WorldWideScience

Sample records for facility pollution prevention

  1. Orientation to pollution prevention for facility design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raney, E.A.; Whitehead, J.K.; Encke, D.B. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Dorsey, J.A. [Kaiser Engineers Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This material was developed to assist engineers in incorporating pollution prevention into the design of new or modified facilities within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The material demonstrates how the design of a facility can affect the generation of waste throughout a facility`s entire life and it offers guidance on how to prevent the generation of waste during design. Contents include: Orientation to pollution prevention for facility design training course booklet; Pollution prevention design guideline; Orientation to pollution prevention for facility design lesson plan; Training participant survey and pretest; and Training facilitator`s guide and schedule.

  2. Pollution prevention constraints within DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walzer, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    The signing of the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, has marked a new environmental era. The 1990s environmental movement is shifting from ''end of the pipe'' treatment towards a philosophy of source reduction (predicated by the Pollution Prevention Act), where engineering solutions and materials substitution are sought to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste. This change comes after 20 years of treatment legislation, where in many cases the location or media in which our pollution is deposited was merely changed. This problem is exemplified by the enormous environmental problems created by waste sites. Our inability to deal with the substantial waste generated has produced the environmental legacy on the Department of Energy (DOE) sites, a legacy that will cost billions of dollars to remediate. How then do we solve our waste problems and avoid future legacies? This paper outlines some of the obstacles to pollution prevention within the DOE system and explores opportunities to remove these barriers. Industry, whose foundation is economics, has found it attractive to reduce their wastes, particularly in the wake of escalating waste disposal costs. However, within federal facilities where basic economic principles do not prevail, incentives towards pollution prevention need to be evaluated. Our current system of segregated DOE programs creates obstacles for waste generators to work productively with other programs. Certain policies and practices also limit the generators' responsibility and costs for their waste, which is counter productive to waste minimization and pollution prevention. To meet new environmental challenges and to be proactive in pollution prevention we must evaluate our systems and remove barriers that impede progress toward pollution prevention

  3. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan - TA-60 Material Recycling Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector P-Land Transportation and Warehousing as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA- 60 Material Recycling Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-60 Material Recycling Facility. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF THE U.S. EPA'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metal finishing processes are a type of chemical processes and can be modeled using Computer Aided Process Engineering (CAPE). Currently, the U.S. EPA is developing the Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Prevention Tool (MFFP2T), a pollution prevention software tool for the meta...

  5. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan TA-60 Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) is applicable to operations at the Technical Area -60 (TA-60) Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area off Eniwetok Drive, in Los Alamos County, New Mexico.

  6. ADDRESSING POLLUTION PREVENTION ISSUES IN THE DESIGN OF A NEW NUCLEAR RESEARCH FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Corpion, Juan; Nelson, Timothy O.

    2003-01-01

    The Chemistry and Metallurgical Research (CMR) Facility was designed in 1949 and built in 1952 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to support analytical chemistry, metallurgical studies, and actinide research and development on samples of plutonium and other nuclear materials for the Atomic Energy Commission's nuclear weapons program. These primary programmatic uses of the CMR Facility have not changed significantly since it was constructed. In 1998, a seismic fault was found to the west of the CMR Facility and projected to extend beneath two wings of the building. As part of the overall Risk Management Strategy for the CMR Facility, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposed to replace it by 2010 with what is called the CMR Facility Replacement (CMRR). In an effort to make this proposed new nuclear research facility environmentally sustainable, several pollution prevention/waste minimization initiatives are being reviewed for potential incorporation during the design phase. A two-phase approach is being adopted; the facility is being designed in a manner that integrates pollution prevention efforts, and programmatic activities are being tailored to minimize waste. Processes and procedures that reduce waste generation compared to current, prevalent processes and procedures are identified. Some of these ''best practices'' include the following: (1) recycling opportunities for spent materials; (2) replacing lithium batteries with alternate current adaptors; (3) using launderable contamination barriers in Radiological Control Areas (RCAs); (4) substituting mercury thermometers and manometers in RCAs with mercury-free devices; (5) puncturing and recycling aerosol cans; (6) using non-hazardous low-mercury fluorescent bulbs where available; (7) characterizing low-level waste as it is being generated; and (8) utilizing lead alternatives for radiological shielding. Each of these pollution prevention initiatives are being assessed for their technical validity, relevancy

  7. The Impact of Pollution Prevention on Toxic Environmental Releases from U.S. Manufacturing Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, Matthew; Cox, Brendan; Keenan, Cheryl; Teitelbaum, Daniel

    2015-11-03

    Between 1991 and 2012, the facilities that reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) Program conducted 370,000 source reduction projects. We use this data set to conduct the first quasi-experimental retrospective evaluation of how implementing a source reduction (pollution prevention) project affects the quantity of toxic chemicals released to the environment by an average industrial facility. We use a differences-in-differences methodology, which measures how implementing a source reduction project affects a facility's releases of targeted chemicals, relative to releases of (a) other untargeted chemicals from the same facility, or (b) the same chemical from other facilities in the same industry. We find that the average source reduction project causes a 9-16% decrease in releases of targeted chemicals in the year of implementation. Source reduction techniques vary in effectiveness: for example, raw material modification causes a large decrease in releases, while inventory control has no detectable effect. Our analysis suggests that in aggregate, the source reduction projects carried out in the U.S. since 1991 have prevented between 5 and 14 billion pounds of toxic releases.

  8. Measuring pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, D.G.; Bridges, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    To assess progress in pollution prevention, estimates or measurements of the amounts of pollution actually prevented have to be made. Such estimates or measurements tell us how far we have come and, possibly, how much farther there is to go in utilizing pollution prevention as a tool for improving environmental quality. They can, theoretically, be used to assess progress on a scale ranging from the individual facility or even the individual process or activity generation wastes to scale as large as a geographical area such as a county, a state or even the United States as a whole. 3 refs

  9. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention checklist guide for the facility characterization project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    A facility characterization (FC) is conducted to determine the nature and extent contamination at a potential hazardous facility waste site. The information gathered during an FC includes (1) data on the volume and chemical nature of the waste, (2) information on the extent of contamination and the migration potential of the contaminants, (3) preliminary information on evaluation of alternative concepts that can or cannot be considered, and (4)supportive technical and cost data. For the purposes of identification, the following operational phases will be used for definition for this phase of the decommissioning and decontamination process (1) facility characterization before clean up, (2) characterization during clean up, (3) characterization of waste materials, and (4) site characterization after clean up. A key consideration in this process is the prevention of any waste to be generated from these characterization activities. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist users with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all FC phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction

  10. Air compliance through pollution prevention at Air Force Materiel Command facilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolpa, R.; Ryckman, S.J. Jr.; Smith, A.E.

    1999-03-19

    Options for air compliance through pollution prevention (P2) have been identified at 14 facilities of the US Air Force Materiel Command, ranging from depots with significant light industrial activity to laboratories. Previous P2 efforts concentrated on reducing hazardous and solid wastes, with any reduction in air impacts generally being a collateral benefit. This work focused on reducing air emissions and air compliance vulnerabilities. P2 options were identified in three stages. First, potentially applicable P2 options were identified from Internet and published information. Attention was given to identifying the types of sources to which an option could be applied, the option's state of development, and constraints that could limit its application. Traditional P2 options involving technology or equipment changes and material substitution were considered. In addition, newer approaches based on administrative ''controls'' were considered. These included inserting P2 into operating permits in exchange for administrative relief, privatization, derating boilers, and reducing an installation's potential to emit and compliance vulnerability by separating sources not under the Air Force's ''common control.'' Next, criteria and toxic emissions inventories by source category were prepared from inventory data supplied by facilities. The major problems at this stage were differences in the levels of detail provided by facilities and in the categories used by different installations. Emitting categories were matched to P2 option categories to identify candidate options. Candidates were screened to account for local regulations and technical information about sources in the inventories. When possible, emission reductions were estimated to help facility personnel prioritize options. Some options identified are being actively pursued by facilities to determine their site-specific feasibility. Although much work has been

  11. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the SNL/California waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braye, S.; Phillips, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    SNL/California's waste management facilities, Bldgs. 961 and 962-2, generate a secondary stream of hazardous and radioactive waste. This waste stream is generated mainly during the processing and handling of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes (primary waste stream), which are generated by the laboratories, and when cleaning up spills. The secondary waste stream begins with the removal of a generator's hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste from specified collection areas. The waste stream ends when the containers of processed waste are loaded for shipment off-site. The total amount of secondary hazardous waste generated in the waste management facilities from January 1993 to July 1994 was 1,160.6 kg. The total amount of secondary radioactive waste generated during the same period was 1,528.8 kg (with an activity of 0.070 mCi). Mixed waste usually is not generated in the secondary waste stream. This pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was conducted using the graded approach methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) PPOA task group. The original method was modified to accommodate the needs of Sandia's site-specific processes. The options generated for potential hazardous waste minimization, cost savings, and environmental health and safety were the result of a waste minimization team effort. The results of the team efforts are summarized

  12. Environmental Compliance and Pollution Prevention Training Manual for Campus-Based Organizations--Operational and Facility Maintenance Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Albany.

    This manual was designed to be used as part of the Workshop on Environmental Compliance and Pollution Prevention for campus-based facilities. It contains basic information on New York state and federal laws, rules, and regulations for protecting the environment. The information presented is a summary with emphasis on those items believed to be…

  13. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for MicroFab and SiFab facilities at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerard, Morgan Evan

    2011-12-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the MicroFab and SiFab facilities at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico in Fiscal Year 2011. The primary purpose of this PPOA is to provide recommendations to assist organizations in reducing the generation of waste and improving the efficiency of their processes and procedures. This report contains a summary of the information collected, the analyses performed, and recommended options for implementation. The Sandia National Laboratories Environmental Management System (EMS) and Pollution Prevention (P2) staff will continue to work with the organizations to implement the recommendations.

  14. The U.S. DOE new production reactor/heavy water reactor facility pollution prevention/waste minimization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaczmarsky, Myron M.; Tsang, Irving; Stepien, Walter P.

    1992-01-01

    A Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization Program was established during the early design phase of the U.S. DOE's New Production Reactor/Heavy Water Reactor Facility (NPR/HWRF) to encompass design, construction, operation and decommissioning. The primary emphasis of the program was given to waste elimination, source reduction and/or recycling to minimize the quantity and toxicity of material before it enters the waste stream for treatment or disposal. The paper discusses the regulatory and programmatic background as it applies to the NPR/HWRF and the waste assessment program developed as a phased approach to pollution prevention/waste minimization for the NPR/HWRF. Implementation of the program will be based on various factors including life cycle cost analysis, which will include costs associated with personnel, record keeping, transportation, pollution control equipment, treatment, storage, disposal, liability, compliance and oversight. (author)

  15. Pollution prevention: A regulatory update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walzer, A.E.; Maynard, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Pollution prevention is the emphasis of the 1990s environmental philosophy. This new environmental era was ushered in when President Bush signed the Pollution Prevention Act in October 1990. This law, with its accompanying philosophy, was in response to the realization that end-of-the-pipe treatment, which frequently changed the media in which a pollutant or waste was discharged, was inadequate to protect the environment and human health. Pollution prevention advocates source reduction, where material substitutions and engineering solutions are sought to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste and pollutants. This proactive approach reduces environmental impacts such as those of former waste sites which have produced environmental legacies that will cost billions of dollars and take decades to remediate. This paper describes pollution prevention philosophy and summarizes regulatory pollution prevention requirements. It describes current regulatory trends in the area of pollution prevention, including voluntary programs and enforcement actions. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 is described, and pollution prevention initiatives embodied in other laws, including the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Toxic Substances Control Act, are discussed. A historical overview of waste minimization initiatives within the Department of Energy is given, and other pollution prevention initiatives that affect federal facilities, such as Executive Order 12780, which mandates recycling and the procurement of recycled materials, are also outlined

  16. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  17. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan - TA-60 Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector P-Land Transportation and Warehousing as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA-60 Roads and Grounds and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-60 Roads and Grounds and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  18. Preventing pollution from plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1993-01-01

    The plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos has adopted the strategic goal of becoming a facility that processes plutonium in a way that produces only environmentally benign waste streams. Pollution prevention through source reduction and environmentally sound recycling are being pursued. General approaches to waste reductions are administrative controls, modification of process technologies, and additional waste polishing. Recycling of waste materials, such as spent acids and salts, are technical possibilities and are being pursued to accomplish additional waste reduction. Liquid waste stream polishing to remove final traces of plutonium and hazardous chemical constituents is accomplished through (a) process modifications, (b) use of alternative chemicals and sorbents for residue removal, (c) acid recycling, and (d) judicious use of a variety of waste polishing technologies. Technologies that show promise in waste minimization and pollution prevention are identified. Working toward this goal of pollution prevention is a worthwhile endeavor, not only for Los Alamos, but for the Nuclear Complex of the future

  19. Preventing pollution from plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1995-01-01

    The plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos has adopted the strategic goal of becoming a facility that processes plutonium in a way that produces only environmentally benign waste streams. Pollution prevention through source reduction and environmentally sound recycling are being pursued. General approaches to waste reductions are administrative controls, modification of process technologies, and additional waste polishing. Recycling of waste materials, such as spent acids and salts, are technical possibilities and are being pursued to accomplish additional waste reduction. Liquid waste stream polishing to remove final traces of plutonium and hazardous chemical constituents is accomplished through process modifications, use of alternative chemicals and sorbents for residue removal, acid recycling, and judicious use of a variety of waste polishing technologies. Technologies that show promise in waste minimization and pollution prevention are identified. Working toward this goal of pollution prevention is a worthwhile endeavor , not only for Los Alamos, but for the Nuclear Complex of the future. (author) 12 refs.; 2 figs

  20. Industrial pollution prevention handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    This book presents the techniques, technologies, regulations, and strategies that define pollution prevention. The subject is addressed from many perspectives by prominent experts. In many ways pollution prevention, rather than being a specialty field itself, is actually a convergence of fields drawing upon knowledge in a wide variety of more typical fields of expertise. Individual chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  1. Grant Programs for Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  2. Environmental Pollution Prevention, Control and Abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-30

    AD-A271 117 fDATE August 30. 1977 ASD (ORA&L) Department of Defense Instruction SUBJECT: Environmental Pollution Prevention, Control and Abatement...Ensure that any funds appropriated and apportioned for the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution are not used for any other...77 References (a) Executive Order 11752, "Prevention, Control, and Abatement of Environmental Pollution at Federal Facilities," December 19, 1973 (b

  3. USCG Facility Pollution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  4. Municipal water pollution prevention program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    EPA believes that the most effective and equitable means of assuring viability of this infrastructure is through environmentally preferred pollution prevention approaches especially through application of Municipal Water Pollution Prevention (MWPP). These approaches may enhance worker safety, improve the usability of sludge, increase the ability for local community expansion, and reduce operation and compliance costs. State-based municipal pollution prevention programs focus attention on a series of actions to prevent pollution in advance rather than taking more expensive corrective actions. MWPP encourages resource conservation to reduce water and energy use, appropriate pricing, toxicity reductions at the source, BOD reductions, recycling, proper treatment of wastes, and beneficial uses of sludge

  5. Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Hyman, Marvin H.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter offers pollution prevention techniques for design, industrial process, maintenance, and environmental remediation activities. It provides examples of waste reduction, tools for identifying pollution prevention opportunities, and ways of calculating the payback or return on investment associated with the opportunities

  6. 32 CFR 989.31 - Pollution prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollution prevention. 989.31 Section 989.31... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.31 Pollution prevention. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990..., whenever feasible. Pollution prevention approaches should be applied to all pollution-generating activities...

  7. Fiscal Year 2015 Pollution Prevention Grant Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  8. Fiscal Year 2014 Pollution Prevention Grant Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  9. 75 FR 45572 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Proposed... Federal Regulations is proposed to be amended as follows: PART 112--OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION 1. The... certain facilities must prepare or amend their Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plans...

  10. Pollution prevention and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes Hector; Tsihrintzis Vassilios

    1997-01-01

    Pollution prevention (P2) results from the combined effect of the public opinion, a new environmental value system, government regulation, but above all, the search for an economic development within the context of environmental protection. The reasons for prevention are fundamental: profit from a new economic frontier; reduced potential for civil and criminal liability; and the effective and economic protection of the environment. This paper addresses, among other relevant issues, the following topics: justification and objective of pollution prevention; strategy and methodology for its implementation; examples of successes and tools; benefits and barriers and some recommendation

  11. 30 CFR 250.300 - Pollution prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollution prevention. 250.300 Section 250.300... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pollution Prevention and Control § 250.300 Pollution prevention. (a... pollution occurs as a result of operations conducted by or on behalf of the lessee and the pollution damages...

  12. DOE's Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (EPIC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otis, P.T.

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (EPIC) is a computer system intended for the exchange of pollution prevention information DOE-wide. EPIC is being developed as a distributed system that will allow access to other databases and applications. The first prototype of EPIC (Prototype I) was put on-line in January 1994. Prototype I contains information on EM-funded pollution prevention projects; relevant laws, regulations, guidance, and policy; facility and DOE contacts; and meetings and conferences. Prototype I also gives users access to the INEL Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS) and to information contained on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPNS) Pollution Prevention Infbrmation Exchange System (PIES) as a test of the distributed system concept. An initial user group of about 35 is testing and providing feedback on Prototype I. Prototype II, with a Graphical User Interface (GUI), is planned for the end of CY94. This paper describes the current state of EPIC in terms of architecture, user interface, and information content. Plans for Prototype II and the final system are then discussed. The EPIC development effort is being coordinated with EPA and US Department of Defense (DoD) efforts to develop or upgrade their pollution prevention information exchange systems

  13. DEVELOPING A CAPE-OPEN COMPLIANT METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (CO-MFFP2T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA is developing a Computer Aided Process Engineering (CAPE) software tool for the metal finishing industry that helps users design efficient metal finishing processes that are less polluting to the environment. Metal finishing process lines can be simulated and evaluated...

  14. 75 FR 63093 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Compliance Date... certain facilities must prepare or amend their Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plans... facilities must prepare or amend their Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plans (or ``Plan...

  15. Air pollution: impact and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Vargas, Martha Patricia; Teran, Luis M

    2012-10-01

    Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution. © 2012 The Authors. Respirology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  16. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - GEOCHEMISTRY LABORATORY AT SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    These reports summarize pollution prevention opportunity assessments conducted jointly by EPA and DOE at the Geochemistry Laboratory and the Manufacturing and Fabrication Repair Laboratory at the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories facility in Albuquerque, New Mex...

  17. Pollution prevention program implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, J.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Pollution Prevention Program Implementation Plan (the Plan) describes the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) Pollution Prevention (P2) Program. The Plan also shows how the P2 Program at PNNL will be in support of and in compliance with the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Awareness Program Plan and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation. In addition, this plan describes how PNNL will demonstrate compliance with various legal and policy requirements for P2. This plan documents the strategy for implementing the PNNL P2 Program. The scope of the P2 Program includes implementing and helping to implement P2 activities at PNNL. These activities will be implemented according to the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) hierarchy of source reduction, recycling, treatment, and disposal. The PNNL P2 Program covers all wastes generated at the Laboratory. These include hazardous waste, low-level radioactive waste, radioactive mixed waste, radioactive liquid waste system waste, polychlorinated biphenyl waste, transuranic waste, and sanitary waste generated by activities at PNNL. Materials, resource, and energy conservation are also within the scope of the PNNL P2 Program

  18. Pollution prevention program plan 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This plan serves as the principal crosscutting guidance to Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Operations Office, laboratory, and contractor management to fully implement pollution prevention programs within the DOE complex between now and 2000. To firmly demonstrate DOE's commitment to pollution prevention, the Secretary of Energy has established goals, to be achieved by December 31, 1999, that will aggressively reduce DOE's routine generation of radioactive, mixed, and hazardous wastes, and total releases and offsite transfers of toxic chemicals. The Secretary also has established sanitary waste reduction, recycling, and affirmative procurement goals. Site progress in meeting these goals will be reported annually to the Secretary in the Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, using 1993 as the baseline year. Implementation of this plan will represent a major step toward reducing the environmental risks and costs associated with DOE operations

  19. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Water Pollution Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Pollution Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Pollution...

  20. Pollution prevention opportunity assessments at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betsch, M.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-26

    The Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) is a pro- active way to look at a waste generating activity and identify opportunities to minimize wastes through a cost benefit analysis. Hanford`s PPOA process is based upon the graded approach developed by the Kansas City Plant. Hanford further streamlined the process while building in more flexibility for the individual users. One of the most challenging aspects for implementing the PPOA process at Hanford is one overall mission which is environmental restoration, Now that the facilities are no longer in production, each has a different non- routine activity making it difficult to quantify the inputs and outputs of the activity under consideration.

  1. Pollution Prevention Program: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established a national Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) Program for pollution prevention and waste minimization at its production plants During FY89/90 the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), through the Office of Technology Development (OTD), established comprehensive, pollution prevention technical support programs to demonstrate new, environmentally-conscious technology for production processes. The RDDT ampersand E program now entails collaborative efforts across DOE. The Pollution Prevention Program is currently supporting three major activities: The DOE/US Air Force Memorandum of Understanding Program is a collaborative effort to utilize the combined resources of DOE and the Department of Defense, eliminate duplication of effort in developing technologies, and to facilitate technology solutions aimed at reducing waste through process modification, material substitution or recycling. The Waste Component Recycle, Treatment and Disposal Integrated Demonstration (WeDID) will develop recycle, treatment, and disposal processes and associated technologies for use in the dismantlement of non-nuclear weapons components, to support US arms treaties and policies. This program will focus on meeting all security and regulatory requirements (with additional benefit to the commercial electronics industry). The Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Integrated Demonstration (ECMID) will effectively implement ECM technologies that address both the needs of the DOE Complex and US electronics industry, and encourage strong interaction between DOE and US industry. The ECMID will also develop life cycle analysis tools that will aid decisionmakers in selecting the optimum process based on the tradeoffs between cost an environmental impact

  2. Guide to Pollution Prevention in Your Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppino, Tony; Gilbert, Reg

    The purpose of this guide is to help citizen advocates create and improve the environmental practices of industry and government in the Great Lakes Basin. The practices advocated focus on pollution prevention instead of relying solely on pollution control. An introduction examines the larger issues of pollution prevention and zero discharge as the…

  3. Executive summary, Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    A pollution prevention plan is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce waste generation. The Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan is designed to eliminate or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all aspects of Site operations. These efforts offer increased protection of public health and the environment. This plan reflects the goals and policies for pollution prevention at the Hanford Site and represents an ongoing effort to make pollution prevention part of the Site operating philosophy. The plan encompasses hazardous waste only and excludes radioactive waste and radioactive mixed waste

  4. Developing the strategic plan for pollution prevention in defense programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, John A.; Betschart, James F.; Suffern, J. Samuel

    1992-01-01

    In order to provide effective leadership and to ensure a consistent pollution prevention effort in all of its production facilities and laboratories, Defense Programs (DP) Headquarters, in close cooperation with the Field, has developed a strategic plan for its Pollution Prevention Program. The strategic plan is built upon the history of waste minimization, waste reduction, and pollution prevention activity to date, and articulates both long- and short-term strategies to ensure program initiation, growth, and stability. The organization of the program, including Headquarters staffing and linkages to the Geld, is described. Life-cycle analysis of program barriers and bottlenecks, along with associated initiatives and action plans are discussed. (author)

  5. Information resources for US Department of Energy pollution prevention programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, K.L.; Snowden-Swan, L.J.; Butner, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    In support of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) pollution prevention efforts being conducted under the aegis of DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked with evaluating pollution prevention information resources. The goal of this activity was to improve the effectiveness of DOE`s pollution prevention activities through improved information flow, both within the complex, and more specifically, between DOE and other organizations that share similar pollution prevention challenges. This report presents our findings with respect to the role of information collection and dissemination within the complex, opportunities for teaming from successes of the private sector, and specific information needs of the DOE pollution prevention community. These findings were derived from a series of interviews with pollution prevention coordinators from across the DOE complex, review of DOE site and facility pollution prevention plans, and workshops with DOE information users as well as an information resources workshop that brought together information specialists from private industry, non-profit organizations, as well as state and regional pollution prevention assistance programs.

  6. 40 CFR Table 8 to Part 455 - List of Pollution Prevention Alternative Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false List of Pollution Prevention... of Pollution Prevention Alternative Practices A modification to the list of practices on this table that an individual facility must comply with to be eligible for the pollution prevention alternative is...

  7. Idaho National Laboratory Site Pollution Prevention Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. D. Sellers

    2007-01-01

    It is the policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) that pollution prevention and sustainable environmental stewardship will be integrated into DOE operations as a good business practice to reduce environmental hazards, protect environmental resources, avoid pollution control costs, and improve operational efficiency and mission sustainability. In furtherance of this policy, DOE established five strategic, performance-based Pollution Prevention (P2) and Sustainable Environmental Stewardship goals and included them as an attachment to DOE O 450.1, Environmental Protection Program. These goals and accompanying strategies are to be implemented by DOE sites through the integration of Pollution Prevention into each site's Environmental Management System (EMS). This document presents a P2 and Sustainability Program and corresponding plan pursuant to DOE Order 450.1 and DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This plan is also required by the state of Idaho, pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) partial permit. The objective of this document is to describe the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site P2 and Sustainability Program. The purpose of the program is to decrease the environmental footprint of the INL Site while providing enhanced support of its mission. The success of the program is dependent on financial and management support. The signatures on the previous page indicate INL, ICP, and AMWTP Contractor management support and dedication to the program. P2 requirements have been integrated into working procedures to ensure an effective EMS as part of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS). This plan focuses on programmatic functions which include environmentally preferable procurement, sustainable design, P2 and Sustainability awareness, waste generation and reduction, source reduction and recycling, energy management, and pollution prevention opportunity assessments. The INL Site P2 and Sustainability Program is administratively

  8. Idaho National Laboratory Site Pollution Prevention Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. D. Sellers

    2007-03-01

    It is the policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) that pollution prevention and sustainable environmental stewardship will be integrated into DOE operations as a good business practice to reduce environmental hazards, protect environmental resources, avoid pollution control costs, and improve operational efficiency and mission sustainability. In furtherance of this policy, DOE established five strategic, performance-based Pollution Prevention (P2) and Sustainable Environmental Stewardship goals and included them as an attachment to DOE O 450.1, Environmental Protection Program. These goals and accompanying strategies are to be implemented by DOE sites through the integration of Pollution Prevention into each site's Environmental Management System (EMS). This document presents a P2 and Sustainability Program and corresponding plan pursuant to DOE Order 450.1 and DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This plan is also required by the state of Idaho, pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) partial permit. The objective of this document is to describe the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site P2 and Sustainability Program. The purpose of the program is to decrease the environmental footprint of the INL Site while providing enhanced support of its mission. The success of the program is dependent on financial and management support. The signatures on the previous page indicate INL, ICP, and AMWTP Contractor management support and dedication to the program. P2 requirements have been integrated into working procedures to ensure an effective EMS as part of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS). This plan focuses on programmatic functions which include environmentally preferable procurement, sustainable design, P2 and Sustainability awareness, waste generation and reduction, source reduction and recycling, energy management, and pollution prevention opportunity assessments. The INL Site P2 and Sustainability Program is administratively

  9. Pollution prevention: The new environmental ethic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breen, J.J.; Dellarco, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    EPA is embarking on a new major environmental policy initiative: pollution prevention. It obviates the short-comings of end-of-pipe regulations and fosters efforts for industry to modify production practices to prevent pollution. For its part, the Agency has adopted this initiative in research and development, regulatory program development, and technology transfer activities. Research and Development programs are being established to address chemical substitution, reductions in chemical usage, product life cycles, and recycling. Regulatory programs are incorporating pollution prevention in major strategies of product stewardship and hazardous waste management. Technology transfer activities are designed to inform and educate industry and the public through Agency sponsored programs with the Pollution Prevention Information Center and the American Pollution Prevention Institute

  10. Air pollution: Impact and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    SIERRA-VARGAS, MARTHA PATRICIA; TERAN, LUIS M

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respirat...

  11. Pollution Prevention Successes Database (P2SDb) user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    When Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (P2OAs) were launched at the Hanford Site during the summer of 1994, the first comment received from those using them expressed the desire for a method to report assessments electronically. As a temporary measure, macros were developed for use on word processing systems, but a more formal database was obviously needed. Additionally, increased DOE and Washington state reporting requirements for pollution prevention suggested that a database system would streamline the reporting process. The Pollution Prevention Group of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted with the Data Automation Engineering Department from ICF Kaiser Hanford Company (ICFKH) to develop the system. The scope was to develop a database that will track P2OAs conducted by the facilities and contractors at the Hanford Site. It will also track pollution prevention accomplishments that are not the result of P2OAs and document a portion of the Process Waste Assessments conducted in the past. To accommodate the above criteria, yet complete the system in a timely manner, the Pollution Prevention Successes Database (P2SDb) is being implemented in three phases. The first phase will automate the worksheets to provide both input and output of the data associated with the worksheets. The second phase will automate standard summary reports and ad hoc reports. The third phase will provide automated searching of the database to facilitate the sharing of pollution prevention experiences among various users. This User's Guide addresses only the Phase 1 system

  12. Development of Pollution Prevention Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polle, Juergen [Brooklyn College, The City University of New York (CUNY), Brooklyn, New York, (United States); Sanchez-Delgado, Roberto [Brooklyn College, The City University of New York (CUNY), Brooklyn, New York, (United States)

    2013-12-30

    This project investigated technologies that may reduce environmental pollution. This was a basic research/educational project addressing two major areas: A. In the algae research project, newly isolated strains of microalgae were investigated for feedstock production to address the production of renewable fuels. An existing collection of microalgae was screened for lipid composition to determine strains with superior composition of biofuel molecules. As many microalgae store triacylglycerides in so-called oil bodies, selected candidate strains identified from the first screen that accumulate oil bodies were selected for further biochemical analysis, because almost nothing was known about the biochemistry of these oil bodies. Understanding sequestration of triacylglycerides in intracellular storage compartments is essential to developing better strains for achieving high oil productivities by microalgae. At the onset of the project there was almost no information available on how to obtain detailed profiles of lipids from strains of microalgae. Our research developed analytical methods to determine the lipid profiles of novel microalgal strains. The project was embedded into other ongoing microalgal projects in the Polle laboratory. The project benefited the public, because students were trained in cell cultivation and in the operation of state-of-the-art analytical equipment. In addition, students at Brooklyn College were introduced into the concept of a systems biology approach to study algal biofuels production. B. A series of new nanostructured catalysts were synthesized, and characterized by a variety of physical and chemical methods. Our catalyst design leads to active nanostructures comprising small metal particles in intimate contact with strongly basic sites provided by the supports, which include poly(4-vinylpyridine), magnesium oxide, functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and graphene oxide. The new materials display a good potential as catalysts

  13. Chemicals and excess materials disposition during deactivation as a means of pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents several innovative and common sense approaches to pollution prevention that have been employed during facility deactivation at the Hanford Site in South Central Washington. It also presents several pollution prevention principles applicable to other projects. Innovative pollution prevention ideas employed at the Hanford site during facility deactivation included: (1) Recycling more than 185,000 gallons of radioactively contaminated nitric acid by sending it to an operating nuclear fuels reprocessing facility in England; (2) Recycling millions of pounds of chemicals and excess materials to other industries for reuse; (3) Evaporating flush water at a low rate and discharging it into the facility exhaust air stream to avoid discharging thousands of gallons of liquid to the soil column; and (4) Decontaminating and disposing of thousands of gallons of radioactively contaminated organic solvent waste to a RCRA licensed, power-producing, commercial incinerator. Common sense pollution prevention ideas that were employed include recycling office furniture, recycling paper from office files, and redeploying tools and miscellaneous process equipment. Additional pollution prevention occurred as the facility liquid and gaseous discharge streams were deactivated. From the facilities deactivation experiences at Hanford and the ensuing efforts to disposition excess chemicals and materials, several key pollution prevention principles should be considered at other projects and facilities, especially during the operational periods of the facility's mission. These principles include: Institute pollution prevention as a fundamental requirement early in the planning stage of a project or during the operational phase of a facility's mission; Promote recognition and implementation of pollution prevention initiatives; Instill pollution prevention as a value in all participants in the project or facility work scope; Minimize the amount of chemical products and materials

  14. Air pollution control at a DOE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curn, B.L.

    1995-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium production program Produced some of the greatest scientific and engineering accomplishments of all time. It is remarkable to consider the accomplishments of the Manhattan Project. The Reactor on the Hanford Site, the first production reactor in the world, began operation only 13 months after the start of construction. The DOE nuclear production program was also instrumental in pioneering other fields such as health physics an radiation monitoring. The safety record of these installations is remarkable considering that virtually every significant accomplishment was on the technological threshold of the time. One other area that the DOE Facilities pioneered was the control of radioactive particles and gases emitted to the atmosphere. The high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) was a development that provided high collection efficiencies of particulates to protect workers and the public. The halogen and noble gases also were of particular concern. Radioactive iodine is captured by adsorption on activated carbon or synthetic zeolites. Besides controlling radioncuclide air pollution, DOE facilities are concerned with other criteria pollutants and hazardous air pollutant emissions. The Hanford Site encompasses all those air pollution challenges

  15. GIS, Pollution Prevention and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using examples of preventing pollution and reducing risk of exposure to communities, this guide answers basic interest and start-up questions, addresses benefits and limitations and illustrates the value of GIS for local health departments.

  16. Pollution Prevention Guideline for Academic Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Edwin; Barnett, Stanley M.; Ray, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Explains how to manage waste after a classroom laboratory experiment which generally has the potential to generate large amounts of waste. Focuses on pollution prevention and the selection processes to eliminate or minimize waste. (YDS)

  17. Pollution Prevention Information Network (PPIN) Grant Summaries 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  18. Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment for the SNL/NM cafeterias.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCord, Samuel Adam

    2005-12-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the two Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico cafeteria facilities between May and August 2005. The primary purpose of this PPOA is to assess waste and resource reduction opportunities and issue Pollution Prevention (P2) recommendations for Sandia's food service facilities. This PPOA contains recommendations for energy, water and resource reduction, as well as material substitution based upon environmentally preferable purchasing. Division 3000 has requested the PPOA report as part of the Division's compliance effort to implement the Environmental Management System (EMS) per DOE Order 450.1. This report contains a summary of the information collected and analyses performed with recommended options for implementation. The SNL/NM P2 Group will work with Division 3000 and the respective cafeteria facilities to implement these options.

  19. D and D TECHNOLOGIES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, Julia L.

    2003-01-01

    A new Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) project was awarded in FY 2002 to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to deploy technologies that decrease pollution and waste in the areas of facility characterization, sludge treatment, dust and contamination control, and concrete demolition. This project was called ''D and D Technologies for Pollution Prevention'' and planned to deploy four different technologies. To reduce protective equipment requirements, waste generation, and risk of radiation exposure during facility characterization, the Russian Gamma Locater Device (GLD) and Isotopic Identification Device (IID) for remote characterization was investigated. The GLD detects gamma ray readings and video images remotely and uses radio communication to transmit the readings to personnel located a safe distance from the contaminated area. The IID, an integral part of the GLD, provides real-time spectrometric analysis of radiation sources for remotely identifying the specific radioactive isotopes present in the facility. At the INEEL, sludge has accumulated in the bottom of a fuel storage pool and the presence of heavy metals in the sludge makes it a mixed waste. This project planned to use LEADX(reg s ign) to treat sludge in place to effectively make all heavy metals in the sludge insoluble. LEADX(reg s ign) is a dry granular chemical additive (apatite) used for in-situ treatment of heavy-metal-contaminated material. LEADX(reg s ign) chemically bonds to any free heavy metals that it contacts and forms a stable, non-leachable molecule. After treating the sludge with LEADX(reg s ign), it was to be left in the basin and the pool filled with grout. The successful treatment of the sludge with LEADX(reg s ign) will reduce the amount of waste to be disposed at the burial ground by eliminating the need to remove the sludge from the basin. Many off-gas and duct systems being dismantled contain dust and lint that has been contaminated

  20. Pollution prevention: The role of a university

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkenbus, J.N. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Pollution prevention is at the top of the waste management hierarchy in the United States. If you don`t create pollution in the first place, concerns about transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal of waste are moot. While industry is on the front line in accomplishing significant pollution prevention, universities can play a meaningful role in its accomplishment as well. Universities can do this through three basic missions: education, research, and public service. Examples of how this is carried out at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville are provided. To be fully effective, universities need to organize in an interdisciplinary manner and adopt a public outreach agenda.

  1. Pollution prevention opportunity assessments. Guidance for the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, J.A.

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide help to you, Hanford waste generators, in finding ways to reduce waste through Pollution Prevention (P2) and Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (P2OAs). It is based on guidance from other sites, and serves to compliment the Hanford-specific training on P2OAs offered by the Pollution Prevention group at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The chapters of this document include help on how to choose major waste generating activities, how to conduct a P2OA, how to get results, and how to show progress. There is also a chapter on special situations and problems your facility may encounter. This first chapter tells you why you should consider conducting P2OAs and why they may be required

  2. Pollution prevention projects in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, Theo; Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.; Lulofs, Kristiaan R.D.

    1996-01-01

    As part of its waste matter prevention policy, the Dutch government has tried over the past few years to stimulate pollution prevention in firms by means of so-called stimulation and learning projects. To be able to determine the effectiveness of future policies, an extensive evaluation study was

  3. Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) projections for present and future waste minimization and pollution prevention. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be used to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. It is intended to satisfy Department of Energy (DOE) requirements. This Plan provides an overview of projected activities from FY 1994 through FY 1999. The plans are broken into site-wide and problem-specific activities. All directorates at LLNL have had an opportunity to contribute input, to estimate budget, and to review the plan. In addition to the above, this plan records LLNL's goals for pollution prevention, regulatory drivers for those activities, assumptions on which the cost estimates are based, analyses of the strengths of the projects, and the barriers to increasing pollution prevention activities

  4. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-31

    The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with (DOE's) policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Programs and Departments. 14 refs.

  5. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with (DOE's) policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Programs and Departments. 14 refs

  6. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1996-12-31

    This CD-ROM contains the proceedings from the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century Conference XII held July 9-11, 1996. Topics included model facilities, federal and NEPA stakeholders, microchemistry, source 4 solvents and reduction, education and outreach planning, return on investment, energy management, decontamination and decommissioning, planning and regulations, environmental restoration, solid waste, recycling, affirmative procurement in the executive branch, construction and demolition, international and ISO 14000, and poster sessions.

  7. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This document presents abstracts of the topics covered in the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century conference held July 9-11, 1996. These topics include: model facilities; Federal/NEPA/stake- holders; microchemistry; solvents and reduction; education and outreach; return on investments; energy management; decontamination and decommissioning; planning and regulations; environmental restoration; recycling; affirmative procurement in the executive branch; construction and demolition; materials exchange; and ISO 2000.

  8. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document presents abstracts of the topics covered in the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century conference held July 9-11, 1996. These topics include: model facilities; Federal/NEPA/stake- holders; microchemistry; solvents and reduction; education and outreach; return on investments; energy management; decontamination and decommissioning; planning and regulations; environmental restoration; recycling; affirmative procurement in the executive branch; construction and demolition; materials exchange; and ISO 2000

  9. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains the proceedings from the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century Conference XII held July 9-11, 1996. Topics included model facilities, federal and NEPA stakeholders, microchemistry, source 4 solvents and reduction, education and outreach planning, return on investment, energy management, decontamination and decommissioning, planning and regulations, environmental restoration, solid waste, recycling, affirmative procurement in the executive branch, construction and demolition, international and ISO 14000, and poster sessions

  10. Recent developments in the DOE Waste Minimization Pollution Prevention Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is involved in a wide variety of research and development, remediation, and production activities at more than 100 sites throughout the United States. The wastes generated cover a diverse spectrum of sanitary, hazardous, and radioactive waste streams, including typical office environments, power generation facilities, laboratories, remediation sites, production facilities, and defense facilities. The DOE's initial waste minimization activities pre-date the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 and focused on the defense program. Little emphasis was placed on nonproduction activities. In 1991 the Office of Waste Management Operations developed the Waste Minimization Division with the intention of coordinating and expanding the waste minimization pollution prevention approach to the entire complex. The diverse nature of DOE activities has led to several unique problems in addressing the needs of waste minimization and pollution prevention. The first problem is developing a program that addresses the geographical and institutional hurdles that exist; the second is developing a monitoring and reporting mechanism that one can use to assess the overall performance of the program

  11. EPA Definition of Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  12. Good Practice Guide Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Dorsey

    1999-10-14

    This Good Practice Guide provides tools, information, and examples for promoting the implementation of pollution prevention during the design phases of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) projects. It is one of several Guides for implementing DOE Order 430.1, Life-cycle Asset Management. DOE Order 430.1 provides requirements for DOE, in partnership with its contractors, to plan, acquire, operate, maintain, and dispose of physical assets. The goals of designing for pollution prevention are to minimize raw material consumption, energy consumption, waste generation, health and safety impacts, and ecological degradation over the entire life of the facility (EPA 1993a). Users of this Guide will learn to translate national policy and regulatory requirements for pollution prevention into action at the project level. The Guide was written to be applicable to all DOE projects, regardless of project size or design phase. Users are expected to interpret the Guide for their individual project's circumstances, applying a graded approach so that the effort is consistent with the anticipated waste generation and resource consumption of the physical asset. This Guide employs a combination of pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) methods and design for environment (DfE) philosophies. The PPOA process was primarily developed for existing products, processes, and facilities. The PPOA process has been modified in this Guide to address the circumstances of the DOE design process as delineated in DOE Order 430.1 and its associated Good Practice Guides. This modified form of the PPOA is termed the Pollution Prevention Design Assessment (P2DA). Information on current nationwide methods and successes in designing for the environment also have been reviewed and are integrated into this guidance.

  13. Good Practice Guide Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J Dorsey

    1999-01-01

    This Good Practice Guide provides tools, information, and examples for promoting the implementation of pollution prevention during the design phases of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) projects. It is one of several Guides for implementing DOE Order 430.1, Life-cycle Asset Management. DOE Order 430.1 provides requirements for DOE, in partnership with its contractors, to plan, acquire, operate, maintain, and dispose of physical assets. The goals of designing for pollution prevention are to minimize raw material consumption, energy consumption, waste generation, health and safety impacts, and ecological degradation over the entire life of the facility (EPA 1993a). Users of this Guide will learn to translate national policy and regulatory requirements for pollution prevention into action at the project level. The Guide was written to be applicable to all DOE projects, regardless of project size or design phase. Users are expected to interpret the Guide for their individual project's circumstances, applying a graded approach so that the effort is consistent with the anticipated waste generation and resource consumption of the physical asset. This Guide employs a combination of pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) methods and design for environment (DfE) philosophies. The PPOA process was primarily developed for existing products, processes, and facilities. The PPOA process has been modified in this Guide to address the circumstances of the DOE design process as delineated in DOE Order 430.1 and its associated Good Practice Guides. This modified form of the PPOA is termed the Pollution Prevention Design Assessment (P2DA). Information on current nationwide methods and successes in designing for the environment also have been reviewed and are integrated into this guidance

  14. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - MANUFACTURING AND FABRICATION REPAIR LABORATORY AT SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    These reports summarize pollution prevention opportunity assessments conducted jointly by EPA and DOE at the Geochemistry Laboratory and the Manufacturing and Fabrication Repair Laboratory at the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories facility in Albuquerque, New Mex...

  15. Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. It is intended to satisfy Department of Energy (DOE) and other legal requirements that are discussed in Section C, below. The Pollution Prevention Awareness Program is included with the Waste Minimization Program as suggested by DOE Order 5400.1. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with the Department's policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Directorate-, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Directorates, Programs and Departments. Several Directorates have been reorganized, necessitating changes in the Directorate plans that were published in 1991

  16. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Technical Art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, H.M.

    1995-09-01

    This pollution prevention opportunity assessment was conducted to evaluate Technical Art, which is part of the Technical Communications Department at Sandia National Laboratories/California. It is located in Building 912, Room 138. This assessment documents the processes, identifies the hazardous chemical waste streams generated by these processes, and recommends possible ways to minimize waste

  17. 76 FR 18894 - Oil Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 112 Oil Pollution Prevention CFR Correction In Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 100 to 135, revised as of July 1, 2010, on page 71, in Appendix E to Part 112, the second section 5.1 is removed. [FR Doc. 2011-8328 Filed 4-5-11; 8:45 am...

  18. Pollution prevention applications in batch manufacturing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Derek W.; O'Shaughnessy, James

    2004-02-01

    Older, "low-tech" batch manufacturing operations are often fertile grounds for gains resulting from pollution prevention techniques. This paper presents a pollution prevention technique utilized for wastewater discharge permit compliance purposes at a batch manufacturer of detergents, deodorants, and floor-care products. This manufacturer generated industrial wastewater as a result of equipment rinses required after each product batch changeover. After investing a significant amount of capital on end of pip-line wastewater treatment technology designed to address existing discharge limits, this manufacturer chose to investigate alternate, low-cost approaches to address anticipated new permit limits. Mass balances using spreadsheets and readily available formulation and production data were conducted on over 300 products to determine how each individual product contributed to the total wastewater pollutant load. These mass balances indicated that 22 products accounted for over 55% of the wastewater pollutant. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine whether these same products could accept their individual changeover rinse water as make-up water in formulations without sacrificing product quality. This changeover reuse technique was then implement at the plant scale for selected products. Significant reductions in wastewater volume (25%) and wastewater pollutant loading (85+%) were realized as a direct result of this approach.

  19. Ultrasonic Guided Wave Technology for Non-Invasive Assessment of Corrosion-Induced Damage in Piping for Pollution Prevention in DOD Fuel Storage Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    using a mixture of rock salt and tap water. A combination of lacquer and duct tape was used to mask the desired corrosion areas and to prevent excessive...Corrosion Measurements," NDT efT E International, Vol. 37, No.3, 2004, pp. 167-180. Demma, A, P. Cawley, M. Lowe and B. Pavlakovic, "The Effect of

  20. Design an effective storm water pollution prevention plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivona, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    A case history shows ''how'' to plan and organize a storm water pollution prevention program (SWPPP). Using easy-to-use worksheets and guidelines, hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) operators can build upon existing best management practices (i.e., housekeeping procedures, visual inspections, spill prevention programs, etc.) to meet tighter restrictions set by National Pollutant Discharge Elimination system (NPDES) permits. Especially in high rainfall areas, storm water poses an intermittent, but large volume problem. The facility's site size is another factor that impacts the scope and cost for SWPPP. The five steps to implementing a SWPPP are: Planning and organization; Assessment; Best management practice (BMP) identification; Implementation; Evaluation and monitoring. Initially, HPI operators must identify all potential contamination sources and past spills and leak areas. Following the SWPP guidelines, operators can map out a cost-effective storm water program that meets all NPDES requirements

  1. Pollution prevention and energy conservation: Understanding the interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, A.H.

    1992-01-01

    The traditional view holds that pollution prevention is good for energy conservation and vice versa. Analysis of pollution prevention and energy conservation activities indicates, however, that interactions and synergies between environmental and energy factors can mean that pollution prevention can be energy intensive and, conversely, that energy conservation can lead to increased pollution. Full cost accounting, taking into account all media, must be performed before precise pollution prevention-energy conservation interrelationships can be characterized and quantified. Use of a pollution prevention-energy conservation matrix can further this understanding

  2. Safety installation for preventing pollution by pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittgenstein, G F

    1972-10-25

    A safety installation for preventing pollution by pipelines, particularly those used for transporting liquid hydrocarbons, is described. It is applicable to any pipeline, but particularly to underground or submarine pipelines, whether made of steel, plastics, or any other material. The 4 essential objects of the invention are to insure reliable prevention of pollution of the environment due to leakage of a hydrocarbon through cracks in the pipe; to evacuate the leakage flow without delay to a vessel; to signal almost instantaneously the existence of a leak; and to effect remote control of operations by which the dynamic pressure in the pipe is cancelled. Each equipped section consists of a fluid-type jacket of plastic material which surrounds the pipe, which at its ends is sealed off. It is these seals which delimit the sections. (7 claims)

  3. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    This plan, which is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400. 1, provides waste minimization and pollution prevention guidance for all Hanford Site contractors. The plan is primary in a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan, Prime contractor implementation plans, and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation (DOE-RL, 1997a) describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Items discussed include the pollution prevention policy and regulatory background, organizational structure, the major objectives and goals of Hanford Site's pollution prevention program, and an itemized description of the Hanford Site pollution prevention program. The document also includes US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office's (RL's) statement of policy on pollution prevention as well as a listing of regulatory drivers that require a pollution prevention program

  4. Hanford Site pollution prevention progress report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BETSCH, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    The Richland Operations Office (RL) and Office of River Protection (ORP) are pleased to issue the attached Pollution Prevention Progress Report. We have just met the most aggressive waste reduction and A recycling goals to date and are publishing this report to recognize A the site's progress, and to ensure it will sustain success beyond 1 Fiscal Year 2000. This report was designed to inform the been made by RL and ORP in Waste Minimization (WMin) and Pollution Prevention (P2). RL, ORP and their contractors are committed to protecting the environment, and we reiterate pollution prevention should continue to be at the forefront of the environmental cleanup and research efforts. As you read the attached report, we believe you will see a clear demonstration of RL and ORP's outstanding performance as it has been responsible and accountable to the nation, its employees, and the community in which we live and work. commitment that all employees have for environmental stewardship. The report provides useful information about the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE'S) environmental policy and programs, and contains countless examples of waste minimization projects. This year was the first year our site received the White House Closing the Circle in the category of Affirmative Procurement. This Award recognizes our site for designing a comprehensive strategy for achieving 100 percent purchases of the U.S.Environmenta1 Protection Agency designated recycled items. DOE-Headquarters also acknowledged the site in 1999 for its public outreach efforts in communicating pollution prevention to Hanford Site employees and the community. Our site is truly a recognized leader in outreach as it has kept this title for two consecutive years. In previous years, we received the White House Closing the Circle Honorable Mention in Affirmative Procurement and several other National DOE Awards. Through partnership with the local community and stakeholders, the site and its contractors have a clear

  5. Hanford Site pollution prevention progress report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BETSCH, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    The Richland Operations Office (RL) and Office of River Protection (ORP) are pleased to issue the attached Pollution Prevention Progress Report. We have just met the most aggressive waste reduction and A recycling goals to date and are publishing this report to recognize A the site's progress, and to ensure it will sustain success beyond 1 Fiscal Year 2000. This report was designed to inform the been made by RL and ORP in Waste Minimization (WMin) and Pollution Prevention (P2). RL, ORP and their contractors are committed to protecting the environment, and we reiterate pollution prevention should continue to be at the forefront of the environmental cleanup and research efforts. As you read the attached report, we believe you will see a clear demonstration of RL and ORP's outstanding performance as it has been responsible and accountable to the nation, its employees, and the community in which we live and work. commitment that all employees have for environmental stewardship. The report provides useful information about the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE'S) environmental policy and programs, and contains countless examples of waste minimization projects. This year was the first year our site received the White House Closing the Circle in the category of Affirmative Procurement. This Award recognizes our site for designing a comprehensive strategy for achieving 100 percent purchases of the U.S.Environmenta1 Protection Agency designated recycled items. DOE-Headquarters also acknowledged the site in 1999 for its public outreach efforts in communicating pollution prevention to Hanford Site employees and the community. Our site is truly a recognized leader in outreach as it has kept this title for two consecutive years. In previous years, we received the White House Closing the Circle Honorable Mention in Affirmative Procurement and several other National DOE Awards. Through partnership with the local community and stakeholders, the site and its contractors have a clear

  6. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment benchmarking: Recommendations for Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, J.A.

    1994-05-01

    Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (P2OAs) are an important first step in any pollution prevention program. While P2OAs have been and are being conducted at Hanford, there exists no standard guidance, training, tracking, or systematic approach to identifying and addressing the most important waste streams. The purpose of this paper then is to serve as a guide to the Pollution Prevention group at Westinghouse Hanford in developing and implementing P2OAs at Hanford. By searching the literature and benchmarks other sites and agencies, the best elements from those programs can be incorporated and pitfalls more easily avoided. This search began with the 1988 document that introduces P2OAs (then called Process Waste Assessments, PWAS) by the Environmental Protection Agency. This important document presented the basic framework of P20A features which appeared in almost all later programs. Major Department of Energy programs were also examined, with particular attention to the Defense Programs P20A method of a graded approach, as presented at the Kansas City Plant. The graded approach is a system of conducting P2OAs of varying levels of detail depending on the size and importance of the waste stream. Finally, private industry programs were examined briefly. While all the benchmarked programs had excellent features, it was determined that the size and mission of Hanford precluded lifting any one program for use. Thus, a series of recommendations were made, based on the literature review, in order to begin an extensive program of P2OAs at Hanford. These recommendations are in the areas of: facility Pollution Prevention teams, P20A scope and methodology, guidance documents, training for facilities (and management), technical and informational support, tracking and measuring success, and incentives.

  7. Local government`s pollution prevention program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, D. [Boulder Country Pollution Prevention Program, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The pollution prevention program operated by the Health Department of Boulder County is called Business Partners for a Clean Environment (Business Partners). It is a cooperative effort among local businesses, the City of Boulder, Boulder County, and the Boulder Chamber of Commerce. This nonregulatory, incentive-based program provides industry with pollution prevention information and technical assistance necessary to reduce and/or eliminate environmental waste. This paper provides an overview of the program development, creation of partnerships and trust, and some of the results from implementation of the program. Following the first 18 months of the program, 35 businesses were recognized as Business Partners. The Business Partners program has also received an achievement award from the National Association of Counties for promoting {open_quotes}responsible, responsive, and effective government{close_quotes} and two governor`s awards from the State of Colorado. Participating businesses have demonstrated that a pollution prevention program can reduce environmental waste, increase employee safety, and decrease costs. 4 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Pollution prevention opportunity assessments, a training and resource guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VALERO, O.J.

    1998-11-03

    The intention of the ''Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment Training and Resource Guide'' is to help Hanford waste generators identify ways to reduce waste through the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (P20A) process. This document presents pollution prevention tools and provides a step-by-step approach for conducting assessments.

  9. 46 CFR 71.25-37 - Pollution prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pollution prevention. 71.25-37 Section 71.25-37 Shipping... Annual Inspection § 71.25-37 Pollution prevention. At each inspection for certification, the inspector... pollution prevention in 33 CFR part 155, subpart B. [CGD 71-161R, 37 FR 28262, Dec. 21, 1972] ...

  10. Annotated Bibliography of Law-Related Pollution Prevention Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Holly; Murphy, Elaine

    This annotated bibliography of law-related pollution prevention sources was prepared by the National Pollution Prevention Center for Higher Education. Some topics of the items include waste reduction, hazardous wastes, risk reduction, environmental policy, pollution prevention, environmental protection, environmental leadership, environmental…

  11. 46 CFR 91.25-38 - Pollution prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pollution prevention. 91.25-38 Section 91.25-38 Shipping... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-38 Pollution prevention. At each inspection for certification... design and equipment requirements for pollution prevention in 33 CFR part 155, subpart B. [CGD 71-161R...

  12. 46 CFR 189.25-38 - Pollution prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pollution prevention. 189.25-38 Section 189.25-38... AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-38 Pollution prevention. At each inspection... meets the vessel design and equipment requirements for pollution prevention in 33 CFR part 155, subpart...

  13. Claim prevention at reactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colby, B.P.

    1987-01-01

    Why does a radiation worker bring a claim alleging bodily injury from radiation exposure? Natural cancer, fear of radiation induced cancer, financial gain, emotional distress and mental anguish are some reasons for workers' claims. In this paper the author describes what power reactor health physicists are doing to reduce the likelihood of claims by establishing programs which provide sound protection of workers, prevent radiological events, improve workers' knowledge of radiological conditions and provide guidance for radiological incident response

  14. Pollution Prevention in Air Force System Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    noise requirements, handling radioactive materials, etc. The values should 278 be expressed in terms of indicators that, either quantitatively or...Structure pollhtion prevention ana~lysis Polution Prevention Analysis (PPA)? NEPA w/pollution prevention information - pollution Change prevention...Accumulation Procedures PS 81,04 Waste Jet Fuel Handling and Disposal Safe Practice Instructions (SPI) SPI 104 Radioactive Waste SPI 206 Mercury

  15. Labor and pollution prevention in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Dave

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an account of Canadian Chemicals Policy over the past three decades, including the project for the "virtual elimination" of toxic chemicals and the federal government's Chemical Management Plan. The latter is what remained when the virtual elimination program achieved few results. The article then embarks on its central theme: explaining how the labor movement introduced the concept and the practice of Pollution Prevention (P2) to Canada, as well as its impact on legislation and policies over the use reduction of chemical pesticides. The Appendix is a glossary of terms and concepts used in the article.

  16. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This Report summarizes the waste generation and pollution prevention activities of the major operational sites in the Department of Energy (DOE). We are witnessing progress in waste reduction from routine operations that are the focus of Department-wide reduction goals set by the Secretary on May 3,1996. The goals require that by the end of 1999, we reduce, recycle, reuse, and otherwise avoid waste generation to achieve a 50 percent reduction over 1993 levels. This Report provides the first measure of our progress in waste reduction and recycling against our 1993 waste generation baseline. While we see progress in reducing waste from our normal operations, we must begin to focus attention on waste generated by cleanup and facilities stabilization activities that are the major functions of the Office of Environmental Management. Reducing the generation of waste is one of the seven principles that I have established for the Office of Environmental Management Ten Year Plan. As part of our vision to complete a major portion of the environmental cleanup at DOE sites over the next ten years, we must utilize the potential of the pollution prevention program to reduce the cost of our cleanup program. We have included the Secretarial goals as part of the performance measures for the Ten Year Plan, and we are committed to implementing pollution prevention ideas. Through the efforts of both Federal and contractor employees, our pollution prevention program has reduced waste and the cost of our operations. I applaud their efforts and look forward to reporting further waste reduction progress in the next annual update of this Report.

  17. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This Report summarizes the waste generation and pollution prevention activities of the major operational sites in the Department of Energy (DOE). We are witnessing progress in waste reduction from routine operations that are the focus of Department-wide reduction goals set by the Secretary on May 3,1996. The goals require that by the end of 1999, we reduce, recycle, reuse, and otherwise avoid waste generation to achieve a 50 percent reduction over 1993 levels. This Report provides the first measure of our progress in waste reduction and recycling against our 1993 waste generation baseline. While we see progress in reducing waste from our normal operations, we must begin to focus attention on waste generated by cleanup and facilities stabilization activities that are the major functions of the Office of Environmental Management. Reducing the generation of waste is one of the seven principles that I have established for the Office of Environmental Management Ten Year Plan. As part of our vision to complete a major portion of the environmental cleanup at DOE sites over the next ten years, we must utilize the potential of the pollution prevention program to reduce the cost of our cleanup program. We have included the Secretarial goals as part of the performance measures for the Ten Year Plan, and we are committed to implementing pollution prevention ideas. Through the efforts of both Federal and contractor employees, our pollution prevention program has reduced waste and the cost of our operations. I applaud their efforts and look forward to reporting further waste reduction progress in the next annual update of this Report

  18. 46 CFR 131.935 - Prevention of oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prevention of oil pollution. 131.935 Section 131.935... Miscellaneous § 131.935 Prevention of oil pollution. Each vessel must be operated in compliance with— (a) Section 311 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1321); and (b) 33 CFR parts...

  19. Pollution prevention in the petroleum refining industry - bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, M.

    1995-03-01

    The Great Lakes Pollution Prevention Centre has compiled a list of references to assist the petroleum refining industry in adopting pollution prevention as an important environmental management strategy. Items included were divided into 14 categories of pollution types, such as air emissions, alternative fuels, chemical substitution, grounds keeping, leaks and spills, paints, waste management plan and others

  20. 76 FR 72120 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Compliance Date... rule will be effective November 22, 2011. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 112 Oil pollution prevention... Regulations is amended as follows: PART 112--OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION 0 1. The authority citation for part 112...

  1. 76 FR 64245 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Compliance Date... burden to comply with the regulations contained in 40 CFR part 112--Oil Pollution Prevention. However, in... rule will be effective November 7, 2011. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 112 Oil pollution prevention...

  2. Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan Progress report, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This report tracks progress against the goals stated in the Hanford Site 5-year Pollution Prevention Plan. The executive summary of the plan was submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in September 1992. The plan, executive summary, and the progress reports are elements of a pollution prevention planning program that is required by Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-307 for all hazardous substance users and/or all hazardous waste generators regulated by Ecology. These regulations implement Chapter 70.95C, Revised Code of Washington, an act relating to hazardous waste reduction. The act encourages voluntary efforts to redesign industrial processes to help reduce or eliminate hazardous substances and hazardous waste byproducts, and to maximize the inprocess reuse or reclamation of valuable spent material. Although the Hanford Site is exempt, it is voluntarily complying with this state regulatory-mandated program. This is the first year the Hanford Site is submitting a progress report. It covers calendar year 1993 plus the last quarter of 1992. What is reported, in accordance with WAC 173-307, are reductions in hazardous substance use and hazardous waste generated. A system of Process Waste Assessments (PWA) was chosen to meet the requirements of the program. The PWAs were organized by a physical facility or company organization. Each waste-generating facility/organization performed PWAs to identify, screen, and analyze their own reduction options. Each completed PWA identified any number of reduction opportunities, that are listed individually in the plan and summarized by category in the executive summary. These opportunities were to be implemented or evaluated further over the duration of the 5-year plan. The basis of this progress report is to track action taken on these PWA reduction opportunities in relationship to achieving the goals stated in the Pollution Prevention Plan.

  3. Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan Progress report, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This report tracks progress against the goals stated in the Hanford Site 5-year Pollution Prevention Plan. The executive summary of the plan was submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in September 1992. The plan, executive summary, and the progress reports are elements of a pollution prevention planning program that is required by Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-307 for all hazardous substance users and/or all hazardous waste generators regulated by Ecology. These regulations implement Chapter 70.95C, Revised Code of Washington, an act relating to hazardous waste reduction. The act encourages voluntary efforts to redesign industrial processes to help reduce or eliminate hazardous substances and hazardous waste byproducts, and to maximize the inprocess reuse or reclamation of valuable spent material. Although the Hanford Site is exempt, it is voluntarily complying with this state regulatory-mandated program. This is the first year the Hanford Site is submitting a progress report. It covers calendar year 1993 plus the last quarter of 1992. What is reported, in accordance with WAC 173-307, are reductions in hazardous substance use and hazardous waste generated. A system of Process Waste Assessments (PWA) was chosen to meet the requirements of the program. The PWAs were organized by a physical facility or company organization. Each waste-generating facility/organization performed PWAs to identify, screen, and analyze their own reduction options. Each completed PWA identified any number of reduction opportunities, that are listed individually in the plan and summarized by category in the executive summary. These opportunities were to be implemented or evaluated further over the duration of the 5-year plan. The basis of this progress report is to track action taken on these PWA reduction opportunities in relationship to achieving the goals stated in the Pollution Prevention Plan

  4. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment: Foundation of pollution prevention for waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damewood, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to promote the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) technique as a fundamental of pollution prevention for waste management. All key elements of an effective PPOA program are presented. These key elements include impacts of environmental laws on pollution prevention, PPOA concepts and overview, waste minimization opportunities assessment, reporting and monitoring waste minimization progress, and PPOA program implementation. As environmental laws evolve the focus is shifting from end-of-pipe pollution control to front-end source reduction. Waste minimization was mistakenly interpreted to mean the reduction of hazardous waste after generation in the past. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 has clearly defined its requirement on resource reduction. Waste reduction can be viewed as a criterion to assess all industrial processes and operations. The fundamental approach of PPOA focuses on a mass balance concept. This concept deals with tracking of chemicals from the point of purchase, through storage, utilization in the process, and waste generation at the end of process. In other words, PPOA is a technique to analyze this input/output process. By applying PPOA techniques, the framework of applicable compliance requirements to the current operation process is established. Furthermore, documentation of PPOA itself can meet as documentation requirements for environmental compliance. In general, the PPOA process consists of two phases. The first phase involves input and output process description and waste characterization. The second phase is an opportunities assessment for waste minimization from input/output waste characterization. These two phases are explained in detail in the paper

  5. The air pollution: sources, effects, prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elichegaray, C.

    2008-01-01

    The author offers a detailed and illustrated panorama of the air pollution sources and effects. The study is realized at the individual scale with the indoor pollution and at a global scale with the consequences of the greenhouse effect gases. Added to classical pollutants, the book takes into account new pollutants (organic, nano particulates, biological) and the epidemiology. (A.L.B.)

  6. Air pollution prevention at the Hanford Site: Status and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    With the introduction of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and other air and pollution prevention regulations, there has been increased focus on both pollution prevention and air emissions at US DOE sites. The Pollution Prevention (P2) Group of WHC reviewed the status of air pollution prevention with the goal of making recommendations on how to address air emissions at Hanford through pollution prevention. Using the air emissions inventory from Hanford's Title V permit, the P2 Group was able to identify major and significant air sources. By reviewing the literature and benchmarking two other DOE Sites, two major activities were recommended to reduce air pollution and reduce costs at the Hanford Site. First, a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (P2OA) should be conducted on the significant painting sources in the Maintenance group and credit should be taken for reducing the burning of tumbleweeds, another significant source of air pollution. Since they are significant sources, reducing these emissions will reduce air emission fees, as well as have the potential to reduce material and labor costs, and increase worker safety. Second, a P2OA should be conducted on alternatives to the three coal-fired powerhouses (steam plants) on-site, including a significant costs analysis of alternatives. This analysis could be of significant value to other DOE sites. Overall, these two activities would reduce pollution, ease regulatory requirements and fees, save money, and help Hanford take a leadership role in air pollution prevention

  7. EVALUATION OF A PORTABLE FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED GAS ANALYZER FOR MEASUREMENTS OF AIR TOXICS IN POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    A portable Fourier transform infrared gas analyzer with a photoacoustic detector performed reliably during pollution prevention research at two industrial facilities. It exhibited good agreement (within approximately 6%) with other analytical instruments (dispersive infrared and ...

  8. A pollution prevention chargeback system at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, R.; Fish, J.; Brown, C.

    1994-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (Sandia/NM) has successfully developed and implemented a chargeback system to fund the implementation of Pollution Prevention activities. In the process of establishing this system, many valuable lessons have been learned. This paper describes how the chargeback system currently functions, the benefits and drawbacks of implementing such a system, and recommendations for implementing a chargeback system at other facilities. The initial goals in establishing a chargeback system were to create (1) funding for pollution prevention implementation, including specific pollution prevention projects; and (2) awareness on the part of the line organizations of the quantities and types of waste that they generate, thus providing them with a direct incentive to reduce that waste. The chargeback system inputs waste generation data and then filters and sorts the data to serve two purposes: (1) the operation of the chargeback system; and (2) the detailed waste generation reporting used for assessing processes and identifying pollution prevention opportunities

  9. A computer based system for prioritizing pollution prevention opportunity assessments at SNL/NM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custer, M.S.; Leishman, N.L.; Walsh, M.L.; Nelson, J.D.; Davis, R.L.; Bueno, N.C.

    1996-01-01

    Prioritizing waste generators is necessary to determine which are the best candidates for Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOAs). This paper describes the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) PPOA Ranking System. The system uses a multimedia approach that considers hazardous and radioactive waste disposal data, and hazardous chemical usage data (from which air emissions are extrapolated). Pollution prevention information is included, from the SNL Pollution Prevention Opportunities database that identifies waste streams that have readily apparent pollution prevention opportunities. The system also considers the relative costs of waste management and the chargeback fees paid for waste generation. From these data, organizations are ranked with an algorithm developed in Microsoft Access trademark on a personal computer. The concept could readily be transferred to other facilities needing to decide where to perform PPOAs

  10. Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan progress report, 1994. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This report tracks progress made during 1994 against the goals stated in DOE/RL-92-62, Executive Summary, Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan. The Executive Summary of the plan was submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in September 1992. The plan, Executive Summary, and the progress reports are elements of a pollution prevention planning program that is required by WAC 173-307, ''Plans,'' for all hazardous substance users and/or all hazardous waste generators regulated by Ecology. These regulations implement RCW 70.95C, ''Waste Reduction,'' an act relating to hazardous waste reduction. The act encourages voluntary efforts to redesign industrial processes to help reduce or eliminate hazardous substances and hazardous waste byproducts, and to maximize the in-process reuse or reclamation of valuable spent material. The Hanford Site is voluntarily complying with this state regulatory-mandated program. All treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facilities are exempt from participating; the Hanford Site is classified as a TSD

  11. Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan progress report, 1994. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This report tracks progress made during 1994 against the goals stated in DOE/RL-92-62, Executive Summary, Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan. The Executive Summary of the plan was submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in September 1992. The plan, Executive Summary, and the progress reports are elements of a pollution prevention planning program that is required by WAC 173-307, ``Plans,`` for all hazardous substance users and/or all hazardous waste generators regulated by Ecology. These regulations implement RCW 70.95C, ``Waste Reduction,`` an act relating to hazardous waste reduction. The act encourages voluntary efforts to redesign industrial processes to help reduce or eliminate hazardous substances and hazardous waste byproducts, and to maximize the in-process reuse or reclamation of valuable spent material. The Hanford Site is voluntarily complying with this state regulatory-mandated program. All treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facilities are exempt from participating; the Hanford Site is classified as a TSD.

  12. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    This Annual Report summarizes and highlights waste generation, waste reduction, pollution prevention accomplishments, and cost avoidance for 44 U.S. Department of Energy reporting sites for Calendar Year 1999. This section summarizes Calendar Year 1999 Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention accomplishments.

  13. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Annual Report summarizes and highlights waste generation, waste reduction, pollution prevention accomplishments, and cost avoidance for 44 U.S. Department of Energy reporting sites for Calendar Year 1999. This section summarizes Calendar Year 1999 Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention accomplishments

  14. 46 CFR 184.702 - Pollution prevention equipment and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pollution prevention equipment and procedures. 184.702 Section 184.702 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... Pollution prevention equipment and procedures. A vessel must comply with the applicable design, equipment...

  15. 46 CFR 121.702 - Pollution prevention equipment and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pollution prevention equipment and procedures. 121.702 Section 121.702 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.702 Pollution prevention equipment and...

  16. 76 FR 64296 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Compliance Date... Federal Register. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 112 Oil pollution prevention, Farms, Compliance date... proposing to amend the date by which farms must prepare or amend, and implement their Spill Prevention...

  17. Application of environmental accounting to pollution prevention assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Mar, R.A.

    1997-08-01

    Environmental accounting represents a major paradigm shift in the way most companies account for costs and benefits. However, it is a change that must be made if pollution prevention is to become institutionalized into the corporate and government mainstream. Pollution prevention investments must be justified on an economic basis; without environmental accounting tools, pollution prevention investments cannot show their true profitability. This is because traditional accounting methods only track billable costs, thus ignoring some of the major benefits of pollution prevention investments, which are indirect savings resulting from a lessening of a company's regulatory compliance burden and present and future liabilities. This paper discusses how to apply environmental accounting principles to pollution prevention assessments to improve the outcome of profitability analyses

  18. Pollution prevention initiatives at US EPA: 'Green Lights'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.; Kwartin, R.

    1991-01-01

    US EPA is initiating a pollution prevention approach to supplement its historic command-control, regulatory approach to environmental protection. EPA believes polllution prevention, where applicable and possible, represents a quicker, less expensive and even profitable strategy for environmental protection. Most clearly, energy-efficiency provides an opportunity to prevent significant amounts of pollution related to the inefficeint generation and use of electricity. EPA's first energy productivity and pollution prevention program is Green Lights. Beyond its own merits, Green Lights will also provide important experience to EPA as it develops its Green Machines program to accelerate the market for efficient appliances and equipment

  19. RESEARCH AREA -- ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONTROL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has conducted several research projects for evaluating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve the control of pollution control systems an...

  20. Diving center contribution in preventing radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rus, Simona; Flesteriu, Catalin; Diaconu, Mihai

    2004-01-01

    Applying and developing constructive environment protection measures offers real and long lasting solutions that consolidate our future. In this context the Diving Center contribution in preventing radioactive pollution is enrolled. Our Center performed high quality services with authorised personal. Using their rich human, technological and scientific resources, the armed forces in general and our unity in this case, plays already an important role in supporting the development and natural environment, but results could be even greater and of high impact if the military and civilian requirements would be aligned, valorizing the qualified resources belonging to the military. The environment protection measures are an essential component of the sustainable development, which correctly and duly applied may provide a necessary and realistic option in the eternal confrontation between human activity and correct exploitation of environment. During pressure tests performed over years at the nuclear reactor from Cernavoda, the divers provided: - pressure test at Unit 1 reactor containment (test performed at a pressure of 128 kPa) in order to evaluate the loss rate; - solving previous problems of the sealing system of reactor containment and tracks of electrical cables, pipes, etc; - providing safety procedures for the Cernavoda NPP specialised personnel, after their entering the working area through the small transfer gate; - technical assistance and first aid in case of diving accidents, using the bi-place chamber (fitted with medication transfer sass) provided on site; - supervising the enforcement of legal procedures concerning training, organising and work protection in diving activities; - in case of a collective decompression accident, we had the responsibility to provide necessary treatment of personnel affected in the hyperbaric laboratory. All these activities, even though developed for specific military requirements, may satisfy the saving and protecting needs

  1. Analysis of industrial pollution prevention programs in selected Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Industrialization in developing countries is causing increasing environmental damage. Pollution prevention (P2) is an emerging environmental concept that could help developing countries achieve leapfrog goals, bypassing old and pollutive technologies and minimizing traditional control practices. The current P2 promotion activities in Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand are discussed. These programs, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into five categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technical assistance, and financial incentives. All important at the early stages of P2 promotion, these programs should inform industries of the benefits of P2 and help them identify applicable P2 measures. Participation in these programs is voluntary. The limited data indicate that adoption of P2 measures in these countries is not yet widespread. Recommendations for expanding P2 promotion activities include (1) strengthening the design and enforcement of environmental regulations; (2) providing P2 training and education to government workers, nongovernmental organizations and labor unions officials, university faculties, and news media; (3) tracking the progress of P2 programs; (4) implementing selected P2 mandatory measures; (5) identifying cleaner production technologies for use in new facilities; (6) implementing special programs for small and medium enterprises; and (7) expanding P2 promotion to other sectors, such as agriculture and transportation, and encouraging green design and green consumerism.

  2. Pollution Prevention Programs in Your Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenstrup, Al

    1995-01-01

    Provides details of an activity in which students in grades 5-12 study businesses in their community to discover what efforts are being made to reduce pollution. Integrates science and social studies content. (DDR)

  3. Design strategies for pollution prevention in industries (life cycle design)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleemi, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    Pollution prevention and adoption of clean technologies in the industry are to be the proper strategies to flight against the growing industrial pollution in Pakistan. These strategies will not only reduce the existing pollution load and will also help to have sustainable industrial development in Pakistan in is well established that the concept of pollution prevention demands use of minimum, resources with maximum efficiency to achieve double benefits such as resource conservation and environmental protection. The application of cleaner production and waste minimization in thousand of industries in other part of world has proved beyond doubt that the use of cleaner technology is cheaper as compared to installation of waste treatment plants for end of pipe treatment. Waste treatment plants have been blamed not to solve any pollution problem, but only to transfer pollution from one environmental media to another. The adoption of waste treatment technologies have also created lot of other problems. Thousand of industries in the world have change their focus of activities from end of pipe treatment to pollution prevention techniques. It is the right time to start pollution prevention activities in industry. The design of a product system in the industry can be represented logically as a series of decision and choices made individually and collectively by design participant. The choices range from the selection of materials and manufacturing processes to choices relating to shape, from and function of a product. The product life cycle design provides a logical system for addressing pollution prevention because the full range of environmental consequence associated with the product can be considered and it is a powerful tool for identifying and maximizing the environmental benefits of pollution prevention. The life cycle assesment (LCA) concept suggests that decision making should be based on consideration of the cradle-to grave characteristics of the product, process

  4. Pollution prevention and industrial transformation; Evoking structural changes within companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, Theo; Hofman, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Pollution prevention has developed as an attractive method for improving the environmental performance of companies. Often the concept is promoted in a project format, for instance in a regional perspective or for a specific sector of industry. This article analyzes the contribution of pollution

  5. Purpose and methods of a Pollution Prevention Awareness Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, P.A.; Irwin, E.F.; Poligone, S.E.

    1994-08-15

    The purpose of the Pollution Prevention Awareness Program (PPAP), which is required by DOE Order 5400.1, is to foster the philosophy that prevention is superior to remediation. The goal of the program is to incorporate pollution prevention into the decision-making process at every level throughout the organization. The objectives are to instill awareness, disseminate information, provide training and rewards for identifying the true source or cause of wastes, and encourage employee participation in solving environmental issues and preventing pollution. PPAP at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was created several years ago and continues to grow. We believe that we have implemented several unique methods of communicating environmental awareness to promote a more active work force in identifying ways of reducing pollution.

  6. Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Janet S.

    2011-04-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. Pollution Prevention supports the goals and objectives to increase the procurement and use of environmentally friendly products and materials and minimize the generation of waste (nonhazardous, hazardous, radiological, wastewater). Through participation on the Interdisciplinary Team P2 provides guidance for integration of environmentally friendly purchasing and waste minimization requirements into projects during the planning phase. Table 7 presents SNL's corporate objectives and targets that support the elements of the Pollution Prevention program.

  7. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) projections for present and future waste minimization and pollution prevention. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be used to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. It is intended to satisfy Department of Energy (DOE) requirements. This Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plan provides an overview of projected activities from FY 1994 through FY 1999. The plans are broken into site-wide and problem-specific activities. All directorates at LLNL have had an opportunity to contribute input, estimate budgets, and review the plan. In addition to the above, this plan records LLNL's goals for pollution prevention, regulatory drivers for those activities, assumptions on which the cost estimates are based, analyses of the strengths of the projects, and the barriers to increasing pollution prevention activities

  8. An Innovative Partnership Approach for Environmental Management and Pollution Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten-Unal, Mujde; Aydlett, Guy M.

    1997-01-01

    A partnership between a university and a government regulatory agency sought to assist industries with pollution prevention and waste management. Economic incentives were developed to promote waste minimization. (SK)

  9. Pressures on industry to move to pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poiasek, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    In a recent EPA report entitled Reducing Risk: Sorting Priorities and Strategies for Environmental Protection, a recommendation was made that EPA should emphasize pollution prevention as the preferred option for reducing risk. A significant number of states have adopted legislation requiring industry to conduct pollution prevention planning activities and submit reports to the state agencies. Federal legislation may be on the way. Industrial trade organizations are looking at the Chemical Manufacturing Association's Responsible Care: Program. Institutional investment groups are looking at initiatives like the Valdez Principles when selecting its portfolio, each of these initiatives have pollution prevention components. Environmentalists are demanding further attention be paid to pollution prevention. Industry is responding with a variety of programs designed to move them away from the classic end-of-the pipe controls which EPA mandated in previous regulations

  10. Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Janet S.

    2011-01-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. Pollution Prevention supports the goals and objectives to increase the procurement and use of environmentally friendly products and materials and minimize the generation of waste (nonhazardous, hazardous, radiological, wastewater). Through participation on the Interdisciplinary Team P2 provides guidance for integration of environmentally friendly purchasing and waste minimization requirements into projects during the planning phase. Table 7 presents SNL's corporate objectives and targets that support the elements of the Pollution Prevention program.

  11. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce the quantity and toxicity of hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and sanitary wastes; conserve resources; and prevent or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all Site activities. The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program plan reflects national and DOE waste minimization and pollution prevention goals and policies, and represents an ongoing effort to make WMin/P2 part of the Site operating philosophy. In accordance with these policies, a hierarchical approach to environmental management has been adopted and is applied to all types of polluting and waste generating activities. Pollution prevention and waste minimization through source reduction are first priority in the Hanford WMin/P2 program, followed by environmentally safe recycling. Treatment to reduce the quantity, toxicity, and/or mobility will be considered only when prevention or recycling are not possible or practical. Environmentally safe disposal is the last option

  12. B Plant Complex pollution prevention plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has directed Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to develop an effective strategy to minimize the generation of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes at Hanford in compliance with state and federal regulations. WHC has formalized a pollution prevention program composed of management policies, management requirements and procedures. This plan addresses pollution prevention for B Plant Complex. A pollution prevention team is in place and has been assigned responsibility for implementing the plan. This plan includes actions and goals for reducing volume and toxicity of waste generated, as well as a basis for evaluation of progress. Descriptions of waste streams, current specific goals, general pollution prevention methods, and specific accomplishments are in the appendices of this plan

  13. Accelerator production of tritium pollution prevention design assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, R.; Nowacki, P.; Sheetz, S.O.; Lanik, P.

    1997-01-01

    This Pollution Prevention Design Assessment (PPDA) provides data for cost-benefit analysis of the potential environmental impact of the APT, is an integral part of pollution prevention/waste minimization, and is required by DOE for any activity generating radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. It will also better position the APT to meet future requirements, since it is anticipated that regulatory and other requirements will continue to become more restrictive and demanding

  14. Environmental Restoration Contractor Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvon, D. K.

    1998-01-01

    This plan contains the Pollution Prevention (P2) Program for the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC). The plan outlines the activities and schedules developed by the Bechtel Hanford, Inc.(BHI) to reduce the quantity and toxicity of waste dispositioned as a result of restoration and remediation activities. The purpose of this plan is to guide ERC projects in meeting and documenting compliance with requirements for pollution prevention. This plan contains the objectives, strategy, and support activities of the ERC P2 Program

  15. Accelerator production of tritium pollution prevention design assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, R.; Nowacki, P.; Sheetz, S.O. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Lanik, P. [Burns and Roe Engineering Inc. (United States)

    1997-09-18

    This Pollution Prevention Design Assessment (PPDA) provides data for cost-benefit analysis of the potential environmental impact of the APT, is an integral part of pollution prevention/waste minimization, and is required by DOE for any activity generating radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. It will also better position the APT to meet future requirements, since it is anticipated that regulatory and other requirements will continue to become more restrictive and demanding.

  16. Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Janet S.; Farren, Laurie J.

    2010-03-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  17. Pollution Prevention Information Network (PPIN) Grant Summaries for 2011 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  18. Deployment of pollution prevention during design -- a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Mar, R.A.; Ambalam, T.T.

    1997-08-01

    Traditionally, pollution prevention (P2) assessments have been performed on existing facilities and ongoing operations, well after the completion of design and construction. It has been theorized that more success can be achieved by moving P2 upstream into the design process, where an estimated 70% of a project's total life cycle costs are initially fixed. Decisions made during design to prevent or minimize the amount of waste generated can reap benefits for many years to come. This is especially true when designing systems for handling hazardous and radioactive wastes for treatment, storage, and disposal. P2 assessments performed during design of such projects can uncover significant savings to be reaped during project construction, operations, and/or decommissioning. However, many project managers are still reluctant to include some type of P2 review or assessment as part of the design effort, because the immediate payback to the design entity is difficult to quantify. This paper presents the results of a P2 assessment performed on a design project at Hanford which identified close to $500,000 in construction savings while minimizing low-level and mixed radioactive waste generation. This paper describes the process used to per-form the assessment, discusses its results, and provides lessons-learned for future P2 design assessments

  19. Environmental Restoration Contractor Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.A.

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this plan is to establish the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Program and outline the activities and schedules that will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated as a result of restoration and remediation activities. It is intended to satisfy the US Department of Energy (DOE) and other legal requirements. As such, the Pollution Prevention Awareness program required by DOE Order 5400.1 is included with the Pollution Prevention Program. This plan is also intended to aid projects in meeting and documenting compliance with the various requirements for WMin/P2, and contains the policy, objectives, strategy, and support activities of the WMin/P2 program. The basic elements of the plan are pollution prevention goals, waste assessments of major waste streams, implementation of feasible waste minimization opportunities, and a process for reporting achievements. Various pollution prevention techniques will be implemented with the support of employee training and awareness programs to reduce waste and still meet applicable requirements. Information about the Hanford Site is in the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan

  20. Atmospheric Pollution: Its Origins and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meetham, A. R.

    Although atmospheric pollution can be reduced or eliminated in many different ways, each way involves questions of economics, the time factor, availability of materials, priority over other urgent reforms, and individual and social psychology. To provide a basis for consideration of these questions, this book gives information not only about the…

  1. Pollution prevention at ports: clearing the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Diane; Solomon, Gina

    2004-01-01

    Seaports are major hubs of economic activity and of environmental pollution in coastal urban areas. Due to increasing global trade, transport of goods through ports has been steadily increasing and will likely continue to increase in the future. Evaluating air pollution impacts of ports requires consideration of numerous sources, including marine vessels, trucks, locomotives, and off-road equipment used for moving cargo. The air quality impacts of ports are significant, with particularly large emissions of diesel exhaust, particulate matter, and nitrogen oxides. The health effects of these air pollutants to residents of local communities include asthma, other respiratory diseases, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, and premature mortality. In children, there are links with asthma, bronchitis, missed school days, and emergency room visits. The significance of these environmental health impacts requires aggressive efforts to mitigate the problem. Approaches to mitigation encompass a range of possibilities from currently available, low-cost approaches, to more significant investments for cleaner air. Examples of the former include restrictions on truck idling and the use of low-sulfur diesel fuel; the latter includes shore-side power for docked ships, and alternative fuels. A precautionary approach to port-related air pollution would encourage local production of goods in order to reduce marine traffic, greener design for new terminals, and state-of-the art approaches to emissions-control that have been successfully demonstrated at ports throughout the world

  2. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations: Generator training manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This computer-based program is designed to help waste generators in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program prevent pollution at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) facilities in Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. The Numerical Scoring System (NSS) is an interactive system designed to maintain data on ER Program pollution prevention efforts and to measure the success of these efforts through the ER Program life cycle

  3. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations: Management training manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This computer-based program is designed to help waste generators in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program prevent pollution at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) facilities in Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. The Numerical Scoring System (NSS) is an interactive system designed to maintain data on ER Program pollution prevention efforts and to measure the success of these efforts through the ER Program life cycle

  4. Web-based expert system for foundry pollution prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Gary P.

    2004-02-01

    Pollution prevention is a complex task. Many small foundries lack the in-house expertise to perform these tasks. Expert systems are a type of computer information system that incorporates artificial intelligence. As noted in the literature, they provide a means of automating specialized expertise. This approach may be further leveraged by implementing the expert system on the internet (or world-wide web). This will allow distribution of the expertise to a variety of geographically-dispersed foundries. The purpose of this research is to develop a prototype web-based expert system to support pollution prevention for the foundry industry. The prototype system identifies potential emissions for a specified process, and also provides recommendations for the prevention of these contaminants. The system is viewed as an initial step toward assisting the foundry industry in better meeting government pollution regulations, as well as improving operating efficiencies within these companies.

  5. Pollution prevention program for new projects -- Lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lum, J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to relay the experience of the Office of New Production Reactors (NP) in developing and implementing its pollution prevention program. NP was established to plan, design, and construct a new safe and environmentally acceptable nuclear reactor capacity necessary to provide an assured supply of tritium to maintain the nation`s long-term deterrent capability. The Program offered the Department of Energy an opportunity to demonstrate its commitment to environmental protection via minimization of environmental releases; new design offers the best opportunity for pollution prevention. The NP pollution prevention program was never fully implemented because NP`s tritium production design activity was recovery terminated. The information in this paper represented lessons learned from the last three years of NP operation.

  6. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The primary mission of DOE/NV is to manage and operate the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other designated test locations, within and outside the United States; provide facilities and services to DOE and non-DOE NTS users; and plan. coordinate, and execute nuclear weapons tests and related test activities. DOE/NV also: (a) Supports operations under interagency agreements pertaining to tests, emergencies, and related functions/activities, (b) Plans, coordinates, and executes environmental restoration, (c) Provides support to the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office in conjunction with DOE/HQ oversight, (d) Manages the Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) for disposal of low-level and mixed wastes received from the NTS and off-site generators, and (e) Implements waste minimization programs to reduce the amount of hazardous, mixed, radioactive, and nonhazardous solid waste that is generated and disposed The NTS, which is the primary facility controlled by DOE/NV, occupies 1,350 square miles of restricted-access, federally-owned land located in Nye County in Southern Nevada. The NTS is located in a sparsely populated area, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada

  7. Hanford site guide for preparing and maintaining generator group pollution prevention program documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This manual provides the necessary guidance to contractor generator groups for developing and maintaining documentation of their pollution prevention (P2) program activities. Preparation of program documentation will demonstrate compliance with contractor and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements, as well as state and federal regulations. Contractor waste generator groups are no longer required to prepare and update facility waste minimization plans. Developing and maintaining program documentation replace this requirement

  8. A quantitative integrated assessment of pollution prevention achieved by integrated pollution prevention control licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, David; O'Brien, Kieran; Jones, Michael B

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents an innovative, quantitative assessment of pollution avoidance attributable to environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing, using Ireland's pharmaceutical-manufacturing sector as a case study. Emissions data reported by pharmaceutical installations were aggregated into a pollution trend using an Environmental Emissions Index (EEI) based on Lifecycle Assessment methodologies. Complete sectoral emissions data from 2001 to 2007 were extrapolated back to 1995, based on available data. Production volume data were used to derive a sectoral production index, and determine 'no-improvement' emission trends, whilst questionnaire responses from 20 industry representatives were used to quantify the contribution of integrated licensing to emission avoidance relative to these trends. Between 2001 and 2007, there was a 40% absolute reduction in direct pollution from 27 core installations, and 45% pollution avoidance relative to hypothetical 'no-improvement' pollution. It was estimated that environmental regulation avoided 20% of 'no-improvement' pollution, in addition to 25% avoidance under business-as-usual. For specific emissions, avoidance ranged from 14% and 30 kt a(-1) for CO(2) to 88% and 598 t a(-1) for SO(x). Between 1995 and 2007, there was a 59% absolute reduction in direct pollution, and 76% pollution avoidance. Pollution avoidance was dominated by reductions in emissions of VOCs, SO(x) and NO(x) to air, and emissions of heavy metals to water. Pollution avoidance of 35% was attributed to integrated licensing, ranging from between 8% and 2.9 t a(-1) for phosphorus emissions to water to 49% and 3143 t a(-1) for SO(x) emissions to air. Environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing has been the major driver of substantial pollution avoidance achieved by Ireland's pharmaceutical sector - through emission limit values associated with Best Available Techniques, emissions monitoring and reporting requirements, and

  9. Pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunity assessment in environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, J.A.; Willison, C.P.

    1997-01-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories implicitly subscribed to the philosophy of pollution prevention and waste minimization. As a result of a Department of Energy (DOE) offer, Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOA) were conducted at two ER sites and a decontamination and Demolition (D and D) site. The purpose of one of the PPOAs was to identify pollution prevention (P2) opportunities during environmental remediation at the Classified Waste Landfill located at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The remediation activities at this site are scheduled to begin in the fall of 1997. The PPOA included presentations by the team members, a tour of the site, and a brainstorming session to list the waste streams, identify P2 opportunities and rank them in order of priority. Twenty-five P2 opportunities were identified during the brainstorming session of which twenty-two opportunities were selected for further investigation. Those twenty-two opportunities are discussed in this paper. A cost benefit analysis was performed for each P2 opportunity based on the estimated waste volume, feasibility, and cost. Pollution Prevention by Design (P2D) was incorporated into the PPOA to introduce waste minimization techniques that can be used during the planning phase of restoration projects

  10. Governance by Green Taxes: Making Pollution Prevention Pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    a comparative study of the water policies of Denmark, France, Germany and the Netherlands, he shows how, in contrast to administrative regulation, green taxes have made pollution prevention pay and promoted the "ecological modernization" of industry. He goes on, however, to challenge the prevailing orthodoxy...

  11. Joint Group on Pollution Prevention: Partnering for Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R.

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation outlines the Joint Group on Pollution Prevention (JG-PP) partnership. Details are given on what groups comprise JG-PP, the proven methodology for what JG-PP can accomplish, the common problems, joint solutions, and shared efforts, and some of the JG-PP projects.

  12. Operation and Maintenance of Water Pollution Control Facilities: A WPCF White Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, William R.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the recommendations of the Water Pollution Control Federation for operation and maintenance consideration during the planning design, construction, and operation of wastewater treatment facilities. (CS)

  13. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Facility Points, Region 9, 2007, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates...

  14. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Facility Points, Region 9, 2011, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates...

  15. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Facility Points, Region 9, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates...

  16. PREVENTING POLLUTION USING ISO 14001 AT A PARTICLE ACCELERATOR THE RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRIGGS, S.L.K.; MUSOLINO, S.V.

    2001-01-01

    In early 1997 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) discovered that the spent fuel pool of their High Flux Beam Reactor was leaking tritium into the groundwater. Community members, activist groups, politicians and regulators were outraged with the poor environmental management practices at BNL. The reactor was shut down and the Department of Energy (DOE) terminated the contract with the existing Management Company. At this same time, a major new scientific facility, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), was nearing the end of construction and readying for commissioning. Although environmental considerations had been incorporated into the design of the facility; some interested parties were skeptical that this new facility would not cause significant environmental impacts. RHIC management recognized that the future of its operation was dependent on preventing pollution and allaying concerns of its stakeholders. Although never done at a DOE National Laboratory before Brookhaven Science Associates, the new management firm, committed to implementing an Environmental Management System (EMS) and RHIC managers volunteered to deploy it within their facility on an extremely aggressive schedule. Several of these IS0 requirements contribute directly to preventing pollution, an area where particular emphasis was placed. This paper describes how Brookhaven used the following key IS0 14001 elements to institutionalize Pollution Prevention concepts: Environmental Policy, Aspects, Objectives and Targets, Environmental Management Program, Structure and Responsibility, Operational Controls, Training, and Management Review. In addition, examples of implementation at the RHIC Project illustrate how BNL's premiere facility was able to demonstrate to interested parties that care had been taken to implement technological and administrative controls to minimize environmental impacts, while at the same time reduce the applicability of regulatory requirements to their operations

  17. Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention Crosscut Plan, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This plan establishes a Department-wide goal to reduce total releases of toxic chemicals to the environment and off-site transfers of such toxic chemicals by 50 percent by December 31, 1999, in compliance with Executive Order 12856. Each site that meets the threshold quantities of toxic chemicals established in the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) will participate in this goal. In addition, each DOE site will establish site-specific goals to reduce generation of hazardous, radioactive, radioactive mixed, and sanitary wastes and pollutants, as applicable. Implementation of this plan will represent a major step toward the environmental risks and costs associated with DOE operations and increasing the Department's use of preventive environmental management practices. Investing in Waste Minimization Pollution Prevention (WMin/PP) steadily reduce hazardous and radioactive waste generation and will reduce the need for waste management and unnecessary expenditures for waste treatment, storage, and disposal. A preventive approach to waste management will help solve current environmental and regulatory issues and reduce the need for costly future corrective actions. The purpose of this plan is to establish the strategic framework for integrating WMin/PP into all DOE internal activities. This program includes setting DOE policy and goals for reducing the generation of wastes and pollutants, increasing recycling activities, and establishing an infrastructure to achieve and measure the goals throughout the DOE complex. Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plans, submitted to Headquarters by DOE field sites, will incorporate the WMin/PP activities and goals outlined in this plan. Success of the DOE WMin/PP program is dependent upon each field operation becoming accountable for resources used, wastes and pollutants generated, and wastes recycled

  18. Amoco/Environmental Protection Agency Pollution Prevention Project, Yorktown refinery. Refinery release inventory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee, H.; Kizier, G.J.; Baloo, S.; Hockman, E.L.; Couzens-Roberts, C.

    1992-07-01

    The report volume summarizes physical data obtained during a 2-year pollution prevention study of Amoco Oil Company's Yorktown Virginia Refinery. The study was jointly sponsored as a cooperative effort of Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. A multi-media sampling program was used to identify potential pollution sources within the Refinery. Sampling and analysis included air, surface water, groundwater, and solid waste data. Public perceptions about environmental issues of concern in the vicinity of the Refinery were also surveyed. The inventory showed that nearly 99 percent of the releases were airborne at the facility. Most of the remainder involved land disposal of solid wastes. Specific sources of major pollutants are identified

  19. Identifying inequitable exposure to toxic air pollution in racialized and low-income neighbourhoods to support pollution prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Kershaw

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous environmental justice studies have confirmed a relationship between population characteristics such as low-income or minority status and the location of environmental health hazards. However, studies of the health risks from exposure to harmful substances often do not consider their toxicological characteristics. We used two different methods, the unit-hazard and the distance-based approach, to evaluate demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the population residing near industrial facilities in the City of Toronto, Canada. In addition to the mass of air emissions obtained from the national pollutant release inventory (NPRI, we also considered their toxicity using toxic equivalency potential (TEP scores. Results from the unit-hazard approach indicate no significant difference in the proportion of low-income individuals living in host versus non-host census tracts (t(107 = 0.3, P = 0.735. However, using the distance-based approach, the proportion of low-income individuals was significantly higher (+5.1%, t(522 = 6.0, P <0.001 in host tracts, while the indicator for “racialized” communities (“visible minority” was 16.1% greater (t(521 = 7.2, P <0.001 within 2 km of a NPRI facility. When the most toxic facilities by non-carcinogenic TEP score were selected, the rate of visible minorities living near the most toxic NPRI facilities was significantly higher (+12.9%, t(352 = 3.5, P = 0.001 than near all other NPRI facilities. TEP scores were also used to identify areas in Toronto that face a double burden of poverty and air toxics exposure in order to prioritise pollution prevention.

  20. Storm water pollution prevention plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the final storm water regulation on November 16, 1990. The storm water regulation is included in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations. An NPDES permit was issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and was effective on July 1, 1995. The permit requires that a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3) be developed by December 28, 1995, and be fully implemented by July 1, 1996; this plan has been developed to fulfill that requirement. The outfalls and monitoring points described in this plan contain storm water discharges associated with industrial activities as defined in the NPDES regulations. For storm water discharges associated with industrial activity, including storm water discharges associated with construction activity, that are not specifically monitored or limited in this permit, Y-12 Plant personnel will meet conditions of the General Storm Water Rule 1200-4-10. This document presents the programs and physical controls that are in place to achieve the following objectives: ensure compliance with Section 1200-4-10-.04(5) of the TDEC Water Quality Control Regulations and Part 4 of the Y-12 Plant NPDES Permit (TN0002968); provide operating personnel with guidance relevant to storm water pollution prevention and control requirements for their facility and/or project; and prevent or reduce pollutant discharge to the environment, in accordance with the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Tennessee Water Quality Control Act

  1. Storm water pollution prevention plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the final storm water regulation on November 16, 1990. The storm water regulation is included in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations. An NPDES permit was issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and was effective on July 1, 1995. The permit requires that a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3) be developed by December 28, 1995, and be fully implemented by July 1, 1996; this plan has been developed to fulfill that requirement. The outfalls and monitoring points described in this plan contain storm water discharges associated with industrial activities as defined in the NPDES regulations. For storm water discharges associated with industrial activity, including storm water discharges associated with construction activity, that are not specifically monitored or limited in this permit, Y-12 Plant personnel will meet conditions of the General Storm Water Rule 1200-4-10. This document presents the programs and physical controls that are in place to achieve the following objectives: ensure compliance with Section 1200-4-10-.04(5) of the TDEC Water Quality Control Regulations and Part 4 of the Y-12 Plant NPDES Permit (TN0002968); provide operating personnel with guidance relevant to storm water pollution prevention and control requirements for their facility and/or project; and prevent or reduce pollutant discharge to the environment, in accordance with the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Tennessee Water Quality Control Act.

  2. Hanford site pollution prevention plan progress report, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkendall, J.R.

    1996-08-26

    This report tracks progress made during 1995 against the goals stated in DOE/RL-92-62, Executive Summary, Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan. The Executive Summary of the plan was submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in September 1992. The plan, Executive Summary, and the progress reports are elements of a pollution prevention planning program that is required by WAC 173-307,`Plans,` for all hazardous substance users and/or all hazardous waste generators regulated by Ecology. These regulations implement RCW 70.95C, `Waste Reduction,` an act relating to hazardous waste reduction. The act encourages voluntary efforts to redesign industrial processes to help reduce or eliminate hazardous substances and hazardous waste byproducts, and to maximize the in- process reuse or reclamation of valuable spent material.

  3. e-compendium - Air Pollution Prevention in an International and EU Environmental Law Perspective, Summer 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    E-compendium Air Pollution Prevention in an International and EU Environmental Law Perspective, Summer 2014......E-compendium Air Pollution Prevention in an International and EU Environmental Law Perspective, Summer 2014...

  4. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This fourth Annual Report presents and analyzes 1995 DOE complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention activities at 40 reporting sites in 25 States, and trends DOE waste generation from 1991 through 1995. DOE has established a 50% reduction goal (relative to the 1993 baseline) for routine operations radioactive and hazardous waste generation, due by December 31, 1999. Routine operations waste generation decreased 37% from 1994 to 1995, and 43% overall from 1993--1995

  5. Regulatory barriers to pollution prevention: A position paper of the implementation council of the American institute for pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byers, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Pollution prevention/waste minimization is a win-win-win situation for government, industry, and the public, which offers more than just protection of the environment for all. Industry gains from reduced capital and operating costs, reduced liabilities, cleaner and safer working conditions, conservation of energy and material resources, and the opportunity for government and industry to work together in a cooperative manner. However, a number of regulatory barriers exist which discourage pollution prevention/waste minimization. This paper provides examples for the aluminum, chemical, petroleum, and wood treating industries of how these regulatory barriers become disincentives. To promote pollusion prevention/waste minimization, Congress and the US EPA need to reexamine those RCRA provisions which support a command and control strategy that creates the barriers. The barriers include the distinction between value and valueless materials, offsite storage requirements prior to reuse/recycle, the Derived from Rule, the Burning for Fuel Rule, land ban technology standards, and RD and D restrictions. A new RCRA Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization subtitle is proposed to eliminate or minimize these barriers

  6. Achieving multiple compliance objectives through a storm water pollution prevention plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, K.J.; Cataldo, R. [ENSR, Acton, MA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    All across the US, facility managers and environmental staff are trying to keep up with proliferating regulations and associated filing and reporting requirements. Added to the already full plate of regulations is the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program for storm water management. The NPDES program requires a permit for the discharge of runoff from facilities based on Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code. Some businesses do not yet need to comply with NPDES, as not all types of facilities were included in the Phase 1 list of regulated activities (September 1992). However, most businesses will be included as part of Phase 2 by 2002. Furthermore, states adopting administration of the NPDES program have the option of accelerating the process. In addition to filing for a permit, the NPDES storm water program requires the preparation and implementation of a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP). A properly prepared SWPPP can help facilities more easily comply with regulatory requirements and serve as an overall facility management tool.

  7. Transforming environmental permitting and compliance policies to promote pollution prevention: Removing barriers and providing incentives to foster technology innovation, economic productivity, and environmental protection. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, D.R.; Kerr, R.L.; Fleischer, S.; Gorsen, M.; Harris, E.

    1993-04-01

    The Technology Innovation and Economics (TIE) Committee, a standing committee of EPA's National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT), has concluded that major changes are needed in federal and state permitting and compliance programs to encourage adoption of practical pollution prevention approaches to environmental protection. The Committee recommends seven major areas for improvement, including: (1) Redesigning permit procedures to encourage regulated facilities to expand multi-media and pollution prevention environmental improvement efforts; (2) Accelerating development and use of innovative pollution prevention technologies and techniques through special permitting and review procedures during RD ampersand D and commercialization phases; (3) Developing and expanding federal and state pollution prevention enforcement initiative; (4) Supporting state initiatives in pollution prevention facility planning; (5) Expanding pollution prevention-related training, educational and technology diffusion efforts to better reach managers in all sectors of the economy; (6) Altering personnel reward systems to encourage EPA staff to champion pollution prevention; (7) Expanding and publicizing the system of national awards honoring outstanding pollution prevention research, training and technology implementation

  8. 48 CFR 52.223-5 - Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pollution Prevention and... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-5 Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information. As prescribed in 23.1005, insert the following clause: Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information (AUG 2003) (a...

  9. 77 FR 63803 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ...; Information Collection; Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information (FAR 52.223-5) AGENCY: Department... previously approved information collection requirement concerning pollution prevention and right-to-know..., Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information'' on your attached document. Fax: 202-501-4067. Mail...

  10. 77 FR 52341 - Information Collection Activity: Subpart C, Pollution Prevention and Control; Submitted for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ...-0001; OMB Number 1014-NEW] Information Collection Activity: Subpart C, Pollution Prevention and Control... the regulations under Subpart C, Pollution Prevention and Control. This notice also provides the... information. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR 250, Subpart C, Pollution Prevention and Control. OMB...

  11. 40 CFR 63.2495 - How do I comply with the pollution prevention standard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Manufacturing Alternative Means of Compliance § 63.2495 How do I comply with the pollution prevention standard? (a) You may elect to comply with the pollution prevention alternative requirements specified in... comply by using the pollution prevention alternative must begin with the same starting material(s) and...

  12. 30 CFR 250.806 - Safety and pollution prevention equipment quality assurance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and pollution prevention equipment... Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.806 Safety and pollution prevention equipment quality assurance... install only certified safety and pollution prevention equipment (SPPE) in wells located on the OCS. SPPE...

  13. 33 CFR 151.19 - International Oil Pollution Prevention (IOPP) Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... International Oil Pollution Prevention (IOPP) Certificates. (a) Each U.S. oil tanker of 150 gross tons and above... Oil Pollution Prevention (IOPP) Certificate. (b) Each oil tanker of 150 gross tons and above and each... construction, equipment, fittings, or arrangements required by the pollution prevention requirements of parts...

  14. Assessment of pollution prevention and control technology for plating operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmer, Paul D.; Sonntag, William A.; Cushnie, George C., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) is sponsoring an on-going project to assess pollution prevention and control technology available to the plating industry and to make this information available to those who can benefit from it. Completed project activities include extensive surveys of the plating industry and vendors of technologies and an indepth literature review. The plating industry survey was performed in cooperation with the National Association of Metal Finishers. The contractor that conducted the surveys and prepared the project products was CAI Engineering. The initial products of the project were made available in April, 1994. These products include an extensive report that presents the results of the surveys and literature review and an electronic database. The project results are useful for all those associated with pollution prevention and control in the plating industry. The results show which treatment, recovery and bath maintenance technologies have been most successful for different plating processes and the costs for purchasing and operating these technologies. The project results also cover trends in chemical substitution, the identification of compliance-problem pollutants, sludge generation rates, off-site sludge recovery and disposal options, and many other pertinent topics.

  15. Prosperity without pollution: The prevention strategy for industry and consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschhorn, J.S.; Oldenburg, K.V.

    1990-01-01

    Here is the first book to explain why only a preventative environmental strategy can work: because growing population, consumption and industrialization cripple current, rather haphazard, remedial efforts. This book shows how our society can make more with less, be more competitive and less polluting, while maintaining our standard of living by reducing and eventually eliminating the production of wastes and pollutants from industry, commerce, homes, farms, and institutions. This may seem far-fetched, but be prepared to discover in this book that there can be a middle ground between ecology and economy - and that you can help achieve it. You'll find data and examples that any person can use, from engineers in industry to office workers to activists. Every concerned citizen will also want to consider the authors' innovative suggestions for taxing wastes and using the proceeds to help companies and communities switch to new industrial processes. Also, you should evaluate their proposals to reburies meaningful waste and toxicity information on product labels, to make bans on chemicals and products a more credible and available corrective measure, and to secure permanent, high-level government support for pollution prevention

  16. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TECHNOLOGY TO PREVENT WATER RESOURCES POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Gökalp

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Discharge of untreated waste waters into surface waters creates significant pollution in these resources. Wastewaters are most of the time discharged into seas, rivers and other water bodies without any treatments due to high treatment costs both in Turkey and throughout the world. Constructed wetlands, also called as natural treatment systems, are used as an alternative treatment system to conventional high-cost treatment systems because of their low construction, operation and maintenance costs, energy demands, easy operation and low sludge generation. Today, constructed wetland systems are largely used to treat domestic wastewaters, agricultural wastewaters, industrial wastewater and runoff waters and ultimately to prevent water pollution and to improve water quality of receiving water bodies. In present study, currently implemented practices in design, construction, operation and maintenance of constructed wetlands were assessed and potential mistakes made in different phases these systems were pointed out and possible solutions were proposed to overcome these problems.

  17. Performance evaluation on air pollution reducing facilities and mechanism research on the third-party governance on environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingsheng, Xu; Ling, Lin; Jin, Huang; Geng, Wang; Jianhua, Chen; Shuo, Yang; Huiting, Guo

    2017-11-01

    The paper focuses on developing the operational efficiency of air pollution reducing facilities and the treatment effect of the third-party governance on environmental pollution. Comprehensive analysis method and influence factor analysis are employed to build an evaluation index system by means of discussing major pollution control factors derived from the performance of pollution control equipment operation, environmental protection, technological economy, recourse consumption and manufacturing management. Based on the pattern of environmental pollution control offered by the third-party company, the static games model is further established between the government and the pollution emission firm by considering the whole process of the pollution abatement including investment, construction and operation of the treatment project, which focuses on establishing the policy condition and consequence by discussing the cost and benefit in a short and a long time, respectively. The research results can improve the market access requests of the pollution control equipment and normalize the environmental protection service offered by the third-party company. Moreover, the establishment of the evaluation index system for pollution control equipment and the evaluation mechanism for the third-party governance on environmental pollution has guiding significance on leading environmental protection industry and promoting market-oriented development

  18. Educational understanding of pollution prevention in decontamination and decommissioning/environmental restoration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betsch, M.D.; Lewis, R.A.

    1995-05-01

    Demolishing outdated structures from the US Department of Energy Hanford Site in Washington, generates large quantities of waste which can be minimized. The Hanford cleanup is one of the world's largest and most complex environmental restoration efforts. Approximately 280 square miles of ground water and soil are contaminated; there are more than 80 surplus facilities, including nine shut-down nuclear reactors in various stages of decay; and there are 177 underground waste storage tanks containing highly radioactive waste. In all, 1,500 cleanup sites have been identified and the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) is currently responsible for surveillance and maintenance of 170 structures. A two hour orientation training in pollution prevention was developed by the Westinghouse Hanford Company to provide all Decontamination and Decommissioning/Environmental Restoration (D ampersand D/ER) personnel with the knowledge to apply waste minimization principles during their cleanup activities. The ERC Team Pollution Prevention Workshop serves to communicate pollution prevention philosophies and influences the way D ampersand D/ER projects are conducted at the Hanford Site

  19. Environmental policies and the pollution prevention principle. Das Vorsorgeprinzip in der Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, H M

    1992-01-01

    The pollution prevention principle has become the dominant environmental-policy guideline in the Federal Republic of Germany and in the European Communities. The compatibility of the pollution prevention principle with the dominating ecological-economics theory is analyzed, and the differences between the pollution prevention and the polluter principle as a significant, economically founded guideline are defined on the basis of the results obtained. The implementation of the pollution prevention principle, which is understood as an extensive ecologization of the socio-economic structures, is discussed evaluating the contribution of normative and empirical ethics and investigating three closely related aspects, i.e. the development of a pollution prevention target system, the suitability of environmental-policy instruments with regard to different levels of prevention, and the national and democratic institutional prerequisites. The prospects of the pollution prevention principle within the European Communities are discussed on the basis of these findings. (orig.).

  20. Westinghouse Hanford Company Pollution Prevention Program Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, B.C.

    1994-10-01

    This plan documents Westinghouse Hanford Company's (WHC) Pollution Prevention (P2) (formerly Waste Minimization) program. The program includes WHC; BCS Richland, Inc. (BCSR); and ICF Kaiser Hanford Company (ICF KH). The plan specifies P2 program activities and schedules for implementing the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness (WMin/P2) Program Plan requirements (DOE 1994a). It is intended to satisfy the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other legal requirements that are discussed in both the Hanford Site WMin/P2 plan and paragraph C of this plan. As such, the Pollution Prevention Awareness Program required by DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988) is included in the WHC P2 program. WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH are committed to implementing an effective P2 program as identified in the Hanford Site WMin/P2 Plan. This plan provides specific information on how the WHC P2 program will develop and implement the goals, activities, and budget needed to accomplish this. The emphasis has been to provide detailed planning of the WHC P2 program activities over the next 3 years. The plan will guide the development and implementation of the program. The plan also provides background information on past program activities. Because the plan contains greater detail than in the past, activity scope and implementation schedules may change as new priorities are identified and new approaches are developed and realized. Some activities will be accelerated, others may be delayed; however, all of the general program elements identified in this plan and contractor requirements identified in the Site WMin/P2 plan will be developed and implemented during the next 3 years. This plan applies to all WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH organizations and subcontractors. It will be distributed to those with defined responsibilities in this plan; and the policy, goals, objectives, and strategy of the program will be communicated to all WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH employees

  1. Integrated pollution prevention and control scares industrial companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zackova, K.; Sobinkovic, B.

    2003-01-01

    It will not be easy to obtain a permit to open a new industrial plant. And not only the new ones but all important operating industrial productions will require a so called integrated permit. Both authorities and company managers consider the validation process to be more demanding compared to the current procedure for obtaining a building or user permit. As of August 1, 2003 - the day a new Act on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) is expected to enter into force - only integrated permits will be given. The related bill has been passed to the parliament for the second reading. As of end of April next year the future of 31 industrial plants will depend on whether they will be granted a integrated permit or not. IPPC is a terror for companies due to its seriousness, complexity and the relatively short time given, should they not manage to obtain a permit the plant may be closed down. The European Commission (EC) Directive 96/61/EC Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control raises the same concerns among companies in European Union (EU) member states. It is one of the most strict environmental standards and one of the sensitive conditions of EU entry. That is one of the reasons transition periods for this Directive were negotiated for ten Slovak companies. (Authors)

  2. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    This seventh Annual Report presents and analyzes DOE Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention activities at 45 reporting sites from 1993 through 1998. This section summarizes Calendar Year 1998 Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention accomplishments. More detailed information follows this section in the body of the Report. In May 1996, the Secretary of Energy established a 50 percent Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goal (relative to the 1993 baseline) for routine operations radioactive, mixed, and hazardous waste generation, to be achieved by December31, 1999. DOE has achieved its Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goals for routine operations based upon a comparison of 1998 waste generation to the 1993 baseline. Excluding sanitary waste, routine operations waste generation decreased 67 percent overall from 1993 to 1998. However, for the first time since 1994, the total amount of materials recycled by the Complex decreased from 109,600 metric tons in 1997 to 92,800 metric tons in 1998. This decrease is attributed to the fact that in 1997, several large ''one-time only'' recycling projects were conducted throughout the Complex. In order to demonstrate commitment to DOE's Complex-wide recycling goal, it is important for sites to identify all potential large-scale recycling/reuse opportunities.

  3. A proposed framework for conducting pollution prevention design assessments (P2DAs) on U.S. Department of Energy design projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorsey, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide a framework for project managers, engineers, and designers to integrate pollution prevention principles and features into DOE design projects. The framework suggested is referred to as the pollution prevention design assessment (P2DA). The P2DA is based on DOE's method for conducting pollution prevention opportunity assessments (PPOAs) on existing waste-generating operations, but the P2DA is modified because the facility or process it assesses does not physically exist during design. Before the P2DA framework is introduced in the manual, recommendations for establishing the P2DA team and budget are provided. Specific pollution prevention requirements and opportunities for each design stage as delineated in DOE Order 4700.1 Project Management System are also discussed and a sample format for drafting a P2DA report is provided in the appendix. The scope of this manual includes not only the P2DA framework, but also a background discussion of pollution prevention and related topics; the regulatory requirements mandating design for pollution prevention; the benefits and barriers of designing for pollution prevention; and the impact that pollution prevention and related environmental avoidance concepts have had on the engineering profession

  4. Mine water pollution in Scotland. Nature, extent and preventative strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younger, P.L. [Water Resource Systems Research Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Newcastle, NE1 7RU Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2001-01-29

    Scotland was one of the world's first industrialised countries, and has therefore also been one of the first countries to experience wholesale post-industrial dereliction. Water pollution arising from abandoned mines, particularly abandoned coal mines, is second only to sewage as a source of freshwater pollution nation-wide, and in many coalfield catchments it is the pre-eminent source. Most of the pollution is due to net-alkaline ferruginous waters emerging from deep mines. Scrutiny of records from 80 deep mine discharges reveals that iron concentrations in these waters are only likely to exceed 20 mg/l, and the pH to be below 6.5, where the discharge emerges within 0.5 km of the outcrop of the shallowest mined seam. The bulk of mature near-outcrop mine water discharges in Scotland have<50 mg/l total Fe, and concentrations>100 mg/l are only likely where a marine bed lies within 25 m of the worked seam. Where the nearest marine bed is more than 80 m above or below the seam, then the total iron will be less than 4 mg/l, and in most cases less than 1 mg/l. Net-acidic mine waters are far more rare than net-alkaline waters in Scotland, and are most commonly associated with unreclaimed spoil heaps (bings). Both net-alkaline and net-acidic discharges have detrimental effects on the hydrochemistry and biological integrity of receiving waters. Scotland has recently pioneered the use of pre-emptive pump-and-treat solutions to prevent mine water pollution, and has also experienced the successful introduction of passive treatment technology for both abandoned and active workings.

  5. Communities Putting Prevention to Work: Results of an Obesity Prevention Initiative in Child Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby; Camejo, Stephanie; Sanders, Lee M.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant public health issue affecting even our youngest children. Given that a significant amount of young children are enrolled in child care, the goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of a child care facility-based obesity prevention program. Over 1,000 facilities participated in the study. The intervention…

  6. 78 FR 34973 - Proposal for Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 62 [EPA-R05-OAR-2013-0372; FRL-9820-9] Proposal for Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; Indiana AGENCY... direct final rulemaking, Indiana's State Plan to control air pollutants from Sewage Sludge Incinerators...

  7. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan - TA-60 Asphalt Batch Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector P-Land Transportation and Warehousing as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA-60-01 Asphalt Batch Plant at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-60 Asphalt Batch Plant and associated areas. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  8. Pollution prevention at a profit in the production of iron and steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine, H.A.; Molbug, J.; Gorsevski, V.; Briskin, J.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.; Martin, N.

    1997-01-01

    Many different processes and flow sheets exist for the production of iron and steel. These individual processes and process combinations consume differing amounts of energy and result in differing carbon dioxide emissions, greatly complicating evaluation of new, energy conserving technologies. Not only does a large array of competing energy saving technologies exist, but these technologies must be applied to this diverse set of production facilities. A methodology now under development for performing a multiple pathways analysis that characterizes both energy usage and carbon emissions is described in this article. This methodology can examine multiple options at each step in the process for the production of iron and steel, and the potential economic and pollution prevention opportunities that each may have. A first order estimate of the role of energy and materials conservation in returning historical investment is also provided, demonstrating past pollution prevention at a profit. Finally, a preliminary analysis of selected strategies for further prevention at a profit in the production of iron and steel is provided

  9. Proceedings of pollution prevention and waste minimization tools workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Pollution Prevention (P2) has evolved into one of DOE's sprime strategies to meet environmental, fiscal, and worker safety obligations. P2 program planning, opportunity identification, and implementation tools were developed under the direction of the Waste Minimization Division (EM-334). Forty experts from EM, DP, ER and DOE subcontractors attended this 2-day workshop to formulate the incentives to drive utilization of these tools. Plenary and small working group sessions were held both days. Working Group 1 identified incentives to overcoming barriers in the area of P2 program planning and resource allocation. Working Group 2 identified mechanisms to drive the completion of P2 assessments and generation of opportunities. Working Group 3 compiled and documented a broad range of potential P2 incentives that address fundamental barriers to implementation of cost effective opportunities

  10. Contacts in the Office of Pesticide Programs, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contact the Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (BPPD) about regulatory activities associated with biologically-based pesticides, implementation of integrated pest management and the Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program.

  11. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 2000 [USDOE] [9th edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2001-01-01

    This ninth edition of the Annual Report of Waste Generation and Pollution Prevention Progress highlights waste reduction, pollution prevention accomplishments, and cost savings/avoidance for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pollution Prevention Program for Fiscal Year 2000. This edition marks the first time that progress toward meeting the 2005 Pollution Prevention Goals, issued by the Secretary of Energy in November 1999, is being reported. In addition, the Annual Report has a new format, and now contains information on a fiscal year basis, which is consistent with other DOE reports

  12. Smart City Environmental Pollution Prevention and Control Design Based on Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, He; Bohong, Zheng; Qinpei, Kuang

    2017-11-01

    Due to increasingly serious urban pollution, this paper proposes an environmental pollution prevention and control system in combination with Internet of things. The system transfers data through the Internet, which also utilizes sensor, pH sensor and smoke sensor to obtain environmental data. Besides, combined with the video data acquired through monitoring, the data are transferred to data center to analyze the haze pollution, water pollution and fire disaster in environment. According to the results, multi-purpose vehicles are mobilized to complete the tasks such as spraying water to relieve haze, water source purification and fire fighting in city environment. Experiments show that the environmental pollution prevention and control system designed in this paper can automatically complete the urban environmental pollution detection, prevention and control, which thus reduces human and material resources and improves the efficiency of pollution prevention and control. Therefore, it possesses greatly practical significance to the construction of smart city.

  13. Infection prevention and control in deployed military medical treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospenthal, Duane R; Green, Andrew D; Crouch, Helen K; English, Judith F; Pool, Jane; Yun, Heather C; Murray, Clinton K

    2011-08-01

    Infections have complicated the care of combat casualties throughout history and were at one time considered part of the natural history of combat trauma. Personnel who survived to reach medical care were expected to develop and possibly succumb to infections during their care in military hospitals. Initial care of war wounds continues to focus on rapid surgical care with debridement and irrigation, aimed at preventing local infection and sepsis with bacteria from the environment (e.g., clostridial gangrene) or the casualty's own flora. Over the past 150 years, with the revelation that pathogens can be spread from patient to patient and from healthcare providers to patients (including via unwashed hands of healthcare workers, the hospital environment and fomites), a focus on infection prevention and control aimed at decreasing transmission of pathogens and prevention of these infections has developed. Infections associated with combat-related injuries in the recent operations in Iraq and Afghanistan have predominantly been secondary to multidrug-resistant pathogens, likely acquired within the military healthcare system. These healthcare-associated infections seem to originate throughout the system, from deployed medical treatment facilities through the chain of care outside of the combat zone. Emphasis on infection prevention and control, including hand hygiene, isolation, cohorting, and antibiotic control measures, in deployed medical treatment facilities is essential to reducing these healthcare-associated infections. This review was produced to support the Guidelines for the Prevention of Infections Associated With Combat-Related Injuries: 2011 Update contained in this supplement of Journal of Trauma.

  14. 77 FR 62452 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY... (SIP) revision submitted by the State of Arizona to address the requirements regarding air pollution... air pollution emergency episodes in CAA section 110(a)(2)(G). Section 110(a)(2)(G) requires that each...

  15. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the K-25 Site Steam Plant -- Level 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    A Level 3 pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed for the K-1501 Steam Plant at the K-25 Site. The primary objective was to identify and evaluate pollution prevention (P2) options to reduce the quantities of each waste stream generated by the Steam Plant. For each of the waste streams, P2 options were evaluated to first reduce the quantity of waste generated and second to recycle the waste. This report provides a process description of the facility; identification, evaluation, and recommendations of P2 options; an implementation schedule with funding sources; and conclusions. Largely for economic reasons, only 3 of the 14 P2 options are being recommended for implementation. All are source reduction options. When implemented, these three options are estimated to reduce the annual generation of waste by 658,412 kg and will result in a cost savings of approximately $29,232/year for the K-25 Site. The recommended options are to: install a flue gas return System in Boiler 7; reduce steam loss from traps; and increase lapse time between rinses. The four boilers currently in operation at the Steam Plant use natural gas or fuel oil as fuel sources

  16. Multi-media pollution prevention: A case study of a refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.E.; Podar, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    In late 1989, Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency began a voluntary, joint project to study pollution prevention opportunities at an industrial facility. Amoco proposed use of its refinery at Yorktown, Virginia, to conduct a multi-media assessment of releases to the environment, then to develop and evaluate options to reduce these releases. A Workgroup composed of state, federal, and Amoco representatives provided oversight to the Project. Monthly Workgroup meetings provided Project oversight, a forum for presentations on different Project components, and an opportunity for informal discussion of different viewpoints about environmental management. The Workgroup identified four objectives for this study: (1) Inventory refinery releases to the environment to define their chemical type, quantity, source, and medium of release; (2) develop options to reduce selected releases identified, as well as rank and prioritize the options based on a variety of criteria and perspectives; (3) identify and evaluate factors as technical, legislative, regulatory, institutional, permitting, and economic, that impede or encourage pollution prevention; and (4) enhance participates' knowledge of refinery and regulatory systems

  17. NASA LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER AND THE TIDEWATER INTERAGENCY POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)'s Langley Research Center (LaRC) is an 807-acre research center devoted to aeronautics and space research. aRC has initiated a broad-based pollution prevention program guided by a Pollution Prevention Program Plan and implement...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1639 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.1639 Section 52.1639 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Mexico § 52.1639 Prevention of air pollution emergency...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2227 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.2227 Section 52.2227 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Tennessee § 52.2227 Prevention of air pollution emergency...

  20. 40 CFR 52.11 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.11 Section 52.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.11 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. ...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1934 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.1934 Section 52.1934 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oklahoma § 52.1934 Prevention of air pollution emergency...

  2. Environmental Restoration Contractor Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    This plan contains the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Program. The plan outlines the activities and schedules developed by the ERC to reduce the quantity and toxicity of waste dispositioned as a result of restoration and remediation activities. This plan satisfies US Department of Energy (DOE) requirements including the Pollution Prevention Awareness program required by DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988). This plan is consistent with Executive Order 12856 and Secretary O'Leary's pollution prevention Policy Statement of December 27, 1994, which set US and DOE pollution prevention policies, respectively. It is also consistent with the DOE Pollution Prevention Crosscut Plan, 1994, which provides guidance in meeting the DOE goals in pollution prevention. The purpose of this plan is to aid ERC projects in meeting and documenting compliance with requirements for WMin/P2. This plan contains the objectives, strategy, and support activities of the ERC Team WMin/P2 program. The basic elements of the plan are pollution prevention goals, waste assessments of major waste streams, implementation of feasible waste minimization opportunities, and a process for reporting achievements. Wherever appropriate, the ERC will integrate the pollution prevention activities in this plan into regular program activities rather than establishing separate WMin/P2 activities. Moreover, wherever possible, existing documents, procedures, and activities will be used to meet WMin/P2 requirements

  3. Directory of Pollution Prevention in Higher Education: Faculty and Programs 1992. Doc #93-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshani, Nandkumar; Allen, David

    This survey reports the current state of development of pollution prevention education in Universities in the United States based on a national survey conducted between December 1991 and February 1992. Over 140 individuals (from 80 institutions) believed to be active in pollution prevention education were contacted and of these 89 (from 59…

  4. Pollution-Prevention Information Campaigns for Small Businesses: An Audience Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiarsky, Greg; Long, Marilee; Zimmerman, Donald E.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the results of a random phone survey of 300 small businesses in order to develop a pollution-prevention campaign. Results indicate that respondents understood the concept of pollution prevention and were taking steps to reduce their part in it. Businesses preferred to obtain their information from suppliers, publications, and other…

  5. Role of the American Institute for Pollution Prevention in reducing environmental risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, T.R.

    1991-01-01

    The EPA Science Advisory Board recommended that in the decade of the 1990's, EPA strategy should focus on the long-term goal of preventing and reducing environmental risk and should shift from end-of-pipe controls to preventing the generation of pollution. To assist EPA in developing and implementing this philosophy, the American Institute for Pollution Prevention (AIPP) was founded jointly by EPA and the University of Cincinnati in June, 1989. The mission of the Institute is to generate broad support from private and public sectors and to assist EPA in achieving widespread and expeditious adoption of pollution prevention concepts. AIPP will provide a novel communication bridge between EPA and industry. AIPP will provide and promote liasion between professionals in the field of pollution and those who need to employ new and improved pollution prevention techniques

  6. Air Pollution Prevention and Control Policy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cunrui; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Suhan; Ren, Meng; Ma, Rui; He, Yiling

    2017-01-01

    With rapid urbanization and development of transport infrastructure, air pollution caused by multiple-pollutant emissions and vehicle exhaust has been aggravated year by year in China. In order to improve air quality, the Chinese authorities have taken a series of actions to control air pollution emission load within a permissible range. However, although China has made positive progress on tackling air pollution, these actions have not kept up with its economy growth and fossil-fuel use. The traditional single-pollutant approach is far from enough in China now, and in the near future, air pollution control strategies should move in the direction of the multiple-pollutant approach. In addition, undesirable air quality is usually linked with the combination of high emissions and adverse weather conditions. However, few studies have been done on the influence of climate change on atmospheric chemistry in the global perspective. Available evidence suggested that climate change is likely to exacerbate certain kinds of air pollutants including ozone and smoke from wildfires. This has become a major public health problem because the interactions of global climate change, urban heat islands, and air pollution have adverse effects on human health. In this chapter, we first review the past and current circumstances of China's responses to air pollution. Then we discuss the control challenges and future options for a better air quality in China. Finally, we begin to unravel links between air pollution and climate change, providing new opportunities for integrated research and actions in China.

  7. Integration of biotechnology in remediation and pollution prevention activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong-Gunderson, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement/North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation provides a mechanism for an international collaboration between the US, Canada, and Mexico to jointly develop, modify, or refine technologies that remediate or protect the environment. These countries have a vested interest in this type of collaboration because contaminants do not respect the boundaries of a manufacturing site, region, city, state, or country. The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) consists of a diverse group of individuals who address a variety of environmental issues. ESD is involved in basic and applied research on the fate, transport, and remediation of contaminants; environmental assessment; environmental engineering; and demonstrations of advanced remediation technologies. The remediation and protection of the environment includes water, air, and soils for organic, inorganic, and radioactive contaminants. In addition to remediating contaminated sites, research also focuses on life-cycle analyses of industrial processes and the production of green technologies. The author focuses this discussion on subsurface remediation and pollution prevention; however, the research activities encompass water, soil and air and many of the technologies are applicable to all environments. The discussion focuses on the integration of biotechnology with remediation activities and subsequently linking these biological processes to other remediation technologies

  8. Airlie House Pollution Prevention Technology Transfer pilot projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuot, J.R.; Myron, H.; Gatrone, R.; McHenry, J.

    1996-08-01

    The projects were a series of pilot projects developed for DOE with the intention of transferring pollution prevention technology to private industry. The concept was to develop small technology transfer initiatives in partnership with the private sector. Argonne National Laboratory developed three projects: the microscale chemistry in education program, the microscale cost benefit study, and the Bethel New Life recycling trainee program. The two microscale chemistry projects focused on introducing microscale chemistry technologies to secondary and college education. These programs were inexpensive to develop and received excellent evaluations from participants and regulators. The recycle trainee project provided training for two participants and identified recycling and source reduction opportunities in Argonne`s solid waste stream. The pilot projects demonstrated that technology transfer initiatives can be developed and implemented with a small budget and within a short period of time. The essential components of the pilot projects were identification of target technologies that were already available, identification of target audiences, and a focus of effort to achieve a limited but defined objective.

  9. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    This sixth Annual Report presents and analyzes DOE Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention activities at 36 reporting sites from 1993 through 1997. In May 1996, the Secretary of Energy established a 50 percent Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goal (relative to the 1993 baseline) for routine operations radioactive and hazardous waste generation, to be achieved by December 31, 1999. Excluding sanitary waste, routine operations waste generation increased three percent from 1996 to 1997, and decreased 61 percent overall from 1993 to 1997. DOE has achieved its Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goals for routine operations based upon a comparison of 1997 waste generation to the 1993 baseline. However, it is important to note that increases in low-level radioactive and low-level mixed waste generation could reverse this achievement. From 1996 to 1997, low-level radioactive waste generation increased 10 percent, and low-level mixed waste generation increased slightly. It is critical that DOE sites continue to reduce routine operations waste generation for all waste types, to ensure that DOE's Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goals are achieved by December 31, 1999

  10. Revealing the costs of air pollution from industrial facilities in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, M. (EMRC, Brussels (Belgium)); Wagner, A.; Davies, T. (AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)); Spadaro, J. (SERC, Charlotte, NC (United States)); Adams, M. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2011-11-15

    This European Environment Agency (EEA) report assesses the damage costs to health and the environment resulting from pollutants emitted from industrial facilities. It is based on the latest information, namely for 2009, publicly available through the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR, 2011) in line with the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Aarhus Convention regarding access to environmental information. This report investigates the use of a simplified modelling approach to quantify, in monetary terms, the damage costs caused by emissions of air pollutants from industrial facilities reported to the E-PRTR pollutant register. The approach is based on existing policy tools and methods, such as those developed under the EU's CAFE programme for the main air pollutants. This study also employs other existing models and approaches used to inform policymakers about the damage costs of pollutants. Together, the methods are used to estimate the impacts and associated economic damage caused by a number of pollutants emitted from industrial facilities, including: (1) ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) and sulphur oxides (SO{sub x}); (2) heavy metals; (3) benzene, dioxins and furans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); (4) carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The cost of damage caused by emissions from the E-PRTR industrial facilities in 2009 is estimated as being at least EUR 102-169 billion. A small number of industrial facilities cause the majority of the damage costs to health and the environment. Fifty per cent of the total damage cost occurs as a result of emissions from just 191 (or 2 %) of the approximately 10 000 facilities that reported at least some data for releases to air in 2009. Three quarters of the total damage costs are caused by the emissions of 622 facilities, which comprise 6 % of the total number. Of the

  11. Preventative maintenance of drainpipes in radioisotope facility using flexible hose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroi, Tomoko; Tatsunami, Shinobu; Kuwabara, Rie; Kouyama, Hiroshi; Matsui, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Takio

    2009-01-01

    A flexible hose made of plasticized polyvinyl chloride was introduced into underground radioactive wastewater drainpipes as preventative maintenance. We completed a seamless connection spanning the longest interval between the last confluence point and the wastewater tank. Although the flexible hose is not a construction material but rather a consumable article, it is robust against the effects of temperature change and erosion by chemical substances. Moreover, it is placed in an underground steel pipe where it is protected from UV irradiation and friction. Therefore, increased hose durability is expected. In addition, the risk of damage from earthquakes or ground subsidence is negligible due to the flexibility of the hose. Compared with a full renovation of the plumbing, the economic cost is much cheaper and the construction period is much shorter. We propose the use of flexible hoses as one of the most convenient methods to prevent leakage accidents at radioisotope facilities with underground plumbing for wastewater. (author)

  12. Air pollution control system testing at the DOE offgas components test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.B.; Speed, D.; VanPelt, W.; Burns, H.H.

    1997-01-01

    In 1997, the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) plans to begin operation of the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) to treat solid and liquid RCRA hazardous and mixed wastes. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) leads an extensive technical support program designed to obtain incinerator and air pollution control equipment performance data to support facility start-up and operation. A key component of this technical support program includes the Offgas Components Test Facility (OCTF), a pilot-scale offgas system test bed. The primary goal for this test facility is to demonstrate and evaluate the performance of the planned CIF Air Pollution Control System (APCS). To accomplish this task, the OCTF has been equipped with a 1/10 scale CIF offgas system equipment components and instrumentation. In addition, the OCTF design maximizes the flexibility of APCS operation and facility instrumentation and sampling capabilities permit accurate characterization of all process streams throughout the facility. This allows APCS equipment performance to be evaluated in an integrated system under a wide range of possible operating conditions. This paper summarizes the use of this DOE test facility to successfully demonstrate APCS operability and maintainability, evaluate and optimize equipment and instrument performance, and provide direct CIF start-up support. These types of facilities are needed to permit resolution of technical issues associated with design and operation of systems that treat and dispose combustible hazardous, mixed, and low-level radioactive waste throughout and DOE complex

  13. Nuclear techniques for the study of environmental pollution and control: experience and facilities at PINSTECH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.U.; Butt, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a worldwide problem. Developed countries have already gone in the clutches of pollution. Now the rapid industrialization and modernization process has also started in the developing countries. This is posing a serious threat to their own environment. One of the important factors in the pollution control measures is to investigate the levels of environmental pollution, from time to time, by effective and reliable methods. Nuclear techniques due to their high sensitivities play an important role in this regard. These techniques have the potential to determine the concentration of pollutants in trace level quantities (ppm and ppb) and for locating the possible pollution sources such as power plants, refineries, municipal waste, industries etc. Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) has qualified and experienced scientists and has nearly all the major nuclear facilities that are needed for environmental research such as mass spectrometry, tracer techniques, neutron activation analysis (NAA), X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), atomic emission spectrometry (AES), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) etc. This paper discusses the importance of environmental pollution with a particular reference to the pollution aspects in Pakistan and the associated environmental research experience based on nuclear methods available at PINSTECH. 308 refs. (author)

  14. 78 FR 40015 - Approval and Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; District of Columbia; Control of Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator Units AGENCY: Environmental... negative declaration for hospital/medical/infectious waste incinerator (HMIWI) units within the District of...

  15. 75 FR 78952 - Approval and Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; Commonwealth of Virginia; Control of Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator (HMIWI) Units, Negative... Quality, 629 East Main Street, Richmond, Virginia 23219. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: James B. Topsale...

  16. 75 FR 78916 - Approval and Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants, Commonwealth of Virginia; Control of Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator (HMIWI) Units, Negative... 19103. Copies of the State submittal are available at the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality...

  17. 77 FR 3389 - Approval and Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants, State of West Virginia; Control of Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator Units, Plan Revision... final action to approve a revision to the West Virginia hospital/medical/infectious waste incinerator...

  18. 78 FR 40087 - Approval and Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; District of Columbia; Control of Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator Units AGENCY: Environmental...) section 111(d)/129 negative declaration for the District of Columbia for hospital/medical/infectious waste...

  19. 75 FR 73967 - Approval and Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants, State of Delaware; Control of Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator (HMIWI) Units, Negative Declaration... Environmental Control, 89 Kings Highway, P.O. Box 1401, Dover, Delaware 19903. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  20. 75 FR 73996 - Approval and Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; State of Delaware; Control of Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator (HMIWI) Units, Negative Declaration... Resources and Environmental Control, 89 Kings Highway, P.O. Box 1401, Dover, Delaware 19903. FOR FURTHER...

  1. 77 FR 3422 - Approval and Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; State of West Virginia; Control of Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator Units, Plan Revision... revision to the West Virginia hospital/medical/infectious waste incinerator (HMIWI) Section 111(d)/ 129...

  2. A management scheme for reducing pollution at air discharge facility in advance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Sung Yong; Lee, Shin Chul [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The developed countries are implementing a policy minimizing damage from environmental pollution by reducing discharge in advance as well as the aftermath of a pollutant. The typical example is to use BAT (Best Available Technology). This is to prevent environmental damage by reducing the discharge of pollutants with available technology and to secure environmental margin to enable industrial activities of future generation. Therefore, the feasibility of introducing BAT requirement system was reviewed by considering foreign examples and Korean situation. 38 refs., 8 figs., 69 tabs.

  3. Techniques for controlling air pollution from the operation of nuclear facilities. Report of a panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    This manual is provided for the guidance of those persons or authorities who are responsible for the organization, control and operation of ventilation systems and air-cleaning installations in nuclear establishments. It is intended to generalize about existing experience in the operation of such systems at nuclear facilities including reactors and laboratories for production, use and handling of radionuclides and other toxic materials. This manual will provide designers and operators of nuclear facilities in which ventilation and air-cleaning systems are used with the factors which have to be considered to create safe working conditions inside facilities and without polluting the atmosphere or the environment to a hazardous level.

  4. Hanford Site guide for preparing and maintaining generator group pollution prevention program documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 1998a) and Prime contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements are discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Waste Minimization (WMin) Assessments (WMAs); Quarterly Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting WMin Certification

  5. Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Fenerator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PLACE, B.G.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 1998a) and Prime Contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and (300501) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements are discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Waste Minimization (WMinn ) Assessments (WMAs); Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting; WMin Certification

  6. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? 63.1213 Section 63.1213 Protection of... pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? (a) Applicability. You may request from the... must contain the following information: (i) A description of pollution prevention or waste minimization...

  7. 78 FR 30304 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ...; Submission for OMB Review; Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information (FAR 52.223-5) AGENCY... previously approved information collection requirement concerning pollution prevention and right-to-know... by Information Collection 9000- 0147, Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know Information by any of...

  8. The History of Petroleum Pollution in Malaysia; Urgent Need for Integrated Prevention Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mahyar Sakari

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum pollution is known as point and non-point source of contaminations in the environment. A major class of petroleum contaminant is groups of compounds consist of two or more fused benzene rings called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic. Source identification of petroleum pollution is necessary to prevent pollution entry into the environment. Eight sedimentary cores were obtained from developed and developing areas around Peninsular Malay...

  9. Pollution prevention incentives and disincentives created by the Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, C.F.; Wolffe, G.S.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental laws and regulations have not always been implemented in a manner that allows for the consideration of pollution prevention (P2) alternatives as a means of achieving progress toward air quality goals. Recently, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been making strides to reinterpret laws and regulations to be more flexible and encourage P2 projects that do not involve end-of-the-pipe controls. For instance, when conducting control technology evaluations such as best available control technology (BACT) and lowest achievable emission rate (LAER), facilities can and should take into consideration P2 options that accomplish the same emission reduction goals as traditional end-of-the-pipe controls. There are also new emissions trading provisions building on those allowed in the acid rain and offset trading programs that promise to make P2 projects much more cost-effective. Several traditional 'command-and-control' programs of the Clean Air Act (CAA) also promote P2 projects. For instance, emission reductions realized through P2 projects show managers a direct cost savings due to reductions in Title V facility annual emissions fees and possibly a direct cost benefit through sale of emission credits. Furthermore, the CAA encourages P2 indirectly through the detail understanding of processes gained from emissions inventories and risk management plans (RMPs). However, many CAA prescriptive programs create disincentives for industry to select P2 alternatives. 30 refs

  10. A Study of Innovation: ERD Takes Pollution Prevention to a New Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southmayd, A.

    1999-01-01

    ERD approaches its mission with a vision of continuously exceeding customer needs and expectations and continuously improving. It's this vision of continuous improvement that drives the ERD pollution prevention program towards innovation

  11. Preventing industrial pollution at its source: the final report of the Michigan source reduction initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-01

    This report describes a collaborative effort between NRDC, Dow Chemical, and Michigan Environmental Groups. The effort resulted in the identification and implementation of 17 pollution prevention projects that reduced substantial quantities of wastes and emissions and saved Dow considerable money.

  12. Preventing industrial pollution at its source: the final report of the Michigan source reduction initiative; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a collaborative effort between NRDC, Dow Chemical, and Michigan Environmental Groups. The effort resulted in the identification and implementation of 17 pollution prevention projects that reduced substantial quantities of wastes and emissions and saved Dow considerable money

  13. Development of a method to evaluate the technical and environmental feasibility of particular pollution prevention opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) is obligated by House Joint Resolution 453 passed in 1995 by Virginia's General Assembly to develop and implement a pollution prevention (P2) program. The primary purpose of this study was to develop a...

  14. A Study of Innovation: ERD Takes Pollution Prevention to a New Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southmayd, A.

    1999-01-20

    ERD approaches its mission with a vision of continuously exceeding customer needs and expectations and continuously improving. It's this vision of continuous improvement that drives the ERD pollution prevention program towards innovation.

  15. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan TA-60 Asphalt Batch Plant Revision 2: January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Stormwater Pollution Prevention Team (PPT) is applicable to operations at the Technical Area (TA)- 60 Asphalt Batch Plant (ABP) located on Eniwetok Drive/Sigma Mesa, in Los Alamos County, New Mexico at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  16. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment approach, training, and technical assistance for DOE contractors. FY 1995 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemberton, S.

    1996-02-01

    The Department of Energy and its contractors are faced with environmental concerns and large waste management costs. Federal legislation and DOE Orders require sites to develop waste minimization/pollution prevention programs. In response to these requirements, the Kansas City Plant developed a pollution prevention tool called a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA). Pilot assessments resulted in the development of a graded approach to reduce the amount of effort required for activities that utilized nonhazardous and/or low-volume waste streams. The project`s objectives in FY95 were to validate DOE`s PPOA Graded Approach methodology, provide PPOA training and technical assistance to interested DOE personnel and DOE contractors, enhance the methodology with energy analysis and tools for environmental restoration activities, implement a DOE-wide PPOA database, and provide support to DOE EM-334 in the completion of a report which estimates the future potential for pollution prevention and waste minimization in the DOE complex.

  17. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment approach, training, and technical assistance for DOE contractors. FY 1995 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pemberton, S.

    1996-02-01

    The Department of Energy and its contractors are faced with environmental concerns and large waste management costs. Federal legislation and DOE Orders require sites to develop waste minimization/pollution prevention programs. In response to these requirements, the Kansas City Plant developed a pollution prevention tool called a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA). Pilot assessments resulted in the development of a graded approach to reduce the amount of effort required for activities that utilized nonhazardous and/or low-volume waste streams. The project's objectives in FY95 were to validate DOE's PPOA Graded Approach methodology, provide PPOA training and technical assistance to interested DOE personnel and DOE contractors, enhance the methodology with energy analysis and tools for environmental restoration activities, implement a DOE-wide PPOA database, and provide support to DOE EM-334 in the completion of a report which estimates the future potential for pollution prevention and waste minimization in the DOE complex

  18. Method of preventing contaminations in radioactive material handling facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Shunji.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the contamination on the floor surface of working places by laying polyvinyl butyral sheets over the floor surface, replacing when the sheets are contaminated, followed by burning. Method: Polyvinyl butyral sheets comprising 50 - 70 mol% of butyral component are laid in a radioactive material handling facility, radioactive materials are handled on the polyvinyl butyral sheets and the sheets are replaced when contaminated. The polyvinyl butyral sheets used contain 62 - 68 mol% of butyral component and has 0.03 - 0.2 mm thickness. The contaminated sheets are subjected to burning processing. This can surely collect radioactive materials and the sheets have favorable burnability, releasing no corrosive or deleterious gases. In addition, they are inexpensive and give no hindrance to the workers walking. (Takahashi, M.)

  19. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention checklist guide for the surveillance and maintenance project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    DOE Order 5820.2 mandates that a surveillance and maintenance program be established in all shut-down facilities to ensure adequate containment of contamination, provide physical safety and security, and reduce potential public and environmental hazards. A key consideration in this process is the prevention of any waste to be generated from these activities. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all Surveillance and Maintenance (S ampersand M) phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document their PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves and perform preliminary waste assessments

  20. The U.S. Department of Energy pollution prevention program: Applications for small business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betsch, M.D.

    1997-05-14

    This report shows the benefits small businesses can realize by instituting cost-effective pollution prevention improvements. It is a series of pollution prevention assessments that were conducted at small businesses in Richland, Washington. It describes a technology transfer test of US Department of Energy (USDOE) pollution prevention methods to small businesses through eleven pollution prevention assessments conducted at small businesses in the city of Richland. The assessment method tested was first developed at the USDOE Hanford Site, located in Richland, Washington. Two pilot studies were initially conducted to determine the usefulness of the assessment method for small businesses. Then, four additional pollution prevention assessments were conducted using a refined process. In order to determine the assessment method`s usefulness by different practitioners, a number of the assessments contained in this report were conducted by the undergraduate and graduate students at Washington State University at Tri-Cities as part of their class projects. These students were trained in the pollution prevention assessment process by the author of this report and conducted five small business assessments using the same methods and materials as in the remainder of the study.

  1. The U.S. Department of Energy pollution prevention program: Applications for small business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betsch, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    This report shows the benefits small businesses can realize by instituting cost-effective pollution prevention improvements. It is a series of pollution prevention assessments that were conducted at small businesses in Richland, Washington. It describes a technology transfer test of US Department of Energy (USDOE) pollution prevention methods to small businesses through eleven pollution prevention assessments conducted at small businesses in the city of Richland. The assessment method tested was first developed at the USDOE Hanford Site, located in Richland, Washington. Two pilot studies were initially conducted to determine the usefulness of the assessment method for small businesses. Then, four additional pollution prevention assessments were conducted using a refined process. In order to determine the assessment method's usefulness by different practitioners, a number of the assessments contained in this report were conducted by the undergraduate and graduate students at Washington State University at Tri-Cities as part of their class projects. These students were trained in the pollution prevention assessment process by the author of this report and conducted five small business assessments using the same methods and materials as in the remainder of the study

  2. Precautions for preventing criticality at plutonium fuel treatment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deworm, J.P.; Fieuw, G.; Cank, H. de

    1976-01-01

    Four criticality accidents took place between 1958 and 1964 at fuel processing plants using wet methods. So far accident of this type has taken place at production units where fissionable material is used. The prevention of criticality is one of the major concerns of the officials in charge of the plutonium fuel research laboratories operated at the Mol Nuclear Energy Study Centre by the SCK/CEN-Belgonucleaire Association. The means of preventing such an accident are of three types: introducing different types of treatment in well-defined work units; thorough analysis of planned experiments or fabrication programmes to determine the sub-criticality factors; application of technical and administrative procedures which ensure that the facilities are always sub-critical during the treatment and storage of fissionable materials. The installation includes a detection and warning system and provision is made for the immediate evacuation of staff should a crticality incident occur. The effects of a critical excursion on the building have been assessed. (author)

  3. Air pollution control systems and technologies for waste-to-energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getz, N.P.; Amos, C.K. Jr.; Siebert, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    One of the primary topics of concern to those planning, developing, and operating waste-to-energy (W-T-E) [also known as municipal waste combustors (MWCs)] facilities is air emissions. This paper presents a description of the state-of-the-art air pollution control (APC) systems and technology for particulate, heavy metals, organics, and acid gases control for W-T-E facilities. Items covered include regulations, guidelines, and control techniques as applied in the W-T-E industry. Available APC technologies are viewed in detail on the basis of their potential removal efficiencies, design considerations, operations, and maintenance costs

  4. Characteristics of U.S. Mental Health Facilities That Offer Suicide Prevention Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto-Crawford, S Janet; Smith, Kelley E; McKeon, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This study characterized mental health facilities that offer suicide prevention services or outcome follow-up after discharge. The study analyzed data from 8,459 U.S. mental health facilities that participated in the 2010 National Mental Health Services Survey. Logistic regression analyses were used to compare facilities that offered neither of the prevention services with those that offered both or either service. About one-fifth of mental health facilities reported offering neither suicide prevention services nor outcome follow-up. Approximately one-third offered both, 25% offered suicide prevention services only, and 21% offered only outcome follow-up after discharge. Facilities that offered neither service were less likely than facilities that offered either to offer comprehensive support services or special programs for veterans; to offer substance abuse services; and to be accredited, licensed, or certified. Further examination of facilitators and barriers in implementing suicide prevention services in mental health facilities is warranted.

  5. Pollution prevention/waste minimization program 1998 fiscal year work plan - WBS 1.11.2.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howald, S.C.; Merry, D.S.

    1997-09-01

    Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) is the Department of Energy's preferred approach to environmental management. The P2/WMin mission is to eliminate or minimize waste generation, pollutant releases to the environment, use of toxic substances, and to conserve resources by implementing cost-effective pollution prevention technologies, practices, and polices

  6. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TECHNOLOGY TO PREVENT WATER RESOURCES POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Zeki Gökalp; Sedat Karaman; Ismail Taş; Halil Kirnak

    2016-01-01

    Discharge of untreated waste waters into surface waters creates significant pollution in these resources. Wastewaters are most of the time discharged into seas, rivers and other water bodies without any treatments due to high treatment costs both in Turkey and throughout the world. Constructed wetlands, also called as natural treatment systems, are used as an alternative treatment system to conventional high-cost treatment systems because of their low construction, operation and maintenance c...

  7. Potential pollution prevention and waste minimization for Department of Energy operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, J.; Ischay, C.; Kennicott, M.; Pemberton, S.; Tull, D.

    1995-10-01

    With the tightening of budgets and limited resources, it is important to ensure operations are carried out in a cost-effective and productive manner. Implementing an effective Pollution Prevention strategy can help to reduce the costs of waste management and prevent harmful releases to the environment. This document provides an estimate of the Department of Energy's waste reduction potential from the implementation of Pollution Prevention opportunities. A team of Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention professionals was formed to collect the data and make the estimates. The report includes a list of specific reduction opportunities for various waste generating operations and waste types. A generic set of recommendations to achieve these reduction opportunities is also provided as well as a general discussion of the approach and assumptions made for each waste generating operation

  8. The History of Petroleum Pollution in Malaysia; Urgent Need for Integrated Prevention Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyar Sakari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum pollution is known as point and non-point source of contaminations in the environment. A major class of petroleum contaminant is groups of compounds consist of two or more fused benzene rings called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs that are carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic. Source identification of petroleum pollution is necessary to prevent pollution entry into the environment. Eight sedimentary cores were obtained from developed and developing areas around Peninsular Malaysia to investigate the historical profile of PAHs, their characteristics and its possible origins. The results showed that the PAHs concentrations varied from very minimum to 2400 ng/g d. w. in average quarter century intervals. Most of the studied locations showed high contribution of PAHs from combusted fuel, coal, biomasses and wood materials except for the southern part of Peninsular Malaysia in which revealed dominance of petroleum products. The findings indicate that PAHs are delivered from different intermediate materials such as asphalt, street dust, vehicular emission and crankcase oil. However, there has been a decline of PAHs input into the marine environment in recent years; petroleum is shown to be a significant cause of marine pollution since the second quarter of 20th century. An overview on sourced materials of petroleum pollution indicates multi-approach necessity toward pollution control, regardless of concentration and possible degradation processes. Various sectors both governmental and non-governmental are needed for prevention and control of petroleum pollution where different sources apparently contribute to the pollution generation process.

  9. POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH ONGOING - EPA'S RISK REDUCTION ENGINEERING LABORATORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mission of the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory is to advance the understanding, development and application of engineering solutions for the prevention or reduction of risks from environmental contamination. This mission is accomplished through basic and applied researc...

  10. Techniques for controlling air pollution from the operation of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-03-01

    This manual is provided for the guidance of those persons or authorities who are responsible for the organization, control and operation of ventilation systems and air-cleaning installations in nuclear establishments. It is intended to generalize about existing experience in the operation of such systems at nuclear facilities including reactors and laboratories for production, use and handling of radionuclides and other toxic materials. This manual will provide designers and operators of nuclear facilities in which ventilation and air-cleaning systems are used with the factors which have to be considered to create safe working conditions inside facilities and without polluting the atmosphere or the environment to a hazardous level. Refs, 24 figs, 5 tabs.

  11. Environmental Restoration Program waste minimization and pollution prevention self-assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Program within Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. is currently developing a more active waste minimization and pollution prevention program. To determine areas of programmatic improvements within the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program, the ER Program required an evaluation of the program across the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Environmental Restoration and Waste Minimization Site, and the Portsmouth Environmental Restoration and Waste Minimization Site. This document presents the status of the overall program as of fourth quarter FY 1994, presents pollution prevention cost avoidance data associated with FY 1994 activities, and identifies areas for improvement. Results of this assessment indicate that the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program is firmly established and is developing rapidly. Several procedural goals were met in FY 1994 and many of the sites implemented ER waste minimization options. Additional growth is needed, however, for the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program

  12. Environmental restoration program pollution prevention checklist guide for the evaluation of alternatives project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Evaluation of alternative studies determine what decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) alternatives are presented to regulators for facility and site cleanup. A key consideration in this process is the waste to be generated. Minimizing the volume and toxicity of this waste will ultimately contribute to the selection of the best clean-up option. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all Evaluation of Alternatives (EV) phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will assist users with documenting PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to help users implement and evaluate waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves, eliminating expensive process waste assessments and audit teams

  13. Prevention of Polluting Rivers and Lakes from Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Jolić

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Traffic on rivers and lakes in Europe has been ve1y well developed.The reason for this is the transport cost, relative speedand good connectivity of major European cities by rivers andcanals. In Croatia, this transport mode is lagging behind therest of Europe. Croatia is located at an interesting section of theriver transversal, but due to several reasons, river navigation inCroatia has not been developed to any major extent. As operatingriver ships the most frequent types are: towboats, pushboatsand self-propelled ships. The installed diesel engines, propulsionand auxiliary engines run at high power. Proportional tothe increase in the power of installed engines is also the increasein the volume of waste produced by the engines. Also, the olderthe engine, the greater volume of waste it produces. Ships mayalso cause pollution by wastewaters and garbage. This pollutionthreat grows with the greater number of people on boardand the age of the ship. In order to minimize these possibilitiesof pollution, it is necesswy to control all the time the properfunctioning of the ships, train the staff and construct receptionfacilities on land.

  14. Air Quality Management Using Pollution Prevention: A Joint Service Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    sites to promote polymerization. High solids coatings may be one or two component systems based on acrylic , alkyd , epoxy, polyester, or urethane...formulation to form high molecular weight polymers. Examples include acrylic , epoxy/polyester hybrid , functional epoxy, thin film epoxy, and urethane...Air Human System Center (HSC/OEBQ) Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 9

  15. Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PLACE, B.G.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 2000) and Prime Contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994) and Department of Energy Acquisition Regulations (DEAR) (48 CFR 970.5204-2 and 48 CFR 970.5204-78). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements is discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting; WMin Certification; and Waste Minimization (WMin) Assessments (WMAs)

  16. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/California recycling programs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrons, Ralph Jordan; Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2007-07-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management Department between May 2006 and March 2007, to evaluate the current site-wide recycling program for potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the program. This report contains a summary of the information collected and analyses performed with recommended options for implementation. The SNL/NM Pollution Prevention (P2) staff worked with the SNL/CA P2 Staff to arrive at these options.

  17. The need for integrated pollution prevention control of the environment concerning industrial and power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trpevska T, Magdalena; Kostova, Brankitsa

    2008-01-01

    Within the Low on the Environment, Regulations of the Directive 96/61/Eu regarding Integrated Pollution Prevention Control are implemented. The Low significantly changes the manner of industrial plants operation in reference to environmental protection. The study presents description of the system for Integrated Pollution Prevention Control, list of production branches to which this system refers, and as well as experiences of Tehnolab Ltd, Skopje - expert consulting company, concerning preparation of A and B Integrated Environmental Permits for several installation from R. Macedonia.(Author)

  18. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juan, E-mail: lijuan@craes.org.cn [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Yang, Yang [College of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Xi, Beidou, E-mail: xibd413@yeah.net [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Lv, Ningqing [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Wu, Yi [Guizhou Academy of Environmental Science and Designing, Guizhou 550000 (China); Xie, Yiwen, E-mail: qin3201@126.com [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan, 523808 (China); Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China)

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. - Highlights: • An

  19. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Juan; Yang, Yang; Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Lv, Ningqing; Wu, Yi; Xie, Yiwen; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. - Highlights: • An

  20. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Yang, Yang; Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Lv, Ningqing; Wu, Yi; Xie, Yiwen; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. Copyright © 2015

  1. Guides to pollution prevention: Selected hospital waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The hazardous wastes generated by general medical and surgical hospitals are small in volume relative to those of industrial facilities; however, the wastes are of a wide variety. Some of the hazardous materials used by hospitals that become part of their waste streams include chemotherapy and antineoplastic chemicals, solvents, formaldehyde, photographic chemicals, radionuclides, mercury, waste anesthetic gases; and other toxic, corrosive and miscellaneous chemicals. Additional wastes such as infectious waste, incinerator exhaust, laundry-related waste, utility wastes, and trash were not addressed in the guide. Reducing the generation of these materials at the source, or recycling the wastes on- or off-site, will benefit hospitals by reducing disposal costs and lowering the liabilities associated with hazardous waste disposal. The guide provides an overview of hospital waste generating processes and presents options for minimizing waste generation through source reduction and recycling

  2. Nominations for the 2017 NNSA Pollution Prevention Awards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzman, Sonja L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ballesteros Rodriguez, Sonia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lopez, Lorraine Bonds [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-23

    In the field of nuclear forensics, one of the biggest challenges is to dissolve postdetonation debris for analysis. Debris generated after a nuclear detonation is a glassy material that is difficult to dissolve with chemicals. Traditionally, concentrated nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid, or sulfuric acid are employed during the dissolution. These acids, due to their corrosive nature, are not suitable for in-field/on-site sample preparations. Uranium oxides are commonly present in nuclear fuel processing plants and nuclear research facilities. In uranium oxides, the level of uranium isotope enrichment is a sensitive indicator for nuclear nonproliferation and is monitored closely by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to ensure there is no misuse of nuclear material or technology for nuclear weapons. During an IAEA on-site inspection at a facility, environmental surface swipe samples are collected and transported to the IAEA headquarters or network of analytical laboratories for further processing. Uranium oxide particles collected on the swipe medium are typically dissolved with inorganic acids and are then analyzed for uranium isotopic compositions. To improve the responsiveness of on-site inspections, in-field detection techniques have been recently explored. However, in-field analysis is bottlenecked by time-consuming and hazardous dissolution procedures, as corrosive inorganic acids must be used. Corrosive chemicals are difficult to use in the field due to personnel safety considerations, and the transportation of such chemicals is highly regulated. It was therefore necessary to develop fast uranium oxide dissolution methods using less hazardous chemicals in support of the rapid infield detection of anomalies in declared nuclear processes.

  3. Pollution prevention and control procedure case study: an application for petroleum refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Encarnación; Martínez, Jose-Luis

    2005-06-01

    There is global environmental concern about the pollution from industries and other organizations that should not only be controlled but also prevented. Many alternatives are available to those in charge of environmental protection, but they should be able to draw on a systematic procedure to help implement prevention and control measures. At present, there are three immediate tasks: defining the objective of any environmental study, identifying the potential pollution sources, and selecting alternatives to these sources. However, it is necessary to evaluate these alternatives by using as large a number of criteria as possible and making them cumulative so as to enable the classification and selection of the best available techniques for each pollution source. The petroleum refining industry plays an important role in the developed economies and also has a potential for pollution generation that must be controlled. The best solution for all (i.e., petroleum companies, the public, and the environment) is pollution prevention, because this option will protect all of them and will also reduce costs in terms of lower raw materials consumption as well as reducing potential fines. The procedure we have presented in this article has been applied successfully.

  4. Integrated environmental assessment and pollution prevention in Vietnam: the case of anthracite production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinh, L.D.; Gheewala, S.H.; Bonnet, S. [King Mongkuts University of Technology at Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2007-07-01

    Abstract: Using the concept of life cycle analysis, the whole life cycle of anthracite production in Vietnam was assessed and the environmental 'hot-spots' were identified. These include (I) dust pollution at coal transfer points or piles in storage; (ii) noise pollution resulting from the usage of heavy equipment, and (iii) high volume of acid and turbid mine water discharged into the environment. Pollution prevention and treatment options were identified and discussed in this study which consists of wet treatment of dust, planning, collection and treatment of mine water, planting of trees for dust and noise reduction as well as minimization of erosion. Some recommendations are made for pollution abatement from coal production and improvement of anthracite production in the region.

  5. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan for the TA-60-02 Salvage Warehouse, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Revision 3, January 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgin, Jillian Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-08

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector P-Land Transportation and Warehousing as a guide. The applicable stormwater discharge permit is EPA General Permit Registration Number NMR053915 (Los Alamos National Security (LANS) (U.S. EPA, June 2015). Contents of the June 4, 2015 Multi-sector General Permit can be viewed at: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015- 10/documents/msgp2015_finalpermit.pdf This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA-60-02 Salvage and Warehouse facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-60-02 Salvage/ Warehouse and associated areas. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020. A copy of the facility NOI and LANS Delegation of Authority Letter are located in Appendix C of this SWPPP.

  6. Pollution prevention for cleaner air: EPA's air and energy engineering research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    The article discusses the role of EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in pollution prevention research for cleaner air. For more than 20 years, AEERL has been conducting research to identify control approaches for the pollutants and sources which contribute to air quality problems. The Laboratory has successfully developed and demonstrated cost-effective sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate control technologies for fossil fuel combustion sources. More recently, it has expanded its research activities to include indoor air quality, radon, organic control, stratospheric ozone depletion, and global warming. AEERL also develops inventories of air emissions of many types. Over the last several years, it has made substantial efforts to expand research on pollution prevention as the preferred choice for air emissions reduction

  7. 15 CFR 291.4 - National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers. 291.4 Section 291.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAM...

  8. Effects of the integrated pollution prevention and control directive on environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kat, W. [Corus Staal BV, Evironmental Manangement Dept. (Netherlands)

    2005-06-01

    The Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive (IPPC) published in the EU in 1996 is presented within an approach based on source-targeted measures. The Directive implementation is based on the granting of permits and it introduces new concepts like Best Available Technique (BAT), Best Reference Document (BREF) and Level Playing Field (LPF). The consequences for the EU steel industry are discussed. (author)

  9. Information processing to determine waste minimization/pollution prevention strategies in the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcon, Mariali F. de [CORPOVEN, S.A. (Venezuela)

    1993-12-31

    With the passage of the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act in the United States, industries, and particularly the petroleum industry, have become more interested in their waste management practices. This works aims to present a methodology to organize the collected data concerning waste minimization and, or, pollution prevention in the petroleum industry into a bibliographic database

  10. Oak Ridge K-25 Site chlorinated solvent pollution prevention opportunity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    A pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was conducted at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to identify opportunities to reduce and better manage the use of chlorinated solvents. At the K-25 Site, 67 control areas were examined for their potential use of chlorinated solvents. Of these areas, 27 were found to be using (1) chlorinated solvents for cleaning, degreasing, and lubricating; (2) laboratory standards and solvents; and (3) test medium. Current management practices encourage the identification and use of nonhazardous chemicals, including the use of chlorinated solvents. The main pollution prevention principles are source reduction and recycling, and a number of pollution prevention options based on these principles were identified and evaluated as part of this chlorinated solvent PPOA. Source reduction options evaluated for the K-25 Site include the substitution of chlorinated solvents with nonchlorinated solvents. Recycling was identified for those areas that would benefit most from the reuse of the chlorinated solvents in use. The pollution prevention options that offer the greatest opportunity for success at the K-25 Site are the implementation of substitutes at the 10 control areas using chlorinated solvents for cleaning, degreasing, and lubrication. A change in the process may be all that is needed to eliminate the use of a chlorinated solvent. Once a decision is made to implement a substitution, the information should be communicated to all shops and laboratories. Another option to consider is the installation of recycling units to recycle the large amounts of methylene chloride used in the analytical sampling procedure

  11. Oak Ridge K-25 Site chlorinated solvent pollution prevention opportunity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    A pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was conducted at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to identify opportunities to reduce and better manage the use of chlorinated solvents. At the K-25 Site, 67 control areas were examined for their potential use of chlorinated solvents. Of these areas, 27 were found to be using (1) chlorinated solvents for cleaning, degreasing, and lubricating; (2) laboratory standards and solvents; and (3) test medium. Current management practices encourage the identification and use of nonhazardous chemicals, including the use of chlorinated solvents. The main pollution prevention principles are source reduction and recycling, and a number of pollution prevention options based on these principles were identified and evaluated as part of this chlorinated solvent PPOA. Source reduction options evaluated for the K-25 Site include the substitution of chlorinated solvents with nonchlorinated solvents. Recycling was identified for those areas that would benefit most from the reuse of the chlorinated solvents in use. The pollution prevention options that offer the greatest opportunity for success at the K-25 Site are the implementation of substitutes at the 10 control areas using chlorinated solvents for cleaning, degreasing, and lubrication. A change in the process may be all that is needed to eliminate the use of a chlorinated solvent. Once a decision is made to implement a substitution, the information should be communicated to all shops and laboratories. Another option to consider is the installation of recycling units to recycle the large amounts of methylene chloride used in the analytical sampling procedure.

  12. POLLUTION PREVENTION CASE STUDIES: LOW-VOC/HAP WOOD FURNITURE COATINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article provides a brief profile of the wood furniture industry, discusses pollution prevention activities typically implemented, describes the four low-VOC/HAP coating technologies studied. and summarizes one case study for each of the low-VOC/HAP coating yechnologies inves...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix L to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Pt. 51, App. L Appendix L to Par...

  14. Information processing to determine waste minimization/pollution prevention strategies in the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcon, Mariali F. de [CORPOVEN, S.A. (Venezuela)

    1994-12-31

    With the passage of the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act in the United States, industries, and particularly the petroleum industry, have become more interested in their waste management practices. This works aims to present a methodology to organize the collected data concerning waste minimization and, or, pollution prevention in the petroleum industry into a bibliographic database

  15. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program's mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RI), feasibility studies (FS), decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D), and surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed a Numerical Scoring System (NSS) and actually scoring the generators of Investigation Derived Waste (IDW) at six ER sites: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge K-25 site, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), and Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex (Portsmouth). This report summarizes the findings of this initial numerical scoring evaluation and shows where improvements in the overall ER Pollution prevention program may be required. This report identifies a number of recommendations that, if implemented, would help to improve site-performance measures. The continued development of the NSS will support generators in maximizing their Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization efforts. Further refinements of the NSS, as applicable suggest comments and/or recommendations for improvement

  16. Special issue review of pollution prevention management within the Department of Energy, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) national role and overall mission has been undergoing significant change. In the post-Cold War era, a new emphasis on cleaning up the wastes from the past has emerged. These changes provide both significant challenges as well as new opportunities for DOE. While the challenges may seem overwhelming as DOE realizes the magnitude of its environmental problems, its network of national laboratories and sites provide the resources to become a leader in environmental management through the development of new technologies and management practices. Because of the growing importance of pollution prevention in the United States and more specifically to DOE's environmental management strategy, the Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24) identified this as an area worthy of a Special Issue Review. A Special Issue Review is not an audit but rather an in-depth review of key environmental programs or activities which cut across organizational boundaries. The purpose of a Special Issue Review is to identify strengths and weaknesses of a program as well as significant crosscutting issues or challenges that are important to the future success of that program. The scope of the review included an assessment of pollution prevention program activities at Headquarters, selected operations offices, and selected sites offices and contractor organizations. All aspects of a pollution prevention program were considered including program strategy, infrastructure, management systems, and implementation practices. Also summarized are future pollution prevention challenges and recommendations

  17. REPORT TO CONGRESS: ASSESSMENT OF INTERNATIONAL AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study that identifies new and innovative air pollution prevention and/or control technologies, of selected industrialized countries, that are not currently used extensively in the U.S. The technologies may be entirely new to the U.S., or they may be ...

  18. Air Pollution and Allergic Airway Diseases: Social Determinantsand Sustainability in the Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramesh, H

    2018-04-01

    Air pollution, global warming and climate change are the major contributing factors in causing the increase prevalence of allergic airway diseases like asthma and allergic rhinitis and they will be the defining issues for health system in the twenty-first century. Asthma is an early onset non-communicable environmental disease with global epidemic and contributes a greatest psycho socio economic burden. Nearly 8 million global deaths are from air pollution. Over one billion population are the sufferers during 2015 and will increase to 4 billion by 2050. Air pollution not only triggers the asthma episodes but also changes the genetic pattern in initiating the disease process. Over the years our concept of management of allergic airway disease has changed from control of symptoms to prevention of the disease. To achieve this we need positive development on clean air policies with standard norms, tracking progress, monitoring and evaluation, partnership and conventions with local and global authorities. We do have challenges to overcome like rapid urbanization, lack of multisectorial policy making, lack of finance for research and development and lack of monitoring exposure to health burden from air pollution. We need to prioritize our strategy by sustainable, safe, human settlement, cities, sustainable energy, industrialization, and research. The measures to be adopted are highlighted in this review article. With effective measures by all stake holders we can reduce air pollution and prevent the global warming by 2030, along with 194 countries as adopted by WHO in May 2015.

  19. Hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emission characterization of sewage treatment facilities in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyoung-Hee; Dong, Jong-In

    2010-04-01

    Until recently, nearly all sewage treatment-related regulations and researches have focused on the removal of the conventional and toxic pollutants from liquid effluents. The discharge of toxic compounds to the atmosphere has been implicitly regarded as a way of removal or destruction. During sewage treatment, the fate mechanism of volatilization/stripping, sorption and biotransformation primarily determines the fate of volatile HAPs. The objectives of this study are to investigate the emission characteristics of HAPs, which are generated from the liquid surface of sewage treatment facilities, by using an emission isolation flux chamber. HAP emissions increased at the inlet of the aerobic chamber during summer due to the relatively high atmospheric temperature. The percent ratio of flux for toluene reached its peak in winter, accounting for 33.6-34.2% of the total, but decreased to 25.1-28.6% in summer. In autumn, trichloroethene (TCE) was the highest, recording 17.6-18.1%, with chloroform and toluene showing similar levels. It seems that the ratio of chlorinated hydrocarbons increases in both summer and autumn because the chamber temperature during that time is higher than winter. This study is the initial study to investigate the emission characteristics of volatile HAPs emitted from domestic sewage treatment facilities to the air in Korea. Therefore, the isolation flux chamber will be used as an emission estimations tool to measure HAPs from sewage treatment facilities and may be applied to develop the emission factor and national source inventory of HAPs.

  20. Oxy-Combustion Burner and Integrated Pollutant Removal Research and Development Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Schoenfield; Manny Menendez; Thomas Ochs; Rigel Woodside; Danylo Oryshchyn

    2012-09-30

    A high flame temperature oxy-combustion test facility consisting of a 5 MWe equivalent test boiler facility and 20 KWe equivalent IPR® was constructed at the Hammond, Indiana manufacturing site. The test facility was operated natural gas and coal fuels and parametric studies were performed to determine the optimal performance conditions and generated the necessary technical data required to demonstrate the technologies are viable for technical and economic scale-up. Flame temperatures between 4930-6120F were achieved with high flame temperature oxy-natural gas combustion depending on whether additional recirculated flue gases are added to balance the heat transfer. For high flame temperature oxy-coal combustion, flame temperatures in excess of 4500F were achieved and demonstrated to be consistent with computational fluid dynamic modeling of the burner system. The project demonstrated feasibility and effectiveness of the Jupiter Oxygen high flame temperature oxy-combustion process with Integrated Pollutant Removal process for CCS and CCUS. With these technologies total parasitic power requirements for both oxygen production and carbon capture currently are in the range of 20% of the gross power output. The Jupiter Oxygen high flame temperature oxy-combustion process has been demonstrated at a Technology Readiness Level of 6 and is ready for commencement of a demonstration project.

  1. Prevention and Control of Air Pollution in China: A Research Agenda for Science and Technology Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Rodolfo Andres

    2016-01-01

    China’s air pollution has reached a critical state, and is characterized by heavy coal smoke and a wide presence of ozone and particulate matter (PM2.5). From 2011, through the 12th five year plan, the prevention and control of air pollution entered a new ‘transition stage’ guided by the principles of sustainability and energy conservation, and also intensified by pressure from the society. This article is divided into two parts: first, it introduces the most important changes, problems and a...

  2. Pollution prevention in the oil and soap industry: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Elela, S.I. [National Research Center, Gizza (Egypt). Water Pollution Control Dept.; Zaher, F. [National Research Center, Gizza (Egypt). Fats and Oil Dept.

    1998-12-31

    Industrial audit of a complex oil and soap factory has been carried out. The factory produces edible oils, fatty acids, soap, crude, industrial and pharmaceutical glycerin, powdered detergents, animal fodder, sodium and potassium silicates, sodium hypochlorite and hypochloric acid. The audit shows that there were a wide range of pollution prevention opportunities which could be implemented with significant financial advantages for the factory as well as reducing environmental pollution. Cost benefits for the recommended environmental improvements have been estimated. Many of the improvements had short payback periods. (author)

  3. Pollution prevention in the oil and soap industry: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Elela, S.I.; Zaher, F.

    1998-01-01

    Industrial audit of a complex oil and soap factory has been carried out. The factory produces edible oils, fatty acids, soap, crude, industrial and pharmaceutical glycerin, powdered detergents, animal fodder, sodium and potassium silicates, sodium hypochlorite and hypochloric acid. The audit shows that there were a wide range of pollution prevention opportunities which could be implemented with significant financial advantages for the factory as well as reducing environmental pollution. Cost benefits for the recommended environmental improvements have been estimated. Many of the improvements had short payback periods. (author)

  4. Macro impact of the law on prevention and control of atmospheric pollution on power industry development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z. [State Power Corporation (China). Dept. of Science, Technology and Environment

    2001-07-01

    The newly revised and enlarged main contents of China's Law of Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution, which came into force on 1 September 2000, are described. The macro impacts of the law on the power industry development are analyzed mainly in respect to power demand and readjustment of power structure and layout, clean production and pollution control level, scientific management of environmental protection, in accordance with law as well as changes of construction and operation costs. Several questions worthy to be noted in course of implementation of the new law are enumerated. 1 tab.

  5. Control and prevention of seepage from uranium mill waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    This paper constitutes an analysis of the technologies which are available for the prevention of movement of waste waters out of uranium mill waste disposal facilities via sub-surface routes. Hydrogeologic criteria for potential uranium mill waste disposal sites and mathematical modeling of contaminant migration in ground water are presented. Methods for prevention of seepage from uranium mill waste disposal facilities are investigated: liners, clay seals, synthetic polymeric membranes (PVC, polyethylene, chlorinated polyethylene, hypalon, butyl rubber, neoprene, elasticized polyolefin)

  6. Public perception of odour and environmental pollution attributed to MSW treatment and disposal facilities: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Feo, Giovanni, E-mail: g.defeo@unisa.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, via Ponte don Melillo 1, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); De Gisi, Sabino [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, via Ponte don Melillo 1, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Williams, Ian D. [Waste Management Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Effects of closing MSW facilities on perception of odour and pollution studied. ► Residents’ perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished post closure. ► Odour perception showed an association with distance from MSW facilities. ► Media coverage increased knowledge about MSW facilities and how they operate. ► Economic compensation possibly affected residents’ views and concerns. - Abstract: If residents’ perceptions, concerns and attitudes towards waste management facilities are either not well understood or underestimated, people can produce strong opposition that may include protest demonstrations and violent conflicts such as those experienced in the Campania Region of Italy. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the closure of solid waste treatment and disposal facilities (two landfills and one RDF production plant) on public perception of odour and environmental pollution. The study took place in four villages in Southern Italy. Identical questionnaires were administered to residents during 2003 and after the closure of the facilities occurred in 2008. The residents’ perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished between 2003 and 2009 for the nearest villages, with odour perception showing an association with distance from the facilities. Post closure, residents had difficulty in identifying the type of smell due to the decrease in odour level. During both surveys, older residents reported most concern about the potentially adverse health impacts of long-term exposure to odours from MSW facilities. However, although awareness of MSW facilities and concern about potentially adverse health impacts varied according to the characteristics of residents in 2003, substantial media coverage produced an equalisation effect and increased knowledge about the type of facilities and how they operated. It is possible that residents of the village nearest to the facilities reported lower awareness of and concern about

  7. Public perception of odour and environmental pollution attributed to MSW treatment and disposal facilities: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Feo, Giovanni; De Gisi, Sabino; Williams, Ian D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effects of closing MSW facilities on perception of odour and pollution studied. ► Residents’ perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished post closure. ► Odour perception showed an association with distance from MSW facilities. ► Media coverage increased knowledge about MSW facilities and how they operate. ► Economic compensation possibly affected residents’ views and concerns. - Abstract: If residents’ perceptions, concerns and attitudes towards waste management facilities are either not well understood or underestimated, people can produce strong opposition that may include protest demonstrations and violent conflicts such as those experienced in the Campania Region of Italy. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the closure of solid waste treatment and disposal facilities (two landfills and one RDF production plant) on public perception of odour and environmental pollution. The study took place in four villages in Southern Italy. Identical questionnaires were administered to residents during 2003 and after the closure of the facilities occurred in 2008. The residents’ perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished between 2003 and 2009 for the nearest villages, with odour perception showing an association with distance from the facilities. Post closure, residents had difficulty in identifying the type of smell due to the decrease in odour level. During both surveys, older residents reported most concern about the potentially adverse health impacts of long-term exposure to odours from MSW facilities. However, although awareness of MSW facilities and concern about potentially adverse health impacts varied according to the characteristics of residents in 2003, substantial media coverage produced an equalisation effect and increased knowledge about the type of facilities and how they operated. It is possible that residents of the village nearest to the facilities reported lower awareness of and concern about

  8. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  9. Pollution control and environmental monitoring efforts at DOE's Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attig, R.C.; Crawford, L.W.; Lynch, T.P.; Sheth, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Proof-of-Concept (POC) scale demonstration of such technology is currently being carried out at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), located at The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) in Tullahoma, Tennessee and at the Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The CFFF is dedicated to the evaluation of downstream (steam cycle) components and technology that may be considered for a full-scale MHD system. The objectives of the CFFF testing include the demonstration of various pollution control devices and techniques at a scale sufficient for future scale-up. The CFFF offers a unique test environment in which emissions control techniques can be developed and evaluated through emissions and environmental monitoring. Results thus far have demonstrated the ability of sulfur oxide (SO x ), nitrogen oxide (NO x ) and particulate emissions well below the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). Regeneration of the potassium sulfate to produce sulfur-free compounds also has been demonstrated. The experimental program at the CFFF is now aimed at determining the optimum conditions for future commercial scale designs. Because of increased interests in Air Toxics, measurements of nitrous oxide (N 2 O), a potential greenhouse gas, priority pollutants (inorganic as well as organics), and chlorine-containing species (Cl 2 and HCl) are also included in our ongoing efforts. Environmental monitoring activities are being pursued to develop an environmental impact assessment data base. These include the use of three ambient air sites to determine the impacts of gaseous and particulate emissions, five lake water sites to determine impacts due to process water discharges and seven sites to collect terrestrial data on possible soil contamination and tree growth. In this paper, we will summarize the status of our ongoing environmental program. 16 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Solid waste data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizior, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    In late 1989 Amoco and the US Environmental Protection Agency initiated a joint project to review pollution prevention alternatives at Amoco Oil Company's Yorktown, Virginia, Refinery as a case study site. The report summarizes the solid waste emissions inventory, solids source identification, and the solid waste sampling program that was conducted at the Amoco Yorktown Refinery on September 25-27, 1990, in support of the Pollution Prevention Project. Major findings showed that the majority of solid waste generation occurs as end-of-pipe solids resulting from the treatment of wastewaters from the refinery sewer. Based on a regression analysis of the composition data for samples collected during this project, major upstream contributors to these solids appear to be soils. Solids from process units are also significant contributors

  11. Waste minimization/pollution prevention study of high-priority waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogle, R.B.

    1994-03-01

    Although waste minimization has been practiced by the Metals and Ceramics (M ampersand C) Division in the past, the effort has not been uniform or formalized. To establish the groundwork for continuous improvement, the Division Director initiated a more formalized waste minimization and pollution prevention program. Formalization of the division's pollution prevention efforts in fiscal year (FY) 1993 was initiated by a more concerted effort to determine the status of waste generation from division activities. The goal for this effort was to reduce or minimize the wastes identified as having the greatest impact on human health, the environment, and costs. Two broad categories of division wastes were identified as solid/liquid wastes and those relating to energy use (primarily electricity and steam). This report presents information on the nonradioactive solid and liquid wastes generated by division activities. More specifically, the information presented was generated by teams of M ampersand C staff members empowered by the Division Director to study specific waste streams

  12. What drives successful implementation of pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategy? The role of innovative capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhupendra, Kumar Verma; Sangle, Shirish

    2015-05-15

    Firms that are dynamic and prepared to implement environmental strategies have a potential competitive advantage over their industry counterparts. Therefore, it is important to understand, what capabilities are required to implement proactive environmental strategies. The paper discusses the attributes of innovative capability required by firms in order to adopt pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategies. Empirical results show that process and behavioral innovativeness are required by firms to implement a pollution prevention strategy. In addition to process and behavioral innovativeness, firms need a top management with high risk-taking ability as well as market, product, and strategic innovativeness to implement a cleaner technology strategy. The paper proposes some important managerial implications on the basis of the above research findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The scenario-based system of workers training to prevent accidents during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, KwanSeong; Choi, ByungSeon; Moon, JeiKwon; Hyun, DongJun; Lee, JongHwan; Kim, IkJune; Kim, GeunHo; Seo, JaeSeok

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper is meant to develop the training system to prevent accidents during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. • Requirements of the system were suggested. • Data management modules of the system were designed. • The system was developed on virtual reality environment. - Abstract: This paper is meant to develop the training system to prevent accidents during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Requirements of the system were suggested. Data management modules of the system were designed. The system was developed on virtual reality environment. The performance test of the system was proved to be appropriate to decommissioning of nuclear facilities

  14. Prevention and Control of Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollutions in UK and Suggestions to China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Kun; Ren, Tianzhi; Wu, Wenliang; Meng, Fanquiao; Bellarby, Jessica; Smith, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the world is facing challenges of maintaining food production growth while improving agricultural ecological environmental quality. The prevention and control of agricultural non-point source pollution, a key component of these challenges, is a systematic program which integrates many factors such as technology and its extension, relevant regulation and policies. In the project of UK-China Sustainable Agriculture Innovation Network, we undertook a comprehensive analysis of the prev...

  15. Uranium Mill Tailings remedial action project waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this plan is to establish a waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness (WM/PPA) program for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The program satisfies DOE requirements mandated by DOE Order 5400.1. This plan establishes planning objectives and strategies for conserving resources and reducing the quantity and toxicity of wastes and other environmental releases

  16. Benzimidazole for the prevention of toxic effects of air pollutants on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaoka, I; Fukuda, M; Kitano, H; Shinohara, T

    1974-02-02

    Tobacco plants were sprayed with benzimidazole before being exposed to 30 ppM of photochemical oxidants for a period of two hours. The plants were observed 48 hours after exposure and found to have suffered no toxic effects from the oxidants. It may be concluded that benzimidazole is an effective agent for preventing the toxic effects of air pollutants, such as photochemical oxidants on plants.

  17. Consideration on Preventive and Protective Measures Against Insider Threats at R.O.K. Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Min; Lee, Jung Ho; Koh, Moon Sung

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the current status of measures used to prevent, detect and respond to potential insiders at nuclear facilities in the Republic of KOREA. Measures against insiders are then analyzed based on IAEA guidelines. Insiders are able to take advantage of their access rights and knowledge of a facility to bypass dedicated security measures. They can also threaten cyber security, safety measures, and material control and accountancy (MC and A). Insiders are likely to have the time to plan their actions. In addition, they may work with an external adversary who shares their objectives. An insider threat is a great risk to a security system because of the access, authority, and special knowledge that someone within a facility possesses. Therefore, it is imperative that effective measures be taken to prevent insider incidents. A combination of preventive and protective measures offers the best solution to mitigating rogue elements within a facility

  18. Consideration on Preventive and Protective Measures Against Insider Threats at R.O.K. Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Min; Lee, Jung Ho; Koh, Moon Sung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This paper focuses on the current status of measures used to prevent, detect and respond to potential insiders at nuclear facilities in the Republic of KOREA. Measures against insiders are then analyzed based on IAEA guidelines. Insiders are able to take advantage of their access rights and knowledge of a facility to bypass dedicated security measures. They can also threaten cyber security, safety measures, and material control and accountancy (MC and A). Insiders are likely to have the time to plan their actions. In addition, they may work with an external adversary who shares their objectives. An insider threat is a great risk to a security system because of the access, authority, and special knowledge that someone within a facility possesses. Therefore, it is imperative that effective measures be taken to prevent insider incidents. A combination of preventive and protective measures offers the best solution to mitigating rogue elements within a facility.

  19. Westinghouse Hanford Company waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, P.A.; Nichols, D.H.; Lindsey, D.W.

    1991-08-01

    The purpose of this plan is to establish the Westinghouse Hanford Company's Waste Minimization Program. The plan specifies activities and methods that will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of waste generated at Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). It is designed to satisfy the US Department of Energy (DOE) and other legal requirements that are discussed in Subsection C of the section. The Pollution Prevention Awareness Program is included with the Waste Minimization Program as permitted by DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This plan is based on the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan, which directs DOE Field Office, Richland contractors to develop and maintain a waste minimization program. This waste minimization program is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce waste generation. The Westinghouse Hanford Waste Minimization Program is designed to prevent or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all aspects of Westinghouse Hanford operations and offers increased protection of public health and the environment. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  20. An investigation of air emission levels from distinct iron and steel production processes with the adoption of pollution control and pollution prevention alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.M.; Schaeffer, R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate environmental aspects from different iron and steel production processes. A methodology based on material flows is developed in order to verify some air emission levels attained by Pollution Control and Pollution Prevention alternatives. The data basis for modeling energy and materials flows in iron and steel production is obtained from a literature review on different technological processes, energy and materials consumption and pollutant releases to the environmental Modeling combines both process analysis and input-output techniques to simulate the different iron and steel production routes and to estimate the resulting total atmospheric pollution releases based on air emission factors for several pollutants by each production step. Processes examined include: (1) Conventional Integrated (100% ore-based and partly scrap-based); (2) Mini-mill with EAF (100% scrap-based and partly DRI-based); and (3) New Integrated based on the COREX smelting reduction process. Among the alternatives considered for air emissions reductions are those related to Pollution Control (mainly gas cleaning systems) and to Pollution Prevention (change/reduction in input materials, operational procedures and housekeeping improvements, on-site recycling and technology innovations and modifications). Results indicate higher air pollution intensity for the Conventional Integrated Route over the Mini-mill with EAF and COREX smelting reduction processes, though pointing out that final figures are strongly affected by the systems' boundaries and the different air emission levels of each production step

  1. Preliminary tests of an electrokinetic barrier to prevent heavy metal pollution of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, R.J.; Muntoni, A.; Ruggeri, R.; Winfield, K.C.

    2007-01-01

    Sardinia has to deal with significant environmental problems related to heavy-metal contamination, mainly located at its abandoned mining districts. In particular, acid mine drainage management and groundwater pollution are typical problems associated with mining activities which constitute a serious threat to human health. To prevent contaminant spread over the adjacent environment, it is of great interest to consider using an electric field as a containment fence to counteract pollutant transport. In this application, contaminant transport due to a hydraulic gradient driving force is prevented by the combined effect of electro-osmosis and electro-migration. Although there are other alternative containment technologies, the electrokinetic fence offers many advantages, as it is easy to operate, there is a minimal exposure to the operating personnel and it is likely to be effective for a wide range of contaminants. In this work, both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) tests have been carried out. In the 1D tests, the efficiency of an electrokinetic barrier to prevent cadmium from polluting an uncontaminated sample was investigated; soil pH, metal concentration and current intensity have been monitored; results indicate that the barrier can prevent or significantly reduce heavy-metal contamination from spreading against a hydraulic gradient of 7. In 2D tests, two rows of electrodes inserted in a horizontally flat soil tank were used to generate an electric field. It was found that an electric field of 125 V m -1 was sufficient to prevent significant copper incursion from a contaminant flow under a hydraulic gradient of 1.3

  2. Strategy for Meeting the Secretary of Energy and Hanford Site FY 2001 Pollution Prevention Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CLARK, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this strategy is to identify the Fiscal Year (FY) 2001 Hanford Site waste reduction, sanitary recycling and affirmative procurement goals and identify the action required to ensure that the Secretary of Energy's FY 2005 pollution prevention and the FY 2001 Hanford Site goals are met. The strategy and plan to ensure that the Secretary of Energy's routine waste reduction, recycling, cleanup/stabilization waste and affirmative procurement goals are met consists of four phases. The first phase is to ensure that the infrastructure is in place to support planning and organization. This phase involves ensuring that roles and responsibilities are identified; requirement documents are current; goals and successes are communicated; and accurate and current waste information is available. Roles and responsibilities are identified and the RL requirement documents (i.e., the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation) will specify the Secretary of Energy's goals. Goals will be communicated formally and informally via the Hanford Reach, training sessions, meetings and correspondence. Sharing of pollution prevention successes and goal progress are encouraged at the Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (PZ/WMin) quarterly meetings. Existing site waste generation databases will be utilized to provide current waste generation data. The second phase of the strategy and plan is to establish and allocate goals by prime contractor (i.e. Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Bechtel Hanford Inc. (BHI), and CH2MHill Hanford Group (CHG)). This requires determining current status toward meeting the Secretary of Energy's goals; establishing the Hanford Site FY goals, and allocating waste reduction goals by prime contractor. The third phase of the strategy and plan is goal implementation. This

  3. Study on the relationship between the opening of environmental tax and the prevention and control of air pollution in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guilin; Wang, Tianyi

    2018-03-01

    This article systematically expounds the status quo and sources of air pollution, the experience of foreign environmental tax policy, the advantages and disadvantages of environmental taxes levied in our country through literature research, historical analysis and comparative analysis and put forward recommendations on tax policy of prevention and control of air pollution by combining with the specific national conditions in our country. As one of the basic means of national macro-control, the tax policy is the major countermeasure that cannot be ignored in the prevention and control of air pollution. Studying the tax policy of prevention and control of air pollution will help to effectively control air pollution, develop a green economy and recycle economy and achieve the goal of improving environmental quality.

  4. Evaluating the Effects of Air Pollution from a Plastic Recycling Facility on the Health of Nearby Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Zhao; Tsuda, Toshihide; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

    We evaluated how exposure to airborne volatile organic compounds emitted from a plastic recycling facility affected nearby residents, in a cross-sectional study. Individuals>10 years old were randomly sampled from 50 households at five sites and given questionnaires to complete. We categorized the subjects by distance from the recycling facility and used this as a proxy measure for pollutant exposure. We sought to improve on a preceding study by generating new findings, improving methods for questionnaire distribution and collection, and refining site selection. We calculated the odds of residents living 500 or 900 m away from the facility reporting mucocutaneous and respiratory symptoms using a reference group of residents 2,800 m away. Self-reported nasal congestion (odds ratio=3.0, 95% confidence interval=1.02-8.8), eczema (5.1, 1.1-22.9), and sore throat (3.9, 1.1-14.1) were significantly higher among residents 500 m from the facility. Those 900 m away were also considerably more likely to report experiencing eczema (4.6, 1.4-14.9). Air pollution was found responsible for significantly increased reports of mucocutaneous and respiratory symptoms among nearby residents. Our findings confirm the effects of pollutants emitted from recycling facilities on residents' health and clarify that study design differences did not affect the results.

  5. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS GARRISON DAM HYDRO- ELECTRIC POWERPLANT - RIVERDALE, NORTH DAKOTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes the results of pollution prevention opportunity assessments conducted at a representative U.S. Army Corps of Engineers civil works dam and hydroelectric power plant. ecommended methods for reducing pollution resulting primarily from the operation of these fac...

  6. Operation of a low-level waste disposal facility and how to prevent problems in future facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Sibio, R.

    1985-01-01

    Operation of a low-level waste facility is an ever increasing problem nationally, and specifically one that could grow to crisis proportion in Pennsylvania. There have been, nevertheless, a variety of changes over the years in the management of low level radioactive waste, particularly with regard to disposal facilities that can avert a crisis condition. A number of companies have been organized thru possible a broad range of services to the nuclear industry, including those that emphasize solidification of waste materials, engineering services, waste management, and transportation to disposal sites across the United States. This paper addresses one particular site and the problems which evolved at that site from an environmental perspective. It is important that it is clearly understood that, although these problems are resolvable, the lessons learned here are critical for the prevention of problems at future facilities. The focus of this paper is on the Maxey Flats, Kentucky disposal facility which was closed in 1977. It must be understood that the regulations for siting, management, burial techniques, waste classification, and the overall management of disposal sites were limited when this facility was in operation

  7. Report: Pollution Prevention: Effectiveness of EPA’s Efforts to Encourage Purchase of Recycled Goods Has Not Been Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2003-P-00013, Sept 22, 2003. In an effort to prevent pollution and conserve natural resources and virgin materials, Congress requires that the Federal Government’s purchasing power be used to steer materials away from disposal toward recycling.

  8. Report: EPA Needs Accurate Data on Results of Pollution Prevention Grants to Maintain Program Integrity and Measure Effectiveness of Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #15-P-0276, September 4, 2015. Inaccurate reporting of results misrepresents the impacts of pollution prevention activities provided to the public, and misinforms EPA management on the effectiveness of its investment in the program.

  9. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Surface water data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloo, S.

    1991-08-01

    The report summarizes the surface water sampling program at the Amoco Refinery at Yorktown, Virginia. This was undertaken as a part of the joint project between Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency to review pollution prevention alternatives at a petroleum refinery. The surface water data provides a snapshot of surface water pollutant generation and discharge from the refinery. Different process units contribute to the total wastewater flow of 460 GPM in the refinery. Water in the ditch system, which is non-process water, is free of organic contamination. Oil and grease, phenols, ammonia and sulfides are the significant components measured in the process wastewater. The concentrations of organics in most water streams leaving the individual process units are relatively low, in the 1-5 parts per million (ppm) range. A few individual streams such as the crude desalter brine and tank water draws have high pollutant loadings. Concentrations of metals in the refinery wastewater are very low. The wastewater treatment plant is very effective in reducing the pollutant loading in the water with overall removal efficiencies greater than 99% for most organics and inorganics

  10. [Analysis and prevention of dust pollution caused by 5 common prosthetic materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang-Wen; Wei, Bin; Zhu, Cao-Yun; Qian, Liang; Li, Yi-Han

    2017-10-01

    To analyze and evaluate dust pollution in prosthodontic clinic and make proposal for reasonable protection. This study analyzed the particle size, element composition and dust concentration of 5 materials which were commonly used in dental restorations (veneering ceramics, cobalt-chromium alloy, photosensitive plastic, hard base resin, advanced artificial teeth) by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer(EDS) and dust concentration laser tester, in order to assess the effects of prosthodontic dust posed on medical staff health and put forward reasonable suggestions for prevention and control of dust pollution. The particle size of veneering ceramics, cobalt-chromium alloy, photosensitive plastic, hard base resin and advanced artificial teeth was (2.15±3.00), (33.78±24.33), (7.78±11.86), (31.16±44.35) and (28.45±39.21)μm, respectively. The time weighted average respirable dust concentration of veneering ceramics was 0.393 mg/m 2 which was beyond the scope of national security. Dust pollution is serious in prosthodontic clinic to which we should pay more attention and take appropriate prevention measures.

  11. Integrated pollution prevention and control for heavy ceramic industry in Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, M C; Bello, P; Roca, E; Casares, J J

    2007-03-22

    The heavy ceramic industry (building materials and refractory products manufacture) is an important source of pollutants to the environment. For this reason these industrial sub-sectors are included in prevention and control pollution policies, specifically those of the European Union. The IPPC Directive pays particular attention to the mineral industries, not least to the ceramic industry (epigraph 3.5, Annex I). In this paper, a methodology which is being applied to support IPPC installations and the competent administrative authority in Galicia (NW Spain) is presented. For that, the Galician heavy ceramic industry is analysed, as also are the ways to study the Best Available Techniques (BAT) with a view to establishing the emission limit values (ELV) for each specific case. Hence, a technological state of the art has been carried out for both sub-sectors, from the point of view of implementation of the IPPC in Galicia. Following this, the processes are described briefly and an analysis of the consumption and emission levels of the main pollutants is made. An inventory that includes the best environmental practices and the preventive and abatement candidate techniques as BAT was elaborated for both considered sub-sectors. An information data sheet for each candidate BAT is presented as a method to help both the industries and the competent authority to identify a candidate technique of the inventory as BAT. Three illustrative examples of the application of this procedure are presented for different emissions to environmental media for Galician installations.

  12. Urinary tract infections in extended care facilities: preventive management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regal, Randolph E; Pham, Co Q D; Bostwick, Thomas R

    2006-05-01

    To provide health care professionals with an overview of interventions that may be done to reduce the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in elderly patients, especially those residing in extended care facilities. A Medline search of the English literature was performed from 1980 to January 2006 to find literature relevant to urinary tract prophylaxis. Further references were hand-searched from relevant sources. When assessing the effectiveness of various clinical interventions for reducing the incidence of UTIs in the elderly, preference was given to more recent, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized studies, but studies of less robust design also were included in the discussions when the former were lacking. Where possible, recent publications were favored over older studies. References were all reviewed by the authors and chosen to present key citations. Data selection was prioritized to address specific subtopics. Though still frequent in occurrence and quite costly in terms of morbidity, mortality, and cost to the health care system, numerous measures may be taken to ameliorate the incidence of UTIs in elderly, institutionalized residents. First and foremost, establishing and adhering to good infection-control practices by health care givers and minimizing the use of indwelling catheters are essential. Adequate staffing and training are germane to this effort. Reasonably well-designed clinical studies also give credence to the use of topical estrogens and lactobacillus "probiotics" for female subgroups and cranberry juice for a wider array of patients. Vitamin C is of no proven benefit. With regard to antibiotics, with the relative paucity of data available for this patient population, concerns for resistance proliferation must be balanced against perceived gains in UTI reduction.

  13. Assessing the Atmospheric Pollution of Energy Facilities for Supporting Energy Policy Decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneses Ruiz, E.; Alonso García, D.; Pérez Zayas, G.; Piñera Hernández, I.; Martinez Varona, M.; Molina Esquivel, E.

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of different energy facilities on the environment and human health are a matter of interest and concern throughout the world. For example, fossil fuels are one of the energy sources of more undesirable effects on the environment, but this energy is still one of the most competitive at the market, especially for the developing countries. However, it is necessary to find out a balance between the costs of achieving a lower level of environmental and health injury and the benefits of providing electricity at a reasonable cost. With a view to solving the current deficit in energy production (mainly in electricity generation) in the light of major transformations in the energy sector, the Cuban Government is evaluating ways of incorporating new sources and technologies and the expansion of existing capabilities. In this context non-fossil energy sources will play an increasingly important role. The present work shows the results obtained in the frame of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project CUB7007. The project integrated several tools and methodologies in the field of air quality modelling and its assessment, emissions measurement and nuclear techniques. The main objective was to assess atmospheric pollution from various energy facilities for supporting energy policy decisions by incorporating nuclear techniques (proton-induced X–ray emission, neutron activation and X–ray fluorescence) for estimating the elementary composition of particulate matter. As results were consolidated national laboratories in the application of nuclear and nonnuclear techniques to support environmental studies, especially for the analysis of emissions in chimneys and ambient air sampling. Moreover, all energy technologies considered in the national strategy of development were assessed. (author)

  14. Environmental engineering and pollution prevention. European network of excellence and partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wotte, J.; Halang, W.A.; Kraemer, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    The primary purpose of the workshop was to present and discuss the main goals, contents, projects, partners, and implications of a proposed non-profit European Research Network, which aims at establishing research nodes at key locations in European NATO and CP countries. All projects are directed to solutions for the heavily polluted 'Black Triangle' Bohemia, Saxony, and Silesia, which was selected as a nucleus for the network because of its geographical location and cross-border environmental problems. Papers are presented under the following subject headings: disarmament; environment; human resources; high technology; and health. They include papers on soil remediation at manufactured gas plants, and power generation in the Czech Republic and its contribution to air pollution prevention in Central Europe

  15. Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control: a review of health authorities' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanser, Shelley; Pless-Mulloli, Tanja

    2003-09-01

    In August 2000, health authorities in England and Wales became statutory consultees for permits issued to industry by the Environment Agency as part of the implementation of EU directives. This responsibility has since been delegated to Primary Care Trusts. To assess health authority responses to applications made under the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) regulations, we collected data from public registers during the first 12 months of this new regulatory regime. There was evidence of 27 applications, of which 59 per cent had substantive comments from health authorities. There was wide variation in the length and content. Responses were from Consultants in Communicable Disease Control (57 per cent) or Directors of Public Health (43 per cent). Only two health authorities had a dedicated resource for responding to IPPC applications. Capacity and capability are lacking and require resources invested for consistent, effective public health input to the process of permitting potentially polluting industries.

  16. Persons in correctional facilities in Canada: A key population for hepatitis C prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyoumdjian, Fiona G; McIsaac, Kathryn E

    2015-10-03

    About one in nine Canadians who are infected with hepatitis C spend time in a correctional facility each year. With high rates of current injection drug use and needle sharing, this population may account for a large proportion of new infections. Any national strategy to address hepatitis C should include a focus on persons in correctional facilities, and should build on existing evidence regarding primary, secondary and tertiary prevention.

  17. Preventing Suicide in Prisons, Part II International Comparisons of Suicide Prevention Services in Correctional Facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diagle, M.S.; Daniel, A.E.; Dear, G.E.; Frottier, P.; Hayes, H.M.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Konrad, N.; Liebling, A.; Sarchiapone, M.

    2007-01-01

    The International Association for Suicide Prevention created a Task Force on Suicide in Prisons to better disseminate the information in this domain. One of its objectives was to summarize suicide-prevention activities in the prison systems. This study of the Task Force uncovered many differences

  18. Economic analysis of the CLC/FC regime as an oil pollution prevention instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, J.

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this research is to discuss the effectiveness of CLC/IOPC (Civil Liability Convention) liability regime in the field of oil pollution prevention. This study is mainly carried out from a law and economics perspective, although reference is also made to the economic analysis of international environmental agreements. The first two chapters explore the deterrent potential of the international regime in terms of oil spill prevention, from a theoretical and empirical perspective. The analysis of the effectiveness of the regime as such consists in, on the one hand, considering the ability of the international regime to compensate the entire social costs of oil spills (chapter 3) and, on the other hand, to examine the incentives given to operators in maritime oil transport to prevent accidental pollution (chapters 4 and 5). Sixth chapter considers the impacts of the voluntary nature of the international regime on its deterrent potential. The results obtained from this analysis enable to identify several mechanisms by which the deterrent effect of the existing regime could be increased. However, the overall effectiveness of the international regime appears to be limited by several factors that can not be corrected by means of a modification of the CLC and IOPC conventions. (author)

  19. "APEC blue"--The effects and implications of joint pollution prevention and control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Zhao, Laijun; Xie, Yujing; Hu, Qingmi

    2016-05-15

    To ensure good air quality in Beijing during Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) China 2014, Beijing and its neighboring five provinces and the associated cities were combined under the Joint Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution (JPCAP) program, which implemented rigorous cooperative emission reduction measures. The program was a unique and large-scale artificial experiment that showed that such measures can achieve excellent results, and it led to the popular "APEC blue" catchphrase (i.e., Beijing's skies became blue as pollution levels decreased). This artificial experiment provided the means to effectively conduct JPCAP strategies in the future. Accordingly, our research focused on the characteristics of the six primary pollutants in Beijing. We found that the JPCAP measures directly reduced concentrations of all pollutants except O3. Through correlation analysis, we found that the band distribution of the cities with strong correlations in PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations was affected by wind conditions. Therefore, JPCAP measures should account for specific seasonal and climatic conditions. Based on cluster analysis using the results from the correlation analysis, we divided 13 cities within a 300-km radius of Beijing into different groups according to the similarity of their PM2.5 and PM10 correlation coefficients. For JPCAP measures relevant to PM2.5 and PM10, we found differences in the degrees of collaboration among cities. Therefore, depending upon the pollutant type, the JPCAP strategy should account for the cities involved, the scope of the core area, and the optimal cities to involve in the collaborative efforts based on cost-effectiveness and collaborative difficulty among the involved cities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter was drawn up at the Inter-Governmental Conference on the Dumping of Wastes at Sea, held in London from 30 October to 10 November 1972. The Governments of Mexico, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America are the Depository Governments for instruments of ratification of, and accession to, the Convention, pursuant to Articles XVII and XVIII respectively

  1. Pollution prevention in the analytical laboratory--Microscale and other techniques do add up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, M.D.; Alvarado, J.S.; Lu, C.-S.; Peterson, D.P.; Silzer, J.

    1996-01-01

    The principles of pollution prevention in the analytical laboratory have not been addressed sufficiently. Although the amount of reagent used per sample is often only a few milliliters, the aggregate of many routine test each day in thousands of laboratories becomes significant. Current recycling practices are not practical with small streams. Therefore, we have adopted the principles of microscale chemistry, along with other modern analytical approaches, to develop routine analytical methods that significantly curtail waste but still maintain acceptable analytical figures of merit and achieve cost savings through reduced reagent consumption and reduced labor cost

  2. Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter was drawn up at the Inter-Governmental Conference on the Dumping of Wastes at Sea, held in London from 30 October to 10 November 1972. The Governments of Mexico, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America are the Depository Governments for instruments of ratification of, and accession to, the Convention, pursuant to Articles XVII and XVIII respectively [es

  3. Environmental implementation plan: Chapter 5, Chemical management, pollution prevention and other compliance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    Compliance with environmental regulations and US Department of Energy Orders (DOE) relating to environmental protection is an important part of SRS's program. Over the past few years, the number of environmental regulations has increased. The strategy to comply with new and existing environmental regulations and DOE orders is described in chapter two. In this chapter, the following environmental programs are described: Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA); Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA); Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA); and SPCC/BMP/Pollution Prevention Plans;The implementation section identifies issues and those responsible to achieve defined objectives

  4. Control and prevention of industrial air pollution: Special issue; Bestrijding en preventie van industriele luchtverontreiniging: Thema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waque, W.P.G.M. [Bureau Vergunningen en Bedrijven, DCMR Milieudienst Rijnmond, Schiedam (Netherlands); Zijlstra, W.M. [Bureau Milieu en Ruimtelijke Ordening, VNO/NCW, The Hague (Netherlands); Buisman, C.J.N.; Dijkman, H. [Paques, Balk (Netherlands); Prins, W.L.; Verbraak, P. [Biostar Development, Balk (Netherlands); Den Hartog, A.J. [Hoogovens Corporate Research Laboratorium, IJmuiden (Netherlands); Jol, A. [Sector Milieutechnologie, DHV Milieu en Infrastructuur, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Van Ham, J. [ed.

    1994-12-01

    In four articles in this special issue of the magazine attention is paid to new techniques by which emissions to the air from the industry can be controlled and/or prevented. In the first article an overview is given of sources of air pollution, caused by dust. In the second article intermediate results of the KWS 2000 program (aimed at 50% reduction of the emission of volatile organic matter for the year 2000) are outlined. In the third article a cooperative biological (flue) gas desulfurization pilot plant project is discussed. In the fourth and last article the most important possible techniques to reduce the emission of volatile organic matter are highlighted

  5. GM`s PICOS initiative on resource conservation and pollution prevention: Greening the supply chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchett, T. [General Motors Corp., Detroit, MI (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is comprised of reprints of several related articles from business publications. The first article, on supply-side economics, describes efforts by General Motors to cut costs by encouraging suppliers to reduce the environmental impacts of their products. The PICOS{trademark} program of General Motors helps industrial identify and implement energy efficiency and pollution prevention projects that lower operating costs while reducing emissions linked to global climate change. The second article also describes the program, focusing on aspects of global competition.

  6. Pollution prevention at the Kansas City Division through process waste assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pemberton, S.E.; Gentile, C.C.

    1992-01-01

    Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD) is committed to the hazardous waste minimization requirements set forth under RCRA as amended by the Pollution Prevention Act and DOE Order 5400.1. To assure compliance with these regulations, the KCD has developed a comprehensive Pollution Prevention Program which focuses on the elimination or minimization of all material releases to all environmental media. The ownership of waste minimization is given to all of the waste generators through Departmental Pollution Prevention Plans. These plans include tools to achieve the waste minimization goals. One of these tools is the process waste assessment (PWA). A PWA is a planned procedure with the objective of identifying opportunities and methods to reduce or eliminate waste. A material balance is performed around a specific process which qualifies and quantifies the materials entering and exiting the process. These materials are further defined to the hazardous component level. The exiting materials are separated into what goes into the product, sent to waste management, and what is released to the air (fugitive or point source). Next, opportunities are identified and evaluated for the ability to eliminate or minimize the waste streams exiting the process. Therefore, the PWA provides the basic tool for the creation of a comprehensive process baseline and identification of opportunities to eliminate/minimize the release of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes. This presentation will describe the status and activities of the program conceived to initiate PWAs at the Kansas City Division (KCD) of Allied-Signal Inc.. This program is organized through business units Which consist of manufacturing, quality, and engineering personnel from a specific product line. The departments that these business units represent are the generators of the major process waste at the KCD. Included in the update will be a brief overview of the lessons learned from the methodology development and

  7. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) All Facility Points, Region 9, 2007, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES facilities, outfalls/dischargers, waste water treatment plant facilities and waste water treatment plants...

  8. Climate change and occupational allergies: an overview on biological pollution, exposure and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ovidio, Maria Concetta; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; D'Amato, Gennaro; Cecchi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Climate change, air pollution, temperature increase and other environmental variables are modifying air quality, contributing to the increase of prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases. Allergies are complex diseases characterized by multilevel interactions between individual susceptibility, response to immune modulation and environmental exposures to physical, chemical and biological agents. Occupational allergies introduce a further complexity to these relationships by adding occupational exposure to both the indoor and outdoor ones in the living environment. The aim of this paper is to overview climate-related allergy affecting environmental and occupational health, as literature data are scanty in this regard, and to suggest a management model of this risk based on a multidisciplinary approach, taking the case of biological pollution, with details on exposure and prevention. The management of climate-related occupational allergy should take into account preventive health strategies, environmental, public and occupational interventions, as well as to develop, implement, evaluate, and improve guidelines and standards protecting workers health under changing climatic conditions; new tools and strategies based on local conditions will have to be developed. Experimental studies and acquisition of environmental and personal data have to be matched to derive useful information for the scope of occupational health and safety.

  9. Full report: Assessment and opportunity identification of energy efficient pollution prevention technologies and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    US industry produces about 12 billion tons of waste a year, or two-thirds of the waste generated in the US. The costs of handling and disposing of these wastes are significant, estimated to be between $25 and $43 billion in 1991, and represent an increase of 66% since 1986. US industry also uses about one-third of all energy consumed in the nation, which adds to the environmental burden. Industrial wastes affect the environmental well-being of the nation and, because of their growing costs, the competitive abilities of US industry. As part of a national effort to reduce industrial wastes, the US Congress passed the Energy Policy Act (EPAct, P.L. 102-486). Section 2108, subsections (b) and (c), of EPAct requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to identify opportunities to demonstrate energy efficient pollution prevention technologies and processes; to assess their availability and the energy, environmental, and cost effects of such technologies; and to report the results. Work for this report clearly pointed to two things, that there is insufficient data on wastes and that there is great breadth and diversity in the US industrial sector. This report identifies: information currently available on industrial sector waste streams, opportunities for demonstration of energy efficient pollution prevention technologies in two industries that produce significant amounts of waste--chemicals and petroleum, characteristics of waste reducing and energy saving technologies identifiable in the public literature, and potential barriers to adoption of waste reducing technologies by industry.

  10. Environmental Restoration Progam Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grumski, J. T.; Swindle, D. W.; Bates, L. D.; DeLozier, M. F.P.; Frye, C. E.; Mitchell, M. E.

    1991-09-30

    In response to DOE Order 5400.1 this plan outlines the requirements for a Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at Martin Marietta Energy System, Inc. Statements of the national, Department of Energy, Energy Systems, and Energy Systems ER Program policies on waste minimization are included and reflect the attitudes of these organizations and their commitment to the waste minimization effort. Organizational responsibilities for the waste minimization effort are clearly defined and discussed, and the program objectives and goals are set forth. Waste assessment is addressed as being a key element in developing the waste generation baseline. There are discussions on the scope of ER-specific waste minimization techniques and approaches to employee awareness and training. There is also a discussion on the process for continual evaluation of the Waste Minimization Program. Appendixes present an implementation schedule for the Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Program, the program budget, an organization chart, and the ER waste minimization policy.

  11. Waste minimization and pollution prevention technology transfer : the Airlie House Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatrone, R.; McHenry, J.; Myron, H.; Thout, J. R.

    1998-01-01

    The Airlie House Pollution Prevention Technology Transfer Projects were a series of pilot projects developed for the US Department of Energy with the intention of transferring pollution prevention technology to the private sector. The concept was to develop small technology transfer initiatives in partnership with the private sector. Argonne National Laboratory developed three projects: the microscale chemistry in education project, the microscale cost benefit study project, and the Bethel New Life recycling trainee project. The two microscale chemistry projects focused on introducing microscale chemistry technologies to secondary and college education. These programs were inexpensive to develop and received excellent evaluations from participants and regulators. The Bethel New Life recycling trainee project provided training for two participants who helped identify recycling and source reduction opportunities in Argonne National Laboratory's solid waste stream. The pilot projects demonstrated that technology transfer initiatives can be developed and implemented with a small budget and within a short period of time. The essential components of the pilot projects were identifying target technologies that were already available, identifying target audiences, and focusing on achieving a limited but defined objective

  12. Environmental Restoration Progam Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In response to DOE Order 5400.1 this plan outlines the requirements for a Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at Martin Marietta Energy System, Inc. Statements of the national, Department of Energy, Energy Systems, and Energy Systems ER Program policies on waste minimization are included and reflect the attitudes of these organizations and their commitment to the waste minimization effort. Organizational responsibilities for the waste minimization effort are clearly defined and discussed, and the program objectives and goals are set forth. Waste assessment is addressed as being a key element in developing the waste generation baseline. There are discussions on the scope of ER-specific waste minimization techniques and approaches to employee awareness and training. There is also a discussion on the process for continual evaluation of the Waste Minimization Program. Appendixes present an implementation schedule for the Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Program, the program budget, an organization chart, and the ER waste minimization policy

  13. Prevention, Minimization and Control of Environmental Pollution at Mexico Sugar Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominguez-Manjarrez Candi Ashanti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research paper aims to recommend control measures directed towards preventing and minimizing pollution, looking forward to the improvement of the environmental management on the sugar industry in Mexico. This issue has been put on hold due to the necessity to address the economic, social and technological issues affecting it over time. In order to better understand the productive process and the actual problem that the industry is facing, while proposing effective and possible actions for improvement, a sugar mill type was selected as a case of study. A comprehensive assessment of the production process for the standard sugar was made, considering the activities in the field and at the mill. The proposed measures in the sugar mill allowed savings in consumption of ground water average 3,620 cubic meters per day, during the period of study, reduction in solid waste generated average 325 kilograms per day by implementing a waste separation program, and reducing atmospheric emissions of particles acting as fuel for a boiler operated with bagasse. The prevention, minimization and pollution control measures proposed can be applied to other mills in the country with the appropriate adaptations.

  14. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1998; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    This seventh Annual Report presents and analyzes DOE Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention activities at 45 reporting sites from 1993 through 1998. This section summarizes Calendar Year 1998 Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention accomplishments. More detailed information follows this section in the body of the Report. In May 1996, the Secretary of Energy established a 50 percent Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goal (relative to the 1993 baseline) for routine operations radioactive, mixed, and hazardous waste generation, to be achieved by December31, 1999. DOE has achieved its Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goals for routine operations based upon a comparison of 1998 waste generation to the 1993 baseline. Excluding sanitary waste, routine operations waste generation decreased 67 percent overall from 1993 to 1998. However, for the first time since 1994, the total amount of materials recycled by the Complex decreased from 109,600 metric tons in 1997 to 92,800 metric tons in 1998. This decrease is attributed to the fact that in 1997, several large ''one-time only'' recycling projects were conducted throughout the Complex. In order to demonstrate commitment to DOE's Complex-wide recycling goal, it is important for sites to identify all potential large-scale recycling/reuse opportunities

  15. GEO-ECOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION WITH OIL PRODUCTS EMITTED BY RAILROAD FACILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senyushchenkova Irina Mikhaylovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Linear railroad facilities have been producing an adverse impact on the environment by polluting it with oil products for an extensive period of time. The authors of the article consider several mechanisms of contamination and the pattern of its spread into soils. Currently, areas that used to be unsuitable for development as urban lands for geological or environmental reasons are now being intensively developed. The study is exemplified by a city outstretched onto the complex terrain. Complex topography contemplates geological, tectonics-related, hydrological conditions, exogenous processes and anthropogenic factors. In this connection, the main purpose of the study is to analyze the geo-ecological factors that impact urban lands in complex geo-morphological conditions with a view to their functional use against minimal environmental risks to assure the most favorable conditions for humans. Towards this end, the authors have applied the following theoretical and practical methods of research, including a pilot study, namely (1 the geomorphological analysis of urban lands, (2 the monitoring and analysis of the anthropogenic impact produced onto various constituents of the environment, and (3 development of methods of functional use of urban lands in complex geomorphological conditions. The authors have monitored contaminated lands to develop their recommendations for their development in complex geomorphological conditions, namely: 1. Urban development planning should be performed with consideration for the geomorphological elements taken as a whole, as they are closely connected to one another. 2. Selection of methods of rehabilitation of urban lands must be preceded by the zoning of the territory based on its geological and environmental properties.

  16. Korean clinical practice guidelines for preventing the transmission of infections in hemodialysis facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayne Cho Park

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving hemodialysis are vulnerable to infectious diseases due to their impaired immunity and high risk of exposure to pathogens. To protect patients, staff, and visitors from potential infections, each hemodialysis unit should establish and follow standard infection control and prevention measures. Therefore, clinical practice guidelines were developed by a working group of nephrologists and infection control specialists to provide evidence-based guidance for dialysis physicians and nurses, with the aim of preventing infection transmission and controlling infection sources in hemodialysis facilities. The areas of infection control covered by these guidelines include standard precautions, isolation strategies, vascular access, water treatment, cleaning/disinfecting/sterilizing, and vaccination. This special report summarizes the key recommendations from the Korean clinical practice guidelines for preventing the transmission of infections in hemodialysis facilities.

  17. 78 FR 72609 - Approval and Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... discloses such violations to the Commonwealth and takes prompt and appropriate measures to remedy the... pollution control, Aluminum, Fertilizers, Fluoride, Intergovernmental relations, Paper and paper products...

  18. Common ground, not a battle ground. Violence prevention at a detoxification facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Mary A; Vincent, Audrey A; Cundiff, Jeff

    2009-08-01

    This article evaluates the results of a workplace violence prevention program implemented in a Colorado detoxification facility. The program interventions are modeled after federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration guidelines and use theories from both nursing and criminology for philosophy and direction. Serving as its own control, the detoxification facility shares data measured over a 4-year period, demonstrating a sharp decline in assault rates after program implementation. The importance of administrative controls, environmental adjustments, recordkeeping and evaluation, and education and training are emphasized as key components of success. Copyright (c) 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - U.S. POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE FORENSIC & TECHNICAL SERVICES DIVISION - NATIONAL FORENSIC LABORATORY, DULLES, VIRGINIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Postal Service (USPS) in cooperation with EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is engaged in an effort to integrate waste prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at Postal facilities. This report describes the...

  20. Preventive Effect of Residential Green Space on Infantile Atopic Dermatitis Associated with Prenatal Air Pollution Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Young; Lamichhane, Dirga Kumar; Lee, Myeongjee; Ye, Shinhee; Kwon, Jung-Hyun; Park, Myung-Sook; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Leem, Jong-Han; Hong, Yun-Chul; Kim, Yangho; Ha, Mina; Ha, Eunhee

    2018-01-09

    Few birth cohort studies have examined the role of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) in the development of infantile atopic dermatitis (AD), but none have investigated the role of preventive factors such as green spaces. The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of Health study. Subjects were geocoded to their residential addresses and matched with air pollution data modeled using land-use regression. Information on infantile AD was obtained by using a questionnaire administered to the parents or guardians of the children. The association between infantile AD and exposure to NO₂ and PM 10 was determined using logistic regression models. We assessed the effects of residential green spaces using stratified analyses and by entering product terms into the logistic regression models. The risk of infantile AD significantly increased with an increase in air pollution exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 1.219 (1.023-1.452) per 10 μg/m³ increase in PM 10 and 1.353 (1.027-1.782) per 10 ppb increase in NO₂. An increase in the green space within 200 m of residence was associated with a decreased risk of AD (OR = 0.996, 95% CI: 0.993-0.999). The stratified analysis of residential green space revealed stronger associations between infantile AD and PM 10 and NO₂ exposure during the first trimester in the areas in the lower tertiles of green space. This study indicated that exposure to TRAP during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with infantile AD. Less residential green space may intensify the association between TRAP exposure and infantile AD.

  1. A new theory and method of preventing harmful waste landfill from pollution to groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Changli; Zhang Yun; Song Shuhong; Hou Hongbing

    2006-01-01

    It is limited in conventional Soil Liner theory of waste landfill, we must update the theory and the calculational methods must be broke, so that the cost of waste landfill could be reduced in wide scope, this is important to develop economy and environment in sustaining rate. It is an innovation in the theory of the pollution control in the waste landfill groundwater through translated the theories of 'excluding infiltrate to groundwater' into 'insulating waste, allowing water into groundwater', the theory of waste landfill from pollution to groundwater came true. Clayey Soil not only can prevent seepage, but also can obstruct waste. If we can make use of its filtration adequately, just as using experimentation in laboratory to research filtration capability, calculation, we could made new testing technique and calculated technique of liner parameters. This paper take an example of which calculate to liner parameters, such as 'filtration capability' and 'adequacy thickness of effective liner', and make a programming of landfill site by this theory and method in Beijing plain. (authors)

  2. Preventive measures of water pollution in China; Chugoku ni okeru suishitsu odaku boshi taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Y.; Huang, X.

    1996-01-10

    This paper describes the progress and the major results of research and development on technologies and measures to prevent water pollution in China. Tests and researches have been performed on an upward anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), a vertical baffled anaerobic sludge blanket, two-phase anaerobic digestion, and an anaerobic fluidized bed. When anaerobically digested sludge and aerobic active sludge are inoculated in the UASB, particle-shaped sludge was formed well in both sludges. This technology has begun to be used in breweries and citric acid factories. With anaerobic treatment of waste water containing sulfate, the sulfate was recovered as sulfur by using the first and second phases. Research and development is being progressed on the oxidation ditch technology as an improved version of the active sludge method. In a pilot test of a soil treatment system and a stabilization pond treatment system as alternative technology for the active sludge method, the BOD in the treated water was found 2.5 mg{times}1/l. Attentions are drawn on primary treatment, a living organism contact oxidation method, and a continuous filtration treatment process as technologies to turn polluted water into resources. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  3. HIA and pollution prevention control: What they can learn from each other

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Balsam; Pless-Mulloli, Tanja; Vizard, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Following the implementation of the Pollution Prevention and Control (England and Wales) Regulations on 1st August 2000, health authorities (now Primary Care Trusts) became statutory consultees for permits issued to industry by the environmental regulators (the Environmental Agency, Local Authorities). The aims of this paper are to review the process of providing public health input in the light of its similarities to and differences from HIA and to identify the opportunities for both HIA and PPC to learn from each other's practice. We emphasise the challenges that are encountered by public health professionals who provide the public health input in the PPC. We use both our own experience of providing this input on behalf of health authorities and our expertise in HIA, environmental epidemiology and contaminated land

  4. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention checklist guide for the feasibility study project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Feasibility studies (FS) determine what remedial alternatives are presented to regulators for site cleanup. A key consideration in this process is the waste to be generated. Minimizing the volume and toxicity of this waste will ultimately contribute to the selection of the best remedial option. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user in incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all FS phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves and perform preliminary waste assessments

  5. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Yorktown refinery project workplan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, L.; Grieves, C.; Browning, R.; Hanlon, D.; Crane, C.

    1990-09-01

    The report provides a detailed workplan for obtaining data and analyzing results for a 2-year pollution prevention study of Amoco Oil Company's Yorktown Virginia Refinery. The study was jointly sponsored as a cooperative effort of Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study include (1) a multi-media inventory of all releases entering the environment from the Refinery, (2) development of possible engineering options to reduce the releases, (3) analysis of each option in terms of release reduction potential, impact on human health risk, ecological impact, changes in future liability, etc. and (4) identification of obstacles and incentives for implementation of any of the options considered

  6. Preventing Airborne Disease Transmission: Review of Methods for Ventilation Design in Health Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, Amir A.; Rogak, Steven N.; Bartlett, Karen H.; Green, Sheldon I.

    2011-01-01

    Health care facility ventilation design greatly affects disease transmission by aerosols. The desire to control infection in hospitals and at the same time to reduce their carbon footprint motivates the use of unconventional solutions for building design and associated control measures. This paper considers indoor sources and types of infectious aerosols, and pathogen viability and infectivity behaviors in response to environmental conditions. Aerosol dispersion, heat and mass transfer, deposition in the respiratory tract, and infection mechanisms are discussed, with an emphasis on experimental and modeling approaches. Key building design parameters are described that include types of ventilation systems (mixing, displacement, natural and hybrid), air exchange rate, temperature and relative humidity, air flow distribution structure, occupancy, engineered disinfection of air (filtration and UV radiation), and architectural programming (source and activity management) for health care facilities. The paper describes major findings and suggests future research needs in methods for ventilation design of health care facilities to prevent airborne infection risk. PMID:22162813

  7. A fall prevention guideline for older adults living in long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, D; Shin, S; Kim, H

    2014-12-01

    Falls are among the most frequent critical health problems for older adults over 65 years of age and often result in consequential injuries. This study developed a guideline covering risk factors and interventions for falls in order to prevent them from occurring in long-term care facilities. This study was grounded in the methodological approach of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network for establishing evidence-based guidelines: (1) establishment of the target population and scope of the guideline, (2) systematic literature review and critical analysis, (3) determination of the recommendation grade, (4) development of a draft nursing intervention guideline and algorithm, (5) expert evaluation of the draft nursing intervention guideline, and (6) confirmation of the final intervention guideline and completion of the algorithm. The resulting evidence-based fall prevention guideline consists of a three-step factor assessment and a three-step intervention approach. The resulting guideline was based on the literature and clinical experts. Further research is required to test the guideline's feasibility in across long term care facilities. This guideline can be used by nurses to screen patients who are at a high risk of falling to provide patient interventions to help prevent falls. Considering the high rate of falls at long-term care facilities and the absence of evidence-based guidelines to prevent them, additional studies on falls at long-term care facilities are necessary. Meanwhile, given prior research that indicates the importance of human resources in the application of such guidelines, continuous investigations are needed as to whether the research outcomes are actually conveyed to nurses. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  8. On possibilities of using global monitoring in effective prevention of tailings storage facilities failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Katarzyna; Wróżyńska, Magdalena

    2018-02-01

    Protection of common natural goods is one of the greatest challenges man faces every day. Extracting and processing natural resources such as mineral deposits contributes to the transformation of the natural environment. The number of activities designed to keep balance are undertaken in accordance with the concept of integrated order. One of them is the use of comprehensive systems of tailings storage facility monitoring. Despite the monitoring, system failures still occur. The quantitative aspect of the failures illustrates both the scale of the problem and the quantitative aspect of the consequences of tailings storage facility failures. The paper presents vast possibilities provided by the global monitoring in the effective prevention of these failures. Particular attention is drawn to the potential of using multidirectional monitoring, including technical and environmental monitoring by the example of one of the world's biggest hydrotechnical constructions-Żelazny Most Tailings Storage Facility (TSF), Poland. Analysis of monitoring data allows to take preventive action against construction failures of facility dams, which can have devastating effects on human life and the natural environment.

  9. [Prevention and control of air pollution needs to strengthen further study on health damage caused by air pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T C

    2016-08-06

    Heath issues caused by air pollution such as particulate matter (PM) are much concerned and focused among air, water and soil pollutions because human breathe air for whole life span. Present comments will review physical and chemical characteristics of PM2.5 and PM10; Dose-response associations of PM10, PM2.5 and their components with mortality and risk of cardiopulmonary diseases, early health damages such as the decrease of lung functions and heart rate variability, DNA damage; And the roles of genetic variations and epigenetic changes in lung functions and heart rate variability, DNA damage related to PMs and their components. This comments list some limitations and perspectives about the associations of air pollution with health.

  10. Air pollutant emissions and their control with the focus on waste incineration facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeschau, Margit [Wandschneider + Gutjahr, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    This text and practical handbook thoroughly presents the control of air pollutant emissions from combustion processes focusing on waste incinerators. Special characteristics are emphasised and the differences to emission control from combustion processes with other fuels are explained. The author illustrates the origin and effects of air pollutants from incineration processes, the mechanics of their appearance in the incineration process, primary and secondary measures for their reduction, processes of measuring the emissions as well as the methods of disposing the residues. In particular, the pros and cons of procedural steps and their appropriate combination under various conditions are emphasised. Moreover, the book contains information and analyses of the emissions situation, the consumption of operating materials and of backlog quantities as well as of the cost structure of waste incinerators with regard to their applied control system. Furthermore, the author explicates the contemporary legal, scientific and technological developments and their influence on air pollutant emission control. An evaluation of the status quo of air pollutant control at waste incinerators in Germany, practical examples about possible combinations and typical performance data complete the content. Accordingly, this book is a guideline for planing a reasonable overall concept of an air pollutant control that takes the location and the segregation tasks into consideration.

  11. EVALUATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION OPTIONS TO REDUCE STYRENE EMISSIONS FROM FIBER-REINFORCED PLASTIC OPEN MOLDING PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollution prevention (P2) options to reduce styrene emissions, such as new materials, and application equipment, are commercially available to the operators of open molding processes. However, information is lacking on the emissions reduction that these options can achieve. To me...

  12. Implementation of fall prevention in residential care facilities: A systematic review of barriers and facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaeyen, Ellen; Stas, Joke; Leysens, Greet; Van der Elst, Elisa; Janssens, Elise; Dejaeger, Eddy; Dobbels, Fabienne; Milisen, Koen

    2017-05-01

    To identify the barriers and facilitators for fall prevention implementation in residential care facilities. Systematic review. Review registration number on PROSPERO: CRD42013004655. Two independent reviewers systematically searched five databases (i.e. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Web of Science) and the reference lists of relevant articles. This systematic review was conducted in line with the Center for Reviews and Dissemination Handbook and reported according to the PRISMA guideline. Only original research focusing on determinants of fall prevention implementation in residential care facilities was included. We used the Mixed Method Appraisal Tool for quality appraisal. Thematic analysis was performed for qualitative data; quantitative data were analyzed descriptively. To synthesize the results, we used the framework of Grol and colleagues that describes six healthcare levels wherein implementation barriers and facilitators can be identified. We found eight relevant studies, identifying 44 determinants that influence implementation. Of these, 17 were facilitators and 27 were barriers. Results indicated that the social and organizational levels have the greatest number of influencing factors (9 and 14, respectively), whereas resident and economical/political levels have the least (3 and 4, respectively). The most cited facilitators were good communication and facility equipment availability, while staff feeling overwhelmed, helpless, frustrated and concerned about their ability to control fall management, staffing issues, limited knowledge and skills (i.e., general clinical skill deficiencies, poor fall management skills or lack of computer skills); and poor communication were the most cited barriers. Successful implementation of fall prevention depends on many factors across different healthcare levels. The focus of implementation interventions, however, should be on modifiable barriers and facilitators such as communication, knowledge, and skills

  13. A systematic review on status of lead pollution and toxicity in Iran; Guidance for preventive measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi Mohammad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lead is an old environmental metal which is presented everywhere and lead poisoning is an important health issue in many countries in the world including Iran. It is known as a silent environmental disease which can have life-long adverse health effects. In children, the most vulnerable population, mental development of children health effects is of the greatest influence. Low level lead exposure can significantly induce motor dysfunctions and cognitive impairment in children. The sources of lead exposure vary among countries. Occupational lead exposure is an important health issue in Iran and mine workers, employees of paint factories, workers of copying centers, drivers, and tile making factories are in higher risk of lead toxicity. Moreover lead processing industry has always been a major of concern which affects surface water, drinking waters, and ground waters, even water of Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf and rivers due to increasing the number of industries in vicinity of rivers that release their waste discharges into river or sea. In addition, lead contamination of soil and air especially in vicinity of polluted and industrialized cities is another health problem in Iran. Even foods such as rice and fishes, raw milk, and vegetables which are the most common food of Iranian population are polluted to lead in some area of Iran. Adding lead to the opium is a recently health hazard in Iran that has been observed among opium addicts. There are few studies evaluated current status of lead exposure and toxicity in the Iranian children and pregnant women which should be taken into account of authorities. We recommend to identify sources, eliminate or control sources, and monitor environmental exposures and hazards to prevent lead poisoning.

  14. A Systematic Review on Status of Lead Pollution and Toxicity in Iran; Guidance for Preventive Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parissa Karrari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lead is an old environmental metal which is presented everywhere and lead poisoning is an important health issue in many countries in the world including Iran. It is known as a silent environmental disease which can have life-long adverse health effects. In children, the most vulnerable population, mental development of children health effects is of the greatest influence. Low level lead exposure can significantly induce motor dysfunctions and cognitive impairment in children. The sources of lead exposure vary among countries. Occupational lead exposure is an important health issue in Iran and mine workers, employees of paint factories, workers of copying centers, drivers,and tile making factories are in higher risk of lead toxicity. Moreover lead processing industry has always been amajor of concern which affects surface water, drinking waters, and ground waters, even water of Caspian Sea,Persian Gulf and rivers due to increasing the number of industries in vicinity of rivers that release their waste discharges into river or sea. In addition, lead contamination of soil and air especially in vicinity of polluted andindustrialized cities is another health problem in Iran. Even foods such as rice and fishes, raw milk, and vegetables which are the most common food of Iranian population are polluted to lead in some area of Iran. Adding lead to the opium is a recently health hazard in Iran that has been observed among opium addicts. There are few studiesevaluated current status of lead exposure and toxicity in the Iranian children and pregnant women which should be taken into account of authorities. We recommend to identify sources, eliminate or control sources, and monitor environmental exposures and hazards to prevent lead poisoning.

  15. [Factors regarding awareness of preventive care exercises: Distance to exercise facilities and their social networks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Yuki; Tsunoda, Kenji; Kitano, Naruki; Jindo, Takashi; Okura, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines factors affecting individuals' awareness of certain types of preventive care exercises, particularly the distance from their home to an exercise facility and their social networks. Participants were 3206 men (age, 73.0±6.2 years) and 3395 women (age, 73.2±6.4 years) aged ≥65 years who had not been certified as persons with care needs and who had responded to an inventory survey conducted in Kasama City, Japan, in 2013. We performed multiple logistic regression analysis to assess the characteristics associated with participants' awareness of two types of exercises for preventive care: "silver rehabili taisou" (SRT) and "square-stepping exercise" (SSE). Independent variables were distance from home to the exercise facility, social networks, transportation availability, physical function, cognitive function, and neighborhood population density. Older adults who were aware of the exercises lived significantly closer to an exercise facility (SRT, aware: 1,148.5±961.3 m vs. unaware: 1,284.2±1,027.4 m; SSE, aware: 1,415.9±1104.1 m vs. unaware: 1,615.7±1,172.2 m). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that participation in community activities (men, SRT-odds ratio [OR]=2.54 and SSE-OR=2.19; women, SRT-OR=4.14 and SSE-OR=3.34] and visiting friends (men, SRT-OR=1.45 and SSE-OR=1.49; women SRT-OR=1.44 and SSE-OR=1.73) were promoting factors for awareness of both types of exercises. In men and women, low physical function (SRT-OR=0.73 and SSE-OR=0.56) and dependence on another person to drive them to the destination (SRT-OR=0.79 and SSE-OR=0.78) were inhibiting factors, respectively. A distance of >500 m between their home and the facility tended to be an inhibiting factor. A shorter distance from home to an exercise facility and better social networks increased awareness of preventive care exercises in both sexes and for both types of exercise. Establishing exercise centers and devising effective methods of imparting information to

  16. Development of training system to prevent accidents during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kwanseong; Moon, Jeikwon; Choi, Byungseon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, Ikjune; Kim, Geunho; Seo, Jaeseok

    2014-01-01

    Decommissioning workers need familiarization with working environments because working environment is under high radioactivity and work difficulty during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. On-the-job training of decommissioning works could effectively train decommissioning workers but this training approach could consume much costs and poor modifications of scenarios. The efficiency of virtual training system could be much better than that of physical training system. This paper was intended to develop the training system to prevent accidents for decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The requirements for the training system were drawn. The data management modules for the training system were designed. The training system of decommissioning workers was developed on the basis of virtual reality which is flexibly modified. The visualization and measurement in the training system were real-time done according as changes of the decommissioning scenario. It can be concluded that this training system enables the subject to improve his familiarization about working environments and to prevent accidents during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

  17. Development of training system to prevent accidents during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwanseong; Moon, Jeikwon; Choi, Byungseon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, Ikjune; Kim, Geunho; Seo, Jaeseok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Decommissioning workers need familiarization with working environments because working environment is under high radioactivity and work difficulty during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. On-the-job training of decommissioning works could effectively train decommissioning workers but this training approach could consume much costs and poor modifications of scenarios. The efficiency of virtual training system could be much better than that of physical training system. This paper was intended to develop the training system to prevent accidents for decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The requirements for the training system were drawn. The data management modules for the training system were designed. The training system of decommissioning workers was developed on the basis of virtual reality which is flexibly modified. The visualization and measurement in the training system were real-time done according as changes of the decommissioning scenario. It can be concluded that this training system enables the subject to improve his familiarization about working environments and to prevent accidents during decommissioning of nuclear facilities.

  18. An environmental assessment strategy for the identification of pollution prevention opportunities in the southern Urals Region of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M.A.; Ott, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The serious environmental problems of the South Urals Region of Russia have been broadly described in a report coauthored by Russian weapons scientists. The importance of taking the first steps to prevent further environmental damage and adverse public health effects has been recognized by the international scientific community. Scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have initiated a project to assist the Russians in their pollution prevention efforts. The specific objectives of this project are to: (1) conduct a pragmatic survey of the industrial and governmental pollution sources in a limited geographic region of the South Urals and (2) identify the priorities for pollution prevention and for food and water supply improvements at distribution points. The emphasis is on preventing adverse impacts to human health and improving industrial productivity. This project focuses on immediate pollution problems resulting from current operations and their solutions, not on long-term research related to the large-scale cleanup of legacy wastes. The project emphasizes near-term cost effective solutions to prevent pollution while longer term research aimed at contamination from past practices is pursued by other scientists. The project is being conducted in collaboration with environmental and physical scientists from institutes associated with the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences; government officials at the national, regional, and local levels; and non-governmental Russian environmental groups. A broad cross section of Russian technical, political, and environmental abilities and interests is mandatory. This cross section will ensure the technical quality, the political acceptability, and the popular credibility of the project results to the affected Russians in the South Urals. Progress on this project is presented in this paper

  19. Groundwater Modeling Of Mercury Pollution At A Former Mercury Cell Chlor Alkali Facility In Pavoldar, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Kazakhstan, there is a serious case of mercury pollution near the city of Pavlodar from an old mercury cell chlor-alkali plant. The soil, sediment, and water is severly contaminated with mercury and mercury compounds as a result of the industrial activity of this chemical pla...

  20. Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find regulatory information regarding the NESHAP for Aerospace manufacturing and rework facilities. This page contains the rule summary, rule history, and related rules and additional resources for this standard.

  1. Ethylene Oxide Emissions Standards for Sterilization Facilities: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the NESHAP for ethylene oxide emissions for sterilization facilities. Find the rule history information, federal register citations, legal authority, and related rules as well as a rule summary.

  2. Federalism and entrepreneurship: Explaining American and Canadian innovation in pollution prevention and regulatory integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabe, B.G.

    1999-07-01

    Conventional wisdom provides an increasingly strong endorsement of far-reaching decentralization and delegation of authority to bureaucratic agents as the most likely mechanisms to attain such central environmental policy goals as pollution prevention,cross-media regulatory integration, and development of reliable measures of environmental outcomes. Canada would appear an unusually fertile context for such innovation, given its far-reaching deference to individual provinces and their environment ministries in environmental policy. Comparative analysis of select subnational governments in Canada and the United States suggests that the states in general are far ahead of their provincial counterparts in most of these areas of innovation. Despite all the opprobrium heaped on the American environmental policy system, a combination of federal policy tools and state policy entrepreneurship appear to contribute directly to this innovation in some states and are almost completely absent in the Canadian system. These findings suggest a need for careful study of the mix of intergovernmental policy tools and principal-agent relations most likely to realize desired environmental policy goals.

  3. Preliminary Assessment of Noise Pollution Prevention in Wind Turbines Based on an Exergy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia A. Jianu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Most existing methods for energy transformation and use are inadvertently contaminating our watersupplies, releasing greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere, emitting compounds that diminish the earth'sprotective blanket of ozone, and depleting the earth's crust of natural resources. As a result, scientists andengineers are increasingly pursuing sustainable technologies so that costs associated with global warmingcan be minimized and adverse impact on living organisms can be prevented. A promising sustainablemethod is to harness energy from the wind via wind turbines. However, the noise generated by wind turbinesproves to be one of the most significant hindrances to the extensive use of wind turbines. In this study,noise generation produced by flow over objects is investigated to characterize the noise generated due toflow-structure interaction and aeroacoustics. As a benchmark, flow over a cylinder has been chosen for thisstudy, with the aim of correlating three main characteristics in noise generation. Hence, the generated soundpressure level, exergy destroyed and the normal flow velocity (∪ ∞ are employed to characterize the systemin order to relate the exergy destruction to the noise generated in the flow. The correlation has the potentialto be used in wind turbine designs to minimize noise pollution due to aerodynamic noise.

  4. A comparison of the cost associated with pollution prevention measures to that required to treat polluted water resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available by nitrogen and particularly phosphorous (Hart, 2006). The main sources of nutrient pollution are sewage effluent and agricultural run-off. The discharge of nitrogen (as nitrates) and phosphorus (as phosphates) to inland rivers, lakes and dams causes... mg/ℓ (DWAF, 1996a). Table 2: TDS of natural water (DWAF, 1996a) Geological formations in contact with water TDS (mg/ℓ) Granite, siliceous sand and well-leached soils < 30 Precambium shield areas < 65 Palaeozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rock...

  5. Reduction of femoral fractures in long-term care facilities: the Bavarian fracture prevention study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Becker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hip fractures are a major public health burden. In industrialized countries about 20% of all femoral fractures occur in care dependent persons living in nursing care and assisted living facilities. Preventive strategies for these groups are needed as the access to medical services differs from independent home dwelling older persons at risk of osteoporotic fractures. It was the objective of the study to evaluate the effect of a fall and fracture prevention program on the incidence of femoral fracture in nursing homes in Bavaria, Germany. METHODS: In a translational intervention study a fall prevention program was introduced in 256 nursing homes with 13,653 residents. The control group consisted of 893 nursing homes with 31,668 residents. The intervention consisted of staff education on fall and fracture prevention strategies, progressive strength and balance training, and on institutional advice on environmental adaptations. Incident femoral fractures served as outcome measure. RESULTS: In the years before the intervention risk of a femoral fracture did not differ between the intervention group (IG and control group (CG. During the one-year intervention period femoral fracture rates were 33.6 (IG and 41.0/1000 person years (CG, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of a femoral fracture was 0.82 (95% CI 0.72-0.93 in residents exposed to the fall and fracture prevention program compared to residents from CG. CONCLUSIONS: The state-wide dissemination of a multi-factorial fall and fracture prevention program was able to reduce femoral fractures in residents of nursing homes.

  6. The planned EC Directive on 'Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control' (IPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellner, D.; Schnutenhaus, J.

    1993-01-01

    This EC Directive is intended to incorporate integrated pollution control as a mandatory obligation in the legal provisions governing industrial installations licensing within the EC. The article in hand presents an assessment of the Directive and discusses some possible impacts on the German national law in the field of pollution control, which hitherto has been defined on the basis of a preferably medium-oriented approach. A serious point of deviation from the German approach is seen in the fact that the draft's provisions relating to the licensing of industrial installations defines certain pre-conditions allowing a plant in a low-polluted area to be licensed, although the pollution control systems of the plant do not them come up to the state-of-the-art in pollution abatement technology. This is seen as a fact jeopardizing the principle of precantionary measures which has been firmly established in German pollution control law. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Exercise Interventions for Preventing Falls Among Older People in Care Facilities: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon Heui; Kim, Hee Sun

    2017-02-01

    Falls in older people are a common problem, often leading to considerable morbidity. However, the overall effect of exercise interventions on fall prevention in care facilities remains controversial. To evaluate the effectiveness of exercise interventions on the rate of falls and number of fallers in care facilities. A meta-analysis was conducted of randomized controlled trials published up to December 2014. Eight databases were searched including Ovid-Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, KoreaMed, KMbase, KISS, and KisTi. Two investigators independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Twenty-one studies were selected, that included 5,540 participants. Fifteen studies included exercise as a single intervention, whereas the remaining six included exercise combined with two or more fall interventions tailored to each resident's fall risk (i.e., medication review, environmental modification or staff education). Meta-analysis showed that exercise had a preventive effect on the rate of falls (risk ratio [RR] 0.81, 95% CI 0.68-0.97). This effect was stronger when exercise combined with other fall interventions on the rate of falls (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.52-0.72) and on the number of fallers (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.95). Exercise interventions including balance training (i.e., gait, balance, and functional training; or balance and strength) resulted in reduced the rate of falls. Sensitivity analyses indicated that exercise interventions resulted in reduced numbers of recurrent fallers (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.53-0.97). This review provides an important basis for developing evidence-based exercise intervention protocols for older people living in care facilities. Exercise programs, which are combined with tailored other fall interventions and challenge balance training to improve balance skills, should be applied to frail older people with functional limitations in institutional settings. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  8. Decree 149/013. It dictate norms standards for pollution prevention in the oil loading terminals, repairing ports and other ports where ships have hidrocarbon waste, to discharge in accordance with existing international agreements concluded with the international maritime organization ratification and ratified by our country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This decree is about the standards concerning to the pollution prevention in the oil loading terminals.The countries involved in the agreement are committed to ensure that the oil loading terminals and ports have appropriate facilities for the reception of waste and oily mixtures.

  9. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator Operations, Level III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    A Level III pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator to evaluate pollution prevention (P2) options for various waste streams: The main objective of this study was to identify and evaluate options to reduce the quantities of each waste stream generated by the TSCA Incinerator operations to realize significant environmental and/or economic benefits from P2. For each of the waste streams, P2 options were evaluated following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hierarchy to (1) reduce the quantity of waste generated, (2) recycle the waste, and/or (3) use alternate waste treatment or segregation methods. This report provides process descriptions, identification and evaluation of P2 options, and final recommendations

  10. Pollution prevention through energy efficiency: methodology for evaluating greenhouse gas reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widge, V.; Arnold, F.; Karmali, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines an analytical framework for evaluating the potential for greenhouse gas emission reductions through investments in energy efficiency. In particular, it will describe a model called the Energy and Technology Switching (ETS) model which has been developed at ICF Incorporated. The ETS model has several useful capabilities - it can assess the implications of changing the energy efficiency of new shipments and existing stock of equipment and appliances, or even changes in patterns of fuel use. The ETS model predicts energy use, emissions of related carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, and private and social costs (such as energy costs, avoided capital and fuel costs). It also tracks changes in fuel and technology use over time for a user specified end-use application. The paper is organized into three parts: - The first part of the paper describes the methodology used in estimating the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and the associated net costs of policies that could affect energy use. - In order to demonstrate the model's capabilities, in the second part of the paper, a sample analysis is presented. ICF incorporated has used the ETS model to estimate for the Global Change Division of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency the costs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the residential and commercial sectors of the U.S. economy, encompassing a wide range of technologies and fuel-types. The assumptions and results of this analysis are presented. - Finally, the paper outlines some of the potential uses of this model in assessing pollution prevention opportunities through energy efficient measures. 11 figs

  11. Importance of employee vaccination against influenza in preventing cases in long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendelboe, Aaron M; Avery, Catherine; Andrade, Bernardo; Baumbach, Joan; Landen, Michael G

    2011-10-01

    Employees of long-term care facilities (LTCFs) who have contact with residents should be vaccinated against influenza annually to reduce influenza incidence among residents. This investigation estimated the magnitude of the benefit of this recommendation. The New Mexico Department of Health implemented active surveillance in all of its 75 LTCFs during influenza seasons 2006-2007 and 2007-2008. Information about the number of laboratory-confirmed cases of influenza and the proportion vaccinated of both residents and direct-care employees in each facility was collected monthly. LTCFs reporting at least 1 case of influenza (defined alternately by laboratory confirmation or symptoms of influenza-like illness [ILI]) among residents were compared with LTCFs reporting no cases of influenza. Regression modeling was used to obtain adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between employee vaccination coverage and the occurrence of influenza outbreaks. Covariates included vaccination coverage among residents, the staff-to-resident ratio, and the proportion of filled beds. Seventeen influenza outbreaks were reported during this 2-year period of surveillance. Eleven of these were laboratory confirmed (n = 21 residents) and 6 were defined by ILI (n = 40 residents). Mean influenza vaccination coverage among direct-care employees was 51% in facilities reporting outbreaks and 60% in facilities not reporting outbreaks (P = .12). Increased vaccination coverage among direct-care employees was associated with fewer reported outbreaks of laboratory-confirmed influenza (aOR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.95-0.99]) and ILI (aOR, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.96-1.00]). High vaccination coverage among direct-care employees helps to prevent influenza in LTCFs.

  12. Iodine-131 in sewage sludge from a small water pollution control plant serving a thyroid cancer treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Paula S; Swanson, R Lawrence

    2013-08-01

    Iodine-131 (half-life = 8.04 d) is the most widely used radionuclide in medicine for therapeutic purposes. It is excreted by patients and is discharged directly to sewer systems. Despite considerable dilution in waste water and the relatively short half-life of I, it is readily measured in sewage. This work presents I concentrations in sewage sludge from three water pollution control plants (WPCPs) on Long Island, NY. Iodine-131 concentrations ranged from 0.027 ± 0.002 to 148 ± 4 Bq g dry weight. The highest concentrations were measured in the Stony Brook WPCP, a relatively small plant (average flow = 6.8 × 10 L d) serving a regional thyroid cancer treatment facility in Stony Brook, NY. Preliminary radiation dose calculations suggested further evaluation of dose to treatment plant workers in the Stony Brook WPCP based on the recommendations of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards.

  13. Forum environmental and energy technology 2013. Power-heat cogeneration and air pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlowitz, Otto; Meyer, Sven

    2013-01-01

    The volume covers the following topics: The teaching reward 2013 - concept and implementation of the ''Forum environmental and energy technology''; energy efficient air pollution control and material recovery; air pollution control by oxidation; electrical energy production from low-temperature waste heat (ORC processes), electrical power production and process heat utilization.

  14. Progress in the prevention and control of air pollution in 1988: Report to congress. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Contents of this study: air quality trends, monitoring, and modeling; air pollution research programs; development of national ambient air; quality standards; assessment and control of toxic air pollutants; status of air quality management programs; control of stationary source emissions; stationary source compliance; control of mobile source emissions; stratospheric ozone protection; indoor air quality; acid deposition; radon assessment and remediation; litigation

  15. Waste minimization and pollution prevention in D ampersand D operations at the Argonne National Laboratory-East site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.; Ditch, R.W.; Fellhauer, C.R.; Rose, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is implementing waste minimization and pollution prevention activities into its conduct of decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) projects. Many of these activities are rather straight forward and simple approaches, yet they are often overlooked and not implemented as often as they should or could be. Specific activities involving recycling and reuse of materials and structures, which have proven useful in lowering decommissioning and disposal costs on D ampersand D projects at ANL are presented

  16. Environmental and risk screening for prioritizing pollution prevention opportunities in the U.S. printed wiring board manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Carl W; Lim, Seong-Rin; Schoenung, Julie M

    2011-05-15

    Modern manufacturing of printed wiring boards (PWBs) involves extensive use of various hazardous chemicals in different manufacturing steps such as board preparation, circuit design transfer, etching and plating processes. Two complementary environmental screening methods developed by the U.S. EPA, namely: (i) the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI) and (ii) Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI), are used to quantify geographic and chemical environmental impacts in the U.S. PWB manufacturing industry based on Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data. Although the release weight percentages of industrial chemicals such as methanol, glycol ethers and dimethylformamide comprise the larger fraction of reported air and water emissions, results indicate that lead, copper and their compounds' releases correspond to the highest environmental impact from toxicity potentials and risk-screening scores. Combining these results with further knowledge of PWB manufacturing, select alternative chemical processes and materials for pollution prevention are discussed. Examples of effective pollution prevention options in the PWB industry include spent etchant recovery technologies, and process and material substitutions. In addition, geographic assessment of environmental burden highlights states where promotion of pollution prevention strategies and emissions regulations can have the greatest effect to curb the PWB industry's toxic release impacts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan for the TA-03-22 Power and Steam Plant, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Revision 3, January 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgin, Jillian Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector O-Steam Electric Generating Facilities as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA-03-22 Power and Steam Plant at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-03-22 Power and Steam Plant and associated areas. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  18. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan for the TA-03-38 Carpenter's Shop, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Revision 3, January 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgin, Jillian Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector A–Timber Products, Subsector A4 (Wood Products Facilities not elsewhere classified) as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA-03-38 Carpenter’s Shop at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-03-38 Carpenter’s Shop and associated areas. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  19. Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorani-Azam, Adel; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer. Several reports have revealed the direct association between exposure to the poor air quality and increasing rate of morbidity and mortality mostly due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Air pollution is considered as the major environmental risk factor in the incidence and progression of some diseases such as asthma, lung cancer, ventricular hypertrophy, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, psychological complications, autism, retinopathy, fetal growth, and low birth weight. In this review article, we aimed to discuss toxicology of major air pollutants, sources of emission, and their impact on human health. We have also proposed practical measures to reduce air pollution in Iran.

  20. Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorani-Azam, Adel; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer. Several reports have revealed the direct association between exposure to the poor air quality and increasing rate of morbidity and mortality mostly due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Air pollution is considered as the major environmental risk factor in the incidence and progression of some diseases such as asthma, lung cancer, ventricular hypertrophy, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, psychological complications, autism, retinopathy, fetal growth, and low birth weight. In this review article, we aimed to discuss toxicology of major air pollutants, sources of emission, and their impact on human health. We have also proposed practical measures to reduce air pollution in Iran. PMID:27904610

  1. Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Ghorani-Azam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer. Several reports have revealed the direct association between exposure to the poor air quality and increasing rate of morbidity and mortality mostly due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Air pollution is considered as the major environmental risk factor in the incidence and progression of some diseases such as asthma, lung cancer, ventricular hypertrophy, Alzheimer′s and Parkinson′s diseases, psychological complications, autism, retinopathy, fetal growth, and low birth weight. In this review article, we aimed to discuss toxicology of major air pollutants, sources of emission, and their impact on human health. We have also proposed practical measures to reduce air pollution in Iran.

  2. Classified facilities for environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-02-01

    The legislation of the classified facilities governs most of the dangerous or polluting industries or fixed activities. It rests on the law of 9 July 1976 concerning facilities classified for environmental protection and its application decree of 21 September 1977. This legislation, the general texts of which appear in this volume 1, aims to prevent all the risks and the harmful effects coming from an installation (air, water or soil pollutions, wastes, even aesthetic breaches). The polluting or dangerous activities are defined in a list called nomenclature which subjects the facilities to a declaration or an authorization procedure. The authorization is delivered by the prefect at the end of an open and contradictory procedure after a public survey. In addition, the facilities can be subjected to technical regulations fixed by the Environment Minister (volume 2) or by the prefect for facilities subjected to declaration (volume 3). (A.B.)

  3. Health risks for the population living in the vicinity of an Integrated Waste Management Facility: Screening environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingo, José L.; Rovira, Joaquim; Vilavert, Lolita; Nadal, Martí; Figueras, María J.; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2015-01-01

    We performed a screening investigation to assess the human health risks of the Integrated Waste Management Facility (IWMF: mechanical–biological treatment (MBT) plant plus municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI); Ecoparc-3) of Barcelona (Spain). Air concentrations of pollutants potentially released by the MBT plant (VOCs and bioaerosols) and the MSWI (trace elements, PCDD/Fs and PCBs) were determined. Trace elements, PCDD/Fs and PCBs were also analyzed in soil samples. The concentrations of trace elements and bioaerosols were similar to those previously reported in other areas of similar characteristics, while formaldehyde was the predominant VOC. Interestingly, PCDD/F concentrations in soil and air were the highest ever reported near a MSWI in Catalonia, being maximum concentrations 10.8 ng WHO-TEQ/kg and 41.3 fg WHO-TEQ/m 3 , respectively. In addition, there has not been any reduction in soils, even after the closure of a power plant located adjacently. Human health risks of PCDD/F exposure in the closest urban nucleus located downwind the MSWI are up to 10-times higher than those nearby other MSWIs in Catalonia. Although results must be considered as very preliminary, they are a serious warning for local authorities. We strongly recommend to conduct additional studies to confirm these findings and, if necessary, to implement measures to urgently mitigate the impact of the MSWI on the surrounding environment. We must also state the tremendous importance of an individual evaluation of MSWIs, rather than generalizing their environmental and health risks. - Highlights: • Health risks of an Integrated Waste Management Facility in Catalonia are assessed. • PCDD/F exposure near this facility is up to 10-times higher than that near others. • Environmental monitoring of incineration plants should be performed case-by-case. • Since results are very preliminary, confirmatory studies should be conducted

  4. Health risks for the population living in the vicinity of an Integrated Waste Management Facility: Screening environmental pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo, José L., E-mail: joseluis.domingo@urv.cat [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Rovira, Joaquim [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Vilavert, Lolita; Nadal, Martí [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Figueras, María J. [Microbiology Unit, School of Medicine, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Schuhmacher, Marta [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2015-06-15

    We performed a screening investigation to assess the human health risks of the Integrated Waste Management Facility (IWMF: mechanical–biological treatment (MBT) plant plus municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI); Ecoparc-3) of Barcelona (Spain). Air concentrations of pollutants potentially released by the MBT plant (VOCs and bioaerosols) and the MSWI (trace elements, PCDD/Fs and PCBs) were determined. Trace elements, PCDD/Fs and PCBs were also analyzed in soil samples. The concentrations of trace elements and bioaerosols were similar to those previously reported in other areas of similar characteristics, while formaldehyde was the predominant VOC. Interestingly, PCDD/F concentrations in soil and air were the highest ever reported near a MSWI in Catalonia, being maximum concentrations 10.8 ng WHO-TEQ/kg and 41.3 fg WHO-TEQ/m{sup 3}, respectively. In addition, there has not been any reduction in soils, even after the closure of a power plant located adjacently. Human health risks of PCDD/F exposure in the closest urban nucleus located downwind the MSWI are up to 10-times higher than those nearby other MSWIs in Catalonia. Although results must be considered as very preliminary, they are a serious warning for local authorities. We strongly recommend to conduct additional studies to confirm these findings and, if necessary, to implement measures to urgently mitigate the impact of the MSWI on the surrounding environment. We must also state the tremendous importance of an individual evaluation of MSWIs, rather than generalizing their environmental and health risks. - Highlights: • Health risks of an Integrated Waste Management Facility in Catalonia are assessed. • PCDD/F exposure near this facility is up to 10-times higher than that near others. • Environmental monitoring of incineration plants should be performed case-by-case. • Since results are very preliminary, confirmatory studies should be conducted.

  5. [Study on strategies of pollution prevention in coastal city of Zhejiang Province based on scenario analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jin-Ping; Chen, Lü-Jun; Du, Peng-Fei; Qian, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Scenario analysis was used to study the environmental burden in a coastal city of Zhejiang province under different patterns of economic development. The aim of this research is to propose advices on decision making by illustrating how to make emissions reduced by transforming the pattern of economic development in a developed coastal area, which had acquired the level of 70 000 yuan GDP per cap. At first, 18 heavy pollution industries were screened out, by referencing total emissions of chemical oxygen demand, ammonia-nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide. Then, a model of scenario analysis and the back-up calculation program were designed to study the sustainable development of the heavy pollution industries. With 2008 and 2015 as the reference year and the target year respectively, emissions of four pollutants mentioned above in the 18 heavy pollution industries in the city were analyzed under six scenarios. The total emissions of 4 pollutants should be reduced to an expectant degree, which is set as the constraint prerequisite of the scenario analysis. At last, some suggestions for decision-making are put forward, which include maintaining a moderate increase rate of GDP around 7%, strengthening the adjustment of economic structure, controlling the increasing rate of industrial added value of the industries with heavy pollution, optimizing the structure of industries with heavy pollution, decreasing the intensity of waste emission by implementing cleaner production to reduce emission produce at the source, and strengthening regulations on the operation of waste treatment plants to further promote the efficiency of waste treatment. Only by implementing such measures mentioned above, can the total emissions of chemical oxygen demand, ammonia-nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide of the 18 industries with heavy pollution in the city be reduced by a 10%, 10%, 5%, and 15% respectively based on the reference year.

  6. Integrating Hazardous Materials Characterization and Assessment Tools to Guide Pollution Prevention in Electronic Products and Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Carl

    Due to technology proliferation, the environmental burden attributed to the production, use, and disposal of hazardous materials in electronics have become a worldwide concern. The major theme of this dissertation is to develop and apply hazardous materials assessment tools to systematically guide pollution prevention opportunities in the context of electronic product design, manufacturing and end-of-life waste management. To this extent, a comprehensive review is first provided on describing hazard traits and current assessment methods to evaluate hazardous materials. As a case study at the manufacturing level, life cycle impact assessment (LCIA)-based and risk-based screening methods are used to quantify chemical and geographic environmental impacts in the U.S. printed wiring board (PWB) industry. Results from this industrial assessment clarify priority waste streams and States to most effectively mitigate impact. With further knowledge of PWB manufacturing processes, select alternative chemical processes (e.g., spent copper etchant recovery) and material options (e.g., lead-free etch resist) are discussed. In addition, an investigation on technology transition effects for computers and televisions in the U.S. market is performed by linking dynamic materials flow and environmental assessment models. The analysis forecasts quantities of waste units generated and maps shifts in environmental impact potentials associated with metal composition changes due to product substitutions. This insight is important to understand the timing and waste quantities expected and the emerging toxic elements needed to be addressed as a consequence of technology transition. At the product level, electronic utility meter devices are evaluated to eliminate hazardous materials within product components. Development and application of a component Toxic Potential Indicator (TPI) assessment methodology highlights priority components requiring material alternatives. Alternative

  7. The Geography of the Alzheimer's Disease Mortality in Spain: Should We Focus on Industrial Pollutants Prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-25

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has a high worldwide prevalence but little is known about its aetiology and risk factors. Recent research suggests environmental factors might increase AD risk. We aim to describe the association between AD mortality and the presence of highly polluting industry in small areas in Spain between 1999 and 2010. We calculated AD age-adjusted Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR), stratified by sex, grouped by industrial pollution density, compared for each small area of Spain. In the small areas with the highest mortality, the SMR among women was at least 25% greater than the national average (18% in men). The distribution of AD mortality was generally similar to that of high industrial pollution (higher mortality in the north, the Mediterranean coast and in some southern areas). The risk of AD mortality among women was 140% higher (123% among men) in areas with the highest industrial density in comparison to areas without polluting industries. This study has identified a geographical pattern of small areas with higher AD mortality risk and an ecological positive association with the density of highly polluting industry. Further research is needed on the potential impact of this type of industry pollution on AD aetiology and mortality.

  8. Investment strategy for sustainable society by development of regional economies and prevention of industrial pollutions in Japanese manufacturing sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika

    2014-01-01

    A balance between industrial pollution prevention and economic growth becomes a world-wide issue to develop a sustainable society in many industrial nations. To discuss the issue, this study proposes a new use of DEA environmental assessment to determine how to effectively allocate capital for developing regional industries. The amount of capital is used to invest for technology innovation for both local economic growth and environmental protection. In this study, the proposed approach separates outputs into desirable and undesirable categories. Inputs are also separated into two categories, one of which indicates an amount of investment on capital assets. The other category is used for production activities. The proposed approach unifies them by two disposability concepts. This study has evaluated the performance of manufacturing industries in 47 prefectures (local government units in Japan) by Unified Efficiency under Natural disposability (UEN), Unified Efficiency under Managerial disposability (UEM) and Unified Efficiency under Natural and Managerial disposability (UENM). The UENM is further separated into its two cases: with and without a possible occurrence on desirable congestion, or technology innovation, on undesirable outputs. This study has empirically confirmed that Japanese manufacturing industries need to make their efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution substances by investing in technology innovation. Furthermore, most of economic activities are currently located at metropolitan regions (e.g., Tokyo) in Japan. To develop a sustainable society, Japan needs to allocate capital into regions with a high level of investment effectiveness by shifting the manufacturing industries from the metropolitan regions to much promising local areas identified in this study. Such a shift, along with technology innovation, makes it possible to reduce air pollutions in the entire Japan by balancing economic growth and pollution prevention. This

  9. The prevention and management of constipation in older adults in a residential aged care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Jennifer

    2006-03-01

    The need to implement programs for developing leadership and practice improvement skills using an evidence-based practice approach to practice change is becoming more apparent in the health and aged care services. This is no more apparent than in high care residential health and aged care services, where health professionals are increasingly required to provide care for older people with multifocal and complex healthcare needs. This paper describes one of the projects undertaken as part of the Joanna Briggs Institute Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing Clinical Aged Care Fellowship program from February 2005 to June 2005. This purpose of this particular project was twofold. First it sought to improve the local practice in the prevention and management of constipation and that this practice was performed according to the best available evidence. Second to use the Joanna Briggs Institute Practical Application of Clinical Guidance (PACES) program to implement a process of audit and feedback as a strategy to improve practice. The project was designed to link in with the facility's existing quality improvement program and better practice continence management project. The project was conducted over 6 months and was divided into six stages involving the identification of evidence-based standards of care, an initial audit to determine appropriate sample size, a clinical audit across the facility, planning of the implementation process, implementation of the action plan and re-audit to assess practice change. Overall, the results were extremely positive and demonstrated a real improvement in practice relating to constipation in the project facility. This success, however, needs to be seen in the context of the benefits of having the support of senior management, an existing quality improvement and continence management better practice project, and a culture of clinical review. Although there will always be more work to be done, the success of this project can be

  10. Best management practices to reduce and prevent water pollution with herbicides from run-off and erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The natural phenomenon of run-off and erosion lead to unpreventable pesticide water pollution in case of extreme weather conditions. In this relationship the use of herbicides involves a higher risk than other pesticides because of the specific terms of application. Directive 2009/128/EC for the sustainable use of pesticides aspires to enhanced water protection. German national action plan contains quantitative objectives which require strong reduction of water pollution by run-off and erosion of pesticides and accordingly herbicides. The European TOPPS prowadis project developed a consolidated and basic diagnosis concept for the first time to determine the field specific run-off risk. Compatible mitigation measures were linked to specific risk scenarios. Risk diagnosis and suitable mitigation measures determine best management practices for the prevention of run-off and erosion. Different new diagnosis methods and the implementation are presented. Further documents and information are available on the web [http://www.topps-life.org/].

  11. [Dynamics of tooth decay prevalence in children receiving long-term preventive program in school dental facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraamova, O G; Kulazhenko, T V; Gabitova, K F

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the assessment of tooth decay prevalence in clinically homogenous groups of children receiving long-term preventive program (PP) in school dental facilities. Five-years PP were introduced in clinical practice in 2 Moscow schools. Preventive treatment was performed by dental hygienist. The results show that systematic preventive treatment in school dental offices starting from elementary school allows reducing dental caries incidence 46-53% and stabilize the incidence of caries complications. It should be mentioned though that analysis of individualized outcomes proves heterogeneity of study results despite of equal conditions of PP. Potentially significant hence is early diagnostics and treatment of initial caries forms as demineralization foci, especially in children with intensive tooth decay. Optimization of pediatric dentist and dental hygienist activity in school dental facilities is the main factor of caries prevention efficiency.

  12. MANUAL: BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE SLABSTOCK AND MOLDED FLEXIBLE POLYURETHANE FOAM INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require EPA to develop standards for major emission sources of 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). EPA has identified the flexible polyurethane foam industry as a large emitter of HAPs and has slated the industry for regulation under Title III, ...

  13. CHIRAL CHEMISTRY OF PESTICIDES IN THE ENVIRONMENT WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upwards of 25% of pesticides and other toxic pollutants are chiral; that is, they exist as two mirror image species called enantiomers. The enantiomers of a chiral compound have identical physical and abiotic chemical properties, but differ in biological properties such as microb...

  14. Turbo-gas emissions and integrated pollution prevention and control (IPPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, M.; Sera, B.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper considers the gas-turbine pollution and joints out that the NO, is the most important pollutant among others pollutants as well as the carbon oxide and the volatile organic compounds because the NO x , has a high mass production rate (in the combustion chamber), elevated toxicity to the ecosystem and because of being in the atmosphere a precursor of secondary ultrafine particles PM 2,5 . In with reference to the integrated pollution and control (IPPC) the job shows schemes of chain chemical reactions which are on the base of the formation of different types of NO x , thermal and organic, and it illustrates the influence of some operative parameters on the combustion's efficiency and then on the NO x , production rate. Also, the study gives the best absolvable techniques (BAT) to reduce the NO x , production rate and to demolish it before its introduction, as well as gas exhaust, in the atmosphere. At the end, the work shows that the gas-turbine are to consider thermal engines with a little environment impact index specially when they make use of the natural gas, as well as fuel [it

  15. WET-WEATHER POLLUTION PREVENTION THROUGH MATERIALS SUBSTITUTION AS PART OF INDUSTRIAL CONSTRUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A literature review of urban stormwater runoff and building/construction materials has shown that many materials such as galvanized metal, concrete, asphalt, and wood products, have the potential to release pollutants into urban stormwater runoff and snowmelt. However, much of th...

  16. Pollution Prevention through Peer Education: A Community Health Worker and Small and Home-Based Business Initiative on the Arizona-Sonora Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Denise Moreno; Ramírez-Andreotta, Mónica D; Vea, Lourdes; Estrella-Sánchez, Rocío; Wolf, Ann Marie A; Kilungo, Aminata; Spitz, Anna H; Betterton, Eric A

    2015-09-09

    Government-led pollution prevention programs tend to focus on large businesses due to their potential to pollute larger quantities, therefore leaving a gap in programs targeting small and home-based businesses. In light of this gap, we set out to determine if a voluntary, peer education approach led by female, Hispanic community health workers (promotoras) can influence small and home-based businesses to implement pollution prevention strategies on-site. This paper describes a partnership between promotoras from a non-profit organization and researchers from a university working together to reach these businesses in a predominately Hispanic area of Tucson, Arizona. From 2008 to 2011, the promotora-led pollution prevention program reached a total of 640 small and home-based businesses. Program activities include technical trainings for promotoras and businesses, generation of culturally and language appropriate educational materials, and face-to-face peer education via multiple on-site visits. To determine the overall effectiveness of the program, surveys were used to measure best practices implemented on-site, perceptions towards pollution prevention, and overall satisfaction with the industry-specific trainings. This paper demonstrates that promotoras can promote the implementation of pollution prevention best practices by Hispanic small and home-based businesses considered "hard-to-reach" by government-led programs.

  17. Pollution Prevention through Peer Education: A Community Health Worker and Small and Home-Based Business Initiative on the Arizona-Sonora Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Ramírez, Denise; Ramírez-Andreotta, Mónica D.; Vea, Lourdes; Estrella-Sánchez, Rocío; Wolf, Ann Marie A.; Kilungo, Aminata; Spitz, Anna H.; Betterton, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Government-led pollution prevention programs tend to focus on large businesses due to their potential to pollute larger quantities, therefore leaving a gap in programs targeting small and home-based businesses. In light of this gap, we set out to determine if a voluntary, peer education approach led by female, Hispanic community health workers (promotoras) can influence small and home-based businesses to implement pollution prevention strategies on-site. This paper describes a partnership between promotoras from a non-profit organization and researchers from a university working together to reach these businesses in a predominately Hispanic area of Tucson, Arizona. From 2008 to 2011, the promotora-led pollution prevention program reached a total of 640 small and home-based businesses. Program activities include technical trainings for promotoras and businesses, generation of culturally and language appropriate educational materials, and face-to-face peer education via multiple on-site visits. To determine the overall effectiveness of the program, surveys were used to measure best practices implemented on-site, perceptions towards pollution prevention, and overall satisfaction with the industry-specific trainings. This paper demonstrates that promotoras can promote the implementation of pollution prevention best practices by Hispanic small and home-based businesses considered “hard-to-reach” by government-led programs. PMID:26371028

  18. Pollution Prevention through Peer Education: A Community Health Worker and Small and Home-Based Business Initiative on the Arizona-Sonora Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Moreno Ramírez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Government-led pollution prevention programs tend to focus on large businesses due to their potential to pollute larger quantities, therefore leaving a gap in programs targeting small and home-based businesses. In light of this gap, we set out to determine if a voluntary, peer education approach led by female, Hispanic community health workers (promotoras can influence small and home-based businesses to implement pollution prevention strategies on-site. This paper describes a partnership between promotoras from a non-profit organization and researchers from a university working together to reach these businesses in a predominately Hispanic area of Tucson, Arizona. From 2008 to 2011, the promotora-led pollution prevention program reached a total of 640 small and home-based businesses. Program activities include technical trainings for promotoras and businesses, generation of culturally and language appropriate educational materials, and face-to-face peer education via multiple on-site visits. To determine the overall effectiveness of the program, surveys were used to measure best practices implemented on-site, perceptions towards pollution prevention, and overall satisfaction with the industry-specific trainings. This paper demonstrates that promotoras can promote the implementation of pollution prevention best practices by Hispanic small and home-based businesses considered “hard-to-reach” by government-led programs.

  19. Impact of Infection Prevention and Control Initiatives on Acute Respiratory Infections in a Pediatric Long-Term Care Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Meghan T; Jackson, Olivia; Cohen, Bevin; Hutcheon, Gordon; Saiman, Lisa; Larson, Elaine; Neu, Natalie

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the collective impact of several infection prevention and control initiatives aimed at reducing acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in a pediatric long-term care facility. ARIs did not decrease overall, though the proportion of infections associated with outbreaks and average number of cases per outbreak decreased. Influenza rates decreased significantly. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:859-862.

  20. Element composition and mineralogical characterisation of air pollution control residue from UK energy-from-waste facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogush, Anna [Centre for Resource Efficiency & the Environment (CREE), Department of Civil, Environmental & Geomatic Engineering (CEGE), University College London UCL, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Stegemann, Julia A., E-mail: j.stegemann@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Resource Efficiency & the Environment (CREE), Department of Civil, Environmental & Geomatic Engineering (CEGE), University College London UCL, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Wood, Ian [Department of Earth Sciences, University College London UCL, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Roy, Amitava [J. Bennett Johnston, Sr., Center for Advanced Microstructures & Devices, Louisiana State University, 6980 Jefferson Hwy, Baton Rouge, LA 70806 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • 66 elements, including “critical strategic elements” were determined in UK EfW APC residues. • Metal pollutants (Zn, Pb, As, Cd, Cu, Mo, Sb, Sn, Se, Ag and In) are enriched in APC residues. • Metal pollutants were widely associated with fine deposits of highly soluble CaCl{sub x}OH{sub 2−x}. • Specific metal (Zn, Pb, Cu)-bearing minerals were also detected in APC residues. - Abstract: Air pollution control (APC) residues from energy-from-waste (EfW) are alkaline (corrosive) and contain high concentrations of metals, such as zinc and lead, and soluble salts, such as chlorides and sulphates. The EPA 3050B-extractable concentrations of 66 elements, including critical elements of strategic importance for advanced electronics and energy technologies, were determined in eight APC residues from six UK EfW facilities. The concentrations of Ag (6–15 mg/kg) and In (1–13 mg/kg), as well as potential pollutants, especially Zn (0.26–0.73 wt.%), Pb (0.05–0.2 wt.%), As, Cd, Cu, Mo, Sb, Sn and Se were found to be enriched in all APC residues compared to average crustal abundances. Results from a combination of scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and also powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy give an exceptionally full understanding of the mineralogy of these residues, which is discussed in the context of other results in the literature. The present work has shown that the bulk of the crystalline phases present in the investigated APC residues include Ca-based phases, such as CaCl{sub x}OH{sub 2−x}, CaCO{sub 3}, Ca(OH){sub 2}, CaSO{sub 4}, and CaO, as well as soluble salts, such as NaCl and KCl. Poorly-crystalline aragonite was identified by FTIR. Sulphur appears to have complex redox speciation, presenting as both anhydrite and hannebachite in some UK EfW APC residues. Hazardous elements (Zn and Pb) were widely associated with soluble Ca- and Cl-bearing phases

  1. Review of Agricultural Plastic Mulching and Its Residual Pollution and Prevention Measures In China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN Chang-rong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural plastic film mulching is one of important technologies, but the plastic film pollution has been a serious issue for agri-cultural sustainable development in China. System analysis of this technique and its residue pollution and control ways have vital practicalsignificance for rational application of agricultural plastil film. In this paper, on the basis of our previous work,agricultural plastic filmmulching, its residue pollution and control technologies were concluded. Some important conclusions were found that, the amount of plasticfilm and mulching area had kept increasing with annual increasing rate about 8% since the 80s of the 20th century. From 1991 to 2011, thedensity of plastic film utilized increased 3-10 times, but it has very sharply different spatial pattern in different province. In general, the northand west China has high value, and the increase rate is also huge in the past 20 years. The crops of utilized mulching plastic film have extendedfrom cash crops to grain crops, and the order of crop area is followed by maize, vegetable, cotton, tobacco and peanut. The main functions ofmulching plastic film are keeping soil moisture and increasing soil temperature, against weeds and insect. At the same time, its side effectsappear with continuous utilization. The main problems are residues left in soil to destroy soil structure, impress soil permeability, impede seedgermination as well as water and nutrients uptaking, and block crop root system development. It has very serious pollution for the field utilizedplastic mulching film for long term. The residual amount in soil is about 71.9-259.1 kg·hm-2, and has sharply spatial difference. The residualamount in soil. In Northwest China, is more serious than that in North China and Southwest China. Because of difference of tillage and appli-canon ways, there are great differences on the area and shape of the plastic film piece left in soil. The main types of shapes are flaky

  2. Oxytocin for preventing postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) in non-facility birth settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Tomas; Abalos, Edgardo; Chapman, Evelina; Vera, Claudio; Serrano, Valentina P

    2016-04-14

    Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is the single leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide. Most of the deaths associated with PPH occur in resource-poor settings where effective methods of prevention and treatment - such as oxytocin - are not accessible because many births still occur at home, or in community settings, far from a health facility. Likewise, most of the evidence supporting oxytocin effectiveness comes from hospital settings in high-income countries, mainly because of the need of well-organised care for its administration and monitoring. Easier methods for oxytocin administration have been developed for use in resource-poor settings, but as far as we know, its effectiveness has not been assessed in a systematic review. To assess the effectiveness and safety of oxytocin provided in non-facility birth settings by any way in the third stage of labour to prevent PPH. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), ClinicalTrials.gov (12 November 2015), and reference lists of retrieved reports. All published, unpublished or ongoing randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing the administration of oxytocin with no intervention, or usual/standard care for the management of the third stage of labour in non-facility birth settings were considered for inclusion.Quasi-randomised controlled trials and randomised controlled trials published in abstract form only were eligible for inclusion but none were identified. Cross-over trials were not eligible for inclusion in this review. Two review authors independently assessed studies for eligibility, assessed risk of bias and extracted the data using an agreed data extraction form. Data were checked for accuracy. We included one cluster-randomised trial conducted in four rural districts in Ghana that randomised 28 community health officers (CHOs) (serving 2404 potentially eligible pregnant women) to the

  3. A joint prevention and control mechanism for air pollution in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in china based on long-term and massive data mining of pollutant concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Zhao, Laijun

    2018-02-01

    China's Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region suffers from the country's worst air pollution. The problem has caused widespread concern both at home and abroad. Based on long-term and massive data mining of PM2.5 and PM10 concentration, we found that these pollutants showed similar variations in four seasons, but the most severe pollution was in winter. Through cluster analysis of the winter daily average concentration (DAC) of the two pollutants, we defined regions with similar variations in pollutant concentrations in winter. For the most polluted cities in BTH, the relationship between correlation coefficients for winter DAC and the distance between cities revealed that PM2.5 has regional, large-scale characteristics, with concentrated outbreaks, whereas PM10 has local, small-scale characteristics, with outbreaks at multiple locations. By selecting the key cities with the strongest linear relationship between the pollutant's DAC of each city and the daily individual air quality index values of the BTH region and through cluster analysis on the correlations between the pollutant DACs of the key cities, we defined regional divisions suitable for Joint Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution (JPCAP) program to control PM2.5 and PM10. Comprehensively considering the degree of influence of regional atmospheric pollution control (RAPC) on air quality in BTH, as well as the elasticity and urgency of RAPC, we defined the control grades of the JPCAP regions. We found both the regions and corresponding control grades were consistent for PM2.5 and PM10. The thinking and methods of atmospheric pollution control we proposed will have broad significance for implementation of RAPC in other regions around the world.

  4. Development of the scenario-based training system to reduce hazards and prevent accidents during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, KwanSeong; Choi, Jong-Won; Moon, JeiKwon; Choi, ByungSeon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, IkJune; Kim, GeunHo; Kang, ShinYoung

    2015-01-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear facilities has to be accomplished by assuring the safety of workers. Decommissioning workers need familiarization with working environments because working environment is under high radioactivity and work difficulty during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. On-the-job training of decommissioning works could effectively train decommissioning workers but this training approach could consume much costs and poor modifications of scenarios. The efficiency of virtual training system could be much better than that of physical training system. This paper was intended to develop the training system to prevent accidents for decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The requirements for the training system were drawn. The data management modules for the training system were designed. The training system of decommissioning workers was developed on the basis of virtual reality which is flexibly modified. The visualization and measurement in the training system were real-time done according as changes of the decommissioning scenario. It can be concluded that this training system enables the subject to improve his familiarization about working environments and to prevent accidents during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. In the end, the safety during decommissioning of nuclear facilities will be guaranteed under the principle of ALARA

  5. Development of the scenario-based training system to reduce hazards and prevent accidents during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, KwanSeong; Choi, Jong-Won; Moon, JeiKwon; Choi, ByungSeon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, IkJune; Kim, GeunHo; Kang, ShinYoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Decommissioning of nuclear facilities has to be accomplished by assuring the safety of workers. Decommissioning workers need familiarization with working environments because working environment is under high radioactivity and work difficulty during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. On-the-job training of decommissioning works could effectively train decommissioning workers but this training approach could consume much costs and poor modifications of scenarios. The efficiency of virtual training system could be much better than that of physical training system. This paper was intended to develop the training system to prevent accidents for decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The requirements for the training system were drawn. The data management modules for the training system were designed. The training system of decommissioning workers was developed on the basis of virtual reality which is flexibly modified. The visualization and measurement in the training system were real-time done according as changes of the decommissioning scenario. It can be concluded that this training system enables the subject to improve his familiarization about working environments and to prevent accidents during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. In the end, the safety during decommissioning of nuclear facilities will be guaranteed under the principle of ALARA.

  6. 77 FR 21911 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ...EPA is proposing to approve the State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision submitted by the State of Arizona to address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in Clean Air Act (CAA or Act) section 110(a)(2)(G). Section 110(a)(2)(G) of the Act requires that each SIP provide for authority comparable to that in section 303 of the Act and adequate contingency plans to implement such authority. EPA is proposing to approve Arizona's SIP revision as meeting the authority and contingency plans for the 1997 8-hour ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS or standards).

  7. Oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankabady, Samir.

    1994-08-01

    Oil enters the marine environment when it is discharged, or has escaped, during transport, drilling, shipping, accidents, dumping and offshore operations. This book serves as a reference both on the various complex international operational and legal matters of oil pollution using examples such as the Exxon Valdez, the Braer and Lord Donaldson's report. The chapters include the development of international rules on the marine environment, the prevention of marine pollution from shipping activities, liability for oil pollution damage, the conflict of the 1990 Oil Pollution Act and the 1992 protocols and finally the cooperation and response to pollution incidents. (UK)

  8. Prevention of oil spill pollution in sea water using locally available materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisuddin, S.; Al-Hashar, Naseer A.; Tahseen, S.

    2005-01-01

    Oil spill pollution, a severe environmental problem, which persists in marine environment or in inland water across the world, has grown to an alarming magnitude with increased levels of oil production and transport. The causes oil pollution are categorized as either accidental or operational, wherever oil is produced, transported, stored and used on the surface of sea or land. Hence, it is almost impossible for marine life to be freed from the adverse affects of oil spill, through the discharge of oil is controlled by an international convention. Prime concern for the health of marine life has created an instinct for undertaking this study by authors. Objectives of the present work include testing of four different local materials in separating oil from having different oil concentrations, and their efficiency of removal. The work also focuses on effect of time of contact and dosage of materials used for oil removal. Corchorus depressus locally available has proved to be more effective when compared to other materials utilized in addressing oil-spill related problems. At the same time its byproducts do not give rise to unwanted hazards to marine life. (author)

  9. The Paris Convention for the prevention of marine pollution from land-based sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkloh, L.; Braun, H.

    1983-01-01

    The Paris Convention of 1974 which entered into force at an international level in 1978 is an important instrument to protect the North Sea and the North Atlantic against pollution from land-based sources. Contracting Parties are practically all riparian states of its scope of application - 13 states on the whole - as well as the EC. There is a survey of the functions, organization and working method, the instruments and results so far achieved in the framework of the Convention. Priority was so far given to the following substances or, respectively, groups of substances: oil, mercury, cadmium, drines, PCB's and PCT's as well as titanium dioxide. In this respect, it was above all agreed on: emission and immission standards (or guide values, respectively), recommendations for measures reducing emissions and a number of obligations to report. Studies and discussions on organosilicone compounds, radioactivity, water pollution through the atmosphere and eutrophication phenomena are relatively new. The opportunities offered by the Paris Convention have not yet been fully used. (orig.) [de

  10. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Project peer review. Report of the Peer Review Committee of the Amoco/EPA Pollution Prevention Project at the Yorktown, Virginia refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee, H.; Podar, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Amoco/EPA Pollution Prevention Project involved a number of representatives from federal and Virginia regulatory agencies, and Amoco's refining business. Participants believed that the Project could benefit from a broader perspective than these organizations along might provide. The Project Work Group selected an independent Peer Review Process which was conducted by Resource for the Future (RFF), a Washington DC think tank. A group of technical, policy and environmental experts from diverse backgrounds served as Peer Review members. The Peer Review Committee met on three occasions to discuss (1) the Project Work Plan (2) sampling data and interpretation and (3) project conclusions and recommendations. The focus of the meeting was on the general scope and content of the project

  11. 1999 Annual Report on Waste Generation and Pollution Prevention Progress as Required by DOE Order 5400.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEGALL, P.

    2000-01-01

    Hanford's missions are to safely clean-up and manage the site's legacy wastes, and to develop and deploy science and technology. Through these missions Hanford will contribute to economic diversification of the region. Hanford's environmental management or clean-up mission is to protect the health and safety of the public, workers, and the environment; control hazardous materials; and utilize the assets (people, infrastructure, and site) for other missions. Hanford's science and technology mission is to develop and deploy science and technology in the service of the nation including stewardship of the Hanford Site. Pollution Prevention is a key to the success of these missions by reducing the amount of waste to be managed and identifying/implementing cost effective waste reduction projects. Hanford's original mission, the production of nuclear materials for the nation's defense programs, lasted more than 40 years, and like most manufacturing operations, Hanford's operations generated large quantities of waste and pollution. However, the by-products from Hanford operations pose unique problems like radiation hazards, vast volumes of contaminated water and soil, and many contaminated structures including reactors, chemical plants and evaporation ponds. The clean-up activity is an immense and challenging undertaking. Including characterization and decommissioning of 149 single shell storage tanks, treating 28 double shell tanks, safely disposing of over 2,100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel stored on site, removing numerous structures, and dealing with significant solid waste, ground water, and land restoration issues

  12. Development of a Real-Time Environmental Monitoring System, Life Cycle Assessment Systems, and Pollution Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Walter M.

    2003-01-01

    Pollution prevention (P2) opportunities and Greening the Government (GtG) activities, including the development of the Real-Time Environmental Monitoring System (RTEMS), are currently under development at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The RTEMS project entails the ongoing development of a monitoring system which includes sensors, instruments, computer hardware and software, plus a data telemetry system.Professor Kocher has been directing the RTEMS project for more than 3 years, and the implementation of the prototype system at GRC will be a major portion of his summer effort. This prototype will provide mulitmedia environmental monitoring and control capabilities, although water quality and air emissions will be the immediate issues addressed this summer. Applications beyond those currently identified for environmental purposes will also be explored.

  13. The IAEA's work for the convention on the prevention of marine pollution by dumping of wastes and other matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuong, H.V.

    1976-01-01

    One of the several techniques for the disposal of radioactive waste which has been used by some countries, often as a combined international operation, is sea-disposal under carefully controlled conditions. The waste is placed in drums encased in concrete and dumped in selected known ocean areas, currently at least 4000 metres in depth and well away from fishing grounds. The International Atomic Energy Agency is, therefore, directly addressed to by the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter as the competent international body to work out safety criteria, conditions and procedures and to draw up recommendations for the implementation of the Convention with regard to radioactive materials. (author)

  14. [Comprehensive study on the prevention of food poisoning through the investigation of an affected hospital food service facility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Satoshi; Kawai, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, more than 20,000 people suffer from various types of food poisoning annually. In this paper, we discuss the prevention of food poisoning in hospital food service facilities from the perspective of hygiene management and organizational behavior. We inspected the kitchen environment and the meal preparation process in a hospital food service facility in Japan that had been the site of a food poisoning incident. To clarify the present state of hygiene management, interviews were conducted with both the head of the nutrition and food service section and the administrative manager. In addition, questionnaires were distributed to the food service staff to assess their level of satisfaction with the working environment. The facility had been built about 10 years previously and was well maintained. Meal preparations were performed according to the operation manual, and education and training for the food service staff were carried out daily. No problems were evident regarding hygiene management. However, concerning organizational behavior, the satisfaction level of the staff was found to be relatively low, which may have led to a reduction in their organizational commitment and a decrease in their performance. To aid in the prevention of food poisoning incidents in hospital food service facilities, it is essential not only to conduct standard hygiene management and training, but also to consider the organizational behavior of the food service staff.

  15. Variations in status of preparation of personal protective equipment for preventing norovirus gastroenteritis in long-term care facilities for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Saori; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Nakayama, Takeo

    2017-12-01

    Residents of long-term care facilities are highly susceptible to norovirus gastroenteritis, and each facility is concerned about the need to implement norovirus infection control. Among control measures, personal protective equipment (PPE), such as disposable gloves and masks, plays a major role in reducing infectious spread. However, the preparation status of PPE in facilities before infection outbreaks has not been reported. The aim was to clarify the implementation status of preventive measures for norovirus gastroenteritis and the cost of preparing the necessary PPE in long-term care facilities. A questionnaire survey of facilities affiliated with the Kyoto Prefecture and Osaka Prefecture branches of the Japan Association of Geriatric Health Services Facilities was conducted. The survey items were the characteristics of the facility, whether preventive measures had been implemented for norovirus gastroenteritis from October through the following March in both 2009 and 2010, and the quantities and unit prices of PPE prepared for preventive measures. Twenty-six (11.2%) of 232 surveyed facilities (as of August 2011) answered the survey. Among them, 24 (92.3%) in 2009 and 25 (96.2%) in 2010 reported having implemented preventive measures for norovirus gastroenteritis, while 21 facilities (80.8%) in 2009 and 22 facilities (84.6%) in 2010 had prepared PPE. The median total cost for preparing the PPE needed for the preventive measures was US $2601 (range US $221-9192) in 2009 and US $3904 (range US $305-6427) in 2010. Although the results need careful interpretation because of the low response rate, most of the surveyed long-term care facilities had implemented preventive measures for norovirus gastroenteritis. However, the cost of preparing the PPE needed for the preventive measures varied among the facilities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Emission Facilities - Erosion & Sediment Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Erosion and Sediment Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control program. The following sub-facility types related to...

  17. [Pollution prevention and control of aqueous extract of astragali radix processed with ZrO2 inorganic ceramic membrane micro-filtration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lin-Men; Huang, Min-Yan; Guo, Li-Wei

    2012-11-01

    To study the measures for preventing and controlling the pollution of aqueous extract of Astragali Radix proceeded with inorganic ceramic membrane micro-filtration, in order to find effective measures for preventing and controlling the membrane pollution. The resistance distribution, polymer removal and changes in physical and chemical parameters of the zirconium oxide film of different pore diameters were determined to analyze the state or location of pollutants as well as the regularity of formation. Meanwhile, recoil and ultrasonic physical measures were adopted to strengthen the membrane process, in order to explore the methods for preventing and controlling the membrane pollution. When 0.2 microm of ZrO2 micro-filtrated aqueous extract of Astragali Radix, the rate of pollution was as high as 44.9%. The hole blocking resistance and the concentration polarization resistance were the main filtration resistances, while the surface deposit resistance decreased with the increase in the membrane's hold diameter; after micro-filtration, the liquid turbidity significantly reduced, with slight changes in both pH and viscosity. The 0.2 microm ZrO2 micro-filtration membrane performed better than the 0.05 microm pore size membrane in terms of conductivity. The 0. 2 microm and 0.05 microm pore diameter membranes showed better performance in the removal of pectin. The ultrasonic measure to strengthen membranes is more suitable to this system, with a flux rate up by 41.7%. The membrane optimization process adopts appropriate measures for preventing and controlling the membrane pollution, in order to reduce the membrane pollution, recover membrane performance and increase filtration efficiency.

  18. Control and Prevention of Wastewater Pollution From Amerya Petroleum Refining Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakry, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    An oil refinery normally uses large quantities of water, for cooling and other process purpose. This water is treated from contaminants and finally returned to a lake or sea, outside the refinery. Amerya Petroleum Refining Company (APRC) uses conventional and special treatment methods for wastewater to remove all pollutants and to reduce the oil content in refinery final effluent water to a limit of 10 ppm , as the maximum permissible limit for environmental protection as designated by the Egyptian Act No.4 for the year 1994 . About 80% of oil in wastewater is separated by API (American Petroleum Institute) separator method and returned to refinery. Small oil droplets, emulsion and suspended matter escaped from API separator but were removed successfully in the dissolved air flotation (DAF) with chemical additives as the secondary treatment stage for wastewater. The flotation method with chemical additives and filtration were used to reduce the suspended solids and oil content to permissible levels (10 ppm) Furthermore, biological treatment unit was constructed to remove the dissolved oxygen consuming contaminates, e.g. phenolic compounds and traces of hydrocarbon derivatives. It was found that the BOD and COD of the effluent were reduced, and 100% removal of the trace amount of phenol was achieved in effluent

  19. Facile on-site detection of substituted aromatic pollutants in water using thin layer chromatography combined with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dawei; Qu, Lulu; Zhai, Wenlei; Xue, Jinqun; Fossey, John S; Long, Yitao

    2011-05-01

    A novel facile method for on-site detection of substituted aromatic pollutants in water using thin layer chromatography (TLC) combined with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was explored. Various substituted aromatics in polluted water were separated by a convenient TLC protocol and then detected using a portable Raman spectrometer with the prepared silver colloids serving as SERS-active substrates. The effects of operating conditions on detection efficacy were evaluated, and the application of TLC-SERS to on-site detection of artificial and real-life samples of aromatics/polluted water was systematically investigated. It was shown that commercially available Si 60-F(254) TLC plates were suitable for separation and displayed low SERS background and good separation efficiency, 2 mM silver colloids, 20 mM NaCl (working as aggregating agent), 40 mW laser power, and 50 s intergration time were appropriate for the detection regime. Furthermore, qualitative and quantitative detection of most of substituted aromatic pollutants was found to be readily accomplished using the developed TLC-SERS technique, which compared well with GC-MS in terms of identification ability and detection accuracy, and a limit of detection (LOD) less than 0.2 ppm (even at ppb level for some analytes) could be achieved under optimal conditions. The results reveal that the presented convenient method could be used for the effective separation and detection of the substituted aromatic pollutants of water on site, thus reducing possible influences of sample transportation and contamination while shortening the overall analysis time for emergency and routine monitoring of the substituted aromatics/polluted water.

  20. Report: EPA Lacks Internal Controls to Prevent Misuse of Emergency Drinking Water Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #11-P-0001, October 12, 2010. EPA cannot accurately assess the risk of public water systems delivering contaminated drinking water from emergency facilities because of limitations in Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) data management.

  1. Assessing reported cases of sexual and gender-based violence, causes and preventive strategies, in European asylum reception facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Charlotte; Keygnaert, Ines; Oliveira Martins, Maria do Rosário; Dias, Sónia

    2018-05-09

    Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is a widespread public health problem and a violation of human rights rooted in gender and power inequities. Refugees, asylum-seekers and migrants living in European asylum reception facilities (EARF) are especially vulnerable to SGBV. To contribute to closing the gap on systematic and accurate evidence on SGBV, we aim to explore reported cases of SGBV, causes and preventable measures described by residents and professionals from EARF. We developed a cross-sectional study using the Senperforto project database. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with residents (refugees, asylum-seekers and unaccompanied minors) and professionals (service and health care providers) at EARF, in 7 European countries. We used IBM® SPSS software to analyze our data. Further, statistical tests - Chi-square Test and Fisher's exact test (5% significance level) were conducted. In total 562 respondents: 375 residents (R) and 187 professionals (P) participated in the study. The majority of respondents were male (56.9%), aged 19 to 39 years (67.3%). Respondents described 698 cases of SGBV (R 328, P 370), comprising 1110 acts of multi-types of violence. Respondents from Malta (160) and Belgium (143) reported the highest number of SGBV cases. The main reported causes were frustration and stress (R 23.6%, P 37.6%, p 0.008) and differences related with cultural background (R 19.3%, P 20.3%, p 0.884). Respondents assumed that these acts of violence could be prevented by SGBV prevention interventions (R 31.5%, P 24.7%, p 0.293); improving living conditions (R 21.7%, P 15.3%, p 0.232); and promoting communication (R 16.1%, P 28.2%, p 0.042). The majority of R were not aware of existing preventable measures in the asylum facility or host country. While the majority of P were aware of existing preventable measures in the asylum facility or country. Proposed SGBV prevention strategies in EARF included SGBV sensitization and awareness, improving living

  2. Prevention and control of tuberculosis in correctional and detention facilities: recommendations from the CDC

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Parsons, S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available and Detention Facilities: Recommendations from CDC Endorsed by the Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis, the National Commission on Correctional Health Care, and the American Correctional Association MMWR CONTENTS Introduction... in Correctional and Detention Facilities: Recommendations from CDC Endorsed by the Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis, the National Commission on Correctional Health Care, and the American Correctional Association Summary Tuberculosis (TB...

  3. Microbiological Surveillance and State of the Art Technological Strategies for the Prevention of Dialysis Water Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Galfrè

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Methods: The present report attempts to illustrate the positive impact on the microbiological quality of dialysis patients over a 15-year period through the progressive implementation of state-of-the-art technological strategies and the optimization of microbiological surveillance procedures in five dialysis units in Sardinia. Results: Following on better microbiological, quality controls of dialysis water and improvement of procedures and equipment, a drastic improvement of microbiological water quality was observed in a total of 945 samples. The main aim was to introduce the use of microbiological culture methods as recommended by the most important guidelines. The microbiological results obtained have led to a progressive refining of controls and introduction of new materials and equipment, including two-stage osmosis and piping distribution rings featuring a greater capacity to prevent biofilm adhesion. The actions undertaken have resulted in unexpected quality improvements. Conclusions: Dialysis water should be viewed by the nephrologist as a medicinal product exerting a demonstrable positive impact on microinflammation in dialysis patients. A synergic effort between nephrologists and microbiologists undoubtedly constitutes the most effective means of preventing dialysis infections.

  4. Microbiological surveillance and state of the art technological strategies for the prevention of dialysis water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolasco, Piergiorgio; Contu, Antonio; Meloni, Patrizia; Vacca, Dorio; Galfrè, Andrea

    2012-08-01

    The present report attempts to illustrate the positive impact on the microbiological quality of dialysis patients over a 15-year period through the progressive implementation of state-of-the-art technological strategies and the optimization of microbiological surveillance procedures in five dialysis units in Sardinia. Following on better microbiological, quality controls of dialysis water and improvement of procedures and equipment, a drastic improvement of microbiological water quality was observed in a total of 945 samples. The main aim was to introduce the use of microbiological culture methods as recommended by the most important guidelines. The microbiological results obtained have led to a progressive refining of controls and introduction of new materials and equipment, including two-stage osmosis and piping distribution rings featuring a greater capacity to prevent biofilm adhesion. The actions undertaken have resulted in unexpected quality improvements. Dialysis water should be viewed by the nephrologist as a medicinal product exerting a demonstrable positive impact on microinflammation in dialysis patients. A synergic effort between nephrologists and microbiologists undoubtedly constitutes the most effective means of preventing dialysis infections.

  5. Design of Polymeric Nanofiber Gauze Mask to Prevent Inhaling PM2.5 Particles from Haze Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingzhou Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameter of 2.5 micron or less has become a major health hazard from the polluted air in many cities in China. The regular gauze masks are used to prevent inhaling the PM2.5 fine particles; however, those masks are not able to filter out the PM2.5 because of the large porosity of the mask materials. Some well-prevented masks usually have poor breathability, which increases other health risks. In this study, a polysulfone based nanofiber for mask filtration material was synthesized by electrospinning. That nanofiber mask material was characterized by SEM, air permeability test, and PM2.5 trapping experiment. The results indicate that nanofiber mask material can efficiently filter out the PM2.5 particles and simultaneously preserve a good breathability. We attribute such improvement to the nanoscaled fibers, having the same porosity as that of regular gauze mask but with extremely reduced local interfiber space.

  6. An integrated approach to manage coastal ecosystems and prevent marine pollution effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, Marco; Bonamano, Simone; Carli, Filippo Maria; Giovacchini, Monica; Madonia, Alice; Mancini, Emanuele; Molino, Chiara; Piermattei, Viviana; Manfredi Frattarelli, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses an integrated approach based on Sea-Use-Map (SUM), backed by a permanent monitoring system (C-CEMS-Civitavecchia Coastal Environmental Monitoring System). This tool supports the management of the marine coastal area, contributing substantially to ecosystem benefits evaluation and to minimize pollution impacts. Within the Blue Growth strategy, the protection of marine ecosystems is considered a priority for the sustainable growth of marine and maritime sectors. To face this issue, the European MSP and MSFD directives (2014/89/EU; 2008/56/EC) strongly promote the adoption of an ecosystem-based approach, paying particular attention to the support of monitoring networks that use L-TER (long-term ecological research) observations and integrate multi-disciplinary data sets. Although not largely used in Europe yet, the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI), developed in 1979 by NOAA (and promoted by IMO in 2010), can be considered an excellent example of ecosystem-based approach to reduce the environmental consequences of an oil spill event in a coastal area. SUM is an ecosystem oriented cartographic tool specifically designed to support the sustainable management of the coastal areas, such as the selection of the best sites for the introduction of new uses or the identification of the coastal areas subjected to potential impacts. It also enables a rapid evaluation of the benefits produced by marine areas as well as of their anthropogenic disturbance. SUM integrates C-CEMS dataset, geomorphological and ecological features and knowledge on the coastal and maritime space uses. The SUM appliance allowed to obtain relevant operational results in the Civitavecchia coastal area (Latium, Italy), characterized by high variability of marine and coastal environments, historical heritage and affected by the presence of a big harbour, relevant industrial infrastructures, and touristic features. In particular, the valuation of marine ecosystem services based on

  7. Atmospheric dispersion modeling of hazardous air pollutant emissions from USDOE Oak Ridge Reservation Facilities. Volume 1, Independent Assessment conducted from April 1994 to December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    Title 3 of the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments addresses the emissions of 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and mandates that EPA develop technology-based [Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT)] standards for the control of these pollutants from approximately 174 source categories. After implementation of technology-based standards, EPA is required to further evaluate ''residual risk'' from HAP emissions, and, if required, develop more stringent standards to protect human health and the environment with an ''adequate margin of safety''. Recognizing that EPA will be issuing risk-based regulations after MACT standards have been implemented, the US Department of Energy (DOE), Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) has conducted an evaluation of ambient air impacts of HAP emissions from its installations located on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This report provides results of atmospheric dispersion modeling conducted to determine ambient air impacts of HAP emissions from facilities located on the ORR

  8. Retooling the ethanol industry: thermophilic anaerobic digestion of thin stillage for methane production and pollution prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Scott H; Sung, Shihwu

    2008-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion of corn ethanol thin stillage was tested at thermophilic temperature (55 degrees C) with two completely stirred tank reactors. The thin stillage wastestream was organically concentrated with 100 g/L total chemical oxygen demand and 60 g/L volatiles solids and a low pH of approximately 4.0. Steady-state was achieved at 30-, 20-, and 15-day hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and digester failure at a 12-day HRT. Significant reduction of volatile solids was achieved, with a maximum reduction (89.8%) at the 20-day HRT. Methane yield ranged from 0.6 to 0.7 L methane/g volatile solids removed during steady-state operation. Effluent volatile fatty acids below 200 mg/L as acetic acid were achieved at 20- and 30-day HRTs. Ultrasonic pretreatment was used for one digester, although no significant improvement was observed. Ethanol plant natural gas consumption could be reduced 43 to 59% with the methane produced, while saving an estimated $7 to $17 million ($10 million likely) for a facility producing 360 million L ethanol/y.

  9. IPPC pollution prevention and reduction. Implementation of directive Ec/91/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Succol, P.

    2000-01-01

    A year after its promulgation law decree 372/99, after stirring considerably the world gravitating around environmental issues (air, water, soil, waste), doesn't seem to have produced the expected effects. This situation - partly due, perhaps, to our natural national trend to allow the passing of time to take upon itself the power of pointing out urgent matters (or, better still, emergencies) - might be justified by an often misleading interpretation of the rule, due, in my opinion, to two main factors: an obvious and justified difficulty in adopting Community regulations without clashing against the somewhat articulated and complex already existing national rules; a word-for-word translation of the Community regulation from the original language into italian, using terms and terminology the significance of which doesn't always tally with the original ones. The purpose of this work, even with its shortcomings, is to supply a reading key of the rule to the experts of the sector who will, no doubt, have in the near future the opportunity to compare the various interpretations offered by the so-called competent authorities, by trading associations and by plant managers. One has, however, to observe that this rule does no doubt introduce one of the most important concepts for environmental protection, that is a global view and assessment of all aspects inherent and concurrent to the impact that a plant-engineering facility as on environment [it

  10. Priority pollutants and associated constituents in untreated and treated discharges from coal mining or processing facilities in Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, III, Charles A.; Brady, Keith B.C.

    2015-01-01

    Clean sampling and analysis procedures were used to quantify more than 70 inorganic constituents, including 35 potentially toxic or hazardous constituents, organic carbon, and other characteristics of untreated (influent) and treated (effluent) coal-mine discharges (CMD) at 38 permitted coal-mining or coal-processing facilities in the bituminous coalfield and 4 facilities in the anthracite coalfield of Pennsylvania. Of the 42 facilities sampled during 2011, 26 were surface mines, 11 were underground mines, and 5 were coal refuse disposal operations. Treatment of CMD with caustic soda (NaOH), lime (CaO or Ca(OH)2), flocculent, or limestone was ongoing at 21%, 40%, 6%, and 4% of the facilities, respectively; no chemicals were added at the remaining facilities. All facilities with CMD treatment incorporated structures for active or passive aeration and settling of metal-rich precipitate.

  11. European model code of safe practice for the prevention of ground and surface water pollution by oil from storage tanks and during the transport of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    The code outlines general requirements for pollution prevention and provides guidelines for corrosion protection of mild steel tanks, pipe and fitting assemblies, and for storage tank installations. The transportation and delivery of petroleum fuels are discussed, and operating procedures are suggested.

  12. Identifying the gaps in infection prevention and control resources for long-term care facilities in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, Bruce; Schall, Valerie; Grant, Jennifer

    2012-03-01

    Infection prevention and control (IPC) is a critical, although often neglected, part of long-term care (LTC) management. Little is known about what IPC resources are available for LTC and how that impacts patient care and safety. One hundred eighty-eight LTC facilities were randomly selected out of all British Columbia facilities and surveyed using a validated survey tool. The tool was used to collect data regarding IPC resources grouped within 6 indices: (1) leadership, (2) infection control professionals (ICP) coverage, (3) policies and procedures, (4) support through partnerships, (5) surveillance, and (6) control activities. All components measured have been identified as key for an effective IPC program. Survey responses were used to calculate scores for IPC programs as a whole and for each of the 6 indices. Of 188 randomly selected facilities, 86 institutions participated. Facilities were compared by region, funding source, and ICP coverage. Overall, LTC facilities lacked IPC leadership, especially physician support. Having no dedicated ICP was associated with poorer scores on all indices. Only 41% of practicing ICPs had more than 2 years experience, and only 14% were professionally certified. Twenty-two percent of ICPs had additional roles within the institution, and 44% had additional roles outside of the institution. Thirty-five percent of institutions had no IPC dedicated budget. LTC institutions-with bed numbers exceeding those in acute care-represent an important aspect of health services. These data show that many LTC facilities lack the necessary resources to provide quality infection control programs. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bloodstream infection rates in outpatient hemodialysis facilities participating in a collaborative prevention effort: a quality improvement report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Priti R; Yi, Sarah H; Booth, Stephanie; Bren, Virginia; Downham, Gemma; Hess, Sally; Kelley, Karen; Lincoln, Mary; Morrissette, Kathy; Lindberg, Curt; Jernigan, John A; Kallen, Alexander J

    2013-08-01

    Bloodstream infections (BSIs) cause substantial morbidity in hemodialysis patients. In 2009, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sponsored a collaborative project to prevent BSIs in outpatient hemodialysis facilities. We sought to assess the impact of a set of interventions on BSI and access-related BSI rates in participating facilities using data reported to the CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). Quality improvement project. Patients in 17 outpatient hemodialysis facilities that volunteered to participate. Facilities reported monthly event and denominator data to NHSN, received guidance from the CDC, and implemented an evidence-based intervention package that included chlorhexidine use for catheter exit-site care, staff training and competency assessments focused on catheter care and aseptic technique, hand hygiene and vascular access care audits, and feedback of infection and adherence rates to staff. Crude and modeled BSI and access-related BSI rates. Up to 12 months of preintervention (January 2009 through December 2009) and 15 months of intervention period (January 2010 through March 2011) data from participating centers were analyzed. Segmented regression analysis was used to assess changes in BSI and access-related BSI rates during the preintervention and intervention periods. Most (65%) participating facilities were hospital based. Pooled mean BSI and access-related BSI rates were 1.09 and 0.73 events per 100 patient-months during the preintervention period and 0.89 and 0.42 events per 100 patient-months during the intervention period, respectively. Modeled rates decreased 32% (P = 0.01) for BSIs and 54% (P facilities were not representative of all outpatient hemodialysis centers nationally. There was no control arm to this quality improvement project. Facilities participating in a collaborative successfully decreased their BSI and access-related BSI rates. The decreased rates appeared to be maintained in the intervention

  14. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California - Southeast Water Pollution Control Plant Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goli, Sasank [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faulkner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-12-20

    This report details a study into the demand response potential of a large wastewater treatment facility in San Francisco. Previous research had identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response and automated demand response, and this study was conducted to investigate facility attributes that are conducive to demand response or which hinder its implementation. One years' worth of operational data were collected from the facility's control system, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. These data were analyzed to determine factors which affected facility power demand and demand response capabilities The average baseline demand at the Southeast facility was approximately 4 MW. During the rainy season (October-March) the facility treated 40% more wastewater than the dry season, but demand only increased by 4%. Submetering of the facility's lift pumps and centrifuges predicted load shifts capabilities of 154 kW and 86 kW, respectively, with large lift pump shifts in the rainy season. Analysis of demand data during maintenance events confirmed the magnitude of these possible load shifts, and indicated other areas of the facility with demand response potential. Load sheds were seen to be possible by shutting down a portion of the facility's aeration trains (average shed of 132 kW). Load shifts were seen to be possible by shifting operation of centrifuges, the gravity belt thickener, lift pumps, and external pump stations These load shifts were made possible by the storage capabilities of the facility and of the city's sewer system. Large load reductions (an average of 2,065 kW) were seen from operating the cogeneration unit, but normal practice is continuous operation, precluding its use for demand response. The study also identified potential demand response opportunities that warrant further study: modulating variable-demand aeration loads, shifting

  15. Characteristics of volatile compound emission and odor pollution from municipal solid waste treating/disposal facilities of a city in Eastern China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Hanwen; Duan, Zhenhan; Zhao, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Transfer station, incineration plant, and landfill site made up the major parts of municipal solid waste disposal system of S city in Eastern China. Characteristics of volatile compounds (VCs) and odor pollution of each facility were investigated from a systematic perspective. Also major index...... in the waste tipping port of the incineration plant. A positive correlation between the olfactory and chemical odor concentrations was found with R2 = 0.918 (n = 15, P technology to deal...... with the non-source-separated waste. Strong attention thus needs to be paid on the enclosed systems in incineration plant to avoid any accidental odor emission....

  16. Risk management in environmental pollution: a case study of the uranium mining and milling facilities at Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, H.M.; Prado, V.C.S.; Veiga, L.H.S.; Amaral, E.C.S.; Freitas, P.; Bidone, E.D.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental risk management concept was adapted to uranium mining and milling facilities at Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Environmental radionuclide and metal concentration in surface waters, efficiency of the effluent treatment were evaluate. The data shows that the effluent treatment was effective to reduce pollutant releases in the environment but the benefit in the dose reduction may be questioned. In addition it's stressed the necessity of a metal exposure assessment due to vegetables consumption that has never been developed in that region. (B.C.A.). 07 refs, 02 figs, 02 tabs

  17. DRUG USAGE AND DISPOSAL: OVERVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP AND POLLUTION PREVENTION (WITH AN EMPHASIS ON ACTIVITIES IN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article provides the background for understanding the many complex variables that combine to cause pollution of the environment with the active ingredients from pharmaceuticals. It also summarizes the many approaches that could potentially reduce this pollution. Significan...

  18. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Main menu Environmental Topics Air Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, ... regulate toxic air pollutants, also known as air toxics, from categories of industrial facilities in two phases . About Hazardous Air Pollutants ...

  19. Infection prevention and control in health facilities in post-Ebola Liberia: don't forget the private sector!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, N; Musa, E; Cooper, C; Van den Bergh, R; Owiti, P; Baller, A; Siafa, T; Woldeyohannes, D; Shringarpure, K; Gasasira, A

    2017-06-21

    Setting: Recognising the importance of infection prevention and control (IPC), a minimum standards tool (MST) was developed in Liberia to guide the safe (re-) opening and provision of care in health facilities. Objectives: To analyse the implementation of specific IPC measures after the 2014 Ebola virus outbreak between June 2015 and May 2016, and to compare the relative improvements in IPC between the public and private sectors. Design: A retrospective comparative cohort study. Results: We evaluated 723 (94%) of the 769 health facilities in Liberia. Of these, 437 (60%) were public and 286 (40%) were private. There was an overall improvement in the MST scores from a median of 13 to 14 out of a maximum possible score of 16. While improvements were observed in all aspects of IPC in both public and private health facilities, IPC implementation was systematically higher in public facilities. Conclusions: We demonstrate the feasibility of monitoring IPC implementation using the MST checklist in post-Ebola Liberia. Our study shows that improvements were made in key aspects of IPC after 1 year of evaluations and tailored recommendations. We also highlight the need to increase the focus on the private sector to achieve further improvements in IPC.

  20. Evidence-based integrated environmental solutions for secondary lead smelters: Pollution prevention and waste minimization technologies and practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genaidy, A.M., E-mail: world_tek_inc@yahoo.com [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio (United States); Sequeira, R. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio (United States); Tolaymat, T. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, Ohio (United States); Kohler, J. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington DC (United States); Rinder, M. [WorldTek Inc, Cincinnati (United States)

    2009-05-01

    An evidence-based methodology was adopted in this research to establish strategies to increase lead recovery and recycling via a systematic review and critical appraisal of the published literature. In particular, the research examines pollution prevention and waste minimization practices and technologies that meet the following criteria: (a) reduce/recover/recycle the largest quantities of lead currently being disposed of as waste, (b) technically and economically viable, that is, ready to be diffused and easily transferable, and (c) strong industry interest (i.e., industry would consider implementing projects with higher payback periods). The following specific aims are designed to achieve the study objectives: Aim 1 - To describe the recycling process of recovering refined lead from scrap; Aim 2 - To document pollution prevention and waste management technologies and practices adopted by US stakeholders along the trajectory of LAB and lead product life cycle; Aim 3 - To explore improved practices and technologies which are employed by other organizations with an emphasis on the aforementioned criteria; Aim 4 - To demonstrate the economic and environmental costs and benefits of applying improved technologies and practices to existing US smelting operations; and Aim 5 - To evaluate improved environmental technologies and practices using an algorithm that integrates quantitative and qualitative criteria. The process of identifying relevant articles and reports was documented. The description of evidence was presented for current practices and technologies used by US smelters as well as improved practices and technologies. Options for integrated environmental solutions for secondary smelters were introduced and rank ordered on the basis of costs (i.e., capital investment) and benefits (i.e., production increases, energy and flux savings, and reduction of SO2 and slag). An example was provided to demonstrate the utility of the algorithm by detailing the costs and

  1. Evidence-based integrated environmental solutions for secondary lead smelters: pollution prevention and waste minimization technologies and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genaidy, A M; Sequeira, R; Tolaymat, T; Kohler, J; Rinder, M

    2009-05-01

    An evidence-based methodology was adopted in this research to establish strategies to increase lead recovery and recycling via a systematic review and critical appraisal of the published literature. In particular, the research examines pollution prevention and waste minimization practices and technologies that meet the following criteria: (a) reduce/recover/recycle the largest quantities of lead currently being disposed of as waste, (b) technically and economically viable, that is, ready to be diffused and easily transferable, and (c) strong industry interest (i.e., industry would consider implementing projects with higher payback periods). The following specific aims are designed to achieve the study objectives: Aim 1 - To describe the recycling process of recovering refined lead from scrap; Aim 2 - To document pollution prevention and waste management technologies and practices adopted by US stakeholders along the trajectory of LAB and lead product life cycle; Aim 3 - To explore improved practices and technologies which are employed by other organizations with an emphasis on the aforementioned criteria; Aim 4 - To demonstrate the economic and environmental costs and benefits of applying improved technologies and practices to existing US smelting operations; and Aim 5 - To evaluate improved environmental technologies and practices using an algorithm that integrates quantitative and qualitative criteria. The process of identifying relevant articles and reports was documented. The description of evidence was presented for current practices and technologies used by US smelters as well as improved practices and technologies. Options for integrated environmental solutions for secondary smelters were introduced and rank ordered on the basis of costs (i.e., capital investment) and benefits (i.e., production increases, energy and flux savings, and reduction of SO(2) and slag). An example was provided to demonstrate the utility of the algorithm by detailing the costs and

  2. Better Contract Oversight Could Have Prevented Deficiencies in the Detention Facility in Parwan, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    a visitation center, a water treatment plant, and vocational buildings where detainees can learn carpentry and culinary skills. The facility also...room not connected MHU PPI 69 DCID HVAC unit is inoperable Ml DAB PPI has o rdered p arts and w ill fix w hen it arrives 70 Access broken to VCD

  3. Groundwater Modeling of Mercury Pollution at a Former Mercury Cell Chlor Alkali Facility in Pavlodar City, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    In northern Kazakhstan, there is a serious case of mercury pollution near the city of Pavlodar from an old mercury cell chlor-alkali plant. The soil, sediment, and water is severely contaminated with mercury and mercury compounds as a result of the industrial activity of this ch...

  4. Transferring the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC Approach and Best Available Techniques (BAT Concepts to Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Vázquez Calvo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The principles introduced by the Directive Concerning Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC (currently known as the Industrial Emissions Directive (2010/75/EU are innovative and have raised interests in the framework of the literature debate on environmental regulation. Many articles describe and analyze the application of the Directive in European countries, but only a few articles focus on how the interest for the Directive’s principles, including the integrated approach, have reached countries outside the European Union. This paper aims to contribute to this topic, describing the experience of the authors in carrying out an EU-funded project on transferring the IPPC approach and Best Available Techniques (BAT concepts to three Arab countries, i.e., Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. The paper presents the experience referring to two sectors falling within the scope of the IPPC Directive: the textile and dairy sector. The objectives, methodologies, activities and experiences are described and can be used and valorized to integrate the IPPC approach and BAT concepts in the current environmental legislation of the three countries.

  5. Application of earthquake early warning system for disaster prevention in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, C.; Dumitru, G.; Oprescu, T.; Ana, E.; Sofilca, N.; Grigore, D.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The Romanian seismicity is dominated by the Vrancea deep (60-200 km) earthquakes which take place in a small volume located at the bend of Carpathian mountains, the place where three tectonic units are interacting: East-European, Intra-Alpine plates and Moesic sub-plate. Two or three events per century are devastating; having high energy they are felt over large and highly populated areas. The achievement of a seismic vulnerability reduction system for industrial and technological processes in the nuclear field intends to reduce possible after-earthquake damages which can take place in nuclear facilities situated in an extended area as compared to the usual one affected by Vrancea earthquakes. In this situation there are nuclear specific facilities like: - Van de Graaff Accelerator of IFIN-HH at Magurele; - TRIGA reactor operated at Pitesti, Mioveni, Jud. Arges; - Experimental Pilot Plant for tritium and deuterium separation of ICSI at Ramnicu Valcea; - Heavy water plant Drobeta Turnu Severin, Mehedinti. We intend to implement EEWS in the above sites in order to have a warning decision for earthquakes produced in Vrancea, Campulung Muscel and Herculane areas and its error-free transmission for activating the safety regulations for these facilities. (authors)

  6. Method for assessment of stormwater treatment facilities – Synthetic road runoff addition including micro-pollutants and tracer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederkvist, Karin; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Holm, Peter Engelund

    2017-01-01

    Stormwater treatment facilities (STFs) are becoming increasingly widespread but knowledge on their performance is limited. This is due to difficulties in obtaining representative samples during storm events and documenting removal of the broad range of contaminants found in stormwater runoff...

  7. Filtered air plastic chamber as an experimental facility to prove visible damage of crops due to air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Y; Yoda, H; Omichi, S; Shiratori, K

    1975-01-01

    An experimental filtered air chamber was constructed to prove the visible damage of crops due to air pollution. The chamber was provided with another room into which non-filtered ambient air was introduced. The purified air was prepared by filtering ambient air with activated carbon. The average content of air pollutants in the purified air chamber was less than 10 to 20% of the ozone and 20% of the sulfur oxides in the ambient air. However, cultivated vegetables such as tobacco and spinach, which are susceptible to oxidant, showed no visible damage in the filtered air chamber, and showed the same damage in the nonfiltered air chamber as was seen in fields at the same time.

  8. Hygienic study of barrier function of local water purification facilities in respect to chemical pollutants agrochemicals and surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Il' in, I E

    1984-08-01

    Contamination of water reservoirs is presently a multicomponent phenomenon because pesticides, fertilizers, petroleum products, dyes and surfactants may all be present in water. Efficiency of commonly-employed water purification methods was evaluated: sedimentation, chlorination, filtering, and its related effect or representative groups of agricultural chemicals. The most vulnerable link in the rural water purification system was the filtration; in presence of surfactants, the filtration effectiveness was reduced by 40-50%. The effectiveness of this hauling function of surfactants was related to chemical structure of the polluting compounds and to homologous characteristics of the detergents. The effectiveness of the precipitation of chemical impurities from polluted water depended on their solubility in water. 1 figure.

  9. Facile synthesis of light harvesting semiconductor bismuth oxychloride nano photo-catalysts for efficient removal of hazardous organic pollutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaki S Seddigi

    Full Text Available In the present work, bismuth oxychloride nanoparticles-a light harvesting semiconductor photocatalyst-were synthesized by a facile hydrolysis route, with sodium bismuthate and hydroxylammonium chloride as the precursor materials. The as-synthesized semiconductor photocatalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Photoluminescence spectroscopy techniques. The crystal structure, morphology, composition, and optical properties of these facile synthesized bismuth oxychloride nanoparticles (BiOCl NPs were compared to those of traditional bismuth oxychloride. In addition, the photocatalytic performance of facile-synthesized BiOCl NPs and traditional BiOCl, as applied to the removal of hazardous organic dyes under visible light illumination, is thoroughly investigated. Our results reveal that facile-synthesized BiOCl NPs display strong UV-Vis light adsorption, improved charge carrier mobility and an inhibited rate of charge carrier recombination, when compared to traditional BiOCl. These enhancements result in an improved photocatalytic degradation rate of hazardous organic dyes under UV-Vis irradiance. For instance, the facile-synthesized BiOCl NPs attained 100% degradation of methylene blue and methyl orange dyes in approximately 30 mins under UV-Vis irradiation, against 55% degradation for traditional BiOCl under similar experimental conditions.

  10. Facile synthesis of light harvesting semiconductor bismuth oxychloride nano photo-catalysts for efficient removal of hazardous organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddigi, Zaki S; Gondal, Mohammed A; Baig, Umair; Ahmed, Saleh A; Abdulaziz, M A; Danish, Ekram Y; Khaled, Mazen M; Lais, Abul

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, bismuth oxychloride nanoparticles-a light harvesting semiconductor photocatalyst-were synthesized by a facile hydrolysis route, with sodium bismuthate and hydroxylammonium chloride as the precursor materials. The as-synthesized semiconductor photocatalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Photoluminescence spectroscopy techniques. The crystal structure, morphology, composition, and optical properties of these facile synthesized bismuth oxychloride nanoparticles (BiOCl NPs) were compared to those of traditional bismuth oxychloride. In addition, the photocatalytic performance of facile-synthesized BiOCl NPs and traditional BiOCl, as applied to the removal of hazardous organic dyes under visible light illumination, is thoroughly investigated. Our results reveal that facile-synthesized BiOCl NPs display strong UV-Vis light adsorption, improved charge carrier mobility and an inhibited rate of charge carrier recombination, when compared to traditional BiOCl. These enhancements result in an improved photocatalytic degradation rate of hazardous organic dyes under UV-Vis irradiance. For instance, the facile-synthesized BiOCl NPs attained 100% degradation of methylene blue and methyl orange dyes in approximately 30 mins under UV-Vis irradiation, against 55% degradation for traditional BiOCl under similar experimental conditions.

  11. Reception and treatment facilities for waste oils and oil-polluted waters from marine and industrial activities in Gothenburg, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.; Lexen, S.I.; Hell, M.

    1992-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1980s, comprehensive solutions were found to problems associated with the handling of oil-polluted water from marine and industrial sources in the Gothenburg area. The treatment plant in the oil harbour has permission to treat 700,000 m 3 /yr of sludge, ballast, slops and other oil-contaminated waters. Following treatment by chemical flocculation, flotation and dual-media filtration, the treated water must not contain more than 5 ppm of oil. Work to improve treatment results has been carried out from the start, in close co-operation with environmental authorities and with the waste generators themselves. Through increased consciousness, improvements in control, and greater source separation, it will be possible to bring about a significantly lower concentration of pollutants in the incoming waste streams. Recent plans include separate treatment of waste streams containing aromatic compounds and heavily polluted waters. Complementary treatment methods, such as activated carbon and air stripping, are under evaluation. (author). 10 figs

  12. Increasing fine particulate air pollution in China and the potential use of exposure and biomarker data in disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Chris H; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Lo, Charles; Hertz, Marshall; Mandel, Jeffrey H

    2015-03-16

    Increased industrialization and urbanization have led to marked increases in air pollutants in China over the last decade. Pollutant levels in the north and eastern regions are often four times higher than current daily levels in the United States. Recent reports indicate a higher incidence of lung cancer and mortality in men and urban dwellers, but the contribution of air pollution to these findings remains unknown. Future studies that define individual exposures, combined with biomarkers linked to disease, will be essential to the understanding of risk posed by air pollution in China.

  13. Occurrence of multi-class surfactants in urban wastewater: contribution of a healthcare facility to the pollution transported into the sewerage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergé, Alexandre; Wiest, Laure; Baudot, Robert; Giroud, Barbara; Vulliet, Emmanuelle

    2018-04-01

    Healthcare facility discharges, by their nature, are often considered as non-domestic effluent, which can provide significant pollution comparatively to other domestic sources. In this context, a total of 12 monthly sampling campaigns were collected from a healthcare facility as well as the output of a sewerage system of Site Pilote de Bellecombe (SIPIBEL) observatory. This study focuses more specifically on 12 surfactants and biocides: four anionics, four cationic, two non-ionic, one zwitterionic, and one dispersive agent, among the most commonly used commercial surfactants. Particular attention was also provided to routine wastewater quality parameters. Both effluents were heavily contaminated by most anionic surfactants; they displayed median concentrations up to 1 to 2 mg/L for linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and between 10 and 100 μg/L for other sodium sulfate congeners (lauryl and laureth). Overall, for the majority of surfactants, the healthcare facility contribution to the total flux reaching the wastewater treatment plant ranges between 5 and 9%.

  14. Measuring Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measuring results is an essential component of any successful P2 program and is one way to determine the success of a technical assistance or training effort. This page introduces the concept of P2 measurement.

  15. Major weapon system environmental life-cycle cost estimating for Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C3P2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Wesley; Thurston, Marland; Hood, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    The Titan 4 Space Launch Vehicle Program is one of many major weapon system programs that have modified acquisition plans and operational procedures to meet new, stringent environmental rules and regulations. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Defense (DOD) mandate to reduce the use of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) is just one of the regulatory changes that has affected the program. In the last few years, public environmental awareness, coupled with stricter environmental regulations, has created the need for DOD to produce environmental life-cycle cost estimates (ELCCE) for every major weapon system acquisition program. The environmental impact of the weapon system must be assessed and budgeted, considering all costs, from cradle to grave. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) has proposed that organizations consider Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C(sup 3)P(sup 2)) issues associated with each acquisition program to assess life-cycle impacts and costs. The Air Force selected the Titan 4 system as the pilot program for estimating life-cycle environmental costs. The estimating task required participants to develop an ELCCE methodology, collect data to test the methodology and produce a credible cost estimate within the DOD C(sup 3)P(sup 2) definition. The estimating methodology included using the Program Office weapon system description and work breakdown structure together with operational site and manufacturing plant visits to identify environmental cost drivers. The results of the Titan IV ELCCE process are discussed and expanded to demonstrate how they can be applied to satisfy any life-cycle environmental cost estimating requirement.

  16. Waste minimization/pollution prevention at R ampersand D facilities: Implementing the SNL/NM Process Waste Assessment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjeldgaard, E.A.; Stermer, D.L.; Saloio, J.H. Jr.; Lorton, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Process Waste Assessment (PWA) program began formally on November 2, 1992. This program represents the first laboratory-wide attempt to explicitly identify and characterize SNL/NM's waste generating processes for waste minimization purposes. This paper describes the major elements of the SNL/NM PWA program, the underlying philosophy for designing a PWA program at a highly diverse laboratory setting such as SNL/NM, and the experiences and insights gained from five months of implementing this living program. Specifically, the SNL/NM PWA program consists of four major, interrelated phases: (1) Process Definition, (2) Process Characterization, (3) Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment, and (4) Project Evaluation, Selection, Implementation, and Tracking. This phased approach was developed to Provide a flexible, yet appropriate, level of detail to the multitude of different ''processes'' at SNL/NM. Using a staff infrastructure of approximately 60 Waste Minimization Network Representatives (MinNet Reps) and consulting support, the SNL/NM PWA program has become the linchpin of even more progressive and proactive environmental, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) initiatives such as: (1) cradle-to-grove material/waste tracking, (2) centralized ES ampersand H reporting, and (3) detailed baselining and tracking for measuring multi-media waste reduction goals. Specific examples from the SNL/NM PWA program are provided, including the results from Process Definition, Process Characterization, and Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessments performed for a typical SNL/NM process

  17. Waterborne microorganisms and biofilms related to hospital infections: strategies for prevention and control in healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelletti, Raquel Vannucci; Moraes, Ângela Maria

    2016-02-01

    Water is the main stimulus for the development of microorganisms, and its flow has an important role in the spreading of contaminants. In hospitals, the water distribution system requires special attention since it can be a source of pathogens, including those in the form of biofilms often correlated with resistance of microorganisms to various treatments. In this paper, information relevant to cases of nosocomial infections involving water circuits as a source of contaminants is compiled, with emphasis on the importance of microbiological control strategies to prevent the installation, spreading and growth of microorganisms in hospitals. An overview of the worldwide situation is provided, with emphasis on Brazilian hospitals. Different approaches normally used to control the occurrence of nosocomial infections due to waterborne contaminants are analyzed, and the use of the polysaccharide chitosan for this specific application is briefly discussed.

  18. The meteorological monitoring audit, preventative maintenance and quality assurance programs at a former nuclear weapons facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    The purposes of the meteorological monitoring audit, preventative maintenance, and quality assurance programs at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), are to (1) support Emergency Preparedness (EP) programs at the Site in assessing the transport, dispersion, and deposition of effluents actually or potentially released into the atmosphere by Site operations; and (2) provide information for onsite and offsite projects concerned with the design of environmental monitoring networks for impact assessments, environmental surveillance activities, and remediation activities. The risk from the Site includes chemical and radioactive emissions historically related to nuclear weapons component production activities that are currently associated with storage of large quantities of radionuclides (plutonium) and radioactive waste forms. The meteorological monitoring program provides information for site-specific weather forecasting, which supports Site operations, employee safety, and Emergency Preparedness operations

  19. Reduction in inappropriate prevention of urinary tract infections in long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummukainen, Maija-Liisa; Jakobsson, Aino; Matsinen, Maire; Järvenpää, Salme; Nissinen, Antti; Karppi, Pertti; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2012-10-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common diagnosis made in prescribing antimicrobials in long-term care facilities (LTCF). The diagnostic criteria for UTI vary among institutions and prescribers. Our aim was to reduce the inappropriate use of antimicrobials in LTCFs. A team comprising infectious disease consultant, infection control nurse, and geriatrician visited all LTCFs for older persons (2,321 patients in 25 primary care hospitals and 39 nursing homes and dementia units) in the Central Finland Healthcare District (population 267,000) during 2004-2005. The site visits consisted of a structured interview concerning patients, ongoing systematic antimicrobials, and diagnostic practices for UTI. Following the visits, regional guidelines for prudent use of antimicrobials in LTCFs were published, and the use of antimicrobials was followed up by an annual questionnaire. The proportions of patients receiving antimicrobials in 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008 were 19.9%, 16.9%, 16.2%, and 15.4%, respectively. Most of the antibiotics were used for UTI (range by year, 66.6%-81.1%). From 2005 through 2008, the proportion of patients on antibiotic prophylaxis for UTI decreased from 13% to 6%. The decrease was statistically significant in both types of settings. The visits and guidelines were associated with a reduction in the usage of antimicrobials. To sustain this, UTI surveillance and close collaboration between infection control experts and LTCFs are crucial. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Treatment of Osteoporosis in Australian Residential Aged Care Facilities: Update on Consensus Recommendations for Fracture Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Gustavo; Lord, Stephen R.; Mak, Jenson; Ganda, Kirtan; Close, Jacqueline J.T.; Ebeling, Peter; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Inderjeeth, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Older people living in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) are at a higher risk of suffering fractures than the community-dwelling older population. The first Consensus Conference on Treatment of Osteoporosis in RACFs in Australia, held in Sydney in July 2009, aimed to address some of the issues relating to the treatment of older residents with osteoporosis in RACFs. Considering that the field of osteoporosis diagnosis and management has significantly advanced in the last 5 years and that new evidence has been generated from studies performed within RACFs, a Second Consensus Conference was held in Sydney in November 2014. Methods An expert panel met in November 2014 in Penrith, NSW, Australia in an attempt to reach a consensus on diverse issues related to the treatment of osteoporosis at RACFs. Participants were selected by the scientific committee on the basis of their practice in an RACF and/or major published articles. The co-chairs distributed topics randomly to all participants, who then had to propose a statement on each topic for approval by the conference after a short, evidence-based presentation, when possible. Results This article provides an update on the most relevant evidence on osteoporosis in older people living in RACFs graded according to its level, quality, and relevance. Conclusion As with the first consensus, it is hoped that this statement will constitute an important guide to aid physicians in their decision making while practicing at RACFs. PMID:27349626

  1. Emergency response facilities including primary and secondary prevention strategies across 79 professional football clubs in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Aneil; Dhutia, Harshil; Gati, Sabiha; Yeo, Tee-Joo; Finocchiaro, Gherardo; Keteepe-Arachi, Tracey; Richards, Thomas; Walker, Mike; Birt, Robin; Stuckey, David; Robinson, Laurence; Tome, Maite; Beasley, Ian; Papadakis, Michael; Sharma, Sanjay

    2017-06-14

    To assess the emergency response planning and prevention strategies for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) across a wide range of professional football clubs in England. A written survey was sent to all professional clubs in the English football league, namely the Premiership, Championship, League 1 and League 2. Outcomes included: (1) number of clubs performing cardiac screening and frequency of screening; (2) emergency planning and documentation; (3) automated external defibrillator (AED) training and availability; and (4) provision of emergency services at sporting venues. 79 clubs (86%) responded to the survey. 100% clubs participated in cardiac screening. All clubs had AEDs available on match days and during training sessions. 100% Premiership clubs provided AED training to designated staff. In contrast, 30% of lower division clubs with AEDs available did not provide formal training. Most clubs (n=66; 83%) reported the existence of an emergency action plan for SCA but formal documentation was variable. All clubs in the Premiership and League 1 provided an ambulance equipped for medical emergencies on match days compared with 75% of clubs in the Championship and 66% in League 2. The majority of football clubs in England have satisfactory prevention strategies and emergency response planning in line with European recommendations. Additional improvements such as increasing awareness of European guidelines for emergency planning, AED training and mentorship with financial support to lower division clubs are necessary to further enhance cardiovascular safety of athletes and spectators and close the gap between the highest and lower divisions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Diversion of drugs within health care facilities, a multiple-victim crime: patterns of diversion, scope, consequences, detection, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Keith H; Dillon, Kevin R; Sikkink, Karen M; Taylor, Timothy K; Lanier, William L

    2012-07-01

    Mayo Clinic has been involved in an ongoing effort to prevent the diversion of controlled substances from the workplace and to rapidly identify and respond when such diversion is detected. These efforts have found that diversion of controlled substances is not uncommon and can result in substantial risk not only to the individual who is diverting the drugs but also to patients, co-workers, and employers. We believe that all health care facilities should have systems in place to deter controlled substance diversion and to promptly identify diversion and intervene when it is occurring. Such systems are multifaceted and require close cooperation between multiple stakeholders including, but not limited to, departments of pharmacy, safety and security, anesthesiology, nursing, legal counsel, and human resources. Ideally, there should be a broad-based appreciation of the dangers that diversion creates not only for patients but also for all employees of health care facilities, because diversion can occur at any point along a long supply chain. All health care workers must be vigilant for signs of possible diversion and must be aware of how to engage a preexisting group with expertise in investigating possible diversions. In addition, clear policies and procedures should be in place for dealing with such investigations and for managing the many possible outcomes of a confirmed diversion. This article provides an overview of the multiple types of risk that result from drug diversion from health care facilities. Further, we describe a system developed at Mayo Clinic for evaluating episodes of potential drug diversion and for taking action once diversion is confirmed. Copyright © 2012 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of infection prevention and control training on health facilities during the Ebola virus disease outbreak in Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keïta, Mory; Camara, Ansoumane Yassima; Traoré, Falaye; Camara, Mohamed ElMady; Kpanamou, André; Camara, Sékou; Tolno, Aminata; Houndjo, Bienvenu; Diallo, Fatimatou; Conté, Fatoumata; Subissi, Lorenzo

    2018-04-24

    In 2014-2016, West Africa faced the most deadly Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in history. A key strategy to overcome this outbreak was continual staff training in Infection Prevention and Control (IPC), with a focus on Ebola. This research aimed to evaluate the impact of IPC training and the quality of IPC performance in health care facilities of one municipality of Conakry, Guinea. This study was conducted in February 2016. All health facilities within Ratoma municipality, Conakry, Guinea, were evaluated based on IPC performance standards developed by the Guinean Ministry of Health. The IPC performance of healthcare facilities was categorised into high or low IPC scores based on the median IPC score of the sample. The Mantel-Haenzsel method and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. Twenty-five percent of health centres had one IPC-trained worker, 53% had at least two IPC-trained workers, and 22% of health centres had no IPC-trained workers. An IPC score above median was positively associated with the number of trained staff; health centres with two or more IPC-trained workers were eight times as likely to have an IPC score above median, while those with one IPC-trained worker were four times as likely, compared to centres with no trained workers. Health centres that implemented IPC cascade training to untrained medical staff were five times as likely to have an IPC score above median. This research highlights the importance of training healthcare staff in IPC and organising regular cascade trainings. IPC strategies implemented during the outbreak should continue to be reinforced for the better health of patients and medical staff, and be considered a key factor in any outbreak response.

  4. Failure prevention with stress measurement for dismantling of nuclear facilities. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komber, T.; Reimche, W.; Bach, F.W.

    2003-07-01

    The dismantling of nuclear facilities is in progress since 20 years in Germany. Practical experiences in decommissioning have shown, that problem can occur during dismantling operations caused by release of residual stresses. In this case cutting parts or cutting tools get jammed if mechanical cutting techniques are used. The aim of this research work was to develop measuring techniques for the determination of the stress state in RPV, to predict the deformation during dismantling operations. This can serve as additional base for improved decommissioning planning and for time optimised dismantling. For determination of the stress state in components two small and inexpensive measuring techniques were new designed, for remote-controlled on-site use in atmosphere and under water. For the nondestructive determination of the directional stress state, based on the magnetostriction and the Harmonic-Analysis of alternating magnetic fields, a new developed rotating sensor is in use with a principal magnetisation direction. Because of the mainly isotropic material properties and the directional stresses, measured Harmonic values are influenced mainly by the stress state in the surface areas. In this way it is possible to determine the stress state qualitatively and the direction of principal stresses in the surface areas of the component. As an alternative to the established wire strain gauge, which remote-controlled application is still not possible under water, a new slot jet cutting strain control technique was designed. This technique detects the deformation in the surface after stresses are cut free by a water jet. So the stress state could be determined quantitatively in the surface and assessed in the depth. With the help of these two measuring techniques it is possible to characterize the stress state along a planned cutting line. The use of an adapted FEM simulation enables to calculate and determine the deformation of the cutting gap beforehand. These information

  5. Method of preventing criticality of fresh fuel assembly in storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Makoto.

    1990-01-01

    With an aim of improving the operation efficiency of a reactor, extention of the operation cycle by increasing U 235 enrichment degree of fuel uranium is planned. However, along with the increase of the enrichment degree of the fuel uranium, there occurs a problem of criticality upon fuel handling. Then, in the present invention, boric acid incorporating B-10 of great neutron absorption effect are packed with water soluble polymeric materials which are further packed with a fuel packing sheet, or the water soluble polymeric materials incorporating boric acids are packed with fuel packing sheets which are disposed to a fresh fuel assembly and stored in a store house as they are. The fuel packing sheet is a perforated sheet having a plurality of water intruding pores. Then, if water should intrude to the store house accidentally, the water soluble polymeric materials are dissolved, so that the intruded water is converted into aqueous boric acid easily and absorbs neutrons effectively to thereby attain the prevention of criticality. (T.M.)

  6. Increasing Access to Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage Interventions for Births in Health Facilities and at Home in Four Districts of Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Blami; Ngabo, Fidele; Zoungrana, Jeremie; Rawlins, Barbara; Mukarugwiro, Beata; Musoni, Pascal; Favero, Rachel; MacDowell, Juliet; Eugene, Kanyamanza

    2015-12-01

    To assess coverage, acceptability, and feasibility of a program to prevent postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) at community and facility levels, a study was conducted in 60 health facilities and their catchment areas in four districts in Rwanda. A total of 220 skilled birth attendants at these facilities were trained to provide active management of the third stage of labor and 1994 community health workers (ASMs) were trained to distribute misoprostol at home births. A total of 4,074 pregnant women were enrolled in the program (20.5% of estimated deliveries). Overall uterotonic coverage was 82.5%: 85% of women who delivered at a facility received a uterotonic to prevent PPH; 76% of women reached at home at the time of birth by an ASM ingested misoprostol--a 44.3% coverage rate. Administration of misoprostol at the time of birth for home births achieved moderate uterotonic coverage. Advancing the distribution of misoprostol through antenatal care services could further increase coverage.

  7. Measures to prevent oil pollution in oceans, and their preservation effect; Kaiyo no abura osen no boshi taisaku to hozen koka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinoda, T; Fukuchi, N; Fujii, H [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sato, S

    1996-04-10

    It was intended to confirm, based on various problems surrounding oil flow-out accidents, that oil fences whose use is first considered when an oil flow-out accident occurs cause oil leakage due to oil pass-through phenomenon as the largest defect in performance of oil fences. Therefore, oil fence performance was analyzed by using a simulation. Furthermore, several types of diffusion prevention and avoidance measures, and combinations thereof were evaluated by using multi-criteria analysis. It was also elucidated how recognitions on the importance of methods to prevent oil pollution differ depending on standpoints. Difference in oil flow-out prevention performance of oil fences due to variation in tidal currents was made clear by combining a diffusion simulation using the finite element method with the prevention performance of oil fences relative to the tidal currents. In areas with no good hydrographic conditions where pollution spreads rapidly, it is necessary to suppress oil diffusion by extending oil fences double or triple, and using gelling agents. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  8. [Accident prevention in agriculture in the ASL1 Abruzzo Local Health Service: protection facilities for tractors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompei, Domenico; Rossi, Roberta; Vecchiola, Rita; Angelone, Anna Maria; Fabiani, Leila

    2015-07-08

    The ASL1 workplace prevention and safety service in Abruzzo has been conducting workplace inspections on agricultural and livestock farms in the province of L'Aquila since 2011, mainly in the areas of Avezzano, Sulmona and L'Aquila. The agricultural sector in Abruzzo is characterized by high rates of accidents and the ratio of fatal injuries/total injuries is higher than the industry and services sector. To evaluate the presence or absence of safety devices , i.e. compliance or otherwise with regulations for tractors, and of any variable factor that could be associated with the safety of the vehicle. Between 2011 and 2013, 98 farms in the province of L'Aquila were inspected. The data resulting from the inspections was collected by the use of a checklist. An univariate logistic regression analysis was conducted in which the vehicles that complied with regulations were considered as the dependant variable, and the age of the tractor owner, the acres of worked land and the type of farm were considered as explanatory variables. Statistical elaboration was carried out using the Stata 12 programme. Out of a total of 298 tractors that were checked, 64.8% did not comply with regulations due to absence or unsuitability of one or more safety devices such as: a protective device in case of overturning; retention system of the driver; mounting and dismounting from the vehicle; protection of moving parts and hot parts; PTO (Power Take Off) protection device. A significant association between non-compliance of vehicles and the age of the owner and acres worked was observed, whereas no statistical significance was observed for the association with the farm type variable. Our study showed that farms where the owner's age is between 50 and 64 years and where more acres of land are worked are those where the agricultural or forestry tractors had lower levels of compliance with regulations.

  9. Using local biodiversity to prevent pollution transfers to environmental components of a Mediterranean semi-arid ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckenroth, Alma; Rabier, Jacques; Laffont-Schwob, Isabelle

    2014-05-01

    In arid and semi-arid Mediterranean coastal areas, metals and metalloids (MM) pollution coming from unreclaimed brownfields has increased the negative environmental stresses leading to ecosystems degradations as soil erosion and losses of organic matter and biodiversity. On these sites, maintaining or restoring a local vegetation cover is considered as a key step to stop the degradation cycle. Furthermore, in a context of high pollution occurring in natural areas, phytoremediation is considered as an attractive alternative to conventional soil remediation techniques, the first reducing pollution transfers, improving the soil quality. In protected or natural areas, it is also important to perceive then design phytoremediation as a way to assist ecosystems recovery, using the restoration ecology concepts. However, only few works in the literature deal with the potential use of native Mediterranean plant species for phytoremediation. On the South-East coast of Marseille (France), the activity of the former smelting factory of l'Escalette, ceased since 1925. However, its brownfield is still a source of pollution by trace metals and metalloids for abiotic and biotic components of the surrounding massif. This massif hosts a rich biodiversity with rare and protected plant species despite the metallic pollution and this area has been included in the recently created first peri-urban French National Park of Calanques. In this context, an integrated research project is being conducted with local actors and stakeholders, from the selection of native plant species, assessment and optimization of phytostabilization capacities of selected species, to the development of ecological engineering techniques well adapted to local constraints and phytostabilization field trials. The first part of this study has been conducted on two areas, corresponding to different pollution pattern, plant communities and environmental drivers: a halophytic area, characterized by typical coastal

  10. The impact of the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan" on PM2.5 concentrations in Jing-Jin-Ji region during 2012-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Siyi; Wang, Yangjun; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Chang, Xing; Hao, Jiming

    2017-02-15

    In order to cope with heavy haze pollution in China, the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan including phased goals of the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) was issued in 2013. In this study, China's emission inventories in the baseline 2012 and the future scenarios of 2017 and 2020 have been developed based on this Action Plan. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Jing-Jin-Ji) region, one of the most polluted regions in China, was taken as a case to assess the impact of phased emission control measures on PM 2.5 concentration reduction using WRF-CMAQ model system. With the implementation of the Action Plan, the emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO X ) , PM 2.5 , non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC), and ammonia (NH 3 ) in 2017 will decrease by36%, 31%, 30%,12%, and -10% from the 2012 levels in Jing-Jin-Ji, respectively. In 2020, the emissions of SO 2 , NO X, PM 2.5 , NMVOC, and NH 3 will decrease by 40%, 44%, 40%, 22%, and -3% from the 2012 levels in Jing-Jin-Ji, respectively. Consequently, the ambient annual PM 2.5 concentration under the scenarios of 2017 and 2020 will be 28.3% and 37.8% lower than those in 2012, respectively. The Action Plan provided an effective approach to alleviate PM 2.5 pollution level in Jing-Jin-Ji region. However, emission control of NMVOC and NH 3 should be paid more attention and be strengthened in future. Meanwhile, emission control of NO x , SO 2 , NH 3 and NMVOC synergistically are highly needed in the future because multiple pollutants impact on PM 2.5 and O 3 concentrations nonlinearly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Waste minimization concepts applied to oil spill response or (integrating the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 with the Oil Pollution Act of 1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferriere, D.V.

    1993-01-01

    As of July 23, 1993 the National Contingency Plan (NCP) for oil spills and hazardous substance releases (40CFR300) is being revised to comply with Oil Pollution Act 1990 (OPA '90) requirements. An important OPA '90 development is the creation of localized groups to write Area Contingency Plans (ACPs). During the ACP process many political, economical, and environmental issues will be addressed by representatives from several local, county, state, federal agencies and industry. Some of the difficulty decision makers must face is weighing environmental tradeoffs considering socio-economic aspects and determining what is the most effective ecologically sensible/environmental protection oil spill response strategy. Ideally, the NCP is designed as a democratic process providing a voice to all effected parties on how to best protect the environment, natural resources, and commercial resources. However, practice has shown successful emergency response is best handled when a single focal point of command, commonly referred to as incident command, has an agreed upon response agenda. The following will address the need for decision makers and contingency planners to at least address waste minimization principles, if not make it their primary focus, when developing and executing the oil spill response plan

  12. Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Individual permits for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)...

  13. Method for assessment of stormwater treatment facilities - Synthetic road runoff addition including micro-pollutants and tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederkvist, Karin; Jensen, Marina B; Holm, Peter E

    2017-08-01

    Stormwater treatment facilities (STFs) are becoming increasingly widespread but knowledge on their performance is limited. This is due to difficulties in obtaining representative samples during storm events and documenting removal of the broad range of contaminants found in stormwater runoff. This paper presents a method to evaluate STFs by addition of synthetic runoff with representative concentrations of contaminant species, including the use of tracer for correction of removal rates for losses not caused by the STF. A list of organic and inorganic contaminant species, including trace elements representative of runoff from roads is suggested, as well as relevant concentration ranges. The method was used for adding contaminants to three different STFs including a curbstone extension with filter soil, a dual porosity filter, and six different permeable pavements. Evaluation of the method showed that it is possible to add a well-defined mixture of contaminants despite different field conditions by having a flexibly system, mixing different stock-solutions on site, and use bromide tracer for correction of outlet concentrations. Bromide recovery ranged from only 12% in one of the permeable pavements to 97% in the dual porosity filter, stressing the importance of including a conservative tracer for correction of contaminant retention values. The method is considered useful in future treatment performance testing of STFs. The observed performance of the STFs is presented in coming papers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cost Effectiveness of Falls and Injury Prevention Strategies for Older Adults Living in Residential Aged Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Jody L; Haas, Marion R; Goodall, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the cost effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent falls and fall-related injuries among older people living in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) from an Australian health care perspective. A decision analytic Markov model was developed that stratified individuals according to their risk of falling and accounted for the risk of injury following a fall. The effectiveness of the interventions was derived from two Cochrane reviews of randomized controlled trials for falls/fall-related injury prevention in RACFs. Interventions were considered effective if they reduced the risk of falling or reduced the risk of injury following a fall. The interventions that were modelled included vitamin D supplementation, annual medication review, multifactorial intervention (a combination of risk assessment, medication review, vision assessment and exercise) and hip protectors. The cost effectiveness was calculated as the incremental cost relative to the incremental benefit, in which the benefit was estimated using quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Uncertainty was explored using univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Vitamin D supplementation and medication review both dominated 'no intervention', as these interventions were both more effective and cost saving (because of healthcare costs avoided). Hip protectors are dominated (less effective and more costly) by vitamin D and medication review. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for medication review relative to vitamin D supplementation is AU$2442 per QALY gained, and the ICER for multifactorial intervention relative to medication review is AU$1,112,500 per QALY gained. The model is most sensitive to the fear of falling and the cost of the interventions. The model suggests that vitamin D supplementation and medication review are cost-effective interventions that reduce falls, provide health benefits and reduce health care costs in older adults living in RACFs.

  15. The Small Area Health Statistics Unit: a national facility for investigating health around point sources of environmental pollution in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, P; Westlake, A J; Hills, M; Kleinschmidt, I; Rodrigues, L; McGale, P; Marshall, K; Rose, G

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The Small Area Health Statistics Unit (SAHSU) was established at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in response to a recommendation of the enquiry into the increased incidence of childhood leukaemia near Sellafield, the nuclear reprocessing plant in West Cumbria. The aim of this paper was to describe the Unit's methods for the investigation of health around point sources of environmental pollution in the United Kingdom. DESIGN--Routine data currently including deaths and cancer registrations are held in a large national database which uses a post code based retrieval system to locate cases geographically and link them to the underlying census enumeration districts, and hence to their populations at risk. Main outcome measures were comparison of observed/expected ratios (based on national rates) within bands delineated by concentric circles around point sources of environmental pollution located anywhere in Britain. MAIN RESULTS--The system is illustrated by a study of mortality from mesothelioma and asbestosis near the Plymouth naval dockyards during 1981-87. Within a 3 km radius of the docks the mortality rate for mesothelioma was higher than the national rate by a factor of 8.4, and that for asbestosis was higher by a factor of 13.6. CONCLUSIONS--SAHSU is a new national facility which is rapidly able to provide rates of mortality and cancer incidence for arbitrary circles drawn around any point in Britain. The example around Plymouth of mesothelioma and asbestosis demonstrates the ability of the system to detect an unusual excess of disease in a small locality, although in this case the findings are likely to be related to occupational rather than environmental exposure. PMID:1431704

  16. Recommendations to ECE governments on the prevention of water pollution from hazardous substances as adopted by the Committee on Environmental Policy at its first session (1994)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    With a view to preventing, controlling and reducing the release of pollutants into the aquatic environment, thus promoting the implementation of the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes, pending its entry into force, it is recommended that ECE Governments, taking into account, inter alia, current water quality, water-quality requirements of present and future water users in the relevant catchments, requirements of aquatic and riparian flora and fauna, assessments of the risks involved, the urgency of control measures, and the economic feasibility

  17. The gap in human resources to deliver the guaranteed package of prevention and health promotion services at urban and rural primary care facilities in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde-Rabanal, Jacqueline Elizabeth; Nigenda, Gustavo; Bärnighausen, Till; Velasco-Mondragón, Héctor Eduardo; Darney, Blair Grant

    2017-08-03

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the gap between the available and the ideal supply of human resources (physicians, nurses, and health promoters) to deliver the guaranteed package of prevention and health promotion services at urban and rural primary care facilities in Mexico. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study using a convenience sample. We selected 20 primary health facilities in urban and rural areas in 10 states of Mexico. We calculated the available and the ideal supply of human resources in these facilities using estimates of time available, used, and required to deliver health prevention and promotion services. We performed descriptive statistics and bivariate hypothesis testing using Wilcoxon and Friedman tests. Finally, we conducted a sensitivity analysis to test whether the non-normal distribution of our time variables biased estimation of available and ideal supply of human resources. The comparison between available and ideal supply for urban and rural primary health care facilities reveals a low supply of physicians. On average, primary health care facilities are lacking five physicians when they were estimated with time used and nine if they were estimated with time required (P human resources in primary health facilities.

  18. A facile pollutant-free approach toward a series of nutritionally effective calcium phosphate nanomaterials for food and drink additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jieru; Chen, Xiaoyi; Yang, Xianyan; Xu, Sanzhong; Zhang, Xinli; Gou, Zhongru

    2011-03-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition is widespread and constitutes one of the main nutritional problems worldwide. Vitamins, amino acids, carbohydrates and Ca-phosphate (CaP) minerals are important to human health and disease prevention. Herein we developed a simple wet-chemical method to prepare multinary nutrients-containing CaP nanomaterials in diluted apple, orange, and grape juices. The scanning electron microscopy observation shows that these nanomaterials are short plate-like CaP nanocrystals of 500 nm in length. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, thermogravimetric analyses confirm the different specific surface area and organic nutrient contents. The Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction analyses indicate there exist similar organic groups (i.e., COO-, HN-CO) but different CaP species in the precipitates. The dissolution test in vitro simulated stomach juice pH condition indicates that these inorganic-organic nanohybrid materials are multidoped by micronutrients (such as Zn, Sr, Mg, K, vitamin c) and can be readily dissolved in the weak acidic aqueous solutions. This highly efficient utilization of fruit juice to produce CaP-based micronutrient composites may minimize the adverse side effect, so that the nanomaterials are promising as functional food/drink additives. Thus, this novel approach is environmentally and biologically friendly to produce edible nutrients while production cost is attained.

  19. A facile pollutant-free approach toward a series of nutritionally effective calcium phosphate nanomaterials for food and drink additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jieru; Chen Xiaoyi; Yang Xianyan; Xu Sanzhong; Zhang Xinli; Gou Zhongru

    2011-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition is widespread and constitutes one of the main nutritional problems worldwide. Vitamins, amino acids, carbohydrates and Ca-phosphate (CaP) minerals are important to human health and disease prevention. Herein we developed a simple wet-chemical method to prepare multinary nutrients-containing CaP nanomaterials in diluted apple, orange, and grape juices. The scanning electron microscopy observation shows that these nanomaterials are short plate-like CaP nanocrystals of ∼500 nm in length. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, thermogravimetric analyses confirm the different specific surface area and organic nutrient contents. The Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction analyses indicate there exist similar organic groups (i.e., COO − , HN-CO) but different CaP species in the precipitates. The dissolution test in vitro simulated stomach juice pH condition indicates that these inorganic–organic nanohybrid materials are multidoped by micronutrients (such as Zn, Sr, Mg, K, vitamin c) and can be readily dissolved in the weak acidic aqueous solutions. This highly efficient utilization of fruit juice to produce CaP-based micronutrient composites may minimize the adverse side effect, so that the nanomaterials are promising as functional food/drink additives. Thus, this novel approach is environmentally and biologically friendly to produce edible nutrients while production cost is attained.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna Ramos, julio

    2014-01-01

    The article shows the complexity of the problem of environmental pollution and what can be the possible solutions to the problem. Also, how the Industrial Engineering can contribute to the prevention and control of pollution. El artículo muestra la complejidad del problema de la contaminación ambiental y cuáles pueden ser las propuestas de solución al problema. Así mismo, cómo la Ingeniería Industrial puede contribuir a la prevención y control de la contaminación.

  1. Guidelines for the Provision of Garbage Reception Facilities at Ports Under MARPOL Annex V

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Barbara; Coe, James M.

    1998-01-01

    This report offers guidelines for the provision of adequate port reception facilities for vessel-generated garbage under the requirements of Annex V of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships, 1973 (MARPOL 73/78), Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships. MARPOL Annex V prohibits at-sea disposal of plastic materials from vessels, and specifies the distance from shore at which other materials may be dumped. Annex V also require...

  2. Current prevention and control of health care-associated infections in long-term care facilities for the elderly in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariya, Naoko; Sakon, Naomi; Komano, Jun; Tomono, Kazunori; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2018-05-01

    Residents of long-term care facilities for the elderly are vulnerable to health care-associated infections. However, compared to medical institutions, long-term care facilities for the elderly lag behind in health care-associated infection control and prevention. We conducted a epidemiologic study to clarify the current status of infection control in long-term care facilities for the elderly in Japan. A questionnaire survey on the aspects of infection prevention and control was developed according to SHEA/APIC guidelines and was distributed to 617 long-term care facilities for the elderly in the province of Osaka during November 2016 and January 2017. The response rate was 16.9%. The incidence rates of health care-associated infection outbreaks and residents with health care-associated infections were 23.4 per 100 facility-years and 0.18 per 1,000 resident-days, respectively. Influenza and acute gastroenteritis were reported most frequently. Active surveillance to identify the carrier of multiple drug-resistant organisms was not common. The overall compliance with 21 items selected from the SHEA/APIC guidelines was approximately 79.2%. All facilities had infection control manuals and an assigned infection control professional. The economic burdens of infection control were approximately US$ 182.6 per resident-year during fiscal year 2015. Importantly, these data implied that physicians and nurses were actively contributed to higher SHEA/APIC guideline compliance rates and the advancement of infection control measures in long-term care facilities for the elderly. Key factors are discussed to further improve the infection control in long-term care facilities for the elderly, particularly from economic and social structural standpoints. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  4. Pollution prevention, preparedness, and response coordination efforts between the US Coast Guard and Coastal, Great Lakes, and Inland River states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donohoe, M.J.; Russell, B.A.; Clark, P.

    1993-01-01

    Following the passage of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90) and increased public demands for action in the wake of the Exxon Valdez oil spill, many states are now aggressively redefining and expanding their marine safety and marine environmental protection programs. The US Coast Guard is developing a program to coordinate these efforts with the aim toward minimizing duplicative requirements, leveraging resources, and eliminating barriers to marine transportation due to widely differing federal and state regulations

  5. Household ventilation may reduce effects of indoor air pollutants for prevention of lung cancer: a case-control study in a Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Yi Jin

    Full Text Available Although the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC has classified various indoor air pollutants as carcinogenic to humans, few studies evaluated the role of household ventilation in reducing the impact of indoor air pollutants on lung cancer risk.To explore the association between household ventilation and lung cancer.A population-based case-control study was conducted in a Chinese population from 2003 to 2010. Epidemiologic and household ventilation data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORadj and their 95% confidence intervals (CI.Among 1,424 lung cancer cases and 4,543 healthy controls, inverse associations were observed for good ventilation in the kitchen (ORadj = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.98, bedroom (ORadj = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79, 1.03, and both kitchen and bedroom (ORadj = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00. Stratified analyses showed lung cancer inversely associated with good ventilation among active smokers (ORadj = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.00, secondhand smokers at home (ORadj = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.94, and those exposed to high-temperature cooking oil fumes (ORadj = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99. Additive interactions were found between household ventilation and secondhand smoke at home as well as number of household pollutant sources.A protective association was observed between good ventilation of households and lung cancer, most likely through the reduction of exposure to indoor air pollutants, indicating ventilation may serve as one of the preventive measures for lung cancer, in addition to tobacco cessation.

  6. Household Ventilation May Reduce Effects of Indoor Air Pollutants for Prevention of Lung Cancer: A Case-Control Study in a Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ren-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Xu-Shan; Liu, Ai-Ming; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Lu, Qing-Yi; Kim, Claire H.; Mu, Lina; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zhao, Jin-Kou

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified various indoor air pollutants as carcinogenic to humans, few studies evaluated the role of household ventilation in reducing the impact of indoor air pollutants on lung cancer risk. Objectives To explore the association between household ventilation and lung cancer. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted in a Chinese population from 2003 to 2010. Epidemiologic and household ventilation data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORadj) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Among 1,424 lung cancer cases and 4,543 healthy controls, inverse associations were observed for good ventilation in the kitchen (ORadj = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.98), bedroom (ORadj = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79, 1.03), and both kitchen and bedroom (ORadj = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00). Stratified analyses showed lung cancer inversely associated with good ventilation among active smokers (ORadj = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.00), secondhand smokers at home (ORadj = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.94), and those exposed to high-temperature cooking oil fumes (ORadj = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99). Additive interactions were found between household ventilation and secondhand smoke at home as well as number of household pollutant sources. Conclusions A protective association was observed between good ventilation of households and lung cancer, most likely through the reduction of exposure to indoor air pollutants, indicating ventilation may serve as one of the preventive measures for lung cancer, in addition to tobacco cessation. PMID:25019554

  7. Household ventilation may reduce effects of indoor air pollutants for prevention of lung cancer: a case-control study in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zi-Yi; Wu, Ming; Han, Ren-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Xu-Shan; Liu, Ai-Ming; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Lu, Qing-Yi; Kim, Claire H; Mu, Lina; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zhao, Jin-Kou

    2014-01-01

    Although the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified various indoor air pollutants as carcinogenic to humans, few studies evaluated the role of household ventilation in reducing the impact of indoor air pollutants on lung cancer risk. To explore the association between household ventilation and lung cancer. A population-based case-control study was conducted in a Chinese population from 2003 to 2010. Epidemiologic and household ventilation data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORadj) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Among 1,424 lung cancer cases and 4,543 healthy controls, inverse associations were observed for good ventilation in the kitchen (ORadj = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.98), bedroom (ORadj = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79, 1.03), and both kitchen and bedroom (ORadj = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00). Stratified analyses showed lung cancer inversely associated with good ventilation among active smokers (ORadj = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.00), secondhand smokers at home (ORadj = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.94), and those exposed to high-temperature cooking oil fumes (ORadj = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99). Additive interactions were found between household ventilation and secondhand smoke at home as well as number of household pollutant sources. A protective association was observed between good ventilation of households and lung cancer, most likely through the reduction of exposure to indoor air pollutants, indicating ventilation may serve as one of the preventive measures for lung cancer, in addition to tobacco cessation.

  8. Implementation of the Clean Air Act, Title III, Section 112(r) Prevention of Accidental Release Rule requirements at U.S. DOE Oak Ridge Reservation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    Title III, Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to promulgate regulations to prevent accidental releases of regulated substances and to reduce the severity of those releases that do occur. The final EPA rule for Risk Management Programs under Section 112(r)(7) of the CAA, promulgated June 20, 1996, applies to all stationary sources with processes that contain more than a threshold quantity of any of 139 regulated substances listed under 40 CFR 68.130. All affected sources will be required to prepare a risk management plan which must be submitted to EPA and be made available to state and local governments and to the public. This paper will provide details of initiatives underway at US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Facilities for implementation of the Prevention of Accidental Release Rule. The ORR encompasses three DOE Facilities: the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the K-25 Site. The Y-12 Plant manufactures component parts for the national nuclear weapons program; the ORNL is responsible for research and development activities including nuclear engineering, engineering technologies, and the environmental sciences; and the K-25 Site conducts a variety of research and development activities and is the home of a mixed waste incinerator. ORR activities underway and soon to be undertaken toward implementation of the Prevention of Accidental Release Rule include: compilation of inventories of regulated substances at all processes at each of the three ORR Facilities for determination of affected processes and facilities; plans for inventory reduction to levels below threshold quantities, where necessary and feasible; determination of the overlap of processes subject to the OSHA PSM Standard and determination of parallel requirements; preparation of Risk Management Plans and Programs for affected processes and facilities including detailed requirements

  9. Utilization of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in health facilities of Cross River State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esu E

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ekpereonne Esu,1,2 Emmanuel Effa,1,2 Ekong Udoh,1,2 Olabisi Oduwole,1,2 Friday Odey,1,2 Moriam Chibuzor,1 Angela Oyo-Ita,1,2 Martin Meremikwu1,2 1Calabar Institute of Tropical Diseases Research and Prevention, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria; 2College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria Objective: This study assessed the utilization of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine for the prevention of malaria in pregnancy against the national treatment policy among women attending health care facilities in Cross River State, Nigeria. Methods: A clinical audit was carried out between January 2012 and March 2012 using case records of pregnant women who received antenatal care in health facilities in the state. Facilities were selected by simple random sampling. Information on the frequency of antenatal clinic (ANC visits by the women, as well as parity, age, and adherence to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp doses was obtained using an audit checklist. Results: A total of 322 pregnant women were assessed across 36 health care facilities. In addition, 246 (76% of them attended the ANC in public health facilities. Age, parity, and gestational age at booking were recorded in more than 95% of the cases evaluated. The audit showed that 13.7% of the women did not utilize IPTp, 53.1% had one dose of IPTp (IPTp1, 24.2% had two doses of IPTp (IPTp2, while 3.1% had three doses of IPTp (IPTp3. The overall utilization of two doses or more of IPTp (IPTp2+ was 30.7%. Conclusion: There was good documentation of the basic obstetric information of pregnant women in the health care facilities examined in this study, but the overall utilization of IPTp was very low. Efforts at ensuring early ANC booking and regular visits may be a potential means of increasing IPTp utilization in health care facilities in the state. Keywords: intermittent preventive treatment, malaria, pregnancy, clinical

  10. FY 2000 research cooperation project on the comprehensive research cooperation for environmental technology. Research cooperation for technology for prevention of the water pollution caused by plant waste water in Vietnam; 2000 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Kankyo gijutsu sogo kenkyu kyoryoku (Betonamu koku kojo haisui ni yoru suishitsu osen boshi taisaku gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu hokoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of increasing the research capability of the Center for Consultancy, Training and Technology Transfer in Vietnam, research cooperation for prevention of water pollution was given for plants of the local industry located in the suburbs of Hanoi city. In the survey of the actual state of the water pollution in the industrial area in the suburbs of Hanoi city, the following was found out: In the area, approximately 110 companies of the production industry such as livestock feed, papermaking, dyeing, brewing, construction materials, etc. are in operation and are discharging the untreated waste water into rivers and waterways because waste water treatment facilities are not prepared yet. In this research cooperation, the following were carried out: detailed survey of specified plants and proposal for improvement, training of Vietnamese researchers/engineers in charge of water pollution prevention technology, invitation to/training at Japan of Vietnamese managers/researchers, seminar to be held on the site, equipment to be given that is needed to measure water quality. The equipment to be given is a portable multi-item water quality meter and analytical equipment such as spectrometer, atomic absorption spectrophotometer and gas chromatograph. (NEDO)

  11. Governing change: land-use change and the prevention of nonpoint source pollution in the north coastal basin of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Anne G

    2013-01-01

    Many rural areas in the United States and throughout much of the postindustrial world are undergoing significant ecological, socioeconomic, and political transformations. The migration of urban and suburban dwellers into rural areas has led to the subdivision of large tracts of land into smaller parcels, which can complicate efforts to govern human-environmental problems. Non-point source (NPS) pollution from private rural lands is a particularly pressing human-environmental challenge that may be aggravated by changing land tenure. In this article, I report on a study of the governance and management of sediment (a common NPS pollutant) in the North Coastal basin of California, a region undergoing a transition from traditional extractive and agricultural land uses to rural residential and other alternative land uses. I focus on the differences in the governance and management across private timber, ranch, residential, vacation, and other lands in the region. I find that (1) the stringency and strength of sediment regulations differ by land use, (2) nonregulatory programs tend to target working landscapes, and (3) rural residential landowners have less knowledge of sediment control and report using fewer sediment-control techniques than landowners using their land for timber production or ranching. I conclude with an exploration of the consequences of these differences on an evolving rural landscape.

  12. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution — ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  13. Clean/alternative fueled fleet programs - 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act, the Colorado Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act, and Denver City and County regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, S.L.; Manderino, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite substantial regulations for nearly two decades, attainment of this ambient standards for ozone and carbon monoxide (CO) remain difficult goals to achieve, Even with of ozone precursors and CO. The 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA90) prescribe further reductions of mobile source emissions. One such reduction strategy is using clean fuels, such as methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols (in blends of 85 percent or more alcohol with gasoline or other fuel), reformulated gasoline or diesel, natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, hydrogen, or electricity. There are regulatory measures involving special fuels which will be required in areas heavily polluted with ozone and CO. The state of Colorado recently passed the 1992 Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act which included provisions for the use of alternative fuels which will be implemented in 1994. In addition to adhering to the Colorado state regulations, the city and county of Denver also have regulations pertaining to the use of alternative fuels in fleets of 10 or more vehicles. Denver's program began in 1992. This paper will address the issue of fleet conversion and its impact on industry in Colorado, and Denver in particular

  14. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan for the TA-60-01 Heavy Equipment Shop, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Revision 3, January 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgin, Jillian Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector P-Land Transportation and Warehousing as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA-60-01 Heavy Equipment Shop at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-60-01 Heavy Equipment Shop and associated areas. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  15. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan for the TA-03-38 Metals Fabrication Shop, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Revision 3, January 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgin, Jillian Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector AA-Fabricated Metal Products as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA-03-38 Metals Fabrication Shop at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-03-38 Metals Fabrication Shop and associated areas. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  16. Definition and recommendations for the convention on the prevention of marine pollution by dumping of wastes and other matter, 1972. 1986 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Under the terms of the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, the IAEA is the organization with the responsibility for defining high level radioactive wastes or other high level radioactive matter which is unsuitable for dumping at sea, and for making recommendations to Contracting Parties about the issue of permits for dumping radioactive waste or other radioactive matter. The IAEA established a provisional Definition and Recommendations in 1974 and a revised version in 1978. This Safety Series document contains the second revised Definition and Recommendations, which were established in 1985. The Annexes to the document contain a description of the calculations which form the basis of the quantitative Definition, a comparison between the new and the previous version and a list of all the meetings held during the process of establishing the new document

  17. Groundwater pollution: are we monitoring appropriate parameters?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tredoux, G

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater pollution is a worldwide phenomenon with potentially disastrous consequences. Prevention of pollution is the ideal approach. However, in practice groundwater quality monitoring is the main tool for timely detection of pollutants...

  18. Prevention of significant deterioration permit application for the Fueled Clad Fabrication System, the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility, and the Fuel Assembly Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    This New Source Review'' has been submitted by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (PO Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352), pursuant to WAC 173-403-050 and in compliance with the Department of Ecology Guide to Processing A Prevention Of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Permit'' for three new sources of radionuclide emissions at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The three new sources, the Fueled Clad Fabrication System (FCFS), the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF), and the Fuel Assembly Area (FAA), will be located in one facility, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) of the 400 Area. The FMEF was originally designed to provide for post-irradiation examination and fabrication of breeder reactor fuels. These FMEF missions were cancelled before the introduction of any fuel materials or any irradiated material. The current plans are to use the facility to fabricate power supplies for use in space applications and to produce Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will produce materials and assemblies for application in space. The FAA project will produce FFTF fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will share the same building, stack, and, in certain cases, the same floor space. Given this relationship, these systems will be dealt with separately to the extent possible. The FAA is a comparatively independent operation though it will share the FMEF complex.

  19. Implementation of co-trimoxazole preventive therapy policy for malaria in HIV-infected pregnant women in the public health facilities in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamuhabwa AAR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Appolinary AR Kamuhabwa, Richard Gordian, Ritah F Mutagonda Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Background: In 2011, Tanzania adopted a policy for provision of daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis to HIV-infected pregnant women for prevention of malaria and other opportunistic infections. As per the policy, HIV-infected pregnant women should not be given sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP for intermittent preventive therapy. The challenges associated with this policy change and the extent to which the new policy for prevention of malaria in pregnant women coinfected with HIV was implemented need to be assessed. Aim: To assess the implementation of malaria-preventive therapy policy among HIV-infected pregnant women in the public health facilities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methodology: The study was conducted in Kinondoni Municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, from January 2015 to July 2015. Three hundred and fifty-three HIV-infected pregnant women who were attending antenatal clinics (ANCs and using co-trimoxazole for prevention of malaria were interviewed. Twenty-six health care workers working at the ANCs were also interviewed regarding provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis to pregnant women. A knowledge scale was used to grade the level of knowledge of health care providers. Focus group discussions were also conducted with 18 health care workers to assess the level of implementation of the policy and the challenges encountered. Results: Twenty-three (6.5% pregnant women with known HIV serostatus were using co-trimoxazole for prevention of opportunistic infections even before they became pregnant. Out of the 353 HIV-infected pregnant women, eight (2.5% were coadministered with both SP and co-trimoxazole. Sixty (16.7% pregnant women had poor adherence to co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. Out of the 26 interviewed health care providers, 20 had high

  20. Implementation of co-trimoxazole preventive therapy policy for malaria in HIV-infected pregnant women in the public health facilities in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamuhabwa, Appolinary Ar; Gordian, Richard; Mutagonda, Ritah F

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, Tanzania adopted a policy for provision of daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis to HIV-infected pregnant women for prevention of malaria and other opportunistic infections. As per the policy, HIV-infected pregnant women should not be given sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for intermittent preventive therapy. The challenges associated with this policy change and the extent to which the new policy for prevention of malaria in pregnant women coinfected with HIV was implemented need to be assessed. To assess the implementation of malaria-preventive therapy policy among HIV-infected pregnant women in the public health facilities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The study was conducted in Kinondoni Municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, from January 2015 to July 2015. Three hundred and fifty-three HIV-infected pregnant women who were attending antenatal clinics (ANCs) and using co-trimoxazole for prevention of malaria were interviewed. Twenty-six health care workers working at the ANCs were also interviewed regarding provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis to pregnant women. A knowledge scale was used to grade the level of knowledge of health care providers. Focus group discussions were also conducted with 18 health care workers to assess the level of implementation of the policy and the challenges encountered. Twenty-three (6.5%) pregnant women with known HIV serostatus were using co-trimoxazole for prevention of opportunistic infections even before they became pregnant. Out of the 353 HIV-infected pregnant women, eight (2.5%) were coadministered with both SP and co-trimoxazole. Sixty (16.7%) pregnant women had poor adherence to co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. Out of the 26 interviewed health care providers, 20 had high level of knowledge regarding malaria-preventive therapy in HIV-infected pregnant women. Lack of adequate supply of co-trimoxazole in health facilities and inadequate training of health care providers were among the factors causing poor implementation of co