameters resulted in large amplitude of uncertainty and difference from uniform distribution for tank capacities and potential for potable water savings. Stochastic potable water demand generated low uncertainties in the performance evaluation of rainwater harvesting systems; therefore, uniform distribution could be used in computer simulation.

  20. Diversity of free-living amoebae in a dual distribution (potable and recycled) water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free-living amoebae are known to facilitate the growth of water associated pathogens. This study, for the first time, explored the diversity of free-living amoebae in a dual distribution (potable and recycled) water system in Rouse Hill NSW, Australia. Water and biofilm samples w...

  1. Legionella pneumophila: From potable water to treated greywater; quantification and removal during treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanky, Marina; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sara; Halpern, Malka; Friedler, Eran

    2015-11-15

    Greywater is an alternative water source that can help alleviate stress on depleted water resources. The main options for greywater reuse are toilet flushing and garden irrigation, both producing aerosols. For that reason transmission of inhalable pathogens like Legionella present a potential risk. To improve the understanding about Legionella in greywater, we traced the pathogen seasonally from the potable water system to the final steps of the greywater treatment in four houses in northern Israel. Physicochemical and microbiological parameters were analyzed in order to assess background greywater quality and to establish possible associations with Legionella. The mean concentrations of Legionella pneumophila isolated from the potable water system were 6.4×10(2) and 5.9×10(3) cfu/l in cold and hot water respectively. By amending the ISO protocol for Legionella isolation from drinking water, we succeeded in quantifying Legionella in greywater. The mean Legionella concentrations that were found in raw, treated and treated chlorinated greywater were 1.2×10(5), 2.4×10(4) and 5.7×10(3) cfu/l respectively. While Legionella counts in potable water presented a seasonal pattern with high concentrations in summer, its counts in greywater presented an almost inversed pattern. Greywater treatment resulted in 95% decrease in Legionella counts. No significant difference was found between Legionella concentrations in potable water and the treated chlorinated greywater. These findings indicate that regarding Legionella, reusing treated chlorinated greywater would exhibit a risk that is very similar to the risk associated with using potable water for the same non-potable uses.

  2. Installation of potable water supply and heat supply at base of subsoil water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysova Alla Evseevna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Removal of groundwater with further use of it for potable water supply and heat supply with the use of heat pump is an important problem. A new revolutionary approach to the decision of energy and water saving that provides rational accommodation of groundwater boreholes ensuring the required flow rate of water through the heat pump evaporator with simultaneously high intensity of heat exchange process is proposed. The method of calculation which allows determining the necessary depth of borehole, quantity of boreholes, in consideration of flow rate and temperature of subsoil water determining capacity of heat pump installation is worked out.

  3. Installation of potable water supply and heat supply at base of subsoil water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysova Alla Evseevna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Removal of groundwater with further use of it for potable water supply and heat supply with the use of heat pump is an important problem. A new revolutionary approach to the decision of energy and water saving that provides rational accommodation of groundwater boreholes ensuring the required flow rate of water through the heat pump evaporator with simultaneously high intensity of heat exchange process is proposed. The method of calculation which allows determining the necessary depth of borehole, quantity of boreholes, in consideration of flow rate and temperature of subsoil water determining capacity of heat pump installation is worked out.

  4. Mycobacterium avium complex--the role of potable water in disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, H; Keegan, A; Giglio, S; Bentham, R

    2012-08-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is a group of opportunistic pathogens of major public health concern. It is responsible for a wide spectrum of disease dependent on subspecies, route of infection and patients pre-existing conditions. Presently, there is limited research on the incidence of MAC infection that considers both pulmonary and other clinical manifestations. MAC has been isolated from various terrestrial and aquatic environments including natural waters, engineered water systems and soils. Identifying the specific environmental sources responsible for human infection is essential in minimizing disease prevalence. This paper reviews current literature and case studies regarding the wide spectrum of disease caused by MAC and the role of potable water in disease transmission. Potable water was recognized as a putative pathway for MAC infection. Contaminated potable water sources associated with human infection included warm water distribution systems, showers, faucets, household drinking water, swimming pools and hot tub spas. MAC can maintain long-term contamination of potable water sources through its high resistance to disinfectants, association with biofilms and intracellular parasitism of free-living protozoa. Further research is required to investigate the efficiency of water treatment processes against MAC and into construction and maintenance of warm water distribution systems and the role they play in MAC proliferation. No claim to Australian Government works Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. A review of potable water accessibility and sustainability issues in developing countries - case study of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayebare, Shedrack R; Wilson, Lloyd R; Carpenter, David O; Dziewulski, David M; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-01-01

    Providing sources of sustainable and quality potable water in Uganda is a significant public health issue. This project aimed at identifying and prioritizing possible actions on how sustainable high quality potable water in Uganda's water supply systems could be achieved. In that respect, a review of both the current water supply systems and government programs on drinking water in Uganda was completed. Aspects of quantity, quality, treatment methods, infrastructure, storage and distribution of water for different water systems were evaluated and compared with the existing water supply systems in the U.S., Latin America and the Caribbean, for purposes of generating feasible recommendations and opportunities for improvement. Uganda utilizes surface water, groundwater, and rainwater sources for consumption. Surface water covers 15.4% of the land area and serves both urban and rural populations. Lake Victoria contributes about 85% of the total fresh surface water. Potable water quality is negatively affected by the following factors: disposal of sewage and industrial effluents, agricultural pesticides and fertilizers, and surface run-offs during heavy rains. The total renewable groundwater resources in Uganda are estimated to be 29 million m3/year with about 20,000 boreholes, 3000 shallow-wells and 200,000 springs, serving more than 80% of the rural and slum communities. Mean annual rainfall in Uganda ranges from 500 mm to 2500 mm. Groundwater and rainwater quality is mainly affected by poor sanitation and unhygienic practices. There are significant regional variations in the accessibility of potable water, with the Northeastern region having the least amount of potable water from all sources. Uganda still lags behind in potable water resource development. Priorities should be placed mainly on measures available for improvement of groundwater and rainwater resource utilization, protection of watersheds, health education, improved water treatment methods and

  6. Principles for scaling of distributed direct potable water reuse systems: a modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tianjiao; Englehardt, James D

    2015-05-15

    Scaling of direct potable water reuse (DPR) systems involves tradeoffs of treatment facility economy-of-scale, versus cost and energy of conveyance including energy for upgradient distribution of treated water, and retention of wastewater thermal energy. In this study, a generalized model of the cost of DPR as a function of treatment plant scale, assuming futuristic, optimized conveyance networks, was constructed for purposes of developing design principles. Fractal landscapes representing flat, hilly, and mountainous topographies were simulated, with urban, suburban, and rural housing distributions placed by modified preferential growth algorithm. Treatment plants were allocated by agglomerative hierarchical clustering, networked to buildings by minimum spanning tree. Simulations assume advanced oxidation-based DPR system design, with 20-year design life and capability to mineralize chemical oxygen demand below normal detection limits, allowing implementation in regions where disposal of concentrate containing hormones and antiscalants is not practical. Results indicate that total DPR capital and O&M costs in rural areas, where systems that return nutrients to the land may be more appropriate, are high. However, costs in urban/suburban areas are competitive with current water/wastewater service costs at scales of ca. one plant per 10,000 residences. This size is relatively small, and costs do not increase significantly until plant service areas fall below 100 to 1000 homes. Based on these results, distributed DPR systems are recommended for consideration for urban/suburban water and wastewater system capacity expansion projects.

  7. Pathogen Treatment Guidance and Monitoring Approaches fro On-Site Non-Potable Water Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    On-site non-potable water reuse is increasingly used to augment water supplies, but traditional fecal indicator approaches for defining and monitoring exposure risks are limited when applied to these decentralized options. This session emphasizes risk-based modeling to define pat...

  8. Remaking Waste as Water: The Governance of Recycled Effluent for Potable Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Meehan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Water managers increasingly rely on the indirect potable reuse (IPR of recycled effluent to augment potable water supplies in rapidly growing cities. At the same time, the presence of waste – as abject material – clearly remains an object of concern in IPR projects, spawning debate and opposition among the public. In this article, we identify the key governance factors of IPR schemes to examine how waste disrupts and stabilises existing practices and ideologies of water resources management. Specifically, we analyse and compare four prominent IPR projects from the United States and Australia, and identify the techno-scientific, legal, and socio-economic components necessary for successful implementation of IPR projects. This analysis demonstrates that successful IPR projects are characterised by large-scale, centralised infrastructure, state and techno-scientific control, and a political economy of water marked by supply augmentation and unchecked expansion. We argue that – despite advanced treatment – recycled effluent is a parallax object: a material force that disrupts the power geometries embedded in municipal water management. Consequently, successful IPR schemes must stabilise a particular mode of water governance, one in which recycled effluent is highly regulated and heavily policed. We conclude with insights about the future role of public participation in IPR projects.

  9. International Space Station USOS Potable Water Dispenser On-Orbit Functionality Versus Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lovell, Randal W.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides potable water dispensing for rehydrating crewmember food and drinking packages. There is one system located in the United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) and one system in the Russian Segment. Shuttle mission STS-126 delivered the USOS Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) to ISS on ULF2; subsequent activation occurred on November 2008. The PWD is capable of supporting an ISS crew of six, but nominally supplies only half this crew size. The PWD design provides incremental quantities of hot and ambient temperature potable water to US food and beverage packages. PWD receives iodinated water from the US Water Recovery System (WRS) Fuel Cell Water Bus, which feeds from the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). The PWD removes the biocidal iodine to make the water potable prior to dispensing. A heater assembly contained within the unit supplies up to 2.0 L of hot water (65 to 93 ?C) every 30 min. During a single meal, this quantity of water supports three to four crewmembers? food rehydration and beverages. The unit design has a functional life expectancy of 10 years, with replacement of limited life items, such as filters. To date, the PWD on-orbit performance is acceptable. Since activation of the PWD, there were several differences between on-orbit functionality and expected performance of hardware design. The comparison of on-orbit functionality to performance of hardware design is discussed for the following key areas: 1) microbial contamination, 2) no-dispense and water leakage scenarios, and 3) under-dispense scenarios.

  10. Analysis of potability conditions of upwelling water in Ubá, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Rodrigues de Souza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the interference of anthropic activities on the potability of groundwater in the urban area of the city of Ubá, MG. To accomplish this, the physical characteristics (temperature, turbidity and color, chemical (pH, conductivity, chloride, nitrate and hardness and microbiological (total and thermotolerant coliforms of ten upwelling waters were monitored throughout one year. The temperature, pH, color, chloride and hardness of all upwelling waters were considered normal compared to standards of potable water. However, the analyses of turbidity, electrical conductivity, nitrate and total and thermotolerant coliforms indicate contamination by human activities. Overall, the results indicated the occurrence of high environmental degradation, where only 30% of monitored upwelling waters were in accordance with the quality standard, indicating the need for intervention to ensure water quality.

  11. Potability Assessment of Selected Brands of Bottled Water in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Department of Water Resources Management and Agrometeorology, ... values of water quality parameters were compared to World Health Organization (WHO) standards in drinking water. ..... design and implementation of freshwater,.

  12. Access to potable water and sanitation in Cameroon within the context of Millennium Development Goals (MDGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Shimada, Jun; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Fantong, Wilson Yetoh

    2010-01-01

    Cameroon has been fully engaged with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) since their inception in 2000. This paper examines the situation of access to potable water and sanitation in Cameroon within the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), establishes whether Cameroon is on the track of meeting the MDGs in these domains and proposes actions to be taken to bring it closer to these objectives. Based on analyzed data obtained from national surveys, government ministries, national statistical offices, bibliographic research, reports and interviews, it argues that Cameroon will not reach the water and sanitation MGDs. While Cameroon is not yet on track to meet the targets of the MDGs for water and sanitation, it has made notable progress since 1990, much more needs to be done to improve the situation, especially in rural areas. In 2006, 70% of the population had access to safe drinking water and the coverage in urban centres is 88%, significantly better than the 47% in rural areas. However, rapid urbanization has rendered existing infrastructure inadequate with periurban dwellers also lacking access to safe drinking water. Sanitation coverage is also poor. In urban areas only 58% of the population has access to improved sanitation facilities, and the rate in rural areas is 42%. Women and girls shoulder the largest burden in collecting water, 15% of urban and 18% rural populations use improved drinking water sources over 30 minutes away. Cameroon faces the following challenges in reaching the water and sanitation MDGs: poor management and development of the resources, coupled with inadequate political will and commitment for the long term; rapid urbanization; urban and rural poverty and regulation and legislative lapses. The authors propose that: bridging the gap between national water policies and water services; recognizing the role played by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in the attainment of MDGs; developing a Council Water Resource Management

  13. International Space Station USOS Potable Water Dispenser On-Orbit Functionality vs Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lovell, Randal W.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides potable water dispensing for rehydrating crewmembers food and drinking packages with one system located in the United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) and one system in the Russian Segment. The USOS Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) was delivered to ISS on ULF2, Shuttle Mission STS-126, and was subsequently activated in November 2008. The PWD activation on ISS is capable of supporting an ISS crew of six but nominally supplies only half the crew. The PWD is designed to provide incremental quantities of hot and ambient temperature potable water to US style food packages. PWD receives iodinated water from the US Laboratory Fuel Cell Water Bus, which is fed from the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). The PWD removes the biocidal iodine to make the water potable prior to dispensing. A heater assembly contained within the unit supplies up to 2.0 liters of hot water (65 to 93oC) every thirty minutes. This quantity supports three to four crewmembers to rehydrate their food and beverages from this location during a single meal. The unit is designed to remain functional for up to ten years with replacement of limited life items such as filters. To date, the PWD on-orbit performance has been acceptable. Since activation of the PWD, there have been several differences between on-orbit functionality and expected performance of hardware design. The comparison of on-orbit functionality to performance of hardware design is outlined for the following key areas: microbiology, PWD to food package water leakage, no-dispense scenarios, under-dispense scenarios, and crewmember feedback on actual on-orbit use.

  14. Potential for Potable Water Savings in Buildings by Using Stormwater Harvested from Porous Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Niehuns Antunes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern about the scarcity of water resources due to population growth and increased demand for potable water. Thus, the rational use of water has become necessary for the conservation of such resources. The objective of this study is to estimate the potential for potable water savings in buildings of different sectors—residential, public and commercial—in the city of Florianópolis, southern Brazil, by using stormwater harvested from porous pavements. Models were constructed to assess infiltration and rainwater quality; samples of stormwater from a local road were collected to evaluate its quality; and computer simulation was performed to assess the potential for potable water savings and rainwater tank sizing. Draining asphalt concrete slabs with two types of modifiers were used, i.e., tire rubber and SBS polymer—styrene-butadiene-styrene. The Netuno computer programme was used to simulate the potential for potable water savings considering the use of rainwater for non-potable uses such as flushing toilets and urinals, cleaning external areas, and garden watering. Average stormwater infiltration was 85.4%. It was observed that stormwater is not completely pure. From the models, the pH was 5.4 and the concentrations of ammonia, phosphorus, nitrite, and dissolved oxygen were 0.41, 0.14, 0.002, and 9.0 mg/L, respectively. The results for the stormwater runoff of a paved road were 0.23, 0.11, 0.12, 0.08, 1.41, 2.11, 0.02, and 9.0 mg/L for the parameters aluminium, ammonia, copper, chromium, iron, phosphorus, nitrite, and dissolved oxygen, respectively; and the pH was 6.7. In the city of Florianópolis, which has a surface area of paved roads of approximately 11,044,216 m², the potential for potable water savings ranged from 1.2% to 19.4% in the residential sector, 2.1% to 75.7% in the public sector and 6.5% to 70.0% in the commercial sector.

  15. Developing effective messages about potable recycled water: The importance of message structure and content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J.; Fielding, K. S.; Gardner, J.; Leviston, Z.; Green, M.

    2015-04-01

    Community opposition is a barrier to potable recycled water schemes. Effective communication strategies about such schemes are needed. Drawing on social psychological literature, two experimental studies are presented, which explore messages that improve public perceptions of potable recycled water. The Elaboration-Likelihood Model of information processing and attitude change is tested and supported. Study 1 (N = 415) premeasured support for recycled water, and trust in government information at Time 1. Messages varied in complexity and sidedness were presented at Time 2 (3 weeks later), and support and trust were remeasured. Support increased after receiving information, provided that participants received complex rather than simple information. Trust in government was also higher after receiving information. There was tentative evidence of this in response to two-sided messages rather than one-sided messages. Initial attitudes to recycled water moderated responses to information. Those initially neutral or ambivalent responded differently to simple and one-sided messages, compared to participants with positive or negative attitudes. Study 2 (N = 957) tested the effectiveness of information about the low relative risks, and/or benefits of potable recycled water, compared to control groups. Messages about the low risks resulted in higher support when the issue of recycled water was relevant. Messages about benefits resulted in higher perceived issue relevance, but did not translate into greater support. The results highlight the importance of understanding people's motivation to process information, and need to tailor communication to match attitudes and stage of recycled water schemes' development.

  16. Potability Evaluation of Selected River Waters in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    ... to suffer the following: typhoid, fever, intestinal problem, diarrhea, skin rash, cholera. ... KEYWORDS: water quality, physiochemical, microbia, spatial, river water, consumption, ANOVA ... different water quality parameters that can impact.

  17. Leak Detection for Potable Water Lines at Fort Hood: Final Report on Project AR-F-313 for FY05

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    cables, gas lines, etc., sometimes run close to water pipelines , and it is important to be certain that digging will not cause damage to these...sensors to find leaks in the potable water pipelines of West Fort Hood has been demon- strated to be quite good. Two leaks were discovered during the...the Army consider installing PermaLog permanent leak sensors at other installations where potable water pipelines run in sel- dom traveled areas. The

  18. Alternate electrification and non-potable water: A health concern for Jamaicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazhmoye V. Crawford

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research has shown that the absence of electricity and potable water usually result in negative effects on one’s health and is more likely to affect women than men. Aim: To determine the extent to which alternate electrification and limited potable water, impacts on health. Materials and Method: This study is informed by primary and secondary data, representing a sample size of 150 respondents (75 male and 75 female, who were interviewed via a 24-item structured interview schedule during the period 2006-2007, throughout the 14 parishes of Jamaica. In an effort to determine the number of persons to be interviewed, each parish population was divided by the island’s population (2,599,334 and then multiplied by 150. Data was analyzed using the statistical package for social scientists 15. Results: The respondents of this study who use kerosene lamp as an alternate means to electricity use firewood for cooking (12% male and 15% female. This sometimes result in obstructive pulmonary disease (female 43%; male 21%. The absence of electricity also results in the consumption of improperly stored meat, thus medical implications: paroxysmal abdominal pain (colic, and diarrhea (male 91%; female, 95%. The transporting of firewood, pans of water and laundry via head-loading, sometimes result in back/spinal injury (male, 75%; female, 48%. Conclusion: Alternate access to electricity and potable water result in the use of kerosene lamp, firewood and the consumption of non-potable water (often transported on one’s head – causing medical implications such as back/spinal injury, obstructive pulmonary disease, paroxysmal abdominal pain and gastroenteritis.

  19. Alternate electrification and non-potable water: A health concern for Jamaicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazhmoye V Crawford

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Research has shown that the absence of electricity and potable water usually result in negative effects on one′s health and is more likely to affect women than men. Aim : To determine the extent to which alternate electrification and limited potable water, impacts on health. Materials and Method : This study is informed by primary and secondary data, representing a sample size of 150 respondents (75 male and 75 female, who were interviewed via a 24-item structured interview schedule during the period 2006-2007, throughout the 14 parishes of Jamaica. In an effort to determine the number of persons to be interviewed, each parish population was divided by the island′s population (2,599,334 and then multiplied by 150. Data was analyzed using the statistical package for social scientists 15. Results : The respondents of this study who use kerosene lamp as an alternate means to electricity use firewood for cooking (12% male and 15% female. This sometimes result in obstructive pulmonary disease (female 43%; male 21%. The absence of electricity also results in the consumption of improperly stored meat, thus medical implications: paroxysmal abdominal pain (colic, and diarrhea (male 91%; female, 95%. The transporting of firewood, pans of water and laundry via head-loading, sometimes result in back/spinal injury (male, 75%; female, 48%. Conclusion : Alternate access to electricity and potable water result in the use of kerosene lamp, firewood and the consumption of non-potable water (often transported on one′s head - causing medical implications such as back/spinal injury, obstructive pulmonary disease, paroxysmal abdominal pain and gastroenteritis.

  20. Water quality 101: Qualité de l'eau 101 [enregistrement vidéo] introduction aux microsystèmes d'approvisionnement en eau potable = Calidad del agua 101 : nociones basicas sobre microsistemas de agua potable

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

    This product was created as a training tool by the federal Interdepartmental Water Quality Training Board to provide information on water quality mangement methods for potable water systems that serve...

  1. Water quality 101: Qualité de l'eau 101 [enregistrement vidéo] introduction aux microsystèmes d'approvisionnement en eau potable = Calidad del agua 101 : nociones basicas sobre microsistemas de agua potable

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

    This product was created as a training tool by the federal Interdepartmental Water Quality Training Board to provide information on water quality mangement methods for potable water systems that serve...

  2. Detection of Legionella, L. pneumophila and Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC along Potable Water Distribution Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Inhalation of potable water presents a potential route of exposure to opportunistic pathogens and hence warrants significant public health concern. This study used qPCR to detect opportunistic pathogens Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and MAC at multiple points along two potable water distribution pipelines. One used chlorine disinfection and the other chloramine disinfection. Samples were collected four times over the year to provide seasonal variation and the chlorine or chloramine residual was measured during collection. Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and MAC were detected in both distribution systems throughout the year and were all detected at a maximum concentration of 103 copies/mL in the chlorine disinfected system and 106, 103 and 104 copies/mL respectively in the chloramine disinfected system. The concentrations of these opportunistic pathogens were primarily controlled throughout the distribution network through the maintenance of disinfection residuals. At a dead-end and when the disinfection residual was not maintained significant (p < 0.05 increases in concentration were observed when compared to the concentration measured closest to the processing plant in the same pipeline and sampling period. Total coliforms were not present in any water sample collected. This study demonstrates the ability of Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and MAC to survive the potable water disinfection process and highlights the need for greater measures to control these organisms along the distribution pipeline and at point of use.

  3. Evaluation of Electrochemically Generated Potable Water Disinfectants for Use on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Leticia; Aber, Gregory; Adam, Niklas; Clements, Anna; Modica, Catherine; Younker, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Microbial contamination and subsequent growth in spacecraft water systems are constant concerns for missions involving human crews. The current potable water disinfectant is iodine; however, with the end of the Space Shuttle program, there is a need to develop redundant biocide systems which are less dependent on hardware that would need to be launched on a regular basis. Three systems for electrochemical production of potable water disinfectants are being assessed for use on the International Space Station (ISS). Since there is a wide variability in the literature with regards to efficacy in both concentration and exposure time of these disinfectants, there is a need to establish baseline efficacy values. This paper describes a series of tests performed in order to establish optimal concentrations and exposure times for four disinfectants against single and mixed species planktonic and biofilm bacteria and to determine whether these electrochemical disinfection devices are able to produce a sufficient amount of chemical in both concentration and volume to act as a biocide for potable water on ISS.

  4. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF POTABLE WATER IN DEHRADUN CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapkota Rajendra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the water quality of the Dehradun City the Capital of Uttarakhand (India by an affable means. The physiochemical and the microbiological studies are most important regions by which we were able to test the portability of water. The isolation and characterization of the pathogenic microorganism from the water sample collected were the main emphasized area of the study. The sample collected from three areas of Dehradun city. Ballupur chowk, Railway station and Doon Hospital. The safest water sample was of the Doon Hospital while the most contaminated sample was from the Railway Station. The bacterial isolates were Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus sp. The sample were inoculated and were incubated at 370C for 24 hrs or 48 hrs for appropriate bacterial growth. Thus we can use this study for the assessment of the water sample and to resolve the hygienic problems of the water.

  5. Novel configurations of solar distillation system for potable water production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, A.; Yusof, K. W.; Sapari, N.; Singh, B. S.; Hashim, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    More and more surface water are polluted with toxic chemicals. Alternatively brackish and saline water are used as feed water to water treatment plants. Expensive desalination process via reverse osmosis or distillation is used in the plants. Thus, this conventional desalination is not suitable for low and medium income countries. A cheaper method is by solar distillation. However the rate of water production by this method is generally considered low. This research attempts to enhance water production of solar distillation by optimizing solar capture, evaporation and condensation processes. Solar radiation data was captured in several days in Perak, Malaysia. Three kinds of experiments were done by fabricating triangular solar distillation systems. First type was conventional solar still, second type was combined with 50 Watt solar photovoltaic panel and 40 Watt Dc heater, while third type was integrated with 12 Volt Solar battery and 40 Watt Dc heater. The present investigation showed that the productivity of second and third systems were 150% and 480% of the conventional still type, respectively. The finding of this research can be expected to have wide application in water supply particularly in areas where fresh surface water is limited.

  6. Characterisation of materials causing discolouration in potable water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, A; Bachmann, R; Boxall, J; Saul, A; Edyvean, R

    2004-01-01

    Discoloured water is one of the main causes of customer complaints received by UK water suppliers. Flushing is recognised as a means of preventing red water events by mobilising material with the potential to cause discolouration. The understanding of the mechanisms and materials causing discolouration is limited. It is therefore necessary to characterise the materials mobilised by flushing, which are responsible for discolouration. The University of Sheffield and two UK water companies embarked on an in-depth programme of monitoring mains flushing. The programme involves collecting discrete samples during flushing of pipes of differing materials, diameters, age, source water and hydraulic regime. The results show iron to be the dominant material mobilised irrespective of pipe material. All samples indicate a direct correlation between turbidity, iron and manganese, and to a lesser extent with metals lead, copper, aluminium and zinc. Concentration of metals mobilised is independent of pipe material, diameter or age.

  7. Potable water quality monitoring of primary schools in Magura district, Bangladesh: children's health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aminur; Hashem, Abul; Nur-A-Tomal, Shahruk

    2016-12-01

    Safe potable water is essential for good health. Worldwide, school-aged children especially in the developing countries are suffering from various water-borne diseases. In the study, drinking water supplies for primary school children were monitored at Magura district, Bangladesh, to ensure safe potable water. APHA standard analytical methods were applied for determining the physicochemical parameters of the water samples. For determination of the essential physicochemical parameters, the samples were collected from 20 randomly selected tube wells of primary schools at Magura. The metal contents, especially arsenic (As), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn), in the water samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The range of physicochemical parameters found in water samples were as follows: pH 7.05-9.03, electrical conductivity 400-2340 μS/cm, chloride 10-640 mg/L, hardness 200-535 mg/L as CaCO3, and total dissolved solids 208-1216 mg/L. The level of metals in the tube well water samples were as follows: As 1 to 55 μg/L, Fe 40 to 9890 μg/L, and Mn 10 to 370 μg/L. Drinking water parameters of Magura district did not meet the requirement of the World Health Organization drinking water quality guideline, or the Drinking Water Quality Standards of Bangladesh.

  8. Nanotechnology for potable water and general consumption in developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hillie, T

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available is vital to sustain life in every organism, including human beings. As a basic need for rich and poor alike, water takes on primary importance among public resources, one that we need to better understand and sustain....

  9. Potability Evaluation of Selected River Waters in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Awu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the seasonal variation of physiochemical and microbial characteristics of three selected river water in Ebonyi State for human consumption. The three selected rivers studied were Iyioka, Idima and Ubei Rivers. Data were generated using Direct Reading Engineering method (DREM, Gravimetric method, Titrimetric method, Spectrophotometric method, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric method, and Total Viable count for physiochemical and microbiological analysis. The generated data was further subjected to statistical analysis using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA on difference between means of parameters and graphical method to determine the spatial variation of the water quality characteristics. The time variations of the water quality characteristics as compared with the spatial variations showed that for some variables, there was statistical difference between the means of parameters with respect to time and space at various levels of significance. These include Phosphorus (5%, Copper (1%, Iron (5%, Nickel (5%, Cadmium (1%, Salinity (1%, Bacteria (1% for time variation; and Sulphate (1%, Chemical Oxygen (5%,Nickel (1%, Arsenic (1%, Zinc (1%, Cadmium (1%, Bacteria (1% for spatial variations during dry season and Chemical Oxygen (5%, Nickel (1%, for spatial variation during rainy season. Based on the World Health Organization and Standard Organization of Nigeria guidelines for drinking water, the results of microbial analysis also indicated that the selected river waters were polluted with disease causing microorganisms, such as E.Coliform, Salmonella, Bacillus Subtilis. Therefore, the river waters are not good for drinking. The consumers of water obtained from the three rivers are likely to suffer the following: typhoid, fever, intestinal problem, diarrhea, skin rash, cholera. Necessary recommendations such as treating the water with bio-sand filter before use, amongst others, were made.

  10. Potability Evaluation of Selected River Waters in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    J. I. Awu; O. A. Ogunjirin; F. A. Willoughby; A. A. Adewumi

    2015-01-01

    The study focused on the seasonal variation of physiochemical and microbial characteristics of three selected river water in Ebonyi State for human consumption. The three selected rivers studied were Iyioka, Idima and Ubei Rivers. Data were generated using Direct Reading Engineering method (DREM), Gravimetric method, Titrimetric method, Spectrophotometric method, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric method, and Total Viable count for physiochemical and microbiological analysis. The generated ...

  11. Profile sampling to characterize particulate lead risks in potable water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brandi; Masters, Sheldon; Edwards, Marc

    2014-06-17

    Traditional lead (Pb) profiling, or collecting sequential liters of water that flow from a consumer tap after a stagnation event, has recently received widespread use in understanding sources of Pb in drinking water and risks to consumer health, but has limitations in quantifying particulate Pb risks. A new profiling protocol was developed in which a series of traditional profiles are collected from the same tap at escalating flow rates. The results revealed marked differences in risks of Pb exposure from one consumer home to another as a function of flow rate, with homes grouped into four risk categories with differing flushing requirements and public education to protect consumers. On average, Pb concentrations detected in water at high flow without stagnation were at least three to four times higher than in first draw samples collected at low flow with stagnation, demonstrating a new "worst case" lead release scenario, contrary to the original regulatory assumption that stagnant, first draw samples contain the highest lead concentrations. Testing also revealed that in some cases water samples with visible particulates had much higher Pb than samples without visible particulates, and tests of different sample handling protocols confirmed that some EPA-allowed methods would not quantify as much as 99.9% of the Pb actually present (avg. 27% of Pb not quantified).

  12. Disinfection of Spacecraft Potable Water Systems by Photocatalytic Oxidation Using UV-A Light Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmele, Michele N.; O'Neal, Jeremy A.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light has long been used in terrestrial water treatment systems for photodisinfection and the removal of organic compounds by several processes including photoadsorption, photolysis, and photocatalytic oxidation/reduction. Despite its effectiveness for water treatment, UV has not been explored for spacecraft applications because of concerns about the safety and reliability of mercury-containing UV lamps. However, recent advances in ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have enabled the utilization of nanomaterials that possess the appropriate optical properties for the manufacture of LEDs capable of producing monochromatic light at germicidal wavelengths. This report describes the testing of a commercial-off-the-shelf, high power Nichia UV-A LED (250mW A365nnJ for the excitation of titanium dioxide as a point-of-use (POD) disinfection device in a potable water system. The combination of an immobilized, high surface area photocatalyst with a UV-A LED is promising for potable water system disinfection since toxic chemicals and resupply requirements are reduced. No additional consumables like chemical biocides, absorption columns, or filters are required to disinfect and/or remove potentially toxic disinfectants from the potable water prior to use. Experiments were conducted in a static test stand consisting of a polypropylene microtiter plate containing 3mm glass balls coated with titanium dioxide. Wells filled with water were exposed to ultraviolet light from an actively-cooled UV-A LED positioned above each well and inoculated with six individual challenge microorganisms recovered from the International Space Station (ISS): Burkholderia cepacia, Cupriavidus metallidurans, Methylobacterium fujisawaense, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Wautersia basilensis. Exposure to the Nichia UV-A LED with photocatalytic oxidation resulted in a complete (>7-log) reduction of each challenge bacteria population in <180 minutes of contact

  13. Potable water source and the method of garbage disposal in lowering the risk of diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Suriyasa

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of diarrhea can be controlled through environmental factors and good habits. The Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia has designed a simple indicator to evaluate the family health potential, the Family Health Potential Index (FHPI. This study aims to evaluate the effect of FHPI and other indicators on the risk of diarrhea. The data were obtained through a survey carried out by a team from the Family Physician Studies, Graduate Program of the Universitas Sebelas Maret. The survey was held from August to September 2003 in 5 provinces receiving the Family Health and Nutrition (FHN project. The subjects were 1500 heads of poor families chosen by stratified random sampling. Interviews and observations were carried out by special trained interviewers and held in the subjects’ homes. The use of potable water from the water system and well source built during the FHN project lowered the risk of diarrhea by 66% compared to the use of water from other sources (adjusted odds ratio= 0.34; 95% confidence interval = 0.16 - 0.70. Disposing of garbage using pits, sewers, rivers, or simply burying in the ground, increased the risk of diarrhea by twice compared with the specific method. Providing potable water from the water system or well and proving special tank for garbage disposal were important in order to lower the risk of occurrence diarrhea in a family. The use of non-dirt floors of houses as an FHPI specifically for diarrhea should be studied further. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 119-26 Keywords: diarrhea, potable water, garbage disposal, family health potential index, poor family

  14. Disinfection of Spacecraft Potable Water Systems by Passivation with Ionic Silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmele, Michele N.; McCoy, LaShelle e.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial growth is common on wetted surfaces in spacecraft environmental control and life support systems despite the use of chemical and physical disinfection methods. Advanced control technologies are needed to limit microorganisms and increase the reliability of life support systems required for long-duration human missions. Silver ions and compounds are widely used as antimicrobial agents for medical applications and continue to be used as a residual biocide in some spacecraft water systems. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified silver fluoride for use in the potable water system on the next generation spacecraft. Due to ionic interactions between silver fluoride in solution and wetted metallic surfaces, ionic silver is rapidly depleted from solution and loses its antimicrobial efficacy over time. This report describes research to prolong the antimicrobial efficacy of ionic silver by maintaining its solubility. Three types of metal coupons (lnconel 718, Stainless Steel 316, and Titanium 6AI-4V) used in spacecraft potable water systems were exposed to either a continuous flow of water amended with 0.4 mg/L ionic silver fluoride or to a static, pre-treatment passivation in 50 mg/L ionic silver fluoride with or without a surface oxidation pre-treatment. Coupons were then challenged in a high-shear, CDC bioreactor (BioSurface Technologies) by exposure to six bacteria previously isolated from spacecraft potable water systems. Continuous exposure to 0.4 mg/L ionic silver over the course of 24 hours during the flow phase resulted in a >7-log reduction. The residual effect of a 24-hour passivation treatment in 50 mg/L of ionic silver resulted in a >3-log reduction, whereas a two-week treatment resulted in a >4-log reduction. Results indicate that 0.4 mg/L ionic silver is an effective biocide against many bacteria and that a prepassivation of metal surfaces with silver can provide additional microbial control.

  15. Compatibility Study of Silver Biocide in Drinking Water with Candidate Metals for Crew Exploration Vehicle Potable Water System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Niklas M.

    2009-01-01

    The stability of silver biocide, used to keep drinking water on the CEV potable water sterile, is unknown as the system design is still in progress. Silver biocide in water can deplete rapidly when exposed to various metal surfaces. Additionally, silver depletion rates may be affected by the surface-area-to-volume (SA/V) ratios in the water system. Therefore, to facilitate the CEV water system design, it would be advantageous to know the biocide depletion rates in water exposed to the surfaces of these candidate metals at various SA/V ratios. Certain surface treatments can be employed to reduce the depletion rates of silver compared to the base metal. The purpose of this work is to determine the compatibility of specific spaceflight-certified metals that could used in the design of the CEV potable water system with silver biocide as well as understand the effect of surface are to volume ratios of metals used in the construction of the potable water system on the silver concentration.

  16. Legionella Risk Management and Control in Potable Water Systems: Argument for the Abolishment of Routine Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet

    2016-12-24

    Legionella is an opportunistic pathogen of public health significance. One of the main sources of Legionella is potable water systems. As a consequence of aging populations there is an increasing demographic considered at high risk for Legionellosis and, as such, a review of the guidelines is required. Worldwide, Legionella has been detected from many potable water sources, suggesting it is ubiquitous in this environment. Previous studies have identified the limitations of the current standard method for Legionella detection and the high possibility of it returning both false negative and false positive results. There is also huge variability in Legionella test results for the same water sample when conducted at different laboratories. However, many guidelines still recommend the testing of water systems. This commentary argues for the removal of routine Legionella monitoring from all water distribution guidelines. This procedure is financially consuming and false negatives may result in managers being over-confident with a system or a control mechanism. Instead, the presence of the pathogen should be assumed and focus spent on managing appropriate control measures and protecting high-risk population groups.

  17. Legionella Risk Management and Control in Potable Water Systems: Argument for the Abolishment of Routine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    Legionella is an opportunistic pathogen of public health significance. One of the main sources of Legionella is potable water systems. As a consequence of aging populations there is an increasing demographic considered at high risk for Legionellosis and, as such, a review of the guidelines is required. Worldwide, Legionella has been detected from many potable water sources, suggesting it is ubiquitous in this environment. Previous studies have identified the limitations of the current standard method for Legionella detection and the high possibility of it returning both false negative and false positive results. There is also huge variability in Legionella test results for the same water sample when conducted at different laboratories. However, many guidelines still recommend the testing of water systems. This commentary argues for the removal of routine Legionella monitoring from all water distribution guidelines. This procedure is financially consuming and false negatives may result in managers being over-confident with a system or a control mechanism. Instead, the presence of the pathogen should be assumed and focus spent on managing appropriate control measures and protecting high-risk population groups. PMID:28029126

  18. Consumption and loss of potable water in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Silva Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Before the water problem that has taken place in Brazil and the need to reduce energy consumption in the country, it was thought the objective of this study was to evaluate the conditions of use and loss of potable water in the Baixada Fluminense, part of the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro (RMRJ, since it is the emergency waste reduction and the efficient and sustainable use of water. This exploratory study aims through a documentary approach, identify the number of water loss in the region. It proves that the loss in the region is more serious than in other states and that awareness campaigns should be implemented as local public policies. Also suggests that cleantech water use can be incorporated into the daily lives of homes and businesses enabling the reduction of water consumption.

  19. Use of sorption technology for treatment of humidity condensate for potable water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajjarapu, Sundara R. M.; Symons, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    This research focused on the testing of the original potable water processor aboard Space Station Freedom that was to produce potable water from the humidity condensate and additional water generated by carbon dioxide reduction. Humidity condensate was simulated by an influent water model 'Ersatz'. The humidity condensate was treated with multifiltration (MF) beds that consisted of a train of sorption beds (referred to as 'Unibed') designed to remove specific contaminants. For the complete simulated MF system runs tested for 100 bed volumes (BV) (volume processed/total column volume), 0.6 percent of the TOC was removed by the SAC/IRN 77 (Strong Acid Cation exchange resin), 39.6 percent of the total organic carbon (TOC) was removed by the WBA/IRA 68 (Weak Base Anion exchange resin), 13.2 percent of the TOC was removed by activated carbon adsorption (580-26), and the remaining sorbent media acted as polishing units to remove an additional 1.6 percent of the TOC at steady state. At steady state, 45 percent of the influent TOC passed through the MF bed.

  20. International Space Station (ISS) Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) Beverage Adapter (BA) Redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerly, Rachel; Benoit, Jace; Shindo, David

    2011-01-01

    The Potable Water Dispenser used on the International Space Station (ISS) interfaces with food and drink packages using the Beverage Adapter and Needle. Unexpected leakage has been seen in this interface. The Beverage Adapter used on-orbit was returned to the ground for Test, Teardown, and Evaluation. The results of that investigation prompted a redesign of the Beverage Adapter and Needle. The Beverage Adapter materials will be changed to be more corrosion resistant, and the Needle will be redesigned to preclude leakage. The redesigns have been tested and proven.

  1. Evaluation of available analytical techniques for monitoring the quality of space station potable water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, Richard D.

    1989-01-01

    To assure the quality of potable water (PW) on the Space Station (SS) a number of chemical and physical tests must be conducted routinely. After reviewing the requirements for potable water, both direct and indirect analytical methods are evaluated that could make the required tests and improvements compatible with the Space Station operation. A variety of suggestions are made to improve the analytical techniques for SS operation. The most important recommendations are: (1) the silver/silver chloride electrode (SB) method of removing I sub 2/I (-) biocide from the water, since it may interfere with analytical procedures for PW and also its end uses; (2) the orbital reactor (OR) method of carrying out chemistry and electrochemistry in microgravity by using a disk shaped reactor on an orbital table to impart artificial G force to the contents, allowing solution mixing and separation of gases and liquids; and (3) a simple ultra low volume highly sensitive electrochemical/conductivity detector for use with a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus. It is also recommended, since several different conductivity and resistance measurements are made during the analysis of PW, that the bipolar pulse measuring circuit be used in all these applications for maximum compatibility and redundancy of equipment.

  2. Effects of selected water chemistry variables on copper pitting propagation in potable water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha Hung, E-mail: hmh2n@virginia.edu [Center for Electrochemical Science and Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Taxen, Claes [SWEREA-KIMAB, Stockholm (Sweden); Williams, Keith [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Scully, John [Center for Electrochemical Science and Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2011-07-01

    in good agreement with artificial pit experiments. Malachite, bronchantite, cuprite, nantokite and atacamite corrosion products were both observed in experiment and predicted by the model. Stifling and/or repassivation occurred when the resistance of the corrosion product layer became high enough to lower the pit bottom potential and pit current density such as 10{sup -5} A/cm{sup 2} could be attained with thick and dense layer. The ramifications of these findings towards pit propagation characteristics in potable waters will be discussed with improved insight into the roles of Cl{sup -} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ions.

  3. Efficacy of Various Chemical Disinfectants on Biofilms Formed in Spacecraft Potable Water System Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Willy; Garcia, Veronica; Castro, Victoria; Ott, Mark; Duane

    2009-01-01

    As the provision of potable water is critical for successful habitation of the International Space Station (ISS), life support systems were installed in December 2008 to recycle both humidity from the atmosphere and urine to conserve available water in the vehicle. Pre-consumption testing from the dispensing needle at the Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) indicated that bacterial concentrations exceeded the current ISS specifications of 50 colony forming units (CFU) per ml. Subsequent investigations revealed that a corrugated stainless steel flex hose upstream of the dispensing needle in the PWD was filled with non-sterile water and left at room temperature for over one month before launch. To simulate biofilm formation that was suspected in the flight system, sterile flex hoses were seeded with a consortium of bacterial isolates previously recovered from other ISS water systems, which included Ralstonia pickettii, Burkholderia multivorans, Caulobacter vibrioides., and Cupriavidus pauculus. After 5 days of incubation, these hoses were challenged with various chemical disinfectants including hydrogen peroxide, colloidal silver, and buffered pH solutions to determine the ability of the disinfectants to decrease and maintain bacterial concentrations below ISS specifications. Disinfection efficacy over time was measured by collecting daily heterotrophic plate counts following exposure to the disinfectants. A single flush with either 6% hydrogen peroxide solution or a mixture of 3% hydrogen peroxide and 400 ppb colloidal silver effectively reduced the bacterial concentrations to less than 1 CFU/ml for a period of up to 2 months. Testing results indicated that hydrogen peroxide and mixtures of hydrogen peroxide and colloidal silver have tremendous potential as alternative disinfectants for ISS water systems.

  4. Risk assessment of aquifer storage transfer and recovery with urban stormwater for producing water of a potable quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Declan; Dillon, Peter; Vanderzalm, Joanne; Toze, Simon; Sidhu, Jatinder; Barry, Karen; Levett, Kerry; Kremer, Sarah; Regel, Rudi

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the Parafield Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery research project in South Australia is to determine whether stormwater from an urban catchment that is treated in a constructed wetland and stored in an initially brackish aquifer before recovery can meet potable water standards. The water produced by the stormwater harvesting system, which included a constructed wetland, was found to be near potable quality. Parameters exceeding the drinking water guidelines before recharge included small numbers of fecal indicator bacteria and elevated iron concentrations and associated color. This is the first reported study of a managed aquifer recharge (MAR) scheme to be assessed following the Australian guidelines for MAR. A comprehensive staged approach to assess the risks to human health and the environment of this project has been undertaken, with 12 hazards being assessed. A quantitative microbial risk assessment undertaken on the water recovered from the aquifer indicated that the residual risks posed by the pathogenic hazards were acceptable if further supplementary treatment was included. Residual risks from organic chemicals were also assessed to be low based on an intensive monitoring program. Elevated iron concentrations in the recovered water exceeded the potable water guidelines. Iron concentrations increased after underground storage but would be acceptable after postrecovery aeration treatment. Arsenic concentrations in the recovered water continuously met the guideline concentrations acceptable for potable water supplies. However, the elevated concentration of arsenic in native groundwater and its presence in aquifer minerals suggest that the continuing acceptable residual risk from arsenic requires further evaluation.

  5. Cold Vacuum Drying facility deionized water system design description (SYS 25)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-07-02

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) de-ionized water system. The de-ionized water system is used to provide clean, conditioned water, free from contaminants, chlorides and iron for the CVD Facility. Potable water is supplied to the deionized water system, isolated by a backflow prevention device. After the de-ionization process is complete, via a packaged de-ionization unit, de-ionized water is supplied to the process deionization unit.

  6. Quorum Sensing Activity of Mesorhizobium sp. F7 Isolated from Potable Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ling Yong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We isolated a bacterial isolate (F7 from potable water. The strain was identified as Mesorhizobium sp. by 16S rDNA gene phylogenetic analysis and screened for N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL production by an AHL biosensor. The AHL profile of the isolate was further analyzed using high resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS which confirmed the production of multiple AHLs, namely, N-3-oxo-octanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL and N-3-oxo-decanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C10-HSL. These findings will open the perspective to study the function of these AHLs in plant-microbe interactions.

  7. Quorum sensing activity of Mesorhizobium sp. F7 isolated from potable water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Pei-Ling; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    We isolated a bacterial isolate (F7) from potable water. The strain was identified as Mesorhizobium sp. by 16S rDNA gene phylogenetic analysis and screened for N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) production by an AHL biosensor. The AHL profile of the isolate was further analyzed using high resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) which confirmed the production of multiple AHLs, namely, N-3-oxo-octanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL) and N-3-oxo-decanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C10-HSL). These findings will open the perspective to study the function of these AHLs in plant-microbe interactions.

  8. Analysis of radon, uranium 238 and thorium 232 in potable waters: Dose to adult members of the Moroccan urban population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misdaq, M. A.; Ouabi, H.; Merzouki, A.

    2007-10-01

    Uranium (238U) and thorium (232Th) concentrations as well as radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) alpha-activities per unit volume have been measured inside various potable water samples collected from nineteen cities in Morocco by using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). Measured radon alpha-activities ranged from (0.37 ± 0.02) Bq l-1 to (13.6 ± 1.10) Bq l-1 for the potable water samples studied. Alpha-activities due to radon from the ingestion of the studied potable water samples were determined in different compartments of the gastrointestinal system by using the ICRP compartmental model for radon. Annual committed equivalent doses due to radon were evaluated in the gastrointestinal compartments from the ingestion of the potable water samples studied. The influence of the target tissue mass, radon intake and alpha-activity integral due to radon on the annual committed equivalent doses in the gastrointestinal compartments was investigated.

  9. Water Tunnel Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s High-Pressure Water Tunnel Facility in Pittsburgh, PA, re-creates the conditions found 3,000 meters beneath the ocean’s surface, allowing scientists to study...

  10. Chemical Characterization and Identification of Organosilicon Contaminants in ISS Potable Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Gazda, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    2015 marked the 15th anniversary of continuous human presence on board the International Space Station. During the past year crew members from Expeditions 42-46, including two participating in a one-year mission, continued to rely on reclaimed water as their primary source of potable water. This paper presents and discusses results from chemical analyses performed on ISS water samples returned in 2015. Since the U.S. water processor assembly (WPA) became operational in 2008, there have been 5 instances of organic contaminants breaking through the treatment process. On each occasion, the breakthrough was signaled by an increase in the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration in the product water measured by the onboard TOC analyzer (TOCA). Although the most recent TOC rise in 2015 was not unexpected, it was the first time where dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) was not the primary compound responsible for the increase. Results from ground analysis of a product water sample collected in June of 2015 and returned on Soyuz 41 showed that DMSD only accounted for 10% of the measured TOC. After considerable laboratory investigation, the compound responsible for the majority of the TOC was identified as monomethysilanetriol (MMST). MMST is a low-toxicity compound that is structurally similar to DMSD.

  11. Chemical Characterization and Identification of Organosilicon Contaminants in ISS Potable Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Wallace, William T.; Gazda, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    2015 marked the 15th anniversary of continuous human presence on board the International Space Station. During the past year crew members from Expeditions 42-46, including two participating in a one-year mission, continued to rely on reclaimed water as their primary source of potable water. This paper presents and discusses results from chemical analyses performed on ISS water samples returned in 2015. Since the U.S. water processor assembly (WPA) became operational in 2008, there have been 5 instances of organic contaminants breaking through the treatment process. On each occasion, the breakthrough was signaled by an increase in the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration in the product water measured by the onboard TOC analyzer (TOCA). Although the fifth and most recent TOC rise in 2015 was not unexpected, it was the first time where dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) was not the primary compound responsible for the increase. Results from ground analysis of a product water sample collected in June of 2015 and returned on Soyuz 41 showed that DMSD only accounted for <10% of the measured TOC. After considerable laboratory investigation, the compound responsible for the majority of the TOC was identified as monomethysilanetriol (MMST). MMST is a low-toxicity compound that is structurally similar to DMSD.

  12. ATP monitoring technology for microbial growth control in potable water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Patrick A.; Whalen, Philip J.; Cairns, James E.

    2006-05-01

    ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) is the primary energy transfer molecule present in all living biological cells on Earth. ATP cannot be produced or maintained by anything but a living organism, and as such, its measurement is a direct indication of biological activity. The main advantage of ATP as a biological indicator is the speed of the analysis - from collecting the sample to obtaining the result, only minutes are required. The technology to measure ATP is already widely utilized to verify disinfection efficacy in the food industry and is also commonly applied in industrial water processes such as cooling water systems to monitor microbial growth and biocide applications. Research has indicated that ATP measurement technology can also play a key role in such important industries as potable water distribution and biological wastewater treatment. As will be detailed in this paper, LuminUltra Technologies has developed and applied ATP measurement technologies designed for any water type, and as such can provide a method to rapidly and accurately determine the level of biological activity in drinking water supplies. Because of its speed and specificity to biological activity, ATP measurement can play a key role in defending against failing drinking water quality, including those encountered during routine operation and also bioterrorism.

  13. Hydrography - Water Pollution Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Water Pollution Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Pollution...

  14. Dioxins, Furans and PCBs in Recycled Water for Indirect Potable Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Rodriguez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of potential health impacts of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in recycled water for indirect potable reuse was conducted. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs for 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD and dibenzofurans (PCDFs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs congeners have been developed by the World Health Organization to simplify the risk assessment of complex mixtures. Samples of secondary treated wastewater in Perth, Australia were examined pre-and post-tertiary treatment in one full-scale and one pilot water reclamation plant. Risk quotients (RQs were estimated by expressing the middle-bound toxic equivalent (TEQ and the upper-bound TEQ concentration in each sampling point as a function of the estimated health target value. The results indicate that reverse osmosis (RO is able to reduce the concentration of PCDD, PCDF and dioxin-like PCBs and produce water of high quality (RQ after RO=0.15. No increased human health risk from dioxin and dioxin-like compounds is anticipated if highly treated recycled water is used to augment drinking water supplies in Perth. Recommendations for a verification monitoring program are offered.

  15. Dioxins, furans and PCBs in recycled water for indirect potable reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Cook, Angus; Devine, Brian; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Linge, Kathryn; Weinstein, Philip

    2008-12-01

    An assessment of potential health impacts of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in recycled water for indirect potable reuse was conducted. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners have been developed by the World Health Organization to simplify the risk assessment of complex mixtures. Samples of secondary treated wastewater in Perth, Australia were examined pre-and post-tertiary treatment in one full-scale and one pilot water reclamation plant. Risk quotients (RQs) were estimated by expressing the middle-bound toxic equivalent (TEQ) and the upper-bound TEQ concentration in each sampling point as a function of the estimated health target value. The results indicate that reverse osmosis (RO) is able to reduce the concentration of PCDD, PCDF and dioxin-like PCBs and produce water of high quality (RQ after RO=0.15). No increased human health risk from dioxin and dioxin-like compounds is anticipated if highly treated recycled water is used to augment drinking water supplies in Perth. Recommendations for a verification monitoring program are offered.

  16. TECHNIQUES FOR POTABLE WATER TREATMENT USING APPROPRIATE LOW COST NATURAL MATERIALS IN THE TROPICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sila Onesmus Nzung’a

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of mechanical filtration and solar irradiation in water treatment was evaluated. Selected metals and non-metals ions before and after treatment were determined colorimetrically while turbidity was measured using a turbidimeter. pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO and temperature were measured using a portable universal multiline P4 WTW meter while total alkalinity was determined titrimetrically. The load of coliform bacteria contamination before and after treatment was determined by Millipore filtration method. Screening for the presence of pathogenic bacteria was carried out using standard methods. The levels of the properties before and after treatment were each compared with the recommended drinking water standards according to Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS and World Health Organization (WHO. The water was treated by being subjected to mechanical filtration and solar irradiation and changes in their physico-chemical properties and bacteriological load determined. The results obtained after treatment revealed that solar irradiation killed most of the pathogenic bacteria after exposure for eight hours but had no impact on the physico-chemical properties except nitrates (from 24.5 to 8.0 mg.L-1. Mechanical filtration reduced total coliforms and E. coli by 30 %. It also reduced the loads of Zn, Cu, Mn, Pb, Fe, nitrate nitrogen and turbidity of the water treated to an almost potable state. Water treatment using a combination of mechanical filtration system and solar disinfection was found to be very effective in reducing the bacterial load.

  17. Short-term versus long-term rainfall time series in the assessment of potable water savings by using rainwater in houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisi, Enedir; Cardoso, Karla Albino; Rupp, Ricardo Forgiarini

    2012-06-15

    The main objective of this article is to assess the possibility of using short-term instead of long-term rainfall time series to evaluate the potential for potable water savings by using rainwater in houses. The analysis was performed considering rainfall data from 1960 to 1995 for the city of Santa Bárbara do Oeste, located in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. The influence of the rainfall time series, roof area, potable water demand and percentage rainwater demand on the potential for potable water savings was evaluated. The potential for potable water savings was estimated using computer simulations considering a set of long-term rainfall time series and different sets of short-term rainfall time series. The ideal rainwater tank capacity was also assessed for some cases. It was observed that the higher the percentage rainwater demand and the shorter the rainfall time series, the larger the difference between the potential for potable water savings and the greater the variation in the ideal rainwater tank size. The sets of short-term rainfall time series considered adequate for different scenarios ranged from 1 to 13 years depending on the roof area, percentage rainwater demand and potable water demand. The main finding of the research is that sets of short-term rainfall time series can be used to assess the potential for potable water savings by using rainwater, as the results obtained are similar to those obtained from the long-term rainfall time series.

  18. Availability of uranium present in the sludge generated at two stations of potable water treatment; Disponibilidad del uranio presente en el fango generado en dos estaciones de tratamiento de agua potable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Serrano, A.; Baeza, A.; Salas, A.; Guillen, J.

    2013-07-01

    During the treatment is carried out in a Station Potable Water Treatment Plant sludge enriched are produced in components that have been removed from the water. The concentration and availability of radionuclides accumulated in a sludge during coagulation-flocculation will condition possible later use, so it is essential to carry out the characterization of sludge and its chemical speciation. (Author)

  19. Drivers of Microbial Risk for Direct Potable Reuse and de Facto Reuse Treatment Schemes: The Impacts of Source Water Quality and Blending

    OpenAIRE

    Rabia M. Chaudhry; Kerry A. Hamilton; Haas, Charles N.; Nelson, Kara L.

    2017-01-01

    Although reclaimed water for potable applications has many potential benefits, it poses concerns for chemical and microbial risks to consumers. We present a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) Monte Carlo framework to compare a de facto water reuse scenario (treated wastewater-impacted surface water) with four hypothetical Direct Potable Reuse (DPR) scenarios for Norovirus, Cryptosporidium, and Salmonella. Consumer microbial risks of surface source water quality (impacted by 0–100% ...

  20. Facility for generating crew waste water product for ECLSS testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitekant, Alan; Roberts, Barry C.

    1990-01-01

    An End-use Equipment Facility (EEF) has been constructed which is used to simulate water interfaces between the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and man systems. The EEF is used to generate waste water to be treated by ECLSS water recovery systems. The EEF will also be used to close the water recovery loop by allowing test subjects to use recovered hygiene and potable water during several phases of testing. This paper describes the design and basic operation of the EEF.

  1. Facility for generating crew waste water product for ECLSS testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitekant, Alan; Roberts, Barry C.

    1990-01-01

    An End-use Equipment Facility (EEF) has been constructed which is used to simulate water interfaces between the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and man systems. The EEF is used to generate waste water to be treated by ECLSS water recovery systems. The EEF will also be used to close the water recovery loop by allowing test subjects to use recovered hygiene and potable water during several phases of testing. This paper describes the design and basic operation of the EEF.

  2. Legionella and other gram-negative bacteria in potable water from various rural and urban sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojek, Nimfa; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2006-01-01

    A total of 107 potable water samples were collected from various rural and urban sources located in the Lublin region (eastern Poland). 54 samples from rural sources comprised 32 samples of untreated well water and 22 samples of treated (chlorinated) tap water from rural dwellings distributed by the municipal water supply system (MWSS). 53 samples of treated water from urban sources were supplied by the city of Lublin MWSS. They comprised: 11 samples of tap water from offices and shops, 8 samples of tap water from dwellings, 19 samples from showerheads in health care units, and 15 samples from the outlets of medical appliances used for hydrotherapy in a rehabilitation centre. Water samples were examined for the presence and species composition of Legionella, Yersinia, Gram-negative bacteria belonging to family Enterobacteriaceae (GNB-E) and Gram-negative bacteria not belonging to family Enterobacteriaceae (GNB-NE), by filtering through cellulose filters and culture on respectively GVPC, CIN, EMB and tryptic soya agar media. Legionella was recovered from samples of well water, tap water from rural dwellings, tap water from urban dwellings, and water from medical appliances - with the isolation frequency of 27.8-50.0 %, and the low concentrations ranging from 0.7-13.3 x 10 (1) cfu/l. No Legionella strains were detected in tap water from offices and shops, and in water from showerheads in health care units. Strains of the Legionella pneumophila types 2-14 predominated, forming 89.9 % of total Legionella isolates, while other species of Legionella formed 10.1 %. Neither Legionella pneumophila type 1 strains nor Yersinia strains were isolated from the examined water samples. The isolation frequency and mean concentration of GNB-E in water samples from rural sources was significantly greater than in water samples from urban sources (respectively 61.1 % vs. 20.8 %, 17.1 vs. 3.4 x 10(1) cfu/l, p spp., Klebsiella spp., Serratia spp., and Pantoea agglomerans were most common

  3. Evaluating Non-potable Water Usage for Oil and Gas Purposes in the Permian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsac, K.; Pedrazas, M.; Suydam, S.; Navarre-Sitchler, A.

    2016-12-01

    Oil and gas company water usage is currently an area of extreme concern in the water stressed Western United States. 87% of the wells in Permian Basin are being drilled in areas of high or extreme water stress. Using recycled produced water or groundwater that does not meet the USDW drinking water standards for oil and gas purposes could assist in relieving both water stress and tension between oil and gas companies and the public. However, non-USDW drinking water (TDS over 10,000 ppm), has the potential to react with formation water causing mineral precipitation, reducing the permeability of the producing formation. To evaluate the potential of non-potable water usage in the Permian Basin, available groundwater chemistry data was compiled into a database. Data was collected from the NETL-run NATCARB database, the USGS Produced Water Database, and the Texas Railroad Commission. The created database went through a system of quality assurance and control for pH, TDS, depth and charge balance. Data was used to make a set of waters representative of Permian Basin groundwater based on TDS, Ca/Mg ratio and Cl/SO 4 ratio. Low, medium and high of these three characteristics; representing the 25 th , 50 th and 75 th percentile respectively; was used to make a matrix of 27 waters. Low TDS is 64,660 ppm, medium TDS is 98,486 ppm, and high TDS is 157,317 ppm. Ca/Mg ratios range from 1.98 to 7.26, and Cl/SO 4 ratios range from 32.96 to 62.34. Geochemical models of the mixing of these 27 waters with an average water were used to evaluate for possible precipitation. Initial results are positive, with the highest total precipitation being 2.371 cm 3 of dolomite and anhydrite in 2000 cm 3 of water with high TDS, high Ca/Mg ratio and low Cl/SO 4 ratio. This indicates a maximum of approximately 0.12% of porosity would be filled with mineral precipitation during the mixing of chosen Permian Basin waters.

  4. Tertiary Treated Waste water as a Promising Alternative for Potable Water for Non-Contact Domestic Use. CaseStudy:RiqqaWastewaterTreatmentPlant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munther I. Almatouq,

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available WatersecurityisavitalissueinaridcountrieslikeKuwait,wheredesalinatedwateristhe solesupplyoffresh water.Thispaper isacontributiontotheongoingefforts towardsrationalizationin potablewater consumption.In addition,itdiscusses therole of high-quality effluent water, from wastewater treatment plants in Kuwait, as a potential replacementfor potable water for non-contact domesticapplications as a oneway in savingin thisvaluablecommodity.

  5. Peroxone mineralization of chemical oxygen demand for direct potable water reuse: Kinetics and process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tingting; Englehardt, James D

    2015-04-15

    Mineralization of organics in secondary effluent by the peroxone process was studied at a direct potable water reuse research treatment system serving an occupied four-bedroom, four bath university residence hall apartment. Organic concentrations were measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and kinetic runs were monitored at varying O3/H2O2 dosages and ratios. COD degradation could be accurately described as the parallel pseudo-1st order decay of rapidly and slowly-oxidizable fractions, and effluent COD was reduced to below the detection limit (water, and a relationship is proposed and demonstrated to estimate the pseudo-first order rate constant for design purposes. At this O3/H2O2 mass ratio, ORP and dissolved ozone were found to be useful process control indicators for monitoring COD mineralization in secondary effluent. Moreover, an average second order rate constant for OH oxidation of secondary effluent organics (measured as MCOD) was found to be 1.24 × 10(7) ± 0.64 × 10(7) M(-1) S(-1). The electric energy demand of the peroxone process is estimated at 1.73-2.49 kW h electric energy for removal of one log COD in 1 m(3) secondary effluent, comparable to the energy required for desalination of medium strength seawater. Advantages/disadvantages of the two processes for municipal wastewater reuse are discussed.

  6. Application of plant-based reed for potable water, in Tasik Chini, Pahang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, H. A. M.; Idris, Mushrifah; Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah Syeikh

    2016-11-01

    Water from Tasik Chini has been used to run through a series of reed bed system to test for its use as potable water. This study used aquatic plants namely Lepironia articulata and Scirpus grossus which grows wild and abundant at Tasik Chini wetland as selected macrophyte to aid in the system. This study started with batch flow and free-surface flow (FSF) for 30 days. Result indicated that, L. articulate alone gave 76 % of removal efficiency in TSS and 86% in removal of E.coli number of colonies on the plate. This was higher than S. grossus and combination of S.grossus and L.articulata. However, tank combination of S. grossus and L. articulata gave 100% efficiency in removal color, and improved ph better. In trace element removal, L. articulata was also capable of removing arsenic and lead (Pb) at 34.8% and 64.2% respectively. While, S. grossus shows best efficient at removing cadmium (Cd), and manganese (Mn), which is 46.8 % and 75.6% respectively. Combination of S. grossus and L. articulata gave best removal percentage in removing iron (Fe) which was 74.3%.

  7. Determination of UV active inorganic anions in potable and high salinity water by ion pair reversed phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq Khan, Sadaf; Riaz, M

    2014-05-01

    Reversed phase column was dynamically modified into anion exchange column using various types of tetraalkylammonium salts as ion pair reagents (IPRs) for the separation and quantification of toxic anions such as nitrite, bromate, bromide and nitrate in potable and high salinity water. Various chromatographic parameters such as types and concentration of IPRs, concentration of organic modifier, phosphate buffer and mobile phase pH were optimized for the base-line separation of anions. The lowest detection limits (LDLs) were 0.2 for nitrate and nitrite, 0.6 µg ml(-1)for bromate and bromide respectively for potable water samples. NaCl and Na₂SO₄ were incorporated in the mobile phase for the analysis of high salinity water samples to minimize matrix interferences. This has resulted in change in elution order of anions, better tolerance of matrix anions such as chloride and sulphate. The developed method was successfully utilized for analysis of anions in potable, high salinity and sea water samples.

  8. Life cycle assessment of four potable water treatment plants in northeastern Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Orlando Ortiz Rodriguez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is currently great concern about the processes that directly or indirectly contribute to the potential for global warming, such as stratospheric ozone depletion or acidification. In this context, and provided that treated water is a basic public utility in urban centers around the world as well as in some rural areas, its impact on the environment is of great interest. Therefore, this study applied the environmental methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA to evaluate the environmental loads of four potable water treatment plants (PWTPs located in northeastern Colombia following the international guidelines delineated in ISO 14040. The different stages of the drinking water process were thoroughly assessed, from the catchment point through pumping to the distribution network. The functional unit was defined as 1 m3 of drinking water produced at the plant. The data were analyzed through the database Ecoinvent v.3.01, and modeled and processed in the software LCA-Data Manager. The results showed that in plants PLA-CA and PLA-PO, the flocculation process has the highest environmental load, which is mostly attributable to the coagulant agent, with a range between 47-73% of the total impact. In plants PLA-TON and PLA-BOS, electricity consumption was identified as the greatest impact source, with percentages ranging from 67 to 85%. Treatment processes and techniques, bioclimatic conditions and culturally driven consumption behavior varied from region to region. Furthermore, changes in treatment processes and techniques are likely to affect the environment during all stages of a plant’s operational cycle.

  9. Discovery and Identification of Dimethylsilanediol as a Contaminant in ISS Potable Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Schultz, John R.; Kuo, C. Mike; Curtis, Matthew; Jones, Patrick R.; Sparkman, O. David; McCoy, J. Torin

    2011-01-01

    In September 2010, analysis of ISS potable water samples was undertaken to determine the contaminant(s) responsible for a rise of total organic carbon (TOC) in the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) product water. As analysis of the routine target list of organic compounds did not reveal the contaminant, efforts to look for unknown compounds were initiated, resulting in discovery of an unknown peak in the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis for glycols. A mass spectrum of the contaminant was then generated by concentrating one of the samples and analyzing it by GC/MS in full-scan mode. Although a computer match of the compound identity could not be obtained with the instrument database, a search with a more up-to-date mass spectral library yielded a good match with dimethylsilanediol (DMSD). Inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) analyses showed abnormally high silicon levels in the samples, confirming that the unknown compound(s) contained silicon. DMSD was then synthesized to confirm the identification and provide a standard to develop a calibration curve. Further confirmation was provided by external direct analysis in real time time of flight (DART TOF) mass spectrometry. To routinely test for DMSD in the future, a quantitative method was needed. A preliminary GC/MS method was developed and archived samples from various locations on ISS were analyzed to determine the extent of the contamination and provide data for troubleshooting. This paper describes these events in more detail as well as problems encountered in routine GC/MS analyses and the subsequent development of high performance liquid chromatography and LC/MS/MS methods for measuring DMSD.

  10. Combined consideration for decentralised non-potable water supply from local groundwater and nutrient load reduction in urban drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, O; Barr, A; Donn, M; Pollock, D

    2011-01-01

    Integrated analysis of land use change and its effect on catchment water balance allows the selection of appropriate water and land management options for new urban developments to minimise the environmental impacts of urbanisation. A process-based coupled surface water-groundwater model was developed for Southern River catchment (Perth, Western Australia) to investigate the effect of urban development on catchment water balance. It was shown that urbanisation of highly permeable flat catchments with shallow groundwater resulted in significant increase in net groundwater recharge. The increased recharge creates the opportunity to use local groundwater resources for non-potable water supply with the added advantage of reducing the total discharge from new urban developments. This minimises the environmental impacts of increased urbanisation, as higher discharge is often associated with greater nutrient loads to receiving environments. Through the used of water balance modelling it was demonstrated that there are both water and nutrient benefits from local groundwater use in terms of reduced nutrient exports to receiving waters and additional water resources for non-potable water supply.

  11. Decentralized systems for potable water and the potential of membrane technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter-Varbanets, Maryna; Zurbrügg, Chris; Swartz, Chris; Pronk, Wouter

    2009-02-01

    Decentralized drinking-water systems are an important element in the process of reaching the Millennium Development Goals, as centralized systems are often deficient or non-existent in developing and transition countries (DC and TC). Most water-quality problems are due to hygiene factors and pathogens. A range of decentralized systems is available to counter these problems, including thermal and/or UV methods, physical removal and chemical treatment. This review focuses on decentralized systems that treat the potable water (drinking and cooking) of a single household (point-of-use systems) or a community (small-scale systems). For application in DC and TC, important boundary conditions for decentralized systems include low costs, ease of use, sustainability, low maintenance and independence of utilities (energy sources). Although some low-cost systems are available, their application is limited by time-consuming daily operation and maintenance. Other systems are too expensive for the poor populations of DC and TC and in most cases do not fulfill the system requirements described above. Point-of-use systems based on membranes are commercially available and are designed to operate on tap pressure or gravity. Membrane systems are attractive since they provide an absolute barrier for pathogens and remove turbidity, thus increasing the palatability of the water. The costs of membrane have decreased rapidly during the last decades and therefore membrane systems have also become within reach for application in low-cost applications in DC and TC. Some membrane systems rely on gravity as a driving force, thereby avoiding the use of pumps and electricity. On the basis of the present literature data, no small-scale systems could be identified which meet all the requirements for successful implementation. Furthermore, in the available literature the performance of highly fouling water types has not been reported. For such cases, more extensive studies are required and a need

  12. Potable water scarcity: options and issues in the coastal areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Atikul; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Karim, Rezaul; Sekine, Masahiko

    2013-09-01

    In the coastal areas of Bangladesh, scarcity of drinking water is acute as freshwater aquifers are not available at suitable depths and surface water is highly saline. Households are mainly dependent on rainwater harvesting, pond sand filters and pond water for drinking purposes. Thus, individuals in these areas often suffer from waterborne diseases. In this paper, water consumption behaviour in two southwestern coastal districts of Bangladesh has been investigated. The data for this study were collected through a survey conducted on 750 rural households in 39 villages of the study area. The sample was selected using a random sampling technique. Households' choice of water source is complex and seasonally dependent. Water sourcing patterns, households' preference of water sourcing options and economic feasibility of options suggest that a combination of household and community-based options could be suitable for year-round water supply. Distance and time required for water collection were found to be difficult for water collection from community-based options. Both household and community-based options need regular maintenance. In addition to installation of water supply facilities, it is necessary to make the residents aware of proper operation and maintenance of the facilities.

  13. Maqalika Reservoir: utilisation and sustainability of Maqalika Reservoir as a source of potable water supply for Maseru in Lesotho

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Letsie, M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available and sustainability of Maqalika Reservoir as a source of potable water supply for Maseru in Lesotho Maqalika Reservoir By Mr Masupha Letsie and Dr Dhiren Allopi Maseru is the capital of Lesotho and is the country’s main centre for commerce and industry. The study... area is located on the north-eastern outskir ts of the Maseru urban area. The catchment occupies an area of 44km2, with a length of approximately 13km and channel slope of 0.4km/km. The Maqalika Reservoir was built in 1983 to meet the water demand...

  14. Antimicrobial Resources for Disinfection of Potable Water Systems for Future Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Megan A.; Birmele, Michele; Roberts, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    As human exploration adventures beyond low earth orbit, life support systems will require more innovation and research to become self-sustaining and durable. One major concern about future space travel is the ability to store and decontaminate water for consumption and hygiene. This project explores materials and technologies for possible use in future water systems without requiring point-of-use (POU) filtering or chemical additives such as iodine or silver that require multiple doses to remain effective. This experimentation tested the efficacy of a variety of antimicrobial materials against biofilm formation in a high shear CDC Biofilm Reactor (CBR) and some materials in a low shear Drip Flow Reactor (DFR) which(also utilizes ultra violet light emitting diodes (UVLEDs) as an antimicrobial resource. Most materials were tested in the CBR using the ASTM E 2562-07 1method involving the Pseudomonas aeruginosa and coupon samples that vary in their antimicrobial coatings and surface layer topographies. In a controlled environmental chamber (CEC), the CBR underwent a batch phase, continuous flow phase (CFP), and a harvest before analysis. The DFR portion of this experimentation was performed in order to assess the antimicrobial capabilities of ultraviolet-A LEDs (UV-A) in potable water systems. The ASTM E 2647-08 was modified in order to incorporate UV-A LEDs and to operate as a closed, re-circulating system. The modified DFR apparatus that was utilized contains 4 separate channels each of which contain 2 UV-A LEDs (1 chamber is masked off to serve as a control) and each channel is equipped with its own reservoir and peristaltic pump head. The 10 DFR runs discussed in this report include 4 initial experimental runs that contained blank microscope slides to test the UVA LEDs alone, 2 that incorporated solid silver coupons, 2 that utilized titanium dioxide (Ti02) coupons as a photocatalyst, and 2 runs that utilized silver coated acrylic slides. Both the CBR and DFR

  15. Unsafe Practice of Extracting Potable Water From Aquifers in the Southwestern Coastal Region of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, S. H.; Ahmed, A. U.; Iqbal, M. Z.

    2009-05-01

    lungs to the body parts. This situation is known to occur as a result of methemoglobin compounds deposited in the blood stream in association with excess nitrite consumption. Nitrogen isotope analysis from eight random samples recorded an average δ 15 N value of 6.7‰ thereby indicating that the nitrite is probably derived from the nitrogen based fertilizers that are commonly applied to the paddy fields and the shrimp farms. The observed δ 15 N values, ranging from 0.35‰ to 11.82‰ are higher than the typical numbers expected for nitrogen based fertilizers. In this context, the high content of ammonium, ranging from 0.59 to 28.01 mg/L, clearly indicates that the nitrogen in the system has undergone denitrification in a bio-chemically reduced condition, which resulted in the increased delta values. The above results clearly show that in addition to the already known risks of arsenocosis from groundwater, there are serious threats of blood disorders among the population that routinely consumes water with high levels of nitrite. Nevertheless, the existing problems of arsenic and other metals in water are expected to become worse over the time because of highly anoxic condition. All the above results from this study warrant immediate actions by the appropriate government agencies to arrange for alternative potable water for more than 6 million people living in the region.

  16. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Potable Water System Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocampo, Ruben P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bellah, Wendy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-04

    The existing Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 drinking water system operation schematic is shown in Figures 1 and 2 below. The sources of water are from two Site 300 wells (Well #18 and Well #20) and San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) Hetch-Hetchy water through the Thomas shaft pumping station. Currently, Well #20 with 300 gallons per minute (gpm) pump capacity is the primary source of well water used during the months of September through July, while Well #18 with 225 gpm pump capacity is the source of well water for the month of August. The well water is chlorinated using sodium hypochlorite to provide required residual chlorine throughout Site 300. Well water chlorination is covered in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Chlorination Plan (“the Chlorination Plan”; LLNL-TR-642903; current version dated August 2013). The third source of water is the SFPUC Hetch-Hetchy Water System through the Thomas shaft facility with a 150 gpm pump capacity. At the Thomas shaft station the pumped water is treated through SFPUC-owned and operated ultraviolet (UV) reactor disinfection units on its way to Site 300. The Thomas Shaft Hetch- Hetchy water line is connected to the Site 300 water system through the line common to Well pumps #18 and #20 at valve box #1.

  17. Development Of A Surveillance System For Potability Of Water In Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandotra V.K

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Whether establishment of a water surveillance system in rural areas and concomitant action in event of detection of contamination will have an impact on diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality. Hypothesis: 1. It is possible to establish water testing laboratories in selected schools in rural areas. 2. If water samples are found contaminated, immediate corrective action will result in reduction of diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality. Objectives: 1. To study the feasibility of establishing water testing facility in the science laboratories of schools. 2. To study the impact of preventive measures in the community if immediate steps for household purification of water and treatment of diarrhoea cases are taken. Study design: Interventional study. Setting: A rural block. Participants: Science teachers of high schools and field workers. Interventions: 1. Training of schoolteachers for water testing and field workers for collection of water samples and diarrhoea control measures. 2. Establishing of water testing laboratories in schools. 3. In case of detection of water contamination, corrective action at different levels. 4. Propagation of ORS for management of diarrhoeas. Statistical analysis: Percentages, Paired ‘t’ test, Chi square test. Results: Reduction in diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality was observed. Conclusions: It is feasible to develop a water surveillance system in rural areas utilizing local resources. If combined with educational measures, it will significantly reduce diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality.

  18. A Study of Failure Events in Drinking Water Systems As a Basis for Comparison and Evaluation of the Efficacy of Potable Reuse Schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, Laura A; Quinn, Chloe; Tng, Keng H; Wood, James G; Leslie, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Potable reuse is implemented in several countries around the world to augment strained water supplies. This article presents a public health perspective on potable reuse by comparing the critical infrastructure and institutional capacity characteristics of two well-established potable reuse schemes with conventional drinking water schemes in developed nations that have experienced waterborne outbreaks. Analysis of failure events in conventional water systems between 2003 and 2013 showed that despite advances in water treatment technologies, drinking water outbreaks caused by microbial contamination were still frequent in developed countries and can be attributed to failures in infrastructure or institutional practices. Numerous institutional failures linked to ineffective treatment protocols, poor operational practices, and negligence were detected. In contrast, potable reuse schemes that use multiple barriers, online instrumentation, and operational measures were found to address the events that have resulted in waterborne outbreaks in conventional systems in the past decade. Syndromic surveillance has emerged as a tool in outbreak detection and was useful in detecting some outbreaks; increases in emergency department visits and GP consultations being the most common data source, suggesting potential for an increasing role in public health surveillance of waterborne outbreaks. These results highlight desirable characteristics of potable reuse schemes from a public health perspective with potential for guiding policy on surveillance activities.

  19. The effect of influent temperature variations in a sedimentation tank for potable water treatment--a computational fluid dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goula, Athanasia M; Kostoglou, Margaritis; Karapantsios, Thodoris D; Zouboulis, Anastasios I

    2008-07-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is used to assess the effect of influent temperature variation on solids settling in a sedimentation tank for potable water treatment. The model is based on the CFD code Fluent and exploits several specific aspects of the potable water application to derive a computational tool much more efficient than the corresponding tools employed to simulate primary and secondary wastewater settling tanks. The linearity of the particle conservation equations allows separate calculations for each particle size class, leading to the uncoupling of the CFD problem from a particular inlet particle size distribution. The usually unknown and difficult to be measured particle density is determined by matching the theoretical to the easily measured experimental total settling efficiency. The present model is adjusted against data from a real sedimentation tank and then it is used to assess the significance of influent temperature variation. It is found that a temperature difference of only 1 degrees C between influent and tank content is enough to induce a density current. When the influent temperature rises, the tank exhibits a rising buoyant plume that changes the direction of the main circular current. This process keeps the particles in suspension and leads to a higher effluent suspended solids concentration, thus, worse settling. As the warmer water keeps coming in, the temperature differential decreases, the current starts going back to its original position, and, thus, the suspended solids concentration decreases.

  20. Removal of Stabilized Silver Nanoparticles from Ohio River Water by Potable Water Treatment Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to their extensive use, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are likely to occur in drinking water sources. Once released into the environment they are considered an emerging contaminant in water and wastewater. The main objective of this research is to investigate the removal of di...

  1. Preliminary studies on membrane filtration for the production of potable water: a case of Tshaanda rural village in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomotsegang F Molelekwa

    Full Text Available Ultrafiltration (UF systems have been used globally for treating water from resources including rivers, reservoirs, and lakes for the production of potable water in the past decade. UF membranes with a pore size of between 0.1 and 0.01 micrometres provide an effective barrier for bacteria, viruses, suspended particles, and colloids. The use of UF membrane technology in treating groundwater for the supply of potable water in the impoverished and rural village, Tshaanda (i.e., the study area is demonstrated. The technical and administrative processes that are critical for the successful installation of the pilot plant were developed. Given the rural nature of Tshaanda, the cultural and traditional protocols were observed. Preliminary results of the water quality of untreated water and the permeate are presented. Escherichia coli in the untreated water during the dry season (i.e., June and July was 2 cfu/100 ml and was 2419.2 cfu/100 ml before UF. Following UF, it dramatically reduced to acceptable level (7 cfu/100 ml which is within the WHO recommended level of <10 cfu/100 ml. Additionally, during the wet/rainy season E. coli and enterococci were unacceptably high (40.4 cfu/100 ml and 73.3 cfu/100 ml, respectively before UF but were completely removed following UF, which are within the WHO and SANS recommended limit. The values for electrical conductivity (EC and turbidity were constantly within the WHO recommended limits of 300 µS/cm corrected at 25°C and <5 NTU, respectively, before and after UF, during dry season and wet season. This suggests that there is no need for pre-treatment of the water for suspended particles and colloids. Considering these data, it can be concluded that the water is suitable for human consumption, following UF.

  2. A taxonomy of chemicals of emerging concern based on observed fate at water resource recovery facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven M; Chowdhury, Zaid K; Watts, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    As reuse of municipal water resource recovery facility (WRRF) effluent becomes vital to augment diminishing fresh drinking water resources, concern exists that conventional barriers may prove deficient, and the upcycling of chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) could prove harmful to human health and aquatic species if more effective and robust treatment barriers are not in place. A multiple month survey, of both primary and secondary effluents, from three (3) WRRFs, for 95 CECs was conducted in 2014 to classify CECs by their persistence through conventional water reclamation processes. By sampling the participating WRRF process trains at their peak performance (as determined by measured bulk organics and particulates removal), a short-list of recalcitrant CECs that warrant monitoring to assess treatment performance at advanced water reclamation and production facilities. The list of identified CECs for potable water reclamation (indirect or direct potable reuse) include a herbicide and its degradants, prescription pharmaceuticals and antibiotics, a female hormone, an artificial sweetener, and chlorinated flame retardants.

  3. Why chlorate occurs in potable water and processed foods: a critical assessment and challenges faced by the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettlitz, Beate; Kemendi, Gabriella; Thorgrimsson, Nigel; Cattoor, Nele; Verzegnassi, Ludovica; Le Bail-Collet, Yves; Maphosa, Farai; Perrichet, Aurélie; Christall, Birgit; Stadler, Richard H

    2016-06-01

    Recently, reports have been published on the occurrence of chlorate mainly in fruits and vegetables. Chlorate is a by-product of chlorinating agents used to disinfect water, and can be expected to be found in varying concentrations in drinking water. Data on potable water taken at 39 sampling points across Europe showed chlorate to range from foods of 0.01 mg kg(-1). This default MRL has now led to significant problems in the EU, where routinely disinfected water, used in the preparation of food products such as vegetables or fruits, leaves chlorate residues in excess of the default MRL, and in strict legal terms renders the food unmarketable. Due to the paucity of data on the chlorate content of prepared foods in general, we collated chlorate data on more than 3400 samples of mainly prepared foods, including dairy products, meats, fruits, vegetables and different food ingredients/additives. In total, 50.5% of the food samples contained chlorate above 0.01 mg kg(-1), albeit not due to the use of chlorate as a pesticide but mainly due to the occurrence of chlorate as an unavoidable disinfectant by-product. A further entry point of chlorate into foods may be via additives/ingredients that may contain chlorate as a by-product of the manufacturing process (e.g. electrolysis). Of the positive samples in this study, 22.4% revealed chlorate above 0.1 mg kg(-1). In the absence of EU levels for chlorate in water, any future EU regulations must consider the already available WHO guideline value of 0.7 mg l(-1) in potable water, and the continued importance of the usage of oxyhalides for disinfection purposes.

  4. Hydraulic Model for Drinking Water Networks, Including Household Connections; Modelo hidraulico para redes de agua potable con tomas domiciliarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero Angulo, Jose Oscar [Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa (Mexico); Arreguin Cortes, Felipe [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2002-03-01

    This paper presents a hydraulic simulation model for drinking water networks, including elements that are currently not considered household connections, spatially variable flowrate distribution pipelines, and tee secondary network. This model is determined by solving the equations needed for a conventional model following an indirect procedure for the solution of large equations systems. Household connection performance is considered as dependent of water pressure and the way in which users operate the taps of such intakes. This approach allows a better a acquaintance with the drinking water supply networks performance as well as solving problems that demand a more precise hydraulic simulation, such as water quality variations, leaks in networks, and the influence of home water tanks as regulating devices. [Spanish] Se presenta un modelo de simulacion hidraulica para redes de agua potable en el cual se incluyen elementos que no se toman en cuenta actualmente, como las tomas domiciliarias, los tubos de distribucion con gastos espacialmente variado y la red secundaria, resolviendo el numero de ecuaciones que seria necesario plantear en un modelo convencional mediante un procedimiento indirecto para la solucion de grandes sistemas de ecuaciones. En las tomas domiciliarias se considera que su funcionamiento depende de las presiones y la forma en que los usuarios operan las llaves de las mismas. Este planteamiento permite conocer mejor el funcionamiento de las redes de abastecimiento de agua potable y solucionar problemas que requieren de una simulacion hidraulica mas precisa, como el comportamiento de la calidad del agua, las fugas en las redes y la influencia reguladora de los tinacos de las casas.

  5. New Inorganic Ion-exchange Material for the Selective Removal of Fluoride from Potable Water Using Ion-selective Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed M.A.Q. Jamhour

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An ion-exchange procedure involving the selective retention of fluoride ions from aqueous solutions containing 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 mg F- L-1 using a new inorganic ion exchanger zirconium(IV oxide-ethanolamine ZrO-EA and its application to fluoride removal from potable water has been described. A column equilibrium studies, batch process and different analytical parameters such as concentration, pH and temperature for the quantitative recoveries of F- ion using ZrO-EA exchanger were investigated and determined by an ion selective electrode. The effect of some other anions that might be present with the analyte was also examined. The column experiments showed a quantitative collection of fluoride at low concentration in water samples with more than 96% recovery.

  6. Distribution of sequence-based types of legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains isolated from cooling towers, hot springs, and potable water systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Tian; Zhou, Haijian; Ren, Hongyu; Guan, Hong; Li, Machao; Zhu, Bingqing; Shao, Zhujun

    2014-04-01

    Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 causes Legionnaires' disease. Water systems contaminated with Legionella are the implicated sources of Legionnaires' disease. This study analyzed L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strains in China using sequence-based typing. Strains were isolated from cooling towers (n = 96), hot springs (n = 42), and potable water systems (n = 26). Isolates from cooling towers, hot springs, and potable water systems were divided into 25 sequence types (STs; index of discrimination [IOD], 0.711), 19 STs (IOD, 0.934), and 3 STs (IOD, 0.151), respectively. The genetic variation among the potable water isolates was lower than that among cooling tower and hot spring isolates. ST1 was the predominant type, accounting for 49.4% of analyzed strains (n = 81), followed by ST154. With the exception of two strains, all potable water isolates (92.3%) belonged to ST1. In contrast, 53.1% (51/96) and only 14.3% (6/42) of cooling tower and hot spring, respectively, isolates belonged to ST1. There were differences in the distributions of clone groups among the water sources. The comparisons among L. pneumophila strains isolated in China, Japan, and South Korea revealed that similar clones (ST1 complex and ST154 complex) exist in these countries. In conclusion, in China, STs had several unique allelic profiles, and ST1 was the most prevalent sequence type of environmental L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates, similar to its prevalence in Japan and South Korea.

  7. Feasibility of Rainwater Harvesting to fulfill potable water demand using quantitative water management in low-lying delta regions of Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, A.; Hossain, F.

    2016-12-01

    Low-lying deltas of Asian region are usually densely populated and located in developing countries situated at the downstream end of major rivers. Extensive dam construction by the upstream countries has now caused water scarcity in large portions of low-lying deltas. Most inhabitants depend on shallow tube well for safe drinking water that tend to suffer from water quality issues (e.g. Arsenic contamination). In addition, people also get infected from water borne diseases like Cholera and Typhoid due to lack of safe drinking water. Developing a centralized piped network based water supply system is often not a feasible option in rural regions. Due to social acceptability, environment friendliness, lower capital and maintenance cost, rainwater harvesting can be the most sustainable option to supply safe drinking water in rural areas. In this study, first we estimate the monthly rainfall variability using long precipitation climatology from satellite precipitation data. The upper and lower bounds of monthly harvestable rainwater were estimated for each satellite precipitation grid. Taking this lower bound of monthly harvestable rainwater as input, we use quantitative water management concept to determine the percent of the time of the year potable water demand can be fulfilled. Analysis indicates that a 6 m³ reservoir tank can fulfill the potable water demand of a 6 person family throughout a year in almost all parts of this region.

  8. Environmental effects of poly(phenylene ether) blends after long-term exposure to potable hot water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Steven

    In recent years, engineering thermoplastic resins have been contemplated for use in a variety pressurized fluid handling components such as potable water delivery pipes, fitting and valves. In this research, rigid blends of glassy poly(phenylene ether) (PPE) polymer are studied to assess their suitability in long-term, potable, hot water environments. Three distinct PPE-based model compounds were prepared for this research: (i) a 50/50 blend of PPE and high impact polystyrene (HIPS); (ii) a 50/50 blend of PPE and HIPS with the inclusion of an anti-oxidant package and; (iii) a blend consisting of capped PPE, crystal polystyrene and styrene-ethyelene-butylene-styrene (SEBS) rubber. A fourth engineering thermoplastic, namely bisphenol-A polysulfone (PSU), was incorporated into the study as a benchmark material due to its proven reliability in hot water applications. Aging experiments were carried out for 8,000 hours in an 80°C water bath and an 80°C convection oven to characterize physical property retention and degradation mechanisms in each material. During water bath immersion, excessive, non-Fickian water diffusion occurred in both PPE/HIPS blends which led to water clustering and disc shaped microcavities on the order of 50 to 100 mum in diameter. These voids in the bulk caused appreciable losses in tensile elongation and fatigue resistance. The capped PPE/PS/SEBS blend, however, managed water uptake more effectively and its chemistry deterred water clustering. With further improvements to the formulation, such as larger rubber domains or an alternative impact modifier, the capped PPE blend may be able to offer physical property retention equal to that of PSU. With the exception of slight craze formation at sharp specimen edges during hot water immersion, the PSU material proved to be an exceptional material candidate throughout the entire experimentation. Surprisingly long-term hot water exposure did not cause gross chemical degradation in any of the materials

  9. Waste Water Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset contains the locations of municipal and industrial direct discharge wastewater treatment facilities throughout the state of Vermont. Spatial data is not...

  10. Classification of heavy metal ions present in multi-frequency multi-electrode potable water data using evolutionary algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkra, Rashmi; Kumar, Prashant; Bansod, Baban K. S.; Bagchi, Sudeshna; Sharma, Pooja; Krishna, C. Rama

    2016-12-01

    Access to potable water for the common people is one of the most challenging tasks in the present era. Contamination of drinking water has become a serious problem due to various anthropogenic and geogenic events. The paper demonstrates the application of evolutionary algorithms, viz., particle swan optimization and genetic algorithm to 24 water samples containing eight different heavy metal ions (Cd, Cu, Co, Pb, Zn, Ar, Cr and Ni) for the optimal estimation of electrode and frequency to classify the heavy metal ions. The work has been carried out on multi-variate data, viz., single electrode multi-frequency, single frequency multi-electrode and multi-frequency multi-electrode water samples. The electrodes used are platinum, gold, silver nanoparticles and glassy carbon electrodes. Various hazardous metal ions present in the water samples have been optimally classified and validated by the application of Davis Bouldin index. Such studies are useful in the segregation of hazardous heavy metal ions found in water resources, thereby quantifying the degree of water quality.

  11. Autotrophic nitrogen removal process in a potable water treatment biofilter that simultaneously removes Mn and NH4(+)-N.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yan'an; Li, Dong; Liang, Yuhai; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2014-11-01

    Ammonia (NH4(+)-N) removal pathways were investigated in a potable water treatment biofilter that simultaneously removes manganese (Mn) and NH4(+)-N. The results indicated a significant loss of nitrogen in the biofilter. Both the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process and nitrification were more likely to contribute to NH4(+)-N removal. Moreover, the model calculation results demonstrated that the CANON process contributed significantly to the removal of NH4(+)-N. For influent NH4(+)-N levels of 1.030 and 1.749mg/L, the CANON process contribution was about 48.5% and 46.6%, respectively. The most important finding was that anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) bacteria were detectable in the biofilter. It is interesting that the CANON process was effective even for such low NH4(+)-N concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. ASCORBIC ACID TREATMENT TO REDUCE RESIDUAL HALOGEN-BASED OXIDANTS PRIOR TO THE DETERMINATION OF HALOGENATED DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS IN POTABLE WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treatment of potable water samples with ascorbic acid has been investigated as a means for reducing residual halogen-based oxidants (disinfectants)i.e., HOCl, Cl2, Brw and BrCl, prior to determination of EPA Method 551.1A and 551.1B analytes. These disinfection byproducts include...

  13. Rapid Detection of Starved Escherichia coli with Respiratory Activity in Potable Water by Signal-Amplified in situ Hybridization Following Formazan Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Sasada, Makoto; Nasu, Masao

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a rapid method for the specific detection of respiring Escherichia coli (an indicator of fecal contamination) in potable water. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe was used to detect E. coli cells and bacterial respiratory activity was estimated using 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC). Fluorescent signals from hybridized cells were increased by optimized tyramide signal amplification (TSA). Respiring E. coli in potable ground water with low rRNA content were enumerated within 8 hours using signal-amplified in situ hybridization following formazan reduction (TSA-CTC-FISH), whereas these starved E. coli cells could not be detected by conventional FISH (FISH without signal amplification) which generated weak fluorescence. TSA-CTC-FISH can be used for simultaneous identification in situ based on phylogenetic information and the activity of individual bacterial cells in potable water. This method would be useful in the rapid monitoring of harmful or fecal indicator bacteria in potable water.

  14. Possible transmission of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis through potable water: lessons from an urban cluster of Crohn's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierce Ellen S

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A "cluster" of patients refers to the geographic proximity of unrelated patients with the same disease and suggests a common environmental cause for that disease. Clusters of patients with Crohn's disease have been linked to the presence of an infectious microorganism in unpasteurized milk and cheese, untreated water supplied by wells or springs, animal manure used as fertilizer for family vegetable gardens, and bodies of water contaminated by agricultural runoff. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP is the suspected cause of Crohn's disease. MAP causes a disease in dairy cows and other animals that is similar to Crohn's disease, called Johne's ('Yo-knees' disease or paratuberculosis. Dairy cows with Johne's disease secrete MAP into their milk and excrete MAP into their feces. MAP is present in untreated water such as well water, in bodies of water contaminated by agricultural runoff, and in unpasteurized milk and cheese. The "treatment" of "tap" water to make it "drinkable" or "potable" by the processes of sedimentation, filtration and chlorination has little to no effect on MAP. MAP is so resistant to chlorine disinfection that such disinfection actually selects for its growth. Other subspecies of Mycobacterium avium grow in biofilms present on tap water pipes. Despite the documented presence of MAP in tap water and its probable growth on tap water pipes, clusters of Crohn's disease have not previously been described in relationship to tap water pipes supplying patients' homes. This report describes three unrelated individuals who lived on the same block along a street in a midwestern American city and developed Crohn's disease within four years of each other in the 1960's. A common tap water pipe supplied their homes. This is the first reported cluster of Crohn's disease possibly linked to fully treated drinking water, and is consistent with previously reported clusters of Crohn's disease linked to an infectious

  15. agua potable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fredy Rios

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de distribución pueden afectar la calidad del agua potable debido a las condiciones de la tubería y a la operación del sistema. Algunos parámetros son sensibles a la variación durante la distribución como: el cloro residual, pH, color y turbiedad, debido a que el material de la tubería puede presentar deterioro en estos sistemas a causa de la corrosividad del agua. Los diversos estudios realizados sobre el tema han empleado tanto sistemas reales como dispositivos de laboratorio para la realización de los ensayos. Entre los dispositivos más empleados actualmente, se reporta el uso del sistema piloto de distribución por las ventajas que ofrece y su flexibilidad en el diseño. Para definir las características de diseño de un sistema piloto de distribución se hizo una revisión de la literatura. El sistema se empleará en el estudio de la interacción entre el líquido y la pared de tubería. Se utilizarán materiales metálicos usados en sistemas de distribución secundarios, con el fin de determinar el ataque a la superficie interna de las tuberías y las causas de formación de depósitos sobre ellas, así como identificar los efectos de esta interacción en la calidad del agua.

  16. The study of potable water treatment process in Algeria (boudouaou station) -by the application of life cycle assessment (LCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed-Zine, Messaoud-Boureghda; Hamouche, Aksas; Krim, Louhab

    2013-12-19

    Environmental impact assessment will soon become a compulsory phase in future potable water production projects, in algeria, especially, when alternative treatment processes such sedimentation ,coagulation sand filtration and Desinfection are considered. An impact assessment tool is therefore developed for the environmental evaluation of potable water production. in our study The evaluation method used is the life cycle assessment (LCA) for the determination and evaluation of potential impact of a drink water station ,near algiers (SEAL-Boudouaoua).LCA requires both the identification and quantification of materials and energy used in all stages of the product's life, when the inventory information is acquired, it will then be interpreted into the form of potential impact " eco-indicators 99" towards study areas covered by LCA, using the simapro6 soft ware for water treatment process is necessary to discover the weaknesses in the water treatment process in order for it to be further improved ensuring quality life. The main source shown that for the studied water treatment process, the highest environmental burdens are coagulant preparation (30% for all impacts), mineral resource and ozone layer depletion the repartition of the impacts among the different processes varies in comparison with the other impacts. Mineral resources are mainly consumed during alumine sulfate solution preparation; Ozone layer depletion originates mostly from tetrachloromethane emissions during alumine sulfate production. It should also be noted that, despite the small doses needed, ozone and active Carbone treatment generate significant impacts with a contribution of 10% for most of the impacts.Moreover impacts of energy are used in producing pumps (20-25 GHC) for plant operation and the unitary processes (coagulation, sand filtration decantation) and the most important impacts are localized in the same equipment (40-75 GHC) and we can conclude that:- Pre-treatment, pumping and EDR (EDR: 0

  17. Studies on Some Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Potable Water Used in Some Rural Areas of Surat District (Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Patel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A physico chemical and microbiological study of the ground water of some villages of Surat district of Gujarat state (India has been made. Physico chemical parameters such as colour, odour, taste, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, TS, TDS, total hardness, total alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, iron, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, fluoride and silica were determined. In microbiological study, total coliforms, E. coli, sulfate reducing anaerobic bacteria, pseudomonas aeruginosa, yeast and mould were investigated. Samples were taken from ten sampling points in ten different villages viz. Parvat(S-1, Kharvasa(S-2, Bonand(S-3, Vesu(S-4 Amroli(S-5, Kadodara(S-6, Chalthan(S-7, Variyav(S-8, Gaviyar(S-9 and Bhairav(S-10. Samples were taken four times in year in the month of May, August, November and February to check the seasonal effects. In village Gaviyar, Gujarat Water Supply and Sewerage Board has set up a treatment plant to supply good quality potable water in few surrounding coastal villages. In all other cases samples were taken from bore-well. Here study reported is for samples taken in May-2004 and August-2004.For colour, iron, sulphate, nitrate, fluoride and silica, instrumental methods like spectrophotometry were used. “Hach-Odyssey spectrophotometer” which has facility to store calibration curves and which can display the value for that parameter directly was used. In present study programmes of “Hach” with their reagents were used while some programmes were prepared by us using our reagents. This is an excellent instrument and results of this instrument are validated by USEPA. Sodium and potassium was determined using flame photometer. It was found that some water samples have higher TDS, chlorides, total hardness and total alkalinity than the permissible limits. In all cases samples were not found to contain significant quantities of bacteria and water was palatable from this point of view.

  18. The potential role of biochar in the removal of organic and microbial contaminants from potable and reuse water: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyang, Mandu; Dickenson, Eric

    2015-09-01

    In this work, the potential benefits, economics, and challenges of applying biochar in water treatment operations to remove organic and microbial contaminants was reviewed. Minimizing the use of relatively more expensive traditional sorbents in water treatment is a motivating aspect of biochar production, e.g., $246/ton non-activated biochar to $1500/ton activated carbon. Biochar can remove organic contaminants in water, such as some pesticides (0.02-23 mg g(-1)), pharmaceutical and personal care products (0.001-59 mg g(-1)), dyes (2-104 mg g(-1)), humic acid (60 mg g(-1)), perfluorooctane sulfonate (164 mg g(-1)), and N-nitrosomodimethylamine (3 mg g(-1)). Including adsorption/filtration applications, biochar can potentially be used to inactivate Escherichia coli via disinfection, and transform 95% of 2-chlorobiphenyl via advanced oxidation processes. However, more sorption data using biochar especially at demonstration-scale, for treating potable and reuse water in adsorption/filtration applications will help establish the potential of biochars to serve as surrogates for activated carbons.

  19. Radiological quality in drinking water from Granada city; Calidad radiologica del agua potable de la ciudad de Granada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Penalver, J. J.; Gonzalez Gomez, C.; Ferro Garcia, M. A.; Prados Joya, G.

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to present data on gross alpha and beta activities in the drinking water from Granada city, during six years, 2000 to 2005. The samples were measured using a gas-flow proportional counter Bert hold LB 770-2/5. The results show that the gross alpha and gross beta cavity is lower than the maximum contaminant level based on the World Health Organisation, who which indicates 0.1 Bq.1-1 and 1.0 Bq.l''-1 as maximum contaminant level of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in potable water, respectively. Concentration ranging from 4.1.10''-3 to 3.9.10''2 Bq.l''-1 and from 4.9.10''-3 to 5.6.10''-2 Bq.l''-1 were observed from the gross alpha and beta activities, respectively. An average annual effective dose equivalent of 2.909 {mu}Sv-yr''-1 was obtained together with a range of 0.186 to 0.326 {mu}Sv.mo''-1. (Author) 10 refs.

  20. Assessment of potable water quality including organic, inorganic, and trace metal concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Mst Shamsun; Zhang, Jing

    2012-02-01

    The quality of drinking water (tap, ground, and spring) in Toyama Prefecture, Japan was assessed by studying quality indicators including major ions, total carbon, and trace metal levels. The physicochemical properties of the water tested were different depending on the water source. Major ion concentrations (Ca(2+), K(+), Si(4+), Mg(2+), Na(+), SO(4)(2-), HCO(3)(-), NO(3)(-), and Cl(-)) were determined by ion chromatography, and the results were used to generate Stiff diagrams in order to visually identify different water masses. Major ion concentrations were higher in ground water than in spring and tap water. The relationship between alkaline metals (Na(+) and K(+)), alkaline-earth metals (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)), and HCO(3)(-) showed little difference between deep and shallow ground water. Toyama ground, spring, and tap water were all the same type of water mass, called Ca-HCO(3). The calculated total dissolved solid values were below 300 mg/L for all water sources and met World Health Organization (WHO) water quality guidelines. Trace levels of As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Mo, Ni, V, Zn, Sr, and Hg were detected in ground, spring, and tap water sources using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, and their levels were below WHO and Japanese water quality standard limits. Volatile organic carbon compounds were quantified by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the measured concentrations met WHO and Japanese water quality guidelines. Total trihalomethanes (THMs) were the major contaminant detected in all natural drinking water sources, but the concentration was highest in tap water (37.27 ± 0.05 μg/L). Notably, THMs concentrations reached up to 1.1 ± 0.05 μg/L in deep ground water. The proposed model gives an accurate description of the organic, inorganic, and trace heavy metal indicators studied here and may be used in natural clean water quality management.

  1. Accessibility levels to potable Water Supply in Rural Areas of Akwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    1987-09-23

    Sep 23, 1987 ... declared in the water sector, if the MDGs are to be achieved in the water sector by 2015. Key words: ... infrastructure distribution. ... approved in both developed and developing world. A study of this nature would showcase.

  2. Multi-Component Remediation System for Generating Potable Water Onboard Spacecrafts Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fractal Systems Inc. proposes to develop an innovative, energy-efficient water purification system to enable humans to live and work permanently in space. Water...

  3. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Water Pollution Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Pollution Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Pollution...

  4. Nitrate and Perchlorate Destruction and Potable Water Production Using Membrane Biofilm Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Steady State finished water quality bioindicators (a), sulfide, and odor (b). ........ 16 Figure 9. Steady State treatment system DOC...batch mode, and sulfide generation occurred. 16 Figure 8. Steady State finished water quality bioindicators (a), sulfide, and odor (b). The

  5. Failure of rural schemes in South Africa to provide potable water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mackintosh, G

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of water-borne disease in South Africa is significant. An estimated 43,000 deaths per annum, including 20% of deaths in the 1-5 years age group, are directly attributable to diarrhoeal diseases. Drinking water quality provision in many...

  6. Solar Energy and Other Appropriate Technologies for Small Potable Water Systems in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Region 2 research demonstration project presentation studied the efficacy of sustainable solar-powered water delivery and monitoring systems to reduce the economic burden of operating and maintaining Non-PRASA drinking water systems and to reduce the impact of climate change...

  7. Solar Energy and Other Appropriate Technologies for Small Potable Water Systems in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Region 2 research demonstration project presentation studied the efficacy of sustainable solar-powered water delivery and monitoring systems to reduce the economic burden of operating and maintaining Non-PRASA drinking water systems and to reduce the impact of climate change...

  8. Impact of volcanic plume emissions on rain water chemistry during the January 2010 Nyamuragira eruptive event: implications for essential potable water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuoco, Emilio; Tedesco, Dario; Poreda, Robert J; Williams, Jeremy C; De Francesco, Stefano; Balagizi, Charles; Darrah, Thomas H

    2013-01-15

    On January 2, 2010 the Nyamuragira volcano erupted lava fountains extending up to 300 m vertically along an ~1.5 km segment of its southern flank cascading ash and gas on nearby villages and cities along the western side of the rift valley. Because rain water is the only available potable water resource within this region, volcanic impacts on drinking water constitutes a major potential hazard to public health within the region. During the 2010 eruption, concerns were expressed by local inhabitants about water quality and feelings of physical discomfort (e.g. nausea, bloating, indigestion, etc.) after consuming rain water collected after the eruption began. We present the elemental and ionic chemistry of drinking water samples collected within the region on the third day of the eruption (January 5, 2010). We identify a significant impact on water quality associated with the eruption including lower pH (i.e. acidification) and increases in acidic halogens (e.g. F(-) and Cl(-)), major ions (e.g. SO(4)(2-), NH(4)(+), Na(+), Ca(2+)), potentially toxic metals (e.g. Al(3+), Mn(2+), Cd(2+), Pb(2+), Hf(4+)), and particulate load. In many cases, the water's composition significantly exceeds World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standards. The degree of pollution depends upon: (1) ash plume direction and (2) ash plume density. The potential negative health impacts are a function of the water's pH, which regulates the elements and their chemical form that are released into drinking water.

  9. Real-time dynamic hydraulic model for potable water loss reduction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abu-Mahfouz, Adnan M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available service provision. Traditional approaches of solving water loss problems are not enough to make a significant improvement; for this, new approaches involving increased automation and monitoring are needed. Furthermore, the sensory and automation ICT...

  10. The Health Effects of Chlorine Dioxide as a Disinfectant in Potable Water: A Literature Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Edward J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The use of chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant in water is being considered by the EPA. This article presents a summary of the known published reports concerning health effects of chlorine dioxide on animal and human populations. (Author/MA)

  11. Investigating the potability of water from dug wells: A case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akurugu Bismark

    septic systems contained more microbial counts of 1600 to 1800 MPN/100 ml than ..... Geochemistry, groundwater and pollution (2nd ed.): Leiden ... quality and metals in wells and boreholes water in some peri-urban communities in Kumasi ...

  12. Contamination of Community Potable Water from Land Grabbing: A Case Study from Rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Arduino

    2012-06-01

    The paper discusses the direct causes of water contamination (the use of fertilisers and pesticides and the presence of cattle and the indirect causes (unclear administrative boundaries, lack of participation and transparency, procedures not followed and limited resources. The negotiation process and its outcomes are described. From this study we conclude that stakeholder communication and transparency are key elements in anticipating and preventing the arising of such situations. Often, these are in short supply when large land deals occur. In this case, ex-post solutions were arrived at. Finally, the paper looks at the broader dimensions of land deals that pollute the water feeding a water supply scheme. Such situations are a clear violation of the human right to safe drinking water – an issue that has not yet been sufficiently documented in the literature and which merits further attention.

  13. Efficiency of Silver Impregnated Porous Pot (SIPP Filters for Production of Clean Potable Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhekie Mamba

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Silver Impregnated Porous Pot (SIPP filter is a product of the Tshwane University of Technology manufactured for the production of safe drinking water at a household (home level. Two SIPP devices were assessed for the reduction efficiency of chemical contaminants such as calcium, magnesium, iron, arsenic, fluorides and total organic carbon (TOC as well as microbial contaminants from environmental samples. Turbidity change after filtration, together with correlation between chlorophyll a in the feed water and SIPP’s flow rates were also evaluated in order to give comprehensive guidelines on the quality of intake water that could be filtered through the filter without causing a significant decrease in flow rate. The SIPP filters removed contaminants from environmental water samples as follows: 70% to 92% iron, 36% to 68% calcium, 42% to 82% arsenic, 39% to 98% magnesium, 39% to 95% fluorides, 12% to 35% TOC and 45% to 82% turbidity. The SIPP filters had initial flow rates of 1 L/h to 4 L/h but the flow rates dropped to 0.5 L/h with an increase in cumulative volume of intake water as the filter was used. Turbidity and chemical contaminant reduction rates decreased with accumulating volume of intake water but the filter removed Ca, Fe and Mg to levels that comply with the South African National Standards (SANS 241 and the World Health Organization (WHO guideline values. However, the SIPP filters cannot produce enough water to satisfy the daily drinking water requirement of a typical household (25 L/p·d. Chlorophyll a was associated with a decrease in the flow rate through the SIPP filters.

  14. Arsenic removal in drinking water; Eliminacion de arsenico en aguas potables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil-Rodriguez, M.

    2003-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency established recently to reduce the maximum contaminant level in drinking water of 50 to 5 {mu}/l. In Japan and Canada the effective MCL are respectively 10 and 25 {mu}g/l. The World Health Organization had recommended in 1993 to go down from 50 to 10 {mu}g/l the maximum quantity of arsenic in the waters. In the sampling sites of the National Network of measure Points of Spain, superior arsenic concentrations have not been detected up to now to the legal limit in the European Community, 50 {mu}g/l, although in some points they are related values between 5 and 50, being that value of 50 {mu}g/l surpassed in punctual captions of underground waters. To go down the MCL to 5 {mu}g/l, it implies to install or to improve the precipitation, floculation, and coagulation in the drinking water plants, that waters whose concentration of output arsenic overcomes that guideline value. In this paper it is made a revision of the chemistry of the arsenic removal in water drink, to lower their concentration to less than 5 {mu}g/l, as well as to show a view of the Spanish situation, in relation to going down their concentration to this level of security for the public health. (Author) 12 refs.

  15. Radium-226 on drinking water of Camaguey, Cuba; Radio-226 en agua potable de Camaguey, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montalvan Estrada, Adelmo; Brigido Flores, Osvaldo; Barrera Caballero, Aldo [Centro de Atencion a la Actividad Nuclear, Camaguey (Cuba)]. E-mail: sean@caonao.cmw.inf.cu; Escalante, Alexander [Centro Provincial de Higiene y Epidemiologia, Camaguey (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water of Camaguey city, Cuba, was measured using the emanometric method. The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water ranged from 15 {+-} 5 mBq.l{sup -1} to 39 {+-}12 mBq.l{sup -1}. The mean specific activity of Ra-226 was found to be 27 {+-} 8 mBq.l{sup -1}. No seasonal variation was found. Water samples were collected from the two main sources of drinking water: private wells and governmental water supply system, being the mean specific activities of Ra-226: 25 {+-} 7 mBq.l{sup -1} and 31 {+-} 9 mBq.l{sup -1} , respectively. Based upon measured concentrations the age-dependent associated effective doses due to the ingestion of Ra-226, as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water, have been calculated. For the age interval 1 year to 5 years, the average effective dose was 6,2 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, and for adults the average effective dose was 5,2 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}. (author)

  16. Heavy Rainfall Impacts on Trihalomethane Formation in Contrasting Northwestern European Potable Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpla, Ianis; Jones, Timothy G; Monteith, Don T; Hughes, David D; Baurès, Estelle; Jung, Aude-Valérie; Thomas, Olivier; Freeman, Chris

    2015-07-01

    There is emerging concern over the impact of extreme events such as heavy rainfall on the quality of water entering the drinking water supply from aboveground sources, as such events are expected to increase in magnitude and frequency in response to climate change. We compared the impact of rainfall events on streamwater quality in four contrasting upland (peatland and mineral soil) and lowland agricultural catchments used to supply drinking water in France (Brittany) and the United Kingdom (North Wales) by analyzing water samples collected before, during, and after specific events. At all four streams, heavy rainfall led to a considerable rise in organic matter concentration ranging from 48 to 158%. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) quality, as determined using specific ultraviolet absorbance, changed consistently at all sites during rainfall events, with a greater proportion of aromatic and higher molecular weight compounds following the onset of rainfall. However, the change in DOC quality and quantity did not significantly alter the trihalomethane formation potential. We observed small increases in trihalomethane (THM) generation only at the Welsh peatland and agricultural sites and a small decrease at the Brittany agricultural site. The proportion of brominated THMs in chlorinated waters was positively correlated with bromide/DOC ratio in raw waters for all sites and hydrological conditions. These results provide a first indication of the potential implications for surface-based drinking water resources resulting from expected future increases in rainfall event intensity and extension of dry periods with climate changes. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. "THE ROLE OF HARDNESS OF POTABLE WATER IN THE FORMATION OF URINARY CALCULI IN UROMIEH, Iran"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Imandel

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation of renal and urinary calculi is not due to a single cause but occurs as a multifactor entity, by which some of them still are unknown. Three theories of Stones formation including nucleation, stone matrix and inhibition of crystallization do not accuse water hardness as a main cause of the formation of urinary calculi 120 patients suffering from renal and urinary calculi and the same number of control persons were studied in the city of Uromieh. The analysis of uroliths and water samples fulfilled the laboratory Standard methods Chi-square test was done on the results obtained The results of water analyses showed that the total hardness of Calcium and Magnesium were 300, 69, 32 mg/I as CaCo3 , TDS , 410 mg/I, electrical conductivity 600 us/cm and water classified as very hard. The abundance of uroliths were, oxalate, cystjne, uric acid infectious respectively, There was no statistical significant association between water hardness and urinary calculi of patients under study with respect to age and sex. The abundance blood groups in patients were A , 0 , AB and B respectively and the occurrence of 3 renal calculi mentioned above were more in men than Women The formation of renal stones were most occurred in summer season. The most abundant was calcium oxalate, the incidence was between the ages 30 to 50 years old and calcium stones were 2.7 times more in men than woman.

  18. Investigation of Amount and Effective Factors on Trihalomethane Production in PotableWater of Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andalib A.H.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives:Yazd province is located in the central desert part of Iran in which water scarcity was one of the most important problems. This has been recently solved to some extent, due to the approved channel project of water transferring from Isfahan to Yazd. Chlorination is usually used in the last stage of water treatment for disinfection in the networks, treatment plants, storages and channel stations. The possibility of carcinogen lateral composites formation is expected by tri-halo-methanes (THMs due to the reactions occurs between the natural organic materials and free chlorine available in water. Based on the established standard by the country, the permissible limit of THMs in water is 200 mg/L. In this research, in addition to the amount of THMs and their distribution in Yazd water transferring channel and the city water network system, the important parameters and their correlations with THMs formation were discussed.Materials and Methods: In a year of sampling period, the concentrations of THMs including the four major components of chloroform, bromoform, bromo di-chloro methane and di-bromo chloro methane during all seasons were measured using gas chromatograph and analyzed. This was done for 11 stations including Zayande-rood Basin River and Isfahan water treatment plant up to Yazd Shehneh storage, stations and inline equalization tanks and also five regions of Yazd city network.Results: According to the results, the maximum rate of THMs (51.14 mg/L during the sampling period in summer for Yazd city network and in ancient context of Jamea Mosque district was found. In addition, the minimum concentration of THMs was 1.60 mg/L in winter for the domestic network of the city which was related to Azad Shahr district. The Average total amount of THMs during sampling periods in all stations was 12.26 mg/L. Conclusion: SPSS and Excel softwares were used to analyze the research data in the descriptive and inferential manner

  19. An Evaluation of Technology to Remove Problematic Organic Compounds from the International Space Station Potable Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Tony; Metselaar, Carol; Peyton, Barbara; Steele, John; Michalek, William; Bowman, Elizabeth; Wilson, Mark; Gazda, Daniel; Carter, Layne

    2014-01-01

    Since activation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) on the International Space Station (ISS) in November of 2008, there have been three events in which the TOC (Total Organic Carbon) in the product water has increased to approximately 3 mg/L and has subsequently recovered. Analysis of the product water in 2010 identified the primary component of the TOC as dimethylsilanediol (DMSD). An investigation into the fate of DMSD in the WPA ultimately determined that replacement of both Multifiltration (MF) Beds is the solution to recovering product water quality. The MF Beds were designed to ensure that ionic breakthrough occurs before organic breakthrough. However, DMSD saturated both MF Beds in the series, requiring removal and replacement of both MF Beds with significant life remaining. Analysis of the MF Beds determined that the adsorbent was not effectively removing DMSD, trimethylsilanol, various polydimethylsiloxanes, or dimethylsulfone. Coupled with the fact that the current adsorbent is now obsolete, the authors evaluated various media to identify a replacement adsorbent as well as media with greater capacity for these problematic organic contaminants. This paper provides the results and recommendations of this collaborative study.

  20. Enumeration of Somatic and F-RNA Phages as an Indicator of Fecal Contamination in Potable Water from Rural Areas of the North West Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitumetse Idah Nkwe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages are regarded as enteric viral indicators in faecally contaminated water systems and may indicate the presence of human viral pollution. They are relatively resistant to inactivation by natural and treatment processes. In this study, the presence of somatic coliphages and F-RNA coliphages was investigated in potable water from rural areas in the North West province. Water samples were aseptically collected from boreholes and tap water from some rural communities in the North West Province. Physical parameters of the water, such as the temperature, pH and turbidity, were measured before sample collection. Double-agar layer assay was performed using ISO, (1995, 2000 standard methods. Bottled water was used as a negative control and the strains фX174 and MS2 as positive controls. Of the 16 water samples collected, 15 were positive for somatic bacteriophages while F-RNA coliphages were detected in only two samples. Amongst the positive samples 189 and three plaque forming units were obtained for both somatic and F-RNA coliphages, respectively. No coliphage was detected in water from Masamane tap 1. The rest of the samples obtained from various rural areas were positive and did not comply with national and international standards for potable water. This was a cause for concern and should be further investigated.

  1. Odorous compounds in municipal wastewater effluent and potable water reuse systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus, Eva; Lim, Mong Hoo; Zhang, Lifeng; Sedlak, David L

    2011-11-01

    The presence of effluent-derived compounds with low odor thresholds can compromise the aesthetics of drinking water. The potent odorants 2,4,6-trichloroanisole and geosmin dominated the profile of odorous compounds in wastewater effluent with concentrations up to 2 orders of magnitude above their threshold values. Additional odorous compounds (e.g., vanillin, methylnaphthalenes, 2-pyrrolidone) also were identified in wastewater effluent by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrometry and olfactometry detection. Full-scale advanced treatment plants equipped with reverse osmosis membranes decreased odorant concentrations considerably, but several compounds were still present at concentrations above their odor thresholds after treatment. Other advanced treatment processes, including ozonation followed by biological activated carbon and UV/H(2)O(2) also removed effluent-derived odorants. However, no single treatment technology alone was able to reduce all odorant concentrations below their odor threshold values. To avoid the presence of odorous compounds in drinking water derived from wastewater effluent, it is necessary to apply multiple barriers during advanced treatment or to dilute wastewater effluent with water from other sources.

  2. Energy saving in the pumping of drinking water, Municipality of San Felipe, Guanajuato; Ahorro de energia electrica en bombeo de agua potable, en el municipio de San Felipe, Gto.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamiz Sanchez, Lorenzo [Applied Technology Center de Mexico, S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)

    2006-01-15

    This paper shows the results attained in energy saving through a project of potable water pumping, which took an investment of $433,043.00 and an internal rate of return of 126%. This project puts into evidence that it is possible to reduce between 15 and 30% of the total invoicing for energy consumption in potable water pumping if an equipment of poor efficiency is replaced by another of high efficiency. The project was requested by the Guanajuato's State Water Comision and the Municipal Bureau of Sewage and Potable Water, with the double intention of reducing the energy consumption along with the corresponding invoicing and incrementing the output of the wells in order to improve the potable water supply. In the site two high efficiency submersible motor-pumps were installed previously to the energy diagnosis that triggered profitable operation results and a convenient invoicing. [Spanish] Se documentan los resultados obtenidos en un proyecto de ahorro de energia en el bombeo de agua potable realizado con una inversion de $433,043.00 y con una tasa interna de retorno de 126%. Este proyecto pone en evidencia que es posible reducir entre el 15 y 30% de la facturacion total por consumo de energia electrica en el bombeo de agua potable si se sustituye un equipo poco eficiente por otro de alta eficiencia. El proyecto fue solicitado por la Comision Estatal del Agua de Guanajuato y la Junta Municipal de Agua Potable y Alcantarillado del municipio, con un doble proposito, reducir el consumo de energia junto con la facturacion correspondiente e incrementar la capacidad de produccion de los pozos con la intencion de mejorar el abasto de agua potable. En el lugar se instalaron dos motobombas sumergibles de alta eficiencia previo diagnostico energetico que desencadenaron rentables resultados operativos y de facturacion.

  3. Southern Dobrogea coastal potable water sources and Upper Quaternary Black Sea level changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraivan, Glicherie; Stefanescu, Diana

    2013-04-01

    Southern Dobrogea is a typical geologic platform unit, placed in the south-eastern part of Romania, with a Pre-Cambrian crystalline basement and a Paleozoic - Quaternary sedimentary cover. It is bordered to the north by the Capidava - Ovidiu fault and by the Black Sea to the east. A regional WNW - ESE and NNE - SSW fault system divides the Southern Dobrogea structure in several tectonic blocks. Four drinking water sources have been identified: surface water, phreatic water, medium depth Sarmatian aquifer, and deep Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer. Surface water sources are represented by several springs emerged from the base of the loess cliff, and a few small rivers, barred by coastal beaches. The phreatic aquifer develops at the base of the loess deposits, on the impervious red clay, overlapping the Sarmatian limestones. The medium depth aquifer is located in the altered and karstified Sarmatian limestones, and discharges into the Black Sea. The Sarmatian aquifer is unconfined where covered by silty loess deposits, and locally confined, where capped by clayey loess deposits. The aquifer is supplied from the Pre-Balkan Plateau. The Deep Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer, located in the limestone and dolomite deposits, is generally confined and affected by the regional WNW - ESE and NNE - SSW fault system. In the south-eastern Dobrogea, the deep aquifer complex is separated from the Sarmatian aquifer by a Senonian aquitard (chalk and marls). The natural boundary of the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer is the Capidava - Ovidiu Fault. The piezometric heads show that the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer is supplied from the Bulgarian territory, where the Upper Jurassic deposits crop out. The aquifer discharges into the Black Sea to the east and into Lake Siutghiol to the northeast. The cyclic Upper Quaternary climate changes induced drastic remodeling of the Black Sea level and the corresponding shorelines. During the Last Glacial

  4. Detection of phenols in potable water using SPR and specific receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Jennifer Valerie

    2002-07-01

    The potential of thin films of a range of molecular receptors for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing of a range of phenolic molecules in water has been explored. Receptors included molecular clips based on diarylglycouril units with two aromatic 'walls'; and polyalkylviologen (PAV) and cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CPP) dications, two examples with polystyrene sulphonate (PSS) counterions. Films containing sulphonated polycyclodextrins were also evaluated. Target phenols included phenol, three benzene diols and two triols, three hydroxylated biphenyls and a range of related molecules. Receptor films were spin-coated, at up to 10,000rpm, as thin films (<200nm) onto glass slides coated with 48nm of silver. Effects of aqueous analytes on the position and profile of their SPR were examined by goniometer scanning and fixed angle measurement of intensity changes using a 632.8nm laser. A novel CCD array detector, utilising LED narrow band illumination peaking at 654nm, later yielded whole curve, real-time observations. Fixed-angle SPR responses of all viologen film types tested varied in direction, size and rate for different phenols, and depended on both the concentration of the phenol and on the age of its aqueous solution, permitting detection down to 10ppm. GC/MS studies confirmed the presence of polyphenols as oxidatively coupled phenolic breakdown products in the aged solutions. Greater sensitivity to polyphenols than to the original monomers was observed. The mechanistic basis of these observations is discussed with reference to SPR responses of the receptors to a series of model compounds designed to clarify the relative roles of hydrogen bonding, charge transfer and {pi}-{pi} interactions. Theoretical modelling of the responses has also been undertaken. Based on these results, time-dependent SPR response patterns for films of three different receptors were shown to permit unambiguous identification of simple phenols in water. The potential of

  5. Radioactivity evaluation of Ebro river water and sludge treated in a potable water treatment plant located in the South of Catalonia (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, M.; Penalver, A.; Aguilar, C. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Consorci d' Aigues de Tarragona (CAT), Ctra. Nacional 340 Km. 1094, Ap. correus n.7, 43895 L' Ampolla Tarragona (Spain); Borrull, F. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Consorci d' Aigues de Tarragona (CAT), Ctra. Nacional 340 Km. 1094, Ap. correus n.7, 43895 L' Ampolla Tarragona (Spain)], E-mail: francesc.borrull@urv.cat

    2010-03-15

    A potable water treatment plant with an average production rate of 4.3 m{sup 3}/s, providing several cities in the south of Catalonia (Spain) with drinking water, has been studied for a period of six years (2002-2007) regarding its capacity to remove several natural and anthropogenic radionuclides. First, gross alpha, gross beta and tritium activities were determined in ingoing and outgoing water samples. The values for all these parameters were below the Spanish normative limits established for waters for human consumption. For the sludge samples generated in the plant, we quantified some gamma emitting radioisotopes: natural ({sup 40}K, {sup 214}Pb, etc.) and artificial ({sup 60}Co, {sup 110m}Ag, etc.) which may be related to the geological or/and industrial activities (such as a nuclear power plant) located upstream of the PWTP on the Ebro River. Finally, when the sludge samples were compared with those from other water treatment plants, the influence of the industrial activities on the radioisotopes found in the analysed samples was confirmed since the activity levels for some of the isotopes quantified were 10 times higher.

  6. Human intestinal parasitism, potable water availability and methods of sewage disposal among nomadic Fulanis in Kuraje rural settlement of Zamfara state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Godwin T Jombo; James G Damen; Hauwa Safiyanu; Friday Odey; Emmanuel M Mbaawuaga

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To ascertain the level of intestinal parasites vis-à-vis the quality of housing and water supply, and sanitary conditions among the people of Kuraje village in Zamfara state. Methods:The study was cross sectional in nature. Individual households were selected using systematic random sampling methods and pre-tested questionnaires were administered to all the members of each household. Stool samples were collected and processed using standard laboratory procedures. Housing conditions, sources of water and sanitary conditions of the households were also inspected. Results were analysed using Epi Info 2006 model. Results:The prevalence of intestinal parasites was 67.0%(347/519). 72.3%(251/347), 17.0%(59/347), and 10.7%(37/347) had one, two and three or more parasites, respectively. The associated factors with intestinal parasites were poor housing and sanitary conditions, lack of potable water and illiteracy. The commonest parasites encountered were hookworm (22.0%), Ascaris lumbricoides (18.5%), and Strongyloides stercoralis (15.6%) while the least common was Enterobius vermicularis (1.6%). Others were Giardia lamblia (5.7%), Hymenolepsis nana (5.0%), Trichuris trichiura (8.8%), Entamoeba histolytica (14.4%) and Schistosoma mansoni (8.4%). Conclusions:The infection rate of intestinal parasites in Kuraje village is high. More efforts should be intensified towards improvement in sanitary and housing standards, supply of potable water and institution of a more comprehensive literacy programme for the people of the community.

  7. Organized Communities and Potable Water Public Utilities in Colombia: Advocacy for the Third Economic Option Based on the Common-pool Resources Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonny Moncada Mesa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory and institutional principles proposed by Elinor Ostrom, this paper explores whether Colombian organized communities are able to provide potable water public utility in a sustainable manner and manage it as a common-pool resource (CPR. For this purpose, a set of Colombian community aqueducts is selected and compared against the eight principles proposed by this theory. The results have shown that, in general it complies with institutional principles but it also highlights difficulties, particularly in regards to the "minimal recognition of organization rights" principle.

  8. Correlación entre agua y saneamiento e indicadores de salud y desarrollo 2008: Costa Rica en el mundo Correlation between potable water, sanitation and development health indicators 2008: Costa Rica in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darner Adrián Mora Alvarado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir las coberturas con las diferentes modalidades de acceso a agua para consumo humano y disposición adecuada de excretas, definidas en los conceptos de Fuentes de Agua Potable Mejoradas e Instalaciones de Saneamiento Mejoradas, en 147 países del mundo, y su relación con los indicadores básicos de salud y desarrollo. Por otro lado, se busca ubicar a Costa Rica en el contexto mundial durante el año 2008 en estos aspectos. Método: Los datos se obtuvieron de documentos publicados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud y el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia. Se realizaron análisis de correlación lineal, al 95% de confianza, entre los datos, para determinar la asociación entre los respectivos pares de variables; además, se establecieron escalafones o "ranking" de acceso a los diferentes tipos de coberturas, para identificar la ubicación de nuestro país en cada una de ellas. Conclusiones: Los resultados demuestran que las variables de acceso a fuentes de agua potable mejoradas total e instalaciones de saneamiento mejoradas, explican mejor los avances de las naciones en los indicadores básicos de salud y desarrollo.Objective: this article aims to describe coverage of the diverse types of access to water for human consumption and adequate excreta disposal, as defined in the concepts of Improved Sources of Drinking Water and Improved Sanitation Facilities, and their relationship with basic health and development indicators, in order to do this 147 countries of the world. On the other hand, Costa Rica seeks to place on the global stage in 2008 in these areas Method: Data were obtained from documents published by the Joint Monitoring Program of World Health Organization and UNICEF. Then using the different types of access to water identified and considered official by the Joint Monitoring Program, linear correlation analysis was performed with a 95% confidence for this variable and the basic health and

  9. Polygeneration smart grids. A solution for the supply of electricity, potable water and hydrogen as fuel for transportation in remote areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriakarakos, George; Mohamed, Essam S.; Papadakis, George [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece). Dept. of Natural Resources and Agricultural Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the concept of polygeneration smart grids along with experimental results taken during winter 2009-2010 of a pilot polygeneration smart grid focusing on the evolution of the control strategy. In this smart grid the energy of the sun and the wind is harvested by photovoltaic panels and a wind turbine. The system products are electrical energy, potable water through desalination and hydrogen as both medium term energy storage and transportation fuel. Potable water is also used as seasonal energy storage. The components of the system include PV, a wind turbine, batteries, a PEM fuel cell, a PEM electrolyzer, metal hydride tank, hydrogen vehicle refueling subsystem, reverse osmosis desalination unit, data logging system and a control system. Two different controllers have been developed and tested for this smart grid; an ON/OFF controller which operates the electrolyzer, fuel cell and desalination unit at preset points and a fuzzy logic controller which allows for part load operation. The system is installed at the Agricultural University of Athens and the experimental process is ongoing. (orig.)

  10. Optimizing desalinated sea water blending with other sources to meet magnesium requirements for potable and irrigation waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Noa; Eben-Chaime, Moshe; Oron, Gideon

    2013-05-01

    Sea water desalination provides fresh water that typically lacks minerals essential to human health and to agricultural productivity. Thus the rising proportion of desalinated sea water consumed by both the domestic and agricultural sectors constitutes a public health risk. Research on low-magnesium water irrigation showed that crops developed magnesium deficiency symptoms that could lead to plant death, and tomato yields were reduced by 10-15%. The World Health Organization (WHO) reported on a relationship between sudden cardiac death rates and magnesium intake deficits. An optimization model, developed and tested to provide recommendations for Water Distribution System (WDS) quality control in terms of meeting optimal water quality requirements, was run in computational experiments based on an actual regional WDS. The expected magnesium deficit due to the operation of a large Sea Water Desalination Plant (SWDP) was simulated, and an optimal operation policy, in which remineralization at the SWDP was combined with blending desalinated and natural water to achieve the required quality, was generated. The effects of remineralization costs and WDS physical layout on the optimal policy were examined by sensitivity analysis. As part of the sensitivity blending natural and desalinated water near the treatment plants will be feasible up to 16.2 US cents/m(3), considering all expenses. Additional chemical injection was used to meet quality criteria when blending was not feasible.

  11. Retrofitting the potable water supply in Vira Gambarogno, Switzerland - Feasibility study of a small hydro power plant in the Muntin water reservoir; Risanamento dell'acquedotto Monti di Vira. Studio di fattibilita di recupero energetico al serbatoio Muntin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutti, M.

    2008-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy describes the retrofitting project for the potable water supply in the municipality of Vira Gambarogno, Southern Switzerland. The current status of the scheme and three possible variants are presented, including the technical and financial aspects. In a second part of the report a feasibility study is reported on for the energetic use of the potable water falling down from the springs, located at 1040 m over sea level, and the Muntin water reservoir, located at 460 m about sea level. A small hydroelectric plant can be created at the entry of the reservoir, with an electric power of about 20 kW, depending on the variant considered. Estimated energy yield and cost figures are given.

  12. Legal regime of water management facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Jožef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the legal regime of water management facilities in the light of Serbian, foreign and European law. Different divisions of water management facilities are carried out (to public and private ones, natural and artificial ones, etc., with determination of their legal relevance. Account is taken of the issue of protection from harmful effects of waters to such facilities, as well. The paper points also to rules on the water management facilities, from acts of planning, to individual administrative acts and measures for maintenance of required qualitative and quantitative condition of waters, depending on their purpose (general use or special, commercial use o waters. Albeit special rules on water management facilities exist, due to the natural interlocking between all the components of the environment (water, air and soil, a comprehensive approach is required. A reference is made to other basic principles of protection of water management facilities as well, such as the principle of prevention, principle of sustainable development and the principle "polluter pays". The last one represents the achievement of contemporary law, which deviates from the idea accepted in the second half of 20th century that supported the socialization of risk from harmful effects of waters.

  13. Corrosion Failure Analysis of Ductile Iron Potable Water Pipeline%球墨铸铁饮用水管道腐蚀失效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔培鹏; 刘飞华; 赵万祥

    2011-01-01

    The corrosion failure behavior of ductile iron potable water,pipeline in a nuclear power plant was investigated by surface analysis method, X-ray diffraction and microbial technology. The results showed that tubercles caused by microbiologically influenced corrosion led to the pipeline failure directly. The local oxygen- concentration corrosion was another cause for accelerating the corrosion rate.%采用表面分析法、X射线衍射和微生物技术,综合研究了核电厂球墨铸铁材料饮用水管线的腐蚀失效行为。结果表明,微生物腐蚀引起的腐蚀瘤是导致管线失效的直接原因,局部氧浓差腐蚀起到了一定的加速作用。

  14. Arsenic Content of the Drinking Water Source, for the Guadiana Valley, Mexico; Contenido de arsenico en el agua potable de Valle del Guadiana, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon Herrera, Maria Teresa [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (Mexico); Flores Montenegro, Isela [Sistema Desentralizado de agua Potable y alcantarillado Durango (Mexico); Romero Navar, Pedro [Comision Nacional del Agua (Mexico); Martin Dominguez, Ignacio [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (Mexico); Trejo Vazquez, Rodolfo [Instituto Tecnologico de Aguascalientes (Mexico)

    2001-12-01

    In recent years, high levels of arsenic concentration have been detected in some drinking water sources of the Guadiana Valley (Durango and surrounding towns) in Mexico. These levels are above the limits recommended bye the world Health Organization (WHO) and the maximum levels allowed by the Mexican standards. due to the well.known toxicity of this element, this study set as its objective to determine in quantitative terms the arsenic content of the drinking water sources for the Guadiana Valley, as the first step in the way to solve environment problems, It was found that 59% of the sources in the south, northeast and Northwest zones of Durango exceed in 40% the maximum level established by Mexican standards for arsenic content. In the Guadiana towns, 48% of the sources surpass such levels even in 46%. If the maximum levels suggested bye the WHO are taken as the reference, then virtually all sources exceed such level. [Spanish] En los ultimos anos, en la region del valle de Gadiana (ciudad de Durango y poblados cercanos) se han detectado niveles de concentracion de arsenico (As) en algunos pozos de abastecimiento de agua potable que superan los limites recomendados por la Organizacion Mundial de la Salud(OMS) y el limite maximo permisible establecido por la legislacion mexicana. Dada la conocida toxicidad de dicho elemento, en el presente estudio se propuso determinar cuantitativamente el contenido de arsenico en los pozos de abastecimiento de agua potable del valle del Guadiana, como un primer paso hacia la solucion de la problematica ambiental. Se encontro que en la zona sureste, noroeste y noreste de la ciudad, en 59% de los pozos se excede hasta en 40% la concentracion de arsenico establecida como limite maximo por la legislacion mexicana. En las poblaciones del valle del Guadiana, 48% de los pozos superan los limites mencionados hasta en un 136%. Si se toma como referencia el limite maximo establecido por la OMS, practicamente todos los pozos exceden el

  15. El derecho al agua potable en perspectiva ambiental: una aproximación desde el paradigma ecológico / The right to potable water from an environmental perspective: a view from the ecological paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano Acosta, Carlos Hernando

    2009-01-01

    El derecho social al agua potable es una prerrogativa plausible, respaldada en instrumentos internacionales de derechos humanos ratificados por Colombia y la jurisprudencia constitucional, que por la naturaleza de su objeto, admite una lectura en perspectiva ecológica, mediante las contribuciones de la relación bicondicional entre ecología y derecho, a partir de los principios que la desarrollan. Para arribar a dicho propósito, se ha propuesto un “viraje ecológico” en las ciencias socia...

  16. Using water wisely: New, affordable, and essential water conservation practices for facility and home hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, John W M; Simmonds, Rosemary E; Knight, Richard; Somerville, Christine A

    2009-01-01

    Despite a global focus on resource conservation, most hemodialysis (HD) services still wastefully or ignorantly discard reverse osmosis (R/O) "reject water" (RW) to the sewer. However, an R/O system is producing the highly purified water necessary for dialysis, it rejects any remaining dissolved salts from water already prefiltered through charcoal and sand filters in a high-volume effluent known as RW. Although the RW generated by most R/O systems lies well within globally accepted potable water criteria, it is legally "unacceptable" for drinking. Consequently, despite being extremely high-grade gray water, under current dialysis practices, it is thoughtlessly "lost-to-drain." Most current HD service designs neither specify nor routinely include RW-saving methodology, despite its simplicity and affordability. Since 2006, we have operated several locally designed, simple, cheap, and effective RW collection and distribution systems in our in-center, satellite, and home HD services. All our RW water is now recycled for gray-water use in our hospital, in the community, and at home, a practice that is widely appreciated by our local health service and our community and is an acknowledged lead example of scarce resource conservation. Reject water has sustained local sporting facilities and gardens previously threatened by indefinite closure under our regional endemic local drought conditions. As global water resources come under increasing pressure, we believe that a far more responsible attitude to RW recycling and conservation should be mandated for all new and existing HD services, regardless of country or region.

  17. Urban Australians using recycled water for domestic non-potable use--an evaluation of the attributes price, saltiness, colour and odour using conjoint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlimann, Anna; McKay, Jennifer

    2007-04-01

    Recycled water use in urban areas is viewed as one part of the solution to Australia's water shortage. The effectiveness of policies designed to promote recycled water systems depends on the acceptance by the community of the price, colour, odour and salt content of the recycled water. In Australia and other countries, limited research has been conducted that investigates community attitudes to and willingness to pay for recycled water, especially in urban settings. Community acceptance of recycled water and the economic feasibility of such projects have not been widely evaluated, even though the long-term feasibility of many projects is dependent on such information. This paper examines the attitudes of an urban Australian community living at Mawson Lakes in South Australia, to using recycled water for non-potable domestic purposes. Conjoint analysis (CA) was used to evaluate participant's (n=136) preferences for various attributes of recycled water (colour, odour, salt content and price) for various uses (garden watering, toilet flushing and clothes washing). The analysis was used to estimate the respondent's willingness to pay (WTP) for quality increases for each of the attributes. Differences in WTP were investigated according to various demographic variables including income and education. Results indicate that for garden watering having 'low salt levels' is the most important attribute of recycled water, for clothes washing 'colourless' is the most important attribute, and for toilet flushing a 'low price' was the most important attribute. Respondents were willing to pay for increases in the quality of recycled water. The amount they were willing to pay varied depending on applied use and the attribute in question. Respondents were most willing to pay for an increase in quality of recycled water when used for clothes washing (willing to pay Australian dollars (A$) 0.07/cubic meter (m(3)) for removal of colour, A$0.065 per cubic meter for an increase in

  18. Study on bacteria contamination in potable water by LAMP%LAMP法用于检测饮用水中细菌污染的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兰芳; 潘翊; 凌东辉

    2013-01-01

    目的:建立一种快速明确饮用水中是否存在细菌污染的核酸检测方法.方法:根据细菌16SrRNA中高度保守的序列设计4条LAMP引物,交由商业公司合成;利用合成好的引物和标准菌株,通过LAMP方法验证引物扩增的效率和特异性,电泳观察扩增结果,并比较两种不同细菌基因组DNA提取方法及优化LAMP反应条件.结果:使用设计的引物可以很好的检测出各种标准菌株,而且检测灵敏度达到要求.使用碱裂解的方法可以非常方便的提取出细菌基因组DNA.结论:成功建立了LAMP法检测饮用水中细菌的方法,为饮用水是否存在细菌污染快速检测提供了一种可用的方法.%Objective:To establish a nucleic acid detection method for rapidly testing bacteria in potable water. Methods: According to the high conserve sequence in bacteria 16sRNA gene, LAMP primers were designed and synthesized by a commercial company. Then the amplification efficiency and specificity were detected using synthesized primers and standard bacteria strains through LAMP, the amplification result was observed through electropho-resis. Two kinds of bacteria genome preparing methods were also compared. Results: All standard bacteria strains could be detected using synthesized primers. The detection sensitivity could meet the requirement. Alkali cracking method was an easy and convenient mean to prepare bacteria genome. Conclusion: A method based on LAMP for detecting bacteria in drinking water was established successfully. It gave us a rapid way to judge whether potable water was contaminated by bacteria.

  19. Pathogen Treatment Guidance and Monitoring Approaches for On-Site Non-Potable Water (2016 Southwest Onsite Wastewater Conference)

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the reuse of alternative water sources continues to gain popularity, public utilities and other stakeholders are seeking guidance on pathogen treatment requirements and monitoring approaches for nonpotable use of onsite collected waters.  Given that alternative water...

  20. Preparación de Membranas para Producción de Agua Potable Preparation of Membranes for the Production of Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un estudio sobre la síntesis de membranas poliméricas asimétricas para la producción de agua potable. La filtración usando membranas es un proceso alternativo para el tratamiento de aguas, donde la membrana actúa como una barrera selectiva que bloquea el pasaje de algunos componentes. En este trabajo algunas muestras de agua fueron infectadas con 10(7 a 10(8 unidades formadoras de colonias (UFC por ml con la bacteria Escherichia coli. El proceso utilizado fue la inversión de fases y las membranas fueron preparadas a partir de soluciones poliméricas, con polisulfona y con fluoruro de polivinilideno. En ambos casos, se agregó poli metacrilato de metilo a las soluciones poliméricas, usando N,N-dimetilformamida como solvente. Algunas membranas removieron entre 99 y 100% de las colonias bacterianas, con un flujo de 300 L/h m²This paper describes the synthesis of asymmetric polymer membranes used for the production of drinking water. Filtration of water through the membranes is an alternative method for water treatment, where the membrane acts as a selective barrier which blocks the passage of some components. Water samples for this study were inoculated with 10(7 to 10(8 colony forming units (CFU of Escherichia coli per ml. The process used was phase inversion, and the membranes were prepared beginning with polymer solutions, including polysulfone and polyvinylidene fluoride. In both cases polymethyl methacrylate was added to the polymeric solutions, using N,N-dimethylformamide as solvent. Some of the membranes prepared achieved bacterial removal of 99 to 100%, at a flow of 300 L/h m²

  1. In-house contamination of potable water in urban slum of Kolkata, India: a possible transmission route of diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit, Anup; Batabyal, Prasenjit; Kanungo, Suman; Sur, Dipika

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated and determined the potentiality of different water sources, both for drinking and domestic purposes, in diarrheal disease transmission in diarrhea endemic foci of urban slums in Kolkata, India in a one and half year prospective study. Out of 517 water samples, collected from different sources, stored water (washing) showed higher prevalence of fecal coliforms (58%) (p water (8%) respectively. Among different sources, stored water (washing) samples had the highest non-permissible range of physico-chemical parameters. Fecal coliform levels in household water containers (washing) were comparatively high and almost 2/3 of these samples failed to reach the satisfactory level of residual chlorine. Interestingly, 7% stored water (washing) samples were found to be harboring Vibrio cholerae Improper usage of stored water and unsafe/poor sanitation practices such as hand washing etc. are highlighted as contributory factors for sustained diarrheal episodes. Vulnerability of stored water for domestic usage, a hitherto unexplored source, at domiciliary level in an urban slum where enteric infections are endemic, is reported for the first time. This attempt highlights the impact of quality of stored water at domiciliary level for fecal-oral contamination vis-à-vis disease transmission.

  2. Assessing trace metal contamination and organic matter in the brackish lakes as the major source of potable water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuculić, Vlado; Cukrov, Neven; Kwokal, Željko; Strmečki, Slađana; Plavšić, Marta

    2017-03-14

    On small and medium karstic coastal islands in the Adriatic Sea, brackish lakes are often the only source of freshwater. Therefore, it is important to adequately evaluate the biogeochemical processes occurring in these complex water systems, as well as to determine the origin of contaminants present. In this study, the distribution and origin of trace metals (Tl, Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co) and organic matter in the water column, sediment, and surrounding soil of the brackish lakes on Mljet Island, South Adriatic Sea, Croatia, were evaluated. Thallium and mercury concentrations in the lake water were up to two orders of magnitude higher compared to ranges found in the adjacent coastal sea water. Elevated thallium concentrations were of anthropogenic origin resulting from previous use of rodenticide, while elevated mercury content was naturally enhanced. Levels for the other metals were characteristic of uncontaminated water systems. Speciation modelling showed that dissolved trace metals such as Cu, Pb, and Zn were mostly associated with organic matter, while Tl, Co, and Ni were present predominantly as free ions and inorganic complexes. The presence of organic matter (OM) clearly influenced the speciation and distribution of some trace metals. OM was characterised by the determination of the complexing capacity for Cu ions (CuCC), surface active substances, and catalytically active compounds. Reduced sulphur species (glutathione and other thiols) representing significant Cu-binding ligands were determined and discussed as well.

  3. Rapid detection of fluoride in potable water using a novel fluorogenic compound 7-O-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-4-methylcoumarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Chavali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we have synthesized a new water soluble colorless chemical compound 7-O-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-4-methylcoumarin (TBDPSC that releases fluorescent molecules imparting blue fluorescence to the solution, upon interaction with fluoride ions in water. The blue fluorescence can be visualized using simple hand held ultraviolet (UV lamps. TBDPSC has excellent sensitivity and selectivity towards fluoride and our results indicate that fluoride concentrations as low as 0.2 mg/L can be accurately detected within a few seconds. Fluoride testing with TBDPSC is simple and rapid compared to the conventional methodologies without the requirement of trained personnel. Hence, the present fluoride detection method can be easily field deployable and particularly useful for monitoring water quality in limited resource communities.

  4. Evaluating exposure of pedestrians to airborne contaminants associated with non-potable water use for pavement cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, M; Da, G; Ausset, P; Haenn, S; Géhin, E; Moulin, L

    2016-04-01

    Climate change and increasing demography press local authorities to look after affordable water resources and replacement of drinking water for city necessities like street and pavement cleaning by more available raw water. Though, the substitution of drinking by non-drinking resources demands the evaluation of sanitary hazards. This article aims therefore to evaluate the contribution of cleaning water to the overall exposure of city dwellers in case of wet pavement cleaning using crossed physical, chemical and biological approaches. The result of tracer experiments with fluorescein show that liquid water content of the cleaning aerosol produced is about 0.24 g m(-3), rending possible a fast estimation of exposure levels. In situ analysis of the aerosol particles indicates a significant increase in particle number concentration and particle diameter, though without change in particle composition. The conventional bacterial analysis using total coliforms as tracer suggests that an important part of the contamination is issued from the pavement. The qPCR results show a more than 20-fold increase of background genome concentration for Escherichia coli and 10-fold increase for Enterococcus but a negligible contribution of the cleaning water. The fluorescence analysis of the cleaning aerosol confirms the above findings identifying pavement surface as the major contributor to aerosol organic load. The physical, chemical and microbiological approaches used make it possible to describe accurately the cleaning bioaerosol and to identify the existence of significantly higher levels of all parameters studied during the wet pavement cleaning. Though, the low level of contamination and the very short time of passage of pedestrian in the zone do not suggest a significant risk for the city dwellers. As the cleaning workers remain much longer in the impacted area, more attention should be paid to their chronic exposure.

  5. Process-based reactive transport model to quantify arsenic mobility during aquifer storage and recovery of potable water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Ilka; Prommer, Henning; Pichler, Thomas; Post, Vincent; Norton, Stuart B; Annable, Michael D; Simmons, Craig T

    2011-08-15

    Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is an aquifer recharge technique in which water is injected in an aquifer during periods of surplus and withdrawn from the same well during periods of deficit. It is a critical component of the long-term water supply plan in various regions, including Florida, USA. Here, the viability of ASR as a safe and cost-effective water resource is currently being tested at a number of sites due to elevated arsenic concentrations detected during groundwater recovery. In this study, we developed a process-based reactive transport model of the coupled physical and geochemical mechanisms controlling the fate of arsenic during ASR. We analyzed multicycle hydrochemical data from a well-documented affected southwest Floridan site and evaluated a conceptual/numerical model in which (i) arsenic is initially released during pyrite oxidation triggered by the injection of oxygenated water (ii) then largely complexes to neo-formed hydrous ferric oxides before (iii) being remobilized during recovery as a result of both dissolution of hydrous ferric oxides and displacement from sorption sites by competing anions.

  6. Electrochemical approach for passivating steel and other metals and for the simultaneous production of a biocide to render water potable

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Potentiostatic polarization curves indicated that the cathodic reactions in deaerated KI-I2 water solutions were due to iodine reduction and hydrogen evolution. In the presence of oxygen an additional reduction wave appeared. Anodic polarization curves revealed that iodine could be produced in the region of potential from +600 to +1000 nv vs. SCE.

  7. In situ detection and characterization of potable water biofilms on materials by microscopic, spectroscopic and electrochemistry methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamby, Jean [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6, CNRS-UPR 15, Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques, 4 Place Jussieu, Case Courrier 133, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: jean.gamby@upmc.fr; Pailleret, Alain [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6, CNRS-UPR 15, Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques, 4 Place Jussieu, Case Courrier 133, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Clodic, Carol Boucher; Pradier, Claire-Marie [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6, CNRS-UMR 7609, Laboratoire de Reactivite de Surface, 4 Place Jussieu, Case Courrier 178, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Tribollet, Bernard [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6, CNRS-UPR 15, Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques, 4 Place Jussieu, Case Courrier 133, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2008-12-01

    We studied biofilm formation on stainless steel occurring in a drinking water distribution system which operated in parallel at 20 and 37 deg. C, in order to focus on the effect of temperature rather than on other operational and water quality parameters. A surface conditioning step was followed as a function of time on this material until adhesion of bacterial colonies by using microscopic methods: scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM); a spectroscopic method: polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS), and an electrochemical method: rotating disk electrode (RDE). Correlations between surface analysis, the duration of immersion of the sample and the influence of temperature have been identified clearly before bacterial adhesion. In cold water, these results showed an initial conditioning step of surface occurring during the first 8 days, with detection of superficial acidic functions grafted on surface, until adsorption of proteins. After 12 days, formation of independent bacteria microcolonies, reaching 2-3 {mu}m in length was observed. In tepid water, the first step was reduced to 2 days during which carbonates, acidic functions, and proteins were detected. After 90 days, the biofilm entered in a stable population state, which appeared as a bacteria rich film, including possibly Legionella. The spatial variation of the biofilm was limited as deduced from the thickness determination (about 4 {mu}m for 3-month period), using a RDE. The combination of these different techniques confirms successive steps for biofilm formation on stainless steel in a tap water. Then, we scrutinized the external near environment of bacteria including extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and then further characterize the morphology of dominant bacteria (shape, size, flagellum) on gold substrate by AFM in air.

  8. Solar-assisted dual-effect adsorption cycle for the production of cooling effect and potable water

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, K. C.

    2009-05-17

    This paper investigates the performance of a solar-assisted adsorption (AD) cycle which produces two useful effects, namely cooling and desalination, with only a low-temperature heat input such as thermal energy from solar collectors. Heat sources varying from 65 to 80°C can be obtained from 215-m2 flat plate-type solar collectors to regenerate the proposed silica gel-water-based AD cycle. In this paper, both mathematical modelling and experimental results from the AD cycle operation are discussed, in terms of two key parameters, namely specific daily water production (SDWP) and specific cooling capacity (SCC). The experimental results show that the AD cycle is capable of producing chilled water at 7 to 10°C with varying SCC range of 25-35 Rton/tonne of silica gel. Simultaneously, the AD cycle produces a SDWP of 3-5 m3 per tonne of silica gel per day, rendering it as a dual-effect machine that has an overall conversion or performance ratio of 0.8-1.1. © The Author 2009. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  9. Design and Implementation of Control and Monitoring Systems Based on HMI-PLC for Potable Water Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quezada-Quezada José Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This project reports on the design and implementation in a workbench of a control and monitoring system of the discharge of water of a well. Graphic User's Interfaces (GUI are designed for interaction with the operator. The Human Machine Interface (HMI was implement in proprietor software and it contemplates the rules for control and monitoring of the conditions of the system for the operator, the HMI is also interconnected a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC where the rules of protection of the process are implemented in Ladder Diagram (LD.

  10. The use of ozone to during water treatment; El uso de ozono en estaciones de tratamiento de agua potable (ETAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiros Sanchez, E.; Herraez Sanchez de las Matas, I.

    2004-07-01

    Water is rendered drinkable by using disinfecting methods like chlorination, ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, thus ensuring that pathogens are kept at the correct safety level. Of the three methods for disinfecting, chlorination is by far the method most frequently used. Despite the former, there has been a change in technology in favour of ozone and to the detriment of chlorine. This trend was motivated, in the first place, by European Union legislation adopted by the Spanish legal system in February 2003, which limits the presence of certain compounds such as tri halomethanes (THM) to levels that can only be attained if we apply ozone. As far as an alternative to chlorine in the disinfecting process is concerned, it cannot be claimed that a clear solution has been found because it is the only one having a residual effect acting as a guarantee for the entree distribution network. According to these experimental data from the drinking water plant of Santillana, by applying an ozonization system prior to chlorination the quantity of chlorine used can be reduced by about 25-30%, but it can never be totally eliminated from the treatment. (Author)

  11. Brote de gastroenteritis por agua potable de suministro público Waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis transmitted through the public water supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Godoy

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La potabilidad del agua induce a descartar el posible origen hídrico de los brotes. El objetivo fue investigar un brote de gastroenteritis por agua potable de suministro público. Métodos: Después de la notificación de un brote de gastroenteritis en el municipio de Baqueira (Valle de Arán se diseñó un estudio epidemiológico de cohortes retrospectivo. Mediante un muestreo sistemático se eligió a 87 personas hospedadas en los hoteles y a 62 alojadas en diferentes apartamentos. Se recogió información sobre 4 factores (consumo de agua de la red, bocadillos, agua y alimentos en las pistas de esquí y presencia de síntomas. Se determinó la existencia de cloro, se analizó el agua de la red y se realizó un coprocultivo a 4 enfermos. La implicación de cada factor se determinó con el riesgo relativo (RR y su intervalo de confianza (IC del 95%. Resultados: La incidencia de gastroenteritis fue del 51,0% (76/149. Los porcentajes de los síntomas fueron los siguientes: fiebre, 27,0%; diarrea, 87,5%; náuseas, 50,7%; vómitos, 30,3%, y dolor abdominal, 80,0%. El único factor que presentó un riesgo estadísticamente significativo fue el consumo de agua de la red (RR = 11,0; IC del 95%, 1,6-74,7. La calificación sanitaria del agua fue de potabilidad. Se observó un defecto de situación del clorador en el depósito, que fue corregido. Se recomendó incrementar aún más las concentraciones de cloro, lo cual se acompañó de una disminución de los casos. Los coprocultivos de los 4 enfermos fueron negativos para las enterobacterias investigadas. Conclusiones: El estudio demuestra la posibilidad de presentación de brotes hídricos por agua cualificada como potable y sugiere la necesidad de mejorar la investigación microbiológica (determinación de protozoos y virus en este tipo de brotes.Introduction: The chlorination of public water supplies has led researchers to largely discard drinking water as a potential source of

  12. Liquid chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry based environmental metabolomics for the analysis of Pseudomonas putida Bacteria in potable water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouremenos, Konstantinos A; Beale, David J; Antti, Henrik; Palombo, Enzo A

    2014-09-01

    Water supply biofilms have the potential to harbour waterborne diseases, accelerate corrosion, and contribute to the formation of tuberculation in metallic pipes. One particular species of bacteria known to be found in the water supply networks is Pseudomonas sp., with the presence of Pseudomonas putida being isolated to iron pipe tubercles. Current methods for detecting and analysis pipe biofilms are time consuming and expensive. The application of metabolomics techniques could provide an alternative method for assessing biofilm risk more efficiently based on bacterial activity. As such, this paper investigates the application of metabolomic techniques and provides a proof-of-concept application using liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ToF-MS) to three biologically independent P. putida samples, across five different growth conditions exposed to solid and soluble iron (Fe). Analysis of the samples in +ESI and -ESI mode yielded 887 and 1789 metabolite features, respectively. Chemometric analysis of the +ESI and -ESI data identified 34 and 39 significant metabolite features, respectively, where features were considered significant if the fold change was greater than 2 and obtained a p-value less than 0.05. Metabolite features were subsequently identified according to the Metabolomics Standard Initiative (MSI) Chemical Analysis Workgroup using analytical standards and standard online LC-MS databases. Possible markers for P. putida growth, with and without being exposed to solid and soluble Fe, were identified from a diverse range of different chemical classes of metabolites including nucleobases, nucleosides, dipeptides, tripeptides, amino acids, fatty acids, sugars, and phospholipids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF DEPOSITS FORMED IN A WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CARACTERIZACIÓN DE DEPÓSITOS FORMADOS EN UN SISTEMA DE DISTRIBUCIÓN DE AGUA POTABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Echeverría

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of unwanted deposits in any water distribution system is unavoidable under standard conditions. Knowing the composition of such deposits will help to establish the causes of deposit formation and consequently to be able to keep water quality as high as possible. This paper presents the results of an extensive study of deposits found in a water distribution system of a tropical city. Characterization of materials collected across the system was made by infrared spectroscopy (IR, X ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Analysis of the samples taken at several sites of the system reveals the presence of three predominant deposits: a brown coloured deposit, tubercles and white deposits. Aluminosilicates and humic acids were found to be main constituents in brown deposits. Tubercles were mostly mixtures of magnetite, goethite and in some cases lepidocrocite. White deposits were formed by calcite, aluminosilicates and quartz. Organic matter as volatile solids were 14.0 ± 5.0% for brown deposits and 11.2 ± 2.0% for tubercles.La aparición de depósitos indeseados en cualquier sistema de distribución de agua potable es inevitable en condiciones normales de operación. Conocer la naturaleza de tales depósitos ayudará a establecer las causas de su formación y, en consecuencia, a mantener altos niveles de calidad del agua. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de un amplio estudio realizado en el sistema de distribución de agua de una ciudad situada en una zona tropical. La caracterización de los depósitos obtenidos en diferentes sitios a lo largo del sistema se realizó mediante Espectroscopia Infrarroja (IR, Difracción de Rayos X (DRX, Energías Dispersivas de Rayos X (EDS y Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido (MEB. El análisis de las muestras indica la presencia de tres tipos predominantes de depósitos: depósitos color marrón, tubérculos y depósitos blancos

  14. Storm Water General Permit 1 for Industrial Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — General permit #1 for storm water discharges associated with industrial facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program.

  15. Determination of fecal bacteriophages fecales from pre-potable waters using a simple membrane filtration technique; Determinacion de bacteriofagos fecales en aguas pre-potables por la tecnica de filtracion por membrana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luque, A.; Basanta, A. [EMASESA. Sevilla (Spain); Fuentes, M. V.; Alonso, M. C.; Borrego, J. J. [Universidad de Malaga (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    A modification of the simple filtration technique used for the detection and enumeration of fecal bacteriophages from pre-treated and treated drinking water is described. The filters and equipments used are similar to those employed for the classical bacterial indicator analysis, and the titer of bacteriophages may be recorded in only 6 hours. The proposed modification is based on the elimination of the bacterial decontamination of the water sample by use the selective medium mFC agar; and, in addition, an optimal visualization of the lysis plaques is obtained in this medium, which avoid the use of specific stains like triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC). On the other hand, the proposed modification of the technique presents a high accuracy, since bacteriophage titers of<10 pfu/100 ml of water are detected. (Author) 46 refs.

  16. Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHood, M D

    2000-10-12

    A geotechnical investigation program has been completed for the Commercial Light Water Reactor - Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program consisted of reviewing previous geotechnical and geologic data and reports, performing subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing, and geologic and engineering analyses. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the subsurface conditions for the CLWR-TEF in terms of subsurface stratigraphy and engineering properties for design and to perform selected engineering analyses. The objectives of the evaluation were to establish site-specific geologic conditions, obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface and potential fill materials, evaluate the lateral and vertical extent of any soft zones encountered, and perform engineering analyses for slope stability, bearing capacity and settlement, and liquefaction potential. In addition, provide general recommendations for construction and earthwork.

  17. Drinking water: problems related to water supply in Bahía Blanca, Argentina Agua potable: problemas en el abastecimiento de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Echenique

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In April 2000, alterations in drinking water quality, such as turbidity and odors similar to those of organochloride pesticides, were detected at Bahía Blanca (Argentina. This fact was associated to reports of dermic reactions and respiratory problems in the population. Samples drawn from Paso de las Piedras reservoir, two water treatment plants of at inlet and outlet points and at several particular houses were analyzed. Total phytoplankton in the reservoir varied between 49440 and 84832 cells.ml-1, while dominant species was, Anabaena circinalis. Efficiency to remove microorganisms (ER by the treatment plants considering cell number of total phytoplankton was analyzed. Bacteriological analysis, qualitative and quantitative studies of phytoplankton, pesticides, THM (trihalomethanes and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene analysis were carried out in samples of domestic supply and in the treatment plants. Even though samples were bacteriological potable, Anabaena circinalis and Microcystis aeruginosa algae were found at high concentrations in some cases. No pesticides were detected. THM and BTEX were below guideline values into recommendations for drinking water. Geosmin was responsible for detected odors. Besides, Copaene, another volatile metabolite, which on account in its structure could be considered a Geosmin precursor, was also detected. In Argentina, this was the first report of Cyanobacteria presence in drinking water.En abril de 2000, en Bahía Blanca (Argentina, se detectaron alteraciones en el agua de bebida, turbidez y olor semejante a "Gamexane". Esto coincidió con la aparición de problemas dérmicos y respiratorios en la población. Para determinar el origen del problema, se analizaron muestras, tomadas en el embalse Paso de las Piedras, en las plantas potabilizadoras y en varios domicilios particulares. En el embalse, la densidad celular del fitoplancton, fluctuó entre 49440 y 84832 cél/ml-1, muy por encima de

  18. Region 9 NPDES Facilities - Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA...

  19. Region 9 NPDES Facilities 2012- Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA...

  20. 21 CFR 1250.87 - Wash water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wash water. 1250.87 Section 1250.87 Food and Drugs... Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.87 Wash water. Where systems installed on vessels for wash water, as defined in § 1250.3(n), do not comply with the requirements of a potable water...

  1. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  2. Modeling, Instrumentation, Automation, and Optimization of Water Resource Recovery Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Michael W; Kabouris, John C

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to water resource recovery facilities (WRRF) in the areas of modeling, automation, measurement and sensors and optimization of wastewater treatment (or water resource reclamation) is presented.

  3. National facilities survey. Water treatment technology report No. 12 (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, D.H.

    1994-09-01

    This report is a survey of publicly and privately owned laboratories, facilities, and pilot plant equipment in the United States capable of undertaking water research and technology development. The survey was initiated by the National Water Research Institute and the Bureau of Reclamation as its first step in the development of the National Centers for Separation and Thermal Systems Research (Centers). The Centers concepts will facilitate water purification research through optimization of use of research resources, including facilities, making existing resources, facilities, and equipment available for investigators to conduct research. The survey contains information on 66 facilities in the United States.

  4. Calibration of Results of Water Meter Test Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Andrius Bončkus; Gediminas Gediminas

    2011-01-01

    The results of water meter test facility calibration are presented. More than 30 test facilities are used in Lithuania nowadays. All of them are certificated for water meter of class 2 verification. The results of inter-laboratory comparison of multi-jet water meter calibration at flow rate Q = 5 m3/h are presented. Lithuanian Energy Institute was appointed as reference laboratory for the comparison. Twelve water meter verification and calibration laboratories from Lithuania participated in t...

  5. Are NORMs Accumulated in Filters of Drinking Water Facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choung, S.; Shin, W.; Park, M.; Han, J. H.; Ryu, J. S.; Han, W. S.; Chang, B. U.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater is used as raw water to produce mineral drinking water through filtering processes in bottled water facilities. Although natural occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) exist in groundwater, accumulation of NORMs were rarely studied due to their low concentrations in groundwater. The goal of this study is to evaluate potential accumulation of NORMs in filters used at the drinking water facilities. Raw water and treated water after each filtering step, bottled water, and used filters were collected from a total of 13 bottled water facilities to analyze major dissolved ions and NORMs. Additionally, surface radioactive dose rate were measured at individual filter housings. The measured concentrations of NORMs in raw and treated water were quite low. However, the surface radioactivity dose rates dramatically increased around filter housing located at very first step regardless of filter type (i.e., activated carbon or membrane filter) in 4 out of 6 facilities. Some used filters showed approximately 20 times greater contents of Pb-210 than the Korean regulation level of 1 Bq g-1. Also, the concentrations of uranium and thorium were detected up to 75 µg g-1filter and 2 µg g-1filter, respectively, in 4 water facilities. These results implies potential accumulation of NORMs in filters used at bottled water facilities. Therefore, the filters need to be monitored during manufacturing processes of bottled water, and may be properly managed after use.

  6. Direction of rational use of water at livestock facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potseluev, A. A.; Nazarov, I. V.

    2017-05-01

    The article notes the world water shortage problem. Against this background, Russia’s agricultural production is considered, in particular the livestock sector as the main consumer of water resources. The structure of the main technological processes at livestock facilities is given and possible technological damage is indicated in case of the lack of technological processes for servicing animals and poultry with water. The direction of rational use of water based on the introduction of new technical and technological solutions of water supply systems and means is substantiated. Constructive solutions of systems and facilities that help to reduce water consumption are presented, and as well a possible positive effect.

  7. Water safety in healthcare facilities. The Vieste Charter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadonna, L; Cannarozzi de Grazia, M; Capolongo, S; Casini, B; Cristina, M L; Daniele, G; D'Alessandro, D; De Giglio, O; Di Benedetto, A; Di Vittorio, G; Ferretti, E; Frascolla, B; La Rosa, G; La Sala, L; Lopuzzo, M G; Lucentini, L; Montagna, M T; Moscato, U; Pasquarella, C; Prencipe, R; Ricci, M L; Romano Spica, V; Signorelli, C; Veschetti, E

    2017-01-01

    The Study Group on Hospital Hygiene of the Italian Society of Hygiene, Preventive Medicine and Public Health (GISIO-SItI) and the Local Health Authority of Foggia, Apulia, Italy, after the National Convention "Safe water in healthcare facilities" held in Vieste-Pugnochiuso on 27-28 May 2016, present the "Vieste Charter", drawn up in collaboration with experts from the National Institute of Health and the Ministry of Health. This paper considers the risk factors that may affect the water safety in healthcare facilities and reports the current regulatory frameworks governing the management of installations and the quality of the water. The Authors promote a careful analysis of the risks that characterize the health facilities, for the control of which specific actions are recommended in various areas, including water safety plans; approval of treatments; healthcare facilities responsibility, installation and maintenance of facilities; multidisciplinary approach; education and research; regional and national coordination; communication.

  8. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA of Potable Water Production in Malaysia: A Comparison among Different Technology Used in Water Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hamzah Sharaai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available LCA is a systematic procedure which assesses the lifecycle of a product to analyze the extent of its environmental impact contribution. In this LCA study comparison between three different water treatment plants in Malaysia have been conducted. Conventional Plant (using Dissolved Air Floatation (DAF and Pulsatube ® Clarifier Technology must undergo treatment process uses a standard system of screening, coagulation and flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection processes. While nonconventional plant using Ultrafiltration (UF not does go through processes like conventional plant. In reviewing the water treatment process by using LCA procedures, detailed information of every process involved is needed, including acquiring the energy information and materials consumed during the entire treatment process. The LCA procedure applied in this research uses the ISO 14040 series. Data inventory from selected month will be analyzed to gauge the impact to the environment using Eco-indicator 99 method. The high consumption of electricity in UF and DAF technologies is the contributing factors to the depletion of natural resources. Even though the electricity consumption in pulsatube ® clarifier technology is seen as efficient, but its PAC chemical usage is seen as the major contributor to the reduction of environmental quality and human health.

  9. Assessment of potential toxicity and aquatic community impacts associated with membrane and ion exchange water treatment facility effluents in coastal North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The application of reverse osmosis and ion exchange water treatment of groundwater to meet the growing potable water demand in eastern North Carolina has prompted...

  10. Calibration of Results of Water Meter Test Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Bončkus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of water meter test facility calibration are presented. More than 30 test facilities are used in Lithuania nowadays. All of them are certificated for water meter of class 2 verification. The results of inter-laboratory comparison of multi-jet water meter calibration at flow rate Q = 5 m3/h are presented. Lithuanian Energy Institute was appointed as reference laboratory for the comparison. Twelve water meter verification and calibration laboratories from Lithuania participated in the ILC. The deviations from reference values were described by the normalized deviation En.Article in Lithuanian

  11. Water, sanitation and hygiene in Jordan's healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Yousef Saleh

    2017-08-14

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine water availability, sanitation and hygiene (WSH) services, and healthcare waste management in Jordan healthcare facilities. Design/methodology/approach In total, 19 hospitals (15 public and four private) were selected. The WSH services were assessed in hospitals using the WSH in health facilities assessment tool developed for this purpose. Findings All hospitals (100 percent) had a safe water source and most (84.2 percent) had functional water sources to provide enough water for users' needs. All hospitals had appropriate and sufficient gender separated toilets in the wards and 84.2 percent had the same in outpatient settings. Overall, 84.2 percent had sufficient and functioning handwashing basins with soap and water, and 79.0 percent had sufficient showers. Healthcare waste management was appropriately practiced in all hospitals. Practical implications Jordan hospital managers achieved major achievements providing access to drinking water and improved sanitation. However, there are still areas that need improvements, such as providing toilets for patients with special needs, establishing handwashing basins with water and soap near toilets, toilet maintenance and providing sufficient trolleys for collecting hazardous waste. Efforts are needed to integrate WSH service policies with existing national policies on environmental health in health facilities, establish national standards and targets for the various healthcare facilities to increase access and improve services. Originality/value There are limited WSH data on healthcare facilities and targets for basic coverage in healthcare facilities are also lacking. A new assessment tool was developed to generate core WSH indicators and to assess WSH services in Jordan's healthcare facilities. This tool can be used by a non-WSH specialist to quickly assess healthcare facility-related WSH services and sanitary hazards in other countries. This tool identified some areas

  12. Topical report : NSTF facilities plan for water-cooled VHTR RCCS : normal operational tests.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Tzanos, C. P.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-09-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Generation IV roadmapping activity, the gas-cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) has been selected as the principal concept for hydrogen production and other process-heat applications such as district heating and potable water production. On this basis, the DOE has selected the VHTR for additional R&D with the ultimate goal of demonstrating emission-free electricity and hydrogen production with this advanced reactor concept.

  13. Microbial Condition of Water Samples from Foreign Fuel Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, C.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Fliermans, C.B.; Santo Domingo, J.

    1997-10-30

    In order to assess the microbial condition of foreign nuclear fuel storage facilities, fourteen different water samples were received from facilities outside the United States that have sent spent nuclear fuel to SRS for wet storage. Each water sample was analyzed for microbial content and activity as determined by total bacteria, viable aerobic bacteria, viable anaerobic bacteria, viable sulfate- reducing bacteria, viable acid-producing bacteria and enzyme diversity. The results for each water sample were then compared to other foreign samples and to data from the receiving basin for off- site fuel (RBOF) at SRS.

  14. Electric power saving in the drinkable water, sewage and sanitation system, La Piedad; Ahorro de energia electrica en el sistema de agua potable, alcantarillado y saneamiento de La Piedad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sistema de Agua Potable, Alcantarillado y Saneamiento de la Piedad (Mexico). E-mail: sapaslapiedad@prodigy.net.mx

    2006-04-15

    In Michoacan, Mexico, a project who seeks to benefice the Municipal public resources was crated in 1994. It would be achieved trough the electric power saving in the public lighting system, and drinkable water pumping and black water, since those activities required the budget biggest part. The program could be developed recently and the saving was significant. In addition the electromechanical efficiency increased in the equipment installation. This work is an example for other States to do something similar that can improve their conditions. [Spanish] En el estado de Michoacan, Mexico se creo un proyecto en el ano de 1994, el cual buscaba beneficiar los recursos publicos municipales, a traves del ahorro de la energia electrica en los sistemas de alumbrado publico y bombeo de agua potable y aguas negras, ya que estas actividades son las que requieren la mayor parte del presupuesto. El programa pudo llevarse a cabo en anos recientes y el ahorro fue significativo, ademas de que aumento la eficiencia electromecanica en los equipos que se instalaron, y esta obra ha servido de ejemplo a otros estados para que realicen algo similar que pueda mejorar su situacion.

  15. Increasing concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) in a drinking water distribution network; Trihalometanos (THMs) en una red de distribucion de agua potable en alta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero Cervera, F.; Carnicero Cercavins, M.

    1999-07-01

    THMs are disinfection by-products (DBPs) generated during water chlorination. Concentration of individual and total THMs, depends on treatment process and THMs precursors level. ATLL water utility has two DWTP (Llobregar and Ter) that produce and supply drinking water to Barcelona and regional area. This work studies the levels of THMs along the ATLL distribution system (450 km). Although, no differences were observed along water pipes system, changes of water resource and mix procedures were related. (Author) 12 refs.

  16. Water Channel Facility for Fluid Dynamics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslam-Panah, Azar; Sabatino, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    This study presents the design, assembly, and verification process of the circulating water channel constructed by undergraduate students at the Penn State University at Berks. This work was significantly inspired from the closed-loop free-surface water channel at Lafayette College (Sabatino and Maharjan, 2015) and employed for experiments in fluid dynamics. The channel has a 11 ft length, 2.5 ft width, and 2 ft height glass test section with a maximum velocity of 3.3 ft/s. First, the investigation justifies the needs of a water channel in an undergraduate institute and its potential applications in the whole field of engineering. Then, the design procedures applied to find the geometry and material of some elements of the channel, especially the contraction, the test section, the inlet and end tanks, and the pump system are described. The optimization of the contraction design, including the maintenance of uniform exit flow and avoidance of flow separation, is also included. Finally, the discussion concludes by identifying the problems with the undergraduate education through this capstone project and suggesting some new investigations to improve flow quality.

  17. Applications of electrotechnologies to drinking water treatment: ozonization and membranes; Les electrotechnologies applicables au traitement de l`eau potable: ozonation et membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Kindi, M.; Lantagne, G. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Bouchard, C. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    1996-03-01

    Application of ozonization and of membrane nanofiltration processes in water purification were reviewed. Recent technological developments in ozone generation have considerably reduced the cost of ozone production and have therefore increased its feasibility as an oxidant in water purification plants. Ozone presents numerous advantages over halogen oxidants. In addition to disinfection, ozone eliminates odor and taste, clears the color of the water and can help to precipitate soluble iron and manganese species in the water. In Quebec, 35 of the 153 water treatment plants already use ozonization. Membrane filtration is a developing method with significant potential energy savings in the water treatment industry. An overview of energy savings resulting from combined use of ozonization with membrane nanofiltration in water treatment was presented. 20 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  18. Progress in silver-loaded activated carbon for the deep purification of potable water%饮用水深度净化载银活性炭研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王自强; 刘守新; 刘尚

    2009-01-01

    This review summarizes the progress of silver-loaded activated carbon (AC/Ag) for the deep purification of potable water. The propagation of microorganisms on AC and the antibacterial mechanisms of silver are firstly discussed. Then, the preparation methods for AC/Ag are elaborated, in which the nano-silver loaded AC/Ag has been proved to have stronger antibacterial characteristic. The influence of valence state and particle size of silver, the pore distribution and surface chemical properties of AC on the antibacterial and inhibitory properties are discussed. Furthermore, the developmental trend of AC/Ag is proposed.%介绍了活性炭(AC)在净水过程中微生物的繁殖,概述了银抗菌机理的研究进展.阐述了载银AC(AC/Ag)的制备现状,指出负载纳米银的AC/Ag具有更强的抗菌性能.归纳了银的价态、银颗粒尺寸等因素对AC/Ag抗菌的影响,总结了AC孔结构、AC表面化学性等因素对AC/Ag的影响,展望了AC/Ag的发展趋势.

  19. Predicting and evaluating losses from a drinking water distribution network; Prediccion y evaluacion de perdidas en una red de distribucion de agua potable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias Bazan, E.; Pelayo Martin, I.

    1998-06-01

    The ratio m``3 lost/m``3 supplied is a good indicator of the level of non-registered water in a distribution water net. However, this ratio doesn`t give any further information, especially what can be done to improved it. This document explains how it was introduce all the information avalaible in 22 water nets (e.g. pressure, net length, number of subscribers, age of the accountants,...) and using multiple regression methods, identify which variables are significative and moreover obtain an equation that calculates the prospective losses. Besides, these methods can be used to evaluate and compare different water nets, analyzing the discrepancy between real and prospective losses as a result on the effect (los water) of definated causes, that can also be minimized eliminated. (Author)

  20. Monitoring of soil water content and quality inside and outside the water curtain cultivation facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, K.; Kim, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Water curtain cultivation system is an energy saving technique for winter season by splashing groundwater on the inner roof of green house. Artificial groundwater recharge application to the water curtain cultivation facilities was adopted and tested to use groundwater sustainably in a rural region of Korea. The groundwater level in the test site shows natural trend corresponding rainfall pattern except during mid-November to early April when groundwater levels decline sharply due to groundwater abstraction for water curtain cultivation. Groundwater levels are also affected by surface water such as stream, small dams in the stream and agricultural ditches. Infiltration data were collected from lysimeter installation and monitoring inside and outside water cultivation facility and compared with each other. The infiltration data were well correlated with rainfall outside the facility, but the data in the facility showed very different from the other. The missing infiltration data were attributed to groundwater level rise and level sensor location below water table. Soil water contents in the unsaturated zone indicated rainfall infiltration propagation at depth and with time outside the facility. According to rainfall amount and water condition at the initial stage of a rainfall event, the variation of soil water content was shown differently. Soil water contents and electrical conductivities were closely correlated with each other, and they reflected rainfall infiltration through the soil and water quality changes. The monitoring results are useful to reveal the hydrological processes from the infiltration to groundwater recharge, and water management planning in the water cultivation areas.

  1. DUSEL Facility Cooling Water Scaling Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, W D

    2011-04-05

    Precipitation (crystal growth) in supersaturated solutions is governed by both kenetic and thermodynamic processes. This is an important and evolving field of research, especially for the petroleum industry. There are several types of precipitates including sulfate compounds (ie. barium sulfate) and calcium compounds (ie. calcium carbonate). The chemical makeup of the mine water has relatively large concentrations of sulfate as compared to calcium, so we may expect that sulfate type reactions. The kinetics of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO4 {center_dot} 2H20, gypsum) scale formation on heat exchanger surfaces from aqueous solutions has been studied by a highly reproducible technique. It has been found that gypsum scale formation takes place directly on the surface of the heat exchanger without any bulk or spontaneous precipitation in the reaction cell. The kinetic data also indicate that the rate of scale formation is a function of surface area and the metallurgy of the heat exchanger. As we don't have detailed information about the heat exchanger, we can only infer that this will be an issue for us. Supersaturations of various compounds are affected differently by temperature, pressure and pH. Pressure has only a slight affect on the solubility, whereas temperature is a much more sensitive parameter (Figure 1). The affect of temperature is reversed for calcium carbonate and barium sulfate solubilities. As temperature increases, barium sulfate solubility concentrations increase and scaling decreases. For calcium carbonate, the scaling tendencies increase with increasing temperature. This is all relative, as the temperatures and pressures of the referenced experiments range from 122 to 356 F. Their pressures range from 200 to 4000 psi. Because the cooling water system isn't likely to see pressures above 200 psi, it's unclear if this pressure/scaling relationship will be significant or even apparent. The most common scale minerals found in the

  2. Health risk assessment of organic micropollutants in greywater for potable reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchepare, Ramiro; van der Hoek, Jan Peter

    2015-04-01

    In light of the increasing interest in development of sustainable potable reuse systems, additional research is needed to elucidate the risks of producing drinking water from new raw water sources. This article investigates the presence and potential health risks of organic micropollutants in greywater, a potential new source for potable water production introduced in this work. An extensive literature survey reveals that almost 280 organic micropollutants have been detected in greywater. A three-tiered approach is applied for the preliminary health risk assessment of these chemicals. Benchmark values are derived from established drinking water standards for compounds grouped in Tier 1, from literature toxicological data for compounds in Tier 2, and from a Threshold of Toxicological Concern approach for compounds in Tier 3. A risk quotient is estimated by comparing the maximum concentration levels reported in greywater to the benchmark values. The results show that for the majority of compounds, risk quotient values were below 0.2, which suggests they would not pose appreciable concern to human health over a lifetime exposure to potable water. Fourteen compounds were identified with risk quotients above 0.2 which may warrant further investigation if greywater is used as a source for potable reuse. The present findings are helpful in prioritizing upcoming greywater quality monitoring and defining the goals of multiple barriers treatment in future water reclamation plants for potable water production.

  3. Simple method of determination of copper, mercury and lead in potable water with preliminary pre-concentration by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hołyńska, B.; Ostachowicz, B.; Wȩgrzynek, D.

    1996-06-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and chemical pre-concentration procedures have been applied for the analysis of trace concentrations of copper, mercury, and lead in drinking water samples. A simple total reflection module has been used in X-ray measurements. The elements under investigation were pre-concentrated by complexation using a mixture of carbamates followed by solvent extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone. The preconcentration procedure was tested with the use of twice-distilled water samples and samples of mineral and tap water spiked with known additions of copper, mercury, and lead. The obtained recovery and precision values are presented. The minimum detection limits for the determination of these elements in mineral and tap water samples were found to be 40 ng l -1, 60 ng l -1, and 60 ng l -1, respectively.

  4. A Movable Combined Water Treatment Facility for Rainwater Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Liao, L.

    2003-12-01

    Alarming water shortage and increased water scarcity world wide has led to increased interests in alternative water sources. Rainwater harvesting is one of them which is getting more and more attention. There is a huge potential for generalization and extension of rainwater harvesting system as an alternative water supply. This is especially important for arid and semi-arid regions where the water shortage blocks further social, economical development. Earlier laboratory experiments and field study showed that harvested rainwater requires treatments of different degrees in order to meet the WHO drinking water standards. The main focus of this study is to ascertain the quality of stored rainwater for drinking purposes with emphasis on water disinfection and pollutants removal. A movable, low-cost, fully functional small scale treatment facility is proposed and tested under simulated field condition. A number of actual and potential hazardous pollutants were identified in the collected water samples together with laboratory test. The corresponding water purification procedure and fresh-keeping methods are discussed. The final proposal of this movable facility needs to be further examined to achieve optimal combined treatment efficiency.

  5. DETERMINACIÓN DEL TIEMPO DE MEZCLA EN UN TANQUE DE ALMACENAMIENTO PARA AGUA POTABLE MEDIANTE DINÁMICA DE FLUIDOS COMPUTACIONAL -CFD- Determining the Blend Time in a Drinking Water Storage Tank through Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Laín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Para estimar el comportamiento hidráulico de un tanque de almacenamiento de agua potable se usó un programa para la simulación de dinámica computacional de fluidos, evaluando numéricamente los perfiles de velocidad y el tiempo de mezcla. Los perfiles de velocidad mostraron un valor máximo a la salida de 0,76 m.s-1 y velocidades de 0,2 m.s-1 cerca de las paredes, propiciando zonas de recirculación cerca del chorro de entrada. La inyección del trazador y el coeficiente de variación para 17 puntos de monitoreo en el tanque resultaron en un tiempo de mezcla de 19,06 horas y se verificó que cerca de las paredes la mezcla es menos eficiente que en la trayectoria del chorro de entrada. El volumen necesario que debe entrar al tanque para que haya buena mezcla resultó inversamente proporcional a la masa de agua almacenada.In order to estimate the hydraulic behavior of a drinking water storage tank, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD simulation program was used to numerically evaluate blend speed and time profiles. Speed profiles showed a maximum value when leaving at 0.76 m.s-1 and 0.2 m.s-1 speeds near walls, creating recirculation areas near the inlet stream. Injection of tracer and the variation coefficient for 17 monitoring points in the tank resulted in a blend time of 19.06 hours and it was found that the blend near walls is less efficient than in the inlet stream trajectory. Necessary volume to enter the tank in order to achieve a good blend was inversely proportional to the water mass stored.

  6. Arsenic presence and coliforms in drinking water of the Tecuala municipality, Nayarit, Mexico; Presencia de arsenico y coliformes en agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora B, D.; Gonzalez A, C. A.; Medina D, I. M.; Robledo M, M. L.; Rojas G, A. E. [Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Secretaria de Investigacion y Posgrado, Ciudad de la Cultura Amado Nervo, 63155 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Sanchez P, L. C.; Del Razo, L. M., E-mail: aerg81@gmail.com [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Departamento de Toxicologia, Av. IPN No. 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Total arsenic concentrations (t As) and the presence of total and fecal coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico, were determined. The presence of t As was analyzed by means of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total and fecal coliforms were determined through the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. According to the results, the mean concentration of t As in Tecuala wa 15.82 {mu}g/L, in Atotonilco 19.88 {mu}g/L, in Pajaritos 21.49 {mu}g/L, in Quimichis 17.80 {mu}g/L, and in Playas de Novillero 19.79 {mu}g/L. The t As concentrations in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, are within the limit set by the Mexican official standards (25 {mu}g/L); still, they are over the limit established by the World Health Organization (10 {mu}g/L). The concentration of coliforms in water from wells 1 and 3 was 180 MPN/100 ml and 43 MPN/100 ml for well water 2. The presence of total and fecal coliforms, suggest the infiltration of sewage which could increase the levels of dissolved arsenic. The results of this study will serve as an antecedent of the water quality in Tecuala, Nayarit. (Author)

  7. Risks attributable to water quality changes in shallow potable aquifers from geological carbon sequestration leakage into sediments of variable carbonate content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cahill, Aaron Graham; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Mathiesen, Tina Bay

    2013-01-01

    Denmark including; siliceous, carbonate and clay materials. Sediments were exposed to CO2 and hydro-geochemical effects were observed in order to improve general understanding of trace metal mobility, quantify carbonate influence, assess risks attributable to fresh water resources from a potential leak...... and aid monitoring measurement and verification (MMV) program design. Results demonstrate control of water chemistry by sediment mineralogy and most significantly carbonate content, for which a potential semi-logarithmic relationship with pH and alkalinity was observed. In addition, control of water...... chemistry by calcite equilibrium was inferred for sediments containing >2% total inorganic carbon (TIC), whereby pH minima and alkalinity maxima of approximately 6 and 20mequiv./l respectively were observed. Carbonate dominated (i.e. >2% TIC) and mixed (i.e. clay containing) sediments showed the most severe...

  8. Bacteriophages as microorganisms shape in the processes of treatment of drinkable waters; Bacteriofagos como microorganismos modelo en los procesos de tratamiento de aguas potables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arza, I.; Mendez, X.; Valero, F.; Jofre, J.; Lucena, F.

    2002-07-01

    The removal of bacteriophages and bacterial indicators at the different stages of treatment in a drinking treatment plant were determined in order to investigate the usefulness of phages as model organisms to evaluate the effectiveness of the processes of the plant. Pre chlorination-flocculation-sedimentation was by far the most efficient step in removing phages, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci during the periods. Sulphite reducing clostridia were the most resistant to this first stage of treatment. Entero viruses were never detected in finished water, and consequently their removal could not be quantified. The phages infecting Bact, fragilis and somatic coli phages are significantly more abundant then entero viruses in raw waters, heir numbers more elevated and their greater resistance during the process, allows their isolation throughout the processing. Consequently, somatic coliphages and phages infectingBact. fragilis deserve durther attention as model organisms for the evaluation of removal of human enteric viruses in water treatment plants. (Author) 21 refs.

  9. Radiological study of the sludge generated in a station drinking water treatment; Estudio radiologico de los fangos generados en una Estacion de Tratamiento de Aguas Potables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, A.; Salas, A.; Gragera, J.

    2011-07-01

    The purification process involves removing the water or at least reducing the legally permitted levels of undesirable substances that become part of the precipitates that originate, called sludge. The importance of the study is given because it will find, in the event that the process effectively reduce its radioactive contents, significant activities of the radionuclides eliminated. In this sense, the concentration of radioactive sludge and, above all, the chemical forms in which these radionuclides are retained condition the danger of the waste produced on the basis of their potential availability. In this study, we analyzed the sludge generated in a water treatment plant that has operated under both routine operation and in conditions designed to optimize the reduction of the radioactive contents for uranium and radium present in the treated water. (Author)

  10. Formation and elimination of the biofilm in drinking water distribution system; Formacion y eliminacion de biofilm en las redes de distribucion de agua potable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubeda, J.; Briones, A. [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (Spain); Lopez, E. [Aquagest, S. A. Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The water distribution system is a proper medium for the developing of microorganisms. This growth together to the excretion of organic polymers promote the formation of the bio films. Its develop on the surface of the distribution systems depend of different factors, underlying the composition of the pipes. The formation of the biofilm cause a deterioration of the organoleptic and micro biologic quality of water since it behaves as a protector barrier of the pathogenic bacteria that have outlived the water treatment process. A biofilm can be visualized using microscopic techniques, even though at the present genetic and immuno fluorescent techniques are employed. The cleaning and disinfection are used for its elimination: when the chloride is used, a great residual concentration is needed. (Author) 22 refs.

  11. Cost comparison of two systems for eliminating arsenic from drinking water; Comparacion de costes de dos sistemas para la eliminacion de arsenico en aguas potables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mujal Tasende, F.

    2007-07-01

    Two ways of reducing the arsenic content of drinking water one using iron oxide salts, the other employing bio filtration were compared taking into account the initial investment and the operating costs throughout the useful lifetime of the projects, estimated at 20 years. On the basis of this time scale, the cost of the water obtained is 0.18 Euros/m{sup 3} with the iron oxide salts method and 0.02 Euros/m{sup 3} with bio filtration, which makes the latter the method of choice for installations managed by public or private organisations in which operating costs are of vital importance. (Author) 19 refs.

  12. Reduction of tri halomethanes in drinking water using chlorine dioxide as a pre oxidant; Rduccion de trihalometanos en agua potable mediante preoxidacion con dioxido de cloro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcian Cervera, V. J.; Monforte Monleon, L.; Ribera Orts, R.; Alvarez Alondiga, I.; Garcia Garrido, J.

    2007-07-01

    The object of the present study is to verify the suitability of using chlorine dioxide as a pre oxidant in the Water Treatment Plant of La Presa (Manises) and El Realon (Picassent), in order to minimize the tri halomethanes formation. To prove the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide, on the tri halomethanes precursors removal by oxidation, many controls and analytics have been done on the two water treatment plants. On the other hand this study also shows the chlorine dioxide generation method used, as well as its high disinfection efficiency, higher than the chlorine. (Author)

  13. 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based phylogenetic analysis of abundant bacteria in river, canal and potable water in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Nishiguchi, Takahiro; Utrarachkij, Fuangfa; Suthienkul, Orasa; Nasu, Masao

    2013-01-01

    In Southeast Asian countries, industrialization and urbanization is occurring rapidly, and water pollution in rivers and canals poses serious problems in some areas, especially in cities. Excess inflow of domestic, agricultural, and industrial wastewater to freshwater environments disturbs the aquatic microbial ecosystem, which can further pollute water by inhibiting biodegradation of pollutants. Therefore, monitoring of microbes in freshwater environment is important to identify changes in indigenous microbial populations and to estimate the influence of wastewater inflows on them. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis is suitable for monitoring changes in microbial communities caused by human activities, but this method can be difficult in eutrophic freshwater samples that contain PCR inhibitors. In this study, we optimized DNA extraction procedures and PCR conditions for DGGE analysis of bacterial populations in freshwater samples (canal, river, and tap water) collected in Bangkok, Thailand. A simple freeze-thaw procedure was effective for extracting DNA from bacterial cells in the samples, and LA Taq with added bovine serum albumin provided the best PCR amplification. The PCR-DGGE approach revealed that the most common bacteria in freshwater samples belonged to Gammaproteobacteria, while a Gram-positive bacterium was present at Bangkok Noi Canal. Temporally and spatially continuous analyses of bacterial populations in Bangkok canals and rivers by PCR-DGGE approach should be useful to recognize disturbances of microbial ecosystems caused by excess inflows of wastewater.

  14. Investigación de trihalometanos en agua potable del Estado Carabobo, Venezuela Trihalomethanes in the drinking water of Carabobo State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sarmiento

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: La desinfección del agua con cloro en las plantas de potabilización da lugar a la formación de trihalometanos (THM. Estos compuestos están asociados a efectos adversos para la salud. En este estudio se determinó la concentración de THM en el agua para consumo humano suministrada por las redes de distribución de los dos principales sistemas de potabilización de agua del Estado Carabobo, la planta Alejo Zuloaga y el embalse Pao-Cachinche que forman el Sistema Regional del Centro I (SRC-I y la planta Lucio Baldo Soules y el embalse Pao-La Balsa que forman el Sistema Regional del Centro II (SRC-II. Métodos: Se analizaron un total de 144 muestras recolectadas durante 6 muestreos que se realizaron durante los años 2000 y 2001. La concentración de THM se determinó por cromatografía de gases, mediante la técnica de headspace. Se determinaron las concentraciones para los siguientes THM: cloroformo (CHCl3, bromoformo (CHBr3, dibromoclorometano (CHBr2Cl y diclorobromometano (CHCl2Br. Resultados: La concentración de THM totales estuvo entre 47,84 y 93,23 μg/l. El CHCl3 fue el compuesto predominante, representando el 83% de total de THM para el SRC-I y el 82% en el SRC-II. Se encontró que las concentraciones de THM totales en el SRC-I (Red Baja y Red San Diego son significativamente superiores (p Objective: Disinfection of water with chlorine in water treatment plants leads to the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs. These compounds are associated with adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to analyze THM concentrations in the water provided for human consumption in the two main water treatment systems of Carabobo State: the Alejo Zuloaga plant and the Pao-Cachinche reservoir, which form the Central Regional System I (CRS I, and the Lucio Baldo Soules plant and the Pao-La Balsa reservoir, which form the Central Regional System II (CRS II. Methods: We analyzed 144 water samples collected in 6 samplings carried out in 2000

  15. Study of pesticides removal by processes used in Spain to produce drinking water; Eliminacion de plaguicidas mediante procesos utilizados en Espana para la produccion de agua potable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormand, M. P.; Claver, A.; Miguel, N.; Ovelleiro, J. L.

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this research work is study the effectiveness of treatments habitually used in drinking water plants in plants to remove 44 pesticides detected systematically in Ebro river basin Applied techniques are: pre oxidation by chlorine or ozone, chemical precipitation with aluminium sulphate and activated carbon adsorption. The intensive treatment (preoxidation, coagulation.flocculation and activated carbon adsorption) is a few less effective with chlorine than with ozone although both treatments achieve average removal yields of studied pesticides high, about 90%. (Author) 35 refs.

  16. Clostridium perfringens removal in different stages in a Drinking Water Treatments plant; Eliminacion de Clostidium perfringens en diversas etapas de una estacion de tratamiento de aguas potables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormad, M. P.; Lanao, M.; Goni, P.; Ibarz, C.; Ovelleiro, J. L.

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of different stages, which take part in the conventional treatments used in the drinking water treatment plants in Spain, in the removal of a microbiological indicator of faecal pollution, Clostridium perfringens. The stages studied are pre oxidation with chlorine and ozone, chemical precipitation, adsorption with activated coal and filtration sand. The pre oxidation, either with sodium hypochlorite or with ozone, gets final recounts below the detection limit with the conditions studied (> 8 log). In the rest of stages, the removal is minimal, achieving 1,32 logarithmic units at best case. (Author) 6 refs.

  17. Study of the elimination of fluorine from drinking water using adsorbent materials; Estudio de la eliminacion de fluor del agua potable utilizando materiales adsorbentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores de la Torre, J.A.; Badillo A, V.E.; Badillo A, V. [UAZ, 98600 Guadalupe, Zacatecas (Mexico); Lopez D, F.A. [Unidad PET/Ciclotron, Facultad de Medicina, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: ebadillo@cantera.reduaz.mx

    2004-07-01

    With the purpose of diminishing the levels of fluorine in the water in certain areas geographical of the country, the interaction of the fluorine is studied, with a Mexican natural clay, called kaolinite and a synthetic apatite called hydroxyapatite. Due to the discharges concentrations of this element in waters of human consumption cause fluorosis dental and osseous, it is important to propose adsorbent materials able to diminish those elevated concentrations of fluorine. In this investigation work the retention of the fluorine is studied in mineral phases using the tracer radioactive {sup 8} F. This retention is expressed in terms of the fixed percent of {sup 18} F, in a natural kaolinite in solution of NaCl 0.01 M, and in a synthetic hydroxyapatite setting in contact with a solution of NaF 0.01 M and a solution of NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} 0.01 M, all in function of the value of the p H of the solution. The results demonstrate that the influence of the p H is remarkable in the retention of the fluoride in both minerals, demonstrating that the hydroxyapatite (calcium phosphate) it retains in a lot of bigger proportion to the fluorine that the kaolinite (aluminosilicate), all this to values of acid p H, diminishing as the value of the p H increases. (Author)

  18. Spatial response surface modelling in the presence of data paucity for the evaluation of potential human health risk due to the contamination of potable water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shen; McGree, James; Hayes, John F; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-10-01

    Potential human health risk from waterborne diseases arising from unsatisfactory performance of on-site wastewater treatment systems is driven by landscape factors such as topography, soil characteristics, depth to water table, drainage characteristics and the presence of surface water bodies. These factors are present as random variables which are spatially distributed across a region. A methodological framework is presented that can be applied to model and evaluate the influence of various factors on waterborne disease potential. This framework is informed by spatial data and expert knowledge. For prediction at unsampled sites, interpolation methods were used to derive a spatially smoothed surface of disease potential which takes into account the uncertainty due to spatial variation at any pre-determined level of significance. This surface was constructed by accounting for the influence of multiple variables which appear to contribute to disease potential. The framework developed in this work strengthens the understanding of the characteristics of disease potential and provides predictions of this potential across a region. The study outcomes presented constitutes an innovative approach to environmental monitoring and management in the face of data paucity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation on the health status of rural potable water quality of Hechi city%河池市2010-2011年农村生活饮用水水质卫生状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴林洪; 韦敏; 罗润忠

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解河池市农村饮用水水质卫生状况,为卫生监管提供科学依据.方法 按照GB/T5750-2006《生活饮用水标准检验方法》进行检验,结果 按照GB/T5749-2006《生活饮用水卫生标准》进行评价.结果 2010-2011年共检测水样120份,合格21份,总合格率为17.5%.不合格项目主要是总大肠菌群、菌落总数、耐热大肠菌群,合格率分别地为30.0%、35.0%、41.7%,其余指标的合格率均在92%以上.结论 河池市农村饮用水水质合格率较低,特别是微生物污染较严重,必须加强净化和消毒处理.%Objective To understand the hygienic situation of drinking water in the countryside of Hechi city. Method According to standard examination methods for drinking water (GB/T5750 -2006) to carry out detecting, and according to drinking water sanitary standard (GB/T5749 -2006) to cany out evaluation. Results Total of 120 samples were checked during 2010 to 2011, among them, 21 samples were qualified, the total qualified rate was 17. 5% , the unqualified items were coliform bacteria, total plate count and thermotoler-ant coliform bacteria, the qualified rate were 30. 0% , 35.0% and 41.7% , respectively. The qualified rate of other indexes were more than 92. 0%. Conclusions The qualified rate of rural potable water of Hechi was somewhat low, especially the microbial contamination, so we should be strengthen the conditioning and disinfection work.

  20. INVESTIGATION OF QUANTIFICATION OF FLOOD CONTROL AND WATER UTILIZATION EFFECT OF RAINFALL INFILTRATION FACILITY BY USING WATER BALANCE ANALYSIS MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    文, 勇起; BUN, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, many flood damage and drought attributed to urbanization has occurred. At present infiltration facility is suggested for the solution of these problems. Based on this background, the purpose of this study is investigation of quantification of flood control and water utilization effect of rainfall infiltration facility by using water balance analysis model. Key Words : flood control, water utilization , rainfall infiltration facility

  1. Criticality safety evaluation report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility`s process water handling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roblyer, S.D.

    1998-02-12

    This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified. The effectiveness of equipment design and operation controls in preventing criticality occurrences during normal and abnormal conditions is evaluated and documented in this report. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is removed from existing canisters in both the K East and K West Basins and loaded into a multicanister overpack (MCO) in the K Basin pool. The MCO is housed in a shipping cask surrounded by clean water in the annulus between the exterior of the MCO and the interior of the shipping cask. The fuel consists of spent N Reactor and some single pass reactor fuel. The MCO is transported to the CVDF near the K Basins to remove process water from the MCO interior and from the shipping cask annulus. After the bulk water is removed from the MCO, any remaining free liquid is removed by drawing a vacuum on the MCO`s interior. After cold vacuum drying is completed, the MCO is filled with an inert cover gas, the lid is replaced on the shipping cask, and the MCO is transported to the Canister Storage Building. The process water removed from the MCO contains fissionable materials from metallic uranium corrosion. The process water from the MCO is first collected in a geometrically safe process water conditioning receiver tank. The process water in the process water conditioning receiver tank is tested, then filtered, demineralized, and collected in the storage tank. The process water is finally removed from the storage tank and transported from the CVDF by truck.

  2. Construction of water intake facilities from partially drying up watercourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    Full Text Available Partially ephemeral streams are complex objects that can still be used for water supply or irrigation of agricultural land. The problem of such streams is poorly studied, because the influence of various environmental factors complicates carrying out any experiments. Also it is not possible to make their full classification due to their very strong variability not only on a particular geographical belt, but also within separate areas of the river. All this undoubtedly complicates the task of the designers when designing the system. Creation of laboratory models, allowing us to evaluate the possibilities of a spring use for the purpose of water supply, is very promising. These watercourses have a large amount of suspended sediments, so it is not possible to use the standard scheme of water using of the coastal and fluvial water intake structures. It is proposed to organize the fight with the sediments in the flow chart of primary clarifiers, which will perform the function of settling suspensions, to facilitate the work of water treatment facilities. Also the creation of artificial prop is useful in order to achieve the required level of water in a watercourse for water organization. If under the bottom of the river there is underground water, and the permeability of the soil is good, it is possible to arrange the withdrawal of water through infiltration intakes, by setting the filter under the bottom of the watercourse with its connection to filter, from which the water will climb to submersible pumps. Additional filtration through the soil of the river bottom allows not using the scheme sumps, which significantly reduces the cost of epy incoming water treatment.

  3. Tratamiento de agua potable por filtración inducida en una laguna costera en el sur de Brasil Bank filtration drinking water treatment in a costal lagoon in south Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guillermo Romero Esquivel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La filtración inducida (FI consiste en obtener agua potable de pozos situados en acuíferos de aluvión u otro tipo de depósitos no consolidados conectados hidráulicamente con una fuente de agua superficial. La posibilidad de aplicar esta técnica en las riberas de la laguna Lagoa do Peri, Brasil, se evaluó a nivel piloto. Por medio de observación y de análisis granulométricos se determinó que el fondo de la laguna y el acuífero aledaño presentan una textura arenosa. Además, ensayos de permeámetro de carga constante, de tubo de carga variable y de bombeo, mostraron que la conductividad hidráulica en las mismas zonas se encuentra cercana a 10-4 m/s, misma magnitud encontrada en otras latitudes donde la FI se aplica con éxito. El agua captada en un pozo a 20 m de la Lagoa do Peri presentó valores de turbidez y color aparente acordes con los patrones de calidad locales. Se observó un aumento en la dureza y la alcalinidad, atribuido a la erosión de los materiales del subsuelo, sin llegar a superar lo estipulado en la legislación. Finalmente, el agua producida por la FI mostró ser de mejor calidad en términos de turbidez y color aparente que el agua de la laguna tratada por filtración directa en una estación de tratamiento (ETA ubicada en el lugar. El agua producida por la FI presentó condiciones anóxicas que harían necesario el postratamiento por aireación y filtración, proceso en el cual se podría aprovechar la infraestructura de la ETA existente.Bank filtration (BF consists in obtaining drinking water from wells in alluvial aquifers or other unconsolidated deposits hydraulically connected with a surface water source. The possibility of applying this technique was evaluated in a pilot scale on the banks of the Lagoa do Peri lagoon, Brazil. Observation and grain size analysis showed that the bottom of the lagoon and the adjacent aquifer have sandy texture. In addition, tests of constant head permeameter, standpipe falling

  4. Sea/Lake Water Air Conditioning at Naval Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    r-AO89 262 CIVIL ENGINEERING LAS (NAVY) PONT HUJENEME CA F/6 13/1 SEA/LAKF WATER AIR CONDITIONING AT N4AVAL FACILITIES.u MAY S0 .J B CIAN...AROICC. Brooklyn NY: CO; C’ode (NP (LCDR ATJ Stewart): C’ode 10)28. RDT&ELO. Philadelphia PA: Code III (Castranovo) Philadelphia. PA: Design Div. (R...Governor’s Council On Energy) NEW MEXICO SOLAR ENERGY INST. Dr. Zwibcl Las Cruces NM NY CITY COMMUNITY COLLEGE BROOKLYN , NY (LIBRARY) NYS ENERGY OFFICE

  5. Hygienic evaluation of effectiveness of drinking water purification facilities in Saratov institutions of social significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavrentiev M. V.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the given work was studying of overall performance of the local equipments on water treating, both on superficial, and on underground sources of water supply. Material and metods. In research 60 assays of water from various superficial, underground reservoirs and planting system of water supply of the Saratov region have been selected and 900 definitions of the maintenance of chemical substances are spent. Results. Priority pollutants of underground waters in the Saratov and Fedorovsky districts of the Saratov region, it are established: rigidity salts, iron. For superficial sources of the same districts of area it: iron, manganese, Phenolum, Natrii phosphases. Water of open reservoirs also didn»t satisfy on organoleptic indicators and indicators of processes of self-cleaning. Efficiency of water-purifying constructions of Fedorovsky district, has appeared low. Water from underground sources got to the consumer without passage through water-purifying constructions. The conclusion: 1 water of underground and superficial reservoirs of rural settlements of the Saratov region has adverse organoleptic indicators and contains chemical pollution in the concentration exceeding maximum permissible; 2 efficiency of rural water-purifying constructions doesn»t allow to spend water treating according to SanPiN 2.1.4.1074-01; 3 application of the local equipments on potable water clearing has allowed to achieve reception on an exit from them the quality corresponding to demands SanPiN 2.1.4.1074-01.

  6. Facile synthesis of water-soluble curcumin nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Zoran M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, facile synthesis of water soluble curcumin nanocrystals is reported. Solvent exchange method was applied to synthesize curcumin nanocrystals. Different techniques were used to characterize the structural and photophysical properties of curcumin nanocrystals. We found that nanocurcumin prepared by this method had good chemical and physical stability, could be stored in the powder form at room temperature, and was freely dispersible in water. It was established that the size of curcumin nanocrystals was varied in the range of 20-500 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-Vis analyses showed the presence of tetrahydrofuran inside the curcumin nanocrystals. Also, it was found that nanocurcumin emitted photoluminescencewith yellow-green colour. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172003

  7. Addendum to the Environmental Assessment for the Armed Forces Reserve Center and Operational Maintenance Facility for the 63rd Regional Support Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-29

    proposed action. Selection of this alternative would require the relocation of two domestic water pipelines and pipeline easements crossing the ten...areas for retention ponds, while, at the same time, avoiding the existing water pipelines crossing the property. The Reserve center is sized to train...potable water pipelines south of the proposed site. This would allow for construction of the proposed facility without the need to install a water

  8. Report: EPA Lacks Internal Controls to Prevent Misuse of Emergency Drinking Water Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #11-P-0001, October 12, 2010. EPA cannot accurately assess the risk of public water systems delivering contaminated drinking water from emergency facilities because of limitations in Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) data management.

  9. Ajuste del Equilibrio Químico del Agua Potable con Tendencia Corrosiva por Dióxido de Carbono Chemical Equilibrium Adjustment of Drinking Water with Corrosive Tendency by Carbon Dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Trujillo; Verónica Martínez; Nadia S Flores

    2008-01-01

    En este trabajo se analiza el agua potable del principal tanque de distribución de la Ciudad de Toluca, Estado de México, para definir su tendencia corrosiva o incrustante y establecer condiciones de equilibrio químico de bajo costo. Se implementaron el modelo de Mojmir-Mach y los índices de Langelier y Ryznar en el software AgrInc_Agua 2.0, para aplicarlo a datos fisicoquímicos de muestras de agua obtenidas durante seis meses. El agua cumple con las normas mexicanas para su uso y consumo hum...

  10. Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility Geotechnical Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, M R

    2000-01-11

    A geotechnical investigation program has been completed for the Circulating Light Water Reactor - Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program consisted of reviewing previous geotechnical and geologic data and reports, performing subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing and geologic and engineering analyses. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the subsurface conditions for the CLWR-TEF in terms of subsurface stratigraphy and engineering properties for design and to perform selected engineering analyses. The objectives of the evaluation were to establish site-specific geologic conditions, obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface and potential fill materials, evaluate the lateral and vertical extent of any soft zones encountered, and perform engineering analyses for slope stability, bearing capacity and settlement, and liquefaction potential. In addition, provide general recommendations for construction and earthwork.

  11. Os benefícios da utilização de coagulantes naturais para a obtenção de água potável = The benefits of using natural coagulants to obtain potable water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Carvalho Bongiovani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo a avaliação dos benefícios da obtenção de água potável a partir de coagulantes naturais, em função da remoção dos parâmetros cor, turbidez e compostos com absorção em UV-254 nm, utilizando como agente coagulante o Tanfloc SS. Com esta finalidade, ensaios de coagulação/floculação/sedimentação foram realizados em aparelho “jar test”, com água superficial de características de alta cor/turbidez. O pH de coagulação (3,0 a 9,0 e a concentração do coagulante (10,0 a 60,0 mg L-1 foram variadoscom a finalidade da construção dos diagramas de coagulação e a determinação das regiões de melhor eficiência de remoção de cor e turbidez. As condições de trabalho para o processo de coagulação/floculação/sedimentação foram fixadas de acordo com ensaios prévios. Com os dados obtidos, o diagrama de coagulação foi construído utilizando o programa 3DField 2.7.0.0. Com base nestes diagramas, para o coagulante Tanfloc SS, concluiu-se que as melhores remoções dos parâmetros estudados, em sua maioria, ocorreram para a faixa de pH entre 6,0 e 9,0 em todas as concentrações estudadas. Desta forma, constatou-se que a utilização de coagulantes orgânicos biodegradáveis é, portanto, uma alternativa técnica aos coagulantes convencionais, possuindo benefícios de saúde pública além de preservação ambiental.This work aims to evaluate the benefits of obtaining potable water from natural coagulants, in function of the removal of the parameters color, turbidity and compounds with absorbing in UV-254 nm, using Tanfloc SS as a coagulant. To that end, coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation tests were performed in jar test with surface waterfeaturing high color/turbidity. The coagulation pH (3.0 to 9.0 and the concentration of coagulant (10.0 to 60.0 mg L-1 were varied with the purpose of constructing coagulation diagrams and determine regions of best efficiency for removal of color and

  12. Basic aspects of the use of reverse osmosis in indirect potable reuse; Aspectos basicos de la aplicacion de la osmosis inversa a la reutilizacion potable indirecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Ramirez, J. A.; Sales Marquez, D.; Quiroga Alonso, J. M.; Asano, T.

    2003-07-01

    Wastewater reclamation and reuse is an increasing activity in those countries who are facing water restrictions both in quality and quantity, and it has become an integral part of water resources management. Among several applications of reclaimed wastewater, one of the most interesting and innovative is indirect potable reuse. This consists in the purposeful augmentation of surface or groundwater resources with highly treated reclaimed water which will ultimately serve as a source of drinking water. There are world-wide experiences confirming that this kind of application is safe. The use of reverse osmosis for wastewater reclamation is very interesting and the use of this in indirect potable reuse started more that thirty years ago, mainly in USA. However the extension of this kind of applications is in someway low, not for economic issues or technology faults,but the ignorance, distrust or public opinion rejection. In this paper, the most important challenges, from a technical and scientific point of view, of indirect potable reuse are discussed to allow it to be used as a safe, reliable and additional water source: with all its implications and, of course, with all its benefits. (Author) 16 refs.

  13. Phase II Audit Report - Energy & Water Audits of LLNL Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horst, B I; Jacobs, P C; Pierce, S M

    2005-08-03

    This report describes Phase II of a project conducted for the Mechanical Utilities Division (UTel), Energy Management Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) by Architectural Energy Corporation (AEC). The overall project covers energy efficiency and water conservation auditing services for 215 modular and prefabricated buildings at LLNL. The primary goal of this project is to demonstrate compliance with DOE Order 430.2A, Contractor Requirements Document section 2.d (2) Document, to demonstrate annual progress of at least 10 percent toward completing energy and water audits of all facilities. Although this project covers numerous buildings, they are all similar in design and use. The approach employed for completing audits for these facilities involves a ''model-similar building'' approach. In the model-similar building approach, similarities between groups of buildings are established and quantified. A model (or test case) building is selected and analyzed for each model-similar group using a detailed DOE-2 simulation. The results are extended to the group of similar buildings based on careful application of quantified similarities, or ''extension measures''. This approach leverages the relatively minor effort required to evaluate one building in some detail to a much larger population of similar buildings. The facility wide energy savings potential was calculated for a select set of measures that have reasonable payback based on the detailed building analysis and are otherwise desirable to the LLNL facilities staff. The selected measures are: (1) HVAC Tune-up. This is considered to be a ''core measure'', based on the energy savings opportunity and the impact on thermal comfort. All HVAC units in the study are assumed to be tuned up under this measure. See the Appendix for a detailed calculation by building and HVAC unit. (2) HVAC system scheduling. This is also considered to be a &apos

  14. Facile Growth of Porous Hematite Films for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduced a simple fabrication method of porous hematite films with tunable thickness in an aqueous solution containing FeCl3 as the single precursor. We demonstrated that the optimized thickness was necessary for high performance photoelectrochemical water splitting, by balancing photon absorption and charge carrier transport. The highest photocurrent of ca. 0.15 mA cm−2 at 1.0 V versus Ag/AgCl was achieved on the 300 nm thick porous hematite film as photoanode, with IPCE at 370 nm and 0.65 V versus Ag/AgCl to be 9.0%. This simple method allows the facile fabrication of hematite films with porous nanostructure for enabling high photon harvesting efficiency and maximized interfacial charge transfer. These porous hematite films fabricated by this simple solution-based method could be easily modified by metal doping for further enhanced photoelectrochemical activity for water splitting.

  15. Financing CHP Projects at Wastewater Treatment Facilities with Clean Water State Revolving Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    This factsheet provides information about CHP at wastewater treatment facilities, including applications, financial challenges, and financial opportunities, such as the Clean Water State Revolving Fund.

  16. Operation and Maintenance of Water Pollution Control Facilities: A WPCF White Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, William R.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the recommendations of the Water Pollution Control Federation for operation and maintenance consideration during the planning design, construction, and operation of wastewater treatment facilities. (CS)

  17. Operation and Maintenance of Water Pollution Control Facilities: A WPCF White Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, William R.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the recommendations of the Water Pollution Control Federation for operation and maintenance consideration during the planning design, construction, and operation of wastewater treatment facilities. (CS)

  18. Testing time for deep water[Deep water test facility in Rotterdam, NL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snieckus, Darius

    2000-06-01

    A new deep water test facility in Rotterdam in the Netherlands is described. The construction is a basin measuring 45m by 36m and some 10.5m deep: it can accommodate large scale model tests at depths equivalent to 1000m by using a hydraulic 'moveable' floor buoyed by syntactic foam. For simulation of depths of 3000m it opens its 'deep pit' - a well 5m diameter and 20m deep. The facility can also simulate the winds, waves and currents met offshore in places such as the Shetlands, West Africa and the Gulf of Mexico. The article includes pictures and diagrams of the facility.

  19. Investigation of relationship between contamination with Legionella in potable water and Legionella infection in patients with nosocomial pneumonia%医院内管道水军团菌污染与医院内获得性肺炎患者致病菌相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆建红; 周新; 楼俪泓; 金先桥; 张杏怡; 徐琦; 沈华; 徐耀传

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between contamination by Legionella in water supply system(potable water)and Legionella infection in patients with nosocomial pneumonia.Methods Sixty-five samples from potable water were collected and cultivated for Legionella.Slide agglutination test was used for identification of Legionella.The clinical and environmental strains of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1(LP1)were identified.Legionella urinary antigen,sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF)culture were used for the detection of Legionella in 38 patients with nosocomial pneumonia.Results Nine samples were contaminated by Legionella in 65 potable water samples.LP1,LP6 and LP7 were six,one and one isolate,respectively.Legionella micdadei was detected only one isolate.LP1 was all environmental isolate.Legionella urinary antigen,sputum and BALF culture were all negative in the detection.Conclusions The water supply system in the hospital is contaminated by Legionella.LP1 is the most common isolate.No case of hospital-acquired Legionella pneumonia has been found in the hospital by now.It can prevent the outbreak and epidemic of hospital-acquired Legionella pneumonia by monitoring Legionella in the potable water of hospital and taking preventive measures.%目的 了解我院供水系统(管道水)军团菌污染状况及其与医院内获得性肺炎患者军团菌感染状况相关性.方法 从我院病房大楼随机抽取管道水65份进行军团菌培养后,用军团菌分型诊断血清对军团菌进一步分型及对培养出的嗜肺军团菌血清1型(LP1)进一步鉴别临床株及环境株,同时对我院住院48 h后患肺炎的38例患者的痰或支气管肺泡灌洗液作军团菌培养,以及尿液军团菌抗原检测.结果 65份管道水中检出军团菌9株,阳性率为14%.其中嗜肺军团菌8株,占89%.LP1 6株,占67%,LP6、LP7各1株.非嗜肺军团菌米克戴德菌1株.所有LP1均为环境株;38份痰或支气管肺泡灌洗液经

  20. Study on the breakwater caisson as oscillating water column facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Shi, Hongda; Liu, Defu; Liu, Zhen

    2010-09-01

    The Oscillating Water Column (OWC) wave energy convertor with the advantage of its simple geometrical construction and excellent stability is widely employed. Recently, perforated breakwaters have been often used as they can effectively reduce the wave reflection from and wave forces acting on the structures. Considering the similarity between the compartment of perforated caisson and the air chamber of OWC wave energy convertor, a new perforated caisson of breakwater is designed in this paper. The ordinary caisson is modified by installing facilities similar to the air chamber of OWC converter, but here they are utilized to dissipate the wave energy inside the caisson. Such an arrangement improves the stability of the caisson and reduces the construction cost by using the compartment of perforated caisson like using an air chamber. This innovation has both academic significance and important engineering value. For a new type of caisson, reliability analysis of the structure is necessary. Linear potential flow theory is applied to calculate the horizontal wave force acting on the caisson. The calculated results are compared with experimental data, showing the feasibility of the method. The Importance Sampling Procedure (ISP) is used to analyse the reliability of this caisson breakwater.

  1. Tratamiento de agua potable por filtración inducida en una laguna costera en el sur de Brasil Bank filtration drinking water treatment in a costal lagoon in south Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Guillermo Romero Esquivel; Bruno Segalla Pizzolatti; Mauricio Luiz Sens

    2012-01-01

    La filtración inducida (FI) consiste en obtener agua potable de pozos situados en acuíferos de aluvión u otro tipo de depósitos no consolidados conectados hidráulicamente con una fuente de agua superficial. La posibilidad de aplicar esta técnica en las riberas de la laguna Lagoa do Peri, Brasil, se evaluó a nivel piloto. Por medio de observación y de análisis granulométricos se determinó que el fondo de la laguna y el acuífero aledaño presentan una textura arenosa. Además, ensayos de permeáme...

  2. N-Nitrosamines and halogenated disinfection byproducts in U.S. Full Advanced Treatment trains for potable reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Teng; Plewa, Michael J; Mitch, William A

    2016-09-15

    Water utilities are increasingly considering indirect and direct potable reuse of municipal wastewater effluents. Disinfection byproducts (DBPs), particularly N-nitrosamines, are key contaminants of potential health concern for potable reuse. This study quantified the concentrations of N-nitrosamines and a suite of regulated and unregulated halogenated DBPs across five U.S. potable reuse Full Advanced Treatment trains incorporating microfiltration, reverse osmosis, and UV-based advanced oxidation. Low μg/L concentrations of trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, dichloroacetonitrile, and dichloroacetamide were detected in the secondary or tertiary wastewater effluents serving as influents to potable reuse treatment trains, while the concentrations of N-nitrosamines were more variable (e.g., trains. Reverse osmosis rejected DBPs to varying degrees, ranging from low for some (e.g., N-nitrosamines, trihalomethanes, and haloacetonitriles) to high for other DBPs. UV-based advanced oxidation eliminated N-nitrosamines, but only partially removed halogenated DBPs. Chloramination of the treatment train product waters under simulated distribution system conditions formed additional DBPs, with concentrations often equaling or exceeding those in the treatment train influents. Overall, the concentration profiles of DBPs were fairly consistent within individual treatment trains for sampling campaigns separated by months and across different treatment trains for the same sampling time window. Weighting DBP concentrations by their toxic potencies highlighted the potential significance of haloacetonitriles, which were not effectively removed by reverse osmosis and advanced oxidation, to the DBP-associated toxicity in potable reuse waters.

  3. Education & Collection Facility GSHP Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joplin, Jeff [Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Denver, CO (United States)

    2015-03-28

    The Denver Museum of Nature & Science (DMNS) designed and implemented an innovative ground source heat pump (GSHP) system for heating and cooling its new Education and Collection Facility (ECF) building addition. The project goal was to successfully design and install an open-loop GSHP system that utilized water circulating within an underground municipal recycled (non-potable) water system as the heat sink/source as a demonstration project. The expected results were to significantly reduce traditional GSHP installation costs while increasing system efficiency, reduce building energy consumption, require significantly less area and capital to install, and be economically implemented wherever access to a recycled water system is available. The project added to the understanding of GSHP technology by implementing the first GSHP system in the United States utilizing a municipal recycled water system as a heat sink/source. The use of this fluid through a GSHP system has not been previously documented. This use application presents a new opportunity for local municipalities to develop and expand the use of underground municipal recycled (non-potable) water systems. The installation costs for this type of technology in the building structure would be a cost savings over traditional GSHP costs, provided the local municipal infrastructure was developed. Additionally, the GSHP system functions as a viable method of heat sink/source as the thermal characteristics of the fluid are generally consistent throughout the year and are efficiently exchanged through the GSHP system and its components. The use of the recycled water system reduces the area required for bore or loop fields; therefore, presenting an application for building structures that have little to no available land use or access. This GSHP application demonstrates the viability of underground municipal recycled (non-potable) water systems as technically achievable, environmentally supportive, and an efficient

  4. Reducing the effects of eutrophication by aeration. Advantages of the application of this technique upstream in the Potable Water Treatment Plant; Reduccion por aireacion de los efectos de eutrofizacion. Ventajas de la aplicaciond e esta tecnica aguas arriba de las Estaciones de Tratamiento de Agua Potable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraiva de Aguilar, J. l.; Nunes, G.

    2004-07-01

    Several techniques are used to limit the progression of eutrophication in lakes and ponds, and to reduce its main negative effects. One of these techniques consists in maintaining oxidant conditions in deeper water layers of lakes and ponds, and, thus, to reduce or even prevent the release of harmful substances, which would result in higher water treatment costs. This technique, called aeration by the-stratification, consists of the creation of one or several local air curtains, which generate an air life effect, leading water to circulate from bottom to surface and vice-versa. This process is calculated in order to prevent thermal stratification during the warm seasons. Contacting the air at the surface of the pond oxygenates water, the oxygen levels remaining constant throughout the entire water column. (Author)

  5. NWFSC OA facility water chemistry - Ocean acidification species exposure experimental facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We have developed a unique facility for conducting high-quality experiments on marine organisms in seawater with controlled carbon chemistry conditions. The...

  6. Water and sanitation policies limits in Senegal cities : the case of Rufisque

    OpenAIRE

    Sy, I.; Handschumacher, Pascal; Wyss, K.; Piermay, Jean-Luc; Tanner, M.; Cisse, G.

    2009-01-01

    Potable water and sanitation facilities access constitutes one of the major problems faced by developing countries. In Senegal, more than 70% of urban centres lack drinking water distribution networks and satisfactory sewage systems. For this reason, public authorities have initiated series of institutional plans to strengthen the implementation of water and sanitation policies in various urban contexts as in the town of Rufisque. Geographical and epidemiological investigations were carried o...

  7. Environmental assessment: Proposed construction of Refuge operational facilities, water management facilities, wildlife oriented interpretation/recreation development, road and water management facilities rehabilitation, and implementation of a vegetation control plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The proposed action consists of the construction of facilities for refuge operation, water management, and wildlife-oriented interpretation and recreation; the...

  8. 40 CFR 141.714 - Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities. 141.714 Section 141.714 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS...

  9. Predicament and Countermeasures for the Management and Maintenance of Rural Water Conservancy Facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The major problem of rural water conservancy facilities during its management and maintenance is in the "been used, under no control" state. And the main reasons of this state are the public belonging property, investment by a single subject, and lack of effective supervision and management mechanism. Since rural water conservancy facilities is used in small scale and has the features of rural "acquaintances community", a balanced long-term interest mechanism for the management and maintenance of rural water conservancy facilities is established for interest-related parties. On short-term view, the most effective measure is to bring the operational status of rural water conservancy facilities into the evaluation indicators of the local government.

  10. Solar production of industrial process hot water: Operation and evaluation of the Campbell Soup hot water solar facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kull, J. I.; Neimeyer, W. N.; Youngblood, S. B.

    1980-12-01

    The operation and evaluation of a solar hot water facility is summarized. The period of evaluation was for 12 months from October 1979 through September 1980. The objective of the work was to obtain additional, long term data on the operation and performance of the facility. Minor modifications to the facility were completed. The system was operated for 15 months, and 12 months of detailed data were evaluated. The facility was available for operation and of the time during the last 8 months of evaluation. A detailed description of the solar facility and of the operating experience is given, and a summary of system performance for the 12 month operation/evaluation period is presented. Recommendations for large scale solar facilities based on this project's experience are given, and an environmental impact assessment is provided.

  11. NRHP Eligibility of the Fort Huachuca, Arizona, Elevated Water Tank (Facility 49001) and Reservoir (Facility 22020)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    4 W.S. Gray, Reinforced Concrete Water Towers, Bunkers, Silos , and Gantries (London: Concrete Publications Limited, 1947), 1. ERDC/CERL...Tank Designs Submitted in a Competition. Chicago: Chicago Bridge & Iron Works, 1931. Gray, W. S. Reinforced Concrete Water Towers, Bunkers, Silos , and...Competition. Chicago: Chicago Bridge & Iron Works, 1931. ERDC/CERL TR-16-12 51 Gray, W. S. Reinforced Concrete Water Towers, Bunkers, Silos , and Gantries

  12. Lung cancer and arsenic exposure in drinking water: a case-control study in northern Chile Cáncer de pulmón y exposición a arsénico en el agua potable: un estudio de casos y controles en el norte de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catterina Ferreccio

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In some Chilean cities, levels of arsenic (As in drinking water reached 800 µg/L between 1950 and 1970, while current levels are 40 µg/L. To evaluate the causal role of this exposure in lung and bladder cancers, we conducted a case-control study in Regions I, II, and III of the country. From 1994 to 1996, cases diagnosed as lung cancer and two hospital controls were entered in the study; one control was a patient with a cancer, while the other was a patient without cancer, both conditions unrelated to As. Controls were matched with cases by age and sex. A standard survey containing questions about residence, employment, health history, was administered to study subjects. Data on As concentrations in water were obtained from records of the municipal water companies. A total of 151 lung cancer cases and 419 controls (167 with cancer and 242 without cancer were enrolled. Median level of lifetime As exposure was significantly higher among cases, with a clear dose-response relationship between mean As exposure levels, with an OR (95% CI of: 1, 1.7 (0.5-5.1, 3.9 (1.2-13.4, 5.5 (2.2-13.5, and 9.0 (3.6-22 for strata one to five respectively. This study provides new evidence that As in drinking water can cause internal cancers and gives an estimate of the form of this relationship.En algunas ciudades de Chile, entre 1950 y 1970, los niveles de arsénico (As en el agua potable alcanzaron los 800 µg/l, estando hoy en 40 µg/l; para evaluar el rol de esta exposición, se llevó a cabo este estudio de casos de cáncer de pulmón y controles en las Regiones I, II y III. Entre 1994 y 1996, se ingresaron casos de cáncer de pulmón y dos controles hospitalarios: un control, un paciente con cáncer y el otro, un paciente sin cáncer, ambos diagnósticos no relacionados con arsénico. Los controles fueron pareados grupalmente por edad y sexo con los casos. A cada sujeto, se le aplicó una encuesta estandarizada sobre residencia, empleo y salud. La informaci

  13. Conjunctive operation of river facilities for integrated water resources management in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwirin; Jang, Cheolhee; Kim, Sung

    2016-10-01

    With the increasing trend of water-related disasters such as floods and droughts resulting from climate change, the integrated management of water resources is gaining importance recently. Korea has worked towards preventing disasters caused by floods and droughts, managing water resources efficiently through the coordinated operation of river facilities such as dams, weirs, and agricultural reservoirs. This has been pursued to enable everyone to enjoy the benefits inherent to the utilization of water resources, by preserving functional rivers, improving their utility and reducing the degradation of water quality caused by floods and droughts. At the same time, coordinated activities are being conducted in multi-purpose dams, hydro-power dams, weirs, agricultural reservoirs and water use facilities (featuring a daily water intake of over 100 000 m3 day-1) with the purpose of monitoring the management of such facilities. This is being done to ensure the protection of public interest without acting as an obstacle to sound water management practices. During Flood Season, each facilities contain flood control capacity by limited operating level which determined by the Regulation Council in advance. Dam flood discharge decisions are approved through the flood forecasting and management of Flood Control Office due to minimize flood damage for both upstream and downstream. The operational plan is implemented through the council's predetermination while dry season for adequate quantity and distribution of water.

  14. Conjunctive operation of river facilities for integrated water resources management in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing trend of water-related disasters such as floods and droughts resulting from climate change, the integrated management of water resources is gaining importance recently. Korea has worked towards preventing disasters caused by floods and droughts, managing water resources efficiently through the coordinated operation of river facilities such as dams, weirs, and agricultural reservoirs. This has been pursued to enable everyone to enjoy the benefits inherent to the utilization of water resources, by preserving functional rivers, improving their utility and reducing the degradation of water quality caused by floods and droughts. At the same time, coordinated activities are being conducted in multi-purpose dams, hydro-power dams, weirs, agricultural reservoirs and water use facilities (featuring a daily water intake of over 100 000 m3 day−1 with the purpose of monitoring the management of such facilities. This is being done to ensure the protection of public interest without acting as an obstacle to sound water management practices. During Flood Season, each facilities contain flood control capacity by limited operating level which determined by the Regulation Council in advance. Dam flood discharge decisions are approved through the flood forecasting and management of Flood Control Office due to minimize flood damage for both upstream and downstream. The operational plan is implemented through the council's predetermination while dry season for adequate quantity and distribution of water.

  15. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands... RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.9 What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? A rural water supply project may include, but is...

  16. Water, sanitation and hygiene in health care facilities: Challenges and priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbial agents that cause infectious diseases are highly prevalent in health care facilities. Adequate water supply, sanitation and hygiene are the key elements for the provision of basic health services. The consequences of poor sanitary and hygienic conditions and inadequate water supply are numerous in health care facilities. The importance of improving water supply, sanitation and hygiene in health care facilities has been recognized as an international priority and set in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, particularly through goal 3.8 and 6. The establishment and maintenance of safe water supply and adequate sanitary and hygienic conditions has multiple benefits for health care facilities. It is necessary to introduce and implement risk assessment and risk management approach as effective way of continuously ensuring and maintaining the safety of drinking water quality in health care facilities as recommended by the World Health Organization, in order to reduce the risks associated with inadequate water supply and protect health of patients and staff. Realization of activities on the improvement requires a multidisciplinary approach and good inter-sectoral cooperation at all levels local, national and global.

  17. Enhancing climate adaptation capacity for drinking water treatment facilities (supplement)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Historical water quality data of the Ohio River. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Levine, A., J. Yang , and J. Goodrich. Enhancing climate...

  18. Core characterization of the new CABRI Water Loop Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, G.; Rodiac, F.; Beretz, D.; Girard, J.M.; Gueton, O. [CEA/Nuclear Energy Division, Cadarache Nuclear Research Center, Reactor Studies Department (France)

    2011-07-01

    The CABRI experimental reactor is located at the Cadarache nuclear research center, southern France. It is operated by the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and devoted to IRSN (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire) safety programmes. It has been successfully operated during the last 30 years, enlightening the knowledge of FBR and LWR fuel behaviour during Reactivity Insertion Accident (RIA) and Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) transients in the frame of IPSN (Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire) and now IRSN programmes devoted to reactor safety. This operation was interrupted in 2003 to allow for a whole facility renewal programme for the need of the CABRI International Programme (CIP) carried out by IRSN under the OECD umbrella. The principle of operation of the facility is based on the control of {sup 3}He, a major gaseous neutron absorber, in the core geometry. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how several dosimetric devices have been set up to better characterize the core during the upcoming commissioning campaign. It presents the schemes and tools dedicated to core characterization. (authors)

  19. Water, sanitation and hygiene infrastructure and quality in rural healthcare facilities in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttinger, Alexandra; Dreibelbis, Robert; Kayigamba, Felix; Ngabo, Fidel; Mfura, Leodomir; Merryweather, Brittney; Cardon, Amelie; Moe, Christine

    2017-08-03

    WHO and UNICEF have proposed an action plan to achieve universal water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) coverage in healthcare facilities (HCFs) by 2030. The WASH targets and indicators for HCFs include: an improved water source on the premises accessible to all users, basic sanitation facilities, a hand washing facility with soap and water at all sanitation facilities and patient care areas. To establish viable targets for WASH in HCFs, investigation beyond 'access' is needed to address the state of WASH infrastructure and service provision. Patient and caregiver use of WASH services is largely unaddressed in previous studies despite being critical for infection control. The state of WASH services used by staff, patients and caregivers was assessed in 17 rural HCFs in Rwanda. Site selection was non-random and predicated upon piped water and power supply. Direct observation and semi-structured interviews assessed drinking water treatment, presence and condition of sanitation facilities, provision of soap and water, and WASH-related maintenance and record keeping. Samples were collected from water sources and treated drinking water containers and analyzed for total coliforms, E. coli, and chlorine residual. Drinking water treatment was reported at 15 of 17 sites. Three of 18 drinking water samples collected met the WHO guideline for free chlorine residual of >0.2 mg/l, 6 of 16 drinking water samples analyzed for total coliforms met the WHO guideline of drinking water samples analyzed for E. coli met the WHO guideline of drinking water per day. At all sites, 60% of water access points (160 of 267) were observed to be functional, 32% of hand washing locations (46 of 142) had water and soap and 44% of sanitary facilities (48 of 109) were in hygienic condition and accessible to patients. Regular maintenance of WASH infrastructure consisted of cleaning; no HCF had on-site capacity for performing repairs. Quarterly evaluations of HCFs for Rwanda's Performance Based

  20. Energy-Efficiency & Water Institute Research Facility, Purdue University, (IN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nnanna, Agbai [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2015-01-30

    The renovation of the Schneider Avenue Building to construct two research laboratories within the building is complete. The research laboratories are for the Purdue Calumet Water Institute and the Energy Efficiency and Reliability Center. The Water Institute occupies approximately 1000+ SF of research space plus supporting offices. The Energy-Efficiency Center occupies approximately 1000+ SF that houses the research space. The labs will enhance the Water & Energy Institute’s research capabilities necessary to tackle these issues through the development of practical approaches critical to local government and industry. The addition of these research laboratories to the Purdue University Calumet campus is in both direct support of the University’s Strategic Plan as well as the 2008 Campus Master Plan that identifies a 20% shortage of research space.

  1. Bioética del derecho al agua potable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohórquez Caldera, Luis Alfredo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se observa también, que en la prestación del servicio domiciliario de agua potable en Colombia, servicio que ha de ser asumido como derechos humanos fundamental, hoy en Colombia se conrroboran aspectos preocupantes en relación a la prestación de este servicio fundamental en los que se evidencia improvisación, manejo bajo la lógica del negocio y aplicación por ende de modelos inequitativos de prestación de servicios públicos. Abstract. It is observed that in the provision of the service of drinking water in Colombia, a service that has to be taken as a fundamental human right. Today in Colombia, worrying aspects as for the provision of this key service are corroborated, in which improvisation is made evident, which is carried out under the logics of business and the application, therefore, of inequitable models of the provision of public utilities.

  2. Sanitary evaluation of domestic water supply facilities with storage tanks and detection of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria in domestic water facilities in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Kazufumi; Sano, Kouichi; Hirai, Itaru

    2017-08-01

    To provide for temporary restrictions of the public water supply system, storage tanks are commonly installed in the domestic water systems of houses and apartment buildings in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan. To learn more about the sanitary condition and management of these water supply facilities with storage tanks (hereafter called "storage tank water systems") and the extent of bacterial contamination of water from these facilities, we investigated their usage and the existence of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria. Verbal interviews concerning the use and management of the storage tank water systems were carried out in each randomly sampled household. A total of 54 water samples were collected for bacteriological and physicochemical examinations. Conventional methods were used for total viable count, fecal coliforms, identification of bacteria such as Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermentative Gram-negative rods (NF-GNR), and measurement of residual chlorine. On Aeromonas species, tests for putative virulence factor and an identification using 16S rRNA and rpoB genes were also performed. Water from the water storage systems was reported to be consumed directly without boiling in 22 of the 54 houses (40.7%). 31 of the sampled houses had installed water storage tanks of more than 1 cubic meter (m(3)) per inhabitant, and in 21 of the sampled houses, the tank had never been cleaned. In all samples, the total viable count and fecal coliforms did not exceed quality levels prescribed by Japanese waterworks law. Although the quantity of bacteria detected was not high, 23 NF-GNR, 14 Enterobacteriaceae and 5 Aeromonas were isolated in 42.6%, 7.4% and 3.7% of samples respectively. One isolated A. hydrophila and four A. caviae possessed various putative virulence factors, especially A. hydrophila which had diverse putative pathogenic genes such as aer, hlyA, act, alt, ast, ser, and dam. Many bacteria were isolated when the concentration of residual chlorine

  3. Water Purification Unit Development for Field Army Medical Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    designed to operate in one of several process configurations , i.e., semibatch , once-through continuous , recycle-and-bleed continuous , stages in... Reactor Module ,” Memorandum to W. P. Lambert , May 17 , 1977. 9. See , C. C. and Yang, P. Y . , “Water Processing Element Operation Manual , ” Contract

  4. Economic impacts of zebra mussels on drinking water treatment and electric power generation facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Nancy A; O'Neill, Charles R; Knuth, Barbara A; Brown, Tommy L

    2007-07-01

    Invasions of nonnative species such as zebra mussels can have both ecological and economic consequences. The economic impacts of zebra mussels have not been examined in detail since the mid-1990s. The purpose of this study was to quantify the annual and cumulative economic impact of zebra mussels on surface water-dependent drinking water treatment and electric power generation facilities (where previous research indicated the greatest impacts). The study time frame was from the first full year after discovery in North America (Lake St. Clair, 1989) to the present (2004); the study area was throughout the mussels' North American range. A mail survey resulted in a response rate of 31% for electric power companies and 41% for drinking water treatment plants. Telephone interviews with a sample of nonrespondents assessed nonresponse bias; only one difference was found and adjusted for. Over one-third (37%) of surveyed facilities reported finding zebra mussels in the facility and almost half (45%) have initiated preventive measures to prevent zebra mussels from entering the facility operations. Almost all surveyed facilities (91%) with zebra mussels have used control or mitigation alternatives to remove or control zebra mussels. We estimated that 36% of surveyed facilities experienced an economic impact. Expanding the sample to the population of the study area, we estimated 267 million dollars (BCa 95% CI = 161 million dollars - 467 million dollars) in total economic costs for electric generation and water treatment facilities through late 2004, since 1989. Annual costs were greater (44,000 dollars/facility) during the early years of zebra mussel infestation than in recent years (30,000 dollars). As a result of this and other factors, early predictions of the ultimate costs of the zebra mussel invasion may have been excessive.

  5. Facile Method to Prepare Superhydrophobic and Water Repellent Cellulosic Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis Karapanagiotis; Diana Grosu; Dimitra Aslanidou; Aifantis, Katerina E.

    2015-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles (7 nm) were dispersed in solutions of a silane/siloxane mixture. The dispersions were applied, by brush, on four types of paper: (i) modern, unprinted (blank) paper, (ii) modern paper where a text was printed using a common laser jet printer, (iii) a handmade paper sheet detached from an old book, and (iv) Japanese tissue paper. It is shown that superhydrophobicity and water repellency were achieved on the surface of the deposited films, when high particle concentrations ...

  6. ETAP-ERN project: assessment of drinking water treatment by nano filtration powered by renewable energy; Proyecto ETAP-ERN: evaluacion del tratamiento del agua potable mediante energia renovable y nanofiltracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Ramirez, J. A.; Garcia-Vaquero Marin, N.

    2009-07-01

    ETAP-ERN project is mainly to evaluate the potential of nano filtration to complement or replace, if necessary drinking water conventional treatment, in order to obtain higher drinking water quality and sanitary guarantee at a minimum cost. The use of photovoltaic and wind energy power systems does this plant to be unique worldwide. The pilot plant, 50 m{sup 3}/day capacity, has two subunits: energy power (60 kWh) and water production. It will be located at the drinking water treatment plant of El Montanes, Puerto Real (Cadiz, Spain). (Author)

  7. 18 CFR 1304.206 - Requirements for community docks, piers, boathouses, or other water-use facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for community docks, piers, boathouses, or other water-use facilities. 1304.206 Section 1304.206 Conservation of....206 Requirements for community docks, piers, boathouses, or other water-use facilities. (a)...

  8. Ozonization effects on trihalo methane formation during the disinfection of drinking water with chlorine; Efectos de la ozonizacion sobre la formacion de trihalometanos durante la desinfeccion final del agua potable con cloro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Vidal, F. J.; Perez Serrano, A.; Orozco Barrentxea, C.; Sanllorente Santamaria, M. C.; Ibeas Reoyo, M. V.

    2001-07-01

    One of the main aspects in the control of drinking water treatment is the formation of disinfection by-products (DBP), some of the most important are the trihalomethanes (THM). The use of ozone as primary disinfectant in drinking water treatment plants reduces noticeably the amount of THM generated after the chlorination at the end of the treatment. The aim of this work is to study the main factors influencing the ozone effect in this process: the delay between the time of ozonization and chlorination, the applied ozone dose and the presence of bromide ion ind the raw water. These factors have been studied on natural waters (Uzquiza Reservoir-Burgos) and on synthetic waters (fulvic and humic acids extracted from the mentioned reservoir). (Author) 36 refs.

  9. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility tempered water and tempered water cooling system design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-11-30

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Tempered Water (TW) and Tempered Water Cooling (TWC) System . The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the TW and TWC equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SOD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  10. Study of arsenic removal with ionic exchange resins in drinking water from Zimapan, Hidalgo State, Mexico; Estudio de eliminacion de arsenico con resinas de entercambio ionico en agua potable de Zimapan, Estado de Hidalgo, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Moreno, F.; Prieto-Garcia, F.; Rojas-Hernandez, A.; Marmolejo-Santillan, Y.; Salinas-Rodriguez, E.; Patino-Cardona, F.

    2006-07-01

    Anionic exchange resins were research with respect its capacity for removal arsenic content in water. Water of well V from Zimapan Hidalgo Mexico was used to make this research, because this water have a mean concentration of 480{+-}11{mu}g-L''-1 of arsenic and it is available as drinking water. The exchange resins employed were two strong anionic, one macroreticular (IRA-900) and other gel type (IRA-400), as soon as one third anionic weak macroreticular type (IRA-96). The experiments carried with this resins showing that IRA-900 has highest efficient in the process of arsenic removal from drinking water, because, it showed a treatment capacity of 700 V{sub a}gua. V{sub r}es''-1; while that capacities of IRA-400 e IRA-96 resins were 320 and 52 V{sub a}gua .V{sub r}es''-1 respectively. The mean concentration of arsenic residue in the treatise water was 24 {mu}g.l''-1 and it is within the maximum level permissible by Mexican official norm for drinking water. (Author) 12 refs.

  11. What Medical Directors Need to Know about Dialysis Facility Water Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparek, Ted; Rodriguez, Oscar E

    2015-06-05

    The medical directors of dialysis facilities have many operational clinic responsibilities, which on first glance, may seem outside the realm of excellence in patient care. However, a smoothly running clinic is integral to positive patient outcomes. Of the conditions for coverage outlined by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, one most critical to quality dialysis treatment is the provision of safe purified dialysis water, because there are many published instances where clinic failure in this regard has resulted in patient harm. As the clinical leader of the facility, the medical director is obliged to have knowledge of his/her facility's water treatment system to reliably ensure that the purified water used in dialysis will meet the standards for quality set by the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation and used by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for conditions for coverage. The methods used to both achieve and maintain these quality standards should be a part of quality assessment and performance improvement program meetings. The steps for water treatment, which include pretreatment, purification, and distribution, are largely the same, regardless of the system used. Each water treatment system component has a specific role in the process and requires individualized maintenance and monitoring. The medical director should provide leadership by being engaged with the process, knowing the facility's source water, and understanding water treatment system operation as well as the clinical significance of system failure. Successful provision of quality water will be achieved by those medical directors who learn, know, and embrace the requirements of dialysis water purification and system maintenance.

  12. Potential migration of organic pollutants in pipes of polyethylene. Study in pipelines of distribution net of drinkable water; Migracion potential de contaminantes organicos en tubos de polietileno. Estudio en tuberias de red de distribuciond e agua potable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballel, X.; Ciurana de, C.; Caixach, J.; Cortina, M.; Om, M.

    2002-07-01

    Polyethylene pipes and connections are being widely used in treated water distribution services. Migration of low molecular weight compounds from the polyethylene into the water can change its final quality. This paper is about the concentrations and identification of the migration compounds found in treated water after staying in contact with low and high-density polyethylene. Identification and quantification were carried out using CLSA (Closed Loop Stripping Analysis) extraction technique and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). (Author) 12 refs.

  13. Small-scale hydro power plant on the main drinking water line La Rippaz in Bex, Switzerland - Feasibility study; Petite centrale hydraulique. Aduction d'eau potable La Rippaz. Etude de faisabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapallaz, J.-M. [Jean-Marc Chapallaz, Ingenieur EPFL/SIA, Baulmes (Switzerland); Meylan, D. [Perret-Gentil et Rey et Associes SA, Ingenieurs civils et Ingenieurs Conseil EPF/SIA, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2008-04-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is a feasibility study for the replacement work of the drinking-water supply line from the location of the spring water collection to a water reservoir belonging to the rock-salt mining company 'Hotel des Salines' in Bex, Switzerland. Built 1887 and following years this water supply system has already been designed for power generation as well. However, a 40 kW micro-scale turbine has only been installed 2005 in the lower part of the water supply system (hydraulic head: 115 m). The new project includes the replacement of the existing piping by a penstock, the construction of a new water collection reservoir at the highest point, the construction of a new 300 kW hydro power plant using the upper part of the water supply system (hydraulic head: 520 m), and some improvements of the existing lower power plant. The available water flow rate lies in the range 57-70 l/s, all the year round. The question arising is whether this construction project could be financed by the benefit from the sale of electricity that could be produced by the two power plants. The authors of the study estimate the power production to be 2.5 kWh/y. If the electricity can be sold at least at CHF 0.20/kWh for 25 years this could finance the whole project that has an estimated cost of CHF 7,000,000.

  14. Estudio preliminar de tres modelos de destiladores solares para producir sal y agua potable (ING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam S. Nandwani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We have constructed three solar stills of areas 0.5-1.0 m2 to produce salt and potable water, using local technology and local materials. We have studied the thermal efficiency of these stills as a function of solar intensity, covers, geometrical configuration, quantity of water, salt concentration and artificial cooling of the cover. Some of the important results are: still with glass cover destill more water than still with plastic cover, thermal efficiency vary between 10-30%, amount of water which can be evaporated and condense is 2-4 l/day/m2, exist 25-60% of loss of water in the still and finally artificial cooling of the cover can be accelerate the process of condensation, etc. Finally we have mentioned the chemical analysis of destilled and normal tap water.

  15. Facile Method to Prepare Superhydrophobic and Water Repellent Cellulosic Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Karapanagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica nanoparticles (7 nm were dispersed in solutions of a silane/siloxane mixture. The dispersions were applied, by brush, on four types of paper: (i modern, unprinted (blank paper, (ii modern paper where a text was printed using a common laser jet printer, (iii a handmade paper sheet detached from an old book, and (iv Japanese tissue paper. It is shown that superhydrophobicity and water repellency were achieved on the surface of the deposited films, when high particle concentrations were used (≥1% w/v, corresponding to high static (θS ≈ 162° and low tilt (θt < 3° contact angles. To interpret these results, scanning electron microscopy (SEM was employed to observe the surface morphologies of the siloxane-nanoparticle films. Static contact angles, measured on surfaces that were prepared from dilute dispersions (particle concentration <1% w/v, increased with particle concentration and attained a maximum value (162° which corresponds to superhydrophobicity. Increasing further the particle concentration did not have any effect on θS. Colourimetric measurements showed that the superhydrophobic films had negligible effects on the aesthetic appearance of the treated papers. Furthermore, it is shown that the superhydrophobic character of the siloxane-nanoparticle films was stable over a wide range of pH.

  16. Mark I 1/5-scale boiling water reactor pressure suppression experiment facility report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altes, R.G.; Pitts, J.H.; Ingraham, R.F.; Collins, E.K.; McCauley, E.W.

    1977-10-11

    An accurate Mark I /sup 1///sub 5/-scale, boiling water reactor (BWR), pressure suppression facility was designed and constructed at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) in 11 months. Twenty-seven air tests using the facility are described. Cost was minimized by utilizing equipment borrowed from other LLL programs. The total value of borrowed equipment exceeded the program's budget of $2,020,000. Substantial flexibility in the facility was used to permit independent variation in the drywell pressure-time history, initial pressure in the drywell and toroidal wetwells, initial toroidal wetwell water level and downcomer length, vent line flow resistance, and vent line flow asymmetry. The two- and three-dimensional sectors of the toroidal wetwell provided significant data.

  17. Facile and Convenient One-pot Synthesis of 1,1-Disubstituted Cyclopropanes in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chun; PAN Wei; YANG Yang; WANG Ke-wei; DONG De-wen

    2009-01-01

    A facile and convenient one-pot synthesis method of substituted cyclopropanes in water has been developed. A series of 1, l-disubstituted cyclopropanes 3 were synthesized from the reaction of β-dicarbonyl compounds 1 with 1,2-dibromoethane 2, in very high yields catalyzed by tetrabutylammonium bromide(TBAB) at 50 ℃ in the presence of K2CO3 in water. The catalyst TBAB in the aqueous phase can be reused after the separation of organic products.

  18. 40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.19 Provisions of specific applicability to the... Industrial Users” includes the following Industrial Users in the City of Owatonna, Minnesota: Crown Cork and... Industrial User discharging to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility in Owatonna, Minnesota, when a...

  19. A facility for studying irradiation accelerated corrosion in high temperature water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiman, Stephen S.; Flick, Alexander; Toader, Ovidiu; Wang, Peng; Samad, Nassim A.; Jiao, Zhijie; Was, Gary S.

    2014-08-01

    A facility for the study of irradiation accelerated corrosion in high temperature water using in situ proton irradiation has been developed and validated. A specially designed beamline and flowing-water corrosion cell added to the 1.7 MV tandem accelerator at the Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory provide the capability to study the simultaneous effects of displacement damage and radiolysis on corrosion. A thin sample serves as both a “window” into the corrosion cell through which the proton beam passes completely, and the sample for assessing irradiation accelerated corrosion. The facility was tested by irradiating stainless steel samples at beam current densities between 0.5 and 10 μA/cm2 in 130 °C and 320 °C deaerated water, and 320 °C water with 3 wppm H2. Increases in the conductivity and dissolved oxygen content of the water varied with the proton beam current, suggesting that proton irradiation was accelerating the corrosion of the sample. Conductivity increases were greatest at 320 °C, while DO increases were highest at 130 °C. The addition of 3 wppm H2 suppressed DO below detectable levels. The facility will enable future studies into the effect of irradiation on corrosion in high temperature water with in situ proton irradiation.

  20. Water-related environmental control requirements at municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J C; Johnson, L D

    1980-09-01

    Water use and waste water production, water pollution control technology requirements, and water-related limitations to their design and commercialization are identified at municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion systems. In Part I, a summary of conclusions and recommendations provides concise statements of findings relative to water management and waste water treatment of each of four municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion categories investigated. These include: mass burning, with direct production of steam for use as a supplemental energy source; mechanical processing to produce a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) for co-firing in gas, coal or oil-fired power plants; pyrolysis for production of a burnable oil or gas; and biological conversion of organic wastes to methane. Part II contains a brief description of each waste-to-energy facility visited during the subject survey showing points of water use and wastewater production. One or more facilities of each type were selected for sampling of waste waters and follow-up tests to determine requirements for water-related environmental controls. A comprehensive summary of the results are presented. (MCW)

  1. Vaye-Planaz drinking-water hydro-power installation; Petite centrale hydro-electrique de Vaye-Planaz sur le reseau d'eau potable de la commune de Grone. Etude de faisabilite. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the concept for a hydro-power installation that uses an existing drinking-water supply system. The report takes a look at the present situation which features ground-water sources, a transport pipeline and two reservoirs. The concept for the use of the available water pressure due to height-difference to drive a turbine and so generate electricity is described. Variants considered are reviewed. Investment and operating costs are examined as are the electricity production and the cost of the power generated. Finally, investments and other financial aspects are looked at and the further course of action is discussed.

  2. Correction: Whiley, H., et al. Detection of Legionella, L. pneumophila and Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) along Potable Water Distribution Pipelines. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 7393–7405

    OpenAIRE

    Harriet Whiley; Alexandra Keegan; Howard Fallowfield; Richard Bentham

    2014-01-01

    The authors wish to add the following amendments and corrections to their paper published in IJERPH [1].Page 7398, Table 1: The average water temperature measured in summer is 24.3 °C not 4.3 °C. The correct Table 1 should therefore be: [...

  3. Correction: Whiley, H., et al. Detection of Legionella, L. pneumophila and Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC along Potable Water Distribution Pipelines. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 7393–7405

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors wish to add the following amendments and corrections to their paper published in IJERPH [1].Page 7398, Table 1: The average water temperature measured in summer is 24.3 °C not 4.3 °C. The correct Table 1 should therefore be: [...

  4. Estimation of the nopal cactus (Opuntia cochenillifera for color removal in drinking water Evaluación de la tuna (Opuntia cochenillifera para la remoción del color en agua potable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Jiménez Antillón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of nopal cactus to remove color in river and artificial waters for human consumption was evaluated. The performance of nopal was compared with that of aluminum sulfate coagulant and a cationic flocculant.The river water was cha- racterized by high color, low turbidity, alkalinity and hardness, and a high percentage of dissolved oxygen. The cactus leaves showed no activity as unique coa- gulant to be evaluated only in river water. In artificial water, as a sole treatment (45 mg/l, an efficiency of 94% in color removal was observed, slightly higher than that of the conventional treatment (20 mg/l Al2 (SO43 and 2 mg/l of cationic flocculant with a removal of 89%. However, water treated with nopal left a residual COD value doubled (21 mg/l compared to con- ventional treatment. In the treatment of artificial water, nopal as a flocculant showed a color removal of 92% and a residual COD of 31.5 mg /l applied at a dose of 22.5 mg/l and 7 mg/l of Al2 (SO43. The nopal was not very effective to remove the color produced by humic substances in waters of low turbidity and alkalinity, but its applicability as a coagulant/flocculant in waters of high turbidity and alkalinity is promising. It is recommended to extract the active ingredients of natural products to reduce the organic load of treated water and prevent the formation of disin- fection byproducts.El estudio evaluó la eficiencia del cactus de la tuna para remover el color en agua de río y agua artificial para el consumo humano. Se comparó su desem- peño con el coagulante sulfato de aluminio y un floculante catiónico. El agua fluvial se caracterizó por presentar alto color, baja turbidez, alcalinidad y dureza y alto porcentaje de oxígeno disuelto. Las hojas de tuna no mostraron actividad como coagulante único al ser evaluadas en agua de río. Se observó una eficiencia de remoción de color del 94% en agua artificial, cuando se aplicó como tratamiento único (45 mg/l, poco

  5. Quality of Drinking Water Treated at Point of Use in Residential Healthcare Facilities for the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Sacchetti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Municipal tap water is increasingly treated at the point of use (POU to improve the acceptability and palatability of its taste. The aim of this study was to assess the bacteriologic and nutritional characteristics of tap water treated at the point of use in residential healthcare facilities for the elderly. Two types of POU devices were used: microfiltered water dispensers (MWDs and reverse-osmosis water dispensers (ROWDs. All samples of water entering the devices and leaving them were tested for the bacteriological parameters set by Italian regulations for drinking water and for opportunistic pathogens associated with various infections in healthcare settings; in addition, the degree of mineralization of the water was assessed. The results revealed widespread bacterial contamination in the POU treatment devices, particularly from potentially pathogenic species. As expected, the use of ROWDs led to a decrease in the saline content of the water. In conclusion, the use of POU treatment in healthcare facilities for the elderly can be considered advisable only if the devices are constantly and carefully maintained.

  6. Quality of Drinking Water Treated at Point of Use in Residential Healthcare Facilities for the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchetti, Rossella; De Luca, Giovanna; Guberti, Emilia; Zanetti, Franca

    2015-09-09

    Municipal tap water is increasingly treated at the point of use (POU) to improve the acceptability and palatability of its taste. The aim of this study was to assess the bacteriologic and nutritional characteristics of tap water treated at the point of use in residential healthcare facilities for the elderly. Two types of POU devices were used: microfiltered water dispensers (MWDs) and reverse-osmosis water dispensers (ROWDs). All samples of water entering the devices and leaving them were tested for the bacteriological parameters set by Italian regulations for drinking water and for opportunistic pathogens associated with various infections in healthcare settings; in addition, the degree of mineralization of the water was assessed. The results revealed widespread bacterial contamination in the POU treatment devices, particularly from potentially pathogenic species. As expected, the use of ROWDs led to a decrease in the saline content of the water. In conclusion, the use of POU treatment in healthcare facilities for the elderly can be considered advisable only if the devices are constantly and carefully maintained.

  7. Drinking-water hydropower station 'Loye' in Grone, Switzerland - Feasibility study; Petite centrale hydro-electrique de Loye sur le reseau d'eau potable de la commune de Grone. Etude de faisabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a small hydropower project to be realised in Grone, southern Switzerland. The system planed is described. This provides the necessary pressure reduction in the drinking-water supply system between the springs in the mountains and the reservoir in the valley whilst generating electrical power at the same time. A one-injector Pelton turbine that meets all drinking-water quality requirements is used to generate 48 kW of electrical power using the pressure obtained from the height-difference of around 164 metres. The forecast electricity production amounts to 283,000 kWh/y, of which 88,000 kWh in the wintertime. The expected production cost is 0.219 CHF/kWh. A 550 m long pipeline has to be replaced.

  8. Reliability of pathogen control in direct potable reuse: Performance evaluation and QMRA of a full-scale 1 MGD advanced treatment train.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecson, Brian M; Triolo, Sarah C; Olivieri, Simon; Chen, Elise C; Pisarenko, Aleksey N; Yang, Chao-Chun; Olivieri, Adam; Haas, Charles N; Trussell, R Shane; Trussell, R Rhodes

    2017-10-01

    To safely progress toward direct potable reuse (DPR), it is essential to ensure that DPR systems can provide public health protection equivalent to or greater than that of conventional drinking water sources. This study collected data over a one-year period from a full-scale DPR demonstration facility, and used both performance distribution functions (PDFs) and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to define and evaluate the reliability of the advanced water treatment facility (AWTF). The AWTF's ability to control enterovirus, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium was characterized using online monitoring of surrogates in a treatment train consisting of ozone, biological activated carbon, microfiltration, reverse osmosis, and ultraviolet light with an advanced oxidation process. This process train was selected to improve reliability by providing redundancy, defined as the provision of treatment beyond the minimum needed to meet regulatory requirements. The PDFs demonstrated treatment that consistently exceeded the 12/10/10-log thresholds for virus, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium, as currently required for potable reuse in California (via groundwater recharge and surface water augmentation). Because no critical process failures impacted pathogen removal performance during the yearlong testing, hypothetical failures were incorporated into the analysis to understand the benefit of treatment redundancy on performance. Each unit process was modeled with a single failure per year lasting four different failure durations: 15 min, 60 min, 8 h, and 24 h. QMRA was used to quantify the impact of failures on pathogen risk. The median annual risk of infection for Cryptosporidium was 4.9 × 10(-11) in the absence of failures, and reached a maximum of 1.1 × 10(-5) assuming one 24-h failure per process per year. With the inclusion of free chlorine disinfection as part of the treatment process, enterovirus had a median annual infection risk of 1.5 × 10(-14) (no failures

  9. Tarifas sociales para el servicio de agua potable en Arica, Chile y su impacto teórico en la distribución del ingreso de los usuarios Social tariffs for water supply services in Arica, Chile and their theoretical impact on the distribution of wealth of consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Acevedo Antimil

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente trabajo es evaluar el efecto redistributivo de un sistema de tarifas sociales del agua potable, comparado con el actual modelo de subsidios estatales directos a la población de menores ingresos. Se busca determinar una asignación de precios sociales tal que permita una operación no deficitaria, usando un modelo matemático basado en conceptos de la economía del bienestar. Se evalúa un esquema de cobro diferenciado de la tarifa, según el ingreso de los clientes en la ciudad de Arica, Chile y su impacto teórico en la redistribución del ingreso en los consumidores. De los resultados de esta investigación se concluye que las tarifas sociales presentan una leve ventaja sobre los subsidios directos en términos redistributivos, sin embargo aparecen externalidades indeseables, que introducen distorsiones al mercado, las que podrían anular cualquier redistribución significativa.The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the redistributive effect of a system of social tariffs of water supply services, compared to the current direct subsidies from the government to low-income consumers. The goal is to determine social prices for non-deficit operation, using a mathematical model based on the theory of welfare economics. A scheme of differentiated tariffs according to income of consumers in the city of Arica, Chile, is evaluated as to the theoretical impact on the distribution of wealth of these consumers. From the results of this investigation, we concluded that social tariffs have a small advantage over direct subsidies in terms of redistribution, but undesirable side effects are produced, creating market distortions that could cancel out any significant redistribution of wealth.

  10. A feasibility and economic study into the use of micro hydro power applications to generate electricity from the Victoria Capital Regional District’s municipal water facility. Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Eri Andres Boye

    2011-01-01

    The Victoria Capitol Regional District (CRD) operates several pressure reducing facilities (PRF) as part of their potable municipal waterways. The Humpback PRF has the largest flow and head conditions, and was used as the study site in this thesis. A feasibility and economic study was conducted to observe the viability of a proposed hydropower station at the Humpback PRF. Feasibility analysis of flow and pressure: Flow and head conditions vary over the course of time, with lows in 2...

  11. USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael N. DiFilippo

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Deliverable 2 focuses on transportation--the largest obstacle to produced water reuse in the San Juan Basin (the Basin). Most of the produced water in the Basin is stored in tanks at the well head and must be transported by truck to salt water disposal (SWD) facilities prior to injection. Produced water transportation requirements from the well head to SJGS and the availability of existing infrastructure to transport the water are discussed in this deliverable.

  12. Effect of noncoliforms on coliform detection in potable groundwater: improved recovery with an anaerobic membrane filter technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Franzblau, S G; Hinnebusch, B J; Kelley, L M; Sinclair, N A

    1984-01-01

    A total of 529 well and distribution potable water samples were analyzed for total coliforms by the most-probable-number and membrane filter (MF) techniques. Standard plate count bacteria and MF noncoliform bacteria were also enumerated. Frequency of coliform detection, turbidity in most-probable-number tubes, and extensive overgrowth by noncoliforms on MF filters were directly proportional to standard plate counts. Recovery of coliforms was greatest by the MF method at low (less than 100 CFU...

  13. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility process water conditioning system design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-11-30

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Process Water Conditioning (PWC) System. The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), the HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the PWC equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SDD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  14. PVC-piping promotes growth of Ralstonia pickettii in dialysis water treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowsky, Matthias; Kirschner, Alexander; Sommer, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms forming inside dialysis water treatment systems are one of the main sources of microbiological contamination. Among the bacteria found in biofilms, Ralstonia pickettii is frequently encountered in dialysis water treatment systems and has been shown to develop extreme oligotrophic talents. In Austria, R. pickettii was exclusively detected in high numbers in dialysis water treatment facilities equipped with chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-C) piping. In this laboratory study it was shown that PVC-C effectively promotes growth of R. pickettii biofilms, while residual organic carbon in purified dialysis water is sufficient for promoting substantial growth of planktic R. pickettii. This provides evidence that PVC-C is an unsuitable material for piping in dialysis water treatment systems.

  15. Programming the execution of drillings for capturing ground water for use in supplying drinking water to urban areas as a planning tool (a case study of the PERT method); Programacion en la ejecucion de sondeos para la captacion de aguas subterraneas destinadas al abastecimiento de agua potable en nucleos urbanos como herramienta de planificacion (caso practio real : metodo PERT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Marquez, F. J.

    2005-07-01

    A great number of soundings of under ground water pick up for supplying to urban nuclei presents/displays serious deficiencies, as much in their constructive initial phase like later an their operation, since many of the facilities badly are determine the proportions and, consequently, originate very low yields in quality and/or amount of the extracted water. In this article one sets out, to the companies and the technicians in charge to write up and to carry out projects of execution of soundings, the application of a methodology based on an elaboration technique and control of performance programs, as effective and necessary tool for the adjustment at any moment of each one of the operations implied in the execution of the sounding, obtaining itself thus, from this initial phase, an suitable construction of the sounding. This methodology is exposed by means of its practical application in a sounding made in the province of Jaen. (Author) 5 refs.

  16. Uses of inorganic hypochlorite (bleach) in health-care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, W A; Weber, D J

    1997-01-01

    Hypochlorite has been used as a disinfectant for more than 100 years. It has many of the properties of an ideal disinfectant, including a broad antimicrobial activity, rapid bactericidal action, reasonable persistence in treated potable water, ease of use, solubility in water, relative stability, relative nontoxicity at use concentrations, no poisonous residuals, no color, no staining, and low cost. The active species is undissociated hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Hypochlorites are lethal to most microbes, although viruses and vegetative bacteria are more susceptible than endospore-forming bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. Activity is reduced by the presence of heavy metal ions, a biofilm, organic material, low temperature, low pH, or UV radiation. Clinical uses in health-care facilities include hyperchlorination of potable water to prevent Legionella colonization, chlorination of water distribution systems used in hemodialysis centers, cleaning of environmental surfaces, disinfection of laundry, local use to decontaminate blood spills, disinfection of equipment, decontamination of medical waste prior to disposal, and dental therapy. Despite the increasing availability of other disinfectants, hypochlorites continue to find wide use in hospitals. PMID:9336664

  17. Where there is no toilet: water and sanitation environments of domestic and facility births in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benova, Lenka; Cumming, Oliver; Gordon, Bruce A; Magoma, Moke; Campbell, Oona M R

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate water and sanitation during childbirth are likely to lead to poor maternal and newborn outcomes. This paper uses existing data sources to assess the water and sanitation (WATSAN) environment surrounding births in Tanzania in order to interrogate whether such estimates could be useful for guiding research, policy and monitoring initiatives. We used the most recent Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) to characterise the delivery location of births occurring between 2005 and 2010. Births occurring in domestic environments were characterised as WATSAN-safe if the home fulfilled international definitions of improved water and improved sanitation access. We used the 2006 Service Provision Assessment survey to characterise the WATSAN environment of facilities that conduct deliveries. We combined estimates from both surveys to describe the proportion of all births occurring in WATSAN-safe environments and conducted an equity analysis based on DHS wealth quintiles and eight geographic zones. 42.9% (95% confidence interval: 41.6%-44.2%) of all births occurred in the woman's home. Among these, only 1.5% (95% confidence interval: 1.2%-2.0%) were estimated to have taken place in WATSAN-safe conditions. 74% of all health facilities conducted deliveries. Among these, only 44% of facilities overall and 24% of facility delivery rooms were WATSAN-safe. Combining the estimates, we showed that 30.5% of all births in Tanzania took place in a WATSAN-safe environment (range of uncertainty 25%-42%). Large wealth-based inequalities existed in the proportion of births occurring in domestic environments based on wealth quintile and geographical zone. Existing data sources can be useful in national monitoring and prioritisation of interventions to improve poor WATSAN environments during childbirth. However, a better conceptual understanding of potentially harmful exposures and better data are needed in order to devise and apply more empirical definitions of WATSAN

  18. Caractérisation physico-chimique de boues d’unité de production d’eau potable Physico-chemical characterization of sludge from a unit water drinking production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostahsine S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La composition chimique des boues hydroxydes, sous-produit de la potabilisation de l’eau est constituée majoritairement d’hydroxydes d’aluminium et de silice, les hydroxydes de Fer, de calcium, de potassium et de magnésium dont le taux peut varier sensiblement selon les périodes de prélèvement des eaux brutes et peut conférer à la boue des propriétés physico-chimiques intéressantes. La composition minéralogique des boues peut également comporter un solidifiant tel que les silicates de calcium. L’observation au MEB de ces boues hydroxydes montre une phase amorphe sous forme de flocons dont la géométrie est mal définie et emprisonnant de petits cristaux de quartz et de muscovite. Ces observations sont en corrélation avec les principales phases minérales mises en évidence dans les essais de diffraction des rayons X. L’étude du comportement thermique des boues, notamment celui de la déshydroxylation et les transformations de phases sont situées dans un intervalle de température compris entre 300 et 800°C. Ces transformations thermiques sont caractérisées par plusieurs méthodes analytiques (DSC, DRX et infrarouge. Les nouvelles phases cristallisées sont sous différentes formes de solutions solides du type (Ca, Al, Si, Fe, K, Mg. Chemical composition of the Hydroxides sludge, by-product of treatment of drinking water, are composed mainly of silica and the hydroxides of aluminium, the ratio of the hydroxides of iron, calcium, potassium and magnesium fluctuate appreciably according to the periods of taking away raw waters, and could confer to the sludge interesting physico-chemical properties. The mineralogical composition of the sludge may also contain a solidifying component such as calcium silicate. The MEB observation shows an amorphous phase in the form of flakes whose geometry is badly defined and imprisoning small muscovite and quartz crystals. These observations are in correlation with principal mineral

  19. Evaluation of Military Field-Water Quality. Volume 8. Performance of Mobile Water-Purification Unit (MWPU) and Pretreatment Components of the 600-GPH Reverse Osmosis Water Purification Unit (ROWPU), and Consideration of Reverse Osmosis (RO) Bypass, Potable-Water Disinfection, and Water-Quality Analysis Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    through the filter. Perlite , which comes from a siliceous rock, is another material which can be used in precoat f liters.15 The clarifying ability is...of a microsphere cyst model (5.7 jim in diameter). The microspheres were filtered from a solution containing 40,000 to 65,000 microspheres /mL, diluted...with tap water. No further information was included in the article regarding pH, temperature, etc. More than 99.99% of the microspheres was removed in

  20. New construction of an inside-container drying facility in the central decontamination and water treatment facility (ZDW); Neubau einer Innenfasstrocknungsanlage in der Zentralen Dekontaminations- und Wasseraufbereitungsanlage (ZDW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Martin J.; Koischwitz, Ingmar [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    For the future conditioning of radioactive liquid waste during the proceeding dismantling of the NPP Greifswald the GNS company provides the an inside-container drying facility in the frame of the new construction of ZDW (central decontamination and water treatment facility) including related infrastructure and media supply. The concept of the FAVORIT facility which is in operation since years has been refined; a fully automated version was realized so that no handling by the personnel is necessary for loading and unloading of the container station. Components of the vacuum system were optimized.

  1. GIS based location optimization for mobile produced water treatment facilities in shale gas operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitwadkar, Amol Hanmant

    Over 60% of the nation's total energy is supplied by oil and natural gas together and this demand for energy will continue to grow in the future (Radler et al. 2012). The growing demand is pushing the exploration and exploitation of onshore oil and natural gas reservoirs. Hydraulic fracturing has proven to not only create jobs and achieve economic growth, but also has proven to exert a lot of stress on natural resources---such as water. As water is one of the most important factors in the world of hydraulic fracturing, proper fluids management during the development of a field of operation is perhaps the key element to address a lot of these issues. Almost 30% of the water used during hydraulic fracturing comes out of the well in the form of flowback water during the first month after the well is fractured (Bai et. al. 2012). Handling this large amount of water coming out of the newly fractured wells is one of the major issues as the volume of the water after this period drops off and remains constant for a long time (Bai et. al. 2012) and permanent facilities can be constructed to take care of the water over a longer period. This paper illustrates development of a GIS based tool for optimizing the location of a mobile produced water treatment facility while development is still occurring. A methodology was developed based on a multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to optimize the location of the mobile treatment facilities. The criteria for MCDA include well density, ease of access (from roads considering truck hauls) and piping minimization if piping is used and water volume produced. The area of study is 72 square miles east of Greeley, CO in the Wattenberg Field in northeastern Colorado that will be developed for oil and gas production starting in the year 2014. A quarterly analysis is done so that we can observe the effect of future development plans and current circumstances on the location as we move from quarter to quarter. This will help the operators to

  2. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This renewal application for a Recycled Water Reuse Permit is being submitted in accordance with the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.17 “Recycled Water Rules” and the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit LA-000141-03 for continuing the operation of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant located at the Idaho National Laboratory. The permit expires March 16, 2015. The permit requires a renewal application to be submitted six months prior to the expiration date of the existing permit. For the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant, the renewal application must be submitted by September 16, 2014. The information in this application is consistent with the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater and discussions with Idaho Department of Environmental Quality personnel.

  3. Radio-chemical dosage of {sup 90}Sr in large volumes of drinking water; Dosage radiochimique du {sup 90}Sr sur des volumes importants d'eaux potables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanmaire, L.; Patti, F.; Bullier, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    I. Principle of the method: 1. Fixing on a resin of all the cations present in the water. 2. Elution using 5 N nitric acid and precipitation of strontium as the carbonate. 3. Concentration of the strontium using the fuming nitric acid method. 4. Purification of the strontium on a resin by selective elution with ammonium citrate. 5. The strontium-90 is measured by separation at the {sup 90}Y equilibrium in the form of the oxalate which is then counted. II. Advantages of the method The concentration of the radio-activity starting from large volumes (100 l) is generally tedious but this method which makes use of a fixation on a cationic resin makes it very simple. The rest of the method consists of a series of simple chemical operations using ion-exchange on resins and coprecipitation. Finally, it is possible to dose stable strontium. (authors) [French] I. Principe du dosage 1. Fixation sur resine de tous les cations presents dans l'eau, 2. Elution par l'acide nitrique 5 N et precipitation du strontium sous forme de carbonate. 3. Concentration du strontium par la methode a l'acide nitrique fumant. 4. Purification du strontium sur resine par elution selective au citrate d'ammonium. 5. Le strontium-90 est dose par separation a l'equilibre du {sup 90}Y sous forme d'oxalate qui est compte. II. Interet de la methode La concentration de la radioactivite a partir de volumes importants (100 l) est generalement fastidieuse, la technique proposee rend cette phase tres simple en utilisant une fixation sur resine cationique. Le reste de la technique est une suite d'operations chimiques simples a realiser, faisant appel a l'echange d'ions sur resine et a la coprecipitation. Enfin, il est possible de realiser le dosage du strontium stable. (auteurs)

  4. Water soluble decontamination coating for Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selby, C.L.

    1986-12-17

    Water soluble sodium borate glass coating was successfully codeveloped by Clemson University (Dr. H.G. Lefort) and Du Pont as an alternative decontamination process to frit slurry blasting of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters. Slurry blasting requires transport of abrasive slurries, might cause galling by entrapped frit particles, and could result in frit slurry freezeup in pumps and retention basins. Contamination can be removed from precoated canisters with a gentle hot water rinse. Glass waste spilled on a coated canister will spall off spontaneously during canister cooling. A glass coating appears to prevent transfer of contamination to the Canister Decontamination Cell (CDC) guides and cradle. 1 ref., 5 tabs.

  5. A facile TiO2/PVDF composite membrane synthesis and their application in water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yiming; Fan, Rong; Lewis, Rosmala

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we have demonstrated a facile wet chemical method to synthesise TiO2/PVDF composite membranes as alternative water purification method to traditional polymer-based membrane. For the first time, hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanofibers under alkali conditions were successfully inserted into PVDF membranes matrix. The structure, permeability and anti-fouling performance of as-prepared PVDF/TiO2 composite membranes were studied systematically. The TiO2/PVDF composite membranes prepared in this work promise great potential uses in water purification applications as microfiltration membranes due to its excellent physical/chemical resistance, anti-fouling and mechanical properties.

  6. A hydrologic retention system and water quality monitoring program for a human decomposition research facility: concept and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Jeffrey R; Thies, Monte L; Bytheway, Joan A; Lutterschmidt, William I

    2015-01-01

    Forensic taphonomy is an essential research field; however, the decomposition of human cadavers at forensic science facilities may lead to nutrient loading and the introduction of unique biological compounds to adjacent areas. The infrastructure of a water retention system may provide a mechanism for the biogeochemical processing and retention of nutrients and compounds, ensuring the control of runoff from forensic facilities. This work provides a proof of concept for a hydrologic retention system and an autonomous water quality monitoring program designed to mitigate runoff from The Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) Facility. Water samples collected along a sample transect were analyzed for total phosphorous, total nitrogen, NO3-, NO2-, NH4, F(-), and Cl(-). Preliminary water quality analyses confirm the overall effectiveness of the water retention system. These results are discussed with relation to how this infrastructure can be expanded upon to monitor additional, more novel, byproducts of forensic science research facilities.

  7. The Bremen mass spectrometric facility for the measurement of helium isotopes, neon, and tritium in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sültenfuss, Jürgen; Roether, Wolfgang; Rhein, Monika

    2009-06-01

    We describe the mass spectrometric facility for measuring helium isotopes, neon, and tritium that has been operative at this institute since 1989, and also the sampling and sample preparation steps that precede the mass spectrometric analysis. For water samples in a near-equilibrium with atmospheric air, the facility achieves precision for (3)He/(4)He ratios of+/-0.4% or better, and+/-0.8 % or better for helium and neon concentrations. Tritium precision is typically+/-3 % and the detection limit 10 mTU ( approximately 1.2.10(-3) Bq/kg of pure water). Sample throughputs can reach some thousands per year. These achievements are enabled, among other features, by automation of the measurement procedure and by elaborate calibration, assisted by continual development in detail. To date, we have measured more than 15,000 samples for tritium and 23,000 for helium isotopes and neon, mostly in the context of oceanographic and hydrologic work. Some results of such work are outlined. Even when atmospheric tritium concentrations have become rather uniform, tritium provides water ages if (3)He data are taken concurrently. The technique can resolve tritium concentrations in waters of the pre-nuclear era.

  8. Política descentralizadora del agua potable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles Cienfuegos Velasco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hablar de política descentralizadora en relación con la gestión del agua potable implica aclarar el significado de descentralización y su aplicación en México. En este trabajo se ofrecen algunas aportaciones al concepto y se describe el proceso que, de hecho, ha ocurrido en la política de descentralización del agua en el país.

  9. EPA Office of Water (OW): Facilities that Discharge to Water NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Discharge of pollutants into waters of the United States is regulated under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), a mandated provision of the...

  10. Study of Cyclospora cayetanensis in health care facilities, sewage water and green leafy vegetables in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherchand, J B; Cross, J H; Jimba, M; Sherchand, S; Shrestha, M P

    1999-03-01

    Cyclospora cayetanensis, a newly emerging parasite, is endemic in Nepal. A total of 2,123 stool specimens were collected from 3 health care facilities based on clinical symptoms during the period between 1995 to October, 1998. Out of these specimens, cayetanensis oocysts were found in 632 (29.8%). To identify possible sources for Cyclospora infection, drinking water, sewage water, green-leafy vegetables including fecal samples of various animals were collected and examined. The vegetable leaves were washed in distilled water then the washings, sewage water and drinking water were centrifuged and the sediment were examined microscopically. As a result, oocyst of Cyclospora were identified in sewage water and vegetable washings on four different occasions in June, August, October and November. The positive results were also confirmed as C. cayetanensis by development of 2 sporocysts after 2 week incubation period in potassium dichromate. A survey of 196 domestic animals from the same areas demonstrated that two chickens were positive for Cyclospora-like organism and others were negative. Although further studies are needed to clarify the direct link between Cyclospora infection and these sources, the results suggest that sewage water, green leafy vegetables are possible sources of infection and chickens could be possible reservoir host of Cyclospora in Nepal.

  11. Potable Water Supply Feasibility Study for Summit Station, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    surface ( Incropera and DeWitt 1985): ERDC/CRREL TR-11-4 42 2 1/6 8/279/16 3 2 0.3870.825 0.4921 Pr Pr k Rah L g TLRa...126 W/m2 and P = 11 kW. Reference Incropera , F. P. and D. P. DeWitt. 1985. Introduction to heat transfer. John Wiley & Sons. New York. ERDC

  12. Novel Process Technologies for Disinfection of Potable Water Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — KWJ is proposing a microfabricated multichannel ozone source, and will evaluate several designs for efficiency of ozone production in Phase I. The voltage...

  13. Analysis and Operational Feasibility of Potable Water Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Calcium Chloride (CaCl2), lithium Chloride (LiCl), Bentonite clay , and Carbon (Oak Ridge National Laboratory 1992). Some are used to absorb humidity...dryness needed Bentonite Clay Solid Humidity Slow rate of absorption between 35- 55% 150-300 depends on dryness needed Carbon Solid Odor/ Gas >40

  14. Reclamation of potable water from mixed gas streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, Roddie R.; Bischoff, Brian L.; Debusk, Melanie Moses; Narula, Chaitanya

    2016-07-19

    An apparatus for separating a liquid from a mixed gas stream can include a wall, a mixed gas stream passageway, and a liquid collection assembly. The wall can include a first surface, a second surface, and a plurality of capillary condensation pores. The capillary condensation pores extend through the wall, and have a first opening on the first surface of the wall, and a second opening on the second surface of the wall. The pore size of the pores can be between about 2 nm to about 100 nm. The mixed gas stream passageway can be in fluid communication with the first opening. The liquid collection assembly can collect liquid from the plurality of pores.

  15. Design for Corrosion Control of Potable Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-02-01

    galvanic cell is thereby established in which the protected structure becomes the cathode and the less noble metal, the sacrificial anode. Current... galvanic cell resulting from difference in oxygen concentration between two locations. Paint system -- The complete number and type of coats...resulting from a galvanic cell caused by a thermal gradient. 67 - mind Thermoplastic -- Capable of being repeatedly softened 1,y heating and hardened

  16. MICOBACTERIUM PARATUBERCULOSIS AND NONTUBERCULOUS MYCOBACTERIAL IN POTABLE WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) include Mycobacterium species that are not members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex. Members of the NTM group are important causes of disease in birds and mammals. Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium parat...

  17. Engineering and Design: Trace Organic Compounds in Potable Water Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    after they enter the gaseous phase. More highly polar organlcs, which are difficult to recover with the dynamic headspace -adsorpt ion technique? can...pH adjustment Freeze-drying Headspace Semipolar Liquid-liquid Adsorption Reverse osmosis extraction Elution Dynamic headspace adsorption Headspace

  18. Facile Preparation of Nanostructured, Superhydrophobic Filter Paper for Efficient Water/Oil Separation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a facile and cost-effective method to obtain superhydrophobic filter paper and demonstrate its application for efficient water/oil separation. By coupling structurally distinct organosilane precursors (e.g., octadecyltrichlorosilane and methyltrichlorosilane to paper fibers under controlled reaction conditions, we have formulated a simple, inexpensive, and efficient protocol to achieve a desirable superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surface on conventional filter paper. The silanized superhydrophobic filter paper showed nanostructured morphology and demonstrated great separation efficiency (up to 99.4% for water/oil mixtures. The modified filter paper is stable in both aqueous solutions and organic solvents, and can be reused multiple times. The present study shows that our newly developed binary silanization is a promising method of modifying cellulose-based materials for practical applications, in particular the treatment of industrial waste water and ecosystem recovery.

  19. Facile Preparation of Nanostructured, Superhydrophobic Filter Paper for Efficient Water/Oil Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhua; Wong, Jessica X H; Kwok, Honoria; Li, Xiaochun; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a facile and cost-effective method to obtain superhydrophobic filter paper and demonstrate its application for efficient water/oil separation. By coupling structurally distinct organosilane precursors (e.g., octadecyltrichlorosilane and methyltrichlorosilane) to paper fibers under controlled reaction conditions, we have formulated a simple, inexpensive, and efficient protocol to achieve a desirable superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surface on conventional filter paper. The silanized superhydrophobic filter paper showed nanostructured morphology and demonstrated great separation efficiency (up to 99.4%) for water/oil mixtures. The modified filter paper is stable in both aqueous solutions and organic solvents, and can be reused multiple times. The present study shows that our newly developed binary silanization is a promising method of modifying cellulose-based materials for practical applications, in particular the treatment of industrial waste water and ecosystem recovery.

  20. Toxicity of Water and Sediment Samples Collected in the Vicinity of the Mixed Waste Management Facility, 1995 and 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Three rounds of toxicity tests were conducted on water collected from eleven locations in the vicinity of the Mixed Waste Management Facility and four reference locations between January 1995 and April 1996.

  1. Solar production of industrial process hot water: operation and evaluation of the Campbell Soup hot water solar facility. Final report, September 1, 1979-December 10, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kull, J. I.; Niemeyer, W. N.; Youngblood, S. B.

    1980-12-01

    The operation and evaluation of a solar hot water facility designed by Acurex Corporation and installed (November 1977) at the Campbell Soup Company Sacramento, California canning plant is summarized. The period of evaluation was for 12 months from October 1979 through September 1980. The objective of the work was to obtain additional, long term data on the operation and performance of the facility. Minor modifications to the facility were completed. The system was operated for 15 months, and 12 months of detailed data were evaluated. The facility was available for operation 99% of the time during the last 8 months of evaluation. A detailed description of the solar facility and of the operating experience is given, and a summary of system performance for the 12 month operation/evaluation period is presented. Recommendations for large-scale solar facilities based on this project's experience are given, and an environmental impact assessment for the Campbell Soup solar facility is provided. (WHK)

  2. Transfer of adapted water supply technologies through a demonstration and teaching facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestmann, F.; Oberle, P.; Ikhwan, M.; Stoffel, D.; Blaß, H. J.; Töws, D.; Schmidt, S.

    2016-09-01

    Water scarcity can be defined as a lack of sufficient water resources or as the limited or even missing access to a safe water supply. Latter can be classified as `economic water scarcity' which among others can commonly be met in tropical and subtropical karst regions of emerging and developing countries. Karst aquifers, mostly consisting of limestone and carbonate rock, show high infiltration rates which leads to a lack of above ground storage possibilities. Thus, the water will drain rapidly into the underground and evolve vast river networks. Considering the lack of appropriate infrastructure and limited human capacities in the affected areas, these underground water resources cannot be exploited adequately. Against this, background innovative and adapted technologies are required to utilize hard-to-access water resources in a sustainable way. In this context, the German-Indonesian joint R&D project "Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Indonesia" dealt with the development of highly adaptable water technologies and management strategies. Under the aegis of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), these innovative technical concepts were exemplarily implemented to remedy this deficiency in the model region Gunung Sewu, a karst area situated on the southern coast of Java Island, Indonesia. The experiences gained through the interdisciplinary joint R&D activities clearly showed that even in the case of availability of appropriate technologies, a comprising transfer of knowhow and the buildup of capabilities (Capacity Development) is inevitable to sustainably implement and disseminate new methods. In this context, an adapted water supply facility was developed by KIT which hereafter shall serve for demonstration, teaching, and research purposes. The plant's functionality, its teaching and research concept, as well as the design process, which was accomplished in collaboration with the

  3. Water Treatment Unit Breadboard: Ground test facility for the recycling of urine and shower water for one astronaut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeboom, Ralph E. F.; Lamaze, Brigitte; Clauwaert, Peter; Christiaens, Marlies E. R.; Rabaey, Korneel; Vlaeminck, Siegfried; Vanoppen, Marjolein; Demey, Dries; Farinas, Bernabé Alonso; Coessens, Wout; De Paepe, Jolien; Dotremont, Chris; Beckers, Herman; Verliefde, Arne

    2016-07-01

    One of the major challenges for long-term manned Space missions is the requirement of a regenerative life support system. Average water consumption in Western Countries is >100 L d-1. Even when minimizing the amount of water available per astronauts to 13 L d-1, a mission of 6 crew members requires almost 30 ton of fresh water supplies per year. Note that the International Space Station (ISS) weighs approximately 400 ton. Therefore the development of an efficient water recovery system is essential to future Space exploration. The ISS currently uses a Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) unit following the addition of chromic and sulphuric acid for the microbial stabilization of urine (Carter, Tobias et al. 2012), yielding a water recovery percentage of only 70% due to scaling control. Additionally, Vapor Compression Distillation of 1.5 L urine cap 1 d-1 has a significantly higher power demand with 6.5 W cap-1 compared to a combination of electrodialysis (ED) and reverse osmosis (RO) with 1.9 and 0.6 W cap-1 respectively (Udert and Wächter 2012). A Water Treatment Unit Breadboard (WTUB) has been developed which combines a physicochemical and biological treatment. The aim was to recover 90% of the water in urine, condensate and shower water produced by one crew member and this life support testbed facility was inspired by the MELiSSA loop concept, ESA's Life Support System. Our experimental results showed that: 1) using a crystallisation reactor prior to the nitrification reduced scaling risks by Ca2+- and Mg2+ removal 2) the stabilization of urine diluted with condensate resulted in the biological conversion of 99% of Total Kjeldahl nitrogen into nitrate in the biological nitrification reactor 3) salinity and nitrate produced could be removed by 60-80% by electrodialysis, 4) shower water contaminated with skin microbiota and Neutrogena soap ® could be mixed with electrodialysis diluate and filtered directly over a ceramic nanofiltration at 93% water recovery and 5

  4. Detection and Quantification of Legionella pneumophila from Water Systems in Kuwait Residential Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qadreyah A. Al-Matawah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Legionella pneumophilia in water systems of residential facilities in Kuwait was performed during the period from November 2007 to November 2011. A total of 204 water samples collected from faucets and showerheads in bathrooms (n = 82, taps in kitchens (n = 51, and water tanks (n = 71, from different locations of residential facilities in Kuwait were screened for Legionella pneumophila by the standard culture method and by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Out of the 204 samples, 89 (43.6% samples were positive for Legionella spp., 48 (23.5% samples were detected by the standard culture method, and 85 (41.7% were detected by RT-PCR. Of the culture positive Legionella samples, counts ranged between 10 to 2250 CFU/L. Serological typing of 48 Legionella isolates revealed that 6 (12.5% of these isolates belonged to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, 37 (77.1% isolates to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 3, and 1 isolate each (2.1% belonged to serogroups 4, 7, and 10. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs of the 46 environmental L. pneumophila isolates against the 10 antimicrobials commonly used for Legionella infection treatments were determined. Rifampicin was found to be the most active against L. pneumophila serogroups isolates in vitro.

  5. Toward a better guard of coastal water safety-Microbial distribution in coastal water and their facile detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yunxuan; Qiu, Ning; Wang, Guangyi

    2017-05-15

    Prosperous development in marine-based tourism has raised increasing concerns over the sanitary quality of coastal waters with potential microbial contamination. The World Health Organization has set stringent standards over a list of pathogenic microorganisms posing potential threats to people with frequent coastal water exposure and has asked for efficient detection procedures for pathogen facile identification. Inspection of survey events regarding the occurrence of marine pathogens in recreational beaches in recent years has reinforced the need for the development of a rapid identification procedure. In this review, we examine the possibility of recruiting uniform molecular assays to identify different marine pathogens and the feasibility of appropriate biomarkers, including enterochelin biosynthetic genes, for general toxicity assays. The focus is not only on bacterial pathogens but also on other groups of infectious pathogens. The ultimate goal is the development of a handy method to more efficiently and rapidly detect marine pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A systematic review of waterborne infections from nontuberculous mycobacteria in health care facility water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Trudy; Abebe, Lydia S; Cronk, Ryan; Bartram, Jamie

    2017-05-01

    Healthcare-acquired infections are an increasing problem for health care providers and policy makers. Water is an overlooked source of infectious microorganisms in health care facilities. Waterborne nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous, and particularly problematic in health care facility water systems, and cause a variety of diseases. The purpose of this review is to assess health care associated NTM infections from health care facility water systems. We documented susceptible populations, modes of transmission, and the median attack rate (e.g. patients infected per patients exposed). We aimed to identify transmission risk factors and inform evidence-based policies for infection control and prevention. We searched Embase, PubMed, Web of Science and clinicaltrials.gov without date restrictions. English language articles with original data on NTM waterborne infections in health care settings were included. Randomized controlled trials, descriptive studies (case reports, case series), case-control studies, cohort studies, cross-sectional surveys, and quasi-experimental studies on nosocomial waterborne infections were included. Three investigators independently screened titles and abstracts for relevant articles, and one screened full-text articles. Data were extracted by one investigator, and a second confirmed accuracy for 10% of results. We included 22 observational studies. Immunocompromised, post-surgical, and hemodialysis patients were commonly affected populations. A range of exposure routes such as uncovered central venous catheters (CVCs), wound exposure, and contamination during surgical procedures was reported. The median attack rate was 12.1% (interquartile range, 11-27.2). Waterborne NTM infection affects susceptible patients through common, preventable exposure routes. Effective prevention strategies will require both medical and environmental health expertise, and inter-professional cooperation will optimize these efforts. Copyright © 2016

  7. The Inter Facility Testing of a Standard Oscillating Water Column (OWC) Type Wave Energy Converter (WEC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Thøtt; Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg

    This report describes the behavior and preliminary performance of a simplified standard oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converter (WEC). The same tests will be conducted at different scales at 6 different test facilities and the results obtained will be used for comparison. This projec...... at Aalborg University, Sohngaardsholmsvej 57, DK-9000 Aalborg. For further information regarding the content of this report please contact Morten Thøtt Andersen (mta@civil.aau.dk) or Jonas Bjerg Thomsen (jbt@civil.aau.dk) from the Department of Civil Engineering....

  8. Antibiotic resistance in Aeromonas upstream and downstream of a water resource recovery facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisar, Cindy R; Henderson, Samantha K; Askew, Maegan L; Risenhoover, Hollie G; McAndrews, Chrystle R; Kennedy, S Dawn; Paine, C Sue

    2014-09-01

    Aeromonas strains isolated from sediments upstream and downstream of a water resource recovery facility (WRRF) over a two-year time period were tested for susceptibility to 13 antibiotics. Incidence of resistance to antibiotics, antibiotic resistance phenotypes, and diversity (based on resistance phenotypes) were compared in the two populations. At the beginning of the study, the upstream and downstream Aeromonas populations were different for incidence of antibiotic resistance (p resistance phenotypes (p antibiotic resistance in Aeromonas in stream sediments fluctuates considerably over time and (2) suggest that WRRF effluent does not, when examined over the long- term, affect antibiotic resistance in Aeromonas in downstream sediment.

  9. An intercomparison of NEL and DHL water flow facilities using a twin orifice plate flowmeter assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejong, J.; Spencer, E. A.

    1983-01-01

    A 205 mm transfer standard orifice plate meter assembly, consisting of two orifice plates in series separated by a length of pipe containing a flow straightener, was calibrated in two water flow facilities. Results show that the agreement in the characteristics of such a differential pressure transfer standard package is within 0.17% over a 10:1 range from flow rates of approximately 8 to 80 l/sec. When the range over which the comparison was made was limited to that for which the calibration graphs gave straight lines, the agreement is 0.1% in 3 of the 4 calibrations (0.17% in the fourth).

  10. 21 CFR 1240.86 - Protection of pier water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protection of pier water system. 1240.86 Section... DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.86 Protection of pier water system. No vessel engaged in interstate traffic shall make a connection between its nonpotable water system and any pier potable...

  11. Factors influencing sustainability of communally-managed water facilities in rural areas of Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kativhu, T.; Mazvimavi, D.; Tevera, D.; Nhapi, I.

    2017-08-01

    Sustainability of point water facilities is a major development challenge in many rural settings of developing countries not sparing those in the Sub-Saharan Africa region. This study was done in Zimbabwe to investigate the factors influencing sustainability of rural water supply systems. A total of 399 water points were studied in Nyanga, Chivi and Gwanda districts. Data was collected using a questionnaire, observation checklist and key informant interview guide. Multi-Criteria analysis was used to assess the sustainability of water points and inferential statistical analysis such as Chi square tests and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to determine if there were significant differences on selected variables across districts and types of lifting devices used in the study area. The thematic approach was used to analyze qualitative data. Results show that most water points were not functional and only 17% across the districts were found to be sustainable. A fusion of social, technical, financial, environmental and institutional factors was found to be influencing sustainability. On technical factors the ANOVA results show that the type of lifting device fitted at a water point significantly influences sustainability (F = 37.4, p survey. Active participation by communities at the planning stage of water projects was also found to be critical for sustainability although field results showed passive participation by communities at this critical project stage. Financial factors of adequacy of financial contributions and establishment of operation and maintenance funds were also found to be of great importance in sustaining water supply systems. It is recommended that all factors should be considered when assessing sustainability since they are interrelated.

  12. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Listerhill, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The Solar system was installed into a new building and was designed to provide 79% of the estimated annual space heating load and 59% of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The collectors are flat plate, liquid manufactured by Reynolds Metals Company and cover a total area of 2344 square feet. The storage medium is water inhibited with NALCO 2755 and the container is an underground, unpressurized steel tank with a capacity of 5000 gallons. This report describes in considerable detail the solar heating facility and contains detailed drawings of the completed system.

  13. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Listerhill, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The solar system was installed into a new buildng and was designed to provide 79% of the estimated annual space heating load and 59% of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The collectors are flat plate, liquid manufactured by Reynolds Metals Company and cover a total area of 2344 square feet. The storage medium is water inhibited with NALCO 2755 and the container is an underground, unpressurized steel tank with a capacity of 5000 gallons. This final report describes in considerable detail the solar heating facility and contains detailed drawings of the completed system.

  14. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Listerhill, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The solar system was installed into a new buildng and was designed to provide 79% of the estimated annual space heating load and 59% of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The collectors are flat plate, liquid manufactured by Reynolds Metals Company and cover a total area of 2344 square feet. The storage medium is water inhibited with NALCO 2755 and the container is an underground, unpressurized steel tank with a capacity of 5000 gallons. This final report describes in considerable detail the solar heating facility and contains detailed drawings of the completed system.

  15. Roof-harvested rainwater for potable purposes: application of solar disinfection (SODIS) and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Muhammad Tahir; Han, Mooyoung

    2009-01-01

    Efficiency of solar disinfection (SODIS) was evaluated for the potability of rainwater in view of the increasing water and energy crises especially in developing countries. Rainwater samples were collected from an underground storage tank in 2 L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and SODIS efficiency was evaluated at different weather conditions. For optimizing SODIS, PET bottles with different backing surfaces to enhance the optical and thermal effects of SODIS were used and different physicochemical parameters were selected and evaluated along with microbial re-growth observations and calculating microbial decay constants. Total and fecal coliforms were used along with Escherichia Coli and Heterotrophic Plate Counts (HPC) as basic microbial and indicator organisms of water quality. For irradiance less than 600 W/m(2), reflective type PET bottles were best types while for radiations greater than 700 W/m(2), absorptive type PET bottles offered best solution due to the synergistic effects of both thermal and UV radiations. Microbial inactivation did not improve significantly by changing the initial pH and turbidity values but optimum SODIS efficiency is achieved for rainwater with acidic pH and low initial turbidity values by keeping air-spaced PET bottles in undisturbed conditions. Microbial re-growth occurred after one day only at higher turbidity values and with basic pH values. First-order reaction rate constant was in accordance with recent findings for TC but contradicted with previous researches for E. coli. No microbial parameter met drinking water guidelines even under strong experimental weather conditions rendering SODIS ineffective for complete disinfection and hence needed more exposure time or stronger sunlight radiations. With maximum possible storage of rainwater, however, and by using some means for accelerating SODIS process, rainwater can be disinfected and used for potable purposes.

  16. Declassification of radioactive water from a pool type reactor after nuclear facility dismantling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, J. M.; Sancho, M.; García-Fayos, B.; Verdú, G.; Serrano, C.; Ruiz-Martínez, J. T.

    2017-09-01

    This work is aimed to the treatment of the radioactive water from a dismantled nuclear facility with an experimental pool type reactor. The main objective of the treatment is to declassify the maximum volume of water and thus decrease the volume of radioactive liquid waste to be managed. In a preliminary stage, simulation of treatment by the combination of reverse osmosis (RO) and evaporation have been performed. Predicted results showed that the combination of membrane and evaporation technologies would result in a volume reduction factor higher than 600. The estimated time to complete the treatment was around 650 h (25-30 days). For different economical and organizational reasons which are explained in this paper, the final treatment of the real waste had to be reduced and only evaporation was applied. The volume reduction factor achieved in the real treatment was around 170, and the time spent for treatment was 194 days.

  17. Commercial Light Water Reactor -Tritium Extraction Facility Process Waste Assessment (Project S-6091)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, R.H.; Delley, A.O.; Alexander, G.J.; Clark, E.A.; Holder, J.S.; Lutz, R.N.; Malstrom, R.A.; Nobles, B.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Carson, S.D. [Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, NM (United States); Peterson, P.K. [Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, NM (United States)

    1997-11-30

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been tasked by the Department of Energy (DOE) to design and construct a Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) to process irradiated tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) from a Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR). The plan is for the CLWR-TEF to provide tritium to the SRS Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) in Building 233-H in support of DOE requirements. The CLWR-TEF is being designed to provide 3 kg of new tritium per year, from TPBARS and other sources of tritium (Ref. 1-4).The CLWR TPBAR concept is being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The TPBAR assemblies will be irradiated in a Commercial Utility light water nuclear reactor and transported to the SRS for tritium extraction and processing at the CLWR-TEF. A Conceptual Design Report for the CLWR-TEF Project was issued in July 1997 (Ref. 4).The scope of this Process Waste Assessment (PWA) will be limited to CLWR-TEF processing of CLWR irradiated TPBARs. Although the CLWR- TEF will also be designed to extract APT tritium-containing materials, they will be excluded at this time to facilitate timely development of this PWA. As with any process, CLWR-TEF waste stream characteristics will depend on process feedstock and contaminant sources. If irradiated APT tritium-containing materials are to be processed in the CLWR-TEF, this PWA should be revised to reflect the introduction of this contaminant source term.

  18. A proposed approach for the assessment of chemicals in indirect potable reuse schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Weinstein, Philip; Cook, Angus; Devine, Brian; Van Buynder, Paul

    2007-10-01

    The city of Perth in Western Australia is facing a future of compromised water supplies. In recent years, this urban region has been experiencing rapid population growth, coupled with drying climate, which has exacerbated water shortages. As part of the government strategy to secure water sustainability and to address an agenda focused on all elements of the water cycle, a target of 20% reuse of treated wastewater by 2012 was established. This includes a feasibility review of managed aquifer recharge for indirect potable reuse. A characterization of contaminants in wastewater after treatment and an assessment of the health implications are necessary to reassure both regulators and the public. To date, the commonly used approach involves a comparison of measured contaminant concentrations with the established drinking-water standards or other toxicological guidelines for the protection of human health. However, guidelines and standards have not been established for many contaminants in recycled water (unregulated chemicals). This article presents a three-tiered approach for the preliminary health risk assessment of chemicals in order to determine key contaminants that need to be monitored and managed. The proposed benchmark values for the calculation of risk quotients are health based, systematically defined, scientifically defensible, easy to apply, and clear to interpret. The proposed methodology is based on the derivation of health-based levels for unregulated contaminants with toxicity information and a "threshold of toxicological concern" for unregulated contaminants without toxicity data. The application of this approach will help policymakers set guidelines regarding unregulated chemicals in recycled water.

  19. Experimental Facilities in Water Resources Education. A Contribution to the International Hydrological Programme. UNESCO Technical Papers in Hydrology No. 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This monograph is intended to guide teachers of water resources, technicians and university students in establishing physical facilities which can introduce learners to methods, techniques, and instruments used in water resources management and assessment. It is not intended to serve as an exhaustive list of equipment and their descriptions or as…

  20. Los Floruros de Aguas Potables de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Chacón S., Bernardo; Acuña B., Armando; Ortiz C., Edgar

    2015-01-01

    El agua que se utiliza en los sistemas de abastecimientos para consumo de las poblaciones, contiene en disolucion proporciones variables de fluoruros, y por lo general, solo trazas debido ala poca solubilidad en agua de los minerales de fluor.La practica de adicionar fluoruros a las aguas potables se inicio a principios del presente siglo despues de muchos años de investigaciones, y hoy se ha superado la etapa experimental para convertirse en una operacion normal y valiosa en proyectos de sal...

  1. Some Factors Influencing Effective Utilization of Drinking Water Facilities: Women, Income, and Health in Rural North Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendie, S. B.

    1996-01-01

    In the examination of the implementation of rural drinking water facilities, not enough attention has been paid to analyzing the socioeconomic and political relationships that affect the effective utilization of the facilities, particularly as these relate to women in rural society. This paper suggests that much of the difficulty in instituting the utilization of safe water supply sources has to do with the rather low economic status of women—the main water collectors. Poverty consigns women to long periods of work in activities or jobs that bring little reward. This makes it difficult to effectively digest the messages delivered by program staff and limits the extent of usage of the safe water facilities.

  2. Review and analysis of existing Alberta data on drinking water quality and treatment facilities for the Northern River basins study. Northern River Basins Study project report No. 55

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prince, D.S.; Smith, D.W.; Stanley, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    This report summarizes the results of a project conducted to gather existing information about drinking water quality, drinking water facilities, and water treatment effectiveness in the area covered by the Northern River Basins Study (Peace, Slave, and Athabasca River basins in northern Alberta). The report includes a comparison of water treatment performance to the Canada Drinking Water Quality Guidelines. The appendices contain summaries of parameters in the treated water survey, of the comparisons between raw and treated water, and of samples not meeting the Guidelines, as well as an inventory of treatment facilities giving facility name and location, water source, community population, treatment method used, raw storage capacity, and treated volumes.

  3. Roof-harvested rainwater for potable purposes: application of solar collector disinfection (SOCO-DIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M T; Han, M Y

    2009-12-01

    The efficiency of solar disinfection (SODIS), recommended by the World Health Organization, has been determined for rainwater disinfection, and potential benefits and limitations discussed. The limitations of SODIS have now been overcome by the use of solar collector disinfection (SOCO-DIS), for potential use of rainwater as a small-scale potable water supply, especially in developing countries. Rainwater samples collected from the underground storage tanks of a rooftop rainwater harvesting (RWH) system were exposed to different conditions of sunlight radiation in 2-L polyethylene terephthalate bottles in a solar collector with rectangular base and reflective open wings. Total and fecal coliforms were used, together with Escherichia coli and heterotrophic plate counts, as basic microbial and indicator organisms of water quality for disinfection efficiency evaluation. In the SOCO-DIS system, disinfection improved by 20-30% compared with the SODIS system, and rainwater was fully disinfected even under moderate weather conditions, due to the effects of concentrated sunlight radiation and the synergistic effects of thermal and optical inactivation. The SOCO-DIS system was optimized based on the collector configuration and the reflective base: an inclined position led to an increased disinfection efficiency of 10-15%. Microbial inactivation increased by 10-20% simply by reducing the initial pH value of the rainwater to 5. High turbidities also affected the SOCO-DIS system; the disinfection efficiency decreased by 10-15%, which indicated that rainwater needed to be filtered before treatment. The problem of microbial regrowth was significantly reduced in the SOCO-DIS system compared with the SODIS system because of residual sunlight effects. Only total coliform regrowth was detected at higher turbidities. The SOCO-DIS system was ineffective only under poor weather conditions, when longer exposure times or other practical means of reducing the pH were required for the

  4. Comparative LCA of decentralized wastewater treatment alternatives for non-potable urban reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opher, Tamar; Friedler, Eran

    2016-11-01

    Municipal wastewater (WW) effluent represents a reliable and significant source for reclaimed water, very much needed nowadays. Water reclamation and reuse has become an attractive option for conserving and extending available water sources. The decentralized approach to domestic WW treatment benefits from the advantages of source separation, which makes available simple small-scale systems and on-site reuse, which can be constructed on a short time schedule and occasionally upgraded with new technological developments. In this study we perform a Life Cycle Assessment to compare between the environmental impacts of four alternatives for a hypothetical city's water-wastewater service system. The baseline alternative is the most common, centralized approach for WW treatment, in which WW is conveyed to and treated in a large wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and is then discharged to a stream. The three alternatives represent different scales of distribution of the WW treatment phase, along with urban irrigation and domestic non-potable water reuse (toilet flushing). The first alternative includes centralized treatment at a WWTP, with part of the reclaimed WW (RWW) supplied back to the urban consumers. The second and third alternatives implement de-centralized greywater (GW) treatment with local reuse, one at cluster level (320 households) and one at building level (40 households). Life cycle impact assessment results show a consistent disadvantage of the prevailing centralized approach under local conditions in Israel, where seawater desalination is the marginal source of water supply. The alternative of source separation and GW reuse at cluster level seems to be the most preferable one, though its environmental performance is only slightly better than GW reuse at building level. Centralized WW treatment with urban reuse of WWTP effluents is not advantageous over decentralized treatment of GW because the supply of RWW back to consumers is very costly in materials and

  5. Water and Life in the International Year of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Pedro J.

    2011-01-01

    This commentary talks about the worldwide health impact of lack of access to potable water. Household water treatment and storage (HWTS) is described as one approach to improving potable water accessibility in which students and educators can make a contribution to alleviate the problem of lack of access. The author suggests that, as chemists,…

  6. Water and Life in the International Year of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Pedro J.

    2011-01-01

    This commentary talks about the worldwide health impact of lack of access to potable water. Household water treatment and storage (HWTS) is described as one approach to improving potable water accessibility in which students and educators can make a contribution to alleviate the problem of lack of access. The author suggests that, as chemists,…

  7. An inflight refill unit for replenishing research animal drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, P. D.; Hines, M. L.; Barnes, R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the design process and development approach for a method of maintaining sufficient quantities of water for research animals during a Shuttle mission of long duration. An inflight refill unit (IRU) consisting of two major subsystems, a fluid pumping unit (FPU) and a collapsible water reservoir (CWR), were developed. The FPU provides the system measurement and controls, pump, water lines, and plumbing necessary to collect water coming into the unit from the potable water system and pump it out into the RAHF drinking water tanks. The CWR is a Kevlar (TM) reinforced storage bladder connected to the FPU, which has a capacity of 6 liters in its expanded volume and functions to store the water collected from the potable water system, allowing for transport of the water back to the Spacelab where it is pumped into each of two research animal holding facilities. Additional components of the IRU system include the inlet and outlet fluid hoses, a power cable for providing 29V direct current spacecraft electrical power to the pump within the FPU, a tether system for the unit when in use in Spacelab, and an adapter for mating the unit to the orbiter waste collection system in order to dump excess water after use in Spacelab.

  8. WRI 50: Strategies for Cooling Electric Generating Facilities Utilizing Mine Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph J. Donovan; Brenden Duffy; Bruce R. Leavitt; James Stiles; Tamara Vandivort; Paul Ziemkiewicz

    2004-11-01

    system cost estimates were then compared to the base-case river source estimate. We found that the use of net-alkaline mine water would under current economic conditions be competitive with a river-source in a comparable-size water cooling system. On the other hand, utilization of net acidic water would be higher in operating cost than the river system by 12 percent. This does not account for any environmental benefits that would accrue due to the treatment of acid mine drainage, in many locations an existing public liability. We also found it likely that widespread adoption of mine-water utilization for power plant cooling will require resolution of potential liability and mine-water ownership issues. In summary, Type A mine-water utilization for power plant cooling is considered a strong option for meeting water needs of new plant in selected areas. Analysis of the thermal and water handling requirements for a 600 megawatt power plant indicated that Type B earth coupled cooling would not be feasible for a power plant of this size. It was determined that Type B cooling would be possible, under the right conditions, for power plants of 200 megawatts or less. Based on this finding the feasibility of a 200 megawatt facility was evaluated. A series of mines were identified where a Type B earth-coupled 200 megawatt power plant cooling system might be feasible. Two water handling scenarios were designed to distribute heated power-plant water throughout the mines. Costs were developed for two different pumping scenarios employing a once-through power-plant cooling circuit. Thermal and groundwater flow simulation models were used to simulate the effect of hot water injection into the mine under both pumping strategies and to calculate the return-water temperature over the design life of a plant. Based on these models, staged increases in required mine-water pumping rates are projected to be part of the design, due to gradual heating and loss of heat-sink efficiency of the rock

  9. Assess and improve the sustainability of water treatment facility using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Tejada-Martinez, Andres; Lei, Hongxia; Zhang, Qiong

    2016-11-01

    Fluids problems in water treatment industry are often simplified or omitted since the focus is usually on chemical process only. However hydraulics also plays an important role in determining effluent water quality. Recent studies have demonstrated that computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has the ability to simulate the physical and chemical processes in reactive flows in water treatment facilities, such as in chlorine and ozone disinfection tanks. This study presents the results from CFD simulations of reactive flow in an existing full-scale ozone disinfection tank and in potential designs. Through analysis of the simulation results, we found that baffling factor and CT10 are not optimal indicators of disinfection performance. We also found that the relationship between effluent CT (the product of disinfectant concentration and contact time) obtained from CT transport simulation and baffling factor depends on the location of ozone release. In addition, we analyzed the environmental and economic impacts of ozone disinfection tank designs and developed a composite indicator to quantify the sustainability of ozone disinfection tank in technological, environmental and economic dimensions.

  10. DISTRIBUTION OF LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA SEROGROUPS ISOLATED FROM WATER SYSTEMS OF PUBLIC FACILITIES IN BUSAN, SOUTH KOREA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Yeong; Park, Eun-Hee; Park, Yon-Koung; Park, Sun-Hee; Sung, Gyung-Hye; Park, Hye-Young; Lee, Young-Choon

    2016-05-01

    Legionella pneumophila is the major causes of legionellosis worldwide. The distribution of L. pneumophila was investigated in water systems of public facilities in Busan, South Korea during 2007 and 2013-2014. L. pneumophila was isolated from 8.3% of 3,055 samples, of which the highest isolation rate (49%) was from ships and the lowest 4% from fountains. Serogroups of L. pneumophila isolated in 2007 were distributed among serogroups (sgs) 1-7 with the exception of sg 4, while those of isolates during 2013 and 2014 included also 11 sgs ( 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 15). L. pneumophila sg 1 was predominated among isolates from fountains (75%), hotels (60%), buildings (44%), hospitals (38%), and public baths (37%), whereas sg 3 and sg 7 was the most prevalent from ships (46%) and factories (40%), respectively. The predominated serogroup of L. pneumophila isolates from hot and cooling tower water was sg 1 (35% and 46%, respectively), while from cold water was sg 3 (29%). These results should be useful for epidemiological surveys to identify sources of outbreaks of legionellosis in Busan, South Korea.

  11. A facile homogeneous precipitation synthesis of NiO nanosheets and their applications in water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Junfeng, E-mail: daidai02304@163.com [School of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Tan, Yang; Su, Kang; Zhao, Junjie; Yang, Chen; Sang, Lingling [School of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Lu, Hongbin [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); Chen, JianHua [School of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • NiO nanosheets were synthesized via a facile homogeneous precipitation method. • The NiO nanosheets have a large surface area. • This preparation method was low-cost, simple equipments, easy preparation, short reaction time and better repeatability. • The product also showed a favourable ability to remove Cr(VI) and Congo red (CR) in water treatment. - Abstract: NiO nanosheets were successfully synthesized by a facile homogeneous precipitation method with the assistance of ethanol amine. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and nitrogen adsorption–desorption techniques. The results demonstrated that the as-prepared product was cubic NiO nanosheets with a large surface area of 170.1 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. Further, the as-prepared product was used to investigate its potential application for wastewater treatment. The maximum adsorption capacity for Cr(VI) and Congo red (CR) on NiO nanosheets has been determined using the Langmuir equation and found to reach up to 48.98 and 167.73 mg g{sup −1}, respectively. It could be concluded that NiO nanosheets with special surface features had the potential as adsorbents for wastewater treatment.

  12. Facile Carbon Fixation to Performic Acids by Water-Sealed Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Mitsuo; Morita, Tatsuo; Tachibana, Kunihide

    2015-10-01

    Carbon fixation refers to the conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to organic materials, as commonly performed in nature through photosynthesis by plants and other autotrophic organisms. The creation of artificial carbon fixation processes is one of the greatest challenges for chemistry to solve the critical environmental issue concerning the reduction of CO2 emissions. We have developed an electricity-driven facile CO2 fixation process that yields performic acid, HCO2OH, from CO2 and water at neutral pH by dielectric barrier discharge with an input electric power conversion efficiency of currently 0.2-0.4%. This method offers a promising future technology for artificial carbon fixation on its own, and may also be scaled up in combination with e.g., the post-combustion CO2 capture and storage technology.

  13. Solar heating and hot water system for the central administrative office facility. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    Progress on the solar heating and hot water system for the central administrative office facility of the Lincoln Housing Authority, Lincoln, NE is covered. An acceptance test plan is presented and the results of the test are tabulated. A complete blueprint of the system as built is provided. The monitoring system is drawn and settings and installation are described. An operation and maintenance manual discusses procedures for start up, shut down and seasonal changeover and include a valve list and pictures and specifications of components and materials used. Photographs of the final installation are included, and technical data and performance data are given. Finally, there is a brief description of system design and operation and a discussion of major maintenance problems encountered and their solutions. (LEW)

  14. WRI 50: Strategies for Cooling Electric Generating Facilities Utilizing Mine Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph J. Donovan; Brenden Duffy; Bruce R. Leavitt; James Stiles; Tamara Vandivort; Paul Ziemkiewicz

    2004-11-01

    system cost estimates were then compared to the base-case river source estimate. We found that the use of net-alkaline mine water would under current economic conditions be competitive with a river-source in a comparable-size water cooling system. On the other hand, utilization of net acidic water would be higher in operating cost than the river system by 12 percent. This does not account for any environmental benefits that would accrue due to the treatment of acid mine drainage, in many locations an existing public liability. We also found it likely that widespread adoption of mine-water utilization for power plant cooling will require resolution of potential liability and mine-water ownership issues. In summary, Type A mine-water utilization for power plant cooling is considered a strong option for meeting water needs of new plant in selected areas. Analysis of the thermal and water handling requirements for a 600 megawatt power plant indicated that Type B earth coupled cooling would not be feasible for a power plant of this size. It was determined that Type B cooling would be possible, under the right conditions, for power plants of 200 megawatts or less. Based on this finding the feasibility of a 200 megawatt facility was evaluated. A series of mines were identified where a Type B earth-coupled 200 megawatt power plant cooling system might be feasible. Two water handling scenarios were designed to distribute heated power-plant water throughout the mines. Costs were developed for two different pumping scenarios employing a once-through power-plant cooling circuit. Thermal and groundwater flow simulation models were used to simulate the effect of hot water injection into the mine under both pumping strategies and to calculate the return-water temperature over the design life of a plant. Based on these models, staged increases in required mine-water pumping rates are projected to be part of the design, due to gradual heating and loss of heat-sink efficiency of the rock

  15. [Development of salt concentrates for mineralization of recycled water aboard the space station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skliar, E F; Amiragov, M S; Bobe, L S; Gavrilov, L I; Kurochkin, M G; Solntseva, D P; Krasnov, M S; Skuratov, V M

    2006-01-01

    Recycled water can be brought up to the potable grade by adding minimal quantities of three soluble concentrates with the maximal content of inorganic salts. The authors present results of 3-year storage of potable water mineralized with makeup concentrates and analysis of potable water prepared with the use of the salt concentrates stored over this period of time. A water mineralization unit has been designed based on the principle of cyclic duty to produce physiologically healthy potable water with a preset salt content.

  16. Experimental Study of the APR+ Direct ECC Bypass in the Air-water Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kihwan; Choi, Hae-Seob; Park, Kil-won; Kwon, Tae-Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The APR+ is an improved Korean Nuclear Power Reactor, which has been developed as a two loop evolutionary PWR (Pressure Water Reactor) with a number of advanced design features to enhance safety based on the APR-1400 technology. The emergency core cooling system (ECC) of the APR+ is different with that of the APR-1400, though the APR+ adopted a direct vessel injection (DVI) system which is the same design features of the APR-14000. The main difference of the DVI+ is the emergency core barrel duct (ECBD) which is designed to increase the amount of the injection water to the core region. The performance of the DVI system has been an important issues for past decades, and many researchers have studied the related thermal-hydraulic technical issues such as the ECC bypass fraction, the steam condensation effect, temperature distribution, sub-cooling margin, and etc. However, the previous research cannot be directly applicable to the APR+ owing to the unique features of the DVI+. The current study will elaborate on the experimental evaluation of the direct ECC bypass performance. The 1/5 ECC bypass test facility which is designed with a linearly reduced 1/5 scale referring to the APR+ was used to investigate the effect of the DVI+ injection nozzle location and the broken cold leg velocity on the direct ECC bypass fraction. However, air is used as a working fluid to simulate the steam flow induced from the broken cold leg, and thus, the direct contact condensation effect is not considered in this study. Experimental study for the direct ECC bypass phenomena has been carryout out with various the injection mode and air velocity conditions. The tests were performed in the 1/5 scale ECC bypass test facility, and the test condition was defined using a scaling law referring to the APR+ reactor. Test results showed that the direct ECC bypass fraction was greatly enhanced compared with the reference test (w/o ECBD)

  17. Spatially Resolved Temperature and Water Vapor Concentration Distributions in Supersonic Combustion Facilities by TDLAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busa, K. M.; McDaniel J. C.; Diskin, G. S.; DePiro, M. J.; Capriotti, D. P.; Gaffney, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the internal structure of high-enthalpy flows can provide valuable insight to the performance of scramjet combustors. Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) is often employed to measure temperature and species concentration. However, TDLAS is a path-integrated line-of-sight (LOS) measurement, and thus does not produce spatially resolved distributions. Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Tomography (TDLAT) is a non-intrusive measurement technique for determining two-dimensional spatially resolved distributions of temperature and species concentration in high enthalpy flows. TDLAT combines TDLAS with tomographic image reconstruction. More than 2500 separate line-of-sight TDLAS measurements are analyzed in order to produce highly resolved temperature and species concentration distributions. Measurements have been collected at the University of Virginia's Supersonic Combustion Facility (UVaSCF) as well as at the NASA Langley Direct-Connect Supersonic Combustion Test Facility (DCSCTF). Due to the UVaSCF s unique electrical heating and ability for vitiate addition, measurements collected at the UVaSCF are presented as a calibration of the technique. Measurements collected at the DCSCTF required significant modifications to system hardware and software designs due to its larger measurement area and shorter test duration. Tomographic temperature and water vapor concentration distributions are presented from experimentation on the UVaSCF operating at a high temperature non-reacting case for water vitiation level of 12%. Initial LOS measurements from the NASA Langley DCSCTF operating at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 are also presented. Results show the capability of TDLAT to adapt to several experimental setups and test parameters.

  18. Immobilized graphene-based composite from asphalt: Facile synthesis and application in water purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreeprasad, Theruvakkattil Sreenivasan; Gupta, Soujit Sen [DST Unit on Nanoscience, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Maliyekkal, Shihabudheen Mundampra [School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, VIT University, Chennai Campus, Chennai 600048 (India); Pradeep, Thalappil, E-mail: pradeep@iitm.ac.in [DST Unit on Nanoscience, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► Facile strategy to make graphenic materials from cheaper precursor such as asphalt. ► Material can be made in solution; also as anchored on solid substrates. ► The synthesized material, GSC, was found to be excellent for water purification. ► The applicability was demonstrated through batch and laboratory columns experiments. ► The capacity was compared to other similar adsorbents and was found to be superior. -- Abstract: An in situ strategy for the preparation of graphene immobilized on sand using asphalt, a cheap carbon precursor is presented. The as-synthesized material was characterized in detail using various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The presence of G and D bands at 1578 cm{sup −1} and 1345 cm{sup −1} in Raman spectroscopy and the 2D sheet-like structure with wrinkles in transmission electron microscopy confirmed the formation of graphenic materials. In view of the potential applicability of supported graphenic materials in environmental application, the as-synthesized material was tested for purifying water. Removal of a dye (rhodamine-6G) and a pesticide (chlorpyrifos), two of the important types of pollutants of concern in water, were investigated in this study. Adsorption studies were conducted in batch mode as a function of time, particle size, and adsorbent dose. The continuous mode experiments were conducted in multiple cycles and they confirmed that the material can be used for water purification applications. The adsorption efficacy of the present adsorbent system was compared to other reported similar adsorbent systems and the results illustrated that the present materials are superior. The adsorbents were analyzed for post treatment and their reusability was evaluated.

  19. Consumer's Perception of the Quality of Municipal Water Supplies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water is everywhere but potable water that is safe and suitable for drinking ... The major alternative sources of water were from boreholes, wells and groundwater. ... Serious attention should be paid to the treatment of water supplies in Owerri ...

  20. Emission Facilities - Erosion & Sediment Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Erosion and Sediment Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control program. The following sub-facility types related to...

  1. Hydrogeochemical evolution and potability evaluation of saline contaminated coastal aquifer system of Rajnagar, Odisha, India: A geospatial perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, P. P.; Sahoo, H. K.; Mohapatra, P. P.

    2016-08-01

    The present article reports the results of a comprehensive hydrogeochemical study carried out across the coastal aquifer system of Rajnagar block, Kendrapara district, Odisha, India. The research involved collection of representative groundwater samples during the pre- and post-monsoon seasons with in situ as well as laboratory measurement of various hydrogeochemical variables. Analysis of the subsurface water samples portrays an alkali dominated water type during the pre-monsoon season whereas alkaline earth has a significantly increased influence during the post-monsoon period. However, the aquifer system displays an even distribution of strong and weak acids for both the monsoonal regimes. The hydrogeochemistry is controlled by aquifer lithology with a general occurrence of ion exchange and acid-base reaction processes across the study area. Spatial disposition of major cations indicates freshening of this coastal aquifer system in S-N and SW-NE directions. Potability analysis of the samples is suggestive of widespread unsuitability for domestic, agriculture and industrial uses. The extensive occurrence of salinity hazards, sodium hazards and magnesium hazards across the terrain makes the groundwater unsafe for domestic and agricultural utilization while industrial potability analysis suggests the aquifer system is moderately corrosive but non-incrusting. Post-monsoon however, the subsurface waters display a general decrease in hazardous nature with increased suitability for various uses.

  2. Mapping and analysis of the groundwater potability in the Lajeado municipality, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Strohschoen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The groundwater sources spread in extensive areas and are relatively protected from pollution agents when compared to rivers and artificial reservoirs. These aspects, combined with low exploitation costs, provided a considerable growth in the groundwater use in the last decades. Groundwater became an important alternative source for public water supply in Brazil. This paper shows the georeferenced location of the groundwater exploitation points in the Lajeado, RS municipality and the potability analysis of this water. The groundwater exploitation in the study area is accomplished in the Serra Geral and Guarani aquifers and the exploitation points were identified in field campaigns using a GPS receiver and plotted over satellite imagery using remote sensing and geoprocessing techniques. The groundwater potability assessment was based on 100 samples for microbiological and physico-chemical analyses that included 78 samples of tubular wells and 22 of dug wells. Contour maps were generated for the analyzed parameters in the tubular wells, using geostatistics procedures. In this study, 362 tubular wells and 253 dug wells were studied. The results show that the dug wells are located mainly in rural areas and 77.27% of them aren’t suitable for human consumption due to high levels of contamination. The tubular wells are concentrated in urban areas and results revealed that 76.92% of them have water with suitable quality for the human consumption.

  3. Hydrogeochemical evolution and potability evaluation of saline contaminated coastal aquifer system of Rajnagar, Odisha, India: A geospatial perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P P Das; H K Sahoo; P P Mohapatra

    2016-08-01

    The present article reports the results of a comprehensive hydrogeochemical study carried out across the coastal aquifer system of Rajnagar block, Kendrapara district, Odisha, India. The research involved collection of representative groundwater samples during the pre- and post-monsoon seasons with in situas well as laboratory measurement of various hydrogeochemical variables. Analysis of the subsurface water samples portrays an alkali dominated water type during the pre-monsoon season whereas alkaline earth has a significantly increased influence during the post-monsoon period. However, the aquifer system displays an even distribution of strong and weak acids for both the monsoonal regimes. Thehydrogeochemistry is controlled by aquifer lithology with a general occurrence of ion exchange and acid–base reaction processes across the study area. Spatial disposition of major cations indicates freshening of this coastal aquifer system in S–N and SW–NE directions. Potability analysis of the samples is suggestiveof widespread unsuitability for domestic, agriculture and industrial uses. The extensive occurrence of salinity hazards, sodium hazards and magnesium hazards across the terrain makes the groundwater unsafe for domestic and agricultural utilization while industrial potability analysis suggests the aquifer system is moderately corrosive but non-incrusting. Post-monsoon however, the subsurface waters display a general decrease in hazardous nature with increased suitability for various uses.

  4. Methodology for assessing alternative water-acquisition-and-use strategies for energy facilities in the American West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, J.J.; Adams, E.E.; Harleman, D.R.F.; Marks, D.H.

    1981-12-01

    A method for assessing alternative strategies for acquiring and using water at western energy plants was developed. The method was tested in a case study of cooling-water use for a hypothetical steam-electric power plant on the Crazy Woman Creek, an unregulated stream in Wyoming. The results from the case study suggest a careful analysis of reservoir design and water-right purchase strategies can reduce the cost of acquiring and using water at an energy facility. The method uses simulation models to assess the capital and operating costs and expected monthly water-consumption rates for different cooling-system designs. The method also uses reservoir operating algorithms to select, for a fixed cooling-system design, the optimal tradeoff between building a make-up water reservoir and purchasing water rights. These tradeoffs can be used to derive the firm's true demand curve for different sources of water. The analysis also reveals the implicit cost of selecting strategies that minimize conflicts with other water users. Results indicate that: (1) cooling ponds are as good as or preferred to wet towers because their costs already include provisions for storing water for use during the normally dry summer months and during occasional drought years; (2) the energy firm's demand for overall water consumption in the cooling system was found to be inversely proportional to both the cost of installing make-up water reservoirs, and the size of the energy facility; and (3) the firm's willingness to pay for existing rights is proportional to both the cost of installing reservoirs, and the size of the energy facility.

  5. 21 CFR 1240.80 - General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General requirements for water for drinking and... DRUG ADMINISTRATION CONTROL OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.80 General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes. Only potable water shall be provided for...

  6. Gouvernance de l’eau potable et dynamiques locales en zone rurale au Bénin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard G. Hounmenou

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Dans la fourniture des services de base aux populations, les politiques publiques de plusieurs pays, en particulier celles des Pays en Voie de Développement (PED, ont connu ces dernières années une profonde mutation. Les changements les plus remarquables se rapportent à la remise en cause du service public gratuit. Outre la nécessité fondamentale pour les Etats d’assainir leurs économies, ces réformes visent à favoriser une participation des populations dans la conduite des opérations ayant pour objectif la satisfaction de leurs besoins. La question de la participation constitue actuellement un élément capital pour l’organisation des services au niveau communautaire. En effet, plusieurs expériences ont montré que les projets réalisés sans la participation des populations concernées ont échoué au moment de l’exécution ou, faute d’entretien, n’ont eu que des retombées éphémères (Banque Mondiale, 1994. Au Bénin, certaines opérations de développement, en particulier celles conduites dans le secteur de l’approvisionnement en eau potable des populations rurales, n’ont pas échappé à cette réalité. En effet, jusqu’à la fin des années 1980, plusieurs ouvrages d’approvisionnement en eau potable ont été construits par les pouvoirs publics, sans une réelle participation des communautés bénéficiaires en milieu rural béninois. Cette situation a occasionné un manque d’intérêt des populations, qui s’est exprimé par l’abandon des ouvrages en cas de panne, et le recours à l’utilisation de sources d’eau non potable. Pour y remédier, le Bénin a opté en 1992 pour une nouvelle stratégie nationale d’alimentation en eau potable. La stratégie a pour objectif l’implication des populations du monde rural dans tout le processus d’appropriation de l’alimentation en eau. Les principes fondamentaux de cette stratégie sont notamment, la décentralisation du processus de prise de d

  7. Derechos fundamentales y el acceso al agua potable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deilton Ribeiro Brasil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza el acceso al agua potable como un derecho fundamental en el contexto del principio de la dignidad humana en la construcción de un Estado de Derecho Ambiental. Reconocer el acceso al agua como un derecho fundamental, es dar al Estado el deber de garantizar uma calidad esencial minima de vida saludable para las generaciones presentes y futuras, obtenidos por el suministro de agua, respetando las normas de potabilidad, la gestión del agua, protección administrativa y judicial de las aguas y la conciencia de la importancia de una acción conjunta entre el gobierno y la sociedad para la preservación de los recursos hídricos en el contexto de la sociedad del riesgo.

  8. Food Waste to Energy: How Six Water Resource Recovery Facilities are Boosting Biogas Production and the Bottom Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRFs) with anaerobic digestion have been harnessing biogas for heat and power since at least the 1920’s. A few are approaching “energy neutrality” and some are becoming “energy positive” through a combination of energy efficiency measures and...

  9. Food Waste to Energy: How Six Water Resource Recovery Facilities are Boosting Biogas Production and the Bottom Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRFs) with anaerobic digestion have been harnessing biogas for heat and power since at least the 1920’s. A few are approaching “energy neutrality” and some are becoming “energy positive” through a combination of energy efficiency measures and...

  10. Characterization and calibration of a novel detection system for real time monitoring of radioactive contamination in water processed at water treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carconi, P; De Felice, P; Fazio, A; Petrucci, A; Lunardon, M; Moretto, S; Stevanato, L; Cester, D; Pastore, P

    2017-08-01

    Characterization and calibration measurements were carried out at the National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology of ENEA on the TAp WAter RAdioactivity (TAWARA) Real Time Monitor system recently developed for real time monitoring of radioactive contamination in water processed at water treatment facilities. Reference radiations and radionuclides were chosen in order to reflect energy ranges and radiation types of the major water radioactive contaminants possibly arising from environmental, industrial or terroristic origin. The following instrument parameters were tested: sensitivity, selectivity, background, short/long term stability, linearity with respect to activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) Technology at the MSFC ECLS Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomes, Kristin; Long, David; Carter, Layne; Flynn, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia. Removal (VPCAR) technology has been previously discussed as a viable option for. the Exploration Water Recovery System. This technology integrates a phase change process with catalytic oxidation in the vapor phase to produce potable water from exploration mission wastewaters. A developmental prototype VPCAR was designed, built and tested under funding provided by a National Research. Announcement (NRA) project. The core technology, a Wiped Film Rotating Device (WFRD) was provided by Water Reuse Technologies under the NRA, whereas Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International performed the hardware integration and acceptance test. of the system. Personnel at the-Ames Research Center performed initial systems test of the VPCAR using ersatz solutions. To assess the viability of this hardware for Exploration. Life Support (ELS) applications, the hardware has been modified and tested at the MSFC ECLS Test facility. This paper summarizes the hardware modifications and test results and provides an assessment of this technology for the ELS application.

  12. Facility Registry Service (FRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Facility Registry Service (FRS) provides an integrated source of comprehensive (air, water, and waste) environmental information about facilities across EPA,...

  13. Energy and chemical efficient nitrogen removal at a full-scale MBR water reuse facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Wen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With stringent wastewater discharge limits on nitrogen and phosphorus, membrane bioreactor (MBR technology is gaining popularity for advanced wastewater treatment due to higher effluent quality and smaller footprint. However, higher energy intensity required for MBR plants and increased operational costs for nutrient removal limit wide application of the MBR technology. Conventional nitrogen removal requires intensive energy inputs and chemical addition. There are drivers to search for new technology and process control strategies to treat wastewater with lower energy and chemical demand while still producing high quality effluent. The NPXpress is a patented technology developed by American Water engineers. This technology is an ultra-low dissolved oxygen (DO operation for wastewater treatment and is able to remove nitrogen with less oxygen requirements and reduced supplemental carbon addition in MBR plants. Jefferson Peaks Water Reuse Facility in New Jersey employs MBR technology to treat municipal wastewater and was selected for the implementation of the NPXpress technology. The technology has been proved to consistently produce a high quality reuse effluent while reducing energy consumption and supplemental carbon addition by 59% and 100%, respectively. Lab-scale kinetic studies suggested that NPXpress promoted microorganisms with higher oxygen affinity. Process modelling was used to simulate treatment performance under NPXpress conditions and develop ammonia-based aeration control strategy. The application of the ammonia-based aeration control at the plant further reduced energy consumption by additional 9% and improved treatment performance with 35% reduction in effluent total nitrogen. The overall energy savings for Jefferson Peaks was $210,000 in four years since the implementation of NPXpress. This study provided an insight in design and operation of MBR plants with NPXpress technology and ultra-low DO operations.

  14. Evaluation of the 183-D Water Filtration Facility for Bat Roosts and Development of a Mitigation Strategy, 100-D Area, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, C. T.; Gano, K. A.; Lucas, J. G.

    2011-03-07

    The 183-D Water Filtration Facility is located in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site, north of Richland, Washington. It was used to provide filtered water for cooling the 105-D Reactor and supplying fire-protection and drinking water for all facilities in the 100-D Area. The facility has been inactive since the 1980s and is now scheduled for demolition. Therefore, an evaluation was conducted to determine if any part of the facility was being used as roosting habitat by bats.

  15. Facile synthesis of high strength hot-water wood extract films with oxygen-barrier performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ge-Gu; Fu, Gen-Que; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Gong, Xiao-Dong; Niu, Ya-Shuai; Peng, Feng; Yao, Chun-Li; Sun, Run-Cang

    2017-01-01

    Biobased nanocomposite films for food packaging with high mechanical strength and good oxygen-barrier performance were developed using a hot-water wood extract (HWE). In this work, a facile approach to produce HWE/montmorillonite (MMT) based nanocomposite films with excellent physical properties is described. The focus of this study was to determine the effects of the MMT content on the structure and mechanical properties of nanocomposites and the effects of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) on the physical properties of the HWE-MMT films. The experimental results suggested that the intercalation of HWE and CMC in montmorillonite could produce compact, robust films with a nacre-like structure and multifunctional characteristics. This results of this study showed that the mechanical properties of the film designated FCMC0.05 (91.5 MPa) were dramatically enhanced because the proportion of HWE, MMT and CMC was 1:1.5:0.05. In addition, the optimized films exhibited an oxygen permeability below 2.0 cm3 μm/day·m2·kPa, as well as good thermal stability due to the small amount of CMC. These results provide a comprehensive understanding for further development of high-performance nanocomposites which are based on natural polymers (HWE) and assembled layered clays (MMT). These films offer great potential in the field of sustainable packaging.

  16. [Assessment of cyto- and genotoxicity of natural waters in the vicinity of radioactive waste storage facility using Allium-test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udalova, A A; Geras'kin, S A; Dikarev, V G; Dikareva, N S

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy of bioassays of "aberrant cells frequency" and "proliferative activity" in root meristem of Allium cepa L. is studied in the present work for a cyto- and genotoxicity assessment of natural waters contaminated with 90Sr and heavy metals in the vicinity of the radioactive waste storage facility in Obninsk, Kaluga region. The Allium-test is shown to be applicable for the diagnostics of environmental media at their combined pollution with chemical and radioactive substances. The analysis of aberration spectrum shows an important role of chemical toxicants in the mutagenic potential of waters collected in the vicinity of the radioactive waste storage facility. Biological effects are not always possible to explain from the knowledge on water contamination levels, which shows limitations of physical-chemical monitoring in providing the adequate risk assessment for human and biota from multicomponent environmental impacts.

  17. Microbial water quality of treated water and raw water sources in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-05

    Oct 5, 2015 ... Morton-Jaffray Treatment Plant supplies potable water to Harare City and areas surrounding ... must suffice to meet basic human needs in terms of drinking, ..... the years, maintenance of the pipelines and the treatment plant.

  18. "Preparing Secondary Effluent for Urban Non- Potable Applications by Floating Media Filtration"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Vaezi

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional sand filtration which has become a common wastewater treatment technology to satisfy regulations appointed for effluent reuse, suffers from the disadvantage of high energy for backwashing. The subject of this study is application of downflow floating media prior to coarse sand filtration, which requires less water for backwash. Two pilots have been employed in two stages. For the first stage, a pilot of two columns was used, one was packed with plastic beads and the other with coarse sand. For the second, floating medium was placed on the sand in a unique column. The effluent of Ghods Treatment Plant was selected as the influent for the both pilots and a turbidity of 2NTU for the filter effluent has been specified as the breakthrough. Final results showed the good efficiency of the system in removing pollutants even in the case of using a unique column. Moreover, this system was determined to be able to meet the non potable reuse standards of water recycling in cities. The performance of the system in reducing chlorine demand was also drastic and results indicated a maximum of 66% and a minimum of 50% decrease in this regard.

  19. Microorganismos indicadores de la calidad del agua potable en cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Robert Pullés

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los agentes patógenos transmitidos por el agua constituyen un problema mundial que demanda un urgente control. Las bacterias, virus y parásitos causan enfermedades que varían en severidad. La determinación de microorganismos en el agua de consumo y su concentración proporcionan herramientas de control, indispensables para la toma de decisiones. Los controles rutinarios de todos los microorganismos, potencialmente riesgosos para la salud, resultan difíciles de llevar a cabo, debido a que ello representa, varios días de análisis y costos elevados. Para hacer una evaluación sencilla, económica y fiable de la presencia de patógenos, la vigilancia de la calidad del agua se efectúa mediante indicadores de contaminación, aplicando diferentes enfoques técnicos, cada uno con sus cualidades, defectos y limitaciones. El objetivo de esta revisión fue analizar el enfoque actual existente a nivel nacional e internacional, en relación con los indicadores microbiológicos empleados para la evaluación del agua potable, como elementos clave, y a partir de estos, proponer un esquema de monitoreo en Cuba. Los resultados reflejaron, la alternativa de considerar, la aplicación de un esquema para monitoreo complementario en Cuba, que incluya como indicadores de contaminación del agua potable además de las bacterias, algunos agentes biológicos no considerados en la norma, como los virus y los parásitos. Asimismo indicaron la necesidad de establecer un valor de referencia y definir los microorganismos a emplear en los monitoreos de validación, operativo o verificación. Esta propuesta aportaría importante información para la actualización de la norma cubana sobre la base del conocimiento de los estándares internacionales más reconocidos.

  20. Evaluation of Membrane Ultrafiltration and Residual Chlorination as a Decentralized Water Treatment Strategy for Ten Rural Healthcare Facilities in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Huttinger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a critical need for safe water in healthcare facilities (HCF in low-income countries. HCF rely on water supplies that may require additional on-site treatment, and need sustainable technologies that can deliver sufficient quantities of water. Water treatment systems (WTS that utilize ultrafiltration membranes for water treatment can be a useful technology in low-income countries, but studies have not systematically examined the feasibility of this technology in low-income settings. We monitored 22 months of operation of 10 WTS, including pre-filtration, membrane ultrafiltration, and chlorine residual disinfection that were donated to and operated by rural HCF in Rwanda. The systems were fully operational for 74% of the observation period. The most frequent reasons for interruption were water shortage (8% and failure of the chlorination mechanism (7%. When systems were operational, 98% of water samples collected from the HCF taps met World Health Organization (WHO guidelines for microbiological water quality. Water quality deteriorated during treatment interruptions and when water was stored in containers. Sustained performance of the systems depended primarily on organizational factors: the ability of the HCF technician to perform routine servicing and repairs, and environmental factors: water and power availability and procurement of materials, including chlorine and replacement parts in Rwanda.

  1. La provision de agua potable en la periferia del AMBA, Argentina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Veronica Caceres

    2013-01-01

      El artículo analiza la problemática de la provisión de agua potable domiciliaria en territorios con escasa cobertura de las redes, en el principal aglomerado urbano de la Argentina denominado...

  2. Simulacion y evaluacion de una propuesta de implementacion del minimo vital de agua potable en Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mendez Sayago, Jhon Alexander; Mendez Sayago, Johanna Mildred

    2011-01-01

    Este articulo presenta la simulacion y evaluacion de la implementacion del minimo vital de agua potable para los usuarios de los estratos uno y dos, subsidiada a partir del incremento en las tarifas...

  3. Plan director red de abastecimiento de agua potable en la localidad de Gestalgar (Valencia)

    OpenAIRE

    HERRERA AGUILAR, MANUEL JOSÉ

    2011-01-01

    El objeto de este proyecto es definir las características técnicas necesarias para aumentar la eficiencia de las redes de alta de suministro de agua potable en la localidad de Gestalgar (Valencia) Herrera Aguilar, MJ. (2011). Plan director red de abastecimiento de agua potable en la localidad de Gestalgar (Valencia). http://hdl.handle.net/10251/12468. Archivo delegado

  4. RESOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OF TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER GENERATED BY CAR WASHES AND TRANSPORT ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogina Elena Sergeevna

    2012-12-01

    big cities of Russia. At the same time, the quality of the waste water treated by local water treatment stations fails to meet the present-day standard requirements. Moreover, potable water shall not be used for the purpose of washing transport vehicles. Within the recent 10 years, MGSU has developed a number of research projects aimed at the resolution of this problem. The concept developed by the MGSU specialists is to attain the highest quality of treated waste water generated by car washes and transport enterprises using the most advanced technologies of water treatment rather than to design new water treatment plants. Various methods may be applied for this purpose: restructuring of water treatment facilities, advanced feed, updated regulations governing the operation of water treatment plants.

  5. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: ECO2 – sharing benefits from water resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Claassen, Marius

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic development depends on the reliable supply of water for industrial, mining, agricultural, potable and recreational purposes. These activities also generate waste products that are often discharged to surface water. South Africa’s...

  6. Environmental transport and fate of endocrine disruptors from non-potable reuse of municipal wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, B; Beller, H; Bartel, C M; Kane, S; Campbell, C; Grayson, A; Liu, N; Burastero, S

    2005-11-16

    This project was designed to investigate the important but virtually unstudied topic of the subsurface transport and fate of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs) when treated wastewater is used for landscape irrigation (non-potable water reuse). Although potable water reuse was outside the scope of this project, the investigation clearly has relevance to such water recycling practices. The target compounds, which are discussed in the following section and include EDCs such as 4-nonylphenol (NP) and 17{beta}-estradiol, were studied not only because of their potential estrogenic effects on receptors but also because they can be useful as tracers of wastewater residue in groundwater. Since the compounds were expected to occur at very low (part per trillion) concentrations in groundwater, highly selective and sensitive analytical techniques had to be developed for their analysis. This project assessed the distributions of these compounds in wastewater effluents and groundwater, and examined their fate in laboratory soil columns simulating the infiltration of treated wastewater into an aquifer (e.g., as could occur during irrigation of a golf course or park with nonpotable treated water). Bioassays were used to determine the estrogenic activity present in effluents and groundwater, and the results were correlated with those from chemical analysis. In vitro assays for estrogenic activity were employed to provide an integrated measure of estrogenic potency of environmental samples without requiring knowledge or measurement of all bioactive compounds in the samples. For this project, the Las Positas Golf Course (LPGC) in the City of Livermore provided an ideal setting. Since 1978, irrigation of this area with treated wastewater has dominated the overall water budget. For a variety of reasons, a group of 10 monitoring wells were installed to evaluate wastewater impacts on the local groundwater. Additionally, these wells were regularly monitored for tritium ({sup 3}H

  7. EFECTOS REDISTRIBUTIVOS DE LAS TARIFAS DE AGUA POTABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VÉLEZ GOMEZ LUIS DIEGO

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aunque para Colombia la situación no es tan dramática, se avizora un problema de cobertura y escasez de agua potable para los niveles más desprotegidos de la población, en razón de su incapacidad de pago. La consecuencia inmediata es una acentuación de los índices de pobreza y de su manifestación más clara: el hambre. Este trabajo pretende mostrar que los niveles de pobreza son muy sensibles al precio de los servicios públicos domiciliarios, entre ellos, del agua, y atribuye a las fallas de inclusión y exclusión de los subsidios parte del grueso número de personas que hoy están por debajo de la línea de pobreza, aunque ésta no sea la única causa. Dada, entonces, la prominencia de las empresas de servicios públicos en la economía, los gobiernos tienen la obligación de resolver parte del difícil problema de equidad a través de las tarifas, sin dejar de garantizar la sostenibilidad económica de los proveedores del recurso.

  8. Evaluation of the impact of a simple hand-washing and water-treatment intervention in rural health facilities on hygiene knowledge and reported behaviours of health workers and their clients, Nyanza Province, Kenya, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, N; Gotestrand, S A; Ombeki, S; Oluoch, G; Fischer, T K; Quick, R

    2015-03-01

    Many clinics in rural western Kenya lack access to safe water and hand-washing facilities. To address this problem, in 2005 a programme was initiated to install water stations for hand washing and drinking water in 109 health facilities, train health workers on water treatment and hygiene, and motivate clients to adopt these practices. In 2008, we evaluated this intervention's impact by conducting observations at facilities, and interviewing staff and clients about water treatment and hygiene. Of 30 randomly selected facilities, 97% had water stations in use. Chlorine residuals were detectable in at least one container at 59% of facilities. Of 164 interviewed staff, 79% knew the recommended water-treatment procedure. Of 298 clients, 45% had received training on water treatment at a facility; of these, 68% knew the recommended water-treatment procedure. Use of water stations, water treatment, and client training were sustained in some facilities for up to 3 years.

  9. Household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in Vietnam and associated factors: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Lee, Jong-Koo; Oh, Juhwan; Van Minh, Hoang; Lee, Chul Ou; Hoan, Le Thi; Nam, You-Seon; Long, Tran Khanh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite progress made by the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) number 7.C, Vietnam still faces challenges with regard to the provision of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.Objective: This paper describes household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities separately, and analyses factors associated with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in combination.Design: Secondary data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Clu...

  10. Guidance for the Implementation and Follow-up of Identified Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Covered Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-09-01

    This document provides specific guidance to agencies on the implementation and follow-up of energy and water efficiency measures identified and undertaken per Section 432 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) (42 U.S.C. 8253(f)(4) and (5)) This guidance also provides context for how these activities fit into the comprehensive approach to facility energy and water management outlined by the statute and incorporates by reference previous DOE guidance released for Section 432 of EISA and other related documents. 42 U.S.C. 8253(f)(7)(A) specifies that facility energy managers shall certify compliance for each covered facility with the 42 U.S.C. 8253(f)(2)-(5) requirements via a web-based tracking system and make it publicly available. This document also describes the role of the tracking system that has been developed for the collection and reporting of data needed for the demonstration of compliance and progress toward meeting all energy and water efficiency requirements outlined in the statute.

  11. Small Scale Direct Potable Reuse (DPR Project for a Remote Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An Advanced Water Treatment Plant (AWTP for potable water recycling in Davis Station Antarctica was trialed using secondary effluent at Selfs Point in Hobart, Tasmania, for nine months. The trials demonstrated the reliability of performance of a seven barrier treatment process consisting of ozonation, ceramic microfiltration (MF, biologically activated carbon, reverse osmosis, ultra-violet disinfection, calcite contactor and chlorination. The seven treatment barriers were required to meet the high log removal values (LRV required for pathogens in small systems during disease outbreak, and on-line verification of process performance was required for operation with infrequent operator attention. On-line verification of pathogen LRVs, a low turbidity filtrate of approximately 0.1 NTU (Nephelometric Turbidity Unit, no long-term fouling and no requirement for clean-in-place (CIP was achieved with the ceramic MF. A pressure decay test was also reliably implemented on the reverse osmosis system to achieve a 2 LRV for protozoa, and this barrier required only 2–3 CIP treatments each year. The ozonation process achieved 2 LRV for bacteria and virus with no requirement for an ozone residual, provided the ozone dose was >11.7 mg/L. Extensive screening using multi-residue gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS database methods that can screen for more than 1200 chemicals found that few chemicals pass through the barriers to the final product and rejected (discharge water streams. The AWTP plant required 1.93 kWh/m3 when operated in the mode required for Davis Station and was predicted to require 1.27 kWh/m3 if scaled up to 10 ML/day. The AWTP will be shipped to Davis Station for further trials before possible implementation for water recycling. The process may have application in other small remote communities.

  12. Ground Water Monitoring Requirements for Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The groundwater monitoring requirements for hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities (TSDFs) are just one aspect of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste management strategy for protecting human health and the

  13. Contested environmental policy infrastructure: socio-political acceptance of renewable energy, water, and waste facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolsink, M.

    2010-01-01

    The construction of new infrastructure is hotly contested. This paper presents a comparative study on three environmental policy domains in the Netherlands that all deal with legitimising building and locating infrastructure facilities. Such infrastructure is usually declared essential to environmen

  14. Contested environmental policy infrastructure: socio-political acceptance of renewable energy, water, and waste facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolsink, M.

    2010-01-01

    The construction of new infrastructure is hotly contested. This paper presents a comparative study on three environmental policy domains in the Netherlands that all deal with legitimising building and locating infrastructure facilities. Such infrastructure is usually declared essential to

  15. White Sands Missile Range 2011 Drinking Water Quality Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    acerca de su agua potable . Haga que alguien lo traduzca para usted, o hable con alguien que lo entienda. Main Post White Sands Missile Range 2011...standards. What is This Water Quality Report? Este informe contiene informacion importante acerca de su agua potable . Haga que alguien lo traduzca

  16. Large-Scale Aquifer Replenishment and Seawater Intrusion Control Using Recycled Water in Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herndon, R.; Markus, M.

    2014-10-01

    In 2008, eighteen years after determining that its Talbert Seawater Barrier required expansion, the Orange County Water District started up the worldss largest indirect potable reuse facility, the Groundwater Replenishment System (GWR System). The GWR System provides a reliable potable-quality water supply to the Talbert Barrier, which consists of 109 multi-depth injection wells. The Talbert Barrier began operation in 1976 with the completion of Water Factory 21, the first project in California permitted to inject recycled water into a potable-supply aquifer. By 1990, as groundwater pumping increased, it was evident that the barriers original injection wells were incapable of maintaining protective groundwater elevations to prevent seawater intrusion. Ten years of technical planning and public outreach culminated in the decision to demolish the undersized Water Factory 21 and build a state-of-the-art advanced recycled water treatment system and expanded barrier. Barrier expansion entailed construction of over 20 new injection wells in key areas where seawater intrusion was observed. Flow modeling indicated that average barrier injection needed to be doubled to 80 m{sup 3}/min (30 mgal/day). Based on seasonal groundwater pumping patterns, model simulations indicated that the barrier should inject up to 107 m{sup 3}/min (40 mgal/day) in the summer/fall months and one-half that rate in winter/spring months to maintain a protective hydraulic barrier. With a capacity of 187 m{sup 3}/min (70 mgd), the GWR System provides all of the high-quality water that the barrier requires, with the remainder conveyed to OCWDss infiltration basins in the city of Anaheim. Five years after start-up, the expanded seawater barrier has met all expectations in terms of capacity and groundwater elevation maintenance using a reliable locally-produced water supply. (Author)

  17. Kingdom of Morocco - Recent Economic Development in Infrastructure : Water Supply and Sanitation Sector

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    As part of its agenda to promote economic growth, improve access to services, and control environmental degradation, the Government of Morocco (GOM) has set the following objectives: increase access to potable urban water to the population to 100 percent by year 2008; increase access to potable rural water to 92 percent by year 2007; in regard to pollution control abatement, increase treat...

  18. Evaluation of the effects of underground water usage and spillage in the Exploratory Studies Facility; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, E.; Sobolik, S.R.

    1993-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is studying Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. Analyses reported herein were performed to support the design of site characterization activities so that these activities will have a minimal impact on the ability of the site to isolate waste and a minimal impact on underground tests performed as part of the characterization process. These analyses examine the effect of water to be used in the underground construction and testing activities for the Exploratory Studies Facility on in situ conditions. Underground activities and events where water will be used include construction, expected but unplanned spills, and fire protection. The models used predict that, if the current requirements in the Exploratory Studies Facility Design Requirements are observed, water that is imbibed into the tunnel wall rock in the Topopah Springs welded tuff can be removed over the preclosure time period by routine or corrective ventilation, and also that water imbibed into the Paintbrush Tuff nonwelded tuff will not reach the potential waste storage area.

  19. Development of a test facility for analyzing transients in supercritical water-cooled reactors by fractional scaling analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberto, Thiago D., E-mail: thiagodbtr@gmail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN—RJ), Rua Hélio de Almeida, 75 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro Caixa-Postal: 68550, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Mário A. B. da, E-mail: mabs500@gmail.com [Departamento de Energia Nuclear (CTG/UFPE), Av. Professor Luiz Freire, 1000, Recife 50740-540, PE (Brazil); Lapa, Celso M.F., E-mail: lapa@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN—RJ), Rua Hélio de Almeida, 75 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro Caixa-Postal: 68550, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-01-15

    The feasibility of performing experiments using water under supercritical conditions is limited by technical and financial difficulties. These difficulties can be overcome by using model fluids that are characterized by feasible supercritical conditions, that is, lower critical pressure and critical temperature. Experimental investigations are normally used to determine the conditions under which model fluids reliably represent supercritical fluids under steady-state conditions. A fluid-to-fluid scaling approach has been proposed to determine the model fluids that represent supercritical fluids in a transient state. Recently, a similar technique known as fractional scaling analysis was developed to establish the conditions under which experiments can be performed using models that represent transients in prototypes. This paper presents a fractional scaling analysis application to determine parameters for a test facility in which transient conditions in supercritical water-cooled reactors are simulated by using carbon dioxide as a model fluid, whose critical point conditions are more feasible than those of water. Similarity is obtained between water (prototype) and carbon dioxide (model) by depressurization in a simple vessel. The main parameters required for the construction of a future test facility are obtained using the proposed method.

  20. Post-test analysis of the experiment 5.2C - total loss of feed water at the BETHSY test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krepper, E.; Schaefer, F.

    1998-10-01

    The BETHSY-test facility is a 1:100 scaled thermohydraulic model of a 900 MW(el) pressurized water reactor (FRAMATOME). The test facility is mainly designed to investigate various accident scenarios and to provide an experimental data base for code validation and for the verification of accident management measures. (orig.)

  1. MHD coal-fired flow facility baseline water-quality study. Woods Reservoir, May 1979-April 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.

    1980-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) is located on Woods Reservoir at The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). Part of the role of UTSI, as participants in the DOE program, is to document environmental aspects of coal-fired MHD. In early 1979, prior to operation of the CFFF, a water quality program was initiated to establish baseline conditions for the reservoir. The study was designed to provide an accurate assessment of water quality which could be used as a basis for comparison to evaluate the impact, if any, of the plant operation on the aquatic environment. Results of a one year baseline study of water quality on Woods Reservoir are presented in this report. The key findings are that this reservoir is a eutrophic lake. Its predominant ions are calcium and bicarbonate and its pH is circumneutral.

  2. Developing a cost effective environmental solution for produced water and creating a ''new'' water resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doran, Glenn; Leong, Lawrence Y.C.

    2000-05-01

    The project goal is to convert a currently usable by-product of oil production, produced water, into a valuable drinking water resource. The project was located at the Placate Oil Field in Santa Clarita, California, approximately 25 miles north of Los Angeles. The project included a literature review of treatment technologies; preliminary bench-scale studies to refine a planning level cost estimate; and a 10-100 gpm pilot study to develop the conceptual design and cost estimate for a 44,000 bpd treatment facility. A reverse osmosis system was constructed, pilot tested, and the data used to develop a conceptual design and operation of four operational scenarios, two industrial waters levels and two irrigation/potable water.

  3. Impact of harmful algal blooms on several Lake Erie drinking water treatment facilities; methodology considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The propagation of cyanbacterial cells and their toxins were investigated at seven drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) on Lake Erie were investigated with regards to harmful algal bloom (HAB) toxin concentrations, water quality variations in treatment plant influents, and pr...

  4. Metagenomic analysis of viruses in reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Karyna; Nilsson, Christina; Lim, Yan Wei; Ruan, Yijun; Breitbart, Mya

    2009-11-01

    Reclaimed water use is an important component of sustainable water resource management. However, there are concerns regarding pathogen transport through this alternative water supply. This study characterized the viral community found in reclaimed water and compared it with viruses in potable water. Reclaimed water contained 1000-fold more virus-like particles than potable water, having approximately 10(8) VLPs per millilitre. Metagenomic analyses revealed that most of the viruses in both reclaimed and potable water were novel. Bacteriophages dominated the DNA viral community in both reclaimed and potable water, but reclaimed water had a distinct phage community based on phage family distributions and host representation within each family. Eukaryotic viruses similar to plant pathogens and invertebrate picornaviruses dominated RNA metagenomic libraries. Established human pathogens were not detected in reclaimed water viral metagenomes, which contained a wealth of novel single-stranded DNA and RNA viruses related to plant, animal and insect viruses. Therefore, reclaimed water may play a role in the dissemination of highly stable viruses. Information regarding viruses present in reclaimed water but not in potable water can be used to identify new bioindicators of water quality. Future studies will need to investigate the infectivity and host range of these viruses to evaluate the impacts of reclaimed water use on human and ecosystem health.

  5. A Procedure for Evaluating Subpotable Water Reuse Potential at Army Fixed Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    Information Systems Co., 1980). Eckenfelder , W. W., Principles of Water Quality Management (CBI Publishing Co., 1980), p 11. Energy Conservation in Municipal...August 1979). 2. W. W. Eckenfelder , Principles of Water Quality Management (CBI Publishing Co., 1980), p 11. 3. David K. Todd, ed., The Water... Eckenfelder , W. W., Jr., "Removal of ABS and Phosphate From Laundry Waste Waters," Proc. 19th Purdue Conference (1964), pp 467-478. 19. Redux Corporation, Redux

  6. Characteristics of the KUR Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility as a neutron irradiation field with variable energy spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Tooru

    2000-10-01

    The Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility (HWNIF) of the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) was updated in March 1996, mainly for the improvement in neutron capture therapy (NCT). A striking feature of the updated facility is that the energy spectrum of the neutron beam can be controlled from almost pure thermal to epi-thermal, within 5 min by remote control under a continuous reactor operation. This feature is advantageous not only to medical science such as NCT, but also to the other research fields such as physics, engineering, biology, etc. The performance of the updated facility as a neutron irradiation field with variable energy spectra, was characterized. Thermal neutron flux, cadmium ratio, gamma-ray dose rate, etc., at the normal irradiation position for various irradiation modes were determined, mainly on the basis of the measurement using gold activation foils and thermo-luminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The emphasis was on the performance of the new neutron energy spectrum shifter and cadmium thermal neutron filter, that control the mixing ratio of thermal and epi-thermal neutrons, through the change in the heavy water thickness of the spectrum shifter and the aperture size of the cadmium filter. The evaluation of neutron energy spectra at the normal irradiation position was also performed for three representative irradiation modes, in which the neutron intensities are largest of all the irradiation modes. In addition, the irradiation characteristics of two irradiation devices, namely the Irradiation Rail Device and the Remote Patient Carrier, which were updated concurrently with the facility update, were evaluated.

  7. An Exceptionally Facile Two-Step Structural Isomerization and Detoxication via a Water-Assisted Double Lossen Rearrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Huang, Chun-Hua; Xie, Lin-Na; Qu, Na; Shao, Jie; Shao, Bo; Zhu, Ben-Zhan

    2016-12-01

    N-hydroxyphthalimide (NHPI), which is best known as an organocatalyst for efficient C-H activation, has been found to be oxidized by quinoid compounds to its corresponding catalytically active nitroxide-radical. Here, we found that NHPI can be isomerized into isatoic anhydride by an unusually facile two-step method using tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (TCBQ, p-chloranil), accompanied by a two-step hydrolytic dechlorination of highly toxic TCBQ into the much less toxic dihydroxylation product, 2,5-dichloro-3,6-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone (chloranilic acid). Interestingly, through the complementary application of oxygen-18 isotope-labeling, HPLC combined with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight and high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometric studies, we determined that water was the source and origin of oxygen for isatoic anhydride. Based on these data, we proposed that nucleophilic attack with a subsequent water-assisted Lossen rearrangement coupled with rapid intramolecular addition and cyclization in two consecutive steps was responsible for this unusual structural isomerization of NHPI and concurrent hydroxylation/detoxication of TCBQ. This is the first report of an exceptionally facile double-isomerization of NHPI via an unprecedented water-assisted double-Lossen rearrangement under normal physiological conditions. Our findings may have broad implications for future research on hydroxamic acids and polyhalogenated quinoid carcinogens, two important classes of compounds of major chemical and biological interest.

  8. Zero liquid discharge for tarsands and SAGD facilities and other outside-the-box water management strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, R.F. [Becker Environmental 7 Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presented water management strategies used at Syncrude's Mildred Lake zero liquid discharge (ZLD) demonstration plant, EnCana's Foster Creek steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) evaporator and JACO's additional multi-effect (ME) evaporator. Water treatment strategies included mechanical vapor recompression (MVR), multi-effect evaporation, reverse osmosis (RO) and crystallization methods for recycling produced water into boiler feed water. Each system is capable of using low quality waste steam for power. This recovers over 95 per cent of the input energy needed to distill water. Since these systems require little or no chemical additions, they also address problems associated with evaporator systems such as heat exchanger scaling and fouling. The study included an analysis of the ratios of unit energy requirements to the influent total dissolved solids (TDS) for RO, MVR and crystallization. According to a comparative evaluation, the most energy efficient way to make boiler feed water while maintaining zero liquid discharge is to use a combination of systems. This paper also documented the facility used to maintain saturated salt cavern brine in above ground ponds in a wet climate.

  9. The Energy, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Cost Implications of Municipal Water Supply & Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Winter, Thelma

    All man-made structures and materials have a design life. Across the United States there is a common theme for our water and wastewater treatment facilities and infrastructure. The design life of many of our mid 20 th century water and wastewater infrastructures in the United States have reached or are reaching life expectancy limits (ASCE, 2010). To compound the financial crisis of keeping up with the degradation, meeting and exceeding quality standards has never been more important in order to protect local fresh water supplies. This thesis analyzes the energy consumption of a municipal water and wastewater treatment system from a Lake Erie intake through potable treatment and back through wastewater treatment then discharge. The system boundary for this thesis includes onsite energy consumed by the treatment system and distribution/reclamation system as well as the energy consumed by the manufacturing of treatment chemicals applied during the study periods. By analyzing energy consumption, subsequent implications from greenhouse gas emissions and financial expenditures were quantified. Through the segregation of treatment and distribution processes from non-process energy consumption, such as heating, lighting, and air handling, this study identified that the potable water treatment system consumed an annual average of 2.42E+08 kBtu, spent 5,812,144 for treatment and distribution, and emitted 28,793 metric tons of CO2 equivalent emissions. Likewise, the wastewater treatment system consumed an annual average of 2.45E+08 kBtu, spent 3,331,961 for reclamation and treatment, and emitted 43,780 metric tons of CO2 equivalent emissions. The area with the highest energy usage, financial expenditure, and greenhouse gas emissions for the potable treatment facility and distribution system was from the manufacturing of the treatment chemicals, 1.10E+08 kBtu, 3.7 million, and 17,844 metric tons of CO2 equivalent, respectively. Of the onsite energy (1.4E-03 kWh per gallon

  10. Water2Invest: Global facility for calculating investments needed to bridge the climate-induced water gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straatsma, Menno; Droogers, Peter; Brandsma, Jairus; Buytaert, Wouter; Karssenberg, Derek; Meijer, Karen; van Aalst, Maaike; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Bierkens, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Decision makers responsible for climate change adaptation investments are confronted with large uncertainties regarding future water availability and water demand, as well as the investment cost required to reduce the water gap. Moreover, scientists have worked hard to increase fundamental knowledge on climate change and its impacts (climate services), while practical use of this knowledge is limited due to a lack of tools for decision support under uncertain long term future scenarios (decision services). The Water2Invest project aims are to (i) assess the joint impact of climate change and socioeconomic change on water scarcity, (ii) integrate impact and potential adaptation in one flow, (iii) prioritize adaptation options to counteract water scarcity on their financial, regional socio-economic and environmental implications, and (iv) deliver all this information in an integrated user-friendly web-based service. Global water availability is computed between 2006 and 2100 using the PCR-GLOBWB water resources model at a 6 minute spatial resolution. Climate change scenarios are based on the fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the IPCC Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) that defines four CO2 emission scenarios as representative concentration pathways. Water demand is computed for agriculture, industry, domestic, and environmental requirements based on socio-economic scenarios of increase in population and gross domestic product. Using a linear programming algorithm, water is allocated on a monthly basis over the four sectors. Based on these assessments, the user can evaluate various technological and infrastructural adaptation measures to assess the investments needed to bridge the future water gap. Regional environmental and socioeconomic effects of these investments are evaluated, such as environmental flows or downstream effects. A scheme is developed to evaluate the strategies on robustness and flexibility under climate change and scenario uncertainty

  11. CSP cogeneration of electricity and desalinated water at the Pentakomo field facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanicolas, C. N.; Bonanos, A. M.; Georgiou, M. C.; Guillen, E.; Jarraud, N.; Marakkos, C.; Montenon, A.; Stiliaris, E.; Tsioli, E.; Tzamtzis, G.; Votyakov, E. V.

    2016-05-01

    The Cyprus Institute's Pentakomo Field Facility (PFF) is a major infrastructure for research, development and testing of technologies relating to concentrated solar power (CSP) and solar seawater desalination. It is located at the south coast of Cyprus near the sea and its environmental conditions are fully monitored. It provides a test facility specializing in the development of CSP systems suitable for island and coastal environments with particular emphasis on small units (electricity and desalinated seawater from CSP. Specifically, the experimental plant consists of a heliostat-central receiver system for solar harvesting, thermal energy storage in molten salts followed by a Rankine cycle for electricity production and a multiple-effect distillation (MED) unit for desalination.

  12. Plan estratégico sectorial de agua potable y saneamiento de Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Fernández; Carlos Arturo Aguilera; Juan Bóbeda; Julio Giménez

    2010-01-01

    Esta nota técnica contiene la exposición del Plan Estratégico Sectorial de Agua Potable y Saneamiento de Paraguay elaborado para la Unidad de los Servicios de Agua Potable y Alcantarillado Sanitario (USAPAS) del Ministerio de Obras Públicas y Comunicaciones (MOPC) del gobierno paraguayo. El documento presenta en primer lugar datos sobre la situación administrativa y el contexto socioeconómico del país, así como de sus recursos hídricos. Luego analiza el marco institucional del sector de agua ...

  13. Acceptability and Use of Portable Drinking Water and Hand Washing Stations in Health Care Facilities and Their Impact on Patient Hygiene Practices, Western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Sarah D.; Ronald Otieno; Ayers, Tracy L.; Aloyce Odhiambo; Faith, Sitnah H.; Robert Quick

    2015-01-01

    Many health care facilities (HCF) in developing countries lack access to reliable hand washing stations and safe drinking water. To address this problem, we installed portable, low-cost hand washing stations (HWS) and drinking water stations (DWS), and trained healthcare workers (HCW) on hand hygiene, safe drinking water, and patient education techniques at 200 rural HCFs lacking a reliable water supply in western Kenya. We performed a survey at baseline and a follow-up evaluation at 15 month...

  14. MX Siting Investigation. Municipal Water-Supply and Waste-Water Treatment Facilities in Selected Nevada and Utah Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-20

    following counties : VoI I - Carson City, Douglas, Storey; Vol IL - Churchill, Mineral; Vol III - Lincoln, White Pine; Vol IV - Humbold., Pershing ; Vol...the Washoe County Commissioners. In 1975 the Water Resources Center of DRI completed an important related study on "Economics and Finance of Nevada ... Nevada Rural Communities Water and Wastewater Plan, 1972, Volume V Eureka County - Lander County , Walters Engineering, Reno, NV, Chilton Engineering

  15. Household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in Vietnam and associated factors: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thi Tuyet-Hanh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite progress made by the Millennium Development Goal (MDG number 7.C, Vietnam still faces challenges with regard to the provision of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Objective: This paper describes household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities separately, and analyses factors associated with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in combination. Design: Secondary data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in 2000, 2006, and 2011 were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and tests of significance describe trends over time in access to water and sanitation by location, demographic and socio-economic factors. Binary logistic regressions (2000, 2006, and 2011 describe associations between access to water and sanitation, and geographic, demographic, and socio-economic factors. Results: There have been some outstanding developments in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities from 2000 to 2011. In 2011, the proportion of households with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities reached 90% and 77%, respectively, meeting the 2015 MDG targets for safe drinking water and basic sanitation set at 88% and 75%, respectively. However, despite these achievements, in 2011, only 74% of households overall had access to combined improved drinking water and sanitation facilities. There were also stark differences between regions. In 2011, only 47% of households had access to both improved water and sanitation facilities in the Mekong River Delta compared with 94% in the Red River Delta. In 2011, households in urban compared to rural areas were more than twice as likely (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9–2.5 to have access to improved water and sanitation facilities in combination, and households in the highest compared with the lowest wealth quintile were over 40 times more likely (OR: 42.3; 95% CI: 29.8–60

  16. Waste to Watts and Water: Enabling Self-Contained Facilities Using Microbial Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    1989. Burrows, W. Dickinson . “Shower Water Recovery System: Criteria for Recycle of Gray Water for Shower Use.” Medi- cal Issues Information Paper No...Ringeisen, Bradley R., Emily Henderson, Peter K. Wu, Jeremy Pietron, Ricky Ray, Brenda Little, Justin C. Biffinger, and Joanne M. Jones-Meehan

  17. A facile TiO{sub 2}/PVDF composite membrane synthesis and their application in water purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei, E-mail: wei.zhang@unisa.edu.au; Zhang, Yiming; Fan, Rong; Lewis, Rosmala [University of South Australia, Centre for Water Management and Reuse (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    In this work, we have demonstrated a facile wet chemical method to synthesise TiO{sub 2}/PVDF composite membranes as alternative water purification method to traditional polymer-based membrane. For the first time, hydrothermally grown TiO{sub 2} nanofibers under alkali conditions were successfully inserted into PVDF membranes matrix. The structure, permeability and anti-fouling performance of as-prepared PVDF/TiO{sub 2} composite membranes were studied systematically. The TiO{sub 2}/PVDF composite membranes prepared in this work promise great potential uses in water purification applications as microfiltration membranes due to its excellent physical/chemical resistance, anti-fouling and mechanical properties.

  18. Dismantlement and removal of Old Hydrofracture Facility bulk storage bins and water tank, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF), located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was constructed in 1963 to allow experimentation and operations with an integrated solid storage, mixing, and grout injection facility. During its operation, OHF blended liquid low-level waste with grout and used a hydrofracture process to pump the waste into a deep low-permeable shale formation. Since the OHF Facility was taken out of service in 1980, the four bulk storage bins located adjacent to Building 7852 had deteriorated to the point that they were a serious safety hazard. The ORNL Surveillance and Maintenance Program requested and received permission from the US Department of Energy to dismantle the bins as a maintenance action and send the free-released metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. A 25,000-gal stainless steel water tank located at the OHF site was included in the scope. A fixed-price subcontract was signed with Allied Technology Group, Inc., to remove the four bulk storage bins and water tank to a staging area where certified Health Physics personnel could survey, segregate, package, and send the radiologically clean scrap metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. All radiologically contaminated metal and metal that could not be surveyed was packaged and staged for later disposal. Permissible personnel exposure limits were not exceeded, no injuries were incurred, and no health and safety violations occurred throughout the duration of the project. Upon completion of the dismantlement, the project had generated 53,660 lb of clean scrap metal (see Appendix D). This resulted in $3,410 of revenue generated and a cost avoidance of an estimated $100,000 in waste disposal fees.

  19. Solar Disinfection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Harvested Rainwater: A Step towards Potability of Rainwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Muhammad T.; Nawaz, Mohsin; Amin, Muhammad N.; Han, Mooyoung

    2014-01-01

    Efficiency of solar based disinfection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) in rooftop harvested rainwater was evaluated aiming the potability of rainwater. The rainwater samples were exposed to direct sunlight for about 8–9 hours and the effects of water temperature (°C), sunlight irradiance (W/m2), different rear surfaces of polyethylene terephthalate bottles, variable microbial concentrations, pH and turbidity were observed on P. aeruginosa inactivation at different weathers. In simple solar disinfection (SODIS), the complete inactivation of P. aeruginosa was obtained only under sunny weather conditions (>50°C and >700 W/m2) with absorptive rear surface. Solar collector disinfection (SOCODIS) system, used to improve the efficiency of simple SODIS under mild and weak weather, completely inactivated the P. aeruginosa by enhancing the disinfection efficiency of about 20% only at mild weather. Both SODIS and SOCODIS systems, however, were found inefficient at weak weather. Different initial concentrations of P. aeruginosa and/or Escherichia coli had little effects on the disinfection efficiency except for the SODIS with highest initial concentrations. The inactivation of P. aeruginosa increased by about 10–15% by lowering the initial pH values from 10 to 3. A high initial turbidity, adjusted by adding kaolin, adversely affected the efficiency of both systems and a decrease, about 15–25%; in inactivation of P. aeruginosa was observed. The kinetics of this study was investigated by Geeraerd Model for highlighting the best disinfection system based on reaction rate constant. The unique detailed investigation of P. aeruginosa disinfection with sunlight based disinfection systems under different weather conditions and variable parameters will help researchers to understand and further improve the newly invented SOCODIS system. PMID:24595188

  20. Silver disinfection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli in rooftop harvested rainwater for potable purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, M; Han, M Y; Kim, Tschung-il; Manzoor, U; Amin, M T

    2012-08-01

    Rainwater harvesting being an alternate source in water scarce areas is becoming a common practice. Catchment contact, however, deteriorates the quality of rainwater making it unfit for potable purposes. To improve the quality of harvested rainwater, silver was used as antimicrobial agent in this study. Rainwater samples were taken from underground storage tank of a rooftop rainwater harvesting system installed in one of the buildings at Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea. The target microorganisms (MOs) were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli which were measured by using plate count method and standard MPN method, respectively. The efficiency of silver disinfection was evaluated at concentrations, ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 mg/l; the safe limit approved by WHO. The experiments were performed for 168 h with different time intervals to evaluate the parameters including inactivation rate, residual effect of silver and re-growth in both MOs at lower (i.e. 0.01-0.04 mg/l) as well as the higher concentrations of silver (i.e. 0.08-0.1 mg/l). Results showed the re-growth in both MOs was only in the case of lower concentrations of silver. The possible reason of re-growth at these concentrations of silver may be the halting of bacterial cell replication process for some time without permanent damage. The kinetics of this study suggest that higher inactivation and long term residual effect towards both MOs can be achieved with the application of silver at 0.08 mg/l or higher under safe limit.

  1. Solar disinfection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in harvested rainwater: a step towards potability of rainwater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad T Amin

    Full Text Available Efficiency of solar based disinfection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa in rooftop harvested rainwater was evaluated aiming the potability of rainwater. The rainwater samples were exposed to direct sunlight for about 8-9 hours and the effects of water temperature (°C, sunlight irradiance (W/m2, different rear surfaces of polyethylene terephthalate bottles, variable microbial concentrations, pH and turbidity were observed on P. aeruginosa inactivation at different weathers. In simple solar disinfection (SODIS, the complete inactivation of P. aeruginosa was obtained only under sunny weather conditions (>50°C and >700 W/m2 with absorptive rear surface. Solar collector disinfection (SOCODIS system, used to improve the efficiency of simple SODIS under mild and weak weather, completely inactivated the P. aeruginosa by enhancing the disinfection efficiency of about 20% only at mild weather. Both SODIS and SOCODIS systems, however, were found inefficient at weak weather. Different initial concentrations of P. aeruginosa and/or Escherichia coli had little effects on the disinfection efficiency except for the SODIS with highest initial concentrations. The inactivation of P. aeruginosa increased by about 10-15% by lowering the initial pH values from 10 to 3. A high initial turbidity, adjusted by adding kaolin, adversely affected the efficiency of both systems and a decrease, about 15-25%; in inactivation of P. aeruginosa was observed. The kinetics of this study was investigated by Geeraerd Model for highlighting the best disinfection system based on reaction rate constant. The unique detailed investigation of P. aeruginosa disinfection with sunlight based disinfection systems under different weather conditions and variable parameters will help researchers to understand and further improve the newly invented SOCODIS system.

  2. Solar disinfection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in harvested rainwater: a step towards potability of rainwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Muhammad T; Nawaz, Mohsin; Amin, Muhammad N; Han, Mooyoung

    2014-01-01

    Efficiency of solar based disinfection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) in rooftop harvested rainwater was evaluated aiming the potability of rainwater. The rainwater samples were exposed to direct sunlight for about 8-9 hours and the effects of water temperature (°C), sunlight irradiance (W/m2), different rear surfaces of polyethylene terephthalate bottles, variable microbial concentrations, pH and turbidity were observed on P. aeruginosa inactivation at different weathers. In simple solar disinfection (SODIS), the complete inactivation of P. aeruginosa was obtained only under sunny weather conditions (>50°C and >700 W/m2) with absorptive rear surface. Solar collector disinfection (SOCODIS) system, used to improve the efficiency of simple SODIS under mild and weak weather, completely inactivated the P. aeruginosa by enhancing the disinfection efficiency of about 20% only at mild weather. Both SODIS and SOCODIS systems, however, were found inefficient at weak weather. Different initial concentrations of P. aeruginosa and/or Escherichia coli had little effects on the disinfection efficiency except for the SODIS with highest initial concentrations. The inactivation of P. aeruginosa increased by about 10-15% by lowering the initial pH values from 10 to 3. A high initial turbidity, adjusted by adding kaolin, adversely affected the efficiency of both systems and a decrease, about 15-25%; in inactivation of P. aeruginosa was observed. The kinetics of this study was investigated by Geeraerd Model for highlighting the best disinfection system based on reaction rate constant. The unique detailed investigation of P. aeruginosa disinfection with sunlight based disinfection systems under different weather conditions and variable parameters will help researchers to understand and further improve the newly invented SOCODIS system.

  3. Characterisation and treatment of VOCs in process water from upgrading facilities for compressed biogas (CBG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson Påledal, S; Arrhenius, K; Moestedt, J; Engelbrektsson, J; Stensen, K

    2016-02-01

    Compression and upgrading of biogas to vehicle fuel generates process water, which to varying degrees contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originating from the biogas. The compostion of this process water has not yet been studied and scientifically published and there is currently an uncertainty regarding content of VOCs and how the process water should be managed to minimise the impact on health and the environment. The aim of the study was to give an overview about general levels of VOCs in the process water. Characterisation of process water from amine and water scrubbers at plants digesting waste, sewage sludge or agricultural residues showed that both the average concentration and composition of particular VOCs varied depending on the substrate used at the biogas plant, but the divergence was high and the differences for total concentrations from the different substrate groups were only significant for samples from plants using waste compared to residues from agriculture. The characterisation also showed that the content of VOCs varied greatly between different sampling points for same main substrate and between sampling occasions at the same sampling point, indicating that site-specific conditions are important for the results which also indicates that a number of analyses at different times are required in order to make an more exact characterisation with low uncertainty. Inhibition of VOCs in the anaerobic digestion (AD) process was studied in biomethane potential tests, but no inhibition was observed during addition of synthetic process water at concentrations of 11.6 mg and 238 mg VOC/L.

  4. Evaluation of the impact of a simple hand-washing and water-treatment intervention in rural health facilities on hygiene knowledge and reported behaviours of health workers and their clients, Nyanza Province, Kenya, 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sreenivasan, N; Gotestrand, S A; Ombeki, S

    2015-01-01

    Many clinics in rural western Kenya lack access to safe water and hand-washing facilities. To address this problem, in 2005 a programme was initiated to install water stations for hand washing and drinking water in 109 health facilities, train health workers on water treatment and hygiene...

  5. Facile Fabrication of a Polyethylene Mesh for Oil/Water Separation in a Complex Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tianyi; Zhang, Dongmei; Yu, Cunming; Jiang, Lei

    2016-09-14

    Low cost, eco-friendly, and easily scaled-up processes are needed to fabricate efficient oil/water separation materials, especially those useful in harsh environments such as highly acidic, alkaline, and salty environments, to deal with serious oil spills and industrial organic pollutants. Herein, a highly efficient oil/water separation mesh with durable chemical stability was fabricated by simply scratching and pricking a conventional polyethylene (PE) film. Multiscaled morphologies were obtained by this scratching and pricking process and provided the mesh with a special wettability performance termed superhydrophobicity, superoleophilicity, and low water adhesion, while the inert chemical properties of PE delivered chemical etching resistance to the fabricated mesh. In addition to a highly efficient oil/corrosive liquid separation, the fabricated PE mesh was also reusable and exhibited ultrafast oil/water separation solely by gravity. The easy operation, chemical durability, reusability, and efficiency of the novel PE mesh give it high potential for use in industrial and consumer applications.

  6. Multiprobe Water Quality Data from the Tracy Fish Collection Facility (TFCF), Byron, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — Currently Available Period of Record: April 1, 2000 through February 15, 2007. This program has produced seven years of water quality multiprobe data at the TFCF...

  7. Use of Produced Water in Recirculated Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. McGowin; M. DiFilippo; L. Weintraub

    2006-06-30

    Tree ring studies indicate that, for the greater part of the last three decades, New Mexico has been relatively 'wet' compared to the long-term historical norm. However, during the last several years, New Mexico has experienced a severe drought. Some researchers are predicting a return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters to supplement current fresh water supplies for power plant operation and cooling and other uses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored three related assessments of water supplies in the San Juan Basin area of the four-corner intersection of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. These were (1) an assessment of using water produced with oil and gas as a supplemental supply for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS); (2) a field evaluation of the wet-surface air cooling (WSAC) system at SJGS; and (3) the development of a ZeroNet systems analysis module and an application of the Watershed Risk Management Framework (WARMF) to evaluate a range of water shortage management plans. The study of the possible use of produced water at SJGS showed that produce water must be treated to justify its use in any reasonable quantity at SJGS. The study identified produced water volume and quality, the infrastructure needed to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements, and delivery and treatment economics. A number of produced water treatment alternatives that use off-the-shelf technology were evaluated along with the equipment needed for water treatment at SJGS. Wet surface air-cooling (WSAC) technology was tested at the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) to determine its capacity to cool power plant circulating water using degraded water. WSAC is a commercial cooling technology and has been used for many years to cool and/or condense process fluids. The purpose of the pilot test was to

  8. Special wettable nanostructured copper mesh achieved by a facile hot water treatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadi, Nawzat S.; Hassan, Laylan B.; Brozak, Matt; Karabacak, Tansel

    2017-09-01

    In this research, a special wettable copper mesh with superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity properties is reported using a low-cost, eco-friendly, rapid, and scalable synthesis method. Hot water treatment (HWT) method is used to integrate the micro-textured copper mesh surface with a nanoscale roughness to achieve a hierarchical micro-nano structured surface. The surface energy of the nanoscale roughened copper mesh reduced by coating the hot water treated mesh with polymer ligands containing thiol or fluorine functional groups of low energy. Surface morphology characterization showed the formation of copper oxide nanostructures on the mesh surface by hot water process performed at 95 °C and under a low dissolved oxygen condition. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal the development of stable, uniformly distributed, and compactly arranged, cubic and plate-like nanostructures of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) on the copper mesh surface. The surface wettability of the as-prepared copper mesh was assessed by contact angle (CA) measurement for water and several oils and organic solvents. CA values showed the formation of special wettable copper mesh surface with superhydrophobic property with water contact angle of about 157° and superoleophilic property with oil contact angle as low as 0°. In addition, the effect of the mesh’s geometry on the wetting property was examined through correlations between wire diameter, pore size, and optimal values for the highest water CA.

  9. Water Hardness as Basic Indicator the Presence Fouling in Domestic Sanitary Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián–Soto F

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of the water quality was done in the central valleys of Oaxaca state, finding very high concentrations of calcium, magnesium and carbonate in the waters from of deep wells that are located in the periphery of the river Atoyac, unlike the water that comes from the high parts of Etla valley, where there are maximum hardnesses of 140ppm, so for the distribution of both effluent to the city of Oaxaca and neighboring municipalities, suggesting a further dilution of the water treatment plant in "Fortin" in the city of Oaxaca, that after determining the Langelier index and other, with software found in the universal bibliography. The results indicate that water from the river Atoyac, have corrosive properties. In laboratory doing tests, the best dilution was 60 to 40% by volume, of water from Etla Valley and the periphery of the river respectively. Langelier index was converted to a negative, indicating saturation with respect to calcium carbonate (CaCO3 and will tend to dissolve, avoiding the deterioration of the sanitary units.

  10. Superhydrophobic silica wool—a facile route to separating oil and hydrophobic solvents from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Colin R; Bhachu, Davinder S; Parkin, Ivan P

    2014-01-01

    Silica microfiber wool was systematically functionalized in order to provide an extremely water repellent and oleophilic material. This was carried out using a two-step functionalization that was shown to be a highly effective method for generating an intense water repulsion and attraction for oil. A demonstration of the silica wools application is shown through the highly efficient separation of oils and hydrophobic solvents from water. Water is confined to the extremities of the material, while oil is absorbed into the voids within the wool. The effect of surface functionalization is monitored though observing the interaction of the material with both oils and water, in addition to scanning electron microscope images, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The material can be readily utilized in many applications, including the cleaning of oil spills and filtering during industrial processes, as well as further water purification tasks—while not suffering the losses of efficiency observed in current leading polymeric materials. PMID:27877733

  11. Superhydrophobic silica wool—a facile route to separating oil and hydrophobic solvents from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Colin R.; Bhachu, Davinder S.; Parkin, Ivan P.

    2014-12-01

    Silica microfiber wool was systematically functionalized in order to provide an extremely water repellent and oleophilic material. This was carried out using a two-step functionalization that was shown to be a highly effective method for generating an intense water repulsion and attraction for oil. A demonstration of the silica wools application is shown through the highly efficient separation of oils and hydrophobic solvents from water. Water is confined to the extremities of the material, while oil is absorbed into the voids within the wool. The effect of surface functionalization is monitored though observing the interaction of the material with both oils and water, in addition to scanning electron microscope images, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The material can be readily utilized in many applications, including the cleaning of oil spills and filtering during industrial processes, as well as further water purification tasks—while not suffering the losses of efficiency observed in current leading polymeric materials.

  12. Water quality and toxicity of river water downstream of the uranium mining facility at Pocos de Caldas, MG, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, Dejanira C.; Vascocnellos, Luisa M.H.; Simoes, Francisco F. Lamego; Clain, Almir F., E-mail: dejanira@ird.gov.b, E-mail: luisa@ird.gov.b, E-mail: flamego@ird.gov.b, E-mail: almir@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Scassiotti, Walter F.; Antunes, Ivan, E-mail: scassiotti@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Caldas, MG (Brazil); Ferreira, Ana M., E-mail: anaferreira@dmaepc.mg.gov.b [Departamento Municipal de Aguas e Esgotos de Pocos de Caldas (DMAE), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Nascimento, Marcos R.L., E-mail: pmarcos@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Pocos de Caldas Lab.

    2009-07-01

    The uranium mining site of Pocos de Caldas consists of open mine pit, tailings, waste rock dumps and an acid rock drainage problem, which has the potential to impact upon freshwater of the Ribeirao das Antas catchment. The high level of manganese (value of 1.8 mg/L) contained in the discharge water (DW) is an important factor affecting the water quality of the river (water quality criterion for aquatic life for Mn is 0.1 mg/L). Water quality criteria (WQC) are used for regulatory purpose and intended to define concentrations of chemicals in water that are protective of aquatic life and human health. WQC is a standard, although it is recognized that in some instances these criteria may be overprotective as metal bioavailability and hence toxicity is dependent on water chemistry. The toxicity assessment of WD was performed by bioassays with Daphnia similis and Ceriodaphnia dubia as bioindicators. As DW showed no toxicity to the organisms and the chemical analysis and dose assessments pointed U and Mn as the most important metals for water toxicity, the U and Mn toxicities were evaluated in the DW spiked with U and Mn. Acute uranium toxicity (48 h immobilisation test) for Daphnia similis was determined as a LC50 value (concentration that is toxic to 50% of test organisms) around 0.05-0.06 mg/L, value close to the one found for effects on reproduction, a 7 day LOEC (lowest observed effect concentration) of 0.062 mg/L for Ceriodaphnia dubia. The value of NOEC (no-observed effect concentration) for U was 0.03 mg U/L, which is higher than the concentration corresponded to the authorized dose limit for {sup 238}U (0.004 mg/L) and higher than the uranium WQC (0.02 mg U/L). The manganese concentration in the DW is lower than the found value of LC50 (11.5 mg/L), LOEC (10 mg/L) and NOEC (5 mg Mn/L). (author)

  13. Facile synthesis of graphene nano zero-valent iron composites and their efficient removal of trichloronitromethane from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haifeng; Cao, Yu; Wei, Enze; Gong, Tingting; Xian, Qiming

    2016-03-01

    Halonitromethanes (HNMs), as an emerging class of disinfection by-products containing nitrogen (N-DBPs) in drinking water, have possessed public health concerns. Two most studied materials, graphene and nanometer-sized zero-valent iron, have been successfully combined into binary nanocomposites (G-nZVI) via facile carbonization and calcinations of glucose and ferric chloride, which was used in the removal of HNMs from drinking water in this study. When the Fe/C mass ratio was 1:5, the as-prepared G-nZVI hybrids comprised numerous dispersed Fe(0) nanoparticles with a range of 5-10 nm in diameter. Batch experimental results indicated that the as-prepared G-nZVI could effectively remove trichloronitromethane (TCNM), a dominant in the group of HNMs from drinking water. About 99% of initial TCNM could be adsorbed and degraded under 60 mg/L G-nZVI dosage within 120 min. Kinetic studies indicated that the removal of TCNM by G-nZVI followed a pseudo first order rate (R(2) > 0.9). The degradation pathways of TCNM by G-nZVI nanocomposites might include dechlorination and denitration of TCNM. The Fe was in the form of iron oxides in the graphene material shape which was then restored to Fe(0) again via calcinations. These results indicated that the synthesized G-nZVI nanocomposites could be a powerful material to remove HNMs from drinking water.

  14. Factores normativos del acceso al agua potable: contenido real de un derecho

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sampedro Torres, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    ...: "El derecho humano al agua potable suficiente y salubre es una precondicion a la realizacion de todos los derechos humanos'". El Comite, organo encargado en el contexto del sistema de la Organizacion de las Naciones Unidas, onu, de la determinacion de los contenidos de los Derechos Economicos Sociales y Culturales, desc, se remite a...

  15. El abastecimiento de agua potable a las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 1800-1946

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    [ES] Estudio monográfico que trata de desvelar los hechos y las claves históricas del servicio de suministro de agua potable en Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, complejo y eterno problema para el Ayuntamiento de esta ciudad.

  16. Avisos de salud sobre el PFOA y PFOS en el agua potable

    Science.gov (United States)

    La EPA estableció avisos de salud sobre el ácido perfluorooctanoico (PFOA) y el sulfonato de perfluorooctano (PFOS) para proporcionar información a los operadores de sistemas de agua potable y funcionarios estatales, tribales y locales sobre los riesgos de

  17. HOJA INFORMATIVA Presencia de PFOA y PFOS en el agua potable Avisos de salud

    Science.gov (United States)

    La EPA estableció avisos de salud sobre el ácido perfluorooctanoico (PFOA) y el sulfonato de perfluorooctano (PFOS) para proporcionar información a los operadores de sistemas de agua potable y funcionarios estatales y locales para que puedan adoptar las me

  18. Bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics from water-processable nanomaterials and their facile fabrication approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subianto, Surya; Dutta, Naba; Andersson, Mats; Choudhury, Namita Roy

    2016-09-01

    Organic thin film photovoltaics based on bulk-heterojunction donor-acceptor combinations have received significant interest due to their potential for low-cost, large-scale solution processing. However, current state-of-the-art cells utilise materials soluble mainly in halogenated solvents which pose processing challenges due to their toxicity and thus environmental hazards. In this contribution, we look at various nanomaterials, and alternative processing of these solar cells using environmentally friendly solvents, and review recently reported different strategies and approaches that are making inroads in this field. Specifically, we focus on the use of water-dispersible donors and acceptors, use of aqueous solvents for fabrication and discuss the merits of the two main approaches of water-processable solar cells; namely, through the use of water-soluble materials and the use of aqueous dispersion rather than a solution, as well as review some of the recent advances in alternative fabrication techniques.

  19. Comunidades organizadas y el servicio público de agua potable en Colombia: una defensa de la tercera opción económica desde la teoría de recursos de uso común

    OpenAIRE

    Moncada Mesa, Jhonny; Pérez Muñoz, Carolina; Valencia Agudelo, Germán Darío

    2013-01-01

    Based on the theory and institutional principles proposed by Elinor Ostrom, this paper explores whether Colombian organized communities are able to provide potable water public utility in a sustainable manner and manage it as a common-pool resource (CPR) -- For this purpose, a set of Colombian community aqueducts is selected and compared against the eight principles proposed by this theory -- The results have shown that, in general it complies with institutional principles but it also highlig...

  20. Facility Response Plan (FRP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A Facility Response Plan (FRP) demonstrates a facility's preparedness to respond to a worst case oil discharge. Under the Clean Water Act, as amended by the Oil...

  1. Projectile Demilitarization Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Projectile Wash Out Facility is US Army Ammunition Peculiar Equipment (APE 1300). It is a pilot scale wash out facility that uses high pressure water and steam...

  2. A Three Dimensional Sea Facility for Deep and Shallow Water Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    1986-01-01

    The paper describes a low-cost wave tank for the testing of structures in short crested seas and current. The paddle system is of the snake type and used for the generation of both deep and shallow water waves. The quality of the waves and scale problems related to small scale tests are discussed...

  3. Controlling Lead in Drinking Water for Schools and Day Care Facilities: A Summary of State Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Children are susceptible to adverse health effects from lead, such as impaired mental development, IQ deficits, shorter attention span, and lower birth weight. Exposure to lead is a significant health concern, particularly for young children and infants whose growing bodies tend to absorb more lead than the average adult. Testing water in…

  4. Relationship between {sup 63}Ni and {sup 3}H in an environmental monitoring program for water of a nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idoeta, R.; Herranz, M.; Legarda, F. [Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV/EHU (Spain); De Lucas, M.J. [Medidas Ambientales S.L. (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    During four years deep water coming from twelve different sampling points in the neighborhood of a nuclear facility have been quarterly analyzed for different radionuclides ({sup 63}Ni, {sup 55}Fe, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 14}C, {sup 3}H, {sup 240+239}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 243+244}Cm, gross alpha, gross beta and gamma emitters) and for typical chemical components (pH, Conductivity (25 deg. C), Chlorides, Bicarbonates, Sulfates, Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium and Potassium). Sampling points are well characterized by measuring in situ and in every sampling campaign, its level (m), temperature, depth, pH, conductivity and free oxygen (mg/l). For the determination of alpha and beta specific radionuclides, methods, equipment and measurement parameters were chosen to be able to obtain low detection limits in order to characterize these waters. These detection limits, obtained following the ISO 11929 standard methodology, were around 2E-01 Bq/m{sup 3} for alpha emitters, around 2E+01 Bq/m{sup 3} for {sup 63}Ni, and {sup 55}Fe and around 3E+03 Bq/m{sup 3} for {sup 14}C and {sup 3}H. Despite these low detection limits, only small amounts of {sup 3}H and {sup 63}Ni have been systematically detected in some of these waters. These artificial radionuclides have different origins, being {sup 3}H mainly a tertiary fission product and {sup 63}Ni an activation product. {sup 3}H was determined by distillation followed by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) and {sup 63}Ni was determined by radiochemical isolation using specific Ni-resin, followed also by LSC. In this work, the relationship between {sup 3}H and {sup 63}Ni content values is obtained and analyzed and a multivariate analysis among the chemical water components and its {sup 3}H and {sup 63}Ni contents has been carried out in order to explain the behaviour of these radionuclides and its migration from the facility to the deep waters. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  5. Drinking Water Temperature Modelling in Domestic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerman, A.; Blokker, M.; Vreeburg, J.; Van der Hoek, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Domestic water supply systems are the final stage of the transport process to deliver potable water to the customers’ tap. Under the influence of temperature, residence time and pipe materials the drinking water quality can change while the water passes the domestic drinking water system. According

  6. Organic carbon movement through two SWRO facilities from source water to pretreatment to product with relevance to membrane biofouling

    KAUST Repository

    Alshahri, Abdullah H.

    2016-12-29

    The presence of algae, bacteria, various fractions of natural organic matter (NOM), and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in the raw water, after each pretreatment process and in the permeate and concentrate streams, were measured at two SWRO plants to assess biofouling potential. It was found that the most significant process controlling the concentration of algae, bacteria, and the biopolymer and humic substances was the intake type with the subsurface intake discharge showing significant reductions. The mixed media filtration process was marginally useful in removing some TOC and NOM, but had little effect on TEP removal. Some bacterial regrowth may be occurring in the cartridge filters, but the evidence is inconsistent. Significant quantities of the biopolymer and humic substance concentrations were found to be retained in the membranes, but the concentrations were significantly greater in the facility using an open-ocean intake. Bacteria and TEP were found in the permeate stream, which may document bacterial regrowth and TEP production downstream of the membrane process. Measurements of the organic carbon passage through SWRO facilities can be successfully used to evaluate pretreatment process effectiveness and to make SWRO plant operational improvements.

  7. Ground-water quality near the northwest 58th Street solid-waste disposal facility, Dade County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattraw, H.C.; Hull, John E.; Klein, Howard

    1978-01-01

    The Northwest 58th Street solid-waste disposal facility, 3 miles west of a major Dade County municipal water-supply well field, overlays the Biscayne aquifer, a permeable, solution-riddled limestone which transmits leachates eastward at a calculated rate of 2.9 feet per day. A discrete, identifiable leachate plume has been recognized under and downgradient from the waste disposal facility. Concentrations of sodium, ammonia, and dissolved solids decreased with depth beneath the disposal area and downgradient in response to an advective and convective dispersion. At a distance of about one-half downgradient, the rate of contribution of leachate from the source to the leading edge of the plume was about equal to the rate of loss of leachate from the leading edge of the plume by diffusion and dilution by rainfall infiltration during the period August 1973 - July 1975. Heavy metals and pesticides are filtered, adsorbed by aquifer materials, or are precipitated near the disposal area. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. Water security-National and global issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, James A.; Campbell, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    Potable or clean freshwater availability is crucial to life and economic, environmental, and social systems. The amount of freshwater is finite and makes up approximately 2.5 percent of all water on the Earth. Freshwater supplies are small and randomly distributed, so water resources can become points of conflict. Freshwater availability depends upon precipitation patterns, changing climate, and whether the source of consumed water comes directly from desalination, precipitation, or surface and (or) groundwater. At local to national levels, difficulties in securing potable water sources increase with growing populations and economies. Available water improves living standards and drives urbanization, which increases average water consumption per capita. Commonly, disruptions in sustainable supplies and distribution of potable water and conflicts over water resources become major security issues for Government officials. Disruptions are often influenced by land use, human population, use patterns, technological advances, environmental impacts, management processes and decisions, transnational boundaries, and so forth.

  9. Facile synthesis of a water-soluble fluorescence sensor for Al3 + in aqueous solution and on paper substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianqi; Wan, Xuejuan; Dong, Yunsheng; Li, Weibin; Wu, Lisi; Pei, Hang; Yao, Youwei

    2017-02-01

    In this study, a facile water-soluble fluorescence sensor 2-((2-hydroxybenzylidene)-amino)-2-(hydroxymethyl)propane-1,3-diol (ST) was synthesized via one-step reaction, and its fluorescence sensing performance for Al3 + both in aqueous solution and on paper substrate was evaluated. The results showed that ST exhibited an specific fluorescence "turn-on" response to Al3 + over other cations in aqueous solution as well as on the test paper. The limit of detection was found to be 3.2 × 10- 7 M, which revealed that the obtained Schiff-base based fluorescence chemosensor ST possessed a great potential for the rapid, quantitative and qualitative detection of Al3 +.

  10. Exergoeconomic optimization of an ammonia-water hybrid heat pump for heat supply in a spray drying facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Spray drying facilities are among the most energy intensive industrial processes. Using a heat pump to recover waste heat and replace gas combustion has the potential to attain both economic and emissions savings. In the case examined a drying gas of ambient air is heated to 200 XC. The inlet flow...... rate is 100,000 m3/h which yields a heat load of 6.1 MW. The exhaust air from the drying process is 80 XC. The implementation of an ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump to partly cover the heat load is investigated. A thermodynamic analysis is applied to determine optimal circulation...... ratios for a number of ammonia mass fractions and heat pump loads. An exergoeconomic optimization is applied to minimize the lifetime cost of the system. Technological limitations are applied to constrain the solution to commercial components. The best possible implementation is identified in terms...

  11. Phosphorus removal mechanisms at the Yellow River Sweetwater Creek Water Reclamation Facility, Gwinnett County, Georgia. Master's thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borowy, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    This research investigated the capabilities of the Yellow River Sweetwater Creek Water Reclamation Facility in Gwinnett County, GA. to remove phosphorus biologically. Phosphorus levels and removal locations were analyzed in plant operational units (sampling events), while in reactor experiments (pilot studies), waste was subjected to various conditions to promote-biological phosphorus release and uptake. Analysis of plant conditions at the time of experimentation indicates that one-half of the plant phosphorus removal is accomplished biologically through incorporation of phosphorus in microbial cells during growth. It does not appear, however, that enhanced biological phosphorus removal (BPR) is possible due to wastestream characteristics and/or microbial population. It was noted that the basic anaerobic-aerobic sequence associated with enhanced BPR appears to be occurring with the secondary clarifier sludge blanket and return to compartment A of the nitrification basin.

  12. Solar hot water systems application to the solar building test facility and the Tech House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, R. L.; Jensen, R. N.; Basford, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    Projects which relate to the current national thrust toward demonstrating applied solar energy are discussed. The first project has as its primary objective the application of a system comprised of a flat plate collector field, an absorption air conditioning system, and a hot water heating system to satisfy most of the annual cooling and heating requirements of a large commercial office building. The other project addresses the application of solar collector technology to the heating and hot water requirements of a domestic residence. In this case, however, the solar system represents only one of several important technology items, the primary objective for the project being the application of space technology to the American home.

  13. Post-treatment of reclaimed waste water based on an electrochemical advanced oxidation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verostko, Charles E.; Murphy, Oliver J.; Hitchens, G. D.; Salinas, Carlos E.; Rogers, Tom D.

    1992-01-01

    The purification of reclaimed water is essential to water reclamation technology life-support systems in lunar/Mars habitats. An electrochemical UV reactor is being developed which generates oxidants, operates at low temperatures, and requires no chemical expendables. The reactor is the basis for an advanced oxidation process in which electrochemically generated ozone and hydrogen peroxide are used in combination with ultraviolet light irradiation to produce hydroxyl radicals. Results from this process are presented which demonstrate concept feasibility for removal of organic impurities and disinfection of water for potable and hygiene reuse. Power, size requirements, Faradaic efficiency, and process reaction kinetics are discussed. At the completion of this development effort the reactor system will be installed in JSC's regenerative water recovery test facility for evaluation to compare this technique with other candidate processes.

  14. Post-treatment of reclaimed waste water based on an electrochemical advanced oxidation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verostko, Charles E.; Murphy, Oliver J.; Hitchens, G. D.; Salinas, Carlos E.; Rogers, Tom D.

    1992-01-01

    The purification of reclaimed water is essential to water reclamation technology life-support systems in lunar/Mars habitats. An electrochemical UV reactor is being developed which generates oxidants, operates at low temperatures, and requires no chemical expendables. The reactor is the basis for an advanced oxidation process in which electrochemically generated ozone and hydrogen peroxide are used in combination with ultraviolet light irradiation to produce hydroxyl radicals. Results from this process are presented which demonstrate concept feasibility for removal of organic impurities and disinfection of water for potable and hygiene reuse. Power, size requirements, Faradaic efficiency, and process reaction kinetics are discussed. At the completion of this development effort the reactor system will be installed in JSC's regenerative water recovery test facility for evaluation to compare this technique with other candidate processes.

  15. A Water-Service Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    It is important to let students see the value of mathematics in design--and how mathematics lends perspective to problem solving. In this article, the author describes a water-service challenge which enables students to design a water utility system that uses surface runoff into an open reservoir as the potable water source. This challenge…

  16. A Water-Service Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    It is important to let students see the value of mathematics in design--and how mathematics lends perspective to problem solving. In this article, the author describes a water-service challenge which enables students to design a water utility system that uses surface runoff into an open reservoir as the potable water source. This challenge…

  17. Subsurface intakes for seawater reverse osmosis facilities: Capacity limitation, water quality improvement, and economics

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2013-08-01

    The use of subsurface intake systems for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants significantly improves raw water quality, reduces chemical usage and environmental impacts, decreases the carbon footprint, and reduces cost of treated water to consumers. These intakes include wells (vertical, angle, and radial type) and galleries, which can be located either on the beach or in the seabed. Subsurface intakes act both as intakes and as part of the pretreatment system by providing filtration and active biological treatment of the raw seawater. Recent investigations of the improvement in water quality made by subsurface intakes show lowering of the silt density index by 75 to 90%, removal of nearly all algae, removal of over 90% of bacteria, reduction in the concentrations of TOC and DOC, and virtual elimination of biopolymers and polysaccharides that cause organic biofouling of membranes. Economic analyses show that overall SWRO operating costs can be reduced by 5 to 30% by using subsurface intake systems. Although capital costs can be slightly to significantly higher compared to open-ocean intake system costs, a preliminary life-cycle cost analysis shows significant cost saving over operating periods of 10 to 30. years. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Immobilized graphene-based composite from asphalt: facile synthesis and application in water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeprasad, Theruvakkattil Sreenivasan; Gupta, Soujit Sen; Maliyekkal, Shihabudheen Mundampra; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2013-02-15

    An in situ strategy for the preparation of graphene immobilized on sand using asphalt, a cheap carbon precursor is presented. The as-synthesized material was characterized in detail using various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The presence of G and D bands at 1578 cm(-1) and 1345 cm(-1) in Raman spectroscopy and the 2D sheet-like structure with wrinkles in transmission electron microscopy confirmed the formation of graphenic materials. In view of the potential applicability of supported graphenic materials in environmental application, the as-synthesized material was tested for purifying water. Removal of a dye (rhodamine-6G) and a pesticide (chlorpyrifos), two of the important types of pollutants of concern in water, were investigated in this study. Adsorption studies were conducted in batch mode as a function of time, particle size, and adsorbent dose. The continuous mode experiments were conducted in multiple cycles and they confirmed that the material can be used for water purification applications. The adsorption efficacy of the present adsorbent system was compared to other reported similar adsorbent systems and the results illustrated that the present materials are superior. The adsorbents were analyzed for post treatment and their reusability was evaluated.

  19. Impact of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on hemodialysis facilities: an evaluation of radioactive contaminants in water used for hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Daigo; Kuno, Tsutomu; Sato, Sumihiko; Nitta, Kosaku; Akiba, Takashi

    2012-02-01

    Following the crisis at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, radioactive substances ((131) I, (134) Cs, (137) Cs) were detected in tap water throughout eastern Japan. There is now concern that internal exposure to radioactive substances in the dialysate could pose a danger to hemodialysis patients. Radioactive substances were measured in three hemodialysis facilities before and after purification of tap water for use in hemodialysis. Radioactive iodine was detected at levels between 13 and 15 Bq/kg in tap water from the three facilities, but was not detected by reverse osmosis membrane at any of the facilities. We confirmed that the amount of radioactive substances in dialysate fell below the limit of detection (7-8 Bq/kg) by reverse osmosis membrane. It is now necessary to clarify the maximum safe level of radiation in dialysate for chronic hemodialysis patients.

  20. Dynamic Oil-in-Water Concentration Acquisition on a Pilot-Scaled Offshore Water-Oil Separation Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Durdevic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a feasibility study on using fluorescence-based oil-in-water (OiW monitors for on-line dynamic efficiency measurement of a deoiling hydrocyclone. Dynamic measurements are crucial in the design and validation of dynamic models of the hydrocyclones, and to our knowledge, no dynamic OiW analysis of hydrocyclones has been carried out. Previous studies have extensively studied the steady state efficiency perspective of hydrocyclones, and have related them to different key parameters, such as the pressure drop ratio (PDR, inlet flow rate, and the flow-spilt. Through our study, we were able to measure the dynamics of the hydrocyclone’s efficiency ( ϵ response to step changes in the inlet flow rate with high accuracy. This is a breakthrough in the modelling, control, and monitoring of hydrocyclones.

  1. Dynamic Oil-in-Water Concentration Acquisition on a Pilot-Scaled Offshore Water-Oil Separation Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdevic, Petar; Raju, Chitra S; Bram, Mads V; Hansen, Dennis S; Yang, Zhenyu

    2017-01-10

    This article is a feasibility study on using fluorescence-based oil-in-water (OiW) monitors for on-line dynamic efficiency measurement of a deoiling hydrocyclone. Dynamic measurements are crucial in the design and validation of dynamic models of the hydrocyclones, and to our knowledge, no dynamic OiW analysis of hydrocyclones has been carried out. Previous studies have extensively studied the steady state efficiency perspective of hydrocyclones, and have related them to different key parameters, such as the pressure drop ratio (PDR), inlet flow rate, and the flow-spilt. Through our study, we were able to measure the dynamics of the hydrocyclone's efficiency ( ϵ ) response to step changes in the inlet flow rate with high accuracy. This is a breakthrough in the modelling, control, and monitoring of hydrocyclones.

  2. Estimation of pressure drop in the mixing zone of beds in operation filters as drinking water treatment by a mathematical model; Estimacion de la perdida de carga en la zona de mezcla mediante una ecuacion matematica en filtros pilotos para el tratamiento del agua potable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Miranda, J. P.

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes the correlation of a mathematical model that considers the pressure drop (energy) in the mixing zone of beds in operation filters as drinking water treatment, filters applied in conventional pilot operated and mounted on a water treatment plant of a municipally in Colombia. (Author) 20 refs.

  3. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Southeast of Saline, Unified School District 306, Mentor, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar system, installed in a new building, was designed to provide 52 percent of the estimated annual space heating load and 84 percent of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The liquid flat plate collectors are ground-mounted and cover a total area of 5125 square feet. The system will provide supplemental heat for the school's closed-loop water-to-air heat pump system and domestic hot water. The storage medium is water inside steel tanks with a capacity of 11,828 gallons for space heating and 1,600 gallons for domestic hot water. The solar heating facility is described and drawings are presented of the completed system which was declared operational in September 1978, and has functioned successfully since.

  4. Using the drinking water of the Municipality of St-Gingolph, Switzerland for power generation - Preliminary study; Turbinage des eaux potables de la commune de St-Gingolph. 1{sup ere} partie: Source de la Tine - Palier superieur. 2{sup e} partie: Sources de la Tine et de Clarive - Palier inferieur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moukhliss, H.

    2008-07-15

    This illustrated report subdivided in two parts presents the preliminary study of a project aiming at installing two small-scale hydroelectric schemes on the drinking water supply network of the Municipality of St-Gingolph, Switzerland. The upper-spring (La Tine) water can be used in a 44 kW hydro power scheme (elevation difference: 121 m; water volume through the turbine: 1,240,000 m{sup 3}/y). This water could be added to the one from the Clarive spring, enabling the installation a second hydro power scheme with a power of 291 kW (elevation difference: 337 m; water volume through the turbine: 2,740'000 m{sup 3}/y). The estimated cost of the produced electricity is attractive: CHF 0.16/kWh for the La Tine scheme; CHF 0.11 for the Clarive scheme. The author recommends the construction of both schemes.

  5. A UAS-Facility at the Energy, Environment and Water Research (EEWRC) Center of The Cyprus Institute (CyI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, M. A.; Ioannou, S.; Keleshis, C.

    2012-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are widely used for different earth-sciences applications providing chiefly a link between in-situ ground based measurements and satellite remote sensing observations. The "Autonomous Flying Platforms for Atmospheric and Earth Surface Observations" project (APAESO) of the Energy, Environment and Water Research Center (EEWRC) at the Cyprus Institute is aimed at the dual purpose of carrying out atmospheric and earth-surface observations in the (Eastern) Mediterranean (APAESO is being supported by a grant of the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation: ΝΕΑ ΥΠΟΔΟΜΗ/ΝΕΚΥΠ/0308/09). After having acquired four CRUISERS (ET-Air, Slovakia) as UAS platforms and a substantial range of scientific instruments to be employed on these platforms, we are currently in the process of specifying and implementing a more permanent, operational UAS Facility at the EEWRC of CyI. This facility will consist of three main components: (i) Ground/Operation component (GOC); (ii) Instrumentation/Mission component (IMC) and (iii) Flight team component (FTC). The GOC will be comprised by the following elements: a) a dedicated Control and Operation Facility, which will be employed mainly during flight operations and scientific missions, b) workshops and technical infrastructure and c) appropriate storage space for platforms, platform elements, scientific instrumentations, spare parts and maintenance and miscellaneous materials. The already mentioned range of different scientific instruments for atmospheric measurements and remote sensing investigations and a number of "mandatory" instruments, which will be flown on every mission (e.g., basic meteorological sensors, a simple video camera, GPS, etc.) as well as a calibration and gauging laboratory forms the core of the IMC. The FTC consists mainly of a number of skilled and experienced pilots with a basic understanding of scientific UAS applications. The implementation of appropriate pre-, in- and post

  6. Arsenic in Ground Water of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This image shows national-scale patterns of naturally occurring arsenic in potable ground-water resources of the continental United States. The image was generated...

  7. Gulf Coast Deep Water Port Facilities Study. Appendix C. Eastern Gulf Hydrobiological Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-04-01

    namely, activities regarding deep water ports including those for oil tankers). However, there are local populations, particularly in coastal zones...to eutrophication , pesticides. and petrochemical loads present in sediments. The Pensacola-Escamnbia-East BaY stsem has been gnrel ’re damaged. About...River 671 646.4 Palm River 62 45.2 Alatia River 384 418.2 Additional Area -92.6 Lower Tampa Bay 2.0- 2.3 Little Manatee River 186 205.2 Manatee River

  8. Gulf Coast Water Port Facilities Study. Appendix A. Western Gulf Hydrobiological Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-04-01

    Madre (northern), are separated by the extensive, dry, and nearly barren Saltillo Flats, almost midway along the north-south line of the complex...including Saltillo Flats, is about 460,000 acres. The latter, which divides the Laguna into two major parts, is composed of layered sand and mud. It is... Saltillo Lower Laguna Madre Bay Flats Madre Total area (sq mi) 124.0 85.0 134.0 400.0 Area of water (sq mi) 120.0 - 0.0 270.0 Length (mi) 50.0 15.0 21.0

  9. Uranium-Loaded Water Treatment Resins: 'Equivalent Feed' at NRC and Agreement State-Licensed Uranium Recovery Facilities - 12094

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camper, Larry W.; Michalak, Paul; Cohen, Stephen; Carter, Ted [Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Community Water Systems (CWSs) are required to remove uranium from drinking water to meet EPA standards. Similarly, mining operations are required to remove uranium from their dewatering discharges to meet permitted surface water discharge limits. Ion exchange (IX) is the primary treatment strategy used by these operations, which loads uranium onto resin beads. Presently, uranium-loaded resin from CWSs and mining operations can be disposed as a waste product or processed by NRC- or Agreement State-licensed uranium recovery facilities if that licensed facility has applied for and received permission to process 'alternate feed'. The disposal of uranium-loaded resin is costly and the cost to amend a uranium recovery license to accept alternate feed can be a strong disincentive to commercial uranium recovery facilities. In response to this issue, the NRC issued a Regulatory Issue Summary (RIS) to clarify the agency's policy that uranium-loaded resin from CWSs and mining operations can be processed by NRC- or Agreement State-licensed uranium recovery facilities without the need for an alternate feed license amendment when these resins are essentially the same, chemically and physically, to resins that licensed uranium recovery facilities currently use (i.e., equivalent feed). NRC staff is clarifying its current alternate feed policy to declare IX resins as equivalent feed. This clarification is necessary to alleviate a regulatory and financial burden on facilities that filter uranium using IX resin, such as CWSs and mine dewatering operations. Disposing of those resins in a licensed facility could be 40 to 50 percent of the total operations and maintenance (O and M) cost for a CWS. Allowing uranium recovery facilities to treat these resins without requiring a license amendment lowers O and M costs and captures a valuable natural resource. (authors)

  10. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Volume 1, The report and Appendix A, Progress report for the period October 1 to December 31, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-01

    This report documents recent progress on ground-water monitoring projects for four Hanford Site facilities: the 300 Area Process Trenches, the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, the 200 Area Low-Level Burial Grounds, and the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste (NRDW) Landfill. The existing ground-water monitoring projects for the first two facilities named in the paragraph above are currently being expanded by adding new wells to the networks. During the reporting period, sampling of the existing wells continued on a monthly basis, and the analytical results for samples collected from September through November 1986 are included and discussed in this document. 8 refs., 41 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Water-wettable polypropylene fibers by facile surface treatment based on soy proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Carlos; Genzer, Jan; Lucia, Lucian A; Hubbe, Martin A; Rojas, Orlando J

    2013-07-24

    Modification of the wetting behavior of hydrophobic surfaces is essential in a variety of materials, including textiles and membranes that require control of fluid interactions, adhesion, transport processes, sensing, etc. This investigation examines the enhancement of wettability of an important class of textile materials, viz., polypropylene (PP) fibers, by surface adsorption of different proteins from soybeans, including soy flour, isolate,glycinin, and β-conglycinin. Detailed investigations of soy adsorption from aqueous solution (pH 7.4, 25 °C) on polypropylene thin films is carried out using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). A significant amount of protein adsorbs onto the PP surfaces primarily due to hydrophobic interactions. We establish that adsorption of a cationic surfactant, dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODA) onto PP surfaces prior to the protein deposition dramatically enhances its adsorption. The adsorption of proteins from native (PBS buffer, pH 7.4, 25 °C) and denatured conditions (PBS buffer, pH 7.4, 95 °C) onto DODA-treated PP leads to a high coverage of the proteins on the PP surface as confirmed by a significant improvement in water wettability. A shift in the contact angle from 128° to completely wettable surfaces (≈0°) is observed and confirmed by imaging experiments conducted with fluorescence tags. Furthermore, the results from wicking tests indicate that hydrophobic PP nonwovens absorb a significant amount of water after protein treatment, i.e., the PP-modified surfaces become completely hydrophilic.

  12. Investigation of Pharmaceutical Residues in Hospital Effluents, in Ground- and Drinking Water from Bundeswehr Facilities, and their Removal During Drinking Water Purification (Arzneimittelrueckstaende in Trinkwasser(versorgungsanlagen) und Krankenhausabwaessern der Bundeswehr: Methodenentwicklung - Verkommen - Wasseraufbereitung)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Fluorchinolo- ne ( Ciprofloxacin , Norfloxacin , Enrofloxacin, Ofloxacin), Chloramphenicol, Lincomycin, Clindamycin und Trimethoprim mit Konzentrationen bis in den...water from Bundeswehr facilities, and their removal during drinking water purification) 6. AUTHOR(S) Th. Heberer, Dirk Feldmann, Marc Adam, Kirsten...occurrence and the removal of pharmaceutical residues was investigated In a scientific research project (InSan I 1299-V-7502) entitled "Investigation

  13. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations for the 600 Area facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-08-01

    This document determines the need for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans for Westinghouse Hanford Company's 600 Area facilities on the Hanford Site. The Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations were prepared in accordance with A Guide For Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans (WHC 1991). Five major Westinghouse Hanford Company facilities in the 600 Area were evaluated: the Purge Water Storage Facility, 212-N, -P, and -R Facilities, the 616 Facility, and the 213-J K Storage Vaults. Of the five major facilities evaluated in the 600 Area, none will require preparation of a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan.

  14. Energy Saving and Water Cooling Facility in an Industry Using Prgrammable Logic Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhananda Paul

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This project gives the idea about how to reduce the power loss in an industry, which are being wasted by the fans and pumps in operating condition as well as to get water as per the necessity by an industry with proper quality. This can be done by proper switching and speed control of motors used in fans and pumps. As the power consumed is directly proportional to the cube of speed so by reducing the speed energy can be saved. An attempt is also made to connect the power factor improving capacitor for energy saving. By using this concept the industry can save huge amount of energy and can be able to reduce the electricity bill

  15. Norovirus contamination levels in ground water treatment systems used for food-catering facilities in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo-Ram; Lee, Sung-Geun; Park, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Yup; Ryu, Sang-Ryeol; Rhee, Ok-Jae; Park, Jeong-Woong; Lee, Jeong-Su; Paik, Soon-Young

    2013-07-02

    This study aimed to inspect norovirus contamination of groundwater treatment systems used in food-catering facilities located in South Korea. A nationwide study was performed in 2010. Water samples were collected and, for the analysis of water quality, the temperature, pH, turbidity, and residual chlorine content were assessed. To detect norovirus genotypes GI and GII, RT-PCR and semi-nested PCR were performed with specific NV-GI and NV-GII primer sets, respectively. The PCR products amplified from the detected strains were then subjected to sequence analyses. Of 1,090 samples collected in 2010, seven (0.64%) were found to be norovirus-positive. Specifically, one norovirus strain was identified to have the GI-6 genotype, and six GII strains had the GII, GII-3, GII-4, and GII-17 genotypes. The very low detection rate of norovirus most likely reflects the preventative measures used. However, this virus can spread rapidly from person to person in crowded, enclosed places such as the schools investigated in this study. To promote better public health and sanitary conditions, it is necessary to periodically monitor noroviruses that frequently cause epidemic food poisoning in South Korea.

  16. Framework for Enhancing the Supply-Demand Balance of a Tri-Supply Urban Water Scheme in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Edoardo Bertone; Rodney A. Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Fit-for-purpose potable source substitution of appropriate water end uses with rainwater or recycled water is often essential to maintain water security in growing urban regions. This paper provides the results of a detailed supply-demand forecasting review of a unique tri-supply (i.e., potable, A+ recycled and rain water sources reticulated to household) urban water scheme located in Queensland, Australia. Despite the numerous benefits of this scheme, system efficiency (e.g., reduced demand ...

  17. A seasonal quality assessment on potability of fresh shallow aquifers along the Rameswaram-Dhanushkodi coastal tract, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandramoorthy, T; Sivasankar, V; Subramanian, V

    2009-12-01

    Rameswaram-Dhanushkodi coastal tract lies in the south-east of Rameswaram Island, which stretches about 20 km from the Rameswaram proper and occults several historic values. The objective of the present study is to investigate the water quality parameters viz., pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), salinity (SAL), total alkalinity (TA), calcium hardness (CH), magnesium hardness (MH), total hardness (TH), chloride (Cl), and fluoride (F) during summer and winter seasons of the year 2006. The calculated Langelier Saturation Index values confirm the incrusting ability in most of the groundwater samples. The Water Quality Index values show that the potable quality of groundwater is improved from about 32% to 58%, especially in post-winter. The principal component analysis identifies the dominance of CH, TA, and TH with 33% and 44% in summer and winter, respectively. In addition, Cl is also having dominance in winter. The box plots have depicted asympathy in concentrations of F, TDS, and CH during winter, whereas sympathetic relationship in Cl and MH. Unlike in summer, a good correlation of Cl with the other parameters including SAL, EC, TDS, CH, and TH is observed in the winter.

  18. LCA of Drinking Water Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit; Meron, Noa; Rygaard, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Water supplies around the globe are growing complex and include more intense treatment methods than just decades ago. Now, desalination of seawater and wastewater reuse for both non-potable and potable water supply have become common practice in many places. LCA has been used to assess the potent......Water supplies around the globe are growing complex and include more intense treatment methods than just decades ago. Now, desalination of seawater and wastewater reuse for both non-potable and potable water supply have become common practice in many places. LCA has been used to assess...... the potentials and reveal hotspots among the possible technologies and scenarios for water supplies of the future. LCA studies have been used to support decisions in the planning of urban water systems and some important findings include documentation of reduced environmental impact from desalination of brackish...... water over sea water, the significant impacts from changed drinking water quality and reduced environmental burden from wastewater reuse instead of desalination. Some of the main challenges in conducting LCAs of water supply systems are their complexity and diversity, requiring very large data...

  19. Adding a small hydroelectric power plant to the drinking water supply of the Liddes community. Feasibility study; Installation d'une petite centrale hydraulique sur le reseau d'eau potable de la commune de Liddes. Etude de faisabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The actual drinking water supply no longer satisfies the needs of the Liddes community (southwestern Switzerland). This final report prepared for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the results of a study for an enhanced water supply system including a small hydroelectric power plant. The authors propose to collect the water of two sources of the mountain torrent Aron and to use the considerable pressure difference for power generation. Four variants have been studied differing in the exact height difference, the flow rate and the location of the turbine building. The recommended variant delivers a nominal flow of 18 l/s at difference in height of 377 m to a Pelton turbine equipped with a single injector, resulting in an electrical power output of 54 kW. Electrical power production would amount to 281,000 kWh/year and the production cost to 0.126 CHF/kWh.

  20. Detailed feasibility study of a small-hydro power plant in Zerni on the municipal drinking water supply; Etude detaillee de faisabilite pour l'installation d'une petite centrale sur l'adduction d'eau potable de Zerni - Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reul, B. [MHyLab, Montcherand (Switzerland); Perruchoud, A. [SierreEnergie SA, Sierre (Switzerland)

    2009-02-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a project for the realisation of a small hydro-power plant on the municipal drinking water supply of the city of Sierre, Switzerland. The installation is to be made at the site of a new reservoir in Zerni. The report presents details on the hydrological data and the dimensioning of the installation. The hydrological installations and the turbine foreseen are described and discussed, as are the applicable water regulations. The electricity production expected is discussed, as is the economic viability of the project.