WorldWideScience

Sample records for facility end-to-end beamline

  1. SPOKES: an End-to-End Simulation Facility for Spectroscopic Cosmological Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Nord, B; Refregier, A; Gamper, La; Gamper, Lu; Hambrecht, B; Chang, C; Forero-Romero, J E; Serrano, S; Cunha, C; Coles, O; Nicola, A; Busha, M; Bauer, A; Saunders, W; Jouvel, S; Kirk, D; Wechsler, R

    2016-01-01

    The nature of dark matter, dark energy and large-scale gravity pose some of the most pressing questions in cosmology today. These fundamental questions require highly precise measurements, and a number of wide-field spectroscopic survey instruments are being designed to meet this requirement. A key component in these experiments is the development of a simulation tool to forecast science performance, define requirement flow-downs, optimize implementation, demonstrate feasibility, and prepare for exploitation. We present SPOKES (SPectrOscopic KEn Simulation), an end-to-end simulation facility for spectroscopic cosmological surveys designed to address this challenge. SPOKES is based on an integrated infrastructure, modular function organization, coherent data handling and fast data access. These key features allow reproducibility of pipeline runs, enable ease of use and provide flexibility to update functions within the pipeline. The cyclic nature of the pipeline offers the possibility to make the science outpu...

  2. End to End Travel

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — E2 Solutions is a web based end-to-end travel management tool that includes paperless travel authorization and voucher document submissions, document approval...

  3. Internet end-to-end delay dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Changhua; Pei Changxing; Li Jiandong; Chen Nan; Yi Yunhui

    2006-01-01

    End-to-end delay is one of the most important characteristics of Internet end-to-end packet dynamics, which can be applied to quality of services (QoS) management, service level agreement (SLA) management, congestion control algorithm development, etc. Nonstationarity and nonlinearity are found by the analysis of various delay series measured from different links. The fact that different types of links have different degree of Self-Similarity is also obtained. By constructing appropriate network architecture and neural functions, functional networks can be used to model the Internet end-to-end nonlinear delay time series. Furthermore, by using adaptive parameter studying algorithm, the nonstationarity can also be well modeled. The numerical results show that the provided functional network architecture and adaptive algorithm can precisely characterize the Internet end-to-end delay dynamics.

  4. Moly99 Production Facility: Report on Beamline Components, Requirements, Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishofberger, Kip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-23

    In FY14 we completed the design of the beam line for the linear accelerator production design concept. This design included a set of three bending magnets, quadrupole focusing magnets, and octopoles to flatten the beam on target. This design was generic and applicable to multiple different accelerators if necessary. In FY15 we built on that work to create specifications for the individual beam optic elements, including power supply requirements. This report captures the specification of beam line components with initial cost estimates for the NorthStar production facility.This report is organized as follows: The motivation of the beamline design is introduced briefly, along with renderings of the design. After that, a specific list is provided, which accounts for each beamline component, including part numbers and costs, to construct the beamline. After that, this report details the important sections of the beamline and individual components. A final summary and list of follow-on activities completes this report.

  5. CASTOR end-to-end monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Rekatsinas, T; Pokorski, W; Ponce, S; Rabaçal, B; Waldron, D; Wojcieszuk, J

    2010-01-01

    With the start of Large Hadron Collider approaching, storage and management of raw event data, as well as reconstruction and analysis data, is of crucial importance for the researchers. The CERN Advanced STORage system (CASTOR) is a hierarchical system developed at CERN, used to store physics production files and user files. CASTOR, as one of the essential software tools used by the LHC experiments, has to provide reliable services for storing and managing data. Monitoring of this complicated system is mandatory in order to assure its stable operation and improve its future performance. This paper presents the new monitoring system of CASTOR which provides operation and user request specific metrics. This system is build around a dedicated, optimized database schema. The schema is populated by PL/SQL procedures, which process a stream of incoming raw metadata from different CASTOR components, initially collected by the Distributed Logging Facility (DLF). A web interface has been developed for the visualizatio...

  6. Canadian macromolecular crystallography facility: a suite of fully automated beamlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochulski, Pawel; Fodje, Michel; Labiuk, Shaunivan; Gorin, James; Janzen, Kathryn; Berg, Russ

    2012-06-01

    The Canadian light source is a 2.9 GeV national synchrotron radiation facility located on the University of Saskatchewan campus in Saskatoon. The small-gap in-vacuum undulator illuminated beamline, 08ID-1, together with the bending magnet beamline, 08B1-1, constitute the Canadian Macromolecular Crystallography Facility (CMCF). The CMCF provides service to more than 50 Principal Investigators in Canada and the United States. Up to 25% of the beam time is devoted to commercial users and the general user program is guaranteed up to 55% of the useful beam time through a peer-review process. CMCF staff provides "Mail-In" crystallography service to users with the highest scored proposals. Both beamlines are equipped with very robust end-stations including on-axis visualization systems, Rayonix 300 CCD series detectors and Stanford-type robotic sample auto-mounters. MxDC, an in-house developed beamline control system, is integrated with a data processing module, AutoProcess, allowing full automation of data collection and data processing with minimal human intervention. Sample management and remote monitoring of experiments is enabled through interaction with a Laboratory Information Management System developed at the facility.

  7. Applying Trustworthy Computing to End-to-End Electronic Voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Russell A.

    2010-01-01

    "End-to-End (E2E)" voting systems provide cryptographic proof that the voter's intention is captured, cast, and tallied correctly. While E2E systems guarantee integrity independent of software, most E2E systems rely on software to provide confidentiality, availability, authentication, and access control; thus, end-to-end integrity is not…

  8. Research on End-to-End Encryption of TETRA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-hui; YANG Yi-xian

    2006-01-01

    The Terrestrial Trunked Radio(TETRA) system uses end-to-end encryption in addition to the air interface encryption to provide enhanced security. The TETRA system uses a synchronization technique known as frame stealing to provide synchronization of end-to-end encrypted data. However, the frame stealing process degrades the quality of video. This paper proposes an end-to-end encryption system with the frame stealing technique for voice and frame insertion for video.A block cipher in the output feedback mode is used to implement the end-to-end key stream generator. Moreover. In the Short Data Service (SDS) message encryption, a block cipher in the Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode is used to calculate the cryptographically secure checksum, which is sufficient to certify the integrity.

  9. Standardizing an End-to-end Accounting Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Edward; Kazz, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Currently there are no space system standards available for space agencies to accomplish end-to-end accounting. Such a standard does not exist for spacecraft operations nor for tracing the relationship between the mission planning activities, the command sequences designed to perform those activities, the commands formulated to initiate those activities and the mission data and specifically the mission data products created by those activities. In order for space agencies to cross-support one another for data accountability/data tracing and for inter agency spacecraft to interoperate with each other, an international CCSDS standard for end-to-end data accountability/tracing needs to be developed. We will first describe the end-to-end accounting service model and functionality that supports the service. This model will describe how science plans that are ultimately transformed into commands can be associated with the telemetry products generated as a result of their execution. Moreover, the interaction between end-to-end accounting and service management will be explored. Finally, we will show how the standard end-to-end accounting service can be applied to a real life flight project i.e., the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter project.

  10. End-to-end delay analysis for networked systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie SHEN; Wen-bo HE; Xue LIU; Zhi-bo WANG; Zhi WANG; Jian-guo YAO

    2015-01-01

    End-to-end delay measurement has been an essential element in the deployment of real-time services in networked systems. Traditional methods of delay measurement based on time domain analysis, however, are not efficient as the network scale and the complexity increase. We propose a novel theoretical framework to analyze the end-to-end delay distributions of networked systems from the frequency domain. We use a signal fl ow graph to model the delay distribution of a networked system and prove that the end-to-end delay distribution is indeed the inverse Laplace transform of the transfer function of the signal fl ow graph. Two efficient methods, Cramer’s rule-based method and the Mason gain rule-based method, are adopted to obtain the transfer function. By analyzing the time responses of the transfer function, we obtain the end-to-end delay distribution. Based on our framework, we propose an efficient method using the dominant poles of the transfer function to work out the bottleneck links of the network. Moreover, we use the framework to study the network protocol performance. Theoretical analysis and extensive evaluations show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  11. End-to-End Security for Personal Telehealth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, R.P.; Asim, M.; Petkovic, M.

    2011-01-01

    Personal telehealth is in rapid development with innovative emerging applications like disease management. With personal telehealth people participate in their own care supported by an open distributed system with health services. This poses new end-to-end security and privacy challenges. In this pa

  12. End-to-End Security for Personal Telehealth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, R.P.; Asim, M.; Petkovic, M.

    2011-01-01

    Personal telehealth is in rapid development with innovative emerging applications like disease management. With personal telehealth people participate in their own care supported by an open distributed system with health services. This poses new end-to-end security and privacy challenges. In this

  13. End-To-End Verifiability in Electronic Elections

    OpenAIRE

    Risvik, Chris Csomos

    2016-01-01

    Voting has traditionally been performed by casting paper ballots in public polling places. However, advancements in computer technology in the latest decades have enabled voters to cast their votes electronically. By 2016, eleven different countries have made various trials enabling voters to cast votes on the Internet using personal devices. End-to-end verifiability is regarded by election experts as an important property for retaining democratic principles in Internet elections. Nevertheles...

  14. Measurements and analysis of end-to-end Internet dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paxson, Vern [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Computer Science Division

    1997-04-01

    Accurately characterizing end-to-end Internet dynamics - the performance that a user actually obtains from the lengthy series of network links that comprise a path through the Internet - is exceptionally difficult, due to the network`s immense heterogeneity. At the heart of this work is a `measurement framework` in which a number of sites around the Internet host a specialized measurement service. By coordinating `probes` between pairs of these sites one can measure end-to-end behavior along O(N2) paths for a framework consisting of N sites. Consequently, one obtains a superlinear scaling that allows measuring a rich cross-section of Internet behavior without requiring huge numbers of observation points. 37 sites participated in this study, allowing the author to measure more than 1,000 distinct Internet paths. The first part of this work looks at the behavior of end-to-end routing: the series of routers over which a connection`s packets travel. Based on 40,000 measurements made using this framework, the author analyzes: routing `pathologies` such as loops, outages, and flutter; the stability of routes over time; and the symmetry of routing along the two directions of an end-to-end path. The author finds that pathologies increased significantly over the course of 1995 and that Internet paths are heavily dominated by a single route. The second part of this work studies end-to-end Internet packet dynamics. The author analyzes 20,000 TCP transfers of 100 Kbyte each to investigate the performance of both the TCP endpoints and the Internet paths. The measurements used for this part of the study are much richer than those for the first part, but require a great degree of attention to issues of calibration, which are addressed by applying self-consistency checks to the measurements whenever possible. The author finds that packet filters are capable of a wide range of measurement errors, some of which, if undetected, can significantly taint subsequent analysis.

  15. Measurements and analysis of end-to-end Internet dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paxson, V [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Computer Science Division

    1997-04-01

    Accurately characterizing end-to-end Internet dynamics - the performance that a user actually obtains from the lengthy series of network links that comprise a path through the Internet - is exceptionally difficult, due to the network`s immense heterogeneity. At the heart of this work is a `measurement framework` in which a number of sites around the Internet host a specialized measurement service. By coordinating `probes` between pairs of these sites one can measure end-to-end behavior along O(N{sup 2}) paths for a framework consisting of N sites. Consequently, one obtains a superlinear scaling that allows measuring a rich cross-section of Internet behavior without requiring huge numbers of observation points. 37 sites participated in this study, allowing the author to measure more than 1,000 distinct Internet paths. The first part of this work looks at the behavior of end-to-end routing: the series of routers over which a connection`s packets travel. Based on 40,000 measurements made using this framework, the author analyzes: routing `pathologies` such as loops, outages, and flutter; the stability of routes over time; and the symmetry of routing along the two directions of an end-to-end path. The author finds that pathologies increased significantly over the course of 1995 and that Internet paths are heavily dominated by a single route. The second part of this work studies end-to-end Internet packet dynamics. The author analyzes 20,000 TCP transfers of 100 Kbyte each to investigate the performance of both the TCP endpoints and the Internet paths. The measurements used for this part of the study are much richer than those for the first part, but require a great degree of attention to issues of calibration, which are addressed by applying self-consistency checks to the measurements whenever possible. The author finds that packet filters are capable of a wide range of measurement errors, some of which, if undetected, can significantly taint subsequent analysis.

  16. End-to-end network/application performance troubleshooting methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wenji; Bobyshev, Andrey; Bowden, Mark; Crawford, Matt; Demar, Phil; Grigaliunas, Vyto; Grigoriev, Maxim; Petravick, Don; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    The computing models for HEP experiments are globally distributed and grid-based. Obstacles to good network performance arise from many causes and can be a major impediment to the success of the computing models for HEP experiments. Factors that affect overall network/application performance exist on the hosts themselves (application software, operating system, hardware), in the local area networks that support the end systems, and within the wide area networks. Since the computer and network systems are globally distributed, it can be very difficult to locate and identify the factors that are hurting application performance. In this paper, we present an end-to-end network/application performance troubleshooting methodology developed and in use at Fermilab. The core of our approach is to narrow down the problem scope with a divide and conquer strategy. The overall complex problem is split into two distinct sub-problems: host diagnosis and tuning, and network path analysis. After satisfactorily evaluating, and if necessary resolving, each sub-problem, we conduct end-to-end performance analysis and diagnosis. The paper will discuss tools we use as part of the methodology. The long term objective of the effort is to enable site administrators and end users to conduct much of the troubleshooting themselves, before (or instead of) calling upon network and operating system 'wizards,' who are always in short supply.

  17. The CarbonSat End-to-End Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramstedt, Klaus; Noel, Stefan; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Reuter, Max; Burrows, John P.; Jurado Lozano, Pedro Jose; Meijer, Yasjka; Loescher, Armin; Acarreta, Juan R.; Sturm, Philipp; Tesmer, Volker; Sanchez Monero, Ana Maria; Atapuerca Rodreiguez de Dios, Francisco Javier; Toledano Sanchez, Daniel; Boesch, Hartmut

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the CarbonSat mission is to improve our knowledge on natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks of CO2 and CH4. CarbonSat was one of the two candidate missions selected for definition studies for becoming Earth Explorer 8 (EE8).The CarbonSat End-to-End Simulator (CSE2ES) simulates the full data flow of the mission with a set of modules embedded in ESA's generic simulation framework OpenSF. A Geometry Module (GM) defines the orbital geometry and related parameters. A Scene Generation Module (SGM) provides simulated radiances and irradiances for the selected scenes. The Level 1 Module (L1M) compromises the instrument simulator and the Level 1b processor, and provide as main output calibrated spectra. The L1M is implemented in two versions, reflecting the instrument concepts from the two competing industrial system studies. The Level 2 Retrieval Module (L2M) performs the retrieval from the input level 1b spectra to the atmospheric parameters (CO2 and CH4).In this paper, we show sensitivity studies with respect to atmospheric parameters, simulations along the orbit and a case study for the detection of a point source emitting carbon dioxide. In summary, the end-to-end simulation with CSE2ES proves the capability of the CarbonSat concept to reach its requirements.

  18. Toward End-to-End Face Recognition Through Alignment Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yuanyi; Chen, Jiansheng; Huang, Bo

    2017-08-01

    Plenty of effective methods have been proposed for face recognition during the past decade. Although these methods differ essentially in many aspects, a common practice of them is to specifically align the facial area based on the prior knowledge of human face structure before feature extraction. In most systems, the face alignment module is implemented independently. This has actually caused difficulties in the designing and training of end-to-end face recognition models. In this paper we study the possibility of alignment learning in end-to-end face recognition, in which neither prior knowledge on facial landmarks nor artificially defined geometric transformations are required. Specifically, spatial transformer layers are inserted in front of the feature extraction layers in a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for face recognition. Only human identity clues are used for driving the neural network to automatically learn the most suitable geometric transformation and the most appropriate facial area for the recognition task. To ensure reproducibility, our model is trained purely on the publicly available CASIA-WebFace dataset, and is tested on the Labeled Face in the Wild (LFW) dataset. We have achieved a verification accuracy of 99.08\\% which is comparable to state-of-the-art single model based methods.

  19. Safety Analysis Report: X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gmuer, N.F.; Thomlinson, W.

    1990-02-01

    This report contains a safety analysis for the X17B2 beamline synchrotron medical research facility. Health hazards, risk assessment and building systems are discussed. Reference is made to transvenous coronary angiography. (LSP)

  20. Context Aware End-to-End Connectivity Management

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Jaydip; Chandra, M Girish; G., Harihara S; Reddy, Harish

    2010-01-01

    In a dynamic heterogeneous environment, such as pervasive and ubiquitous computing, context-aware adaptation is a key concept to meet the varying requirements of different users. Connectivity is an important context source that can be utilized for optimal management of diverse networking resources. Application QoS (Quality of service) is another important issue that should be taken into consideration for design of a context-aware system. This paper presents connectivity from the view point of context awareness, identifies various relevant raw connectivity contexts, and discusses how high-level context information can be abstracted from the raw context information. Further, rich context information is utilized in various policy representation with respect to user profile and preference, application characteristics, device capability, and network QoS conditions. Finally, a context-aware end-to-end evaluation algorithm is presented for adaptive connectivity management in a multi-access wireless network. Unlike t...

  1. Euclid end-to-end straylight performance assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar Venancio, Luis M.; Pachot, Charlotte; Carminati, Lionel; Lorenzo Alvarez, Jose; Amiaux, Jérôme; Prieto, Eric; Bonino, Luciana; Salvignol, Jean-Christophe; Short, Alex; Boenke, Tobias; Strada, Paulo; Laureijs, Rene

    2016-07-01

    In the Euclid mission the straylight has been identified at an early stage as the main driver for the final imaging quality of the telescope. The assessment by simulation of the final straylight in the focal plane of both instruments in Euclid's payload have required a complex workflow involving all stakeholders in the mission, from industry to the scientific community. The straylight is defined as a Normalized Detector Irradiance (NDI) which is a convenient definition tool to separate the contributions of the telescope and of the instruments. The end-to-end straylight of the payload is then simply the sum of the NDIs of the telescope and of each instrument. The NDIs for both instruments are presented in this paper for photometry and spectrometry.

  2. END-TO-END INDIA-UK TRANSNATIONAL WIRELESS TESTBED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Budhiraja

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Communication is a fast growing technology area where tremendous amount of research is ongoing. It is also an area where the use of technology in the market has seen wide and far-reaching impact. The India-UK Advanced Technology Centre initiative is a collaborative research project between various institutes and companies across UK and India, which envisages, apart from several research outcomes, putting in place of a support infrastructure for facilitating R&D of Next Generation networks, Systems and Services. As part of this project, an end-to-end trans-national advanced wireless testbed is being developed which will facilitate and support research and implementation of new ideas, concepts and technologies. The testbed will provide a framework which can be used to rapidly prototype and evaluate emerging concepts and technologies, and enables researchers to investigate/demonstrate the feasibility of new ideas in a realistic test environment. The testbed complements analytical and simulation based studies undertaken as part of the initial study when new ideas are proposed. This paper gives the details of the testbed and shows how a 4G technology like LTE has been implemented as one of the realisations of the test bed.

  3. Dedicated Beamline Facilities for Catalytic Research. Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium (SCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jingguang [Columbia Univ., New York, NY; Frenkel, Anatoly [Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY (United States); Rodriguez, Jose [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Adzic, Radoslav [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bare, Simon R. [UOP LLC, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Hulbert, Steve L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Karim, Ayman [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mullins, David R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Overbury, Steve [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-04

    Synchrotron spectroscopies offer unique advantages over conventional techniques, including higher detection sensitivity and molecular specificity, faster detection rate, and more in-depth information regarding the structural, electronic and catalytic properties under in-situ reaction conditions. Despite these advantages, synchrotron techniques are often underutilized or unexplored by the catalysis community due to various perceived and real barriers, which will be addressed in the current proposal. Since its establishment in 2005, the Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium (SCC) has coordinated significant efforts to promote the utilization of cutting-edge catalytic research under in-situ conditions. The purpose of the current renewal proposal is aimed to provide assistance, and to develop new sciences/techniques, for the catalysis community through the following concerted efforts: Coordinating the implementation of a suite of beamlines for catalysis studies at the new NSLS-II synchrotron source; Providing assistance and coordination for catalysis users at an SSRL catalysis beamline during the initial period of NSLS to NSLS II transition; Designing in-situ reactors for a variety of catalytic and electrocatalytic studies; Assisting experimental set-up and data analysis by a dedicated research scientist; Offering training courses and help sessions by the PIs and co-PIs.

  4. Status of the ELIMED Beamline at the ELIMAIA facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, F.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.; Allegra, L.; Amato, A.; Andó, L.; Costa, M.; Gallo, G.; Leanza, R.; Maggiore, M.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.; Pipek, J.; Russo, A. D.; Korn, G.; Margarone, D.; Leray, M. J.; Tasset-Maye, O.; Antoine, S.; Jehanno, P.

    2016-12-01

    Laser-target acceleration represents a very promising alternative to conventional accelerators for several potential applications, from the nuclear physics to the medical ones. However, some extreme features, not suitable for multidisciplinary applications, as the wide energy and angular spreads, characterize optically accelerated ion beams. Therefore, beyond the improvements at the laser-target interaction level, a lot of efforts have been recently devoted to the development of specific beam-transport devices in order to obtain controlled and reproducible output beams. In this framework, a three years contract has been signed between the INFN-LNS (IT) and Eli-Beamlines-IoP (CZ) to provide the design and the realization of a complete transport beam-line, named ELIMED, dedicated to the transport, diagnostics and dosimetry of laser-driven ion beams. The transport devices will be composed by a set of super-strong permanent magnet quadrupoles able to collect and focus laser driven ions up to 70 MeV/u, and a magnetic chicane made of conventional electromagnetic dipoles to select particles within a narrow energy range. Here, the actual status of the design and development of these magnetic systems is described.

  5. The Consolidation of the End-to-End Avionics Systems Testbench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnands, Quirien; Torelli, Felice; Blommestijn, Robert; Kranz, Stephan; Koster, Jean-Paul

    2014-08-01

    Over the past years, the Avionics System Test Bench (ATB) has been used to support the demonstration and validation of upcoming space avionics related standards and technologies in a representative environment. Next to this another main use-case of the facility has been to support projects in their needs of assessing particular technology related issues. In doing so, it was necessary to add activity- and project specifics to different configurations of the ATB, leading to a proliferation of facilities and technologies. In some cases however the results and lessons-learned from these efforts and activities were considered valuable to the ATB-concept in general and therefore needed preservation in the ATB mainstream for future reuse. Currently activities are ongoing to consolidate the End-To-End Avionics Systems TestBench (E2E-ATB). In this paper the resulting details of these activities are described as enhancements and improvements per ATB configuration.

  6. End-to-End Beam Dynamics Simulations for the ANL-RIA Driver Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Ostroumov, P N

    2004-01-01

    The proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) Facility consists of a superconducting (SC) 1.4 GV driver linac capable of producing 400 kW beams of any ion from hydrogen to uranium. The driver is configured as an array of ~350 SC cavities, each with independently controllable rf phase. For the end-to-end beam dynamics design and simulation we use a dedicated code, TRACK. The code integrates ion motion through the three-dimensional fields of all elements of the driver linac beginning from the exit of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to the production targets. TRACK has been parallelized and is able to track large number of particles in randomly seeded accelerators with misalignments and a comprehensive set of errors. The simulation starts with multi-component dc ion beams extracted from the ECR. Beam losses are obtained by tracking up to million particles in hundreds of randomly seeded accelerators. To control beam losses a set of collimators is applied in designated areas. The end-to-end simulat...

  7. Undulator beamline optimization with integrated chicanes for X-ray free-electron-laser facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Eduard; Calvi, Marco; Ganter, Romain; Reiche, Sven; Schietinger, Thomas; Schmidt, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    An optimization of the undulator layout of X-ray free-electron-laser (FEL) facilities based on placing small chicanes between the undulator modules is presented. The installation of magnetic chicanes offers the following benefits with respect to state-of-the-art FEL facilities: reduction of the required undulator length to achieve FEL saturation, improvement of the longitudinal coherence of the FEL pulses, and the ability to produce shorter FEL pulses with higher power levels. Numerical simulations performed for the soft X-ray beamline of the SwissFEL facility show that optimizing the advantages of the layout requires shorter undulator modules than the standard ones. This proposal allows a very compact undulator beamline that produces fully coherent FEL pulses and it makes possible new kinds of experiments that require very short and high-power FEL pulses.

  8. Highlights from e-EPS: New milestone for ELI Beamlines facility

    CERN Multimedia

    Jorge Rivero González, e-EPS News

    2013-01-01

    e-EPS News is a monthly addition to the CERN Bulletin line-up, showcasing articles from e-EPS – the European Physical Society newsletter – as part of a collaboration between the two publications.   On 16 September 2013, the Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) Beamlines facility awarded a contract worth approximately €34.5m to Lawrence Livermore National Security LLC (LLNS, California, USA) to develop and deliver a state-of-the-art laser system that will be at the heart of the ELI Beamlines user facility. Located in the village of Dolní Břežany, Czech Republic, the ELI Beamlines facility aims to pioneer work in a number of research fields using ultra-high intensity lasers. The facility will host a cutting-edge research laser, around 100 times more powerful than any other laser in operation today. In particular, it will focus on providing users with ultra-short energetic particle beams (10 GeV) and radiation beams (up to a few MeV), produced by...

  9. Pulse generation and preamplification for long pulse beamlines of Orion laser facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, David I; Winter, David N; Hopps, Nicholas W

    2010-06-01

    We describe the pulse generation, shaping, and preamplification system for the nanosecond beamlines of the Orion laser facility. The system generates shaped laser pulses of up to approximately 1 J of 100 ps-5 ns duration with a programmable temporal profile. The laser has a 30th-power supergaussian spatial profile and is diffraction limited. The system is capable of imposing 2D smoothing by spectral dispersion upon the beam, which will produce a nonuniformity of 10% rms at the target.

  10. A Bayes Theory-Based Modeling Algorithm to End-to-end Network Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Hong-hao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, network traffic has exponentially increasing due to all kind of applications, such as mobile Internet, smart cities, smart transportations, Internet of things, and so on. the end-to-end network traffic becomes more important for traffic engineering. Usually end-to-end traffic estimation is highly difficult. This paper proposes a Bayes theory-based method to model the end-to-end network traffic. Firstly, the end-to-end network traffic is described as a independent identically distributed normal process. Then the Bases theory is used to characterize the end-to-end network traffic. By calculating the parameters, the model is determined correctly. Simulation results show that our approach is feasible and effective.

  11. The status of the macromolecular crystallography beamlines at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Dieckmann, Christoph; Bowler, Matthew W.; Carpentier, Philippe; Flot, David; McCarthy, Andrew A.; Nanao, Max H.; Nurizzo, Didier; Pernot, Petra; Popov, Alexander; Round, Adam; Royant, Antoine; de Sanctis, Daniele; von Stetten, David; Leonard, Gordon A.

    2015-04-01

    The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) is the oldest and most powerful 3rd generation synchrotron in Europe, providing X-rays to more than 40 experimental stations welcoming several thousand researchers per year. A major success story has been the ESRF's facilities for macromolecular crystallography (MX). These are grouped around 3 straight sections: On ID23 canted undulators accommodate ID23-1, a mini-focus tuneable energy end station and ID23-2, the world's first micro-focus beamline dedicated to MX; ID29 houses a single, mini-focus, tuneable energy end station; ID30 will provide three end stations for MX due in operation from mid-2014 to early 2015. Here, one branch of a canted X-ray source feeds two fixed-energy end stations (MASSIF-1, MASSIF-3). The second feeds ID30B, a variable focus, tuneable energy beamline. MASSIF-1 is optimised for automatic high-throughput experiments requiring a relatively large beam size at the sample position, MASSIF-3 is a high-intensity, micro-focus facility designed to complement ID23-2. All end stations are highly automated, equipped with sample mounting robots and large area, fast-readout photon-counting detectors. Experiment control and tracking is achieved via a combination of the MXCuBE2 graphical user interface and the ISPyB database, the former allowing user-friendly control of all beamline components, the latter providing data tracking before, after and during experiments.

  12. VisualCommander for Rapid End-to-End Mission Design and Simulation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of a highly extensible and user-configurable software application for end-to-end mission simulation and design. We will leverage...

  13. Model outputs - Developing end-to-end models of the Gulf of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the northern Gulf of California, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  14. Simulation study on delay of end-to-end data communication for protective relaying in substations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The end-to-end delay of protective relaying data flow in a substation was studied by dynamic simulation modeling technology.The distribution characteristics of protective relaying data flow and the constitution of the end-to-end delay of messages were analyzed.The simulation model for digital communication between protective relaying equipment and monitoring equipment of interval layer was suggested.The end-to-end delay of protective relaying data flow in different network configurations was analyzed.It is found that the size and interval of the data frame,utilization of the link background and protocols of higher layer are key factors of real-time performance,Detailed analysis results are presented.A proposal for network configuration is suggested to reduce end-to-end delay of protective relaying data flow.

  15. Physical oceanography - Developing end-to-end models of the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the California Current LME, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  16. Atlantis model outputs - Developing end-to-end models of the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the California Current LME, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  17. Telemetry Ranging: Laboratory Validation Tests and End-to-End Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.; Adams, N.; Sanchez, E.; Millard, W.

    2016-08-01

    This article reports on a set of laboratory tests of telemetry ranging conducted at Development Test Facility 21 (DTF-21) in Monrovia, California. An uplink pseudorandom noise (PN) ranging signal was generated by DTF-21, acquired by the Frontier Radio designed and built at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, and downlink telemetry frames from the radio were recorded by an open-loop receiver. In four of the tests, the data indicate that telemetry ranging can resolve the two-way time delay to a standard deviation of 2.1-3.4 ns, corresponding to about 30 to 51 cm in (one-way) range accuracy, when 30 s averaging of timing estimates is used. Other tests performed worse because of unsatisfactory receiver sampling rate, quantizer resolution, dc bias, improper configuration, or other reasons. The article also presents an analysis of the expected end-to-end performance of the telemetry ranging system. In one case considered, the theoretically-predicted performance matches the test results, within 10 percent, which provides a reasonable validation that the expected performance was achieved by the test. The analysis also shows that in one typical ranging scenario, one-way range accuracy of 1 m can be achieved with telemetry ranging when the data rate is above 2 kbps.

  18. Effect of end-to-end invagination pancreaticojejunostomy with circle discontinuous U suture in pancreatic surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xuewen; XUAN Wei; JIANG Tao; JI Degang; YANG Yongsheng; ZHANG Dan; XIE Yingjun; MENG Zihui; ZHAO Jisheng

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarize the methods of pancreaficojejunostomy in the pancreatic operation and to study the safety and feasibility of a new operative method called end-to-end invagination pancreaticojejunostomy with circle discontinuous U suture to prevent fistula of pancreaticojejunostomy.Eight-three patients with pancreaticoduodenectomy in the 3rd Hospital,Jilin University from 2001 January to 2006 April were reviewed.The incidences of pancreatic fistula with different types of pancreaticojejunostomy were compared.The overall incidence rate of pancreatic fistula was 26.5% (22/83).No pancreatic fistula occurred in end-to-end invagination pancreaticojejunostomy with circle discontinuous U suture.The incidence rate of the fistula following end-to-end invagination pancreaticojejunostomy with circle discontinuous U suture was significantly lower than that of traditional end-to-end pancreaticojejunostomy [40%,(10/25),P<0.01] and end-to-side pancreaticojejunostomy [27.3%,(12/44),P < 0.05],but no significant difference (P>0.05) between traditional end-to-end pancreaticojejunostomy and end-to-side pancreaticojejunostomywas discovered.End-to-end invagination pancreaticojejunostomy with circle discontinuous U suture has a definite effect on avoiding pancreatic fistula following pancreaticojejunostomy and is worth being recommended.But the cases were limited,so this method would still need to be observed and confirmed further in the future.

  19. Radiation field characterization and shielding studies for the ELI Beamlines facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, A.; Amato, E.; Margarone, D.; Cowan, T.; Korn, G.

    2013-05-01

    The ELI (Extreme Light Infrastructure) Beamlines facility in the Czech Republic, which is planned to complete the installation in 2015, is one of the four pillars of the ELI European project. Several laser beamlines with ultrahigh intensities and ultrashort pulses are foreseen, offering versatile radiation sources in an unprecedented energy range: laser-driven particle beams are expected to range between 1 and 50 GeV for electrons and from 100 MeV up to 3 GeV for protons. The number of particles delivered per laser shot is estimated to be 109-1010 for the electron beams and 1010-1012 for the proton beams. The high energy and current values of the produced particles, together with the potentiality to operate at 10 Hz laser repetition rate, require an accurate study of the primary and secondary radiation fields to optimize appropriate shielding solutions: this is a key issue to minimize prompt and residual doses in order to protect the personnel, reduce the radiation damage of electronic devices and avoid strong limitations in the operational time. A general shielding study for the 10 PW (0.016 Hz) and 2 PW (10 Hz) laser beamlines is presented here. Starting from analytical calculations, as well as from dedicated simulations, the main electron and proton fields produced in the laser-matter interaction have been described and used to characterize the "source terms" in full simulations with the Monte Carlo code FLUKA. The secondary radiation fields have been then analyzed to assess a proper shielding. The results of this study and the proposed solutions for the beam dumps of the high energy beamlines, together with a cross-check analysis performed with the Monte Carlo code GEANT4, are presented.

  20. SUNY beamline facilities at the National Synchrotron Light Source (Final Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppens, Philip

    2003-06-22

    The DOE sponsored SUNY synchrotron project has involved close cooperation among faculty at several SUNY campuses. A large number of students and postdoctoral associates have participated in its operation which was centered at the X3 beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Four stations with capabilities for Small Angle Scattering, Single Crystal and Powder and Surface diffraction and EXAFS were designed and operated with capability to perform experiments at very low as well as elevated temperatures and under high vacuum. A large amount of cutting-edge science was performed at the facility, which in addition provided excellent training for students and postdoctoral scientists in the field.

  1. Status report of the end-to-end ASKAP software system: towards early science operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Juan Carlos; Chapman, Jessica; Marquarding, Malte; Whiting, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    300 MHz bandwidth for Array Release 1; followed by the deployment of the real-time data processing components. In addition to the Central Processor, the first production release of the CSIRO ASKAP Science Data Archive (CASDA) has also been deployed in one of the Pawsey Supercomputing Centre facilities and it is integrated to the end-to-end ASKAP data flow system. This paper describes the current status of the "end-to-end" data flow software system from preparing observations to data acquisition, processing and archiving; and the challenges of integrating an HPC facility as a key part of the instrument. It also shares some lessons learned since the start of integration activities and the challenges ahead in preparation for the start of the Early Science program.

  2. Characterizing End-to-End Delay Performance of Randomized TCP Using an Analytical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shorfuzzaman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available TCP (Transmission Control Protocol is the main transport protocol used in high speed network. In the OSI Model, TCP exists in the Transport Layer and it serves as a connection-oriented protocol which performs handshaking to create a connection. In addition, TCP provides end-to-end reliability. There are different standard variants of TCP (e.g. TCP Reno, TCP NewReno etc.which implement mechanisms to dynamically control the size of congestion window but they do not have any control on the sending time of successive packets. TCP pacing introduces the concept of controlling the packet sending time at TCP sources to reduce packet loss in a bursty traffic network. Randomized TCP is a new TCP pacing scheme which has shown better performance (considering throughput, fairness over other TCP variants in bursty networks. The end-to-end delay of Randomized TCP is a very important performance measure which has not yet been addressed. In the current high speed networks, it is increasingly important to have mechanisms that keep end-to-end to delay within an acceptable range. In this paper, we present the performance evaluation of end-to-end delay of Randomized TCP. To this end, we have used an analytical and a simulation model to characterize the end-to-end delay performance of Randomized TCP.

  3. Automatic provisioning of end-to-end QoS into the home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewka, Lukasz Jerzy; Skoldström, Pontus; Nelis, Jelle;

    2011-01-01

    Due to a growing number of high bandwidth applications today (such as HDTV), and an increasing amount of network and cloud based applications, service providers need to pay attention to QoS in their networks. We believe there is a need for an end-to-end approach reaching into the home as well....... The Home Gateway (HG) as a key component of the home network is crucial for enabling the end-to-end solutions. UPnP-QoS has been proposed as an inhome solution for resource reservations. In this paper we assess a solution for automatic QoS reservations, on behalf of non-UPnP-QoS aware applications....... Additionally we focus on an integrated end-to-end solution, combining GMPLS-based reservations in e.g., access/metro and UPnP-QoS based reservation in the home network....

  4. End-to-End Information System design at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    Recognizing a pressing need of the 1980s to optimize the two-way flow of information between a ground-based user and a remote space-based sensor, an end-to-end approach to the design of information systems has been adopted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The objectives of this effort are to ensure that all flight projects adequately cope with information flow problems at an early stage of system design, and that cost-effective, multi-mission capabilities are developed when capital investments are made in supporting elements. The paper reviews the End-to-End Information System (EEIS) activity at the Laboratory, and notes the ties to the NASA End-to-End Data System program.

  5. Measuring End-To-End Bandwidth with Iperf Using Web100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, Les

    2003-04-30

    End-to-end bandwidth estimation tools like Iperf though fairly accurate are intrusive. In this paper, we describe how with an instrumented TCP stack (Web100), we can estimate the end-to-end bandwidth accurately, while consuming significantly less network bandwidth and time. We modified Iperf to use Web100 to detect the end of slow-start and estimate the end-to-end bandwidth by measuring the amount of data sent for a short period (1 second) after the slow-start, when the TCP throughput is relatively stable. We obtained bandwidth estimates differing by less than 10% when compared to running Iperf for 20 seconds, and savings in bandwidth estimation time of up to 94% and savings in network traffic of up to 92%.

  6. An end-to-end communications architecture for condition-based maintenance applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroculick, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores challenges in implementing an end-to-end communications architecture for Condition-Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) data transmission which aligns with the Army's Network Modernization Strategy. The Army's Network Modernization strategy is based on rolling out network capabilities which connect the smallest unit and Soldier level to enterprise systems. CBM+ is a continuous improvement initiative over the life cycle of a weapon system or equipment to improve the reliability and maintenance effectiveness of Department of Defense (DoD) systems. CBM+ depends on the collection, processing and transport of large volumes of data. An important capability that enables CBM+ is an end-to-end network architecture that enables data to be uploaded from the platform at the tactical level to enterprise data analysis tools. To connect end-to-end maintenance processes in the Army's supply chain, a CBM+ network capability can be developed from available network capabilities.

  7. IPTV Resource and Performance Management using End-to-End Available Bandwidth Estimation Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Over-The-Top IPTV services have seen a huge increase in popularity in recent years. This fact coupled with the ever increasing resource requirements of IPTV services has created a necessity for e�cient and e�ective management of these IPTV services. This thesis presents contributions and �ndings into the use of end-to-end Available Bandwidth estimation to help govern Over-The-Top IPTV service delivery. An ex- amination is presented of the conditions under which end-to-end Avail...

  8. Coupling of a single quantum emitter to end-to-end aligned silver nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Shailesh; Huck, Alexander; Chen, Yuntian;

    2013-01-01

    observe an enhancement of the NV-centers' decay rate in both cases as a result of the coupling to the plasmons. The devices are nano-assembled with a scanning probe technique. Through simulations, we show that end-to-end aligned silver nanowires can be used as a controllable splitter for emission from...

  9. A Robust Method to Integrate End-to-End Mission Architecture Optimization Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Rafael; Litton, Daniel; Qu, Min; Shidner, Jeremy; Powell, Richard

    2016-01-01

    End-to-end mission simulations include multiple phases of flight. For example, an end-to-end Mars mission simulation may include launch from Earth, interplanetary transit to Mars and entry, descent and landing. Each phase of flight is optimized to meet specified constraints and often depend on and impact subsequent phases. The design and optimization tools and methodologies used to combine different aspects of end-to-end framework and their impact on mission planning are presented. This work focuses on a robust implementation of a Multidisciplinary Design Analysis and Optimization (MDAO) method that offers the flexibility to quickly adapt to changing mission design requirements. Different simulations tailored to the liftoff, ascent, and atmospheric entry phases of a trajectory are integrated and optimized in the MDAO program Isight, which provides the user a graphical interface to link simulation inputs and outputs. This approach provides many advantages to mission planners, as it is easily adapted to different mission scenarios and can improve the understanding of the integrated system performance within a particular mission configuration. A Mars direct entry mission using the Space Launch System (SLS) is presented as a generic end-to-end case study. For the given launch period, the SLS launch performance is traded for improved orbit geometry alignment, resulting in an optimized a net payload that is comparable to that in the SLS Mission Planner's Guide.

  10. End-To-End Esophagojejunostomy Versus Standard End-To-Side Esophagojejunostomy: Which One Is Preferable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kavyani

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:End-to-side esophagojejunostomy has almost always been associated with some degree of dysphagia. To overcome this complication we decided to perform an end-to-end anastomosis and compare it with end-to-side Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy. Methods: In this prospective study, between 1998 and 2005,71 patients with a diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma underwent total gastrectomy. Standard esophagojejunostomy with an end-to-side fashion was performed in 41 patients and compared with our recommended technique of end-to-end esophagojejunostomy in 30 patients. Results: This study showed that esophagojejunostomy with an end-to-end fashion has a low incidence of postoperative dysphagia (33.3%,whereas in those with an endto- side anastomosis the rate of ysphagia is very high (83%.Conclusion:A Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy with an end-to-end anastomosis has a low incidence of postoperative dysphagia and we strongly recommend using this technique.

  11. End-to-End Availability Analysis of IMS-Based Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamyod, Chayapol; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2013-01-01

    Generation Networks (NGNs). In this paper, an end-to-end availability model is proposed and evaluated using a combination of Reliability Block Diagrams (RBD) and a proposed five-state Markov model. The overall availability for intra- and inter domain communication in IMS is analyzed, and the state...

  12. Location Assisted Vertical Handover Algorithm for QoS Optimization in End-to-End Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Martin S.; Christensen, Steffen R.; Mikkelsen, Lars M.

    2012-01-01

    implementation on Android based tablets. The simulations cover a wide range of scenarios for two mobile users in an urban area with ubiquitous cellular coverage, and shows our algorithm leads to increased throughput, with fewer handovers, when considering the end-to-end connection than to other handover schemes...

  13. Security Considerations around End-to-End Security in the IP-based Internet of Things

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brachmann, M.; Garcia-Mochon, O.; Keoh, S.L.; Kumar, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    The IP-based Internet of Things refers to the interconnection of smart objects in a Low-power and Lossy Network (LLN) with the Internetby means of protocols such as 6LoWPAN or CoAP. The provisioning of an end-to-end security connection is the key to ensure basic functionalities such as software upda

  14. End-to-end Configuration of Wireless Realtime Communication over Heterogeneous Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinowsky, B.; Grønbæk, Jesper; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a wireless real-time communication system design using two Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) protocols. Messages are subject to prioritization and queuing. For this interoperation scenario, we show a method for end-to-end configuration of protocols and queue sizes. Such co...

  15. A new experiment station on beamline 4B7A at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, L., E-mail: zhenglei@ihep.ac.cn; Zhao, Y.D.; Tang, K.; Ma, C.Y.; Hong, C.H.; Han, Y.; Cui, M.Q.; Guo, Z.Y.

    2014-11-01

    A new experiment station was installed on beamline 4B7A at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF), making it possible to record X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectrum in three modes over an energy range from 1750 eV to 6000 eV. A 13-element Si(Li) array detector and a single-element SDD detector were used to acquire data in partial fluorescence yield (PFY) mode. Two low-pressure noble gas ion chambers were adopted for measuring XAFS in transmission mode. In total electron yield (TEY) mode the current of sample is recorded. Solid, wet and liquid samples were suitable for this experimental station. Some representative results obtained from this station were shown and discussed. - Highlights: • A new experiment station was installed on beamline 4B7A at BSRF. • This experiment station has three modes for recording X-ray XAFS spectrum. • The energy region covers the K-edge of elements Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca and Ti. • Solid, wet and liquid samples can be measured in this experiment station.

  16. A new experiment station on beamline 4B7A at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, L.; Zhao, Y. D.; Tang, K.; Ma, C. Y.; Hong, C. H.; Han, Y.; Cui, M. Q.; Guo, Z. Y.

    2014-11-01

    A new experiment station was installed on beamline 4B7A at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF), making it possible to record X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectrum in three modes over an energy range from 1750 eV to 6000 eV. A 13-element Si(Li) array detector and a single-element SDD detector were used to acquire data in partial fluorescence yield (PFY) mode. Two low-pressure noble gas ion chambers were adopted for measuring XAFS in transmission mode. In total electron yield (TEY) mode the current of sample is recorded. Solid, wet and liquid samples were suitable for this experimental station. Some representative results obtained from this station were shown and discussed.

  17. End-to-End Printed-Circuit Board Assembly Design Using Altium Designer and Solid Works Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Goncharenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this white paper is to investigate the methods to accelerate the end-to-end simultaneous development of electronic PC assemblies in MCAD/ECAD systems. With raising the produced electronic equipment rates and quantities, there is a need to speed up the yield of new products. The article offers an alternate approach to the end-to-end simultaneous development in Altium Designer / Solid Works CAD/CAE systems, which enables a radically shortened time to design new devices and databases of components.The first part of the paper analyses the methods and models to solve the tasks of the endto-end simultaneous development of PC assemblies using the Circuit Works module for Solid Works. It examines the problems of traditional data exchange methods between Altium Designer and Solid Works arising from the limitations of the IDF 2.0 format used, as well as from the problems of 3D-models of components and because it is necessary to support two different databases.The second part gives guidelines and an example of the end-to-end simultaneous PC assembly development using the Altium Modeler module for Solid Works aimed at Altium Designer and presents a brief review of algorithms. The proposed method neither requires an additional database, nor uses an intermediate format such as IDF. The module translates the PCB model directly to Solid Works to generate the assembly model. The Altium Modeler is also capable to update its created assembly in Solid Works, which is very useful in case of modification of components and PCB itself. This approach is better tailored to the end-to-end development in terms of acceleration, enhancing facility of simultaneous work in different MCAD/ECAD systems, and eliminating errors arising from the need to support two CAD databases of the same functionality.In the conclusion the paper gives suggestions for using the modules for simultaneous development of electronic PC assemblies in Altium Designer and Solid Works.

  18. Building dialogue POMDPs from expert dialogues an end-to-end approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chinaei, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) framework applied in dialogue systems. It presents POMDP as a formal framework to represent uncertainty explicitly while supporting automated policy solving. The authors propose and implement an end-to-end learning approach for dialogue POMDP model components. Starting from scratch, they present the state, the transition model, the observation model and then finally the reward model from unannotated and noisy dialogues. These altogether form a significant set of contributions that can potentially inspire substantial further work. This concise manuscript is written in a simple language, full of illustrative examples, figures, and tables. Provides insights on building dialogue systems to be applied in real domain Illustrates learning dialogue POMDP model components from unannotated dialogues in a concise format Introduces an end-to-end approach that makes use of unannotated and noisy dialogue for learning each component of dialogue POM...

  19. End-to-end delay analysis in wireless sensor networks with service vacation

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, a delay-sensitive multi-hop wireless sensor network is considered, employing an M/G/1 with vacations framework. Sensors transmit measurements to a predefined data sink subject to maximum end-to-end delay constraint. In order to prolong the battery lifetime, a sleeping scheme is adopted throughout the network nodes. The objective of our proposed framework is to present an expression for maximum hop-count as well as an approximate expression of the probability of blocking at the sink node upon violating certain end-to-end delay threshold. Using numerical simulations, we validate the proposed analytical model and demonstrate that the blocking probability of the system for various vacation time distributions matches the simulation results.

  20. Providing end-to-end QoS for multimedia applications in 3G wireless networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Katherine; Rangarajan, Samapth; Siddiqui, M. A.; Paul, Sanjoy

    2003-11-01

    As the usage of wireless packet data services increases, wireless carriers today are faced with the challenge of offering multimedia applications with QoS requirements within current 3G data networks. End-to-end QoS requires support at the application, network, link and medium access control (MAC) layers. We discuss existing CDMA2000 network architecture and show its shortcomings that prevent supporting multiple classes of traffic at the Radio Access Network (RAN). We then propose changes in RAN within the standards framework that enable support for multiple traffic classes. In addition, we discuss how Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) can be augmented with QoS signaling for supporting end-to-end QoS. We also review state of the art scheduling algorithms at the base station and provide possible extensions to these algorithms to support different classes of traffic as well as different classes of users.

  1. Chaos Based Joint Compression and Encryption Framework for End-to-End Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Goel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmentation in communication and coding technology has made encryption an integral part of secure multimedia communication systems. Security solution for end-to-end image transmission requires content adaptation at intermediate nodes, which consumes significant resources to decrypt, process, and reencrypt the secured data. To save the computational resources, this paper proposes a network-friendly encryption technique, which can be implemented in transparency to content adaptation techniques. The proposed encryption technique maintains the compression efficiency of underlying entropy coder, and enables the processing of encrypted data. Thorough analysis of the technique, as regards various standard evaluation parameters and attack scenarios, demonstrates its ability to withstand known-plaintext, ciphertext-only, and approximation attacks. This justifies its implementation for secure image transmission for end-to-end communication systems.

  2. End-to-end calculation of the radiation characteristics of VVER-1000 spent fuel assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linge, I. I.; Mitenkova, E. F.; Novikov, N. V.

    2012-12-01

    The results of end-to-end calculation of the radiation characteristics of VVER-1000 spent nuclear fuel are presented. Details of formation of neutron and gamma-radiation sources are analyzed. Distributed sources of different types of radiation are considered. A comparative analysis of calculated radiation characteristics is performed with the use of nuclear data from different ENDF/B and EAF files and ANSI/ANS and ICRP standards.

  3. An End-to-End QoS Control Model for Enhanced Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张尧学; 王晓春; 顾钧

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes an end-to-end QoS (Quality of Services) control model for distributed multimedia computing on enhanced Internet, and gives the design and implementation of this model including hosts and routers. The architecture, the mathematical definition about QoS parameters, and the mapping between Integrated Service (IS) and Differentiated Service (DS) are discussed in this paper.The simulation shows that this model can improve the performance of audio streams when it is used in IPhone system.

  4. Financing the End-to-end Supply Chain: A Reference Guide to Supply Chain Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Templar, Simon; Hofmann, Erik; Findlay, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Financing the End to End Supply Chain provides readers with a real insight into the increasingly important area of supply chain finance. It demonstrates the importance of the strategic relationship between the physical supply of goods and services and the associated financial flows. The book provides a clear introduction, demonstrating the importance of the strategic relationship between supply chain and financial communities within an organization. It contains vital information on how supply...

  5. Performance Enhancements of UMTS networks using end-to-end QoS provisioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haibo; Prasad, Devendra; Teyeb, Oumer;

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the end-to-end(E2E) quality of service(QoS) provisioning approaches for UMTS networks together with DiffServ IP network. The effort was put on QoS classes mapping from DiffServ to UMTS, Access Control(AC), buffering and scheduling optimization. The DiffServ Code Point (DSCP...... algorithm provide a fexible and effcient QoS guarantees for multiple UMTS classes....

  6. Towards End-to-End Learning for Dialog State Tracking and Management using Deep Reinforcement Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Tiancheng; Eskenazi, Maxine

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an end-to-end framework for task-oriented dialog systems using a variant of Deep Recurrent Q-Networks (DRQN). The model is able to interface with a relational database and jointly learn policies for both language understanding and dialog strategy. Moreover, we propose a hybrid algorithm that combines the strength of reinforcement learning and supervised learning to achieve faster learning speed. We evaluated the proposed model on a 20 Question Game conversational game simu...

  7. Testing Application (End-to-End Performance of Networks With EFT Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatko Lipovac

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies how end-to-end application peiformance(of Electronic Financial Transaction traffic, in particulardepends on the actual protocol stacks, operating systemsand network transmission rates. With this respect, the respectivesimulation tests of peiformance of TCP and UDP protocolsrunning on various operating systems, ranging from Windows,Sun Solmis, to Linux have been implemented, and thedifferences in peiformance addressed focusing on throughputand response time.

  8. The International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) End-to-End On-Orbit Maintenance Process Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingrebe, Kenneth W., II

    1995-01-01

    As a tool for construction and refinement of the on-orbit maintenance system to sustain the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA), the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) developed an end to-end on-orbit maintenance process flow. This paper discusses and demonstrates that process flow. This tool is being used by MOD to identify areas which require further work in preparation for MOD's role in the conduct of on-orbit maintenance operations.

  9. CHEETAH: circuit-switched high-speed end-to-end transport architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeraraghavan, Malathi; Zheng, Xuan; Lee, Hyuk; Gardner, M.; Feng, Wuchun

    2003-10-01

    Leveraging the dominance of Ethernet in LANs and SONET/SDH in MANs and WANs, we propose a service called CHEETAH (Circuit-switched High-speed End-to-End Transport ArcHitecture). The service concept is to provide end hosts with high-speed, end-to-end circuit connectivity on a call-by-call shared basis, where a "circuit" consists of Ethernet segments at the ends that are mapped into Ethernet-over-SONET long-distance circuits. This paper focuses on the file-transfer application for such circuits. For this application, the CHEETAH service is proposed as an add-on to the primary Internet access service already in place for enterprise hosts. This allows an end host that is sending a file to first attempt setting up an end-to-end Ethernet/EoS circuit, and if rejected, fall back to the TCP/IP path. If the circuit setup is successful, the end host will enjoy a much shorter file-transfer delay than on the TCP/IP path. To determine the conditions under which an end host with access to the CHEETAH service should attempt circuit setup, we analyze mean file-transfer delays as a function of call blocking probability in the circuit-switched network, probability of packet loss in the IP network, round-trip times, link rates, and so on.

  10. Direct muscle neurotization after end-to end and end-to-side neurorrhaphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Igor; Ronchi, Giulia; Muratori, Luisa; Mazzucco, Alessandra; Magaudda, Ludovico; Geuna, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The need for the continuous research of new tools for improving motor function recovery after nerve injury is justified by the still often unsatisfactory clinical outcome in these patients. It has been previously shown that the combined use of two reconstructive techniques, namely end-to-side neurorrhaphy and direct muscle neurotization in the rat hindlimb model, can lead to good results in terms of skeletal muscle reinnervation. Here we show that, in the rat forelimb model, the combined use of direct muscle neurotization with either end-to-end or end-to-side neurorrhaphy to reinnervate the denervated flexor digitorum muscles, leads to muscle atrophy prevention over a long postoperative time lapse (10 months). By contrast, very little motor recovery (in case of end-to-end neurorrhaphy) and almost no motor recovery (in case of end-to-side neurorrhaphy) were observed in the grasping activity controlled by flexor digitorum muscles. It can thus be concluded that, at least in the rat, direct muscle neurotization after both end-to-end and end-to-side neurorrhaphy represents a good strategy for preventing denervation-related muscle atrophy but not for regaining the lost motor function. PMID:25538749

  11. An end-to-end robust approach for scalable video over the Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guijin; ZHANG Qian; ZHU Wenwu; LIN Xinggang

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces an end-to-end robust approach for scalable video over the Internet. The traditional method only considers congestion control, error control and is unable to achieve end-to-end high-quality video transmission in the error-prone environment like the Internet since it does not consider the packetization behavior,network conditions and the media characteristics simultaneously. This paper presents an end-to-end approach for scalable video over the Internet, combining network adaptive congestion control and unequal error control. Considering requirements of multimedia transmission, this paper introduces multimedia congestion control to estimate available bandwidth and smooth the media sending rate. Specially in the transport layer we propose unequal interleaving packetization method and unequal error protection scheme,which can alleviate the effect of the packet loss well. Further we develop the rate-distortion theory for the scalable video over the Internet. Thereafter the optimal bit allocation is presented to determine the bits budgets for the source part and error control part. Simulation shows our scheme can achieve good performance for scalable video over the Internet.

  12. Sutureless end-to-end bowel anastomosis in rabbit using Iow-power CO2 laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Rong Li; Yong Long Chi; Run Cong Ke

    2000-01-01

    The use of laser energy to weld biological tissues and produce sutureless anastomosis has its advantages over conventional silk-sutured anastomosis since it was reported in small vessels[1] and fallopian tubes[2], in the late 1970s. Since then, more investigators have welded a larger variety of tissues[3-13] and have expanded its application to welding trials of entertomies of rabbit and rat small intestine[14-17] Sauer et al[18] reported results from Nd: YAG laser in reconstruction of end-to-end welding in rabbit small intestine. Recently, controlled temperature during YAG and argon laser-assisted welding of entertomies of rabbit and rat was implemented to eliminate exponential increases in the rate of denaturation associated with rapidly increasing temperature[19,20]. Yet there was no report of sutureless end-to-end bowel anastomosis using low-power CO2 laser. This is a report of a circumferential end-to-end laser welding bowel anastomosis in rabbit by using 3 different CO2 laser powers to explore the feasibility of CO2 laser welding of a circumferential intestinal tissue and to determine the optimal laser-welding parameter. Then the appropriate CO2 laser power was chosen to weld bowels in rabbit and its long-term healing effect was evaluated.

  13. QoS Modeling for End-to-End Performance Evaluation over Networks with Wireless Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Gómez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an end-to-end Quality of Service (QoS model for assessing the performance of data services over networks with wireless access. The proposed model deals with performance degradation across protocol layers using a bottom-up strategy, starting with the physical layer and moving on up to the application layer. This approach makes it possible to analytically assess performance at different layers, thereby facilitating a possible end-to-end optimization process. As a representative case, a scenario where a set of mobile terminals connected to a streaming server through an IP access node has been studied. UDP, TCP, and the new TCP-Friendly Rate Control (TFRC protocols were analyzed at the transport layer. The radio interface consisted of a variable-rate multiuser and multichannel subsystem, including retransmissions and adaptive modulation and coding. The proposed analytical QoS model was validated on a real-time emulator of an end-to-end network with wireless access and proved to be very useful for the purposes of service performance estimation and optimization.

  14. End-to-end modeling: a new modular and flexible approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoni, M.; Riva, M.; Landoni, M.; Pariani, G.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we present an innovative philosophy to develop the End-to-End model for astronomical observation projects, i.e. the architecture which allows physical modeling of the whole system from the light source to the reduced data. This alternative philosophy foresees the development of the physical model of the different modules, which compose the entire End-to-End system, directly during the project design phase. This approach is strongly characterized by modularity and flexibility; these aspects will be of relevant importance in the next generation astronomical observation projects like E-ELT (European Extremely Large Telescope) because of the high complexity and long-time design and development. With this approach it will be possible to keep the whole system and its different modules efficiently under control during every project phase and to exploit a reliable tool at a system engineering level to evaluate the effects on the final performance both of the main parameters and of different instrument architectures and technologies. This philosophy will be important to allow scientific community to perform in advance simulations and tests on the scientific drivers. This will translate in a continuous feedback to the (system) design process with a resulting improvement in the effectively achievable scientific goals and consistent tool for efficiently planning observation proposals and programs. We present the application case for this End-to-End modeling technique, which is the high resolution spectrograph at the E-ELT (E-ELT HIRES). In particular we present the definition of the system modular architecture, describing the interface parameters of the modules.

  15. Screening California Current fishery management scenarios using the Atlantis end-to-end ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Isaac C.; Horne, Peter J.; Levin, Phillip S.

    2012-09-01

    End-to-end marine ecosystem models link climate and oceanography to the food web and human activities. These models can be used as forecasting tools, to strategically evaluate management options and to support ecosystem-based management. Here we report the results of such forecasts in the California Current, using an Atlantis end-to-end model. We worked collaboratively with fishery managers at NOAA’s regional offices and staff at the National Marine Sanctuaries (NMS) to explore the impact of fishery policies on management objectives at different spatial scales, from single Marine Sanctuaries to the entire Northern California Current. In addition to examining Status Quo management, we explored the consequences of several gear switching and spatial management scenarios. Of the scenarios that involved large scale management changes, no single scenario maximized all performance metrics. Any policy choice would involve trade-offs between stakeholder groups and policy goals. For example, a coast-wide 25% gear shift from trawl to pot or longline appeared to be one possible compromise between an increase in spatial management (which sacrificed revenue) and scenarios such as the one consolidating bottom impacts to deeper areas (which did not perform substantially differently from Status Quo). Judged on a coast-wide scale, most of the scenarios that involved minor or local management changes (e.g. within Monterey Bay NMS only) yielded results similar to Status Quo. When impacts did occur in these cases, they often involved local interactions that were difficult to predict a priori based solely on fishing patterns. However, judged on the local scale, deviation from Status Quo did emerge, particularly for metrics related to stationary species or variables (i.e. habitat and local metrics of landed value or bycatch). We also found that isolated management actions within Monterey Bay NMS would cause local fishers to pay a cost for conservation, in terms of reductions in landed

  16. End-to-End Assessment of a Large Aperture Segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lee; Bolcar, Matt; Liu, Alice; Guyon, Olivier; Stark,Chris; Arenberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Key challenges of a future large aperture, segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope capable of performing a spectroscopic survey of hundreds of Exoplanets will be sufficient stability to achieve 10-10 contrast measurements and sufficient throughput and sensitivity for high yield Exo-Earth spectroscopic detection. Our team has collectively assessed an optimized end to end architecture including a high throughput coronagraph capable of working with a segmented telescope, a cost-effective and heritage based stable segmented telescope, a control architecture that minimizes the amount of new technologies, and an Exo-Earth yield assessment to evaluate potential performance.

  17. Using Network Calculus to compute end-to-end delays in SpaceWire networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrandiz, Thomas; Frances, Fabrice; Fraboul, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The SpaceWire network standard is promoted by the ESA and is scheduled to be used as the sole on-board network for future satellites. This network uses a wormhole routing mechanism that can lead to packet blocking in routers and consequently to variable end-to-end delays. As the network will be shared by real-time and non real- time traffic, network designers require a tool to check that temporal constraints are verified for all the critical messages. Network Calculus can be used for evaluati...

  18. END-TO-END DEPTH FROM MOTION WITH STABILIZED MONOCULAR VIDEOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pinard

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a depth map inference system from monocular videos based on a novel dataset for navigation that mimics aerial footage from gimbal stabilized monocular camera in rigid scenes. Unlike most navigation datasets, the lack of rotation implies an easier structure from motion problem which can be leveraged for different kinds of tasks such as depth inference and obstacle avoidance. We also propose an architecture for end-to-end depth inference with a fully convolutional network. Results show that although tied to camera inner parameters, the problem is locally solvable and leads to good quality depth prediction.

  19. End to end adaptive congestion control in TCP/IP networks

    CERN Document Server

    Houmkozlis, Christos N

    2012-01-01

    This book provides an adaptive control theory perspective on designing congestion controls for packet-switching networks. Relevant to a wide range of disciplines and industries, including the music industry, computers, image trading, and virtual groups, the text extensively discusses source oriented, or end to end, congestion control algorithms. The book empowers readers with clear understanding of the characteristics of packet-switching networks and their effects on system stability and performance. It provides schemes capable of controlling congestion and fairness and presents real-world app

  20. Deriving comprehensive error breakdown for wide field adaptive optics systems using end-to-end simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, F.; Gendron, E.; Rousset, G.; Gratadour, D.

    2016-07-01

    The future European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) adaptive optics (AO) systems will aim at wide field correction and large sky coverage. Their performance will be improved by using post processing techniques, such as point spread function (PSF) deconvolution. The PSF estimation involves characterization of the different error sources in the AO system. Such error contributors are difficult to estimate: simulation tools are a good way to do that. We have developed in COMPASS (COMputing Platform for Adaptive opticS Systems), an end-to-end simulation tool using GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) acceleration, an estimation tool that provides a comprehensive error budget by the outputs of a single simulation run.

  1. On end-to-end performance of MIMO multiuser in cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a design for the multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) multiuser transmission in the cognitive radio network is developed and its end-to-end performance is investigated under spectrum-sharing constraints. Firstly, the overall average packet error rate is analyzed by considering the channel state information feedback delay and the multiuser scheduling. Then, we provide corresponding numerical results to measure the performance evaluation for several separate scenarios, which presents a convenient tool for the cognitive radio network design with multiple secondary MIMO users. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. WiMAX security and quality of service an end-to-end perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Seok-Yee; Sharif, Hamid

    2010-01-01

    WiMAX is the first standard technology to deliver true broadband mobility at speeds that enable powerful multimedia applications such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), online gaming, mobile TV, and personalized infotainment. WiMAX Security and Quality of Service, focuses on the interdisciplinary subject of advanced Security and Quality of Service (QoS) in WiMAX wireless telecommunication systems including its models, standards, implementations, and applications. Split into 4 parts, Part A of the book is an end-to-end overview of the WiMAX architecture, protocol, and system requirements.

  3. Satellite/Terrestrial Networks: End-to-End Communication Interoperability Quality of Service Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with satellite/terrestrial end-to-end communication interoperability are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Quality of service; 2) ATM performance characteristics; 3) MPEG-2 transport stream mapping to AAL-5; 4) Observation and discussion of compressed video tests over ATM; 5) Digital video over satellites status; 6) Satellite link configurations; 7) MPEG-2 over ATM with binomial errors; 8) MPEG-2 over ATM channel characteristics; 8) MPEG-2 over ATM over emulated satellites; 9) MPEG-2 transport stream with errors; and a 10) Dual decoder test.

  4. Analytical Framework for End-to-End Delay Based on Unidirectional Highway Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslinda Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a sparse vehicular ad hoc network, a vehicle normally employs a carry and forward approach, where it holds the message it wants to transmit until the vehicle meets other vehicles or roadside units. A number of analyses in the literature have been done to investigate the time delay when packets are being carried by vehicles on both unidirectional and bidirectional highways. However, these analyses are focusing on the delay between either two disconnected vehicles or two disconnected vehicle clusters. Furthermore, majority of the analyses only concentrate on the expected value of the end-to-end delay when the carry and forward approach is used. Using regression analysis, we establish the distribution model for the time delay between two disconnected vehicle clusters as an exponential distribution. Consequently, a distribution is newly derived to represent the number of clusters on a highway using a vehicular traffic model. From there, we are able to formulate end-to-end delay model which extends the time delay model for two disconnected vehicle clusters to multiple disconnected clusters on a unidirectional highway. The analytical results obtained from the analytical model are then validated through simulation results.

  5. Statistical End-to-end Performance Bounds for Networks under Long Memory FBM Cross Traffic

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Amr

    2009-01-01

    Fractional Brownian motion (fBm) emerged as a useful model for self-similar and long-range dependent Internet traffic. Approximate performance measures are known from large deviations theory for single queuing systems with fBm through traffic. In this paper we derive end-to-end performance bounds for a through flow in a network of tandem queues under fBm cross traffic. To this end, we prove a rigorous sample path envelope for fBm that complements previous approximate results. We find that both approaches agree in their outcome that overflow probabilities for fBm traffic have a Weibullian tail. We employ the sample path envelope and the concept of leftover service curves to model the remaining service after scheduling fBm cross traffic at a system. Using composition results for tandem systems from the stochastic network calculus we derive end-to-end statistical performance bounds for individual flows in networks under fBm cross traffic. We discover that these bounds grow in O(n (log n)^(1/(2-2H))) for n system...

  6. The end-to-end testbed of the Optical Metrology System on-board LISA Pathfinder

    CERN Document Server

    Steier, Frank; Marín, Antonio F García; Gerardi, Domenico; Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten; 10.1088/0264-9381/26/9/094010

    2012-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a technology demonstration mission for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The main experiment on-board LISA Pathfinder is the so-called LISA Technology Package (LTP) which has the aim to measure the differential acceleration between two free-falling test masses with an accuracy of 3x10^(-14) ms^(-2)/sqrt[Hz] between 1 mHz and 30 mHz. This measurement is performed interferometrically by the Optical Metrology System (OMS) on-board LISA Pathfinder. In this paper we present the development of an experimental end-to-end testbed of the entire OMS. It includes the interferometer and its sub-units, the interferometer back-end which is a phasemeter and the processing of the phasemeter output data. Furthermore, 3-axes piezo actuated mirrors are used instead of the free-falling test masses for the characterisation of the dynamic behaviour of the system and some parts of the Drag-free and Attitude Control System (DFACS) which controls the test masses and the satellite. The end-to-end testbe...

  7. Beamlines of the biomedical imaging and therapy facility at the Canadian light source – part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysokinski, Tomasz W., E-mail: bmit@lightsource.ca [Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Chapman, Dean [Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Adams, Gregg [Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Renier, Michel [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Suortti, Pekka [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland); Thomlinson, William [Department of Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2015-03-01

    The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) facility provides synchrotron-specific imaging and radiation therapy capabilities [1–4]. We describe here the Insertion Device (ID) beamline 05ID-2 with the beam terminated in the SOE-1 (Secondary Optical Enclosure) experimental hutch. This endstation is designed for imaging and therapy research primarily in animals ranging in size from mice to humans to horses, as well as tissue specimens including plants. Core research programs include human and animal reproduction, cancer imaging and therapy, spinal cord injury and repair, cardiovascular and lung imaging and disease, bone and cartilage growth and deterioration, mammography, developmental biology, gene expression research as well as the introduction of new imaging methods. The source for the ID beamline is a multi-pole superconducting 4.3 T wiggler [5]. The high field gives a critical energy over 20 keV. The high critical energy presents shielding challenges and great care must be taken to assess shielding requirements [6–9]. The optics in the POE-1 and POE-3 hutches [4,10] prepare a monochromatic beam that is 22 cm wide in the last experimental hutch SOE-1. The double crystal bent-Laue or Bragg monochromator, or the single-crystal K-edge subtraction (KES) monochromator provide an energy range appropriate for imaging studies in animals (20–100+ keV). SOE-1 (excluding the basement structure 4 m below the experimental floor) is 6 m wide, 5 m tall and 10 m long with a removable back wall to accommodate installation and removal of the Large Animal Positioning System (LAPS) capable of positioning and manipulating animals as large as a horse [11]. This end-station also includes a unique detector positioner with a vertical travel range of 4.9 m which is required for the KES imaging angle range of +12.3° to –7.3°. The detector positioner also includes moveable shielding integrated with the safety shutters. An update on the status of the other two end-stations at BMIT

  8. Semantic Service Composition with QoS End - to - End Constraints via AND/OR Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhemal Zenuni

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present AND/OR graphs as a unifying framework for semantic service composition that considers users QoS constraints. The main virtues of this representation among others are its ability to express semantic inference and to deal with QoS constraints from different perspectives. In addition it correctly handles multiple inputs/outputs of services, and allows high degree of automation. Once service dependencies and QoS features are formalized as AND/OR graph, we apply a search algorithm to discover composite services that considers user QoS end - to - end preferences. The implementation of a prototype system and the experimental results support our underlying hypothesis that AND/OR graphs are not only elegant and expressive formalism for addressing QoS - aware semantic service composition, but efficient as well.

  9. End-to-end interoperability and workflows from building architecture design to one or more simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Tian-Jy; Kim, Younghun

    2015-02-10

    An end-to-end interoperability and workflows from building architecture design to one or more simulations, in one aspect, may comprise establishing a BIM enablement platform architecture. A data model defines data entities and entity relationships for enabling the interoperability and workflows. A data definition language may be implemented that defines and creates a table schema of a database associated with the data model. Data management services and/or application programming interfaces may be implemented for interacting with the data model. Web services may also be provided for interacting with the data model via the Web. A user interface may be implemented that communicates with users and uses the BIM enablement platform architecture, the data model, the data definition language, data management services and application programming interfaces to provide functions to the users to perform work related to building information management.

  10. End-to-end simulations of the E-ELT/METIS coronagraphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, Brunella; Absil, Olivier; Kenworthy, Matthew; Ruane, Garreth; Keller, Christoph U.; Otten, Gilles; Feldt, Markus; Hippler, Stefan; Huby, Elsa; Mawet, Dimitri; Delacroix, Christian; Surdej, Jean; Habraken, Serge; Forsberg, Pontus; Karlsson, Mikael; Vargas Catalan, Ernesto; Brandl, Bernhard R.

    2016-07-01

    The direct detection of low-mass planets in the habitable zone of nearby stars is an important science case for future E-ELT instruments such as the mid-infrared imager and spectrograph METIS, which features vortex phase masks and apodizing phase plates (APP) in its baseline design. In this work, we present end-to-end performance simulations, using Fourier propagation, of several METIS coronagraphic modes, including focal-plane vortex phase masks and pupil-plane apodizing phase plates, for the centrally obscured, segmented E-ELT pupil. The atmosphere and the AO contributions are taken into account. Hybrid coronagraphs combining the advantages of vortex phase masks and APPs are considered to improve the METIS coronagraphic performance.

  11. Genetic algorithm for autonomic joint radio resource management in end-to-end reconfigurable systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Xian; MA Tao; LIN Yue-wei; FENG Zhi-yong

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the genetic algorithm (GA) asan autonomic approach for the joint radio resource management(JRRM) amongst heterogeneous radio access technologies(RATs) in the end-to-end reconfigurable systems. The jointsession admission control (JOSAC) and the bandwidth allocationare combined as a specific decision made by the operations ofthe genetic algorithm with certain advisable modifications. Theproposed algorithm is triggered on the following two conditions.When a session is initiated, it is triggered for the session tocamp on the most appropriate RAT and select the most suitablebandwidth for the desired service. When a session terminates, itis also used to adjust the distribution of the ongoing sessionsthrough the handovers. This will increase the adjustmentfrequency of the JRRM controller for the best systemperformance. Simulation results indicate that the proposedautonomic JRRM scheme not only effectively reduces thehandover times, but also achieves well trade-off between thespectrum utility and the blocking probability.

  12. Data analysis Pipeline for EChO end-to-end simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Waldmann, Ingo P

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric spectroscopy of extrasolar planets is an intricate business. Atmospheric signatures typically require a photometric precision of $1 \\times 10^{-4}$ in flux over several hours. Such precision demands high instrument stability as well as an understanding of stellar variability and an optimal data reduction and removal of systematic noise. In the context of the EChO mission concept, we here discuss the data reduction and analysis pipeline developed for the EChO end-to-end simulator EChOSim. We present and discuss the step by step procedures required in order to obtain the final exoplanetary spectrum from the EChOSim`raw data' using a simulated observation of the secondary eclipse of the hot-Neptune 55 Cnc e.

  13. End to end numerical simulations of the MAORY multiconjugate adaptive optics system

    CERN Document Server

    Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Bregoli, Giovanni; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Foppiani, Italo; Cosentino, Giuseppe; Lombini, Matteo; Butler, R C; Ciliegi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    MAORY is the adaptive optics module of the E-ELT that will feed the MICADO imaging camera through a gravity invariant exit port. MAORY has been foreseen to implement MCAO correction through three high order deformable mirrors driven by the reference signals of six Laser Guide Stars (LGSs) feeding as many Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensors. A three Natural Guide Stars (NGSs) system will provide the low order correction. We develop a code for the end-to-end simulation of the MAORY adaptive optics (AO) system in order to obtain high-delity modeling of the system performance. It is based on the IDL language and makes extensively uses of the GPUs. Here we present the architecture of the simulation tool and its achieved and expected performance.

  14. The Kepler End-to-End Data Pipeline: From Photons to Far Away Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Brian; Thompson, Richard; Standley, Shaun

    2012-01-01

    Launched by NASA on 6 March 2009, the Kepler Mission has been observing more than 100,000 targets in a single patch of sky between the constellations Cygnus and Lyra almost continuously for the last two years looking for planetary systems using the transit method. As of October 2011, the Kepler spacecraft has collected and returned to Earth just over 290 GB of data, identifying 1235 planet candidates with 25 of these candidates confirmed as planets via ground observation. Extracting the telltale signature of a planetary system from stellar photometry where valid signal transients can be small as a 40 ppm is a difficult and exacting task. The end-to end processing of determining planetary candidates from noisy, raw photometric measurements is discussed.

  15. End-to-end requirements management for multiprojects in the construction industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wörösch, Michael

    The research described in this PhD thesis focuses on the phenomenon that formalized requirements management, as many studies have shown, has yet to find its way into the construction industry, even though it is effectively used in other fields e.g. software development and the aerospace and defence...... structure is aimed at covering the entire life cycle of a building by considering future events. However, the developed requirements structure is not enough for managing requirements. Therefore an intensive literature study on requirements management in general and in particular requirements management...... industries. The research gives at the same time managers of construction projects a tool with which to manage their requirements end-to-end. In order to investigate how construction companies handle requirements, a case project – a Danish construction syndicate producing sandwich elements made from High...

  16. An Extended Model Driven Framework for End-to-End Consistent Model Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. G. Ramesh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Model Driven Development (MDD results in quick transformation from models to corresponding systems. Forward engineering features of modelling tools can help in generating source code from models. To build a robust system it is important to have consistency checking in the design models and the same between design model and the transformed implementation. Our framework named as Extensible Real Time Software Design Inconsistency Checker (XRTSDIC proposed in our previous papers supports consistency checking in design models. This paper focuses on automatic model transformation. An algorithm and defined transformation rules for model transformation from UML class diagram to ERD and SQL are being proposed. The model transformation bestows many advantages such as reducing cost of development, improving quality, enhancing productivity and leveraging customer satisfaction. Proposed framework has been enhanced to ensure that the transformed implementations conform to their model counterparts besides checking end-to-end consistency.

  17. Force Characteristics of the Rat Sternomastoid Muscle Reinnervated with End-to-End Nerve Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Sobotka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to establish force data for the rat sternomastoid (SM muscle after reinnervation with nerve end-to-end anastomosis (EEA, which could be used as a baseline for evaluating the efficacy of new reinnervation techniques. The SM muscle on one side was paralyzed by transecting its nerve and then EEA was performed at different time points: immediate EEA, 1-month and 3-month delay EEA. At the end of 3-month recovery period, the magnitude of functional recovery of the reinnervated SM muscle was evaluated by measuring muscle force and comparing with the force of the contralateral control muscle. Our results demonstrated that the immediately reinnervated SM produced approximately 60% of the maximal tetanic force of the control. The SM with delayed nerve repair yielded approximately 40% of the maximal force. Suboptimal recovery of muscle force after EEA demonstrates the importance of developing alternative surgical techniques to treat muscle paralysis.

  18. Single and Multi-bunch End-to-end Tracking in the LHeC

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrini, D; Latina, A; Schulte, D

    2015-01-01

    The LHeC study aims at delivering an electron beam for collision with the LHC proton beam. The current base- line design consists of a multi-pass superconductive energy- recovery linac operating in a continuous wave mode. The high current beam ($\\sim$ 100 mA) in the linacs excites long- range wake-fields between bunches of different turns, which induce instabilities and might cause beam losses. PLACET2, a novel version of the tracking code PLACET, capable to handle recirculation and time dependencies, has been em- ployed to perform the first LHeC end-to-end tracking. The impact of long-range wake-fields, synchrotron radiation, and beam-beam effects has been assessed. The simulation results and recent improvements in the lattice design are presented and discussed in this paper.

  19. End-to-end assessment of a large aperture segmented ultraviolet optical infrared (UVOIR) telescope architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lee; Rioux, Norman; Bolcar, Matthew; Liu, Alice; Guyon, Olivier; Stark, Chris; Arenberg, Jon

    2016-07-01

    Key challenges of a future large aperture, segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope capable of performing a spectroscopic survey of hundreds of Exoplanets will be sufficient stability to achieve 10^-10 contrast measurements and sufficient throughput and sensitivity for high yield exo-earth spectroscopic detection. Our team has collectively assessed an optimized end to end architecture including a high throughput coronagraph capable of working with a segmented telescope, a cost-effective and heritage based stable segmented telescope, a control architecture that minimizes the amount of new technologies, and an exo-earth yield assessment to evaluate potential performance. These efforts are combined through integrated modeling, coronagraph evaluations, and exo-earth yield calculations to assess the potential performance of the selected architecture. In addition, we discusses the scalability of this architecture to larger apertures and the technological tall poles to enabling these missions.

  20. End-to-End Beam Simulations for the New Muon G-2 Experiment at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korostelev, Maxim [Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.; Bailey, Ian [Lancaster U.; Herrod, Alexander [Liverpool U.; Morgan, James [Fermilab; Morse, William [RIKEN BNL; Stratakis, Diktys [RIKEN BNL; Tishchenko, Vladimir [RIKEN BNL; Wolski, Andrzej [Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the new muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab is to measure the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon with an unprecedented uncertainty of 140 ppb. A beam of positive muons required for the experiment is created by pion decay. Detailed studies of the beam dynamics and spin polarization of the muons are important to predict systematic uncertainties in the experiment. In this paper, we present the results of beam simulations and spin tracking from the pion production target to the muon storage ring. The end-to-end beam simulations are developed in Bmad and include the processes of particle decay, collimation (with accurate representation of all apertures) and spin tracking.

  1. End-to-end rate-based congestion control with random loss: convergence and stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The convergence and stability analysis for two end-to-end rate-based congestion control algorithms with unavoidable random loss in packets are presented, which can be caused by, for example, errors on wireless links. The convergence rates of these two algorithms are analyzed by linearizing them around their equilibrium points, since they are globally stable and can converge to their unique equilibrium points. Some sufficient conditions for local stability in the presence of round-trip delay are obtained based on the general Nyquist criterion of stability. The stability conditions can be considered to be more general. If random loss in the first congestion control algorithm is not considered, they reduce to the local stability conditions which have been obtained in some literatures. Furthermore, sufficient conditions for local stability of a new congestion control algorithm have also been obtained if random loss is not considered in the second congestion control algorithm.

  2. 'Smart' from a NEEDS perspective. [sensors in NASA End-to-End Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of the characteristics which are considered essential for the NASA information system if it is to satisfy the sensor/user needs of the 1980's. The present data/information (DI) system is a complex arrangement of functions which has evolved to meet the increased demands placed upon it by the changing nature of the space program. Even though today's ground system is handling today's DI flow, it has certain limitations, and in some cases lacks consistency in organization and structure that would allow it to cope with the new requirements. A systematic analysis and overview of the total system is necessary for the planning of an efficient and effective information system for the 1980's. The NASA End-to-End Data System (NEEDS) program is an attempt to significantly increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the system that couples the user of the space data with the sensors.

  3. Enhancing End-to-End Performance of Information Services Over Ka-Band Global Satellite Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Glover, Daniel R.; Ivancic, William D.; vonDeak, Thomas C.

    1997-01-01

    The Internet has been growing at a rapid rate as the key medium to provide information services such as e-mail, WWW and multimedia etc., however its global reach is limited. Ka-band communication satellite networks are being developed to increase the accessibility of information services via the Internet at global scale. There is need to assess satellite networks in their ability to provide these services and interconnect seamlessly with existing and proposed terrestrial telecommunication networks. In this paper the significant issues and requirements in providing end-to-end high performance for the delivery of information services over satellite networks based on various layers in the OSI reference model are identified. Key experiments have been performed to evaluate the performance of digital video and Internet over satellite-like testbeds. The results of the early developments in ATM and TCP protocols over satellite networks are summarized.

  4. End-to-end performance analysis using engineering confidence models and a ground processor prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Klaus-Werner; Sauer, Maximilian; Jäger, Thomas; Herzog, Alexandra; Schmitt, Michael; Huchler, Markus; Wallace, Kotska; Eisinger, Michael; Heliere, Arnaud; Lefebvre, Alain; Maher, Mat; Chang, Mark; Phillips, Tracy; Knight, Steve; de Goeij, Bryan T. G.; van der Knaap, Frits; Van't Hof, Adriaan

    2015-10-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) are co-operating to develop the EarthCARE satellite mission with the fundamental objective of improving the understanding of the processes involving clouds, aerosols and radiation in the Earth's atmosphere. The EarthCARE Multispectral Imager (MSI) is relatively compact for a space borne imager. As a consequence, the immediate point-spread function (PSF) of the instrument will be mainly determined by the diffraction caused by the relatively small optical aperture. In order to still achieve a high contrast image, de-convolution processing is applied to remove the impact of diffraction on the PSF. A Lucy-Richardson algorithm has been chosen for this purpose. This paper will describe the system setup and the necessary data pre-processing and post-processing steps applied in order to compare the end-to-end image quality with the L1b performance required by the science community.

  5. Sieving of H2 and D2 Through End-to-End Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devagnik, Dasgupta; Debra, J. Searles; Lamberto, Rondoni; Stefano, Bernardi

    2014-10-01

    We study the quantum molecular sieving of H2 and D2 through two nanotubes placed end-to-end. An analytic treatment, assuming that the particles have classical motion along the axis of the nanotube and are confined in a potential well in the radial direction, is considered. Using this idealistic model, and under certain conditions, it is found that this device can act as a complete sieve, allowing chemically pure deuterium to be isolated from an isotope mixture. We also consider a more realistic model of two carbon nanotubes and carry out molecular dynamics simulations using a Feynman—Hibbs potential to model the quantum effects on the dynamics of H2 and D2. Sieving is also observed in this case, but is caused by a different process.

  6. Flexible end-to-end system design for synthetic aperture radar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaugg, Evan C.; Edwards, Matthew C.; Bradley, Joshua P.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents ARTEMIS, Inc.'s approach to development of end-to-end synthetic aperture radar systems for multiple applications and platforms. The flexible design of the radar and the image processing tools facilitates their inclusion in a variety of application-specific end-to-end systems. Any given application comes with certain requirements that must be met in order to achieve success. A concept of operation is defined which states how the technology is used to meet the requirements of the application. This drives the design decisions. Key to adapting our system to multiple applications is the flexible SlimSAR radar system, which is programmable on-the-fly to meet the imaging requirements of a wide range of altitudes, swath-widths, and platform velocities. The processing software can be used for real-time imagery production or post-flight processing. The ground station is adaptable, and the radar controls can be run by an operator on the ground, on-board the aircraft, or even automated as part of the aircraft autopilot controls. System integration takes the whole operation into account, seeking to flawlessly work with data links and on-board data storage, aircraft and payload control systems, mission planning, and image processing and exploitation. Examples of applications are presented including using a small unmanned aircraft at low altitude with a line of sight data link, a long-endurance UAV maritime surveillance mission with on-board processing, and a manned ground moving target indicator application with the radar using multiple receive channels.

  7. Portable end-to-end ground system for low-cost mission support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Barbara

    1996-11-01

    This paper presents a revolutionary architecture of the end-to-end ground system to reduce overall mission support costs. The present ground system of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is costly to operate, maintain, deploy, reproduce, and document. In the present climate of shrinking NASA budgets, this proposed architecture takes on added importance as it should dramatically reduce all of the above costs. Currently, the ground support functions (i.e., receiver, tracking, ranging, telemetry, command, monitor and control) are distributed among several subsystems that are housed in individual rack-mounted chassis. These subsystems can be integrated into one portable laptop system using established Multi Chip Module (MCM) packaging technology and object-based software libraries. The large scale integration of subsystems into a small portable system connected to the World Wide Web (WWW) will greatly reduce operations, maintenance and reproduction costs. Several of the subsystems can be implemented using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) products further decreasing non-recurring engineering costs. The inherent portability of the system will open up new ways for using the ground system at the "point-of-use" site as opposed to maintaining several large centralized stations. This eliminates the propagation delay of the data to the Principal Investigator (PI), enabling the capture of data in real-time and performing multiple tasks concurrently from any location in the world. Sample applications are to use the portable ground system in remote areas or mobile vessels for real-time correlation of satellite data with earth-bound instruments; thus, allowing near real-time feedback and control of scientific instruments. This end-to-end portable ground system will undoubtedly create opportunities for better scientific observation and data acquisition.

  8. Integrating end-to-end threads of control into object-oriented analysis and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccandlish, Janet E.; Macdonald, James R.; Graves, Sara J.

    1993-01-01

    Current object-oriented analysis and design methodologies fall short in their use of mechanisms for identifying threads of control for the system being developed. The scenarios which typically describe a system are more global than looking at the individual objects and representing their behavior. Unlike conventional methodologies that use data flow and process-dependency diagrams, object-oriented methodologies do not provide a model for representing these global threads end-to-end. Tracing through threads of control is key to ensuring that a system is complete and timing constraints are addressed. The existence of multiple threads of control in a system necessitates a partitioning of the system into processes. This paper describes the application and representation of end-to-end threads of control to the object-oriented analysis and design process using object-oriented constructs. The issue of representation is viewed as a grouping problem, that is, how to group classes/objects at a higher level of abstraction so that the system may be viewed as a whole with both classes/objects and their associated dynamic behavior. Existing object-oriented development methodology techniques are extended by adding design-level constructs termed logical composite classes and process composite classes. Logical composite classes are design-level classes which group classes/objects both logically and by thread of control information. Process composite classes further refine the logical composite class groupings by using process partitioning criteria to produce optimum concurrent execution results. The goal of these design-level constructs is to ultimately provide the basis for a mechanism that can support the creation of process composite classes in an automated way. Using an automated mechanism makes it easier to partition a system into concurrently executing elements that can be run in parallel on multiple processors.

  9. End-to-end test of spatial accuracy in Gamma Knife treatments for trigeminal neuralgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brezovich, Ivan A., E-mail: ibrezovich@uabmc.edu; Wu, Xingen; Duan, Jun; Popple, Richard A.; Shen, Sui; Benhabib, Sidi; Huang, Mi; Christian Dobelbower, M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35249 (United States); Fisher III, Winfield S. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35249 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Spatial accuracy is most crucial when small targets like the trigeminal nerve are treated. Although current quality assurance procedures typically verify that individual apparatus, like the MRI scanner, CT scanner, Gamma Knife, etc., are meeting specifications, the cumulative error of all equipment and procedures combined may exceed safe margins. This study uses an end-to-end approach to assess the overall targeting errors that may have occurred in individual patients previously treated for trigeminal neuralgia. Methods: The trigeminal nerve is simulated by a 3 mm long, 3.175 mm (1/8 in.) diameter MRI-contrast filled cavity embedded within a PMMA plastic capsule. The capsule is positioned within the head frame such that the location of the cavity matches the Gamma Knife coordinates of an arbitrarily chosen, previously treated patient. Gafchromic EBT2 film is placed at the center of the cavity in coronal and sagittal orientations. The films are marked with a pinprick to identify the cavity center. Treatments are planned for radiation delivery with 4 mm collimators according to MRI and CT scans using the clinical localizer boxes and acquisition protocols. Shots are planned so that the 50% isodose surface encompasses the cavity. Following irradiation, the films are scanned and analyzed. Targeting errors are defined as the distance between the pinprick, which represents the intended target, and the centroid of the 50% isodose line, which is the center of the radiation field that was actually delivered. Results: Averaged over ten patient simulations, targeting errors along the x, y, and z coordinates (patient’s left-to-right, posterior-to-anterior, and head-to-foot) were, respectively, −0.060 ± 0.363, −0.350 ± 0.253, and 0.348 ± 0.204 mm when MRI was used for treatment planning. Planning according to CT exhibited generally smaller errors, namely, 0.109 ± 0.167, −0.191 ± 0.144, and 0.211 ± 0.094 mm. The largest errors along individual axes in MRI

  10. Jet-Cooled Spectroscopy on the Ailes Infrared Beamline of the Synchrotron Radiation Facility Soleil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Robert

    2015-06-01

    The Advanced Infrared Line Exploited for Spectroscopy (AILES) extracts the bright far infrared (FIR) synchrotron continuum of the third generation radiation facility SOLEIL. This beamline is equipped with a high resolution (10-3 cm-1) Bruker IFS125 Fourier transform spectrometer which can be operated in the FIR but also in the mid and near infrared by using its internal conventional sources. The jet-AILES consortium (IPR, PhLAM, MONARIS, SOLEIL) has implemented a supersonic-jet apparatus on the beamline to record absorption spectra at very low temperature (5-50 K) and in highly supersaturated gaseous conditions. Heatable slit-nozzles of various lengths and widths are used to set properly the stagnation conditions. A mechanical pumping (roots pumps) was preferred for its ability to evacuate important mass flow rates and therefore to boost the experimental sensitivity of the set-up, the counterpart being a non-negligible consumption of both carrier (argon, helium or nitrogen) and spectroscopic gases. Various molecular systems were investigated up to now using the Jet-AILES apparatus. The very low temperature achieved in the gas expansion was either used to simplify the rotation-vibration structure of monomers, such as SF6, CF4 or naphthalene, or to stabilize the formation of weakly bonded molecular complexes such as the trimer of HF or the dimer of acetic acid. The nucleation of water vapor and the nuclear spin conversion of water were also investigated under free-jet conditions in the mid infrared. High-resolution spectroscopy and analysis of the νb{2} + νb{3} combination band of SF6 in a supersonic jet expansion. V. Boudon, P. Asselin, P. Soulard, M. Goubet, T. R. Huet, R. Georges, O. Pirali, P. Roy, Mol. Phys. 111, 2154-2162 (2013) The far infrared spectrum of naphthalene characterized by high resolution synchrotron FTIR spectroscopy and anharmonic DFT calculations. O. Pirali, M. Goubet, T.R. Huet, R. Georges, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, J. Courbe, P. Roy and M

  11. Internet end-to-end performance monitoring for the High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, W.

    2000-02-22

    Modern High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics (HENP) experiments at Laboratories around the world present a significant challenge to wide area networks. Petabytes (1015) or exabytes (1018) of data will be generated during the lifetime of the experiment. Much of this data will be distributed via the Internet to the experiment's collaborators at Universities and Institutes throughout the world for analysis. In order to assess the feasibility of the computing goals of these and future experiments, the HENP networking community is actively monitoring performance across a large part of the Internet used by its collaborators. Since 1995, the pingER project has been collecting data on ping packet loss and round trip times. In January 2000, there are 28 monitoring sites in 15 countries gathering data on over 2,000 end-to-end pairs. HENP labs such as SLAC, Fermi Lab and CERN are using Advanced Network's Surveyor project and monitoring performance from one-way delay of UDP packets. More recently several HENP sites have become involved with NLANR's active measurement program (AMP). In addition SLAC and CERN are part of the RIPE test-traffic project and SLAC is home for a NIMI machine. The large End-to-end performance monitoring infrastructure allows the HENP networking community to chart long term trends and closely examine short term glitches across a wide range of networks and connections. The different methodologies provide opportunities to compare results based on different protocols and statistical samples. Understanding agreement and discrepancies between results provides particular insight into the nature of the network. This paper will highlight the practical side of monitoring by reviewing the special needs of High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics experiments and provide an overview of the experience of measuring performance across a large number of interconnected networks throughout the world with various methodologies. In particular, results

  12. Fistulotomy with end-to-end primary sphincteroplasty for anal fistula: results from a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratto, Carlo; Litta, Francesco; Parello, Angelo; Zaccone, Giuseppe; Donisi, Lorenza; De Simone, Veronica

    2013-02-01

    Fistulotomy plus primary sphincteroplasty for complex anal fistulas is regarded with scepticism, mainly because of the risk of postoperative incontinence. The aim of this study was to evaluate safety and effectiveness of this technique in medium-term follow up and to identify potential predictive factors of success and postoperative continence impairment. This was a prospective observational study conducted at a tertiary care university hospital in Italy. A total of 72 patients with complex anal fistula of cryptoglandular origin underwent fistulotomy and end-to-end primary sphincteroplasty; patients were followed up at 1 week, 1 and 3 months, 1 year, and were invited to participate in a recent follow-up session. Success regarding healing of the fistula was assessed with 3-dimensional endoanal ultrasound and clinical evaluation. Continence status was evaluated using the Cleveland Clinic fecal incontinence score and by patient report of post-defecation soiling. Of the 72 patients, 12 (16.7%) had recurrent fistulas and 29 patients (40.3%) had undergone seton drainage before definitive surgery. At a mean follow-up of 29.4 (SD, 23.7; range, 6-91 months, the success rate of treatment was 95.8% (69 patients). Fistula recurrence was observed in 3 patients at a mean of 17.3 (SD, 10.3; range, 6-26) months of follow-up. Cleveland Clinic fecal incontinence score did not change significantly (p = 0.16). Eight patients (11.6% of those with no baseline incontinence) reported de novo postdefecation soiling. None of the investigated factors was a significant predictor of success. Patients with recurrent fistula after previous fistula surgery had a 5-fold increased probability of having impaired continence (relative risk = 5.00, 95% CI, 1.45-17.27, p = 0.02). The study was limited by potential single-institution bias, lack of anorectal manometry, and lack of quality of life assessment. Fistulotomy with end-to-end primary sphincteroplasty can be considered to be an effective

  13. The time-resolved and extreme conditions XAS (TEXAS) facility at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility: the general-purpose EXAFS bending-magnet beamline BM23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathon, O., E-mail: mathon@esrf.fr; Beteva, A.; Borrel, J.; Bugnazet, D.; Gatla, S.; Hino, R.; Kantor, I.; Mairs, T. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Munoz, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Université Joseph Fourier, 1381 rue de la Piscine, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Pasternak, S.; Perrin, F.; Pascarelli, S. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2015-10-17

    BM23 is the general-purpose EXAFS bending-magnet beamline at the ESRF, replacing the former BM29 beamline in the framework of the ESRF upgrade. Its mission is to serve the whole XAS user community by providing access to a basic service in addition to the many specialized instruments available at the ESRF. BM23 offers high-signal-to-noise ratio EXAFS in a large energy range (5–75 keV), continuous energy scanning for quick-EXAFS on the second timescale and a micro-XAS station delivering a spot size of 4 µm × 4 µm FWHM. BM23 is the general-purpose EXAFS bending-magnet beamline at the ESRF, replacing the former BM29 beamline in the framework of the ESRF upgrade. Its mission is to serve the whole XAS user community by providing access to a basic service in addition to the many specialized instruments available at the ESRF. BM23 offers high signal-to-noise ratio EXAFS in a large energy range (5–75 keV), continuous energy scanning for quick-EXAFS on the second timescale and a micro-XAS station delivering a spot size of 4 µm × 4 µm FWHM. It is a user-friendly facility featuring a high degree of automation, online EXAFS data reduction and a flexible sample environment.

  14. An end-to-end microfluidic platform for engineering life supporting microbes in space exploration missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — HJ Science & Technology proposes a programmable, low-cost, and compact microfluidic platform capable of running automated end-to-end processes and optimization...

  15. Availability and End-to-end Reliability in Low Duty Cycle MultihopWireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo D. Hämäläinen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A wireless sensor network (WSN is an ad-hoc technology that may even consist of thousands of nodes, which necessitates autonomic, self-organizing and multihop operations. A typical WSN node is battery powered, which makes the network lifetime the primary concern. The highest energy efficiency is achieved with low duty cycle operation, however, this alone is not enough. WSNs are deployed for different uses, each requiring acceptable Quality of Service (QoS. Due to the unique characteristics of WSNs, such as dynamic wireless multihop routing and resource constraints, the legacy QoS metrics are not feasible as such. We give a new definition to measure and implement QoS in low duty cycle WSNs, namely availability and reliability. Then, we analyze the effect of duty cycling for reaching the availability and reliability. The results are obtained by simulations with ZigBee and proprietary TUTWSN protocols. Based on the results, we also propose a data forwarding algorithm suitable for resource constrained WSNs that guarantees end-to-end reliability while adding a small overhead that is relative to the packet error rate (PER. The forwarding algorithm guarantees reliability up to 30% PER.

  16. SIMsim: An End-to-End Simulation of The Space Interferometer Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Meier, D L; Meier, David L.; Folkner, William M.

    2003-01-01

    We present the basic elements and first results of an end-to-end simulation package whose purpose is to test the validity of the Space Interferometer Mission design. The fundamental simulation time step is one millisecond, with substructure at 1/8 ms, and the total duration of the simulation is five years. The end product of a given "wide-angle" astrometry run is an estimated grid star catalog over the entire sky with an accuracy of about 4 micro-arcseconds. SIMsim is divided into five separate modules that communicate via data pipes. The first generates the 'truth' data on the spacecraft structure and laser metrology. The second module generates uncorrupted fringes for the three SIM interferometers, based on the current spacecraft orientation, target stars' positions, etc. The third module reads out the CCD white light fringe data at specified times, corrupting that and the metrology data with appropriate errors. The data stream out of this module represents the basic data stream on the simulated spacecraft....

  17. End-to-end simulation of bunch merging for a muon collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Yu [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Stratakis, Diktys [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hanson, Gail G. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Palmer, Robert B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    Muon accelerator beams are commonly produced indirectly through pion decay by interaction of a charged particle beam with a target. Efficient muon capture requires the muons to be first phase-rotated by rf cavities into a train of 21 bunches with much reduced energy spread. Since luminosity is proportional to the square of the number of muons per bunch, it is crucial for a Muon Collider to use relatively few bunches with many muons per bunch. In this paper we will describe a bunch merging scheme that should achieve this goal. We present for the first time a complete end-to-end simulation of a 6D bunch merger for a Muon Collider. The 21 bunches arising from the phase-rotator, after some initial cooling, are merged in longitudinal phase space into seven bunches, which then go through seven paths with different lengths and reach the final collecting "funnel" at the same time. The final single bunch has a transverse and a longitudinal emittance that matches well with the subsequent 6D rectilinear cooling scheme.

  18. The optical performance of the PILOT instrument from ground end-to-end tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, R.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Longval, Y.; Ristorcelli, I.; Ade, P.; Alina, D.; André, Y.; Aumont, J.; Bautista, L.; de Bernardis, P.; Boulade, O.; Bousqet, F.; Bouzit, M.; Buttice, V.; Caillat, A.; Chaigneau, M.; Charra, M.; Crane, B.; Douchin, F.; Doumayrou, E.; Dubois, J. P.; Engel, C.; Griffin, M.; Foenard, G.; Grabarnik, S.; Hargrave, P.; Hughes, A.; Laureijs, R.; Leriche, B.; Maestre, S.; Maffei, B.; Marty, C.; Marty, W.; Masi, S.; Montel, J.; Montier, L.; Mot, B.; Narbonne, J.; Pajot, F.; Pérot, E.; Pimentao, J.; Pisano, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Rodriguez, L.; Roudil, G.; Salatino, M.; Savini, G.; Simonella, O.; Saccoccio, M.; Tauber, J.; Tucker, C.

    2017-06-01

    The Polarized Instrument for Long-wavelength Observation of the Tenuous interstellar medium ( PILOT) is a balloon-borne astronomy experiment designed to study the linear polarization of thermal dust emission in two photometric bands centred at wavelengths 240 μm (1.2 THz) and 550 μm (545 GHz), with an angular resolution of a few arcminutes. Several end-to-end tests of the instrument were performed on the ground between 2012 and 2014, in order to prepare for the first scientific flight of the experiment that took place in September 2015 from Timmins, Ontario, Canada. This paper presents the results of those tests, focussing on an evaluation of the instrument's optical performance. We quantify image quality across the extent of the focal plane, and describe the tests that we conducted to determine the focal plane geometry, the optimal focus position, and sources of internal straylight. We present estimates of the detector response, obtained using an internal calibration source, and estimates of the background intensity and background polarization.

  19. Characterisation of residual ionospheric errors in bending angles using GNSS RO end-to-end simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. L.; Kirchengast, G.; Zhang, K. F.; Norman, R.; Li, Y.; Zhang, S. C.; Carter, B.; Fritzer, J.; Schwaerz, M.; Choy, S. L.; Wu, S. Q.; Tan, Z. X.

    2013-09-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) is an innovative meteorological remote sensing technique for measuring atmospheric parameters such as refractivity, temperature, water vapour and pressure for the improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP) and global climate monitoring (GCM). GNSS RO has many unique characteristics including global coverage, long-term stability of observations, as well as high accuracy and high vertical resolution of the derived atmospheric profiles. One of the main error sources in GNSS RO observations that significantly affect the accuracy of the derived atmospheric parameters in the stratosphere is the ionospheric error. In order to mitigate the effect of this error, the linear ionospheric correction approach for dual-frequency GNSS RO observations is commonly used. However, the residual ionospheric errors (RIEs) can be still significant, especially when large ionospheric disturbances occur and prevail such as during the periods of active space weather. In this study, the RIEs were investigated under different local time, propagation direction and solar activity conditions and their effects on RO bending angles are characterised using end-to-end simulations. A three-step simulation study was designed to investigate the characteristics of the RIEs through comparing the bending angles with and without the effects of the RIEs. This research forms an important step forward in improving the accuracy of the atmospheric profiles derived from the GNSS RO technique.

  20. End-To-End performance test of the LINC-NIRVANA Wavefront-Sensor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwein, Juergen; Bertram, Thomas; Conrad, Al; Briegel, Florian; Kittmann, Frank; Zhang, Xiangyu; Mohr, Lars

    2011-09-01

    LINC-NIRVANA is an imaging Fizeau interferometer, for use in near infrared wavelengths, being built for the Large Binocular Telescope. Multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) increases the sky coverage and the field of view over which diffraction limited images can be obtained. For its MCAO implementation, Linc-Nirvana utilizes four total wavefront sensors; each of the two beams is corrected by both a ground-layer wavefront sensor (GWS) and a high-layer wavefront sensor (HWS). The GWS controls the adaptive secondary deformable mirror (DM), which is based on an DSP slope computing unit. Whereas the HWS controls an internal DM via computations provided by an off-the-shelf multi-core Linux system. Using wavefront sensor data collected from a prior lab experiment, we have shown via simulation that the Linux based system is sufficient to operate at 1kHz, with jitter well below the needs of the final system. Based on that setup we tested the end-to-end performance and latency through all parts of the system which includes the camera, the wavefront controller, and the deformable mirror. We will present our loop control structure and the results of those performance tests.

  1. An end-to-end architecture for distributing weather alerts to wireless handsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karen L.; Nguyen, Hung

    2005-06-01

    This paper describes the current National Weather Service's (NWS) system for providing weather alerts in the U.S. and will review how the existing end-to-end architecture is being leveraged to provide non-weather alerts, also known as "all-hazard alerts", to the general public. The paper then describes how a legacy system that transmits weather and all-hazard alerts can be extended via commercial wireless networks and protocols to reach 154 million Americans who carry cell phones. This approach uses commercial SATCOM and existing wireless carriers and services such as Short Messaging Service (SMS) for text and emerging Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) protocol, which would allow for photos, maps, audio and video alerts to be sent to end users. This wireless broadcast alert delivery architecture is designed to be open and to embrace the National Weather Service's mandate to become an "" warning system for the general public. Examples of other public and private sector applications that require timely and intelligent push mechanisms using this alert dissemination approach are also given.

  2. End-to-end Information Flow Security Model for Software-Defined Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ju. Chaly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Software-defined networks (SDN are a novel paradigm of networking which became an enabler technology for many modern applications such as network virtualization, policy-based access control and many others. Software can provide flexibility and fast-paced innovations in the networking; however, it has a complex nature. In this connection there is an increasing necessity of means for assuring its correctness and security. Abstract models for SDN can tackle these challenges. This paper addresses to confidentiality and some integrity properties of SDNs. These are critical properties for multi-tenant SDN environments, since the network management software must ensure that no confidential data of one tenant are leaked to other tenants in spite of using the same physical infrastructure. We define a notion of end-to-end security in context of software-defined networks and propose a semantic model where the reasoning is possible about confidentiality, and we can check that confidential information flows do not interfere with non-confidential ones. We show that the model can be extended in order to reason about networks with secure and insecure links which can arise, for example, in wireless environments.The article is published in the authors’ wording.

  3. End to End Delay Improvement in Heterogeneous Multicast Network using Genetic Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Chandrasekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Multicast is a concept of group communication which refers to transmitting the same data or messages from a source to multiple destinations in the network. This one-to-many group communication is a generalization of the concepts of one-to-one unicast and one-to-all broadcast. To deliver data from the sender to all receivers efficiently, routing plays an important role in multicast communication. In QoS multicast, every receiver must receive the data within their own specified QoS constraints. This becomes challenging especially if the network is a heterogeneous network made up of wired and wireless devices. Approach: This study investigates the performance of Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode (PIM-SM protocol in a heterogeneous network running an video conferencing application and proposes an enhanced routing protocol using Genetic Optimizing techniques to improve QOS parameters in the wireless part. Results and Conclusion: Extensive simulations were carried out using the proposed technique and existing PIM-SM. The proposed optimization technique not only improves the throughput of the network but also decreased the end to end delay."

  4. Changes in the end-to-end distance distribution in an oligonucleotide following hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, Lawrence J.; Parkhurst, Kay M.

    1994-08-01

    A 16-mer deoxy oligonucleotide was labeled at the 5' end with x- rhodamine and at the 3' end with fluorescein. The fluorescence lifetime of the donor, fluorescein, under conditions for resonance energy transfer, was studied using the SLM 4850 multiharmonic frequency phase fluorometer in order to obtain information on the end-to-end distance distribution P(R) in the oligomer. When this doubly labeled oligonucleotide was hybridized to its 16-mer complement, the fluorescein fluorescence decay could be very well described by a P(R) that was a symmetric shifted Gaussian with center at 68.4 angstrom and (sigma) equals6.4 angstrom. Simulations suggested that part of the width might be attributable to a distribution in (kappa) 2. In the single- stranded labeled oligomer, there was enhanced energy transfer from the fluorescein to the rhodamine and the best fitting symmetrical shifted Gaussian representation of P(R) was centered at 53.8 angstrom with (kappa) equals6.9 angstrom. There was significant lack of fit with this model, however. A model independent procedure was developed for extracting P(R) as a sum of weighted Hermite polynomials. This procedure gave a P(R) with a large negative region at R<20 angstrom, suggesting that rotational averaging for (kappa) 2 was not quite complete prior to significant decay of the donor excited state.

  5. An end-to-end assessment of range uncertainty in proton therapy using animal tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuanshui; Kang, Yixiu; Zeidan, Omar; Schreuder, Niek

    2016-11-01

    Accurate assessment of range uncertainty is critical in proton therapy. However, there is a lack of data and consensus on how to evaluate the appropriate amount of uncertainty. The purpose of this study is to quantify the range uncertainty in various treatment conditions in proton therapy, using transmission measurements through various animal tissues. Animal tissues, including a pig head, beef steak, and lamb leg, were used in this study. For each tissue, an end-to-end test closely imitating patient treatments was performed. This included CT scan simulation, treatment planning, image-guided alignment, and beam delivery. Radio-chromic films were placed at various depths in the distal dose falloff region to measure depth dose. Comparisons between measured and calculated doses were used to evaluate range differences. The dose difference at the distal falloff between measurement and calculation depends on tissue type and treatment conditions. The estimated range difference was up to 5, 6 and 4 mm for the pig head, beef steak, and lamb leg irradiation, respectively. Our study shows that the TPS was able to calculate proton range within about 1.5% plus 1.5 mm. Accurate assessment of range uncertainty in treatment planning would allow better optimization of proton beam treatment, thus fully achieving proton beams’ superior dose advantage over conventional photon-based radiation therapy.

  6. End-to-End Beam Simulations for the MSU RIA Driver Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, X; Gorelov, D; Grimm, T L; Marti, F; York, R C; Zhao, Q

    2004-01-01

    The Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac proposed by Michigan State University (MSU) will use a 10th sub-harmonic based, superconducting, cw linac to accelerate light and heavy ions to final energies of ≤400 MeV/u with beam powers of 100 to 400 kW. The driver linac uses superconducting quarter-wave, half-wave, and six-cell elliptical cavities with frequencies ranging from 80.5 MHz to 805 MHz for acceleration, and superconducting solenoids and room temperature quadrupoles for transverse focusing. For the heavier ions, two stages of charge-stripping and multiple-charge-state acceleration will be used to meet the beam power requirements and to minimize the requisite accelerating voltage. End-to-end, three-dimensional (3D), beam dynamics simulations from the ECR to the radioactive beam production targets have been performed. These studies include a 3D analysis of multi-charge-state beam acceleration, evaluation of transverse misalignment and rf errors on the machine performance, modeling of the c...

  7. Telecommunications end-to-end systems monitoring on TOPEX/Poseidon: Tools and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calanche, Bruno J.

    1994-01-01

    The TOPEX/Poseidon Project Satellite Performance Analysis Team's (SPAT) roles and responsibilities have grown to include functions that are typically performed by other teams on JPL Flight Projects. In particular, SPAT Telecommunication's role has expanded beyond the nominal function of monitoring, assessing, characterizing, and trending the spacecraft (S/C) RF/Telecom subsystem to one of End-to-End Information Systems (EEIS) monitoring. This has been accomplished by taking advantage of the spacecraft and ground data system structures and protocols. By processing both the received spacecraft telemetry minor frame ground generated CRC flags and NASCOM block poly error flags, bit error rates (BER) for each link segment can be determined. This provides the capability to characterize the separate link segments, determine science data recovery, and perform fault/anomaly detection and isolation. By monitoring and managing the links, TOPEX has successfully recovered approximately 99.9 percent of the science data with an integrity (BER) of better than 1 x 10(exp 8). This paper presents the algorithms used to process the above flags and the techniques used for EEIS monitoring.

  8. End-to-End Image Simulator for Optical Imaging Systems: Equations and Simulation Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Coppo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical description of a simplified end-to-end software tool for simulation of data produced by optical instruments, starting from either synthetic or airborne hyperspectral data, is described and some simulation examples of hyperspectral and panchromatic images for existing and future design instruments are also reported. High spatial/spectral resolution images with low intrinsic noise and the sensor/mission specifications are used as inputs for the simulations. The examples reported in this paper show the capabilities of the tool for simulating target detection scenarios, data quality assessment with respect to classification performance and class discrimination, impact of optical design on image quality, and 3D modelling of optical performances. The simulator is conceived as a tool (during phase 0/A for the specification and early development of new Earth observation optical instruments, whose compliance to user’s requirements is achieved through a process of cost/performance trade-off. The Selex Galileo simulator, as compared with other existing image simulators for phase C/D projects of space-borne instruments, implements all modules necessary for a complete panchromatic and hyper spectral image simulation, and it allows excellent flexibility and expandability for new integrated functions because of the adopted IDL-ENVI software environment.

  9. End-To-End Simulation of Launch Vehicle Trajectories Including Stage Separation Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Cindy W.; Tartabini, Paul V.; Pamadi, Bandu N.

    2012-01-01

    The development of methodologies, techniques, and tools for analysis and simulation of stage separation dynamics is critically needed for successful design and operation of multistage reusable launch vehicles. As a part of this activity, the Constraint Force Equation (CFE) methodology was developed and implemented in the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2). The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of POST2/CFE to simulate a complete end-to-end mission. The vehicle configuration selected was the Two-Stage-To-Orbit (TSTO) Langley Glide Back Booster (LGBB) bimese configuration, an in-house concept consisting of a reusable booster and an orbiter having identical outer mold lines. The proximity and isolated aerodynamic databases used for the simulation were assembled using wind-tunnel test data for this vehicle. POST2/CFE simulation results are presented for the entire mission, from lift-off, through stage separation, orbiter ascent to orbit, and booster glide back to the launch site. Additionally, POST2/CFE stage separation simulation results are compared with results from industry standard commercial software used for solving dynamics problems involving multiple bodies connected by joints.

  10. Addressing the Bandwidth issue in End-to-End Header Compression over IPv6 Tunneling Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Chauhan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One day IPv6 is going to be the default protocol used over the internet. But till then we are going to have the networks which IPv4, IPv6 or both networks. There are a number of migration technologies which support this transition like dual stack, tunneling & header translation. In this paper we are improving the efficiency of IPv6 tunneling mechanism, by compressing the IPv6 header of the tunneled packet as IPv6 header is of largest length of 40 bytes. Here the tunnel is a multi hop wireless tunnel and results are analyzed on the basis of varying bandwidth of wireless network. Here different network performance parameters like throughput, End-to-End delay, Jitter, and Packet delivery ratio are taken into account and the results are compared with uncompressed network. We have used Qualnet 5.1 Simulator and the simulation results shows that using header compression over multi hop IPv6 tunnel results in better network performance and bandwidth savings than uncompressed network.

  11. Semantic Complex Event Processing over End-to-End Data Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qunzhi [University of Southern California; Simmhan, Yogesh; Prasanna, Viktor K.

    2012-04-01

    Emerging Complex Event Processing (CEP) applications in cyber physical systems like SmartPower Grids present novel challenges for end-to-end analysis over events, flowing from heterogeneous information sources to persistent knowledge repositories. CEP for these applications must support two distinctive features - easy specification patterns over diverse information streams, and integrated pattern detection over realtime and historical events. Existing work on CEP has been limited to relational query patterns, and engines that match events arriving after the query has been registered. We propose SCEPter, a semantic complex event processing framework which uniformly processes queries over continuous and archived events. SCEPteris built around an existing CEP engine with innovative support for semantic event pattern specification and allows their seamless detection over past, present and future events. Specifically, we describe a unified semantic query model that can operate over data flowing through event streams to event repositories. Compile-time and runtime semantic patterns are distinguished and addressed separately for efficiency. Query rewriting is examined and analyzed in the context of temporal boundaries that exist between event streams and their repository to avoid duplicate or missing results. The design and prototype implementation of SCEPterare analyzed using latency and throughput metrics for scenarios from the Smart Grid domain.

  12. A Workflow-based Intelligent Network Data Movement Advisor with End-to-end Performance Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Michelle M. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Wu, Chase Q. [Univ. of Memphis, TN (United States)

    2013-11-07

    Next-generation eScience applications often generate large amounts of simulation, experimental, or observational data that must be shared and managed by collaborative organizations. Advanced networking technologies and services have been rapidly developed and deployed to facilitate such massive data transfer. However, these technologies and services have not been fully utilized mainly because their use typically requires significant domain knowledge and in many cases application users are even not aware of their existence. By leveraging the functionalities of an existing Network-Aware Data Movement Advisor (NADMA) utility, we propose a new Workflow-based Intelligent Network Data Movement Advisor (WINDMA) with end-to-end performance optimization for this DOE funded project. This WINDMA system integrates three major components: resource discovery, data movement, and status monitoring, and supports the sharing of common data movement workflows through account and database management. This system provides a web interface and interacts with existing data/space management and discovery services such as Storage Resource Management, transport methods such as GridFTP and GlobusOnline, and network resource provisioning brokers such as ION and OSCARS. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed transport-support workflow system in several use cases based on its implementation and deployment in DOE wide-area networks.

  13. End-to-End Optimization of High-Throughput DNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Eliza; Baccelli, Francois; De Veciana, Gustavo; Vikalo, Haris

    2016-10-01

    At the core of Illumina's high-throughput DNA sequencing platforms lies a biophysical surface process that results in a random geometry of clusters of homogeneous short DNA fragments typically hundreds of base pairs long-bridge amplification. The statistical properties of this random process and the lengths of the fragments are critical as they affect the information that can be subsequently extracted, that is, density of successfully inferred DNA fragment reads. The ensembles of overlapping DNA fragment reads are then used to computationally reconstruct the much longer target genome sequence. The success of the reconstruction in turn depends on having a sufficiently large ensemble of DNA fragments that are sufficiently long. In this article using stochastic geometry, we model and optimize the end-to-end flow cell synthesis and target genome sequencing process, linking and partially controlling the statistics of the physical processes to the success of the final computational step. Based on a rough calibration of our model, we provide, for the first time, a mathematical framework capturing the salient features of the sequencing platform that serves as a basis for optimizing cost, performance, and/or sensitivity analysis to various parameters.

  14. Vascular Coupling System for End-to-End Anastomosis: An In Vivo Pilot Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huizhong; Gale, Bruce; Shea, Jill; Sant, Himanshu; Terry, Christi M; Agarwal, Jay

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the latest in vivo findings of a novel vascular coupling system. Vascular anastomosis is a common procedure in reconstructive surgeries and traditional hand suturing is very time consuming. The vascular coupling system described herein was designed to be used on arteries for a rapid and error-free anastomosis. The system consists of an engaging ring made from high density polyethylene using computer numerical control machining and a back ring made from polymethylmethacrylate using laser cutting. The vascular coupling system and its corresponding installation tools were tested in a pilot animal study to evaluate their efficacy in completing arterial anastomosis. A segment of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) tubing was interposed into a transected carotid artery by anastomosis using two couplers in a pig. Two end-to-end anastomoses were accomplished. Ultrasound images were obtained to evaluate the blood flow at the anastomotic site immediately after the surgery. MRI was also performed 2 weeks after the surgery to evaluate vessel and ePTFE graft patency. This anastomotic system demonstrated high efficacy and easy usability, which should facilitate vascular anastomosis procedures in trauma and reconstructive surgeries.

  15. The Structural Biology Center 19ID undulator beamline: facility specifications and protein crystallographic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Gerd; Alkire, Randy W; Evans, Gwyndaf; Rotella, Frank J; Lazarski, Krzystof; Zhang, Rong Guang; Ginell, Stephan L; Duke, Norma; Naday, Istvan; Lazarz, Jack; Molitsky, Michael J; Keefe, Lisa; Gonczy, John; Rock, Larry; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Walsh, Martin A; Westbrook, Edwin; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    The 19ID undulator beamline of the Structure Biology Center has been designed and built to take full advantage of the high flux, brilliance and quality of X-ray beams delivered by the Advanced Photon Source. The beamline optics are capable of delivering monochromatic X-rays with photon energies from 3.5 to 20 keV (3.5-0.6 A wavelength) with fluxes up to 8-18 x 10(12) photons s(-1) (depending on photon energy) onto cryogenically cooled crystal samples. The size of the beam (full width at half-maximum) at the sample position can be varied from 2.2 mm x 1.0 mm (horizontal x vertical, unfocused) to 0.083 mm x 0.020 mm in its fully focused configuration. Specimen-to-detector distances of between 100 mm and 1500 mm can be used. The high flexibility, inherent in the design of the optics, coupled with a kappa-geometry goniometer and beamline control software allows optimal strategies to be adopted in protein crystallographic experiments, thus maximizing the chances of their success. A large-area mosaic 3 x 3 CCD detector allows high-quality diffraction data to be measured rapidly to the crystal diffraction limits. The beamline layout and the X-ray optical and endstation components are described in detail, and the results of representative crystallographic experiments are presented.

  16. End-to-end self-assembly of RADA 16-I nanofibrils in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosio, Paolo; Owczarz, Marta; Wu, Hua; Butté, Alessandro; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2012-04-04

    RADARADARADARADA (RADA 16-I) is a synthetic amphiphilic peptide designed to self-assemble in a controlled way into fibrils and higher ordered structures depending on pH. In this work, we use various techniques to investigate the state of the peptide dispersed in water under dilute conditions at different pH and in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid or hydrochloric acid. We have identified stable RADA 16-I fibrils at pH 2.0-4.5, which have a length of ∼200-400 nm and diameter of 10 nm. The fibrils have the characteristic antiparallel β-sheet structure of amyloid fibrils, as measured by circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. During incubation at pH 2.0-4.5, the fibrils elongate very slowly via an end-to-end fibril-fibril aggregation mechanism, without changing their diameter, and the kinetics of such aggregation depends on pH and anion type. At pH 2.0, we also observed a substantial amount of monomers in the system, which do not participate in the fibril elongation and degrade to fragments. The fibril-fibril elongation kinetics has been simulated using the Smoluchowski kinetic model, population balance equations, and the simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data. It is also found that the aggregation process is not limited by diffusion but rather is an activated process with energy barrier in the order of 20 kcal/mol.

  17. SPoRT - An End-to-End R2O Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    Established in 2002 to demonstrate the weather and forecasting application of real-time EOS measurements, the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program has grown to be an end-to-end research to operations activity focused on the use of advanced NASA modeling and data assimilation approaches, nowcasting techniques, and unique high-resolution multispectral observational data applications from EOS satellites to improve short-term weather forecasts on a regional and local scale. SPoRT currently partners with several universities and other government agencies for access to real-time data and products, and works collaboratively with them and operational end users at 13 WFOs to develop and test the new products and capabilities in a "test-bed" mode. The test-bed simulates key aspects of the operational environment without putting constraints on the forecaster workload. Products and capabilities which show utility in the test-bed environment are then transitioned experimentally into the operational environment for further evaluation and assessment. SPoRT focuses on a suite of data and products from MODIS, AMSR-E, and AIRS on the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites, and total lightning measurements from ground-based networks. Some of the observations are assimilated into or used with various versions of the WRF model to provide supplemental forecast guidance to operational end users. SPoRT is enhancing partnerships with NOAA / NESDIS for new product development and data access to exploit the remote sensing capabilities of instruments on the NPOESS satellites to address short term weather forecasting problems. The VIIRS and CrIS instruments on the NPP and follow-on NPOESS satellites provide similar observing capabilities to the MODIS and AIRS instruments on Terra and Aqua. SPoRT will be transitioning existing and new capabilities into the AWIIPS II environment to continue the continuity of its activities.

  18. SME2EM: Smart mobile end-to-end monitoring architecture for life-long diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serhani, Mohamed Adel; Menshawy, Mohamed El; Benharref, Abdelghani

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring life-long diseases requires continuous measurements and recording of physical vital signs. Most of these diseases are manifested through unexpected and non-uniform occurrences and behaviors. It is impractical to keep patients in hospitals, health-care institutions, or even at home for long periods of time. Monitoring solutions based on smartphones combined with mobile sensors and wireless communication technologies are a potential candidate to support complete mobility-freedom, not only for patients, but also for physicians. However, existing monitoring architectures based on smartphones and modern communication technologies are not suitable to address some challenging issues, such as intensive and big data, resource constraints, data integration, and context awareness in an integrated framework. This manuscript provides a novel mobile-based end-to-end architecture for live monitoring and visualization of life-long diseases. The proposed architecture provides smartness features to cope with continuous monitoring, data explosion, dynamic adaptation, unlimited mobility, and constrained devices resources. The integration of the architecture׳s components provides information about diseases׳ recurrences as soon as they occur to expedite taking necessary actions, and thus prevent severe consequences. Our architecture system is formally model-checked to automatically verify its correctness against designers׳ desirable properties at design time. Its components are fully implemented as Web services with respect to the SOA architecture to be easy to deploy and integrate, and supported by Cloud infrastructure and services to allow high scalability, availability of processes and data being stored and exchanged. The architecture׳s applicability is evaluated through concrete experimental scenarios on monitoring and visualizing states of epileptic diseases. The obtained theoretical and experimental results are very promising and efficiently satisfy the proposed

  19. A NASA Climate Model Data Services (CDS) End-to-End System to Support Reanalysis Intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriere, L.; Potter, G. L.; McInerney, M.; Nadeau, D.; Shen, Y.; Duffy, D.; Schnase, J. L.; Maxwell, T. P.; Huffer, E.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Climate Model Data Service (CDS) and the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) are collaborating to provide an end-to-end system for the comparative study of the major Reanalysis projects, currently, ECMWF ERA-Interim, NASA/GMAO MERRA, NOAA/NCEP CFSR, NOAA/ESRL 20CR, and JMA JRA25. Components of the system include the full spectrum of Climate Model Data Services; Data, Compute Services, Data Services, Analytic Services and Knowledge Services. The Data includes standard Reanalysis model output, and will be expanded to include gridded observations, and gridded Innovations (O-A and O-F). The NCCS High Performance Science Cloud provides the compute environment (storage, servers, and network). Data Services are provided through an Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) data node complete with Live Access Server (LAS), Web Map Service (WMS) and Ultrascale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT) for visualization, as well as a collaborative interface through the Earth System CoG. Analytic Services include UV-CDAT for analysis and MERRA/AS, accessed via the CDS API, for computation services, both part of the CDS Climate Analytics as a Service (CAaaS). Knowledge Services include access to an Ontology browser, ODISEES, for metadata search and data retrieval. The result is a system that provides the ability for both reanalysis scientists and those scientists in need of reanalysis output to identify the data of interest, compare, compute, visualize, and research without the need for transferring large volumes of data, performing time consuming format conversions, and writing code for frequently run computations and visualizations.

  20. The relationship between suture number and the healing process of end-to-end arterial anastomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston B Yoshida

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the grate experience accumulated in vascular repairing, the ideal number of sutures for vascular anastomosis remains controversial. It is generally thought that the more stitches applied in a vascular anastomosis, the lesser resistant the anastomosis will be. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis in 20 rabbits, in which both carotid arteries were cross sectioned and repaired by end-to-end anastomosis with 8 interrupted sutures in one side (G1 and 16 in the other side (G2. After 3 and 15 days, the animals were randomly allocated for tensile strength, hydroxyproline determination (7 animals and for histologic analysis of the anastomosis (3 animals. Conventional staining procedures (hematoxylin-eosin and Masson methods and the picrosirius red polarization (PSP technique for collagen type determination were used. From 3 to 15 days, the tensile strength increased in both groups, from 265.0±-44.4g to 391.2±-49.0g in G1 and from 310.0±-71.5g to 348.7±-84.0g in G2 (p<0.005, with no statistical difference between the groups in each period of study. The hydroxyproline content, expressed as hydroxyproline/protein ratio, varied from 0.04±-0.01 to 0.05±-0.02 in G1 and from 0.05±-0.01 to 0.05±-0.02 in G2, with no significant difference between periods and groups. The histology showed similar inflammatory and reparative aspects in both groups. In both groups and periods the PSP technique demonstrated predominantly type I collagen in relation to type III collagen in the anastomosis. We concluded that even doubling the number of stitches, the healing process and strength did not change in the arterial anastomosis.

  1. Weaving marine food webs from end to end under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Coleen L.; St John, Michael A.; Denman, Kenneth L.; Karl, David M.; Köster, Friedrich W.; Sundby, Svein; Wilson, Rory P.

    2011-02-01

    Marine food web dynamics are determined by interactions within and between species and between species and their environment. Global change directly affects abiotic conditions and living organisms, impinging on all trophic levels in food webs. Different groups of marine researchers traditionally study different aspects of these changes. However, over medium to long time scales perturbations affecting food webs need to be considered across the full range from nutrients to top predators. Studies of end-to-end marine food webs not only span organism sizes and trophic levels, but should also help align multidisciplinary research to common goals and perspectives. Topics are described that bridge disciplinary gaps and are needed to develop new understanding of the reciprocal impacts of global change on marine food webs and ocean biogeochemistry. These include (1) the effects of nutrients on biomass and production, (2) the effects of varying element ratios on food web structure and food quality, (3) bulk flows of energy and material in food webs and their efficiencies of transfer, (4) the ecological effects of species richness and the roles of microbial organisms, (5) the role of feeding behaviour in food web dynamics and trophic controls, (6) the spatial dynamics of communities and links between different food webs, (7) the combined effects of body size and behaviour in determining dynamics of food webs, and (8) the extent to which the ability of marine organisms (and communities) to adapt will influence food web dynamics. An overriding issue that influences all topics concerns the time and space scales of ecosystem variability. Threads link different nodes of information among various topics, emphasizing the importance of tackling food web studies with a variety of modelling approaches and through a combination of field and experimental studies with a strong comparative approach.

  2. End-to-End Models for Effects of System Noise on LIMS Analysis of Igneous Rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clegg, Samuel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bender, Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wiens, R. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carmosino, Marco L [MT. HOLYOKE COLLEGE; Speicher, Elly A [MT. HOLYOKE COLLEGE; Dyar, M. D. [MT. HOLYOKE COLLEGE

    2010-12-23

    The ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory will be the first extraterrestial deployment of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (UBS) for remote geochemical analysis. LIBS instruments are also being proposed for future NASA missions. In quantitative LIBS applications using multivariate analysis techniques, it is essential to understand the effects of key instrument parameters and their variability on the elemental predictions. Baseline experiments were run on a laboratory instrument in conditions reproducing ChemCam performance on Mars. These experiments employed Nd:YAG laser producing 17 mJ/pulse on target and an with a 200 {micro}m FWHM spot size on the surface of a sample. The emission is collected by a telescope, imaged on a fiber optic and then interfaced to a demultiplexer capable of >40% transmission into each spectrometer. We report here on an integrated end-to-end system performance model that simulates the effects of output signal degradation that might result from the input signal chain and the impact on multivariate model predictions. There are two approaches to modifying signal to noise (SNR): degrade the signal and/or increase the noise. Ishibashi used a much smaller data set to show that the addition of noise had significant impact while degradation of spectral resolution had much less impact on accuracy and precision. Here, we specifically focus on aspects of remote LIBS instrument performance as they relate to various types of signal degradation. To assess the sensitivity of LIBS analysis to signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and spectral resolution, the signal in each spectrum from a suite of 50 laboratory spectra of igneous rocks was variably degraded by increasing the peak widths (simulating misalignment) and decreasing the spectral amplitude (simulating decreases in SNR).

  3. A Mechanistic End-to-End Concussion Model That Translates Head Kinematics to Neurologic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel J. Ng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Past concussion studies have focused on understanding the injury processes occurring on discrete length scales (e.g., tissue-level stresses and strains, cell-level stresses and strains, or injury-induced cellular pathology. A comprehensive approach that connects all length scales and relates measurable macroscopic parameters to neurological outcomes is the first step toward rationally unraveling the complexity of this multi-scale system, for better guidance of future research. This paper describes the development of the first quantitative end-to-end (E2E multi-scale model that links gross head motion to neurological injury by integrating fundamental elements of tissue and cellular mechanical response with axonal dysfunction. The model quantifies axonal stretch (i.e., tension injury in the corpus callosum, with axonal functionality parameterized in terms of axonal signaling. An internal injury correlate is obtained by calculating a neurological injury measure (the average reduction in the axonal signal amplitude over the corpus callosum. By using a neurologically based quantity rather than externally measured head kinematics, the E2E model is able to unify concussion data across a range of exposure conditions and species with greater sensitivity and specificity than correlates based on external measures. In addition, this model quantitatively links injury of the corpus callosum to observed specific neurobehavioral outcomes that reflect clinical measures of mild traumatic brain injury. This comprehensive modeling framework provides a basis for the systematic improvement and expansion of this mechanistic-based understanding, including widening the range of neurological injury estimation, improving concussion risk correlates, guiding the design of protective equipment, and setting safety standards.

  4. In vivo laser assisted end-to-end anastomosis with ICG-infused chitosan patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Matteini, Paolo; Esposito, Giuseppe; Scerrati, Alba; Albanese, Alessio; Puca, Alfredo; Maira, Giulio; Rossi, Giacomo; Pini, Roberto

    2011-07-01

    Laser assisted vascular repair is a new optimized technique based on the use of ICG-infused chitosan patch to close a vessel wound, with or even without few supporting single stitches. We present an in vivo experimental study on an innovative end-to-end laser assisted vascular anastomotic (LAVA) technique, performed with the application of ICGinfused chitosan patches. The photostability and the mechanical properties of ICG-infused chitosan films were preliminary measured. The in vivo study was performed in 10 New Zealand rabbits. After anesthesia, a 3-cm segment of the right common carotid artery was exposed, thus clamped proximally and distally. The artery was then interrupted by means of a full thickness cut. Three single microsutures were used to approximate the two vessel edges. The ICG-infused chitosan patch was rolled all over the anastomotic site and welded by the use of a diode laser emitting at 810 nm and equipped with a 300 μm diameter optical fiber. Welding was obtained by delivering single laser spots to induce local patch/tissue adhesion. The result was an immediate closure of the anastomosis, with no bleeding at clamps release. Thus animals underwent different follow-up periods, in order to evaluate the welded vessels over time. At follow-up examinations, all the anastomoses were patent and no bleeding signs were documented. Samples of welded vessels underwent histological examinations. Results showed that this technique offer several advantages over conventional suturing methods: simplification of the surgical procedure, shortening of the operative time, better re-endothelization and optimal vascular healing process.

  5. Design, construction, and demonstration of a neutron beamline and a neutron imaging facility at a Mark-I TRIGA reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Aaron E.

    The fleet of research and training reactors is aging, and no new research reactors are planned in the United States. Thus, there is a need to expand the capabilities of existing reactors to meet users' needs. While many research reactors have beam port facilities, the original design of the United States Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor (GSTR) did not include beam ports. The MInes NEutron Radiography (MINER) facility developed by this thesis and installed at the GSTR provides new capabilities for both researchers and students at the Colorado School of Mines. The facility consists of a number of components, including a neutron beamline and beamstop, an optical table, an experimental enclosure and associated interlocks, a computer control system, a multi-channel plate imaging detector, and the associated electronics. The neutron beam source location, determined through Monte Carlo modeling, provides the best mixture of high neutron flux, high thermal neutron content, and low gamma radiation content. A Monte Carlo n-Particle (MCNP) model of the neutron beam provides researchers with a tool for designing experiments before placing objects in the neutron beam. Experimental multi-foil activation results, compared to calculated multi-foil activation results, verify the model. The MCNP model predicts a neutron beamline flux of 2.2*106 +/- 6.4*105 n/cm2-s based on a source particle rate determined from the foil activation experiments when the reactor is operating at a power of 950 kWt with the beam shutter fully open. The average cadmium ratio of the beamline is 7.4, and the L/D of the neutron beam is approximately 200+/-10. Radiographs of a sensitivity indicator taken using both the digital detector and the transfer foil method provide one demonstration of the radiographic capabilities of the new facility. Calibration fuel pins manufactured using copper and stainless steel surrogate fuel pellets provide additional specimens for demonstration of the new facility and offer a

  6. In-vacuum sensors for the beamline components of the ITER neutral beam test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Palma, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Sartori, E.; Spagnolo, S.; Spolaore, M.; Veltri, P.

    2016-11-01

    Embedded sensors have been designed for installation on the components of the MITICA beamline, the prototype ITER neutral beam injector (Megavolt ITER Injector and Concept Advancement), to derive characteristics of the particle beam and to monitor the component conditions during operation for protection and thermal control. Along the beamline, the components interacting with the particle beam are the neutralizer, the residual ion dump, and the calorimeter. The design and the positioning of sensors on each component have been developed considering the expected beam-surface interaction including non-ideal and off-normal conditions. The arrangement of the following instrumentation is presented: thermal sensors, strain gages, electrostatic probes including secondary emission detectors, grounding shunt for electrical currents, and accelerometers.

  7. The determination of the link with the smallest end-to-end network latency in ethernet architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ethernet fundamental and its data transmission model are introduced in brief and end-to-end network latency was analyzed in this paper. On the premise of not considering transmission quality and transmission cost, latency was the function of the rest of network resource parameter (NRP). The relation between the number of nodes and that of end-to-end links was presented. In ethernet architecture, the algorithm to determine the link with the smallest latency is a polynomial issue when the number of network nodes is limited, so it can be solved by way of polynomial equations. Latency measuring is the key issue to determine the link with the smallest network latency. 3-node brigade (regiment) level network centric warfare (NCW) demonstration platform was studied and the latency between the detectors and weapon control stations was taken as an example. The algorithm of end-to-end network latency and link information in NCW was presented. The algorithm program based on Server/Client architecture was developed. The data transmission optimal link is one whose end-to-end latency is the smallest. This paper solves the key issue to determine the link whose end-to-end latency is the smallest in ethernet architecture. The study can be widely applied to determine the optimal link which is in the complex network environment of multiple service provision points.

  8. SU-E-T-150: End to End Tests On the First Clinical EDGETM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheib, S; Schmelzer, P [Varian Medical Systems, Baden - Daettwil (Switzerland); Vieira, S; Greco, C [Champalimaud Foundation, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify the sub millimeter overall accuracy of EDGETM, the dedicated linac based SRS/SABR treatment platform from Varian, using a novel End-to-End (E2E) test phantom. Methods: The new E2E test phantom developed by Varian consists of a cube with an outer dimension of 15x15x15 cm3. The phantom is equipped with an exchangable inner cube (7×7×7 cm3) to hold radiochromic films or a tungsten ball (diameter = 5 mm) for Winston-Lutz tests. 16 ceramic balls (diameter = 5 mm) are embedded in the outer cube. Three embedded Calypso transponders allow for Calypso based monitoring. The outer surface of the phantom is tracked using the Optical Surface Monitoring System (OSMS). The phantom is positioned using kV, MV and CBCT images. A simCT of the phantom was acquired and SRS/SABR plans were treated using the new phantom on the first clinical installed EDGETM. As a first step a series of EPID based Winston-Lutz tests have been performed. As a second step the calculated dose distribution applied to the phantom was verified with radiochromic films in orthogonal planes. The measured dose distribution is compared with the calculated (Eclipse) one based on the known isocenter on both dose distributions. The geometrical shift needed to match both dose distributions is the overall accuracy and is determined using dose profiles, isodose lines or gamma pass rates (3%, 1 mm). Results: Winston-Lutz tests using the central tungsten BB demonstrated a targeting accuracy of 0.44±0.18mm for jaw (2cm × 2cm) defined 0.39±0.19mm for MLC (2cm × 2cm) defined and 0.37±0.15mm for cone (12.5 mm) defined fields. A treated patient plan (spinal metastases lesion with integrated boost) showed a dosimetric dose localization accuracy of 0.6mm. Conclusion: Geometric and dosimetric E2E tests on EDGETM, show sub-millimeter E2E targeting and dose localisation accuracy.

  9. Astra: Interdisciplinary study on enhancement of the end-to-end accuracy for spacecraft tracking techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iess, Luciano; Di Benedetto, Mauro; James, Nick; Mercolino, Mattia; Simone, Lorenzo; Tortora, Paolo

    2014-02-01

    Navigation of deep-space probes is accomplished through a variety of different radio observables, namely Doppler, ranging and Delta-Differential One-Way Ranging (Delta-DOR). The particular mix of observations used for navigation mainly depends on the available on-board radio system, the mission phase and orbit determination requirements. The accuracy of current ESA and NASA tracking systems is at level of 0.1 mm/s at 60 s integration time for Doppler, 1-5 m for ranging and 6-15 nrad for Delta-DOR measurements in a wide range of operational conditions. The ASTRA study, funded under ESA's General Studies Programme (GSP), addresses the ways to improve the end-to-end accuracy of Doppler, ranging and Delta-DOR systems by roughly a factor of 10. The target accuracies were set to 0.01 mm/s at 60 s integration time for Doppler, 20 cm for ranging and 1 nrad for Delta-DOR. The companies and universities that took part in the study were the University of Rome Sapienza, ALMASpace, BAE Systems and Thales Alenia Space Italy. The analysis of an extensive data set of radio-metric observables and dedicated tests of the ground station allowed consolidating the error budget for each measurement technique. The radio-metric data set comprises X/X, X/Ka and Ka/Ka range and Doppler observables from the Cassini and Rosetta missions. It includes also measurements from the Advanced Media Calibration System (AMCS) developed by JPL for the radio science experiments of the Cassini mission. The error budget for the three radio-metric observables was consolidated by comparing the statistical properties of the data set with the expected error models. The analysis confirmed the contribution from some error sources, but revealed also some discrepancies and ultimately led to improved error models. The error budget reassessment provides adequate information for building guidelines and strategies to effectively improve the navigation accuracies of future deep space missions. We report both on updated

  10. An End-to-End System to Enable Quick, Easy and Inexpensive Deployment of Hydrometeorological Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celicourt, P.; Piasecki, M.

    2014-12-01

    The high cost of hydro-meteorological data acquisition, communication and publication systems along with limited qualified human resources is considered as the main reason why hydro-meteorological data collection remains a challenge especially in developing countries. Despite significant advances in sensor network technologies which gave birth to open hardware and software, low-cost (less than $50) and low-power (in the order of a few miliWatts) sensor platforms in the last two decades, sensors and sensor network deployment remains a labor-intensive, time consuming, cumbersome, and thus expensive task. These factors give rise for the need to develop a affordable, simple to deploy, scalable and self-organizing end-to-end (from sensor to publication) system suitable for deployment in such countries. The design of the envisioned system will consist of a few Sensed-And-Programmed Arduino-based sensor nodes with low-cost sensors measuring parameters relevant to hydrological processes and a Raspberry Pi micro-computer hosting the in-the-field back-end data management. This latter comprises the Python/Django model of the CUAHSI Observations Data Model (ODM) namely DjangODM backed by a PostgreSQL Database Server. We are also developing a Python-based data processing script which will be paired with the data autoloading capability of Django to populate the DjangODM database with the incoming data. To publish the data, the WOFpy (WaterOneFlow Web Services in Python) developed by the Texas Water Development Board for 'Water Data for Texas' which can produce WaterML web services from a variety of back-end database installations such as SQLite, MySQL, and PostgreSQL will be used. A step further would be the development of an appealing online visualization tool using Python statistics and analytics tools (Scipy, Numpy, Pandas) showing the spatial distribution of variables across an entire watershed as a time variant layer on top of a basemap.

  11. Urban Biomining Meets Printable Electronics: End-To-End at Destination Biological Recycling and Reprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J. (Principal Investigator); Koehne, Jessica; Gandhiraman, Ram; Navarrete, Jesica; Spangle, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    Space missions rely utterly on metallic components, from the spacecraft to electronics. Yet, metals add mass, and electronics have the additional problem of a limited lifespan. Thus, current mission architectures must compensate for replacement. In space, spent electronics are discarded; on earth, there is some recycling but current processes are toxic and environmentally hazardous. Imagine instead an end-to-end recycling of spent electronics at low mass, low cost, room temperature, and in a non-toxic manner. Here, we propose a solution that will not only enhance mission success by decreasing upmass and providing a fresh supply of electronics, but in addition has immediate applications to a serious environmental issue on the Earth. Spent electronics will be used as feedstock to make fresh electronic components, a process we will accomplish with so-called 'urban biomining' using synthetically enhanced microbes to bind metals with elemental specificity. To create new electronics, the microbes will be used as 'bioink' to print a new IC chip, using plasma jet electronics printing. The plasma jet electronics printing technology will have the potential to use martian atmospheric gas to print and to tailor the electronic and chemical properties of the materials. Our preliminary results have suggested that this process also serves as a purification step to enhance the proportion of metals in the 'bioink'. The presence of electric field and plasma can ensure printing in microgravity environment while also providing material morphology and electronic structure tunabiity and thus optimization. Here we propose to increase the TRL level of the concept by engineering microbes to dissolve the siliceous matrix in the IC, extract copper from a mixture of metals, and use the microbes as feedstock to print interconnects using mars gas simulant. To assess the ability of this concept to influence mission architecture, we will do an analysis of the infrastructure required to execute

  12. Achieving End-to-End QoS in the Next Generation Internet: Integrated Services over Differentiated Service Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Haowei; Atiquzzaman, Mohammed; Ivancic, William

    2001-01-01

    Currently there are two approaches to provide Quality of Service (QoS) in the next generation Internet: An early one is the Integrated Services (IntServ) with the goal of allowing end-to-end QoS to be provided to applications; the other one is the Differentiated Services (DiffServ) architecture providing QoS in the backbone. In this context, a DiffServ network may be viewed as a network element in the total end-to-end path. The objective of this paper is to investigate the possibility of providing end-to-end QoS when IntServ runs over DiffServ backbone in the next generation Internet. Our results show that the QoS requirements of IntServ applications can be successfully achieved when IntServ traffic is mapped to the DiffServ domain in next generation Internet.

  13. On the importance of risk knowledge for an end-to-end tsunami early warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Joachim; Strunz, Günter; Riedlinger, Torsten; Mück, Matthias; Wegscheider, Stephanie; Zosseder, Kai; Steinmetz, Tilmann; Gebert, Niklas; Anwar, Herryal

    2010-05-01

    context has been worked out. The generated results contribute significantly in the fields of (1) warning decision and warning levels, (2) warning dissemination and warning message content, (3) early warning chain planning, (4) increasing response capabilities and protective systems, (5) emergency relief and (6) enhancing communities' awareness and preparedness towards tsunami threats. Additionally examples will be given on the potentials of an operational use of risk information in early warning systems as first experiences exist for the tsunami early warning center in Jakarta, Indonesia. Beside this the importance of linking national level early warning information with tsunami risk information available at the local level (e.g. linking warning message information on expected intensity with respective tsunami hazard zone maps at community level for effective evacuation) will be demonstrated through experiences gained in three pilot areas in Indonesia. The presentation seeks to provide new insights on benefits using risk information in early warning and will provide further evidence that practical use of risk information is an important and indispensable component of end-to-end early warning.

  14. Ocean Acidification Scientific Data Stewardship: An approach for end-to-end data management and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzayus, K. M.; Garcia, H. E.; Jiang, L.; Michael, P.

    2012-12-01

    As the designated Federal permanent oceanographic data center in the United States, NOAA's National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) has been providing scientific stewardship for national and international marine environmental and ecosystem data for over 50 years. NODC is supporting NOAA's Ocean Acidification Program and the science community by providing end-to-end scientific data management of ocean acidification (OA) data, dedicated online data discovery, and user-friendly access to a diverse range of historical and modern OA and other chemical, physical, and biological oceanographic data. This effort is being catalyzed by the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program, but the intended reach is for the broader scientific ocean acidification community. The first three years of the project will be focused on infrastructure building. A complete ocean acidification data content standard is being developed to ensure that a full spectrum of ocean acidification data and metadata can be stored and utilized for optimal data discovery and access in usable data formats. We plan to develop a data access interface capable of allowing users to constrain their search based on real-time and delayed mode measured variables, scientific data quality, their observation types, the temporal coverage, methods, instruments, standards, collecting institutions, and the spatial coverage. In addition, NODC seeks to utilize the existing suite of international standards (including ISO 19115-2 and CF-compliant netCDF) to help our data producers use those standards for their data, and help our data consumers make use of the well-standardized metadata-rich data sets. These tools will be available through our NODC Ocean Acidification Scientific Data Stewardship (OADS) web page at http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/oceanacidification. NODC also has a goal to provide each archived dataset with a unique ID, to ensure a means of providing credit to the data provider. Working with partner institutions, such as the

  15. SensorKit: An End-to-End Solution for Environmental Sensor Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F.; Graham, E.; Deschon, A.; Lam, Y.; Goldman, J.; Wroclawski, J.; Kaiser, W.; Benzel, T.

    2008-12-01

    Modern day sensor network technology has shown great promise to transform environmental data collection. However, despite the promise, these systems have remained the purview of the engineers and computer scientists who design them rather than a useful tool for the environmental scientists who need them. SensorKit is conceived of as a way to make wireless sensor networks accessible to The People: it is an advanced, powerful tool for sensor data collection that does not require advanced technological know-how. We are aiming to make wireless sensor networks for environmental science as simple as setting up a standard home computer network by providing simple, tested configurations of commercially-available hardware, free and easy-to-use software, and step-by-step tutorials. We designed and built SensorKit using a simplicity-through-sophistication approach, supplying users a powerful sensor to database end-to-end system with a simple and intuitive user interface. Our objective in building SensorKit was to make the prospect of using environmental sensor networks as simple as possible. We built SensorKit from off the shelf hardware components, using the Compact RIO platform from National Instruments for data acquisition due to its modular architecture and flexibility to support a large number of sensor types. In SensorKit, we support various types of analog, digital and networked sensors. Our modular software architecture allows us to abstract sensor details and provide users a common way to acquire data and to command different types of sensors. SensorKit is built on top of the Sensor Processing and Acquisition Network (SPAN), a modular framework for acquiring data in the field, moving it reliably to the scientist institution, and storing it in an easily-accessible database. SPAN allows real-time access to the data in the field by providing various options for long haul communication, such as cellular and satellite links. Our system also features reliable data storage

  16. Unidata's Vision for Providing Comprehensive and End-to-end Data Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, M. K.

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents Unidata's vision for providing comprehensive, well-integrated, and end-to-end data services for the geosciences. These include an array of functions for collecting, finding, and accessing data; data management tools for generating, cataloging, and exchanging metadata; and submitting or publishing, sharing, analyzing, visualizing, and integrating data. When this vision is realized, users no matter where they are or how they are connected to the Internetwill be able to find and access a plethora of geosciences data and use Unidata-provided tools and services both productively and creatively in their research and education. What that vision means for the Unidata community is elucidated by drawing a simple analogy. Most of users are familiar with Amazon and eBay e-commerce sites and content sharing sites like YouTube and Flickr. On the eBay marketplace, people can sell practically anything at any time and buyers can share their experience of purchasing a product or the reputation of a seller. Likewise, at Amazon, thousands of merchants sell their goods and millions of customers not only buy those goods, but provide a review or opinion of the products they buy and share their experiences as purchasers. Similarly, YouTube and Flickr are sites tailored to video- and photo-sharing, respectively, where users can upload their own content and share it with millions of other users, including family and friends. What all these sites, together with social-networking applications like MySpace and Facebook, have enabled is a sense of a virtual community in which users can search and browse products or content, comment and rate those products from anywhere, at any time, and via any Internet- enabled device like an iPhone, laptop, or a desktop computer. In essence, these enterprises have fundamentally altered people's buying modes and behavior toward purchases. Unidata believes that similar approaches, appropriately tailored to meet the needs of the scientific

  17. Beamline for Schools 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Two teams of high-school students from the UK and Poland had the opportunity to conduct their own experiments at a fully equipped CERN beamline. Two teams of high-school students from the UK and Poland had the opportunity to conduct their own experiments at a fully equipped CERN beamline, after winning the Beamline for Schools competition. The teams, ‘Pyramid Hunters’ from Poland and ‘Relatively Special’ from the United Kingdom, spent 10 days at CERN conducting the experiments they had dreamt up in their winning proposals. The Beamline for Schools competition gives high-school students the chance to run an experiment on a fully equipped CERN beamline, in the same way researchers do at the Large Hadron Collider and other CERN facilities every day. 

  18. Integration proposal through standard-based design of an end-to-end platform for p-Health environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martíínez, I; Trigo, J D; Martínez-Espronceda, M; Escayola, J; Muñoz, P; Serrano, L; García, J

    2009-01-01

    Interoperability among medical devices and compute engines in the personal environment of the patient, and with healthcare information systems in the remote monitoring and management process is a key need that requires developments supported on standard-based design. Even though there have been some international initiatives to combine different standards, the vision of an entire end-to-end standard-based system is the next challenge. This paper presents the implementation guidelines of a ubiquitous platform for Personal Health (p-Health). It is standard-based using the two main medical norms in this context: ISO/IEEE11073 in the patient environment for medical device interoperability, and EN13606 to allow the interoperable communication of the Electronic Healthcare Record of the patient. Furthermore, the proposal of a new protocol for End-to-End Standard Harmonization (E2ESHP) is presented in order to make possible the end-to-end standard integration. The platform has been designed to comply with the last ISO/IEEE11073 and EN13606 available versions, and tested in a laboratory environment as a proof-of-concept to illustrate its feasibility as an end-to-end standard-based solution.

  19. SLA calculus for end-to-end QOS of TCP-based applications in a multi-domain environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, R.E.; Berg, J.L. van den; Yang, R.; Mei, R.D. van der

    2006-01-01

    Next-generation communication services will be offered over distributed information and communication infrastructures consisting of a multitude of administrative domains, owned by different parties. This raises the problem for service providers to provide satisfactory levels of end-to-end Quality of

  20. A vision for end-to-end data services to foster international partnerships through data sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, M.; Yoksas, T.

    2009-04-01

    Increasingly, the conduct of science requires scientific partnerships and sharing of knowledge, information, and other assets. This is particularly true in our field where the highly-coupled Earth system and its many linkages have heightened the importance of collaborations across geographic, disciplinary, and organizational boundaries. The climate system, for example, is far too complex a puzzle to be unraveled by individual investigators or nations. As articulated in the NSF Strategic Plan: FY 2006-2011, "…discovery increasingly requires expertise of individuals from different disciplines, with diverse perspectives, and often from different nations, working together to accommodate the extraordinary complexity of today's science and engineering challenges." The Nobel Prize winning IPCC assessments are a prime example of such an effort. Earth science education is also uniquely suited to drawing connections between the dynamic Earth system and societal issues. Events like the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and Hurricane Katrina provide ample evidence of this relevance, as they underscore the importance of timely and interdisciplinary integration and synthesis of data. Our success in addressing such complex problems and advancing geosciences depends on the availability of a state-of-the-art and robust cyberinfrastructure, transparent and timely access to high-quality data from diverse sources, and requisite tools to integrate and use the data effectively, toward creating new knowledge. To that end, Unidata's vision calls for providing comprehensive, well-integrated, and end-to-end data services for the geosciences. These include an array of functions for collecting, finding, and accessing data; data management tools for generating, cataloging, and exchanging metadata; and submitting or publishing, sharing, analyzing, visualizing, and integrating data. When this vision is realized, users — no matter where they are, how they are connected to the Internet, or what

  1. Measurement of integral diffraction coefficients of crystals on beamline 4B7of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jia-Min; Hu Zhi-Min; Wei Min-Xi; Zhang Ji-Yan; Yi Rong-Qing; Gan Xin-Shi; Zhao Yang; Cui Ming-Qi; Zhu Tuo; Zhao Yi-Dong; Sun Li-Juan; Zheng Lei; Yan Fen

    2011-01-01

    Integral diffraction coefficients of the crystal are the essential data of a crystal spectrometer which is extensively used to measure quantitative x-ray spectra of high temperature plasmas in kilo-electron-volt region. An experimental method has been developed to measure the integral diffraction coefficients of crystals on beamline 4B7 of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The integral diffraction coefficients of several crystals including polyethylene terephthalate (PET), thallium acid phthalate (TIAP) and rubidium acid phthalate (RAP) crystals have been measured in the x-ray energy range 2100-5600 eV and compared with the calculations of the 'Darwin Prins' and the 'Mosaic' models. It is shown that the integral diffraction coefficients of these crystals are between the calculations of the 'Darwin Prins' and the 'Mosaic' models, but more close to the 'Darwin Prins' model calculations.

  2. Implementation of ultrafast X-ray diffraction at the 1W2B wiggler beamline of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Da Rui; Xu, Guang Lei; Zhang, Bing Bing; Du, Xue Yan; Wang, Hao; Li, Qiu Ju; Zhou, Yang Fan; Li, Zhen Jie; Zhang, Yan; He, Jun; Yue, Jun Hui; Lei, Ge; Tao, Ye

    2016-05-01

    The implementation of a laser pump/X-ray probe scheme for performing picosecond-resolution X-ray diffraction at the 1W2B wiggler beamline at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility is reported. With the hybrid fill pattern in top-up mode, a pixel array X-ray detector was optimized to gate out the signal from the singlet bunch with interval 85 ns from the bunch train. The singlet pulse intensity is ∼2.5 × 10(6) photons pulse(-1) at 10 keV. The laser pulse is synchronized to this singlet bunch at a 1 kHz repetition rate. A polycapillary X-ray lens was used for secondary focusing to obtain a 72 µm (FWHM) X-ray spot. Transient photo-induced strain in BiFeO3 film was observed at a ∼150 ps time resolution for demonstration.

  3. Induced radioactivity studies of the shielding and beamline equipment of the high intensity proton accelerator facility at PSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otiougova Polina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI is the largest national research center in Switzerland. Its multidisciplinary research is dedicated to a wide ↓eld in natural science and technology as well as particle physics. The High Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility (HIPA has been in operation at PSI since 1974. It includes an 870 keV Cockroft-Walton pre-accelerator, a 72 MeV injector cyclotron as well as a 590 MeV ring cyclotron. The experimental facilities, the meson production graphite targets, Target E and Target M, and the spallation target stations (SINQ and UCN are used for material research and particle physics. In order to ful↓ll the request of the regulatory authorities and to be reported to the regulators, the expected radioactive waste and nuclide inventory after an anticipated ↓nal shutdown in the far future has to be estimated. In this contribution, calculations for the 20 m long beamline between Target E and the 590 MeV beam dump of HIPA are presented. The ↓rst step in the calculations was determining spectra and spatial particle distributions around the beamlines using the Monte-Carlo particle transport code MCNPX2.7.0 [1]. To perform the analysis of the MCNPX output and to determine the radionuclide inventory as well as the speci↓c activity of the nuclides, an activation script [2] using the FISPACT10 code with the cross sections from the European Activation File (EAF2010 [3] was applied. The speci↓c activity values were compared to the currently existing Swiss exemption limits (LE [4] as well as to the Swiss liberation limits (LL [5], becoming e↑ective in the near future. The obtained results were used to estimate the total volume of the radioactive waste produced at HIPA and have to be reported to the Swiss regulatory authorities. The comparison of the performed calculations to measurements is discussed as well.

  4. The End-To-End Safety Verification Process Implemented to Ensure Safe Operations of the Columbus Research Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, J.; Kreimer, J.

    2010-09-01

    The European Space Laboratory COLUMBUS was launched in February 2008 with NASA Space Shuttle Atlantis. Since successful docking and activation this manned laboratory forms part of the International Space Station(ISS). Depending on the objectives of the Mission Increments the on-orbit configuration of the COLUMBUS Module varies with each increment. This paper describes the end-to-end verification which has been implemented to ensure safe operations under the condition of a changing on-orbit configuration. That verification process has to cover not only the configuration changes as foreseen by the Mission Increment planning but also those configuration changes on short notice which become necessary due to near real-time requests initiated by crew or Flight Control, and changes - most challenging since unpredictable - due to on-orbit anomalies. Subject of the safety verification is on one hand the on orbit configuration itself including the hardware and software products, on the other hand the related Ground facilities needed for commanding of and communication to the on-orbit System. But also the operational products, e.g. the procedures prepared for crew and ground control in accordance to increment planning, are subject of the overall safety verification. In order to analyse the on-orbit configuration for potential hazards and to verify the implementation of the related Safety required hazard controls, a hierarchical approach is applied. The key element of the analytical safety integration of the whole COLUMBUS Payload Complement including hardware owned by International Partners is the Integrated Experiment Hazard Assessment(IEHA). The IEHA especially identifies those hazardous scenarios which could potentially arise through physical and operational interaction of experiments. A major challenge is the implementation of a Safety process which owns quite some rigidity in order to provide reliable verification of on-board Safety and which likewise provides enough

  5. Minimizing End-to-End Interference in I/O Stacks Spanning Shared Multi-Level Buffer Caches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Christina M.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents an end-to-end interference minimizing uniquely designed high performance I/O stack that spans multi-level shared buffer cache hierarchies accessing shared I/O servers to deliver a seamless high performance I/O stack. In this thesis, I show that I can build a superior I/O stack which minimizes the inter-application interference…

  6. Minimizing End-to-End Interference in I/O Stacks Spanning Shared Multi-Level Buffer Caches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Christina M.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents an end-to-end interference minimizing uniquely designed high performance I/O stack that spans multi-level shared buffer cache hierarchies accessing shared I/O servers to deliver a seamless high performance I/O stack. In this thesis, I show that I can build a superior I/O stack which minimizes the inter-application interference…

  7. Self-assembled nanogaps via seed-mediated growth of end-to-end linked gold nanorods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Titoo; Westerlund, Axel Rune Fredrik; Johnson, Erik

    2009-01-01

    on the nanoscale. We here present a new way to end-to-end link AuNRs with a single or few linker molecules. Whereas methods reported in the literature so far rely on modification of the AuNRs after the synthesis, we here dimerize gold nanoparticle seeds with a water-soluble dithiol-functionalized polyethylene....... In essence, our methods hence demonstrate the fabrication of a nanostructure with a molecule connected to two nanoelectrodes by bottom-up chemical assembly....

  8. Sleep/wake scheduling scheme for minimizing end-to-end delay in multi-hop wireless sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madani Sajjad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a sleep/wake schedule protocol for minimizing end-to-end delay for event driven multi-hop wireless sensor networks. In contrast to generic sleep/wake scheduling schemes, our proposed algorithm performs scheduling that is dependent on traffic loads. Nodes adapt their sleep/wake schedule based on traffic loads in response to three important factors, (a the distance of the node from the sink node, (b the importance of the node's location from connectivity's perspective, and (c if the node is in the proximity where an event occurs. Using these heuristics, the proposed scheme reduces end-to-end delay and maximizes the throughput by minimizing the congestion at nodes having heavy traffic load. Simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol, by comparing its performance with S-MAC and Anycast protocols. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol has significantly reduced the end-to-end delay, as well as has improved the other QoS parameters, like average energy per packet, average delay, packet loss ratio, throughput, and coverage lifetime.

  9. End-to-End Data Movement Using MPI-IO Over Routed Terabots Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallee, Geoffroy R [ORNL; Atchley, Scott [ORNL; Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Scientific discovery is nowadays driven by large-scale simulations running on massively parallel high-performance computing (HPC) systems. These applications each generate a large amount of data, which then needs to be post-processed for example for data mining or visualization. Unfortunately, the computing platform used for post processing might be different from the one on which the data is initially generated, introducing the challenge of moving large amount of data between computing platforms. This is especially challenging when these two platforms are geographically separated since the data needs to be moved between computing facilities. This is even more critical when scientists tightly couple their domain specific applications with a post processing application. The paper presents a solution for the data transfer between MPI applications using a dedicated wide area network (WAN) terabit infrastructure. The proposed solution is based on parallel access to data files and the Message Passing Interface (MPI) over the Common Communication Infrastructure (CCI) for the data transfer over a routed infrastructure. In the context of this research, the Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is targeted for the transfer of data between DOE national laboratories.

  10. Exploring Two Approaches for an End-to-End Scientific Analysis Workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodelson, Scott; Kent, Steve; Kowalkowski, Jim; Paterno, Marc; Sehrish, Saba

    2015-12-01

    The scientific discovery process can be advanced by the integration of independently-developed programs run on disparate computing facilities into coherent workflows usable by scientists who are not experts in computing. For such advancement, we need a system which scientists can use to formulate analysis workflows, to integrate new components to these workflows, and to execute different components on resources that are best suited to run those components. In addition, we need to monitor the status of the workflow as components get scheduled and executed, and to access the intermediate and final output for visual exploration and analysis. Finally, it is important for scientists to be able to share their workflows with collaborators. We have explored two approaches for such an analysis framework for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Dark Energy Science Collaboration (DESC); the first one is based on the use and extension of Galaxy, a web-based portal for biomedical research, and the second one is based on a programming language, Python. In this paper, we present a brief description of the two approaches, describe the kinds of extensions to the Galaxy system we have found necessary in order to support the wide variety of scientific analysis in the cosmology community, and discuss how similar efforts might be of benefit to the HEP community.

  11. Induced radioactivity studies of the shielding and beamline equipment of the high intensity proton accelerator facility at PSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otiougova, Polina; Bergmann, Ryan; Kiselev, Daniela; Talanov, Vadim; Wohlmuther, Michael

    2017-09-01

    The Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is the largest national research center in Switzerland. Its multidisciplinary research is dedicated to a wide ↓eld in natural science and technology as well as particle physics. The High Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility (HIPA) has been in operation at PSI since 1974. It includes an 870 keV Cockroft-Walton pre-accelerator, a 72 MeV injector cyclotron as well as a 590 MeV ring cyclotron. The experimental facilities, the meson production graphite targets, Target E and Target M, and the spallation target stations (SINQ and UCN) are used for material research and particle physics. In order to ful↓ll the request of the regulatory authorities and to be reported to the regulators, the expected radioactive waste and nuclide inventory after an anticipated ↓nal shutdown in the far future has to be estimated. In this contribution, calculations for the 20 m long beamline between Target E and the 590 MeV beam dump of HIPA are presented. The ↓rst step in the calculations was determining spectra and spatial particle distributions around the beamlines using the Monte-Carlo particle transport code MCNPX2.7.0 [1]. To perform the analysis of the MCNPX output and to determine the radionuclide inventory as well as the speci↓c activity of the nuclides, an activation script [2] using the FISPACT10 code with the cross sections from the European Activation File (EAF2010) [3] was applied. The speci↓c activity values were compared to the currently existing Swiss exemption limits (LE) [4] as well as to the Swiss liberation limits (LL) [5], becoming e↑ective in the near future. The obtained results were used to estimate the total volume of the radioactive waste produced at HIPA and have to be reported to the Swiss regulatory authorities. The comparison of the performed calculations to measurements is discussed as well. Note to the reader: the pdf file has been changed on September 22, 2017.

  12. A highly modular beamline electrostatic levitation facility, optimized for in situ high-energy x-ray scattering studies of equilibrium and supercooled liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, N A; Kelton, K F

    2011-03-01

    High-energy x-ray diffraction studies of metallic liquids provide valuable information about structural evolution on the atomic length scale, leading to insights into the origin of the nucleation barrier and the processes of supercooling and glass formation. The containerless processing of the beamline electrostatic levitation (BESL) facility allows coordinated thermophysical and structural studies of equilibrium and supercooled liquids to be made in a contamination-free, high-vacuum (∼10(-8) Torr) environment. To date, the incorporation of electrostatic levitation facilities into synchrotron beamlines has been difficult due to the large footprint of the apparatus and the difficulties associated with its transportation and implementation. Here, we describe a modular levitation facility that is optimized for diffraction studies of high-temperature liquids at high-energy synchrotron beamlines. The modular approach used in the apparatus design allows it to be easily transported and quickly setup. Unlike most previous electrostatic levitation facilities, BESL can be operated by a single user instead of a user team.

  13. Understanding Effect of Constraint Release Environment on End-to-End Vector Relaxation of Linear Polymer Chains

    KAUST Repository

    Shivokhin, Maksim E.

    2017-05-30

    We propose and verify methods based on the slip-spring (SSp) model [ Macromolecules 2005, 38, 14 ] for predicting the effect of any monodisperse, binary, or ternary environment of topological constraints on the relaxation of the end-to-end vector of a linear probe chain. For this purpose we first validate the ability of the model to consistently predict both the viscoelastic and dielectric response of monodisperse and binary mixtures of type A polymers, based on published experimental data. We also report the synthesis of new binary and ternary polybutadiene systems, the measurement of their linear viscoelastic response, and the prediction of these data by the SSp model. We next clarify the relaxation mechanisms of probe chains in these constraint release (CR) environments by analyzing a set of "toy" SSp models with simplified constraint release rates, by examining fluctuations of the end-to-end vector. In our analysis, the longest relaxation time of the probe chain is determined by a competition between the longest relaxation times of the effective CR motions of the fat and thin tubes and the motion of the chain itself in the thin tube. This picture is tested by the analysis of four model systems designed to separate and estimate every single contribution involved in the relaxation of the probe\\'s end-to-end vector in polydisperse systems. We follow the CR picture of Viovy et al. [ Macromolecules 1991, 24, 3587 ] and refine the effective chain friction in the thin and fat tubes based on Read et al. [ J. Rheol. 2012, 56, 823 ]. The derived analytical equations form a basis for generalizing the proposed methodology to polydisperse mixtures of linear and branched polymers. The consistency between the SSp model and tube model predictions is a strong indicator of the compatibility between these two distinct mesoscopic frameworks.

  14. Effect of swirling flow on platelet concentration distribution in small-caliber artificial grafts and end-to-end anastomoses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Zhan; Yu-Bo Fan; Xiao-Yan Deng

    2011-01-01

    Platelet concentration near the blood vessel wall is one of the major factors in the adhesion of platelets to the wall.In our previous studies,it was found that swirling flows could suppress platelet adhesion in small-caliber artificial grafts and end-to-end anastomoses.In order to better understand the beneficial effect of the swirling flow,we numerically analyzed the near-wall concentration distribution of platelets in a straight tube and a sudden tubular expansion tube under both swirling flow and normal flow conditions.The numerical models were created based on our previous experimental studies.The simulation results revealed that when compared with the normal flow,the swirling flow could significantly reduce the near-wall concentration of platelets in both the straight tube and the expansion tube.The present numerical study therefore indicates that the reduction in platelet adhesion under swirling flow conditions in small-caliber arterial grafts,or in end-to-end anastomoses as observed in our previous experimental study,was possibly through a mechanism of platelet transport,in which the swirling flow reduced the near-wall concentration of platelets.

  15. End-to-End Joint Antenna Selection Strategy and Distributed Compress and Forward Strategy for Relay Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Vaze

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multihop relay channels use multiple relay stages, each with multiple relay nodes, to facilitate communication between a source and destination. Previously, distributed space-time codes were proposed to maximize the achievable diversity-multiplexing tradeoff; however, they fail to achieve all the points of the optimal diversity-multiplexing tradeoff. In the presence of a low-rate feedback link from the destination to each relay stage and the source, this paper proposes an end-to-end antenna selection (EEAS strategy as an alternative to distributed space-time codes. The EEAS strategy uses a subset of antennas of each relay stage for transmission of the source signal to the destination with amplifying and forwarding at each relay stage. The subsets are chosen such that they maximize the end-to-end mutual information at the destination. The EEAS strategy achieves the corner points of the optimal diversity-multiplexing tradeoff (corresponding to maximum diversity gain and maximum multiplexing gain and achieves better diversity gain at intermediate values of multiplexing gain, versus the best-known distributed space-time coding strategies. A distributed compress and forward (CF strategy is also proposed to achieve all points of the optimal diversity-multiplexing tradeoff for a two-hop relay channel with multiple relay nodes.

  16. End-to-end self-assembly of gold nanorods in isopropanol solution: experimental and theoretical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordel, M.; Piela, K.; Kołkowski, R.; Koźlecki, T.; Buckle, M.; Samoć, M.

    2015-12-01

    We describe here a modification of properties of colloidal gold nanorods (NRs) resulting from the chemical treatment used to carry out their transfer into isopropanol (IPA) solution. The NRs acquire a tendency to attach one to another by their ends (end-to-end assembly). We focus on the investigation of the change in position and shape of the longitudinal surface plasmon (l-SPR) band after self-assembly. The experimental results are supported by a theoretical calculation, which rationalizes the dramatic change in optical properties when the NRs are positioned end-to-end at short distances. The detailed spectroscopic characterization performed at the consecutive stages of transfer of the NRs from water into IPA solution revealed the features of the interaction between the polymers used as ligands and their contribution to the final stage, when the NRs were dispersed in IPA solution. The efficient method of aligning the NRs detailed here may facilitate applications of the self-assembled NRs as building blocks for optical materials and biological sensing.

  17. End-to-end self-assembly of gold nanorods in isopropanol solution: experimental and theoretical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordel, M., E-mail: marta.gordel@pwr.edu.pl [Wrocław University of Technology, Advanced Materials Engineering and Modelling Group, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Piela, K., E-mail: katarzyna.piela@pwr.edu.pl [Wrocław University of Technology, Department of Physical and Quantum Chemistry (Poland); Kołkowski, R. [Wrocław University of Technology, Advanced Materials Engineering and Modelling Group, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Koźlecki, T. [Wrocław University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Buckle, M. [CNRS, École Normale Supérieure de Cachan, Laboratoire de Biologie et Pharmacologie Appliquée (France); Samoć, M. [Wrocław University of Technology, Advanced Materials Engineering and Modelling Group, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland)

    2015-12-15

    We describe here a modification of properties of colloidal gold nanorods (NRs) resulting from the chemical treatment used to carry out their transfer into isopropanol (IPA) solution. The NRs acquire a tendency to attach one to another by their ends (end-to-end assembly). We focus on the investigation of the change in position and shape of the longitudinal surface plasmon (l-SPR) band after self-assembly. The experimental results are supported by a theoretical calculation, which rationalizes the dramatic change in optical properties when the NRs are positioned end-to-end at short distances. The detailed spectroscopic characterization performed at the consecutive stages of transfer of the NRs from water into IPA solution revealed the features of the interaction between the polymers used as ligands and their contribution to the final stage, when the NRs were dispersed in IPA solution. The efficient method of aligning the NRs detailed here may facilitate applications of the self-assembled NRs as building blocks for optical materials and biological sensing.Graphical Abstract.

  18. Weighted-DESYNC and Its Application to End-to-End Throughput Fairness in Wireless Multihop Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ui-Seong Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The end-to-end throughput of a routing path in wireless multihop network is restricted by a bottleneck node that has the smallest bandwidth among the nodes on the routing path. In this study, we propose a method for resolving the bottleneck-node problem in multihop networks, which is based on multihop DESYNC (MH-DESYNC algorithm that is a bioinspired resource allocation method developed for use in multihop environments and enables fair resource allocation among nearby (up to two hops neighbors. Based on MH-DESYNC, we newly propose weighted-DESYNC (W-DESYNC as a tool artificially to control the amount of resource allocated to the specific user and thus to achieve throughput fairness over a routing path. Proposed W-DESYNC employs the weight factor of a link to determine the amount of bandwidth allocated to a node. By letting the weight factor be the link quality of a routing path and making it the same across a routing path via Cucker-Smale flocking model, we can obtain throughput fairness over a routing path. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm achieves throughput fairness over a routing path and can increase total end-to-end throughput in wireless multihop networks.

  19. Adjusting Sink Location to Reduce End-to-End Delay in Low-Duty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Yuan Lin; Kuo-Feng Ssu; Hau-Yu Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract⎯Low-duty-cycle mechanisms can reduce the energy consumptionsignificantly in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Sensors stay dormant most of the time to save their energy and wake up based on their needs. However, such a technique, while prolonging the network lifetime, sets excessive challenges for reducing the end-to-end (E2E) delay within the network. In this paper, the centralized cluster-based location finding (CCLF) algorithm is proposed to reduce the high latency in low-duty-cycle WSNs by finding a suitable position for the sink. The algorithm is mainly composed of three steps: a) the cluster construction, b) the fast look-up table (FLU-table) construction, and c) the sink location decision. The simulation results show that the performance of the CCLF algorithm is significantly similar to that of the optimal algorithm. Moreover, the CCLF algorithm requires less operation time compared with the optimal algorithm.

  20. A New Fault Detection Method Using End-to-End Data and Sequential Testing for Computer Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadeq Garshasbi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fault localization, a central part of network fault management, is a process of deducing the exact source of a failure from a set of observed failure indications. in the network, end systems and hosts communicate through routers and links connecting them. When a link or a router faces with a fault, the information sent through these components will be damaged. Hence, faulty components in a network need to be detected and repaired to sustain the health of the network. In this paper we introduce an end to end method that detect and repair the faulty components in the network. The proposed method is a heuristic algorithm that uses the embedded information retrieved from disseminated data over the network to detect and repair faulty components. Simulation results show that our heuristic scheme only requires testing a very small set of network components to detect and repair all faults in the network.

  1. Cross-Layer Design for End-to-End Throughput Maximization and Fairness in MIMO Multihop Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain-Shing Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available MIMO links can significantly improve network throughput by supporting multiple concurrent data streams between a pair of nodes and suppressing wireless interference. In this paper, we study joint rate control, routing, and scheduling in MIMO-based multihop wireless networks, which are traditionally known as transport layer, network layer, and MAC layer issues, respectively. Our aim is to find a rate allocation along with a flow allocation and a transmission schedule for a set of end-to-end communication sessions so as to maximize the network throughput and also to achieve the proportional or weighted fairness among these sessions. To this end, we develop Transmission Mode Generating Algorithms (TMGAs, and Linear Programming- (LP- and Convex Programming- (CP- based optimization schemes for the MIMO networks. The performances of the proposed schemes are verified by simulation experiments, and the results show that the different schemes have different performance benefits when achieving a tradeoff between throughput and fairness.

  2. End-to-end Structural Restriction of α-Synuclein and Its Influence on Amyloid Fibril Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Chul Suk; Park, Jae Hyung; Choe, Young Jun; Paik, Seung R. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Relationship between molecular freedom of amyloidogenic protein and its self-assembly into amyloid fibrils has been evaluated with α-synuclein, an intrinsically unfolded protein related to Parkinson's disease, by restricting its structural plasticity through an end-to-end disulfide bond formation between two newly introduced cysteine residues on the N- and C-termini. Although the resulting circular form of α-synuclein exhibited an impaired fibrillation propensity, the restriction did not completely block the protein's interactive core since co-incubation with wild-type α-synuclein dramatically facilitated the fibrillation by producing distinctive forms of amyloid fibrils. The suppressed fibrillation propensity was instantly restored as the structural restriction was unleashed with β-mercaptoethanol. Conformational flexibility of the accreting amyloidogenic protein to pre-existing seeds has been demonstrated to be critical for fibrillar extension process by exerting structural adjustment to a complementary structure for the assembly.

  3. The ZEPLIN-III dark matter detector: performance study using an end-to-end simulation tool

    CERN Document Server

    Araújo, H M; Alner, G J; Bewick, A; Bungau, C; Camanzi, B; Carson, M J; Chagani, H; Chepel, V Yu; Cunha, J P; Davidge, D; Davies, J C; Daw, E; Dawson, J; Durkin, T; Edwards, B; Gamble, T; Ghag, C; Hollingworth, R; Howard, A S; Jones, W G; Joshi, M; Kirkpatrick, J; Kovalenko, A; Kudryavtsev, V A; Lawson, T; Lebedenko, V N; Lewin, J D; Lightfoot, P; Lindote, A; Liubarsky, I; Lopes, M I; Lüscher, R; Majewski, P; Mavrokoridis, K; McMillan, J; Morgan, B; Muna, D; Murphy, A S; Neves, F; Nicklin, G; Paling, S; Preece, R; Quenby, J J; Robinson, M; Silva, C; Smith, N J T; Smith, P F; Solovov, V N; Spooner, N J C; Stekhanov, V; Sumner, T J; Thorne, C; Tovey, Daniel R; Tziaferi, E; Walker, R J

    2006-01-01

    We present results from a GEANT4-based Monte Carlo tool for end-to-end simulations of the ZEPLIN-III dark matter experiment. ZEPLIN-III is a two-phase detector which measures both the scintillation light and the ionisation charge generated in liquid xenon by interacting particles and radiation. The software models the instrument response to radioactive backgrounds and calibration sources, including the generation, ray-tracing and detection of the primary and secondary scintillations in liquid and gaseous xenon, and subsequent processing by data acquisition electronics. A flexible user interface allows easy modification of detector parameters at run time. Realistic datasets can be produced to help with data analysis, an example of which is the position reconstruction algorithm developed from simulated data. We present a range of simulation results confirming the original design sensitivity of a few times $10^{-8}$ pb to the WIMP-nucleon cross-section.

  4. HITSZ_CDR: an end-to-end chemical and disease relation extraction system for BioCreative V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haodi; Tang, Buzhou; Chen, Qingcai; Chen, Kai; Wang, Xiaolong; Wang, Baohua; Wang, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    In this article, an end-to-end system was proposed for the challenge task of disease named entity recognition (DNER) and chemical-induced disease (CID) relation extraction in BioCreative V, where DNER includes disease mention recognition (DMR) and normalization (DN). Evaluation on the challenge corpus showed that our system achieved the highest F1-scores 86.93% on DMR, 84.11% on DN, 43.04% on CID relation extraction, respectively. The F1-score on DMR is higher than our previous one reported by the challenge organizers (86.76%), the highest F1-score of the challenge. Database URL: http://database.oxfordjournals.org/content/2016/baw077 PMID:27270713

  5. Multipurpose monochromator for the Basic Energy Science Synchrotron Radiation Center Collaborative Access Team beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source x-ray facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, M.; Beno, M. A.; Knapp, G. S.; Jennings, G.; Cowan, P. L.; Montano, P. A.

    1995-02-01

    The Basic Energy Science Synchrotron Radiation Center (BESSRC) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) will construct x-ray beamlines at two sectors of the Advanced Photon Source facility. In most of the beamlines the first optical element will be a monochromator, so that a standard design for this critical component is advantageous. The monochromator is a double-crystal, fixed exit scheme with a constant offset designed for ultrahigh vacuum windowless operation. In this design, the crystals are mounted on a turntable with the first crystal at the center of rotation. Mechanical linkages are used to correctly position the second crystal and maintain a constant offset. The main drive for the rotary motion is provided by a vacuum compatible Huber goniometer isolated from the main vacuum chamber. The design of the monochromator is such that it can accommodate water, gallium, or liquid-nitrogen cooling for the crystal optics.

  6. SU-E-T-282: Dose Measurements with An End-To-End Audit Phantom for Stereotactic Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R; Artschan, R [Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Thwaites, D [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Lehmann, J [Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Report on dose measurements as part of an end-to-end test for stereotactic radiotherapy, using a new audit tool, which allows audits to be performed efficiently either by an onsite team or as a postal audit. Methods: Film measurements have been performed with a new Stereotactic Cube Phantom. The phantom has been designed to perform Winston Lutz type position verification measurements and dose measurements in one setup. It comprises a plastic cube with a high density ball in its centre (used for MV imaging with film or EPID) and low density markers in the periphery (used for Cone Beam Computed Tomography, CBCT imaging). It also features strategically placed gold markers near the posterior and right surfaces, which can be used to calculate phantom rotations on MV images. Slit-like openings allow insertion of film or other detectors.The phantom was scanned and small field treatment plans were created. The fields do not traverse any inhomogeneities of the phantom on their paths to the measurement location. The phantom was setup at the delivery system using CBCT imaging. The calculated treatment fields were delivered, each with a piece of radiochromic film (EBT3) placed in the anterior film holder of the phantom. MU had been selected in planning to achieve similar exposures on all films. Calibration films were exposed in solid water for dose levels around the expected doses. Films were scanned and analysed following established procedures. Results: Setup of the cube showed excellent suitability for CBCT 3D alignment. MV imaging with EPID allowed for clear identification of all markers. Film based dose measurements showed good agreement for MLC created fields down to 0.5 mm × 0.5 mm. Conclusion: An end-to-end audit phantom for stereotactic radiotherapy has been developed and tested.

  7. Evaluation of Techniques to Detect Significant Network Performance Problems using End-to-End Active Network Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, R.Les; Logg, Connie; Chhaparia, Mahesh; /SLAC; Grigoriev, Maxim; /Fermilab; Haro, Felipe; /Chile U., Catolica; Nazir, Fawad; /NUST, Rawalpindi; Sandford, Mark

    2006-01-25

    End-to-End fault and performance problems detection in wide area production networks is becoming increasingly hard as the complexity of the paths, the diversity of the performance, and dependency on the network increase. Several monitoring infrastructures are built to monitor different network metrics and collect monitoring information from thousands of hosts around the globe. Typically there are hundreds to thousands of time-series plots of network metrics which need to be looked at to identify network performance problems or anomalous variations in the traffic. Furthermore, most commercial products rely on a comparison with user configured static thresholds and often require access to SNMP-MIB information, to which a typical end-user does not usually have access. In our paper we propose new techniques to detect network performance problems proactively in close to realtime and we do not rely on static thresholds and SNMP-MIB information. We describe and compare the use of several different algorithms that we have implemented to detect persistent network problems using anomalous variations analysis in real end-to-end Internet performance measurements. We also provide methods and/or guidance for how to set the user settable parameters. The measurements are based on active probes running on 40 production network paths with bottlenecks varying from 0.5Mbits/s to 1000Mbit/s. For well behaved data (no missed measurements and no very large outliers) with small seasonal changes most algorithms identify similar events. We compare the algorithms' robustness with respect to false positives and missed events especially when there are large seasonal effects in the data. Our proposed techniques cover a wide variety of network paths and traffic patterns. We also discuss the applicability of the algorithms in terms of their intuitiveness, their speed of execution as implemented, and areas of applicability. Our encouraging results compare and evaluate the accuracy of our

  8. End-to-end performance of cooperative relaying in spectrum-sharing systems with quality of service requirements

    KAUST Repository

    Asghari, Vahid Reza

    2011-07-01

    We propose adopting a cooperative relaying technique in spectrum-sharing cognitive radio (CR) systems to more effectively and efficiently utilize available transmission resources, such as power, rate, and bandwidth, while adhering to the quality of service (QoS) requirements of the licensed (primary) users of the shared spectrum band. In particular, we first consider that the cognitive (secondary) user\\'s communication is assisted by an intermediate relay that implements the decode-and-forward (DF) technique onto the secondary user\\'s relayed signal to help with communication between the corresponding source and the destination nodes. In this context, we obtain first-order statistics pertaining to the first- and second-hop transmission channels, and then, we investigate the end-to-end performance of the proposed spectrum-sharing cooperative relaying system under resource constraints defined to assure that the primary QoS is unaffected. Specifically, we investigate the overall average bit error rate (BER), ergodic capacity, and outage probability of the secondary\\'s communication subject to appropriate constraints on the interference power at the primary receivers. We then consider a general scenario where a cluster of relays is available between the secondary source and destination nodes. In this case, making use of the partial relay selection method, we generalize our results for the single-relay scheme and obtain the end-to-end performance of the cooperative spectrum-sharing system with a cluster of L available relays. Finally, we examine our theoretical results through simulations and comparisons, illustrating the overall performance of the proposed spectrum-sharing cooperative system and quantify its advantages for different operating scenarios and conditions. © 2011 IEEE.

  9. End-to-end models for marine ecosystems: Are we on the precipice of a significant advance or just putting lipstick on a pig?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A. Rose

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid rise in the development of end-to-end models for marine ecosystems over the past decade. Some reasons for this rise include need for predicting effects of climate change on biota and dissatisfaction with existing models. While the benefits of a well-implemented end-to-end model are straightforward, there are many challenges. In the short term, my view is that the major role of end-to-end models is to push the modelling community forward, and to identify critical data so that these data can be collected now and thus be available for the next generation of end-to-end models. I think we should emulate physicists and build theoretically-oriented models first, and then collect the data. In the long-term, end-to-end models will increase their skill, data collection will catch up, and end-to-end models will move towards site-specific applications with forecasting and management capabilities. One pathway into the future is individual efforts, over-promise, and repackaging of poorly performing component submodels (“lipstick on a pig”. The other pathway is a community-based collaborative effort, with appropriate caution and thoughtfulness, so that the needed improvements are achieved (“significant advance”. The promise of end-to-end modelling is great. We should act now to avoid missing a great opportunity.

  10. End-to-End Information System design at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. [data transmission between user and space-based sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    In recognition of a pressing need of the 1980s to optimize the two-way flow of information between a ground-based user and a remote-space-based sensor, an end-to-end approach to the design of information systems has been adopted at the JPL. This paper reviews End-to-End Information System (EEIS) activity at the JPL, with attention given to the scope of the EEIS transfer function, and functional and physical elements of the EEIS. The relationship between the EEIS and the NASA End-to-End Data System program is discussed.

  11. A novel end-to-end classifier using domain transferred deep convolutional neural networks for biomedical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shuchao; Yu, Zhezhou; Orgun, Mehmet A

    2017-03-01

    Highly accurate classification of biomedical images is an essential task in the clinical diagnosis of numerous medical diseases identified from those images. Traditional image classification methods combined with hand-crafted image feature descriptors and various classifiers are not able to effectively improve the accuracy rate and meet the high requirements of classification of biomedical images. The same also holds true for artificial neural network models directly trained with limited biomedical images used as training data or directly used as a black box to extract the deep features based on another distant dataset. In this study, we propose a highly reliable and accurate end-to-end classifier for all kinds of biomedical images via deep learning and transfer learning. We first apply domain transferred deep convolutional neural network for building a deep model; and then develop an overall deep learning architecture based on the raw pixels of original biomedical images using supervised training. In our model, we do not need the manual design of the feature space, seek an effective feature vector classifier or segment specific detection object and image patches, which are the main technological difficulties in the adoption of traditional image classification methods. Moreover, we do not need to be concerned with whether there are large training sets of annotated biomedical images, affordable parallel computing resources featuring GPUs or long times to wait for training a perfect deep model, which are the main problems to train deep neural networks for biomedical image classification as observed in recent works. With the utilization of a simple data augmentation method and fast convergence speed, our algorithm can achieve the best accuracy rate and outstanding classification ability for biomedical images. We have evaluated our classifier on several well-known public biomedical datasets and compared it with several state-of-the-art approaches. We propose a robust

  12. Profiling wind and greenhouse gases by infrared-laser occultation: results from end-to-end simulations in windy air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Plach

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The new mission concept of microwave and infrared-laser occultation between low-Earth-orbit satellites (LMIO is designed to provide accurate and long-term stable profiles of atmospheric thermodynamic variables, greenhouse gases (GHGs, and line-of-sight (l.o.s. wind speed with focus on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS. While the unique quality of GHG retrievals enabled by LMIO over the UTLS has been recently demonstrated based on end-to-end simulations, the promise of l.o.s. wind retrieval, and of joint GHG and wind retrieval, has not yet been analyzed in any realistic simulation setting. Here we use a newly developed l.o.s. wind retrieval algorithm, which we embedded in an end-to-end simulation framework that also includes the retrieval of thermodynamic variables and GHGs, and analyze the performance of both stand-alone wind retrieval and joint wind and GHG retrieval. The wind algorithm utilizes LMIO laser signals placed on the inflection points at the wings of the highly symmetric C18OO absorption line near 4767 cm−1 and exploits transmission differences from a wind-induced Doppler shift. Based on realistic example cases for a diversity of atmospheric conditions, ranging from tropical to high-latitude winter, we find that the retrieved l.o.s. wind profiles are of high quality over the lower stratosphere under all conditions, i.e., unbiased and accurate to within about 2 m s−1 over about 15 to 35 km. The wind accuracy degrades into the upper troposphere due to the decreasing signal-to-noise ratio of the wind-induced differential transmission signals. The GHG retrieval in windy air is not vulnerable to wind speed uncertainties up to about 10 m s−1 but is found to benefit in the case of higher speeds from the integrated wind retrieval that enables correction of wind-induced Doppler shift of GHG signals. Overall both the l.o.s. wind and GHG retrieval results are strongly encouraging towards further development and

  13. Gulf of California species and catch spatial distributions and historical time series - Developing end-to-end models of the Gulf of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the northern Gulf of California, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  14. West Coast fish, mammal, bird life history and abunance parameters - Developing end-to-end models of the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the California Current LME, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  15. West Coast fish, mammal, and bird species diets - Developing end-to-end models of the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the California Current LME, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  16. An anthropomorphic multimodality (CT/MRI) head phantom prototype for end-to-end tests in ion radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallas, Raya R.; Huenemohr, Nora; Runz, Armin; Niebuhr, Nina I.; Greilich, Steffen [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Div. of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology; National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany). Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO); Jaekel, Oliver [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Div. of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology; National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany). Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO); Heidelberg University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    With the increasing complexity of external beam therapy ''end-to-end'' tests are intended to cover every step from therapy planning through to follow-up in order to fulfill the higher demands on quality assurance. As magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important part of the treatment process, established phantoms such as the Alderson head cannot fully be used for those tests and novel phantoms have to be developed. Here, we present a feasibility study of a customizable multimodality head phantom. It is initially intended for ion radiotherapy but may also be used in photon therapy. As basis for the anthropomorphic head shape we have used a set of patient computed tomography (CT) images. The phantom recipient consisting of epoxy resin was produced by using a 3D printer. It includes a nasal air cavity, a cranial bone surrogate (based on dipotassium phosphate), a brain surrogate (based on agarose gel), and a surrogate for cerebrospinal fluid (based on distilled water). Furthermore, a volume filled with normoxic dosimetric gel mimicked a tumor. The entire workflow of a proton therapy could be successfully applied to the phantom. CT measurements revealed CT numbers agreeing with reference values for all surrogates in the range from 2 HU to 978 HU (120 kV). MRI showed the desired contrasts between the different phantom materials especially in T2-weighted images (except for the bone surrogate). T2-weighted readout of the polymerization gel dosimeter allowed approximate range verification.

  17. Minimizing Barriers in Learning for On-Call Radiology Residents-End-to-End Web-Based Resident Feedback System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hailey H; Clark, Jennifer; Jay, Ann K; Filice, Ross W

    2017-08-24

    Feedback is an essential part of medical training, where trainees are provided with information regarding their performance and further directions for improvement. In diagnostic radiology, feedback entails a detailed review of the differences between the residents' preliminary interpretation and the attendings' final interpretation of imaging studies. While the on-call experience of independently interpreting complex cases is important to resident education, the more traditional synchronous "read-out" or joint review is impossible due to multiple constraints. Without an efficient method to compare reports, grade discrepancies, convey salient teaching points, and view images, valuable lessons in image interpretation and report construction are lost. We developed a streamlined web-based system, including report comparison and image viewing, to minimize barriers in asynchronous communication between attending radiologists and on-call residents. Our system provides real-time, end-to-end delivery of case-specific and user-specific feedback in a streamlined, easy-to-view format. We assessed quality improvement subjectively through surveys and objectively through participation metrics. Our web-based feedback system improved user satisfaction for both attending and resident radiologists, and increased attending participation, particularly with regards to cases where substantive discrepancies were identified.

  18. WARP (workflow for automated and rapid production): a framework for end-to-end automated digital print workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Parag

    2006-02-01

    Publishing industry is experiencing a major paradigm shift with the advent of digital publishing technologies. A large number of components in the publishing and print production workflow are transformed in this shift. However, the process as a whole requires a great deal of human intervention for decision making and for resolving exceptions during job execution. Furthermore, a majority of the best-of-breed applications for publishing and print production are intrinsically designed and developed to be driven by humans. Thus, the human-intensive nature of the current prepress process accounts for a very significant amount of the overhead costs in fulfillment of jobs on press. It is a challenge to automate the functionality of applications built with the model of human driven exectution. Another challenge is to orchestrate various components in the publishing and print production pipeline such that they work in a seamless manner to enable the system to perform automatic detection of potential failures and take corrective actions in a proactive manner. Thus, there is a great need for a coherent and unifying workflow architecture that streamlines the process and automates it as a whole in order to create an end-to-end digital automated print production workflow that does not involve any human intervention. This paper describes an architecture and building blocks that lay the foundation for a plurality of automated print production workflows.

  19. Acute traumatic subclavian artery thrombosis and its successful repair via resection and end-to-end anastomosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saulat H Fatimi; Amna Anees; Marium Muzaffar; Hashim M Hanif

    2010-01-01

    Subclavian artery thrombosis is a rare complication of clavicle fractures. We reported a 20-year-old man who was admitted to the emergency room after a road traffic accident. He was a pedestrian who was initially hit by a bus and after he fell down on the road, he was run over by a car. On evaluation, he was found to have multiple facial and rib fractures, distal right humerus and right clavicle fracture. Significantly, right radial pulse was absent. After further evaluation including Doppler studies and an angiography which revealed complete obstruction of right subclavian artery just distal to its 1st portion, the patient was urgently taken to the operation room. A midclavicular fracture was adjacent to the injured vessel. We established proximal and distal control, removed damaged part. After mobilizing the subclavian artery, an end-to-end anastomosis was made. Then open reduction and internal fixation of right distal humerus was performed. The rest of the postoperative course was unremarkable. To prevent complications of subclavian artery thrombosis, different treatment modalities can be used, including anticoagulation therapy,angioplasty, stenting and bypass procedures.

  20. An anthropomorphic multimodality (CT/MRI) phantom prototype for end-to-end tests in radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Gallas, Raya R; Runz, Armin; Niebuhr, Nina I; Jäkel, Oliver; Greilich, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing complexity of external beam therapy, so-called "end-to-end" tests are intended to cover all steps from therapy planning to follow-up to fulfill the high demands on quality assurance. As magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gains growing importance in the treatment process and established phantoms (such as the Alderson head) cannot be used for those tests, novel multimodality phantoms have to be developed. Here, we present a feasibility study for such a customizable multimodality head phantom. We used a set of patient CT images as the basis for the anthropomorphic head shape. The recipient - consisting of an epoxy resin - was produced using rapid prototyping (3D printing). The phantom recipient includes a nasal air cavity, two soft tissues volumes and cranial bone. Additionally a spherical tumor volume was positioned in the center. The volumes were filled with dipotassium phosphate-based cranial bone surrogate, agarose gel, and distilled water. The tumor volume was filled with normoxic dosimetr...

  1. A real-time 3D end-to-end augmented reality system (and its representation transformations)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytgat, Donny; Aerts, Maarten; De Busser, Jeroen; Lievens, Sammy; Rondao Alface, Patrice; Macq, Jean-Francois

    2016-09-01

    The new generation of HMDs coming to the market is expected to enable many new applications that allow free viewpoint experiences with captured video objects. Current applications usually rely on 3D content that is manually created or captured in an offline manner. In contrast, this paper focuses on augmented reality applications that use live captured 3D objects while maintaining free viewpoint interaction. We present a system that allows live dynamic 3D objects (e.g. a person who is talking) to be captured in real-time. Real-time performance is achieved by traversing a number of representation formats and exploiting their specific benefits. For instance, depth images are maintained for fast neighborhood retrieval and occlusion determination, while implicit surfaces are used to facilitate multi-source aggregation for both geometry and texture. The result is a 3D reconstruction system that outputs multi-textured triangle meshes at real-time rates. An end-to-end system is presented that captures and reconstructs live 3D data and allows for this data to be used on a networked (AR) device. For allocating the different functional blocks onto the available physical devices, a number of alternatives are proposed considering the available computational power and bandwidth for each of the components. As we will show, the representation format can play an important role in this functional allocation and allows for a flexible system that can support a highly heterogeneous infrastructure.

  2. Towards a cross-platform software framework to support end-to-end hydrometeorological sensor network deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celicourt, P.; Sam, R.; Piasecki, M.

    2016-12-01

    Global phenomena such as climate change and large scale environmental degradation require the collection of accurate environmental data at detailed spatial and temporal scales from which knowledge and actionable insights can be derived using data science methods. Despite significant advances in sensor network technologies, sensors and sensor network deployment remains a labor-intensive, time consuming, cumbersome and expensive task. These factors demonstrate why environmental data collection remains a challenge especially in developing countries where technical infrastructure, expertise and pecuniary resources are scarce. In addition, they also demonstrate the reason why dense and long-term environmental data collection has been historically quite difficult. Moreover, hydrometeorological data collection efforts usually overlook the (critically important) inclusion of a standards-based system for storing, managing, organizing, indexing, documenting and sharing sensor data. We are developing a cross-platform software framework using the Python programming language that will allow us to develop a low cost end-to-end (from sensor to publication) system for hydrometeorological conditions monitoring. The software framework contains provision for sensor, sensor platforms, calibration and network protocols description, sensor programming, data storage, data publication and visualization and more importantly data retrieval in a desired unit system. It is being tested on the Raspberry Pi microcomputer as end node and a laptop PC as the base station in a wireless setting.

  3. Secondary link adaptation in cognitive radio networks: End-to-end performance with cross-layer design

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Hao

    2012-04-01

    Under spectrum-sharing constraints, we consider the secondary link exploiting cross-layer combining of adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) at the physical layer with truncated automatic repeat request (T-ARQ) at the data link layer in cognitive radio networks. Both, basic AMC and aggressive AMC, are adopted to optimize the overall average spectral efficiency, subject to the interference constraints imposed by the primary user of the shared spectrum band and a target packet loss rate. We achieve the optimal boundary points in closed form to choose the AMC transmission modes by taking into account the channel state information from the secondary transmitter to both the primary receiver and the secondary receiver. Moreover, numerical results substantiate that, without any cost in the transmitter/receiver design nor the end-to-end delay, the scheme with aggressive AMC outperforms that with conventional AMC. The main reason is that, with aggressive AMC, different transmission modes utilized in the initial packet transmission and the following retransmissions match the time-varying channel conditions better than the basic pattern. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. End-to-end simulations of the Visible Tunable Filter for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Wolfgang; Ellwarth, Monika; Baumgartner, Jörg; Bell, Alexander; Fischer, Andreas; Halbgewachs, Clemens; Heidecke, Frank; Kentischer, Thomas; von der Lühe, Oskar; Scheiffelen, Thomas; Sigwarth, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Visible Tunable Filter (VTF) is a narrowband tunable filter system for imaging spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry based. The instrument will be one of the first-light instruments of the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope that is currently under construction on Maui (Hawaii). The VTF is being developed by the Kiepenheuer Institut fuer Sonnenphysik in Freiburg as a German contribution to the DKIST. We perform end-to-end simulations of spectropolarimetric observations with the VTF to verify the science requirements of the instrument. The instrument is simulated with two Etalons, and with a single Etalon. The clear aperture of the Etalons is 250 mm, corresponding to a field of view with a diameter of 60 arcsec in the sky (42,000 km on the Sun). To model the large-scale figure errors we employ low-order Zernike polynomials (power and spherical aberration) with amplitudes of 2.5 nm RMS. We use an ideal polarization modulator with equal modulation coefficients of 3-1/2 for the polarization modulation We synthesiz...

  5. Scaffold-integrated microchips for end-to-end in vitro tumor cell attachment and xenograft formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungwoo; Kohl, Nathaniel; Shanbhang, Sachin; Parekkadan, Biju

    2015-12-01

    Microfluidic technologies have substantially advanced cancer research by enabling the isolation of rare circulating tumor cells (CTCs) for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. The characterization of isolated CTCs has been limited due to the difficulty in recovering and growing isolated cells with high fidelity. Here, we present a strategy that uses a 3D scaffold, integrated into a microfludic device, as a transferable substrate that can be readily isolated after device operation for serial use in vivo as a transplanted tissue bed. Hydrogel scaffolds were incorporated into a PDMS fluidic chamber prior to bonding and were rehydrated in the chamber after fluid contact. The hydrogel matrix completely filled the fluid chamber, significantly increasing the surface area to volume ratio, and could be directly visualized under a microscope. Computational modeling defined different flow and pressure regimes that guided the conditions used to operate the chip. As a proof of concept using a model cell line, we confirmed human prostate tumor cell attachment in the microfluidic scaffold chip, retrieval of the scaffold en masse, and serial implantation of the scaffold to a mouse model with preserved xenograft development. With further improvement in capture efficiency, this approach can offer an end-to-end platform for the continuous study of isolated cancer cells from a biological fluid to a xenograft in mice.

  6. DynaChanAl: Dynamic Channel Allocation with Minimal End-to-end Delay for Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, JeongGil

    2010-01-01

    With recent advances in wireless communication, networking, and low power sensor technology, wireless sensor network (WSN) systems have begun to take significant roles in various applications ranging from environmental sensing to mobile healthcare sensing. While some WSN applications only require a lim- ited amount of bandwidth, new emerging applications operate with a notice- ably large amount of data transfers. One way to deal with such applications is to maximize the available capacity by utilizing the use of multiple wireless channels. This work proposes DynaChannAl, a distributed dynamic wireless channel algorithm with the goal of effectively distributing nodes on multiple wireless channels in WSN systems. Specifically, DynaChannAl targets applica- tions where mobile nodes connect to a pre-existing wireless backbone and takes the expected end-to-end queuing delay as its core metric. We use the link qual- ity indicator (LQI) values provided by IEEE 802.15.4 radios white-list potential links with good link...

  7. Effects of collagen membranes enriched with in vitro-differentiated N1E-115 cells on rat sciatic nerve regeneration after end-to-end repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fornaro Michele

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Peripheral nerves possess the capacity of self-regeneration after traumatic injury but the extent of regeneration is often poor and may benefit from exogenous factors that enhance growth. The use of cellular systems is a rational approach for delivering neurotrophic factors at the nerve lesion site, and in the present study we investigated the effects of enwrapping the site of end-to-end rat sciatic nerve repair with an equine type III collagen membrane enriched or not with N1E-115 pre-differentiated neural cells. After neurotmesis, the sciatic nerve was repaired by end-to-end suture (End-to-End group, end-to-end suture enwrapped with an equine collagen type III membrane (End-to-EndMemb group; and end-to-end suture enwrapped with an equine collagen type III membrane previously covered with neural cells pre-differentiated in vitro from N1E-115 cells (End-to-EndMembCell group. Along the postoperative, motor and sensory functional recovery was evaluated using extensor postural thrust (EPT, withdrawal reflex latency (WRL and ankle kinematics. After 20 weeks animals were sacrificed and the repaired sciatic nerves were processed for histological and stereological analysis. Results showed that enwrapment of the rapair site with a collagen membrane, with or without neural cell enrichment, did not lead to any significant improvement in most of functional and stereological predictors of nerve regeneration that we have assessed, with the exception of EPT which recovered significantly better after neural cell enriched membrane employment. It can thus be concluded that this particular type of nerve tissue engineering approach has very limited effects on nerve regeneration after sciatic end-to-end nerve reconstruction in the rat.

  8. End-to-End Simulation for a Forest-Dedicated Full-Waveform Lidar Onboard a Satellite Initialized from Airborne Ultraviolet Lidar Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxia Shang; Patrick Chazette

    2015-01-01

    In order to study forests at the global scale, a detailed link budget for a lidar system onboard satellite is presented. It is based on an original approach coupling airborne lidar observations and an end-to-end simulator. The simulator is initialized by airborne lidar measurements performed over temperate and tropical forests on the French territory, representing a wide range of forests ecosystems. Considering two complementary wavelengths of 355 and 1064 nm, the end-to-end simulator compute...

  9. The large volume press facility at ID06 beamline of the European synchrotron radiation facility as a High Pressure-High Temperature deformation apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignard, Jeremy; Crichton, Wilson A

    2015-08-01

    We report here the newly developed deformation setup offered by the 20MN (2000T) multi-anvil press newly installed at sector 7 of the European synchrotron radiation facility, on the ID06 beamline. The press is a Deformation-DIA (D-DIA) type apparatus, and different sets of primary anvils can be used for deformation experiments, from 6 mm to 3 mm truncations, according to the target pressure needed. Pressure and temperature calibrations and gradients show that the central zone of the assemblies is stable. Positions of differential RAMs are controlled with a sub-micron precision allowing strain rate from 10(-4) to 10(-6) s(-1). Moreover, changing differential RAM velocity is immediately visible on sample, making faster reaching of steady state. Lattice stresses are determined by the shifting of diffraction peak with azimuth angle using a linear detector covering typically a 10° solid-angle in 2θ mounted on rotation perpendicular to the beam. Acquisition of diffraction pattern, at a typical energy of 55 keV, is less than a minute to cover the whole azimuth-2θ space. Azimuth and d-spacing resolution are respectively better than 1° and 10(-3) Å making it possible to quantify lattice stresses with a precision of ±20 MPa (for silicates, which have typically high values of elastic properties), in pure or simple shear deformation measurements. These mechanical data are used to build fully constrained flow laws by varying P-T-σ-ε̇ conditions with the aim to better understanding the rheology of Earth's mantle. Finally, through texture analysis, it is also possible to determine lattice preferred orientation during deformation by quantifying diffraction peak intensity variation with azimuth angle. This press is therefore included as one of the few apparatus that can perform such experiments combining with synchrotron radiation.

  10. Surgical repair of acute Achilles tendon rupture with an end-to-end tendon suture and tendon flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradino, B; Di Lorenzo, S; Calamia, C; Moschella, F

    2015-08-01

    Achilles tendon ruptures are becoming more common. Complications after open or minimally invasive surgery are: recurrent rupture (2-8%), wound breakdown, deep infections, granuloma, and fistulas. The authors expose their experience with a personal technique. In 8 patients with acute rupture of Achilles tendon the surgery was performed at least 25 days after trauma. Clinical exam and MR demonstrated in all case a total lesion of tendon. After a posterolateral skin incision the tendon stumps were debrided and suture in end-to-end fashion. A tendon flap was harvested from the proximal part of the tendon, in order to protect and reinforce the suture itself. A plaster cast was applied for 3 weeks and the patients started the rehabilitation protocol. After 4 months all patients returned to pre-injury daily activities. The mean follow up was 13 months (ranged between 6 and 24 months). No major complications occurred. The posterolateral skin incision, not above the tendon, preserves the vascularity of the soft tissues, allows identifying and not accidentally injuring the sural nerve, and prevents the cutaneous scar is overlapped the tendon. In this way is favoured physiological tendon sliding. The preparation of the flap tendon does not weaken the overall strength of the tendon and protects the tendon suture. The tension on sutured stumps is less than being spread over a larger area. In our sample of 8 patients the absence of short-and long-term complications and the rapid functional recovery after surgery suggest that the technique used is safe and effective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. End-to-end simulations and planning of a small space telescopes: Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Explorer: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara; Folta, David; Gong, Qian; Howard, Joseph; Hull, Tony; Purves, Lloyd

    2016-08-01

    Large astronomical missions are usually general-purpose telescopes with a suite of instruments optimized for different wavelength regions, spectral resolutions, etc. Their end-to-end (E2E) simulations are typically photons-in to flux-out calculations made to verify that each instrument meets its performance specifications. In contrast, smaller space missions are usually single-purpose telescopes, and their E2E simulations start with the scientific question to be answered and end with an assessment of the effectiveness of the mission in answering the scientific question. Thus, E2E simulations for small missions consist a longer string of calculations than for large missions, as they include not only the telescope and instrumentation, but also the spacecraft, orbit, and external factors such as coordination with other telescopes. Here, we illustrate the strategy and organization of small-mission E2E simulations using the Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Explorer (GESE) as a case study. GESE is an Explorer/Probe-class space mission concept with the primary aim of understanding galaxy evolution. Operation of a small survey telescope in space like GESE is usually simpler than operations of large telescopes driven by the varied scientific programs of the observers or by transient events. Nevertheless, both types of telescopes share two common challenges: maximizing the integration time on target, while minimizing operation costs including communication costs and staffing on the ground. We show in the case of GESE how these challenges can be met through a custom orbit and a system design emphasizing simplification and leveraging information from ground-based telescopes.

  12. Absorbed dose distributions in a tissue-equivalent absorber for Bremsstrahlung produced at the beamlines of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Pisharody, M; Berkvens, P; Colomp, P

    2000-01-01

    The absorbed-dose distributions for Bremsstrahlung, incident on a tissue-equivalent phantom, were measured with LiF : Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosimeters at two insertion device beamlines of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). The measurements were carried out for two different electron beam energies of 4 and 6 GeV. The corresponding Bremsstrahlung spectra and power were measured using a high-resolution lead glass total absorption calorimeter. The results are compared with similar measurements carried out at other facilities. The normalized Bremsstrahlung absorbed dose in a cross-sectional area of 100 mm sup sup 2 , at a depth of 150 mm of the phantom, was measured as 6.1 and 3.6 kGy h sup sup - sup sup 1 W sup sup - sup sup 1 for the corresponding Bremsstrahlung spectra of 4 and 6 GeV.

  13. WE-G-BRD-08: End-To-End Targeting Accuracy of the Gamma Knife for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brezovich, I; Wu, X; Duan, J; Benhabib, S; Huang, M; Shen, S; Cardan, R; Popple, R [University Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Current QA procedures verify accuracy of individual equipment parameters, but may not include CT and MRI localizers. This study uses an end-to-end approach to measure the overall targeting errors in individual patients previously treated for trigeminal neuralgia. Methods: The trigeminal nerve is simulated by a 3 mm long, 3.175 mm (1/8 inch) diameter MRI contrast-filled cavity embedded within a PMMA plastic capsule. The capsule is positioned within the head frame such that the cavity position matches the Gamma Knife coordinates of 10 previously treated patients. Gafchromic EBT2 film is placed at the center of the cavity in coronal and sagittal orientations. The films are marked with a pin prick to identify the cavity center. Treatments are planned for delivery with 4 mm collimators using MRI and CT scans acquired with the clinical localizer boxes and acquisition protocols. Coordinates of shots are chosen so that the cavity is centered within the 50% isodose volume. Following irradiation, the films are scanned and analyzed. Targeting errors are defined as the distance between the pin prick and the centroid of the 50% isodose line. Results: Averaged over 10 patient simulations, targeting errors along the x, y and z coordinates (patient left-to-right, posterior-anterior, head-to-foot) were, respectively, −0.060 +/− 0.363, −0.350 +/− 0.253, and 0.364 +/− 0.191 mm when MRI was used for treatment planning. Planning according to CT exhibited generally smaller errors, namely 0.109 +/− 0.167, −0.191 +/− 0.144, and 0.211 +/− 0.94 mm. The largest errors in MRI and CT planned treatments were, respectively, y = −0.761 and x = 0.428 mm. Conclusion: Unless patient motion or stronger MRI image distortion in actual treatments caused additional errors, all patients received the prescribed dose, i.e., the targeted section of the trig±eminal nerve was contained within the 50% isodose surface in all cases.

  14. SBSS Demonstrator: A design for efficient demonstration of Space-based Space Surveillance end-to-end capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzmann, Jens; Flohrer, Tim; Schildknecht, Thomas; Wagner, Axel; Silha, Jiri; Willemsen, Philip; Teston, Frederic

    This paper presents the capabilities of a Space-Based Space Surveillance (SBSS) demonstration mission for Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) based on a micro-satellite platform. The results have been produced in the frame of ESA’s "Assessment Study for Space Based Space Surveillance Demonstration Mission" performed by the Airbus Defence and Space consortium. Space Surveillance and Tracking is part of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and covers the detection, tracking and cataloguing of space debris and satellites. Derived SST services comprise a catalogue of these man-made objects, collision warning, detection and characterisation of in-orbit fragmentations, sub-catalogue debris characterisation, etc. The assessment of SBSS in a SST system architecture has shown that both an operational SBSS and also already a well-designed space-based demonstrator can provide substantial performance in terms of surveillance and tracking of beyond-LEO objects. Especially the early deployment of a demonstrator, possible by using standard equipment, could boost initial operating capability and create a self-maintained object catalogue. Furthermore, unique statistical information about small-size LEO debris (mm size) can be collected in-situ. Unlike classical technology demonstration missions, the primary goal is the demonstration and optimisation of the functional elements in a complex end-to-end chain (mission planning, observation strategies, data acquisition, processing and fusion, etc.) until the final products can be offered to the users. Also past and current missions by the US (SBV, SBSS) and Canada (Sapphire, NEOSSat) underline the advantages of space-based space surveillance. The presented SBSS system concept takes the ESA SST System Requirements (derived within the ESA SSA Preparatory Program) into account and aims at fulfilling SST core requirements in a stand-alone manner. Additionally, requirments for detection and characterisation of small-sized LEO debris are

  15. Radiation protection of a proton beamline at ELI-Beamlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechet, S.; Versaci, R.; Rollet, S.; Olsovcova, V.; Fajstavr, A.; Zakova, M.; Margarone, D.

    2016-12-01

    ELI-Beamlines (ELI stands for Extreme Light Infrastructure) is a new EU funded laser facility located near Prague, in Czech Republic. It will use laser-driven plasma sources to accelerate particles and host a dedicated proton beamline called ELIMAIA (ELI Multidisciplinary Applications of laser- Ion Acceleration) designed to reach energies up to 250 MeV. This beamline could be exploited to study possible future medical application of laser-driven beams. The first part of this paper introduces the beamline, the corresponding source terms and the complete set-up. The second part of the paper details the evaluation of the ambient dose equivalent and the activation study inside the experimental halls based on Monte-Carlo simulation. These calculations show that the ELIMAIA operation is safe as long as nobody is present in the hall when the beam is on.

  16. OpenCyto: an open source infrastructure for scalable, robust, reproducible, and automated, end-to-end flow cytometry data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finak, Greg; Frelinger, Jacob; Jiang, Wenxin; Newell, Evan W; Ramey, John; Davis, Mark M; Kalams, Spyros A; De Rosa, Stephen C; Gottardo, Raphael

    2014-08-01

    Flow cytometry is used increasingly in clinical research for cancer, immunology and vaccines. Technological advances in cytometry instrumentation are increasing the size and dimensionality of data sets, posing a challenge for traditional data management and analysis. Automated analysis methods, despite a general consensus of their importance to the future of the field, have been slow to gain widespread adoption. Here we present OpenCyto, a new BioConductor infrastructure and data analysis framework designed to lower the barrier of entry to automated flow data analysis algorithms by addressing key areas that we believe have held back wider adoption of automated approaches. OpenCyto supports end-to-end data analysis that is robust and reproducible while generating results that are easy to interpret. We have improved the existing, widely used core BioConductor flow cytometry infrastructure by allowing analysis to scale in a memory efficient manner to the large flow data sets that arise in clinical trials, and integrating domain-specific knowledge as part of the pipeline through the hierarchical relationships among cell populations. Pipelines are defined through a text-based csv file, limiting the need to write data-specific code, and are data agnostic to simplify repetitive analysis for core facilities. We demonstrate how to analyze two large cytometry data sets: an intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) data set from a published HIV vaccine trial focused on detecting rare, antigen-specific T-cell populations, where we identify a new subset of CD8 T-cells with a vaccine-regimen specific response that could not be identified through manual analysis, and a CyTOF T-cell phenotyping data set where a large staining panel and many cell populations are a challenge for traditional analysis. The substantial improvements to the core BioConductor flow cytometry packages give OpenCyto the potential for wide adoption. It can rapidly leverage new developments in computational

  17. First Demonstration of Real-Time End-to-End 40 Gb/s PAM-4 System using 10-G Transmitter for Next Generation Access Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Jinlong; Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut

    We demonstrate the first known experiment of a real-time end-to-end 40-Gb/s PAM-4 system for next generation access applications using 10G class transmitters only. Up to 25-dB upstream link budget for 20 km SMF is achieved.......We demonstrate the first known experiment of a real-time end-to-end 40-Gb/s PAM-4 system for next generation access applications using 10G class transmitters only. Up to 25-dB upstream link budget for 20 km SMF is achieved....

  18. Evolving a Fully Integrated Lean Six Sigma Continuous Process Improvement Systems Approach for Enterprise End-to-End Value Stream Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    To Ensure Proper Strategic “Balance,” Map Business Ys to Balanced Scorecard Business Ys = LSS/TOC Major North Stars & Areas of Strategic Emphasis... Balanced Scorecard • Reinforce AIRSpeed Commitment: Tools, Methodologies & Strategies • Apply HICVS End-to-End across NAE inc. linkage to DoN and

  19. First examples of two ferromagnetic end-to-end cyanate bridged 1D linear coordination polymers of nickel(II) containing an unsymmetrical diamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubey, Somnath; Bhar, Kishalay; Chattopadhyay, Soumi; Hazra, Arpan; Maji, Tapas Kumar; Ribas, Joan; Ghosh, Barindra Kumar

    2012-10-14

    Two new end-to-end (EE) cyanate bridged 1D coordination polymers of Ni(II) are isolated which contain linear (180°) Ni-N-C and Ni-O-C angles in Ni-NCO-Ni bridges and show ferromagnetic (F) coupling in agreement with the reported theoretical model for linear EE bridges.

  20. Analysis of outcome of end-to-end and end-to-side internal iliac artery anastomosis in renal transplantation: Our initial experience with a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dilip Kumar; Sanki, Prakash Kumar; Roy, Sayak

    2017-01-01

    In renal transplantation, there is end-to-side anastomosis of renal artery to external iliac artery and end-to-end anastomosis of renal artery to internal iliac artery. The end-to-end internal iliac artery anastomosis can be associated with complications due to compromised distal vascular supply to limbs and penile erectile tissue. A method of end-to-side anastomosis can overcome them. Till date, there is no case series or trial that has studied the effect of end-to-side anastomosis. This study is aimed at comparing the outcome of end-to-side and end-to-end anastomosis, so as to evaluate the efficacy of end-to-side technique. A total of 40 renal transplant recipients were taken, with internal iliac artery anastomosis, and were divided into two groups, 20 patients with end-to-end and 20 patients with end-to-side anastomosis. The cold ischemia time, arterial anastomosis time, post-operative bleeding and urine leak, claudication, saddle anesthesia and erectile dysfunction, and follow-up recipient creatinine and eGFR and Doppler to look for graft renal artery patency (at 6 months post-transplant) were compared between the two groups. The intraoperative cold ischemia time was slightly more in the group with end-to-end anastomosis, but it was statistically significant (P = 0.22). The arterial anastomosis time was comparable in both the groups (P = 0.65). In the end-to-end group, 15%, 20% and 15% patients had post-operative saddle anaesthesia, claudication and mild-to-moderate erectile dysfunction, which were absent in the end-to-side group. On follow-up, the mean recipient serum creatinine and eGFR were comparable in the two groups. Also, the graft renal artery patency on Doppler was comparable. The end-to-side technique can be definitely applied for renal transplantation, with some advantages over end-to-end technique, and without compromising efficacy.

  1. OpenCyto: an open source infrastructure for scalable, robust, reproducible, and automated, end-to-end flow cytometry data analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Finak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry is used increasingly in clinical research for cancer, immunology and vaccines. Technological advances in cytometry instrumentation are increasing the size and dimensionality of data sets, posing a challenge for traditional data management and analysis. Automated analysis methods, despite a general consensus of their importance to the future of the field, have been slow to gain widespread adoption. Here we present OpenCyto, a new BioConductor infrastructure and data analysis framework designed to lower the barrier of entry to automated flow data analysis algorithms by addressing key areas that we believe have held back wider adoption of automated approaches. OpenCyto supports end-to-end data analysis that is robust and reproducible while generating results that are easy to interpret. We have improved the existing, widely used core BioConductor flow cytometry infrastructure by allowing analysis to scale in a memory efficient manner to the large flow data sets that arise in clinical trials, and integrating domain-specific knowledge as part of the pipeline through the hierarchical relationships among cell populations. Pipelines are defined through a text-based csv file, limiting the need to write data-specific code, and are data agnostic to simplify repetitive analysis for core facilities. We demonstrate how to analyze two large cytometry data sets: an intracellular cytokine staining (ICS data set from a published HIV vaccine trial focused on detecting rare, antigen-specific T-cell populations, where we identify a new subset of CD8 T-cells with a vaccine-regimen specific response that could not be identified through manual analysis, and a CyTOF T-cell phenotyping data set where a large staining panel and many cell populations are a challenge for traditional analysis. The substantial improvements to the core BioConductor flow cytometry packages give OpenCyto the potential for wide adoption. It can rapidly leverage new developments in

  2. Design of the LBNF Beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadimitriou, V.; Andrews, R.; Hylen, J.; Kobilarcik, T.; Krafczyk, G.; Marchinonni, A.; Moore, C. D.; Schlabach, P.; Tariq, S.

    2015-08-30

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) will utilize a beamline located at Fermilab to carry out a compelling research program in neutrino physics. The facility will aim a wide band neutrino beam toward underground detectors placed at the SURF Facility in South Dakota, about 1,300 km away. The main elements of the facility are a primary proton beamline and a neutrino beamline. The primary proton beam (60-120 GeV) will be extracted from the MI-10 section of Fermilab’s Main Injector. Neutrinos are produced after the protons hit a solid target and produce mesons which are subsequently focused by magnetic horns into a 204 m long decay pipe where they decay into muons and neutrinos. The parameters of the facility were determined taking into account the physics goals, spacial and radiological constraints and the experience gained by operating the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The initial proton beam power is expected to be 1.2 MW; however, the facility is designed to be upgradeable to 2.4 MW. We discuss here the design status and the associated challenges as well as plans for improvements before baselining the facility.

  3. The Time-resolved and Extreme-conditions XAS (TEXAS) facility at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility: the energy-dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy beamline ID24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascarelli, S; Mathon, O; Mairs, T; Kantor, I; Agostini, G; Strohm, C; Pasternak, S; Perrin, F; Berruyer, G; Chappelet, P; Clavel, C; Dominguez, M C

    2016-01-01

    The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has recently made available to the user community a facility totally dedicated to Time-resolved and Extreme-conditions X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy--TEXAS. Based on an upgrade of the former energy-dispersive XAS beamline ID24, it provides a unique experimental tool combining unprecedented brilliance (up to 10(14) photons s(-1) on a 4 µm × 4 µm FWHM spot) and detection speed for a full EXAFS spectrum (100 ps per spectrum). The science mission includes studies of processes down to the nanosecond timescale, and investigations of matter at extreme pressure (500 GPa), temperature (10000 K) and magnetic field (30 T). The core activities of the beamline are centered on new experiments dedicated to the investigation of extreme states of matter that can be maintained only for very short periods of time. Here the infrastructure, optical scheme, detection systems and sample environments used to enable the mission-critical performance are described, and examples of first results on the investigation of the electronic and local structure in melts at pressure and temperature conditions relevant to the Earth's interior and in laser-shocked matter are given.

  4. End-to-End System Test and Optical Performance Evaluation for the Solar and Heliosphere Observatory (SOHO) Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosso, Paolo A.; Gardner, Larry D.; Jhabvala, Marzy; Nicolosi, P.

    1997-01-01

    The UVCS is one of the instruments carried by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), a joint NASA/ESA Spacecraft launched in November 1995. It is designed to perform ultraviolet spectroscopy and visible light polarimetry of the extended solar corona. The primary scientific objectives of the UVCS investigation are to study the physical processes occurring in the extended solar corona, such as: the mechanism of acceleration of the solar wind, the mechanism of coronal plasma heating, the identification of solar wind sources, and the investigation of the plasma properties of the solar wind. The UVCS End-to-End test activities included a comprehensive set of system level functional and optical tests. Although performed under severe schedule constraints, the End-to-End System Test was very successful and served to fully validate the UVCS optical design. All test results showed that the primary scientific objectives of the UVCS Mission were achievable.

  5. Including 10-Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Network under End-to-End Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching Provisioned Quality of Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewka, Lukasz Jerzy; Gavler, Anders; Wessing, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    End-to-end quality of service provisioning is still a challenging task despite many years of research and development in this area. Considering a generalized multi-protocol label switching based core/metro network and resource reservation protocol capable home gateways, it is the access part...... of the network where quality of service signaling is bridged. This article proposes strategies for generalized multi-protocol label switching control over next emerging passive optical network standard, i.e., the 10-gigabit-capable passive optical network. Node management and resource allocation approaches...... are discussed, and possible issues are raised. The analysis shows that consideration of a 10-gigabit-capable passive optical network as a generalized multi-protocol label switching controlled domain is valid and may advance end-to-end quality of service provisioning for passive optical network based customers....

  6. Software system requirements for the Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS) End-To-End System using the Computer Aided Prototyping System (CAPS) multi-file approach

    OpenAIRE

    Angrisani, David Stuart; Whitbeck, George Steven.

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DOD) is seeking software system requirements for the Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS) End to End System, which comprises both ATACMS and all sensors, links, and command centers which enable integration across system and service boundaries. The complexity, multiple interfaces, and joint nature of planned ATACMS operations demands accurate specification of software system requirements. DOD also desires automated tools capable of developing rapid prototypes to ass...

  7. Direct muscle neurotization after end-to end and end-to-side neurorrhaphy: An experimental study in the rat forelimb model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Igor; Ronchi, Giulia; Muratori, Luisa; Mazzucco, Alessandra; Magaudda, Ludovico; Geuna, Stefano

    2012-10-15

    The need for the continuous research of new tools for improving motor function recovery after nerve injury is justified by the still often unsatisfactory clinical outcome in these patients. It has been previously shown that the combined use of two reconstructive techniques, namely end-to-side neurorrhaphy and direct muscle neurotization in the rat hindlimb model, can lead to good results in terms of skeletal muscle reinnervation. Here we show that, in the rat forelimb model, the combined use of direct muscle neurotization with either end-to-end or end-to-side neurorrhaphy to reinnervate the denervated flexor digitorum muscles, leads to muscle atrophy prevention over a long postoperative time lapse (10 months). By contrast, very little motor recovery (in case of end-to-end neurorrhaphy) and almost no motor recovery (in case of end-to-side neurorrhaphy) were observed in the grasping activity controlled by flexor digitorum muscles. It can thus be concluded that, at least in the rat, direct muscle neurotization after both end-to-end and end-to-side neurorrhaphy represents a good strategy for preventing denervation-related muscle atrophy but not for regaining the lost motor function.

  8. Direct muscle neurotization after end-to-end and end-to-side neurorrhaphy An experimental study in the rat forelimb model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Igor Papalia; Giulia Ronchi; Luisa Muratori; Alessandra Mazzucco; Ludovico Magaudda; Stefano Geuna

    2012-01-01

    The need for the continuous research of new tools for improving motor function recovery after nerve injury is justified by the still often unsatisfactory clinical outcome in these patients.It has been previously shown that the combined use of two reconstructive techniques,namely end-to-side neurorrhaphy and direct muscle neurotization in the rat hindlimb model,can lead to good results in terms of skeletal muscle reinnervation.Here we show that,in the rat forelimb model,the combined use of direct muscle neurotization with either end-to-end or end-to-side neurorrhaphy to reinnervate the denervated flexor digitorum muscles,leads to muscle atrophy prevention over a long postoperative time lapse (10 months).By contrast,very little motor recovery (in case of end-to-end neurorrhaphy) and almost no motor recovery (in case of end-to-side neurorrhaphy) were observed in the grasping activity controlled by flexor digitorum muscles.It can thus be concluded that,at least in the rat,direct muscle neurotization after both end-to-end and end-to-side neurorrhaphy represents a good strategy for preventing denervation-related muscle atrophy but not for regaining the lost motor function.

  9. Design of the LBNE Beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadimitriou, Vaia [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Andrews, Richard [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Hylen, James [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kobilarcik, Thomas [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Marchionni, Alberto [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Moore, Craig D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Schlabach, Phil [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Tariq, Salman [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-02-05

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) will utilize a beamline facility located at Fermilab to carry out a compelling research program in neutrino physics. The facility will aim a wide band beam of neutrinos toward a detector placed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota, about 1,300 km away. The main elements of the facility are a primary proton beamline and a neutrino beamline. The primary proton beam (60-120 GeV) will be extracted from the MI-10 section of Fermilab’s Main Injector. Neutrinos are produced after the protons hit a solid target and produce mesons which are sign selected and subsequently focused by a set of magnetic horns into a 204 m long decay pipe where they decay mostly into muons and neutrinos. The parameters of the facility were determined taking into account the physics goals, spacial and radiological constraints, and the experience gained by operating the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The initial beam power is expected to be ~1.2 MW; however, the facility is designed to be upgradeable for 2.3 MW operation. We discuss here the status of the design and the associated challenges.

  10. Design of the LBNE Beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Papadimitriou, V; Hylen, J; Kobilarcik, T; Marchionni, A; Moore, C D; Schlabach, P; Tariq, S

    2015-01-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) will utilize a beamline facility located at Fermilab to carry out a compelling research program in neutrino physics. The facility will aim a wide band beam of neutrinos toward a detector placed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota, about 1,300 km away. The main elements of the facility are a primary proton beamline and a neutrino beamline. The primary proton beam (60 -120 GeV) will be extracted from the MI-10 section of Fermilab's Main Injector. Neutrinos are produced after the protons hit a solid target and produce mesons which are sign selected and subsequently focused by a set of magnetic horns into a 204 m long decay pipe where they decay mostly into muons and neutrinos. The parameters of the facility were determined taking into account the physics goals, spacial and radiological constraints and the experience gained by operating the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The initial beam power is expected to be ~1.2 MW, however the facility is desi...

  11. Differentiated CW Policy and Strict Priority Policy for Location-Independent End-to-End Delay in Multi-Hop Wireless Mesh Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yun Han; Kim, Kyung Jae; Park, Jin Soo; Choi, Bong Dae

    We investigate delay analysis of multi-hop wireless mesh network (WMN) where nodes have multi-channel and multiple transceivers to increase the network capacity. The functionality of the multi-channel and multiple transceivers allows the whole WMN to be decomposed into disjoint zones in such a way that i) nodes in a zone are within one-hop distance, and relay node and end nodes with different CWmins contend to access the channel based on IEEE 802.11e EDCA, ii) different channels are assigned to neighbor zones to prevent the hidden node problem, iii) relay nodes can transmit and receive the packets simultaneously by multi-channel and multiple transceivers. With this decomposition of the network, we focus on the delay at a single zone and then the end-to-end delay can be obtained as the sum of zone-delays. In order to have the location-independent end-to-end delay to the gateway regardless of source nodes' locations, we propose two packet management schemes, called the differentiated CW policy and the strict priority policy, at each relay node where relay packets with longer hop count are buffered in higher priority queues according to their experienced hop count. For the differentiated CW policy, a relay node adopts the functionality of IEEE 802.11e EDCA where a higher priority queue has a shorter minimum contention window. We model a typical zone as a one-hop IEEE 802.11e EDCA network under non-saturation condition where priority queues have different packet arrival rates and different minimum contention window sizes. First, we find the PGF (probability generating function) of the HoL-delay of packets at priority queues in a zone. Second, by modeling each queue as M/G/1 queue with the HoL-delay as a service time, we obtain the packet delay (the sum of the queueing delay and the HoL-delay) of each priority queue in a zone. Third, the average end-to-end delay of packet generated at end node in each zone is obtained by summing up the packet delays at each zone. For

  12. An end-to-end system in support of a broad scope of GOES-R sensor and data processing study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hung-Lung

    2005-08-01

    The mission of NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite System (GOES) R series satellites, in the 2012 time frame, is to provide continuous, near real-time meteorological, oceanographic, solar, and space environment data that supports NOAA's strategic mission goals. It presents an exciting opportunity to explore new instruments, satellite designs, and system architectures utilizing new communication and instrument technologies in order to meet the ever-increasing demands made of Earth observation systems by national agencies and end users alike. The GOES-R sensor suite includes a 16 spectral band Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), an approximately 1500 high spectral resolution band Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES), plus other sensors designed to detect lightning and to explore the ocean, solar and space environment. The Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) as part of the Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC) of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the long time partner of NOAA, has developed the first operational end-to-end processing system for GOES. Based on this heritage, and with recent support from the NASA/NOAA Geosynchrous Imaging FTS (GIFTS) project, the Navy's Multiple University Research Initiative (MURI), and NOAA's GOES-R Risk Reduction program, SSEC has built a near-complete end-to-end system that is capable of simulating sensor measurements from top of atmosphere radiances, raw sensor data (level 0) through calibrated and navigated sensor physical measurements (level 1) to the processed products (level 2). In this paper, the SSEC Hyperspectral Imaging and Sounding Simulator and Processor (HISSP) will be presented in detail. HISSP is capable of demonstrating most of the processing functions such as data compression/decompression, sensor calibration, data processing, algorithm development, and product generation. In summary, HISSP is an end-to-end system designed to support both government and

  13. X-ray follow up of end-to-end nerve repair site: A new technique, Nerve Repair Site Marking (NRSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydin Yuceturk

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: To get the best results following end-to-end nerve repair, nerve continuity must continued, though there is always the risk of rupture at the repair site. As ultrasonography and MRI can be utilized to examine the repair site, they are not helpful in brachial plexus repairs, are expensive and can be time-consuming when employed with peripheral nerves. NRSM is an easy, objective, and cheap follow-up technique after nerve repair and provides a chance for early re-repair. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(3.000: 118-123

  14. 08B1-1: an automated beamline for macromolecular crystallography experiments at the Canadian Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodje, Michel; Grochulski, Pawel; Janzen, Kathryn; Labiuk, Shaunivan; Gorin, James; Berg, Russ

    2014-05-01

    Beamline 08B1-1 is a recently commissioned bending-magnet beamline at the Canadian Light Source. The beamline is designed for automation and remote access. Together with the undulator-based beamline 08ID-1, they constitute the Canadian Macromolecular Crystallography Facility. This paper describes the design, specifications, hardware and software of beamline 08B1-1. A few scientific results using data obtained at the beamline will be highlighted.

  15. Interoperable End-to-End Remote Patient Monitoring Platform based on IEEE 11073 PHD and ZigBee Health Care Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Malcolm; de Folter, Joost; Verma, Vivek; Gokalp, Hulya

    2017-08-07

    This paper describes the implementation of an end-to-end remote monitoring platform based on the IEEE 11073 standards for Personal Health Devices (PHD). It provides an overview of the concepts and approaches and describes how the standard has been optimized for small devices with limited resources of processor, memory and power and that use short range wireless technology. It explains aspects of IEEE 11073, including the Domain Information Model, state model and nomenclature, and how these support its plug-and-play architecture. It shows how these aspects underpin a much larger eco-system of interoperable devices and systems that include IHE PCD-01, HL7 and BlueTooth LE medical devices, and the relationship to the Continua Guidelines, advocating the adoption of data standards and nomenclature to support semantic interoperability between health and ambient assisted living (AAL) in future platforms. The paper further describes the adaptions that have been made in order to implement the standard on the ZigBee Health Care Profile and the experiences of implementing an end-to-end platform that has been deployed to frail elderly patients with chronic disease(s) and patients with diabetes.

  16. The BioCAT undulator beamline 18ID: a facility for biological non-crystalline diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Advanced Photon Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischetti, R; Stepanov, S; Rosenbaum, G; Barrea, R; Black, E; Gore, D; Heurich, R; Kondrashkina, E; Kropf, A J; Wang, S; Zhang, Ke; Irving, T C; Bunker, G B

    2004-09-01

    The 18ID undulator beamline of the Biophysics Collaborative Access Team at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne, IL, USA, is a high-performance instrument designed for, and dedicated to, the study of partially ordered and disordered biological materials using the techniques of small-angle X-ray scattering, fiber diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The beamline and associated instrumentation are described in detail and examples of the representative experimental results are presented.

  17. A new soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism facility at the BSRF beamline 4B7B

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Zhi-Ying; Xing, Hai-Ying; Tang, Kun; Xui, Wei; Chen, Dong-liang; Cui, Ming-Qi; Zhao, YI-Dong

    2014-01-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) has become an important and powerful tool because it allows the study of material properties in combination with elemental specificity, chemical state specificity, and magnetic specificity. A new soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism apparatus has been developed at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). The apparatus combines three experimental conditions: ultra-high-vacuum environment, moderate magnetic fields and in-situ sample preparation to measure the absorption signal. We designed a C type dipole electromagnet that provides magnetic fields up to 0.5T in parallel (or anti-parallel) direction relative to the incoming X-ray beam. The performances of the electromagnet are measured and the results show good agreement with the simulation ones. Following film grown in situ by evaporation methods, XMCD measurements are performed. Combined polarization corrections, the magnetic moments of the Fe and Co films determined by sum rules are consistent with other t...

  18. A new soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism facility at the BSRF beamline 4B7B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhi-Ying; Hong, Cai-Hao; Xing, Hai-Ying; Tang, Kun; Zheng, Lei; Xui, Wei; Chen, Dong-Liang; Cui, Ming-Qi; Zhao, Yi-Dong

    2015-04-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) has become an important and powerful tool because it allows the study of material properties in combination with elemental specificity, chemical state specificity, and magnetic specificity. A new soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism apparatus has been developed at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). The apparatus combines three experimental conditions: an ultra-high-vacuum environment, moderate magnetic fields and in-situ sample preparation to measure the absorption signal. We designed a C-type dipole electromagnet that provides magnetic fields up to 0.5 T in parallel (or anti-parallel) direction relative to the incoming X-ray beam. The performances of the electromagnet are measured and the results show good agreement with the simulation ones. Following film grown in situ by evaporation methods, XMCD measurements are performed. Combined polarization corrections, the magnetic moments of the Fe and Co films determined by sum rules are consistent with other theoretical predictions and experimental measurements. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (61204008)

  19. End-to-End Study of the Transfer of Energy from Magnetosheath Ion Precipitation to the Ionospheric Cusp and Resulting Ion Outflow to the Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Victoria; Chandler, Michael; Singh, Nagendra; Avanov, Levon

    2003-01-01

    We will show results from an end-to-end study of the energy transfer from injected magnetosheath plasmas to the near-Earth magnetospheric and ionospheric plasmas and the resulting ion outflow to the magnetosphere. This study includes modeling of the evolution of the magnetosheath precipitation in the cusp using a kinetic code with a realistic magnetic field configuration. These evolved, highly non-Maxwellian distributions are used as input to a 2D PIC code to analyze the resulting wave generation. The wave analysis is used in the kinetic code as input to the cold ionospheric ions to study the transfer of energy to these ions and their outflow to the magnetosphere. Observations from the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) and other instruments on the Polar Spacecraft will be compared to the modeling.

  20. Demonstration of a fully-coupled end-to-end model for small pelagic fish using sardine and anchovy in the California Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kenneth A.; Fiechter, Jerome; Curchitser, Enrique N.; Hedstrom, Kate; Bernal, Miguel; Creekmore, Sean; Haynie, Alan; Ito, Shin-ichi; Lluch-Cota, Salvador; Megrey, Bernard A.; Edwards, Chris A.; Checkley, Dave; Koslow, Tony; McClatchie, Sam; Werner, Francisco; MacCall, Alec; Agostini, Vera

    2015-11-01

    We describe and document an end-to-end model of anchovy and sardine population dynamics in the California Current as a proof of principle that such coupled models can be developed and implemented. The end-to-end model is 3-dimensional, time-varying, and multispecies, and consists of four coupled submodels: hydrodynamics, Eulerian nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton (NPZ), an individual-based full life cycle anchovy and sardine submodel, and an agent-based fishing fleet submodel. A predator roughly mimicking albacore was included as individuals that consumed anchovy and sardine. All submodels were coded within the ROMS open-source community model, and used the same resolution spatial grid and were all solved simultaneously to allow for possible feedbacks among the submodels. We used a super-individual approach and solved the coupled models on a distributed memory parallel computer, both of which created challenging but resolvable bookkeeping challenges. The anchovy and sardine growth, mortality, reproduction, and movement, and the fishing fleet submodel, were each calibrated using simplified grids before being inserted into the full end-to-end model. An historical simulation of 1959-2008 was performed, and the latter 45 years analyzed. Sea surface height (SSH) and sea surface temperature (SST) for the historical simulation showed strong horizontal gradients and multi-year scale temporal oscillations related to various climate indices (PDO, NPGO), and both showed responses to ENSO variability. Simulated total phytoplankton was lower during strong El Nino events and higher for the strong 1999 La Nina event. The three zooplankton groups generally corresponded to the spatial and temporal variation in simulated total phytoplankton. Simulated biomasses of anchovy and sardine were within the historical range of observed biomasses but predicted biomasses showed much less inter-annual variation. Anomalies of annual biomasses of anchovy and sardine showed a switch in the mid

  1. The Swarm End-to-End mission simulator study: A demonstration of separating the various contributions to Earth's magnetic field using synthetic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Haagmans, R.; Sabaka, T.J.

    2006-01-01

    Swarm, a satellite constellation to measure Earth's magnetic field with unpreceded accuracy, has been selected by ESA for launch in 2009. The mission will provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution, in order to gain new insights into the Earth system...... by improving our understanding of the Earth's interior and climate. An End-to-End mission performance simulation was carried out during Phase A of the mission, with the aim of analyzing the key system requirements, particularly with respect to the number of Swarm satellites and their orbits related...... to the science objectives of Swarm. In order to be able to use realistic parameters of the Earth's environment, the mission simulation starts at January 1, 1997 and lasts until re-entry of the lower satellites five years later. Synthetic magnetic field values were generated for all relevant contributions...

  2. Current transformer verification system for in situ, live line end-to-end calibration of medium and high voltage current transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunn, C.; Irwin, L.; Marr, D. [Schneider Electric Canada, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    IEC Instrument Transformer Standard 60044-1 was created in response to recent industrial and regulatory trends for improved metering performance. The accuracy of high voltage (HV) metering depends on the quality of the instrument transformer signals feeding the energy meters. The complete current transformer (CT) system, including the end-to-end interconnection and metering burden, must be routinely verified in order to claim ongoing compliance. However, utilities rarely perform routine verification and calibration of medium voltage (MV) and HV current instrument transformers because of the complexities associated with CT primary circuit removal and subsequent primary injection. In some cases, routine verification and calibration is not performed due to the belief that conventional CT performance is a constant that never changes. However, conventional CT accuracies may change over time due to transformer insulation breakdown, electric field effects, core magnetization, and burden wiring effects. In addition, CT secondary circuits may be shared with multiple metering and protection devices that present a complex burden to the CT. Changes in burden impedance can also have an effect on CT accuracy. This paper presented the Current Transformer Verification System (CTVS), which provides a unique and novel means to precisely characterize and verify the actual end-to-end performance of MV and HV current transformers while still energized. The CTVS system takes into account any voltage or specific installed site burden dependency that may be present. It provides the utility with the ability to verify CTs in-situ without system interruption through live-line deployment and to readily check the accuracy of metering systems to ensure compliance with industry requirements. 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  3. End-to-End Simulation for a Forest-Dedicated Full-Waveform Lidar Onboard a Satellite Initialized from Airborne Ultraviolet Lidar Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Shang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study forests at the global scale, a detailed link budget for a lidar system onboard satellite is presented. It is based on an original approach coupling airborne lidar observations and an end-to-end simulator. The simulator is initialized by airborne lidar measurements performed over temperate and tropical forests on the French territory, representing a wide range of forests ecosystems. Considering two complementary wavelengths of 355 and 1064 nm, the end-to-end simulator computes the performance of spaceborne lidar systems for different orbits. The analysis is based on forest structural (tree top height, quadratic mean canopy height and optical (forest optical thickness parameters. Although an ultraviolet lidar appears to be a good candidate for airborne measurements, our results show that the limited energy is not favorable for spaceborne missions with such a wavelength. A near infrared wavelength at 1064 nm is preferable, requiring ~100 mJ laser emitted energy, which is in agreement with current and future spaceborne missions involving a lidar. We find that the signal-to-noise ratio at the ground level to extract both the structural and optical parameters of forests must be larger than 10. Hence, considering the presence of clouds and aerosols in the atmosphere and assuming a stationary forest, a good detection probability of 99% can be reached when 4 or 5 satellite revisits are considered for a lidar system onboard the ISS or ICESat, respectively. This concerns ~90% of forest covers observed from the lidar, which have an optical thickness less than 3.

  4. Diagnostic X-Multi-Axis Beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, A C

    2000-04-05

    degrees. An upgrade can later be made by adding beamlines 5-8 azimuthally indexed so as to provide an azimuthal resolution of 22.5 degrees. All eight beamlines point down by 10 degrees (pitch). The x-ray converter target can be located along each beamline anywhere between 0 to 5 meters from the firing point. An example of inter-facing the Diagnostic X facility with the Darht II accelerator located at LANL will be given.

  5. Design of the LBNF Beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadimitriou, Vaia; et al.

    2016-06-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) will utilize a beamline located at Fermilab to provide and aim a neutrino beam of sufficient intensity and appropriate energy range toward DUNE detectors, placed deep underground at the SURF Facility in South Dakota. The primary proton beam (60 - 120 GeV) will be extracted from the MI-10 section of Fermilab's Main Injector. Neutrinos are produced after the protons hit a solid target and produce mesons which are subsequently focused by magnetic horns into a 194 m long decay pipe where they decay into muons and neutrinos. The parameters of the facility were determined taking into account the physics goals, spacial and radiological constraints and the experience gained by operating the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The Beamline facility is designed for initial operation at a proton-beam power of 1.2 MW, with the capability to support an upgrade to 2.4 MW. LBNF/DUNE obtained CD-1 approval in November 2015. We discuss here the design status and the associated challenges as well as the R&D and plans for improvements before baselining the facility.

  6. nuSTORM Pion Beamline Design Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, A. [Indiana U.; Bross, A. [Fermilab; Neuffer, D. [Fermilab; Lee, S. Y. [Indiana U.

    2013-09-01

    A facility producing neutrinos from muons that decay in a racetrack ring can provide extremely well understood neutrino beams for oscillation physics and the search for sterile neutrinos. The “neutrinos from STORed Muons” (nuSTORM) facility based on this idea has been introduced by Bross, Neuffer et al. The design of the nuSTORM facility and the particle tracking have been presented in the paper of Liu, et al. This paper demonstrates the recent optimization results of the pion beamline, with G4beamline simulations. The optimum choice of pion beam center momentum, a new algorithm on fitting bivariate Gaussian distribution to the pion phase space data at the downstream side of the horn, and the comparison of the beamline performance with the optics designed based on Graphite and Inconel targets are also described.

  7. Imaging and dosimetric errors in 4D PET/CT-guided radiotherapy from patient-specific respiratory patterns: a dynamic motion phantom end-to-end study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, S. R.; Nyflot, M. J.; Herrmann, C.; Groh, C. M.; Meyer, J.; Wollenweber, S. D.; Stearns, C. W.; Kinahan, P. E.; Sandison, G. A.

    2015-05-01

    Effective positron emission tomography / computed tomography (PET/CT) guidance in radiotherapy of lung cancer requires estimation and mitigation of errors due to respiratory motion. An end-to-end workflow was developed to measure patient-specific motion-induced uncertainties in imaging, treatment planning, and radiation delivery with respiratory motion phantoms and dosimeters. A custom torso phantom with inserts mimicking normal lung tissue and lung lesion was filled with [18F]FDG. The lung lesion insert was driven by six different patient-specific respiratory patterns or kept stationary. PET/CT images were acquired under motionless ground truth, tidal breathing motion-averaged (3D), and respiratory phase-correlated (4D) conditions. Target volumes were estimated by standardized uptake value (SUV) thresholds that accurately defined the ground-truth lesion volume. Non-uniform dose-painting plans using volumetrically modulated arc therapy were optimized for fixed normal lung and spinal cord objectives and variable PET-based target objectives. Resulting plans were delivered to a cylindrical diode array at rest, in motion on a platform driven by the same respiratory patterns (3D), or motion-compensated by a robotic couch with an infrared camera tracking system (4D). Errors were estimated relative to the static ground truth condition for mean target-to-background (T/Bmean) ratios, target volumes, planned equivalent uniform target doses, and 2%-2 mm gamma delivery passing rates. Relative to motionless ground truth conditions, PET/CT imaging errors were on the order of 10-20%, treatment planning errors were 5-10%, and treatment delivery errors were 5-30% without motion compensation. Errors from residual motion following compensation methods were reduced to 5-10% in PET/CT imaging, <5% in treatment planning, and <2% in treatment delivery. We have demonstrated that estimation of respiratory motion uncertainty and its propagation from PET/CT imaging to RT planning, and RT

  8. Profiling wind and greenhouse gases by infrared-laser occultation: algorithm and results from end-to-end simulations in windy air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Plach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The new mission concept of microwave and infrared-laser occultation between low-Earth-orbit satellites (LMIO is designed to provide accurate and long-term stable profiles of atmospheric thermodynamic variables, greenhouse gases (GHGs, and line-of-sight (l.o.s. wind speed with focus on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS. While the unique quality of GHG retrievals enabled by LMIO over the UTLS has been recently demonstrated based on end-to-end simulations, the promise of l.o.s. wind retrieval, and of joint GHG and wind retrieval, has not yet been analyzed in any realistic simulation setting so far. Here we describe a newly developed l.o.s. wind retrieval algorithm, which we embedded in an end-to-end simulation framework that also includes the retrieval of thermodynamic variables and GHGs, and analyze the performance of both standalone wind retrieval and joint wind and GHG retrieval. The wind algorithm utilizes LMIO laser signals placed on the inflection points at the wings of the highly symmetric C18OO absorption line near 4767 cm−1 and exploits transmission differences from wind-induced Doppler shift. Based on realistic example cases for a diversity of atmospheric conditions, ranging from tropical to high-latitude winter, we find that the retrieved l.o.s wind profiles are of high quality over the lower stratosphere under all conditions, i.e., unbiased and accurate to within about 2 m s−1 over about 15 to 35 km. The wind accuracy degrades into the upper troposphere due to decreasing signal-to-noise ratio of the wind-induced differential transmission signals. The GHG retrieval in windy air is not vulnerable to wind speed uncertainties up to about 10 m s−1 but is found to benefit in case of higher speeds from the integrated wind retrieval that enables correction of wind-induced Doppler shift of GHG signals. Overall both the l.o.s. wind and GHG retrieval results are strongly encouraging towards further development and

  9. Comparison Between End-to-end Anastomosis and Buccal Mucosa Graft in Short Segment Bulbar Urethral Stricture: a Meta-analysis Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prahara Yuri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to compare long term follow-up between end-to-end urethroplasty and bucal mucosal graft for the management of patients with short bulbar urethral stricture. Methods:we conducted a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Literature research was performed on the MEDLINE, Science Direct, and EMBASE database including studies from 1980 through 2014. The inclusion criteria were patients with short bulbar urethral strictrure (sized ≤3 cm undergoing end-to-end anastomosis (EE and buccal mucosa graft (BMG with the complication of voiding symptoms and sexual dysfunction ≥12 months. Pooled risk ratio (RRs and 95% confidence interval (CIs were calculated using Mantzel-Haenzel method, while the heterogeneity were determined through I2 value. Data analysis were done using Stata software version 10.0 (StataCorp. Results:We analyze 10 studies in this meta-analysis. Sexual dysfunction following EE and BMG were found in 24.6% (45/183 patients and 9.1% (11/122 patients, respectively (overall RR 2.54; 95% CI: 1,44-4,47; p=0.001. Voiding symptoms following EE and BMG were found in 14% (8/57 patients and 12.5% (7/56 patients, respectively (overall RR 0.77; 95% CI: 0.3–2.0; p=0.591. Furthermore, stricture recurrent following EE and BMG were 8.4% (8/107 and 30% (14/46, respectively (overall RR 0.38; 95% CI: 0.17–0.84; p=0.016. The effectiveness of EE and BMG were found to be equal as both demonstrated few complications. BMG were found to be superior than EE terms of minimal sexual dysfunction complication. On the contrary, EE were found to be superior than BMG in terms of stricture recurence following short bulbar urethral stricture surgery. Conclusion:BMG can be considered as the primary treatment rather than EE for managing short urethral stricture cases.

  10. The PLATO End-to-End CCD Simulator -- Modelling space-based ultra-high precision CCD photometry for the assessment study of the PLATO Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Zima, W; De Ridder, J; Salmon, S; Catala, C; Kjeldsen, H; Aerts, C

    2010-01-01

    The PLATO satellite mission project is a next generation ESA Cosmic Vision satellite project dedicated to the detection of exo-planets and to asteroseismology of their host-stars using ultra-high precision photometry. The main goal of the PLATO mission is to provide a full statistical analysis of exo-planetary systems around stars that are bright and close enough for detailed follow-up studies. Many aspects concerning the design trade-off of a space-based instrument and its performance can best be tackled through realistic simulations of the expected observations. The complex interplay of various noise sources in the course of the observations made such simulations an indispensable part of the assessment study of the PLATO Payload Consortium. We created an end-to-end CCD simulation software-tool, dubbed PLATOSim, which simulates photometric time-series of CCD images by including realistic models of the CCD and its electronics, the telescope optics, the stellar field, the pointing uncertainty of the satellite ...

  11. Partial QoS-Aware Opportunistic Relay Selection Over Two-Hop Channels: End-to-End Performance Under Spectrum-Sharing Requirements

    KAUST Repository

    Yuli Yang,

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a partial quality-of-service (QoS)-oriented relay selection scheme with a decode-and-forward (DF) relaying protocol, to reduce the feedback amount required for relay selection. In the proposed scheme, the activated relay is the one with the maximum signal-to-noise power ratio (SNR) in the second hop among those whose packet loss rates (PLRs) in the first hop achieve a predetermined QoS level. For the purpose of evaluating the performance of the proposed scheme, we exploit it with transmission constraints imposed on the transmit power budget and interference to other users. By analyzing the statistics of received SNRs in the first and second hops, we obtain the end-to-end PLR of this scheme in closed form under the considered scenario. Moreover, to compare the proposed scheme with popular relay selection schemes, we also derive the closed-form PLR expressions for partial relay selection (PRS) and opportunistic relay selection (ORS) criteria in the same scenario under study. Illustrative numerical results demonstrate the accuracy of our derivations and substantiate that the proposed relay selection scheme is a promising alternative with respect to the tradeoff between performance and complexity.

  12. Distributed Large Data-Object Environments: End-to-End Performance Analysis of High Speed Distributed Storage Systems in Wide Area ATM Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, William; Tierney, Brian; Lee, Jason; Hoo, Gary; Thompson, Mary

    1996-01-01

    We have developed and deployed a distributed-parallel storage system (DPSS) in several high speed asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) wide area networks (WAN) testbeds to support several different types of data-intensive applications. Architecturally, the DPSS is a network striped disk array, but is fairly unique in that its implementation allows applications complete freedom to determine optimal data layout, replication and/or coding redundancy strategy, security policy, and dynamic reconfiguration. In conjunction with the DPSS, we have developed a 'top-to-bottom, end-to-end' performance monitoring and analysis methodology that has allowed us to characterize all aspects of the DPSS operating in high speed ATM networks. In particular, we have run a variety of performance monitoring experiments involving the DPSS in the MAGIC testbed, which is a large scale, high speed, ATM network and we describe our experience using the monitoring methodology to identify and correct problems that limit the performance of high speed distributed applications. Finally, the DPSS is part of an overall architecture for using high speed, WAN's for enabling the routine, location independent use of large data-objects. Since this is part of the motivation for a distributed storage system, we describe this architecture.

  13. Determination of anions using monolithic capillary column ion chromatography with end-to-end differential contactless conductometric detectors under resonance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenli; Li, Dongdong; Liu, Xueyong; Subhani, Qamar; Zhu, Yan; Kang, Qi; Shen, Dazhong

    2012-06-21

    An end-to-end differential measurement approach with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) was applied to anion-exchange monolithic capillary column ion chromatography. The column was prepared by thermally initiated radical polymerization of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) in a fused-silica capillary of 320 μm i.d. and modified by quaternary ammonium latex surface coating. Two C(4)Ds were placed near both ends of the capillary column and the output difference between them was measured. With 15 mM potassium hydrogen phthalate used as the eluent, good separation of a mixture of inorganic anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-)) was achieved. The detection limits of conventional C(4)D are 1.6, 0.28, 0.53, and 0.47 mg L(-1) for F(-), Cl(-), NO(2)(-), and NO(3)(-), respectively. To further enhance the sensitivity, the capacitive impedance from C(4)D was neutralized by an inductive impedance from a piezoelectric resonator. An increase in sensitivity by a factor of 7-8 was achieved in the resonating C(4)D in comparison with the conventional C(4)D. The detection limits of the resonating C(4)D are 0.23, 0.041, 0.065, and 0.059 mg L(-1) for F(-), Cl(-), NO(2)(-), and NO(3)(-), respectively. The response of the resonating C(4)D was analyzed based on an equivalent circuit model.

  14. Macromolecular crystallography beamline X25 at the NSLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héroux, Annie; Allaire, Marc; Buono, Richard; Cowan, Matthew L; Dvorak, Joseph; Flaks, Leon; Lamarra, Steven; Myers, Stuart F; Orville, Allen M; Robinson, Howard H; Roessler, Christian G; Schneider, Dieter K; Shea-McCarthy, Grace; Skinner, John M; Skinner, Michael; Soares, Alexei S; Sweet, Robert M; Berman, Lonny E

    2014-05-01

    Beamline X25 at the NSLS is one of the five beamlines dedicated to macromolecular crystallography operated by the Brookhaven National Laboratory Macromolecular Crystallography Research Resource group. This mini-gap insertion-device beamline has seen constant upgrades for the last seven years in order to achieve mini-beam capability down to 20 µm × 20 µm. All major components beginning with the radiation source, and continuing along the beamline and its experimental hutch, have changed to produce a state-of-the-art facility for the scientific community.

  15. An end-to-end examination of geometric accuracy of IGRT using a new digital accelerator equipped with onboard imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Kielar, Kayla N; Mok, Ed; Hsu, Annie; Dieterich, Sonja; Xing, Lei

    2012-02-01

    The Varian's new digital linear accelerator (LINAC), TrueBeam STx, is equipped with a high dose rate flattening filter free (FFF) mode (6 MV and 10 MV), a high definition multileaf collimator (2.5 mm leaf width), as well as onboard imaging capabilities. A series of end-to-end phantom tests were performed, TrueBeam-based image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), to determine the geometric accuracy of the image-guided setup and dose delivery process for all beam modalities delivered using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and RapidArc. In these tests, an anthropomorphic phantom with a Ball Cube II insert and the analysis software (FilmQA (3cognition)) were used to evaluate the accuracy of TrueBeam image-guided setup and dose delivery. Laser cut EBT2 films with 0.15 mm accuracy were embedded into the phantom. The phantom with the film inserted was first scanned with a GE Discovery-ST CT scanner, and the images were then imported to the planning system. Plans with steep dose fall off surrounding hypothetical targets of different sizes were created using RapidArc and IMRT with FFF and WFF (with flattening filter) beams. Four RapidArc plans (6 MV and 10 MV FFF) and five IMRT plans (6 MV and 10 MV FFF; 6 MV, 10 MV and 15 MV WFF) were studied. The RapidArc plans with 6 MV FFF were planned with target diameters of 1 cm (0.52 cc), 2 cm (4.2 cc) and 3 cm (14.1 cc), and all other plans with a target diameter of 3 cm. Both onboard planar and volumetric imaging procedures were used for phantom setup and target localization. The IMRT and RapidArc plans were then delivered, and the film measurements were compared with the original treatment plans using a gamma criteria of 3%/1 mm and 3%/2 mm. The shifts required in order to align the film measured dose with the calculated dose distributions was attributed to be the targeting error. Targeting accuracy of image-guided treatment using TrueBeam was found to be within 1 mm. For irradiation of the 3 cm target, the gammas (3%, 1

  16. Design of a satellite end-to-end mission performance simulator for imaging spectrometers and its application to the ESA's FLEX/Sentinel-3 tandem mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicent, Jorge; Sabater, Neus; Tenjo, Carolina; Acarreta, Juan R.; Manzano, María.; Rivera, Juan P.; Jurado, Pedro; Franco, Raffaella; Alonso, Luis; Moreno, Jose

    2015-09-01

    The performance analysis of a satellite mission requires specific tools that can simulate the behavior of the platform; its payload; and the acquisition of scientific data from synthetic scenes. These software tools, called End-to-End Mission Performance Simulators (E2ES), are promoted by the European Space Agency (ESA) with the goal of consolidating the instrument and mission requirements as well as optimizing the implemented data processing algorithms. Nevertheless, most developed E2ES are designed for a specific satellite mission and can hardly be adapted to other satellite missions. In the frame of ESA's FLEX mission activities, an E2ES is being developed based on a generic architecture for passive optical missions. FLEX E2ES implements a state-of-the-art synthetic scene generator that is coupled with dedicated algorithms that model the platform and instrument characteristics. This work will describe the flexibility of the FLEX E2ES to simulate complex synthetic scenes with a variety of land cover classes, topography and cloud cover that are observed separately by each instrument (FLORIS, OLCI and SLSTR). The implemented algorithms allows modelling the sensor behavior, i.e. the spectral/spatial resampling of the input scene; the geometry of acquisition; the sensor noises and non-uniformity effects (e.g. stray-light, spectral smile and radiometric noise); and the full retrieval scheme up to Level-2 products. It is expected that the design methodology implemented in FLEX E2ES can be used as baseline for other imaging spectrometer missions and will be further expanded towards a generic E2ES software tool.

  17. Automated segmentation of 3D anatomical structures on CT images by using a deep convolutional network based on end-to-end learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangrong; Takayama, Ryosuke; Wang, Song; Zhou, Xinxin; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    We have proposed an end-to-end learning approach that trained a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) for automatic CT image segmentation, which accomplished a voxel-wised multiple classification to directly map each voxel on 3D CT images to an anatomical label automatically. The novelties of our proposed method were (1) transforming the anatomical structures segmentation on 3D CT images into a majority voting of the results of 2D semantic image segmentation on a number of 2D-slices from different image orientations, and (2) using "convolution" and "deconvolution" networks to achieve the conventional "coarse recognition" and "fine extraction" functions which were integrated into a compact all-in-one deep CNN for CT image segmentation. The advantage comparing to previous works was its capability to accomplish real-time image segmentations on 2D slices of arbitrary CT-scan-range (e.g. body, chest, abdomen) and produced correspondingly-sized output. In this paper, we propose an improvement of our proposed approach by adding an organ localization module to limit CT image range for training and testing deep CNNs. A database consisting of 240 3D CT scans and a human annotated ground truth was used for training (228 cases) and testing (the remaining 12 cases). We applied the improved method to segment pancreas and left kidney regions, respectively. The preliminary results showed that the accuracies of the segmentation results were improved significantly (pancreas was 34% and kidney was 8% increased in Jaccard index from our previous results). The effectiveness and usefulness of proposed improvement for CT image segmentations were confirmed.

  18. Assessing the value of seasonal climate forecast information through an end-to-end forecasting framework: Application to U.S. 2012 drought in central Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee-Jood, Majid; Cai, Ximing; Chen, Ligang; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Kumar, Praveen

    2014-08-01

    This study proposes an end-to-end forecasting framework to incorporate operational seasonal climate forecasts to help farmers improve their decisions prior to the crop growth season, which are vulnerable to unanticipated drought conditions. The framework couples a crop growth model with a decision-making model for rainfed agriculture and translates probabilistic seasonal forecasts into more user-related information that can be used to support farmers' decisions on crop type and some market choices (e.g., contracts with ethanol refinery). The regional Climate-Weather Research and Forecasting model (CWRF) driven by two operational general circulation models (GCMs) is used to provide the seasonal forecasts of weather parameters. To better assess the developed framework, CWRF is also driven by observational reanalysis data, which theoretically can be considered as the best seasonal forecast. The proposed framework is applied to the Salt Creek watershed in Illinois that experienced an extreme drought event during 2012 crop growth season. The results show that the forecasts cannot capture the 2012 drought condition in Salt Creek and therefore the suggested decisions can make farmers worse off if the suggestions are adopted. Alternatively, the optimal decisions based on reanalysis-based CWRF forecasts, which can capture the 2012 drought conditions, make farmers better off by suggesting "no-contract" with ethanol refineries. This study suggests that the conventional metric used for ex ante value assessment is not capable of providing meaningful information in the case of extreme drought. Also, it is observed that institutional interventions (e.g., crop insurance) highly influences farmers' decisions and, thereby, the assessment of forecast value.

  19. Stereological and biochemical analysis of the urethral edges in patients submitted to end-to-end anastomosis for bulbar urethral stricture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao P. M. de Carvalho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the morphologic alterations in the proximal and distal urethral edges from patients submitted to end-to-end bulbar urethroplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 12 patients submitted to anastomotic urethroplasty to treat bulbar strictures less than 2.0 cm in length. After excision of the fibrotic segment to a 28Fr urethral caliber, we obtained biopsies from the spongious tissue of the free edges (proximal: PROX and distal: DIST. Controls included normal bulbar urethras obtained from autopsies of 10 age matched individuals. The samples were histologically processed for smooth muscle cells (SMC, elastic system fibers and collagen. Stereological analysis was performed to determine the volumetric density (Vv of each element. Also, a biochemical analysis was performed to quantify the total collagen content. RESULTS: Vv of SMC was reduced in PROX (31.48 ± 7.01 p < 0.05 and similar in DIST when compared to controls (55.65 ± 9.60% with no statistical difference. Elastic fibers were increased in PROX (25.70 ± 3.21%; p < 0.05 and were similar to controls in DIST (15.87 ± 4.26%. Total collagen concentration in PROX (46.39 �� 8.20 μg/mg, and DIST (47.96 ± 9.42 μg/mg did not differ from controls (48.85 ± 6.91 μg/mg. Type III collagen was similarly present in all samples. CONCLUSIONS: After excision of the stenotic segment to a caliber of 28Fr, the exposed and macroscopically normal urethral edges may present altered amounts of elastic fibers and SMC, but are free from fibrotic tissue. When excising the peri-stenotic tissue, the surgeon should be more careful in the proximal end, which is the most altered.

  20. Enzymatic reaction modulated gold nanorod end-to-end self-assembly for ultrahigh sensitively colorimetric sensing of cholinesterase and organophosphate pesticides in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Linlin; Xia, Yunsheng

    2015-08-18

    We present herein the first reported self-assembly modulation of gold nanorods (AuNRs) by enzymatic reaction, which is further employed for colorimetric assays of cholinesterase (ChE) and organophosphate pesticides (OPs) in human blood. ChE catalyzes its substrate (acetylthiocholine) and produces thiocholine and acetate acid. The resulting thiols then react with the tips of the AuNRs by S-Au conjunction and prevent subsequent cysteine-induced AuNR end-to-end (EE) self-assembly. Correspondingly, the AuNR surface plasmon resonance is regulated, which results in a distinctly ratiometric signal output. Under optimal conditions, the linear range is 0.042 to 8.4 μU/mL, and the detection limit is as low as 0.018 μU/mL. As ChE is incubated with OPs, the enzymatic activity is inhibited. So, the cysteine-induced assembly is observed again. On the basis of this principle, OPs can be well determined ranging from 0.12 to 40 pM with a 0.039 pM detection limit. To our knowledge, the present quasi pU/mL level sensitivity for ChE and the quasi femtomolar level sensitivity for OPs are at least 500 and 7000 times lower than those of previous colorimetric methods, respectively. The ultrahigh sensitivity results from (1) the rational choice of anisotropic AuNRs as building blocks and reporters and (2) the specific structure of the enzymatic thiocholine. Because of ultrahigh sensitivity, serum samples are allowed to be extremely diluted in the assay. Accordingly, various nonspecific interactions, even from glutathione/cysteine, are well avoided. So, both ChE and OPs in human blood can be directly assayed without any prepurification, indicating the simplicity and practical promise of the proposed method.

  1. The Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum: An Integrated, End-to-end Forecast and Warning System for Mountainous Islands in the Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, J.; Updike, R. G.; Verdin, J. P.; Larsen, M. C.; Negri, A. J.; McGinley, J. A.

    2004-12-01

    In the 10 days of 21-30 September 1998, Hurricane Georges left a trail of destruction in the Caribbean region and U.S. Gulf Coast. Subsequently, in the same year, Hurricane Mitch caused widespread destruction and loss of life in four Central American nations, and in December,1999 a tropical disturbance impacted the north coast of Venezuela causing hundreds of deaths and several million dollars of property loss. More recently, an off-season disturbance in the Central Caribbean dumped nearly 250 mm rainfall over Hispaniola during the 24-hr period on May 23, 2004. Resultant flash floods and debris flows in the Dominican Republic and Haiti killed at least 1400 people. In each instance, the tropical system served as the catalyst for major flooding and landslides at landfall. Our goal is to develop and transfer an end-to-end warning system for a prototype region in the Central Caribbean, specifically the islands of Puerto Rico and Hispaniola, which experience frequent tropical cyclones and other disturbances. The envisioned system would include satellite and surface-based observations to track and nowcast dangerous levels of precipitation, atmospheric and hydrological models to predict short-term runoff and streamflow changes, geological models to warn when and where landslides and debris flows are imminent, and the capability to communicate forecast guidance products via satellite to vital government offices in Puerto Rico, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic. In this paper, we shall present a preliminary proof-of-concept study for the May 21-24, 2004 floods and debris-flows over Hispaniola to show that the envisaged flow of data, models and graphical products can produce the desired warning outputs. The multidisciplinary research and technology transfer effort will require blending the talents of hydrometeorologists, geologists, remote sensing and GIS experts, and social scientists to ensure timely delivery of tailored graphical products to both weather offices and local

  2. Combined fishing and climate forcing in the southern Benguela upwelling ecosystem: an end-to-end modelling approach reveals dampened effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgane Travers-Trolet

    Full Text Available The effects of climate and fishing on marine ecosystems have usually been studied separately, but their interactions make ecosystem dynamics difficult to understand and predict. Of particular interest to management, the potential synergism or antagonism between fishing pressure and climate forcing is analysed in this paper, using an end-to-end ecosystem model of the southern Benguela ecosystem, built from coupling hydrodynamic, biogeochemical and multispecies fish models (ROMS-N2P2Z2D2-OSMOSE. Scenarios of different intensities of upwelling-favourable wind stress combined with scenarios of fishing top-predator fish were tested. Analyses of isolated drivers show that the bottom-up effect of the climate forcing propagates up the food chain whereas the top-down effect of fishing cascades down to zooplankton in unfavourable environmental conditions but dampens before it reaches phytoplankton. When considering both climate and fishing drivers together, it appears that top-down control dominates the link between top-predator fish and forage fish, whereas interactions between the lower trophic levels are dominated by bottom-up control. The forage fish functional group appears to be a central component of this ecosystem, being the meeting point of two opposite trophic controls. The set of combined scenarios shows that fishing pressure and upwelling-favourable wind stress have mostly dampened effects on fish populations, compared to predictions from the separate effects of the stressors. Dampened effects result in biomass accumulation at the top predator fish level but a depletion of biomass at the forage fish level. This should draw our attention to the evolution of this functional group, which appears as both structurally important in the trophic functioning of the ecosystem, and very sensitive to climate and fishing pressures. In particular, diagnoses considering fishing pressure only might be more optimistic than those that consider combined effects

  3. Combined fishing and climate forcing in the southern Benguela upwelling ecosystem: an end-to-end modelling approach reveals dampened effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers-Trolet, Morgane; Shin, Yunne-Jai; Shannon, Lynne J; Moloney, Coleen L; Field, John G

    2014-01-01

    The effects of climate and fishing on marine ecosystems have usually been studied separately, but their interactions make ecosystem dynamics difficult to understand and predict. Of particular interest to management, the potential synergism or antagonism between fishing pressure and climate forcing is analysed in this paper, using an end-to-end ecosystem model of the southern Benguela ecosystem, built from coupling hydrodynamic, biogeochemical and multispecies fish models (ROMS-N2P2Z2D2-OSMOSE). Scenarios of different intensities of upwelling-favourable wind stress combined with scenarios of fishing top-predator fish were tested. Analyses of isolated drivers show that the bottom-up effect of the climate forcing propagates up the food chain whereas the top-down effect of fishing cascades down to zooplankton in unfavourable environmental conditions but dampens before it reaches phytoplankton. When considering both climate and fishing drivers together, it appears that top-down control dominates the link between top-predator fish and forage fish, whereas interactions between the lower trophic levels are dominated by bottom-up control. The forage fish functional group appears to be a central component of this ecosystem, being the meeting point of two opposite trophic controls. The set of combined scenarios shows that fishing pressure and upwelling-favourable wind stress have mostly dampened effects on fish populations, compared to predictions from the separate effects of the stressors. Dampened effects result in biomass accumulation at the top predator fish level but a depletion of biomass at the forage fish level. This should draw our attention to the evolution of this functional group, which appears as both structurally important in the trophic functioning of the ecosystem, and very sensitive to climate and fishing pressures. In particular, diagnoses considering fishing pressure only might be more optimistic than those that consider combined effects of fishing and

  4. Status of the ELIMED multidisciplinary and medical beam-line at ELI-Beamlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, F.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Amico, A.; Candiano, G.; Giordanengo, S.; Guarachi, L. F.; Korn, G.; Larosa, G.; Leanza, R.; Manna, R.; Marchese, V.; Marchetto, F.; Margarone, D.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.; Pipek, J.; Sacchi, R.; Vignati, A.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, one of the biggest challenges consists in using high intensity laser-target interaction to generate high-energy ions for medical purposes, eventually replacing the old paradigm of acceleration characterized by huge and complex machines. In order to investigate the feasibility of using laser-driven ion beams for multidisciplinary application, a dedicated beam transport line will be installed at the ELI-Beamlines facility in Prague (CZ), as a part of the User-oriented ELIMAIA beam-line dedicated to ion acceleration and their potential applications. The beam-line section dedicated to transport and dosimetric endpoints is called ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical and multidisciplinary applications) and will be developed by the INFN-LNS.

  5. Distributed control of protein crystallography beamline 5.0 using CORBA

    OpenAIRE

    Timossi, Chris

    1999-01-01

    The Protein Crystallography Beamline at Berkeley Lab's Advanced Light Source is a facility that is being used to solve the structure of proteins. The software that is being used to control this beamline uses Java for user interface applications which communicate via CORBA with workstations that control the beamline hardware. We describe the software architecture for the beamline and our experiences after two years of operation.

  6. SU-E-J-25: End-To-End (E2E) Testing On TomoHDA System Using a Real Pig Head for Intracranial Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, N; Leick, M; Bonetti, M; Negretti, L [Clinica Luganese, Radiotherapy Center, Lugano (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the MVCT imaging uncertainty on the TomoHDA system for intracranial radiosurgery treatments. To determine the end-to-end (E2E) overall accuracy of the TomoHDA system for intracranial radiosurgery. Methods: A pig head was obtained from the butcher, cut coronally through the brain, and preserved in formaldehyde. The base of the head was fixed to a positioning plate allowing precise movement, i.e. translation and rotation, in all 6 axes. A repeatability test was performed on the pig head to determine uncertainty in the image bone registration algorithm. Furthermore, the test studied images with MVCT slice thicknesses of 1 and 3 mm in unison with differing scan lengths. A sensitivity test was performed to determine the registration algorithm’s ability to find the absolute position of known translations/rotations of the pig head. The algorithm’s ability to determine absolute position was compared against that of manual operators, i.e. a radiation therapist and radiation oncologist. Finally, E2E tests for intracranial radiosurgery were performed by measuring the delivered dose distributions within the pig head using Gafchromic films. Results: The repeatability test uncertainty was lowest for the MVCTs of 1-mm slice thickness, which measured less than 0.10 mm and 0.12 deg for all axes. For the sensitivity tests, the bone registration algorithm performed better than human eyes and a maximum difference of 0.3 mm and 0.4 deg was observed for the axes. E2E test results in absolute position difference measured 0.03 ± 0.21 mm in x-axis and 0.28 ± 0.18 mm in y-axis. A maximum difference of 0.32 and 0.66 mm was observed in x and y, respectively. The average peak dose difference between measured and calculated dose was 2.7 cGy or 0.4%. Conclusion: Our tests using a pig head phantom estimate the TomoHDA system to have a submillimeter overall accuracy for intracranial radiosurgery.

  7. Greenhouse gas profiling by infrared-laser and microwave occultation: retrieval algorithm and demonstration results from end-to-end simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Proschek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Measuring greenhouse gas (GHG profiles with global coverage and high accuracy and vertical resolution in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS is key for improved monitoring of GHG concentrations in the free atmosphere. In this respect a new satellite mission concept adding an infrared-laser part to the already well studied microwave occultation technique exploits the joint propagation of infrared-laser and microwave signals between Low Earth Orbit (LEO satellites. This synergetic combination, referred to as LEO-LEO microwave and infrared-laser occultation (LMIO method, enables to retrieve thermodynamic profiles (pressure, temperature, humidity and accurate altitude levels from the microwave signals and GHG profiles from the simultaneously measured infrared-laser signals. However, due to the novelty of the LMIO method, a retrieval algorithm for GHG profiling did not yet exist. Here we introduce such an algorithm for retrieving GHGs from LEO-LEO infrared-laser occultation (LIO data, applied as a second step after retrieving thermodynamic profiles from LEO-LEO microwave occultation (LMO data as recently introduced in detail by Schweitzer et al. (2011b. We thoroughly describe the LIO retrieval algorithm and unveil the synergy with the LMO-retrieved pressure, temperature, and altitude information. We furthermore demonstrate the effective independence of the GHG retrieval results from background (a priori information in discussing demonstration results from LMIO end-to-end simulations for a representative set of GHG profiles, including carbon dioxide (CO2, water vapor (H2O, methane (CH4, and ozone (O3. The GHGs except for ozone are well retrieved throughout the UTLS, while ozone is well retrieved from 10 km to 15 km upwards, since the ozone layer resides in the lower stratosphere. The GHG retrieval errors are generally smaller than 1% to 3% r.m.s., at a vertical resolution of about 1 km. The

  8. Greenhouse gas profiling by infrared-laser and microwave occultation: retrieval algorithm and demonstration results from end-to-end simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Proschek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Measuring greenhouse gas (GHG profiles with global coverage and high accuracy and vertical resolution in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS is key for improved monitoring of GHG concentrations in the free atmosphere. In this respect a new satellite mission concept adding an infrared-laser part to the already well studied microwave occultation technique exploits the joint propagation of infrared-laser and microwave signals between Low Earth Orbit (LEO satellites. This synergetic combination, referred to as LEO-LEO microwave and infrared-laser occultation (LMIO method, enables to retrieve thermodynamic profiles (pressure, temperature, humidity and accurate altitude levels from the microwave signals and GHG profiles from the simultaneously measured infrared-laser signals. However, due to the novelty of the LMIO method, a retrieval algorithm for GHG profiling is not yet available. Here we introduce such an algorithm for retrieving GHGs from LEO-LEO infrared-laser occultation (LIO data, applied as a second step after retrieving thermodynamic profiles from LEO-LEO microwave occultation (LMO data. We thoroughly describe the LIO retrieval algorithm and unveil the synergy with the LMO-retrieved pressure, temperature, and altitude information. We furthermore demonstrate the effective independence of the GHG retrieval results from background (a priori information in discussing demonstration results from LMIO end-to-end simulations for a representative set of GHG profiles, including carbon dioxide (CO2, water vapor (H2O, methane (CH4, and ozone (O3. The GHGs except for ozone are well retrieved throughout the UTLS, while ozone is well retrieved from about 10 km to 15 km upwards, since the ozone layer resides in the lower stratosphere. The GHG retrieval errors are generally smaller than 1% to 3% r.m.s., at a vertical resolution of about 1 km. The retrieved profiles also appear unbiased, which points

  9. End-to-end available bandwidth measurement methodology%一种端到端的有效带宽测量方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石祥滨; 谭俏男; 杜玲

    2011-01-01

    有效带宽测量在服务器选择、覆盖网络路由选择和网络流量工程等方面有广泛的应用.通过分析发送频率与单向延时之间的关系,提出了一种基于多项式拟合的有效带宽测量方法PFAB(Polynomial Fitting for Available Bandwidth).PFAB通过发送探测速率逐渐下降的探测包,并检测OWD的变化,推断探测速率和有效带宽之间的关系.当探测速率大于有效带宽时,OWD持续增长;在探测速率等于有效带宽时,OWD达到最大值,之后开始下降.NS-2仿真实验结果表明该方法能有效减少探测包数量,缩短探测时间,并且对网络造成的干扰小;在探测包瞬时频率变化较大时,可以快速到极值点,减少测量误差.%The available bandwidth measurement is important for many Internet applications, such as server selection, overlay network routing, and traffic engineering. This paper analyzes the relationship of the probing rate and the one-way delays. Then based on this,a methodology which call PFAB(polynomial fitting for available bandwidth) in the basic idea from polynomial fitting is presented to measure end-to-end available bandwidth.In PFAB, the change of the one-way delay happen according to one-way delay trends to infer the relationship between the probing rate and the available bandwidth. If one-way delay is increasing,the probing rate is larger than the present available bandwidth;if one-way delay is not increasing,the probing rate is equals the present available bandwidth; otherwise,one-way delay is decreasing. This methodology can reduce the number of probe bytes,the time of probing and network interference through NS-2 simulations. It also can find out extreme point with lowing measurement errors when probing rate has a big change.

  10. Circular dichroism beamline B23 at the Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Rohanah; Jávorfi, Tamás; Siligardi, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) is a well established technique in structural biology. The first UV-VIS beamline, dedicated to circular dichroism, at Diamond Light Source Ltd, a third-generation synchrotron facility in south Oxfordshire, UK, has recently become operational and it is now available for the user community. Herein the main characteristics of the B23 SRCD beamline, the ancillary facilities available for users, and some of the recent advances achieved are summarized.

  11. BNL ATF II beamlines design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedurin, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Jing, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stratakis, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Swinson, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory. Accelerator Test Facility (BNL ATF) is currently undergoing a major upgrade (ATF-II). Together with a new location and much improved facilities, the ATF will see an upgrade in its major capabilities: electron beam energy and quality and CO2 laser power. The electron beam energy will be increased in stages, first to 100-150 MeV followed by a further increase to 500 MeV. Combined with the planned increase in CO2 laser power (from 1-100 TW), the ATF-II will be a powerful tool for Advanced Accelerator research. A high-brightness electron beam, produced by a photocathode gun, will be accelerated and optionally delivered to multiple beamlines. Besides the energy range (up to a possible 500 MeV in the final stage) the electron beam can be tailored to each experiment with options such as: small transverse beam size (<10 um), short bunch length (<100 fsec) and, combined short and small bunch options. This report gives a detailed overview of the ATFII capabilities and beamlines configuration.

  12. Soft-X-ray ARPES facility at the ADRESS beamline of the SLS: concepts, technical realisation and scientific applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strocov, V N; Wang, X; Shi, M; Kobayashi, M; Krempasky, J; Hess, C; Schmitt, T; Patthey, L

    2014-01-01

    Soft-X-ray angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) with photon energies around 1 keV combines the momentum space resolution with increasing probing depth. The concepts and technical realisation of the new soft-X-ray ARPES endstation at the ADRESS beamline of SLS are described. The experimental geometry of the endstation is characterized by grazing X-ray incidence on the sample to increase the photoyield and vertical orientation of the measurement plane. The vacuum chambers adopt a radial layout allowing most efficient sample transfer. High accuracy of the angular resolution is ensured by alignment strategies focused on precise matching of the X-ray beam and optical axis of the analyzer. The high photon flux of up to 10(13) photons s(-1) (0.01% bandwidth)(-1) delivered by the beamline combined with the optimized experimental geometry break through the dramatic loss of the valence band photoexcitation cross section at soft-X-ray energies. ARPES images with energy resolution up to a few tens of meV are typically acquired on the time scale of minutes. A few application examples illustrate the power of our advanced soft-X-ray ARPES instrumentation to explore the electronic structure of bulk crystals with resolution in three-dimensional momentum, access buried heterostructures and study elemental composition of the valence states using resonant excitation.

  13. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASAs Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Johnson, Stephen B.; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David

    2015-01-01

    The engineering development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) new Space Launch System (SLS) requires cross discipline teams with extensive knowledge of launch vehicle subsystems, information theory, and autonomous algorithms dealing with all operations from pre-launch through on orbit operations. The nominal and off-nominal characteristics of SLS's elements and subsystems must be understood and matched with the autonomous algorithm monitoring and mitigation capabilities for accurate control and response to abnormal conditions throughout all vehicle mission flight phases, including precipitating safing actions and crew aborts. This presents a large and complex systems engineering challenge, which is being addressed in part by focusing on the specific subsystems involved in the handling of off-nominal mission and fault tolerance with response management. Using traditional model-based system and software engineering design principles from the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms for the vehicle are crafted and vetted in Integrated Development Teams (IDTs) composed of multiple development disciplines such as Systems Engineering (SE), Flight Software (FSW), Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) and the major subsystems and vehicle elements such as Main Propulsion Systems (MPS), boosters, avionics, Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC), Thrust Vector Control (TVC), and liquid engines. These model-based algorithms and their development lifecycle from inception through FSW certification are an important focus of SLS's development effort to further ensure reliable detection and response to off-nominal vehicle states during all phases of vehicle operation from pre-launch through end of flight. To test and validate these M&FM algorithms a dedicated test-bed was developed for full Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing (VMET). For addressing fault management (FM

  14. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASA's Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Johnson, Stephen B.; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David

    2015-01-01

    The development of the Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle requires cross discipline teams with extensive knowledge of launch vehicle subsystems, information theory, and autonomous algorithms dealing with all operations from pre-launch through on orbit operations. The characteristics of these systems must be matched with the autonomous algorithm monitoring and mitigation capabilities for accurate control and response to abnormal conditions throughout all vehicle mission flight phases, including precipitating safing actions and crew aborts. This presents a large complex systems engineering challenge being addressed in part by focusing on the specific subsystems handling of off-nominal mission and fault tolerance. Using traditional model based system and software engineering design principles from the Unified Modeling Language (UML), the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms are crafted and vetted in specialized Integrated Development Teams composed of multiple development disciplines. NASA also has formed an M&FM team for addressing fault management early in the development lifecycle. This team has developed a dedicated Vehicle Management End-to-End Testbed (VMET) that integrates specific M&FM algorithms, specialized nominal and off-nominal test cases, and vendor-supplied physics-based launch vehicle subsystem models. The flexibility of VMET enables thorough testing of the M&FM algorithms by providing configurable suites of both nominal and off-nominal test cases to validate the algorithms utilizing actual subsystem models. The intent is to validate the algorithms and substantiate them with performance baselines for each of the vehicle subsystems in an independent platform exterior to flight software test processes. In any software development process there is inherent risk in the interpretation and implementation of concepts into software through requirements and test processes. Risk reduction is addressed by working with other organizations such as S

  15. G4beamline Particle Tracking in Matter Dominated Beam Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.J. Roberts, K.B. Beard, S. Ahmed, D. Huang, D.M. Kaplan

    2011-03-01

    The G4beamline program is a useful and steadily improving tool to quickly and easily model beam lines and experimental equipment without user programming. It has both graphical and command-line user interfaces. Unlike most accelerator physics codes, it easily handles a wide range of materials and fields, being particularly well suited for the study of muon and neutrino facilities. As it is based on the Geant4 toolkit, G4beamline includes most of what is known about the interactions of particles with matter. We are continuing the development of G4beamline to facilitate its use by a larger set of beam line and accelerator developers. A major new feature is the calculation of space-charge effects. G4beamline is open source and freely available at http://g4beamline.muonsinc.com

  16. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASA's Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David; Johnson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    integrates specific M&FM algorithms, specialized nominal and off-nominal test cases, and vendor-supplied physics-based launch vehicle subsystem models. Additionally, the team has developed processes for implementing and validating these algorithms for concept validation and risk reduction for the SLS program. The flexibility of the Vehicle Management End-to-end Testbed (VMET) enables thorough testing of the M&FM algorithms by providing configurable suites of both nominal and off-nominal test cases to validate the developed algorithms utilizing actual subsystem models such as MPS. The intent of VMET is to validate the M&FM algorithms and substantiate them with performance baselines for each of the target vehicle subsystems in an independent platform exterior to the flight software development infrastructure and its related testing entities. In any software development process there is inherent risk in the interpretation and implementation of concepts into software through requirements and test cases into flight software compounded with potential human errors throughout the development lifecycle. Risk reduction is addressed by the M&FM analysis group working with other organizations such as S&MA, Structures and Environments, GNC, Orion, the Crew Office, Flight Operations, and Ground Operations by assessing performance of the M&FM algorithms in terms of their ability to reduce Loss of Mission and Loss of Crew probabilities. In addition, through state machine and diagnostic modeling, analysis efforts investigate a broader suite of failure effects and associated detection and responses that can be tested in VMET to ensure that failures can be detected, and confirm that responses do not create additional risks or cause undesired states through interactive dynamic effects with other algorithms and systems. VMET further contributes to risk reduction by prototyping and exercising the M&FM algorithms early in their implementation and without any inherent hindrances such as meeting FSW

  17. Beamlines at Siam photon laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Songsiriritthigul, P; Ishii, T; Kakizaki, A

    2003-01-01

    This report provides the up-to-date information on the present and future beamlines at the Siam Photon Laboratory. The first two beamlines, BL-4 and BL-6, have already been installed, and are now in commissioning. BL-4 is a VUV beamline to be used for investigating the electronic structures of solids and solid surfaces using the angle-resolved photoemission experimental technique. BL-6 is a beamline for electron beam monitoring. Future beamlines utilizing synchrotron light generated by a planar undulator and a superconducting magnet wiggler are discussed.

  18. EXSdetect: an end-to-end software for extended source detection in X-ray images: application to Swift-XRT data

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Teng; Tundo, Elena; Moretti, A; Wang, Jun-Xian; Rosati, Piero; Guglielmetti, Fabrizia; 10.1051/0004-6361/201219866

    2012-01-01

    Aims. We present a stand-alone software (named EXSdetect) for the detection of extended sources in X-ray images. Our goal is to provide a flexible tool capable of detecting extended sources down to the lowest flux levels attainable within instrumental limitations, while maintaining robust photometry, high completeness, and low contamination, regardless of source morphology. EXSdetect was developed mainly to exploit the ever-increasing wealth of archival X-ray data, but is also ideally suited to explore the scientific capabilities of future X-ray facilities, with a strong focus on investigations of distant groups and clusters of galaxies. Methods. EXSdetect combines a fast Voronoi tessellation code with a friends-of-friends algorithm and an automated deblending procedure. The values of key parameters are matched to fundamental telescope properties such as angular resolution and instrumental background. In addition, the software is designed to permit extensive tests of its performance via simulations of a wide ...

  19. Beamline for schools

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    This video is about BL4S Snapshot 22 Sep 2015 12:02:47From 10–20 September, winners of the Beamline for Schools competition visited CERN to perform their experiments. Two teams of high-school students – “Accelerating Africa” from South Africa and “Leo4G” from Italy – were chosen from a total of 119 teams, adding up to 1050 high-school students. “When we were told we’d won we never believed it. People’s parents thought we were lying,” says Michael Copeland from Accelerating Africa. The two teams shared a fully equipped accelerator beamline and conducted their experiment just like other researchers at CERN.

  20. EXSdetect: an end-to-end software for extended source detection in X-ray images: application to Swift-XRT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T.; Tozzi, P.; Tundo, E.; Moretti, A.; Wang, J.-X.; Rosati, P.; Guglielmetti, F.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: We present a stand-alone software (named EXSdetect) for the detection of extended sources in X-ray images. Our goal is to provide a flexible tool capable of detecting extended sources down to the lowest flux levels attainable within instrumental limitations, while maintaining robust photometry, high completeness, and low contamination, regardless of source morphology. EXSdetect was developed mainly to exploit the ever-increasing wealth of archival X-ray data, but is also ideally suited to explore the scientific capabilities of future X-ray facilities, with a strong focus on investigations of distant groups and clusters of galaxies. Methods: EXSdetect combines a fast Voronoi tessellation code with a friends-of-friends algorithm and an automated deblending procedure. The values of key parameters are matched to fundamental telescope properties such as angular resolution and instrumental background. In addition, the software is designed to permit extensive tests of its performance via simulations of a wide range of observational scenarios. Results: We applied EXSdetect to simulated data fields modeled to realistically represent the Swift X-ray Cluster Survey (SXCS), which is based on archival data obtained by the X-ray telescope onboard the Swift satellite. We achieve more than 90% completeness for extended sources comprising at least 80 photons in the 0.5-2 keV band, a limit that corresponds to 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1 for the deepest SXCS fields. This detection limit is comparable to the one attained by the most sensitive cluster surveys conducted with much larger X-ray telescopes. While evaluating the performance of EXSdetect, we also explored the impact of improved angular resolution and discuss the ideal properties of the next generation of X-ray survey missions. The Phyton code EXSdetect is available on the SXCS website http://adlibitum.oats.inaf.it/sxcs

  1. Simulation of beamline alignment operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annese, C; Miller, M G

    1999-02-02

    The CORBA-based Simulator was a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that applied simulation techniques to explore critical questions about distributed control systems. The simulator project used a three-prong approach that studied object-oriented distribution tools, computer network modeling, and simulation of key control system scenarios. The National Ignition Facility's (NIF) optical alignment system was modeled to study control system operations. The alignment of NIF's 192 beamlines is a large complex operation involving more than 100 computer systems and 8000 mechanized devices. The alignment process is defined by a detailed set of procedures; however, many of the steps are deterministic. The alignment steps for a poorly aligned component are similar to that of a nearly aligned component; however, additional operations/iterations are required to complete the process. Thus, the same alignment operations will require variable amounts of time to perform depending on the current alignment condition as well as other factors. Simulation of the alignment process is necessary to understand beamline alignment time requirements and how shared resources such as the Output Sensor and Target Alignment Sensor effect alignment efficiency. The simulation has provided alignment time estimates and other results based on documented alignment procedures and alignment experience gained in the laboratory. Computer communication time, mechanical hardware actuation times, image processing algorithm execution times, etc. have been experimentally determined and incorporated into the model. Previous analysis of alignment operations utilized average implementation times for all alignment operations. Resource sharing becomes rather simple to model when only average values are used. The time required to actually implement the many individual alignment operations will be quite dynamic. The simulation model estimates the time to complete an operation using

  2. Cognitive Network End to End Situational Evaluation Algorithm Based on BP-DBN%基于BP-DBN的认知网络端到端态势评估算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋云洁; 王莉

    2014-01-01

    文中提出了一种基于BP-深度信念网络( BP-DBN)的端到端态势评估算法,实现网络端到端态势等级判定。基于提出的分布式态势评估架构,使用BP-DBN分别构建认知域网元评估值、局部态势评估值和端到端态势评估值三者间的映射关系,最后实现端到端态势等级定性评估。实验结果表明,基于少量标记训练样本,BP-DBN测试错误率低,能够保证评估准确性,同时提出的评估算法能够有效评估端到端网络态势等级。%Cognitive network end to end situational evaluation algorithm based on BP-DBN is proposed to judge the situational level. Based on distributed situational evaluation architecture,BP-DBN is used to construct mapping relations among network element evalua-tion value in cognitive domain,local situational evaluation value and global situational evaluation value. End to end situational evaluation can be qualitatively evaluated. Simulation results show that test error rate of BP-DBN is low based on less labeled samples,which can en-sure accuracy of evaluation,and the algorithm proposed can estimate end to end situational level effectively.

  3. SU-F-P-39: End-To-End Validation of a 6 MV High Dose Rate Photon Beam, Configured for Eclipse AAA Algorithm Using Golden Beam Data, for SBRT Treatments Using RapidArc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreyra, M; Salinas Aranda, F; Dodat, D; Sansogne, R; Arbiser, S [Vidt Centro Medico, Ciudad Autonoma De Buenos Aires, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aire (Argentina)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To use end-to-end testing to validate a 6 MV high dose rate photon beam, configured for Eclipse AAA algorithm using Golden Beam Data (GBD), for SBRT treatments using RapidArc. Methods: Beam data was configured for Varian Eclipse AAA algorithm using the GBD provided by the vendor. Transverse and diagonals dose profiles, PDDs and output factors down to a field size of 2×2 cm2 were measured on a Varian Trilogy Linac and compared with GBD library using 2% 2mm 1D gamma analysis. The MLC transmission factor and dosimetric leaf gap were determined to characterize the MLC in Eclipse. Mechanical and dosimetric tests were performed combining different gantry rotation speeds, dose rates and leaf speeds to evaluate the delivery system performance according to VMAT accuracy requirements. An end-to-end test was implemented planning several SBRT RapidArc treatments on a CIRS 002LFC IMRT Thorax Phantom. The CT scanner calibration curve was acquired and loaded in Eclipse. PTW 31013 ionization chamber was used with Keithley 35617EBS electrometer for absolute point dose measurements in water and lung equivalent inserts. TPS calculated planar dose distributions were compared to those measured using EPID and MapCheck, as an independent verification method. Results were evaluated with gamma criteria of 2% dose difference and 2mm DTA for 95% of points. Results: GBD set vs. measured data passed 2% 2mm 1D gamma analysis even for small fields. Machine performance tests show results are independent of machine delivery configuration, as expected. Absolute point dosimetry comparison resulted within 4% for the worst case scenario in lung. Over 97% of the points evaluated in dose distributions passed gamma index analysis. Conclusion: Eclipse AAA algorithm configuration of the 6 MV high dose rate photon beam using GBD proved efficient. End-to-end test dose calculation results indicate it can be used clinically for SBRT using RapidArc.

  4. Demonstration of the First Real-Time End-to-End 40-Gb/s PAM-4 for Next-Generation Access Applications using 10-Gb/s Transmitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, J. L.; Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the first known experiment of a real-time end-to-end 40-Gb/s PAM-4 system for next-generation access applications using 10-Gb/s class transmitters only. Based on the measurement of a real-time 40-Gb/s PAM system, low-cost upstream and downstream link power budgets are estimated. Up......, we show that colorless 40 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission over 20 km SMF in the C-band is achievable...

  5. End-to-end energy efficient communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittmann, Lars

    Awareness of energy consumption in communication networks such as the Internet is currently gaining momentum as it is commonly acknowledged that increased network capacity (currently driven by video applications) requires significant more electrical power. This paper stresses the importance...

  6. The Low Density Matter (LDM) beamline at FERMI: optical layout and first commissioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetina, Cristian; Grazioli, Cesare; Mahne, Nicola; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Fava, Claudio; Zangrando, Marco; Gerusina, Simone; Alagia, Michele; Avaldi, Lorenzo; Cautero, Giuseppe; de Simone, Monica; Devetta, Michele; Di Fraia, Michele; Drabbels, Marcel; Feyer, Vitaliy; Finetti, Paola; Katzy, Raphael; Kivimäki, Antti; Lyamayev, Viktor; Mazza, Tommaso; Moise, Angelica; Möller, Thomas; O'Keeffe, Patrick; Ovcharenko, Yevheniy; Piseri, Paolo; Plekan, Oksana; Prince, Kevin C; Sergo, Rudi; Stienkemeier, Frank; Stranges, Stefano; Coreno, Marcello; Callegari, Carlo

    2015-05-01

    The Low Density Matter (LDM) beamline has been built as part of the FERMI free-electron laser (FEL) facility to serve the atomic, molecular and cluster physics community. After the commissioning phase, it received the first external users at the end of 2012. The design and characterization of the LDM photon transport system is described, detailing the optical components of the beamline.

  7. Beamline for Schools 2016: How to be a CERN scientist

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Two teams of high-school students from the UK and Poland had the opportunity to conduct their own experiments at a fully equipped CERN beamline.   Students from the 2016 Beamline for Schools competition working on their experiment. (Image: Noemí Carabán Gonzalez/CERN) Two teams of high-school students from the UK and Poland had the opportunity to conduct their own experiments at a fully equipped CERN beamline, after winning the Beamline for Schools competition. The teams, ”Pyramid Hunters” from Poland and “Relatively Special” from the United Kingdom, spent 10 days at CERN conducting the experiments they had dreamt up in their winning proposals. The Beamline for Schools competition gives high-school students the chance to run an experiment on a fully equipped CERN beamline, in the same way researchers do at the Large Hadron Collider and other CERN facilities every day. To know more about their stay at CERN and the experiments they&r...

  8. End to end Distance and its Probability Distribution of Polymer Chains near a Flat Barrier%平面壁限制的高分子链末端距及其概率分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建花; 蒋文华; 韩世钧

    2001-01-01

    The problem of polymer chains near an impenetrable plane is investigated by means of the probability method. It is shown that the 2kth moment of the reduced normal component of the end-to-end distance A2k only depends on the reduced distance to the plane of the first segment AZ0, here, A=l- 1· , n is the chain length, l is the bond length and fixed to be unity, which can be expressed as A2k=f(AZ0). When AZ0≈ 0, A2k is the maximum(A2k=k!), then it decreases rapidly and soon reaches the minimum with the increase of AZ0, afterwards A2k goes up gradually and reaches the limit value [(2k- 1)× (2k- 3)× … × 1]/2k when AZ0 is large enough. Suggesting that the polymer chain can be significantly elongated for small Z0 and contracted for an intermediate range of Z0 due to the barrier. The distribution of the end-to-end distance also depends on the distance Z0 to the plane of the first segment.

  9. Syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties of three one-dimensional end-to-end azide/cyanate-bridged copper(II) compounds exhibiting ferromagnetic interaction: new type of solid state isomerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmal, Sujit; Sarkar, Sohini; Aliaga-Alcalde, Núria; Mohanta, Sasankasekhar

    2011-06-20

    The work in this paper presents the syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties of three end-to-end (EE) azide/cyanate-bridged copper(II) compounds [Cu(II)L(1)(μ(1,3)-NCO)](n)·2nH(2)O (1), [Cu(II)L(1)(μ(1,3)-N(3))](n)·2nH(2)O (2), and [Cu(II)L(2)(μ(1,3)-N(3))](n) (3), where the ligands used to achieve these species, HL(1) and HL(2), are the tridentate Schiff base ligands obtained from [1 + 1] condensations of salicylaldehyde with 4-(2-aminoethyl)-morpholine and 3-methoxy salicylaldehyde with 1-(2-aminoethyl)-piperidine, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 crystallize in the monoclinic P2(1)/c space group, while compound 3 crystallizes in the orthorhombic Pbca space group. The metal center in 1-3 is in all cases pentacoordinated. Three coordination positions of the metal center in 1, 2, or 3 are satisfied by the phenoxo oxygen atom, imine nitrogen atom, and morpholine (for 1 and 2) or piperidine (for 3) nitrogen atom of one deprotonated ligand, [L(1)](-) or [L(2)](-). The remaining two coordination positions are satisfied by two nitrogen atoms of two end-to-end bridging azide ligands for 2 and 3 and one nitrogen atom and one oxygen atom of two end-to-end bridging cyanate ligands for 1. The coordination geometry of the metal ion is distorted square pyramidal in which one EE azide/cyanate occupies the apical position. Variable-temperature (2-300 K) magnetic susceptibilities of 1-3 have been measured under magnetic fields of 0.05 (from 2 to 30 K) and 1.0 T (from 30 to 300 K). The simulation reveals a ferromagnetic interaction in all three compounds with J values of +0.19 ± 0.01, +0.79 ± 0.01, and +1.25 ± 0.007 cm(-1) for 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Compound 1 is the sole example of a ferromagnetically coupled EE cyanate-bridged 1-D copper(II) system. In addition, a rare example of supramolecular isomerism and a nice example of magnetic isomerism have been observed and most interestingly a new type of solid state isomerism has emerged as a result of the comparison

  10. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Detect and Avoid System: End-to-End Verification and Validation Simulation Study of Minimum Operations Performance Standards for Integrating Unmanned Aircraft into the National Airspace System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatas, Rania W.; Jack, Devin P.; Tsakpinis, Dimitrios; Sturdy, James L.; Vincent, Michael J.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Myer, Robert R.; DeHaven, Anna M.

    2017-01-01

    As Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) make their way to mainstream aviation operations within the National Airspace System (NAS), research efforts are underway to develop a safe and effective environment for their integration into the NAS. Detect and Avoid (DAA) systems are required to account for the lack of "eyes in the sky" due to having no human on-board the aircraft. The technique, results, and lessons learned from a detailed End-to-End Verification and Validation (E2-V2) simulation study of a DAA system representative of RTCA SC-228's proposed Phase I DAA Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS), based on specific test vectors and encounter cases, will be presented in this paper.

  11. End to End Service Quality Model Study and Application Based on IPTV Business%基于IPTV业务的端到端业务质量模型研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉

    2011-01-01

    In the current burgeoning tide of development of IPTV services,the main challenges is the quality of service management issues,especially the end to end quality of service problems,the main difficulty is that when high-definition video images,sound and in%在当前日渐蓬勃发展的IPTV业务大潮中,遇到的主要挑战是业务质量管理问题,尤其是端到端的业务质量问题,主要难点在于当视频的高清晰画面、声音和即时频道转换等信息在IP网络上传送时业务质量变得很难控制和保证。

  12. Research on end-to-end network link delay inference based on link reconstruction-destruction%基于链路重构-解构的端到端网络链路时延推测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁永生; 高波; 邹粤; 张基宏; 张乃通

    2014-01-01

    基于网络时延推测的2个假设、时延推测模型和路径时延数据采集方法,提出了一种基于链路重构-解构的端到端网络链路时延推测方法,应用伪似然估计将原整体问题分解为若干独立子问题分别求解,利用链路重构-解构确定可求解的推测单元,控制平均采样精度和减少推测单元链路数,从而显著降低计算复杂度。通过基于模型的计算和基于NS2的仿真实验研究,验证了推测方法的准确性和有效性。%Based on two assumptions, inference model and end-to-end delay data acquisition, an approach to end-to-end network internal link delay inference based on link reconstruction-deconstruction (LRD) was proposed. Pseudo likelihood estimation (PLE) was adopted and the inference problem was divided into independent sub-problems. Inference units with definite solution are determined by LRD. By means of controlling average sampling precision and decreasing infe-rence unit links, the computation complexity of link delay inference was significantly lowered. Experimental study was performed based on model computation and NS2 simulation platform. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the approach is accurate and effective.

  13. A Remote and Virtual Synchrotron Beamline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J. M.; Alp, E.; Sturhahn, W.

    2012-12-01

    National facilities offer one-of-a-kind opportunities to apply state-of-the-art experimental techniques to the pressing scientific problems of today. Yet, few students are able to experience research projects at national facilities due to limited accessibility caused in part by limited involvement in the local academic institution, constrained working areas at the experimental stations, and/or travel costs. We present a virtual and remote beam-line for Earth science studies using nuclear resonant and inelastic x-ray scattering methods at Sector 3 of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. Off-site students have the capability of controlling their measurements via secure internet connections and webcams. Students can access a 'view only mode' for ease of interaction and safety-control. More experienced users have exclusive control of the experiment and can remotely change variables within the experimental setup. Students may also access the virtual aspects these experiments by simulating certain conditions with our newly developed software. We evaluate such a tool by giving "before" and "after" assignments to students at different levels. These levels include high-school students from the Pasadena and greater Los Angeles area school districts, undergraduate students from Caltech's SURF/MURF program, and graduate students at Caltech. We specifically target underrepresented groups. Our results thus far show that the capabilities offered by our remote and virtual beamline show improved knowledge and understanding of applying experimental-based studies at the synchrotron to solve problems in the Earth sciences.

  14. Positron separators in Superomega muon beamline at J-PARC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikedo, Y., E-mail: ikedo@post.kek.jp [Institute of Materials and Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tokai Campus, 230-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Miyake, Y.; Shimomura, K.; Strasser, P.; Kawamura, N.; Nishiyama, K.; Makimura, S.; Fujimori, H.; Koda, A.; Nakamura, J.; Nagatomo, T.; Kobayashi, Y. [Institute of Materials and Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tokai Campus, 230-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Adachi, T. [Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0501 (Japan); Pant, A.D. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, Yamanashi University, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Ogitsu, T.; Nakamoto, T.; Sasaki, K.; Ohata, H.; Okada, R.; Yamamoto, A. [Cryogenics Science Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0501 (Japan); Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); and others

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Three stage positron separators was installed onto the U-line in the MLF/J-PARC. • The separators can be applied 400 kV to the both electrodes. • The separators were tested and were confirmed to successfully eliminate the positrons from the beam. -- Abstract: A positron separator is one of the essential components of a muon beamline to eliminate contamination in the beam, mainly positrons that have the same momentum as muons and are transported together with the beam. In order to eliminate positrons efficiently, we selected a Wien filter type three-stage positron separator for the new muon beamline, called Superomega, that is under construction in the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF) of the Japan Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). The Superomega muon beamline is the second muon beamline at MLF/J-PARC, and started operation in October of 2012. Here, we report on the features and the test results of the positron separators installed in the Superomega muon beamline.

  15. Emittance Measurement for Beamline Extension at the PET Cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae-Hoon Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle-induced X-ray emission is used for determining the elemental composition of materials. This method uses low-energy protons (of several MeV, which can be obtained from high-energy (of tens MeV accelerators. Instead of manufacturing an accelerator for generating the MeV protons, the use of a PET cyclotron has been suggested for designing the beamline for multipurpose applications, especially for the PIXE experiment, which has a dedicated high-energy (of tens MeV accelerator. The beam properties of the cyclotron were determined at this experimental facility by using an external beamline before transferring the ion beam to the experimental chamber. We measured the beam profile and calculated the emittance using the pepper-pot method. The beam profile was measured as the beam current using a wire scanner, and the emittance was measured as the beam distribution at the beam dump using a radiochromic film. We analyzed the measurement results and are planning to use the results obtained in the simulations of external beamline and aligned beamline components. We will consider energy degradation after computing the beamline simulation. The experimental study focused on measuring the emittance from the cyclotron, and the results of this study are presented in this paper.

  16. AI-BL1.0: a program for automatic on-line beamline optimization using the evolutionary algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Shibo; Borgna, Lucas Santiago; Zheng, Lirong; Du, Yonghua; Hu, Tiandou

    2017-01-01

    In this report, AI-BL1.0, an open-source Labview-based program for automatic on-line beamline optimization, is presented. The optimization algorithms used in the program are Genetic Algorithm and Differential Evolution. Efficiency was improved by use of a strategy known as Observer Mode for Evolutionary Algorithm. The program was constructed and validated at the XAFCA beamline of the Singapore Synchrotron Light Source and 1W1B beamline of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility.

  17. SU-F-P-37: Implementation of An End-To-End QA Test of the Radiation Therapy Imaging, Planning and Delivery Process to Identify and Correct Possible Sources of Deviation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinas Aranda, F; Suarez, V; Arbiser, S; Sansogne, R [Vidt Centro Medico, Ciudad Autonoma De Buenos Aires, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aire (Argentina)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To implement an end-to-end QA test of the radiation therapy imaging, planning and delivery process, aimed to assess the dosimetric agreement accuracy between planned and delivered treatment, in order to identify and correct possible sources of deviation. To establish an internal standard for machine commissioning acceptance. Methods: A test involving all steps of the radiation therapy: imaging, planning and delivery process was designed. The test includes analysis of point dose and planar dose distributions agreement between TPS calculated and measured dose. An ad hoc 16 cm diameter PMMA phantom was constructed with one central and four peripheral bores that can accommodate calibrated electron density inserts. Using Varian Eclipse 10.0 and Elekta XiO 4.50 planning systems, IMRT, RapidArc and 3DCRT with hard and dynamic wedges plans were planned on the phantom and tested. An Exradin A1SL chamber is used with a Keithley 35617EBS electrometer for point dose measurements in the phantom. 2D dose distributions were acquired using MapCheck and Varian aS1000 EPID.Gamma analysis was performed for evaluation of 2D dose distribution agreement using MapCheck software and Varian Portal Dosimetry Application.Varian high energy Clinacs Trilogy, 2100C/CD, 2000CR and low energy 6X/EX where tested.TPS-CT# vs. electron density table were checked for CT-scanners used. Results: Calculated point doses were accurate to 0.127% SD: 0.93%, 0.507% SD: 0.82%, 0.246% SD: 1.39% and 0.012% SD: 0.01% for LoX-3DCRT, HiX-3DCRT, IMRT and RapidArc plans respectively. Planar doses pass gamma 3% 3mm in all cases and 2% 2mm for VMAT plans. Conclusion: Implementation of a simple and reliable quality assurance tool was accomplished. The end-to-end proved efficient, showing excellent agreement between planned and delivered dose evidencing strong consistency of the whole process from imaging through planning to delivery. This test can be used as a first step in beam model acceptance for clinical

  18. 云计算数据中心网络的端到端流量计算%END-TO-END TRAFFIC CALCULATION FOR CLOUD COMPUTING DATA CENTRE NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩冰; 宋正江; 鲁阳; 陈建成

    2016-01-01

    云计算数据中心网络的流量特征是研究和设计云计算网络的基础,现有的流量测量研究方法通常要求交换机支持额外功能模块或具备可编程能力,而目前大多数云计算数据中心网络的交换机并不满足此要求。提出一种基于网络层析技术的端到端流量推理算法,仅使用交换机普遍支持的 SNMP(简单的网络管理协议)数据,就能快速准确地计算出端到端的流量信息。并通过仿真实验与已有的网络层析算法进行比较,结果表明新算法更适用于大规模的云计算数据中心网络,可以在较短的时间内得到更准确的计算结果,从而为云计算网络的设计和研究提供了重要的参考依据。%Traffic characteristic of cloud computing data centre networks is the basis of research and design of cloud computing networks. Current study methods of traffic measurement techniques usually ask the switches supporting additional functional modules or being program-mable,however not many of the cloud computing data centre networks can afford such switches.In this paper,we proposed an end-to-end traffic inference algorithm which is based on network tomography.It can rapidly calculate the end-to-end traffic information with high accuracy by only utilising SNMP (simple network management protocol)data ubiquitously supported by switches.Through simulation experiment the algorithm was compared with existing network tomography algorithm,and result showed that the new algorithm was more applicable to large-scale cloud computing data centre networks,and could gain more accurate computing results in short period,so as to provide important refer-ence basis for the design and research of cloud computing networks.

  19. Recent Major Improvements to the ALS Sector 5 MacromolecularCrystallography Beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Simon A.; Glossinger, James; Smith-Baumann, Alexis; McKean, John P.; Trame, Christine; Dickert, Jeff; Rozales, Anthony; Dauz,Azer; Taylor, John; Zwart, Petrus; Duarte, Robert; Padmore, Howard; McDermott, Gerry; Adams, Paul

    2007-07-01

    Although the Advanced Light Source (ALS) was initially conceived primarily as a low energy (1.9GeV) 3rd generation source of VUV and soft x-ray radiation it was realized very early in the development of the facility that a multipole wiggler source coupled with high quality, (brightness preserving), optics would result in a beamline whose performance across the optimal energy range (5-15keV) for macromolecular crystallography (MX) would be comparable to, or even exceed, that of many existing crystallography beamlines at higher energy facilities. Hence, starting in 1996, a suite of three beamlines, branching off a single wiggler source, was constructed, which together formed the ALS Macromolecular Crystallography Facility. From the outset this facility was designed to cater equally to the needs of both academic and industrial users with a heavy emphasis placed on the development and introduction of high throughput crystallographic tools, techniques, and facilities--such as large area CCD detectors, robotic sample handling and automounting facilities, a service crystallography program, and a tightly integrated, centralized, and highly automated beamline control environment for users. This facility was immediately successful, with the primary Multiwavelength Anomalous Diffraction beamline (5.0.2) in particular rapidly becoming one of the foremost crystallographic facilities in the US--responsible for structures such as the 70S ribosome. This success in-turn triggered enormous growth of the ALS macromolecular crystallography community and spurred the development of five additional ALS MX beamlines all utilizing the newly developed superconducting bending magnets ('superbends') as sources. However in the years since the original Sector 5.0 beamlines were built the performance demands of macromolecular crystallography users have become ever more exacting; with growing emphasis placed on studying larger complexes, more difficult structures, weakly diffracting or

  20. Status of the LBNE Neutrino Beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Papadimitriou, Vaia

    2011-01-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) will utilize a neutrino beamline facility located at Fermilab to carry out a compelling research program in neutrino physics. The facility will aim a beam of neutrinos toward a detector placed at the Homestake Mine in South Dakota. The neutrinos are produced in a three-step process. First, protons from the Main Injector (60-120 GeV) hit a solid target and produce mesons. Then, the charged mesons are focused by a set of focusing horns into the decay pipe, towards the far detector. Finally, the mesons that enter the decay pipe decay into neutrinos. The parameters of the facility were determined taking into account several factors including the physics goals, the Monte Carlo modeling of the facility, spacial and radiological constraints and the experience gained by operating the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The initial beam power is expected to be ~700 kW, however some of the parameters were chosen to be able to deal with a beam power of 2.3 MW. We discuss here the stat...

  1. Design of the LBNF Beamline Target Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tariq, S. [Fermilab; Ammigan, K. [Fermilab; Anderson, K.; ; Buccellato, S. A. [Fermilab; Crowley, C. F. [Fermilab; Hartsell, B. D. [Fermilab; Hurh, P. [Fermilab; Hylen, J. [Fermilab; Kasper, P. [Fermilab; Krafczyk, G. E. [Fermilab; Lee, A. [Fermilab; Lundberg, B. [Fermilab; Reitzner, S. D. [Fermilab; Sidorov, V. [Fermilab; Stefanik, A. M. [Fermilab; Tropin, I. S. [Fermilab; Vaziri, K. [Fermilab; Williams, K. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. M. [Fermilab; Densham, C. [RAL, Didcot

    2016-10-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) project will build a beamline located at Fermilab to create and aim an intense neutrino beam of appropriate energy range toward the DUNE detectors at the SURF facility in Lead, South Dakota. Neutrino production starts in the Target Station, which consists of a solid target, magnetic focusing horns, and the associated sub-systems and shielding infrastructure. Protons hit the target producing mesons which are then focused by the horns into a helium-filled decay pipe where they decay into muons and neutrinos. The target and horns are encased in actively cooled steel and concrete shielding in a chamber called the target chase. The reference design chase is filled with air, but nitrogen and helium are being evaluated as alternatives. A replaceable beam window separates the decay pipe from the target chase. The facility is designed for initial operation at 1.2 MW, with the ability to upgrade to 2.4 MW, and is taking advantage of the experience gained by operating Fermilab’s NuMI facility. We discuss here the design status, associated challenges, and ongoing R&D and physics-driven component optimization of the Target Station.

  2. An improved algorithm of reconfiguration processes with end-to-end QoS constraints%一种重构带端到端服务质量约束进程的改进算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玮玮

    2011-01-01

    This Paper presents an improved algorithm to resolve the violating of end-to-end quality of service (QoS) constraints,which occurs when SOA processes running with some services' wrong.By searching for a reconfiguration region that has replaceable services,the study replaces only faulty services and some of their neighboring services.And the replacements can be implemented with one-to-one,one-to-many,or many-to-one functions mappings,as replacing only services in reconfiguration regions rather than the whole service process,lowers the reconfiguration overheads and the adventures of service disruptions.Finally implements a simulation experiment in the Llama ESB middleware,performance study shows that the algorithm may efficiently repair SOA processes.%阐述一种改进算法以解决由不同服务动态组成的SOA进程运行时,一些服务出错引发进程违背端到端服务质量约束的问题.通过查找具有可替换服务的重构域,替换出错服务及其相关服务.替换可由一对一,一对多或多对一的函数映射来实现,由于只替换重构域中的服务而不是整个服务进程,降低了重构经费和服务进程崩溃的风险.最后在Llama的ESB企业服务总线中进行实验模拟,结果表明该算法能有效地修复SOA进程.

  3. End to end simulation of the large span cable control system in FAST%FAST大跨度索牵引运动控制系统全过程仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙京海; 朱文白; 李辉

    2012-01-01

    分析了500m口径球面射电望远镜(FAST)使用柔性索牵引加之二次位姿精调机构的支撑方案在实现接收机的大范围精确运动时对结构和控制系统设计带来的巨大挑战,在现有概念方案的基础上,建立了馈源支撑系统在原型尺度上的完整机构和环境扰动模型,提出了相应的控制策略,并设计了控制器模型来实现精确定位与指向功能.利用全过程数值仿真分析方法,研究了系统的动力学响应以及各种扰动参数对控制效果的影响.仿真结果显示,现有的馈源支撑设计具备良好的控制性能,验证了方案的可行性,并为进一步的优化设计提供了参考依据.%To achieve the required pointing accuracy of the five-hundred-meter aperture spherical radio telescope (FAST) by positioning and orienting the receiver properly, a fine adjusting system was employed, and a model for FAST cabin suspension was created. The end to end simulation was carried out to evaluate the control performance. As a result, the control system showed the satisfied performance in compensating the position and orientation errors. The simulation work approved the feasibility of this engineering concept, and also presented an efficient approach for optimization of the future design work.

  4. Construction and characterization of a laser-driven proton beamline at GSI

    OpenAIRE

    Busold, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The thesis includes the first experiments with the new 100 TW laser beamline of the PHELIX laser facility at GSI Darmstadt to drive a TNSA (Target Normal Sheath Acceleration) proton source at GSI's Z6 experimental area. At consecutive stages a pulsed solenoid has been applied for beam transport and energy selection via chromatic focusing, as well as a radiofrequency cavity for energy compression of the bunch. This novel laser-driven proton beamline, representing a central experiment of the...

  5. Small angle X-ray scattering beamline at SSRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丰; 李小芸; 缪夏然; 边风刚; 王吉力; 李秀宏; 王玉柱; 杨春明; 周平; 林金友; 曾建荣; 洪春霞; 滑文强

    2015-01-01

    Beamline BL16B1 at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) is dedicated to studying the mi-crostructure and dynamic processes of polymers, nanomaterials, mesoporous materials, colloids, liquid crystals, metal materials, etc. At present, SAXS, wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), simultaneous SAXS/WAXS, grazing incident SAXS, and anomalous SAXS techniques are available for end user to conduct diverse ex-periments at this beamline. The sample-to-detector distance is adjustable from 0.2 m to 5 m. The practicable q-range is 0.03–3.6 nm−1 at incident X-ray of 10 keV for conventional SAXS whilst a continuous q-region of 0.06–33 nm−1 can be achieved in simultaneous SAXS/WAXS mode. Time-resolved SAXS measurements in sub-second level was achieved by the beamline upgrating in 2013. This paper gives detailed descriptions about the status, performance and applications of the SAXS beamline.

  6. Microbeam MAD Beamline for Challenging Protein Crystallography in TPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. G.; Chao, C. H.; Chang, C. H.; Juang, J. M.; Liu, C. Y.; Chang, S. H.; Chang, C. F.; Chou, C. K.; Tseng, C. C.; Chiang, C. H.; Jean, Y. C.; Tang, M. T.; Chung, S. C.; Chang, S. L.

    2013-03-01

    The TPS-05A beamline is the first X-ray beamline at NSRRC built for micro protein crystallography experiment as well as one of the seven ID beamlines in phase I at the TPS synchrotron facility. A 2-meter in-vacuum undulator (IU22) serves as the photon source from which the harmonics #3 to #9 will provide brilliance of 1018-1020 photons s-1 mrad-2 mm-2 (0.1% bandwidth)-1 and photon flux of 1013-1014 photons s-1 (0.1% bandwidth)-1 in the required energy range of 5.7-20 keV (2.175-0.620 Å) to cover MAD phasing experiments at 1 Å and SAD phasing experiments at 2 Å. The beamline optics consists of a cryo-cooled double crystal monochromator (DCM) and a pair of focusing K-B mirrors. Requirements from the user group include a target focus size of 50 μm × 50 μm (H × V) at the sample position, photon flux greater than 2 × 1012 photons s-1 at Se K-edge (0.9795 Å), pinholes for adjusting the beam size down to 5 μm. Calculation of heat load for the first optical element, i.e. the first crystal of DCM, is included in this paper.

  7. The High Energy Materials Science Beamline (HEMS) at PETRA III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Norbert; King, Andrew; Beckmann, Felix; Ruhnau, Hans-Ulrich; Kirchhof, René; Kiehn, Rüdiger; Müller, Martin; Schreyer, Andreas

    2010-06-01

    The HEMS Beamline at the German high-brilliance synchrotron radiation storage ring PETRA III is fully tunable between 30 and 250 keV and optimized for sub-micrometer focusing. Approximately 70 % of the beamtime will be dedicated to Materials Research. Fundamental research will encompass metallurgy, physics and chemistry with first experiments planned for the investigation of the relationship between macroscopic and micro-structural properties of polycrystalline materials, grain-grain-interactions, and the development of smart materials or processes. For this purpose a 3D-microsctructure-mapper has been designed. Applied research for manufacturing process optimization will benefit from high flux in combination with ultra-fast detector systems allowing complex and highly dynamic in-situ studies of micro-structural transformations, e.g. during welding processes. The beamline infrastructure allows accommodation of large and heavy user provided equipment. Experiments targeting the industrial user community will be based on well established techniques with standardized evaluation, allowing full service measurements, e.g. for tomography and texture determination. The beamline consists of a five meter in-vacuum undulator, a general optics hutch, an in-house test facility and three independent experimental hutches working alternately, plus additional set-up and storage space for long-term experiments. HEMS is under commissioning as one of the first beamlines running at PETRA III.

  8. ALS beamline design requirements: A guide for beamline designers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This manual is written as a guide for researchers in designing beamlines and endstations acceptable for use at the ALS. It contains guidelines and policies related to personnel safety and equipment and vacuum protection. All equipment and procedures must ultimately satisfy the safety requirements set aside in the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Health and Safety Manual (PUB-3000) which is available from the ALS User Office or on the World WideWeb from the LBNL Homepage (http:// www.lbl.gov).

  9. FLASH2: Operation, beamlines, and photon diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plönjes, Elke, E-mail: elke.ploenjes@desy.de; Faatz, Bart; Kuhlmann, Marion; Treusch, Rolf [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-27

    FLASH2, a major extension of the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH at DESY, turns FLASH into a multi-user FEL facility. A new undulator line is located in a separate accelerator tunnel and driven additionally by the FLASH linear accelerator. First lasing of FLASH2 was achieved in August 2014 with simultaneous user operation at FLASH1. The new FLASH2 experimental hall offers space for up to six experimental end stations, some of which will be installed permanently. The wide wavelength range spans from 4-60 nm and 0.8 nm in the 5{sup th} harmonic and in the future deep into the water window in the fundamental. While this is of high interest to users, it is challenging from the beamline instrumentation point of view. Online diagnostics - which are mostly pulse resolved - for beam intensity, position, wavelength, wave front, and pulse length have been to a large extent developed at FLASH(1) and have now been optimized for FLASH2. Pump-probe facilities for XUV-XUV, XUV optical and XUV-THz experiments will complete the FLASH2 user facility.

  10. Research of end to end data flow control strategy for mobile internet%移动互联网端到端流量管控策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张高毅

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed new technology and architecture of wireless network, aimed at the environment of 2G/3G/LTE/WLAN multiple networks, the QoS control method of data flow in the condition of different user type, service type, time quantum, and cumulant of the lfow is researched, to improve the business experience and user satisfaction. Based on the PCC character and ANDSF multiple connection management mechanism, by using the end to end lfue control technology, the usage ratio of the internet bandwidth is increased. We copied the principle of Dujiangyan water conservancy engineering, applying network flow control, equilibrium the network flow and reduce the flow peak, the fusion strategy control scheme of mobile internet cooperation is proposed, the cyber source is reasonable allocated, the investment of network is rationally and effectively controlled. The requirement for mobile internet business development is created, full technical reserves is made to cope with the digital lfood.%本文通过对无线网络新技术和新架构的分析,针对2G/3G/LTE/WLAN多网络环境下,研究如何对不同的用户类型、业务类型、时间段、累积量进行QoS控制,以提升业务体验和用户满意度。基于PCC承载架构和ANDSF多连接管理机制,通过端到端的流量管控技术提升互联网带宽的使用率。借鉴都江堰水利工程原理,通过实施网络流量控制、均匀网络流量、降低并有效控制流量峰值,提出了移动互联网网络协同的融合策略控制方案,实现了合理配置网络资源、合理有效控制网络投资,为移动互联网业务发展创造条件,为移动互联网时代应对数字洪水做好充分的技术储备。

  11. 基于PLE的有确定解的端到端网络链路时延推测方法%Resarch on Approach to End-to-end Network Link Delav Inference Based on PLE with Definite Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁永生; 邹粤; 张基宏

    2011-01-01

    Network delay is one of the important network performance parameters. End-to-end network delay inference could deal with the difficulties caused by other network measurements based on internal routers or router cooperation. Under the condition of two assumptions;network topology structure is gotten and stable;link performance is temporally and spatially independent;network delay inference model was presented;a new approach to network internal link delay inference based on Pseudo Likelihood Estimation(PLE) with definite solution was proposed in this paper. Based on PLE solved with Expectation Maximum(EM) algorithm; inference units with definite solution were determined via back-toback packet sending way. This approach could solve the problem of indefinite solution and lower the computation complexity. Experimental study was performed based on model computatioa The experimental results show that the approach is accurate and effective.%网络时延是重要的网络性能指标,端到端网络时延推测能够克服传统的基于路由器或者路由器协作的网络测量技术的弊端.在网络拓扑已知且稳定和链路性能时空独立性的假设前提下,给出了网络链路时延推测模型,提出了一种基于伪似然估计(PLE)的有确定解的端到端网络链路时延推测方法.在应用期望最大化算法的伪似然估计的基础上,控制背靠背发包方式,确定可以求解的探测单元,解决了不满足有确定解拓扑下的求解问题,且有效降低了计算复杂度.最后利用基于模型的计算验证了该方法的准确性和有效性.

  12. The ELIMED transport and dosimetry beamline for laser-driven ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, F., E-mail: francesco.romano@lns.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Schillaci, F.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Scuderi, V. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); ELI-Beamlines Project, Institute of Physics ASCR, v.v.i. (FZU), 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Allegra, L.; Amato, A.; Amico, A.; Candiano, G.; De Luca, G.; Gallo, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Giordanengo, S.; Guarachi, L. Fanola [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, Torino (Italy); Universita' di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via P. Giuria 1, Torino (Italy); Korn, G. [ELI-Beamlines Project, Institute of Physics ASCR, v.v.i. (FZU), 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Larosa, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Leanza, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Universita' di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Manna, R.; Marchese, V. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Marchetto, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, Torino (Italy); Margarone, D. [ELI-Beamlines Project, Institute of Physics ASCR, v.v.i. (FZU), 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); and others

    2016-09-01

    A growing interest of the scientific community towards multidisciplinary applications of laser-driven beams has led to the development of several projects aiming to demonstrate the possible use of these beams for therapeutic purposes. Nevertheless, laser-accelerated particles differ from the conventional beams typically used for multiscipilinary and medical applications, due to the wide energy spread, the angular divergence and the extremely intense pulses. The peculiarities of optically accelerated beams led to develop new strategies and advanced techniques for transport, diagnostics and dosimetry of the accelerated particles. In this framework, the realization of the ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical and multidisciplinary applications) beamline, developed by INFN-LNS (Catania, Italy) and that will be installed in 2017 as a part of the ELIMAIA beamline at the ELI-Beamlines (Extreme Light Infrastructure Beamlines) facility in Prague, has the aim to investigate the feasibility of using laser-driven ion beams for multidisciplinary applications. In this contribution, an overview of the beamline along with a detailed description of the main transport elements as well as the detectors composing the final section of the beamline will be presented.

  13. TIME-RESOLVED INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY IN THE U121R BEAMLINE AT THE NSLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARR,G.L.; LAVEIGNE,J.D.; LOBO,R.P.S.M.; REITZE,D.H.; TANNER,D.B.

    1999-07-19

    A facility for performing time-resolved infrared spectroscopy has been developed at the NSLS, primarily at beamline U12IR. The pulsed IR light from the synchrotron is used to perform pump-probe spectroscopy. The authors present here a description of the facility and results for the relaxation of photoexcitations in both a semiconductor and superconductor.

  14. The EIS-TIMER beamline: transient grating spectroscopy at FERMI (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetina, Cristian

    2016-09-01

    FERMI, the Italian Free Electron Laser user facility, provides VUV/soft x-ray photons pulses with unprecedented high brilliance and coherence. The unique design of EIS-TIMER is conceived to exploit such kind of non-linear coherent experiments to probe collective vibrational and electronic properties of matter at the nanoscale. After the proof of principle experiment successfully carried out at the DiProI beamline employing a simplified and compact setup (mini-TIMER), the EIS-TIMER beamline has been installed and commissioned. The beamlines employs 24 mirrors and three photon beams in order to create a wide set of transient grating able to reach Q vectors so far impossible to probe. In the presentation the scientific case, the commissioning results as well as the future development of the beamline will be shown. The future project nano-TIMER will be described in detail with particular attention to it's unique optical scheme mainly composed by diffraction gratings.

  15. Beamline 9.0.1 - a high-resolution undulator beamline for gas-phase spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozek, J.D.; Heimann, P.A.; Mossessian, D. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.0.1 at the Advanced Light Source is an undulator beamline with a Spherical Grating Monochromator (SGM) which provides very high resolution and flux over the photon energy range 20-320eV. The beamline has been used primarily by the atomic and molecular science community to conduct spectroscopy experiments using electron, ion and fluorescence photon detection. A description of the beamline and its performance will be provided in this abstract.

  16. Design and simulation of the nuSTORM pion beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, A., E-mail: aoliu@fnal.gov; Neuffer, D.; Bross, A.

    2015-11-21

    The nuSTORM (neutrinos from STORed Muons) proposal presents a detailed design for a neutrino facility based on a muon storage ring, with muon decay in the production straight section of the ring providing well defined neutrino beams. The facility includes a primary high-energy proton beam line, a target station with pion production and collection, and a pion beamline for pion transportation and injection into a muon decay ring. The nuSTORM design uses “stochastic injection”, in which pions are directed by a chicane, referred to as the Orbit Combination Section (OCS), into the production straight section of the storage ring. Pions that decay within that straight section provide muons within the circulating acceptance of the ring. The design enables injection without kickers or a separate pion decay transport line. The beam line that the pions traverse before being extracted from the decay ring is referred to as the pion beamline. This paper describes the design and simulation of the pion beamline, and includes full beam dynamics simulations of the system.

  17. TOWARD END-TO-END MODELING FOR NUCLEAR EXPLOSION MONITORING: SIMULATION OF UNDERGROUND NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AND EARTHQUAKES USING HYDRODYNAMIC AND ANELASTIC SIMULATIONS, HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL EARTH MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A; Vorobiev, O; Petersson, A; Sjogreen, B

    2009-07-06

    This paper describes new research being performed to improve understanding of seismic waves generated by underground nuclear explosions (UNE) by using full waveform simulation, high-performance computing and three-dimensional (3D) earth models. The goal of this effort is to develop an end-to-end modeling capability to cover the range of wave propagation required for nuclear explosion monitoring (NEM) from the buried nuclear device to the seismic sensor. The goal of this work is to improve understanding of the physical basis and prediction capabilities of seismic observables for NEM including source and path-propagation effects. We are pursuing research along three main thrusts. Firstly, we are modeling the non-linear hydrodynamic response of geologic materials to underground explosions in order to better understand how source emplacement conditions impact the seismic waves that emerge from the source region and are ultimately observed hundreds or thousands of kilometers away. Empirical evidence shows that the amplitudes and frequency content of seismic waves at all distances are strongly impacted by the physical properties of the source region (e.g. density, strength, porosity). To model the near-source shock-wave motions of an UNE, we use GEODYN, an Eulerian Godunov (finite volume) code incorporating thermodynamically consistent non-linear constitutive relations, including cavity formation, yielding, porous compaction, tensile failure, bulking and damage. In order to propagate motions to seismic distances we are developing a one-way coupling method to pass motions to WPP (a Cartesian anelastic finite difference code). Preliminary investigations of UNE's in canonical materials (granite, tuff and alluvium) confirm that emplacement conditions have a strong effect on seismic amplitudes and the generation of shear waves. Specifically, we find that motions from an explosion in high-strength, low-porosity granite have high compressional wave amplitudes and weak

  18. Time-resolved neutron imaging at ANTARES cold neutron beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Tremsin, A S; Tittelmeier, K; Schillinger, B; Schulz, M; Lerche, M; Feller, W B

    2015-01-01

    In non-destructive evaluation with X-rays light elements embedded in dense, heavy (or high-Z) matrices show little contrast and their structural details can hardly be revealed. Neutron radiography, on the other hand, provides a solution for those cases, in particular for hydrogenous materials, owing to the large neutron scattering cross section of hydrogen and uncorrelated dependency of neutron cross section on the atomic number. The majority of neutron imaging experiments at the present time is conducted with static objects mainly due to the limited flux intensity of neutron beamline facilities and sometimes due to the limitations of the detectors. However, some applications require the studies of dynamic phenomena and can now be conducted at several high intensity beamlines such as the recently rebuilt ANTARES beam line at the FRM-II reactor. In this paper we demonstrate the capabilities of time resolved imaging for repetitive processes, where different phases of the process can be imaged simultaneously and...

  19. Some aspects of SR beamline alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaponov, Yu.A., E-mail: Yury.Gaponov@maxlab.lu.se [MAX-lab, Lund University, P.O.B. 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Cerenius, Y. [MAX-lab, Lund University, P.O.B. 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Nygaard, J. [Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Ursby, T.; Larsson, K. [MAX-lab, Lund University, P.O.B. 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2011-09-01

    Based on the Synchrotron Radiation (SR) beamline optical element-by-element alignment with analysis of the alignment results an optimized beamline alignment algorithm has been designed and developed. The alignment procedures have been designed and developed for the MAX-lab I911-4 fixed energy beamline. It has been shown that the intermediate information received during the monochromator alignment stage can be used for the correction of both monochromator and mirror without the next stages of alignment of mirror, slits, sample holder, etc. Such an optimization of the beamline alignment procedures decreases the time necessary for the alignment and becomes useful and helpful in the case of any instability of the beamline optical elements, storage ring electron orbit or the wiggler insertion device, which could result in the instability of angular and positional parameters of the SR beam. A general purpose software package for manual, semi-automatic and automatic SR beamline alignment has been designed and developed using the developed algorithm. The TANGO control system is used as the middle-ware between the stand-alone beamline control applications BLTools, BPMonitor and the beamline equipment.

  20. Beamline for Schools Safety Awareness Day

    CERN Multimedia

    Photo Service, CERN

    2014-01-01

    The first two teams to participate in CERN's Beamline for Schools project spent their first day at CERN at the Safety Training Center in Prévessin. They covered amongst others radiation protection, cryogenics and fire-fighting. The teams will spend the rest of the week at the T9 beamline.

  1. ERLP Gun Commissioning Beamline Design

    CERN Document Server

    Holder, D J; Hannon, F E

    2004-01-01

    The 4GLS project is a novel next-generation solution for a UK national light source. It is based on an energy recovery linac (ERL) operating at high average beam currents up to 100 mA and with compression schemes producing pulses in the 10 - 100 fs range. This challenging accelerator technology, new to Europe, necessitates a significant R&D programme and a major part of this is a low-energy prototype, the ERLP, which is currently under construction at Daresbury Laboratory, in the north-west of England. The first components of ERLP to be built will be the DC photocathode gun and low-energy beam transport and diagnostics. The gun will initially be operated with a diagnostic beamline in order to measure the properties of the high-brightness beams generated as fully as possible. This will allow comparison of its performance with the results of multi-particle tracking codes, prior to its integration into the ERLP machine. The diagnostic beamline will include diagnostics for measuring the transverse and longitu...

  2. CAT Guide and Beamline Directory. A key to APS Collaborative Access Teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-08

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), a national user facility for synchrotrons radiation research, is located at Argonne National Laboratory, approximately 25 miles southwest of Chicago, Illinois. The APS is considered a third-generation synchrotrons radiation facility (specifically designed to accommodate insertion devices to serve as radiation sources) and is one of three such facilities in the world. Currently, it is the most brilliant source in the United States for research in such diverse fields as biology, medicine, materials science, chemistry, geology, agriculture and soil science, physics, and manufacturing technology. Researchers use the APS either as members of Collaborative Access Teams (CATS) or as Independent Investigators (IIs). CATS are responsible for designing, building, and operating beamlines in one or more sectors, each sector consisting of an insertion-device (ID) beamline and a bending-magnet (BM) beamline. Each beamline is designed to accommodate a specific type of research program(s) and is optimized accordingly. CAT members are entitled to use 75% of the available beam time to pursue CAT research goals. The remaining 25% of the available beam time must be made available to IIs. This document was written to help prospective IIs determine which beamlines are suitable for their specific experiments.

  3. MxCuBE: a synchrotron beamline control environment customized for macromolecular crystallography experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabadinho, José; Beteva, Antonia; Guijarro, Matias; Rey-Bakaikoa, Vicente; Spruce, Darren; Bowler, Matthew W; Brockhauser, Sandor; Flot, David; Gordon, Elspeth J; Hall, David R; Lavault, Bernard; McCarthy, Andrew A; McCarthy, Joanne; Mitchell, Edward; Monaco, Stéphanie; Mueller-Dieckmann, Christoph; Nurizzo, Didier; Ravelli, Raimond B G; Thibault, Xavier; Walsh, Martin A; Leonard, Gordon A; McSweeney, Sean M

    2010-09-01

    The design and features of a beamline control software system for macromolecular crystallography (MX) experiments developed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are described. This system, MxCuBE, allows users to easily and simply interact with beamline hardware components and provides automated routines for common tasks in the operation of a synchrotron beamline dedicated to experiments in MX. Additional functionality is provided through intuitive interfaces that enable the assessment of the diffraction characteristics of samples, experiment planning, automatic data collection and the on-line collection and analysis of X-ray emission spectra. The software can be run in a tandem client-server mode that allows for remote control and relevant experimental parameters and results are automatically logged in a relational database, ISPyB. MxCuBE is modular, flexible and extensible and is currently deployed on eight macromolecular crystallography beamlines at the ESRF. Additionally, the software is installed at MAX-lab beamline I911-3 and at BESSY beamline BL14.1.

  4. Beamline for low-energy transport of highly charged ions at HITRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andelkovic, Z., E-mail: z.andelkovic@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Herfurth, F.; Kotovskiy, N. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); König, K.; Maaß, B.; Murböck, T. [Technische Universität Darmstadt (Germany); Neidherr, D. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Schmidt, S. [Technische Universität Darmstadt (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz (Germany); Steinmann, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany); Vogel, M.; Vorobjev, G. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-09-21

    A beamline for transport of highly charged ions with energies as low as a few keV/charge has been constructed and commissioned at GSI. Complementary to the existing infrastructure of the HITRAP facility for deceleration of highly charged ions from the GSI accelerator, the new beamline connects the HITRAP ion decelerator and an EBIT with the associated experimental setups. Therefore, the facility can now transport the decelerated heavy highly charged ions to the experiments or supply them offline with medium-heavy highly charged ions from the EBIT, both at energies as low as a few keV/charge. Here we present the design of the 20 m long beamline with the corresponding beam instrumentation, as well as its performance in terms of energy and transport efficiency.

  5. Measurement of the polarization for soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the BSRF beamline 4B7B

    CERN Document Server

    Zhi-Ying, Guo; Jing-Tao, Zhu; YI-Dong, Zhao; Lei, Zheng; Cai-Hao, Hong; Kun, Tang; Dong-Liang, Yang; Ming-Qi, Cui

    2012-01-01

    Three ultra-short-period W/B4C multilayers (1.244nm, 1.235nm and 1.034nm) have been fabricated and used for polarization measurement at the 4B7B Beamline of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). By rotating analyzer ellipsometry method, the linear polarization degree of light emerging from this beamline has been measured and the circular polarization evaluated for 700eV-860eV. The first soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements are carried out at BSRF by positioning the beamline aperture out of the plane of the electron storage ring.

  6. From Beamline to Scanner with 225Ac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andrew K. H.; Ramogida, Caterina F.; Kunz, Peter; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Cristina; Schaffer, Paul; Sossi, Vesna

    2016-09-01

    Due to the high linear energy transfer and short range of alpha-radiation, targeted radiation therapy using alpha-emitting pharmaceuticals that successfully target small disease clusters will kill target cells with limited harm to healthy tissue, potentially treating the most aggressive forms of cancer. As the parent of a decay chain with four alpha- and two beta-decays, 225Ac is a promising candidate for such a treatment. However, this requires retention of the entire decay chain at the target site, preventing the creation of freely circulating alpha-emitters that reduce therapeutic effect and increase toxicity to non-target tissues. Two major challenges to 225Ac pharmaceutical development exist: insufficient global supply, and the difficulty of preventing toxicity by retaining the entire decay chain at the target site. While TRIUMF works towards large-scale (C i amounts) production of 225Ac, we already use our Isotope Separation On-Line facility to provide small (overview of this research program and the journey of 225Ac from the beamline to the scanner. This research is funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

  7. New beamline dedicated to solution scattering from biological macromolecules at the ESRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pernot, P; Theveneau, P; Giraud, T; Fernandes, R Nogueira; Nurizzo, D; Spruce, D; Surr, J; McSweeney, S [ESRF, BP 220, Grenoble (France); Round, A; Felisaz, F; Foedinger, L; Gobbo, A; Huet, J; Villard, C; Cipriani, F, E-mail: rejma@esrf.f, E-mail: around@embl.f [EMBL Grenoble, BP 181, Grenoble (France)

    2010-10-01

    The new bio-SAXS beamline (ID14-3 at the ESRF, Grenoble, France) is dedicated exclusively to small-angle scattering experiments of biological macromolecules in solution and has been in user operation since November 2008. Originally a protein crystallography beamline, ID14-3 was refurbished, still as a part of the ESRF Structural Biology group, with the main aim to provide a facility with 'quick and easy' access to satisfy rapidly growing demands from crystallographers, biochemists and structural biologists. The beamline allows manual and automatic sample loading/unloading, data collection, processing (conversion of a 2D image to a normalized 1D X-ray scattering profile) and analysis. The users obtain on-line standard data concerning the size (radius of gyration, maximum dimension and volume) and molecular weight of samples which allow on-the fly ab-inito shape reconstruction in order to provide feedback enabling the data collection strategies to be optimized. Automation of sample loading is incorporated on the beamline using a device constructed in collaboration between the EMBL (Grenoble and Hamburg outstations) and the ESRF. Semi/automated data analysis is implemented following the model of the SAXS facility at X33, EMBL Hamburg. This paper describes the bio-SAXS beamline and set-up characteristics together with the examples of user data obtained.

  8. Confining continuous manipulations of accelerator beamline optics

    CERN Document Server

    Amstutz, Philipp; Bödewadt, Jörn; Lechner, Christoph; Plath, Tim; Vogt, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Altering the optics in one section of a linear accelerator beamline will in general cause an alteration of the optics in all downstream sections. In circular accelerators, changing the optical properties of any beamline element will have an impact on the optical functions throughout the whole machine. In many cases, however, it is desirable to change the optics in a certain beamline section without disturbing any other parts of the machine. Such a local optics manipulation can be achieved by adjusting a number of additional corrector magnets that restore the initial optics after the manipulated section. In that case, the effect of the manipulation is confined in the region between the manipulated and the correcting beamline elements. Introducing a manipulation continuously, while the machine is operating, therefore requires continuous correction functions to be applied to the correcting quadrupole magnets. In this paper we present an analytic approach to calculate such continuous correction functions for six ...

  9. Imaging beamline for high energy proton radiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Tao; YANG Guo-Jun; LONG Ji-Dong; WANG Shao-Heng; HE Xiao-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Proton radiography is a new tool for advanced hydrotesting.This article will discuss the basic concept of proton radiography first,especially the magnetic lens system.Then a scenario of 50 GeV imaging beamline will be described in every particular,including the matching section,Zumbro lens system and imaging system.The simulation result shows that the scenario of imaging beamline performs well,and the influence of secondary particles can be neglected.

  10. Construction Status of the Beamline for Radio-Isotope Production in the Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, B. H.; Yoon, S. P.; Seol, K. T.; Kim, H. S.; Kwon, H. J.; Cho, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The 100-MeV beamline consist of 5 target room, a TR 103 as one of these is operating beamline, and a TR 101 as the other beamline is under construction as shown in Fig. 1. The TR 101 as beamline target room will be used for the high value-added medical isotope production and increased utilization of the proton accelerator. The optical system of the beamline consisted of dipole and quadrupole, and it included beam position monitor (BPM) and current transformer (CT) for beam diagnostics. The beamline was inserted into the carbon block and the aluminum collimator, the end of pipe as beam window was used for the aluminum to reduce the radioactive of materials. The target transfer equipment is being installed for RI production. The RI Beamline was aligned using the laser tracker, and vacuum leak was not detected by the helium leak detector. This facility is expected to the high value-added medical isotope production and increased utilization of the proton accelerator.

  11. Understanding the instrumental profile of synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction beamlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebuffi, Luca; Sánchez Del Río, Manuel; Busetto, Edoardo; Scardi, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    A Monte Carlo algorithm has been developed to calculate the instrumental profile function of a powder diffraction synchrotron beamline. Realistic models of all optical elements are implemented in a ray-tracing software. The proposed approach and the emerging paradigm have been investigated and verified for several existing X-ray powder diffraction beamlines. The results, which can be extended to further facilities, show a new and general way of assessing the contribution of instrumental broadening to synchrotron radiation data, based on ab initio simulations.

  12. Light flux density threshold at which protein denaturation is induced by synchrotron radiation circular dichroism beamlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, A J; Janes, Robert W; Brown, A; Clarke, D T; Sutherland, J C; Tao, Y; Wallace, B A; Hoffmann, S V

    2008-07-01

    New high-flux synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) beamlines are providing important information for structural biology, but can potentially cause denaturation of the protein samples under investigation. This effect has been studied at the new CD1 dedicated SRCD beamline at ISA in Denmark, where radiation-induced thermal damage effects were observed, depending not only on the radiation flux but also on the focal spot size of the light. Comparisons with similar studies at other SRCD facilities worldwide has lead to the estimation of a flux density threshold under which SRCD beamlines should be operated when samples are to be exposed to low-wavelength vacuum ultraviolet radiation for extended periods of time.

  13. High resolution neutron imaging capabilities at BOA beamline at Paul Scherrer Institut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremsin, A.S., E-mail: ast@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Morgano, M.; Panzner, T.; Lehmann, E.; Filgers, U. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Vallerga, J.V.; McPhate, J.B.; Siegmund, O.H.W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Feller, W.B. [NOVA Scientific, Inc., 10 Picker Rd., Sturbridge, MA 01566 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The cold neutron spectrum of the Beamline for neutron Optics and other Applications (BOA) at Paul Scherrer Institut enables high contrast neutron imaging because neutron cross sections for many materials increase with neutron wavelength. However, for many neutron imaging applications, spatial resolution can be as important as contrast. In this paper the neutron transmission imaging capabilities of an MCP/Timepix detector installed at the BOA beamline are presented, demonstrating the possibilities for studying sub-20 µm features in various samples. In addition to conventional neutron radiography and microtomography, the high degree of neutron polarization at the BOA beamline can be very attractive for imaging of magnetic fields, as demonstrated by our measurements. We also show that a collimated cold neutron beamline combined with a high resolution detector can produce image artifacts, (e.g. edge enhancements) due to neutron refraction and scattering. The results of our experiments indicate that the BOA beamline is a valuable addition to neutron imaging facilities, providing improved and sometimes unique capabilities for non-destructive studies with cold neutrons.

  14. Ring beamlines and instrumentation for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, W. Jorge; Trippe, Anthony P.

    1994-08-01

    Many recently constructed storage rings are catering to the needs of industrial applications in addition to providing the traditional services required for synchrotron radiation research. The Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD) was established by Louisiana State University to pioneer development of microfabrication while supporting research in basic science. Maxwell Laboratories designed, built, and successfully commissioned the 1.2 GeV, 400 mA light source for CAMD. Maxwell Laboratories has completed one X-ray lithography beamline at CAMD, and two more are now being manufactured. The completed beamline system, designed for thin resists, delivers photons up to 2 keV. The two beamlines currently under construction deliver photons up to 6 keV for thick (> 50 μm) resists, which play a role in the fabrication of 3-D nanostructures. One of the thick-resist beamlines includes an aspheric mirror that collimates the synchrotron-radiation beam in the horizontal plane while focusing it in the vertical direction - creating a sharp, uniform line image at the workpiece. The other thick-resist beamline has conventional planar optics. Beam position monitors (BPMs) developed for the CAMD beamlines provide a precise vertical profile of the beam by measuring differential photocurrents generated in the BPM probes. Beam power measurements are accomplished with a fixed-aperture calorimeter. Since each calorimeter is precisely calibrated before shipment, its thermal response in the beam is an accurate means to determine beam power for setting lithography exposure times or for computing beamline energy balance.

  15. One-dimensional numerical simulation of shock wave propagation induced by vacuum accidents in a beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takiya, Toshio; Terada, Yukihiro; Komura, Akio [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan); Higashino, Fumio; Miyajima, Shinichi; Ando, Masami

    1997-05-01

    A simulation for shock wave propagation in a vacuum tube has been conducted from the viewpoint of protection from vacuum accidents in beamlines of a synchrotron radiation facility. Inserted devices in beamlines such as absorbers, slits, masks and beryllium windows were replaced with orifices installed in a shock tube as a simulation model. One-dimensional Euler`s equations with friction terms were used for estimating the effects on shock wave decay as well as the effects of friction along a tube on shock attenuation. The results indicated that the entrance diameter of the shock tube was an important parameter for determining the strength of shock waves generated by the expansion of gases at the tube entrance and that the friction effects were too large to delay the arrival time of shock waves at the end of a long tube. Moreover, shock wave propagation in a long beamline model based on the MR beamline in the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics was simulated for designing adequate protection from vacuum accidents. The present simulation provides necessary information for the design of a protection system for vacuum accidents in other facilities. (author)

  16. Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on the GALAXIES beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Céolin, D.; Ablett, J.M.; Prieur, D.; Moreno, T. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, l’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, FR-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Rueff, J.-P. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, l’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, FR-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, Université Pierre et Marie Curie and CNRS UMR7614, FR-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Marchenko, T.; Journel, L.; Guillemin, R.; Pilette, B.; Marin, T. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, Université Pierre et Marie Curie and CNRS UMR7614, FR-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Simon, M., E-mail: marc.simon@upmc.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, l’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, FR-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, Université Pierre et Marie Curie and CNRS UMR7614, FR-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► We developed a new HAXPES endstation at the French synchrotron facility SOLEIL. ► The setup is operational for both solid state and gas phase experiments. ► Beamline performances allow working in the Auger Raman conditions. ► Beamline flux compensates for ionization cross section decrease at high photon energy. ► Spectrometer compensates for ionization cross section decrease at high photon energy. -- Abstract: We report on the newly operational HAXPES endstation located on the GALAXIES beamline of the SOLEIL French synchrotron facility. The photon energy provided by the beamline covers the 2.4–12 keV range, and electrons of kinetic energy up to 12 keV can be analyzed. The HAXPES station is comprised of a UHV analysis chamber designed for investigating both solid samples and gases for the first time at high kinetic energy, and a fully equipped preparation chamber. We present the first results of X-ray photoemission and photoabsorption collected with this setup.

  17. National synchrotron light source user's manual: Guide to the VUV and x-ray beamlines: Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gmuer, N.F.; Thomlinson, W.; White-DePace, S.

    1989-01-01

    This report contains information on the following topics: A Word on the Writing of Beamline Descriptions; Beamline Equipment Utilization for General Users; the Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) Storage Ring and Beamlines; VUV Beamline Descriptions--An Explanation; VUV Beamline Descriptions; X-Ray Storage Ring and Beamlines; X-Ray Beamline Descriptions--An Explanation; and X-Ray Beamline Descriptions.

  18. Status of the Design of the LBNE Neutrino Beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, R; Childress, S C; Moore, C D; Papadimitriou, V; Campbell, M R

    2013-01-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) will utilize a neutrino beamline facility located at Fermilab to carry out a compelling research program in neutrino physics. The facility will aim a beam of neutrinos toward a detector placed at the Homestake Mine in South Dakota, about 1300 km away. The neutrinos are produced as follows: First, protons extracted from the MI-10 section of the Main Injector (60-120 GeV) hit a solid target above grade and produce mesons. Then, the charged mesons are focused by a set of focusing horns into a 250 m long decay pipe, towards the far detector. Finally, the mesons that enter the decay pipe decay into neutrinos. The parameters of the facility were determined taking into account several factors including the physics goals, the modeling of the facility, spacial and radiological constraints and the experience gained by operating the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The initial beam power is expected to be ~700 kW, however some of the parameters were chosen to be able to deal with a...

  19. CMDS System Integration and IAMD End-to-End Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Cruise Missile Defense Systems (CMDS) Project Office is establishing a secure System Integration Laboratory at the AMRDEC. This lab will contain tactical Signal...

  20. End to End Inter-domain Quality of Service Provisioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewka, Lukasz Jerzy

    This thesis addresses selected topics of Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning in heterogeneous data networks that construct the communication environment of today's Internet. In the vast range of protocols available in different domains of network infrastructures, a few chosen ones are discussed......, the general UPnPQoS performance was assessed analytically and confirmed by simulations results. The results validate the usability of UPnP-QoS, but some open issues in the specication were identified. As a result of addressing mentioned shortcomings of UPnP-QoS, a few pre-emption algorithms for home gateway...... were designed and compared. Similarly as for general UPnP-QoS assessment, analysis and intensive simulations were used for verification of proposed pre-emption techniques. The other proposed extension for UPnP-QoS was an integration of trac auto-classication within UPnP-QoS Architecture. Simulation...

  1. Study on End-to-End Web Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ke-li; DAI Li-zhong

    2004-01-01

    While there are lots of papers discussing one or more aspects of web performance, there are few papers talking of web performance as a whole. This paper most thoroughly discusses aspects that influence web performance and current known web techniques. In addition, we discussed the general methods of web performance measurement and explained the discrepancies between our results and those of others. Finally, we analyzed the bottlenecks of web and come up with possible solutions.

  2. End-to-end experiment management in HPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kroiss, Ryan R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Torrez, Alfred [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wingate, Meghan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Experiment management in any domain is challenging. There is a perpetual feedback loop cycling through planning, execution, measurement, and analysis. The lifetime of a particular experiment can be limited to a single cycle although many require myriad more cycles before definite results can be obtained. Within each cycle, a large number of subexperiments may be executed in order to measure the effects of one or more independent variables. Experiment management in high performance computing (HPC) follows this general pattern but also has three unique characteristics. One, computational science applications running on large supercomputers must deal with frequent platform failures which can interrupt, perturb, or terminate running experiments. Two, these applications typically integrate in parallel using MPI as their communication medium. Three, there is typically a scheduling system (e.g. Condor, Moab, SGE, etc.) acting as a gate-keeper for the HPC resources. In this paper, we introduce LANL Experiment Management (LEM), an experimental management framework simplifying all four phases of experiment management. LEM simplifies experiment planning by allowing the user to describe their experimental goals without having to fully construct the individual parameters for each task. To simplify execution, LEM dispatches the subexperiments itself thereby freeing the user from remembering the often arcane methods for interacting with the various scheduling systems. LEM provides transducers for experiments that automatically measure and record important information about each subexperiment; these transducers can easily be extended to collect additional measurements specific to each experiment. Finally, experiment analysis is simplified by providing a general database visualization framework that allows users to quickly and easily interact with their measured data.

  3. A PDTB-Styled End-to-End Discourse Parser

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Ziheng; Kan, Min-Yen

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a full discourse parser in the Penn Discourse Treebank (PDTB) style. Our trained parser first identifies all discourse and non-discourse relations, locates and labels their arguments, and then classifies their relation types. When appropriate, the attribution spans to these relations are also determined. We present a comprehensive evaluation from both component-wise and error-cascading perspectives.

  4. VT Linear Referencing System - End-to-End 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — LRS2014 is a Linear Referencing System layer that includes interstate, U.S., state (VT), and other transportation routes logged by the Vermont Agency of...

  5. End to End Beam Dynamics of the ESS Linac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Heine Dølrath

    2012-01-01

    The European Spallation Source, ESS, uses a linear accelerator to deliver a high intensity proton beam to the target station. The nominal beam power on target will be 5 MW at an energy of 2.5 GeV. We briefly describe the individual accelerating structures and transport lines through which we have...

  6. On end-to-end safety for mobile COTS devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kucera

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, ubiquitous mobile devices have not only arrived but entered the safety critical domain. There, systems are about to be controlled where human health or even human life is put at risk. For example, in automation systems first ideas surface to control parts of the system via a COTS smartphone. Another example is the idea to control the autonomous parking function of a car via a COTS smartphone too. As beneficial and convenient these ideas are on the first thought, on the second thought, dangers of these approaches become obvious. Especially in case of failures the system’s safety has to be maintained. The open question is how to achieve this mandatory requirement with COTS components, e.g. smartphones that are not developed following the development process necessary for safetycritical systems. This paper presents a concept to reliably detect human interaction while activating safety critical functions via COTS mobile devices. Thus a means is provided to detect erroneous activation requests for the safetycritical function.

  7. Laser-driven electron beamlines generated by coupling laser-plasma sources with conventional transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antici, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); SAPIENZA, University of Rome, Dip. SBAI, Via A. Scarpa 14, 00161 Rome (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Roma, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica - SAPIENZA, University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro, 2 - 00185 Rome (Italy); Bacci, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Ferrario, M.; Rossi, A. R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Benedetti, C. [University of Bologna and INFN - Bologna (Italy); Lancia, L.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L. [SAPIENZA, University of Rome, Dip. SBAI, Via A. Scarpa 14, 00161 Rome (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Roma, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica - SAPIENZA, University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro, 2 - 00185 Rome (Italy); Serafini, L. [INFN-Milan and Department of Physics, University of Milan, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    Laser-driven electron beamlines are receiving increasing interest from the particle accelerator community. In particular, the high initial energy, low emittance, and high beam current of the plasma based electron source potentially allow generating much more compact and bright particle accelerators than what conventional accelerator technology can achieve. Using laser-generated particles as injectors for generating beamlines could significantly reduce the size and cost of accelerator facilities. Unfortunately, several features of laser-based particle beams need still to be improved before considering them for particle beamlines and thus enable the use of plasma-driven accelerators for the multiple applications of traditional accelerators. Besides working on the plasma source itself, a promising approach to shape the laser-generated beams is coupling them with conventional accelerator elements in order to benefit from both a versatile electron source and a controllable beam. In this paper, we perform start-to-end simulations to generate laser-driven beamlines using conventional accelerator codes and methodologies. Starting with laser-generated electrons that can be obtained with established multi-hundred TW laser systems, we compare different options to capture and transport the beams. This is performed with the aim of providing beamlines suitable for potential applications, such as free electron lasers. In our approach, we have analyzed which parameters are critical at the source and from there evaluated different ways to overcome these issues using conventional accelerator elements and methods. We show that electron driven beamlines are potentially feasible, but exploiting their full potential requires extensive improvement of the source parameters or innovative technological devices for their transport and capture.

  8. Laser-driven electron beamlines generated by coupling laser-plasma sources with conventional transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antici, P.; Bacci, A.; Benedetti, C.; Chiadroni, E.; Ferrario, M.; Rossi, A. R.; Lancia, L.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Serafini, L.

    2012-08-01

    Laser-driven electron beamlines are receiving increasing interest from the particle accelerator community. In particular, the high initial energy, low emittance, and high beam current of the plasma based electron source potentially allow generating much more compact and bright particle accelerators than what conventional accelerator technology can achieve. Using laser-generated particles as injectors for generating beamlines could significantly reduce the size and cost of accelerator facilities. Unfortunately, several features of laser-based particle beams need still to be improved before considering them for particle beamlines and thus enable the use of plasma-driven accelerators for the multiple applications of traditional accelerators. Besides working on the plasma source itself, a promising approach to shape the laser-generated beams is coupling them with conventional accelerator elements in order to benefit from both a versatile electron source and a controllable beam. In this paper, we perform start-to-end simulations to generate laser-driven beamlines using conventional accelerator codes and methodologies. Starting with laser-generated electrons that can be obtained with established multi-hundred TW laser systems, we compare different options to capture and transport the beams. This is performed with the aim of providing beamlines suitable for potential applications, such as free electron lasers. In our approach, we have analyzed which parameters are critical at the source and from there evaluated different ways to overcome these issues using conventional accelerator elements and methods. We show that electron driven beamlines are potentially feasible, but exploiting their full potential requires extensive improvement of the source parameters or innovative technological devices for their transport and capture.

  9. Basic design of beamline and polarization control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The basic concept of synchrotron radiation beamlines for vacuum ultraviolet and X-ray experiments has been introduced to beginning users and designers of beamlines. The beamline defined here is composed of a front end,pre-mirrors, and a monochromator with refocusing mirrors, which are connected by beam pipes, providing monochromatic light for the experiments. Firstly, time characteristics of the synchrotron radiation are briefly reviewed.Secondly, the basic technology is introduced as the fundamental knowledge required to both users and designers. The topics are photoabsorption by air and solids, front ends and beam pipes, mirrors, monochromators, and filters. Thirdly,the design consideration is described mainly for the designers. The topics are design principle, principle of ray tracing,optical machinery and control, and vacuum. Fourthly, polarization control is considered. The topics are polarizers,polarization diagnosis of beamline, and circularly-polarized light generation. Finally, a brief summary is given introducing some references for further knowledge of the users and the designers.

  10. Beamline for schools beam line training day

    CERN Multimedia

    Photo Service, CERN

    2014-01-01

    The first two teams to participate in CERN's Beamline for Schools project spent their second day at CERN learning the basics of beam physics, and visiting their experimental setup at the T9 beam line in CERN's East Hall on the Meyrin site.

  11. Confining continuous manipulations of accelerator beamline optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amstutz, P.; Lechner, C.; Plath, T. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Physics; Ackermann, S.; Boedewadt, J.; Vogt, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Altering the optics in one section of a linear accelerator beamline will in general cause an alteration of the optics in all downstream sections. In circular accelerators, changing the optical properties of any beamline element will have an impact on the optical functions throughout the whole machine. In many cases, however, it is desirable to change the optics in a certain beamline section without disturbing any other parts of the machine. Such a local optics manipulation can be achieved by adjusting a number of additional corrector magnets that restore the initial optics after the manipulated section. In that case, the effect of the manipulation is confined in the region between the manipulated and the correcting beamline elements. Introducing a manipulation continuously, while the machine is operating, therefore requires continuous correction functions to be applied to the correcting quadrupole magnets. In this paper we present an analytic approach to calculate such continuous correction functions for six quadrupole magnets by means of a homotopy method. Besides a detailed derivation of the method, we present its application to an algebraic example, as well as its implementation at the seeding experiment sFLASH at the free-electron laser FLASH located at DESY in Hamburg.

  12. Design, Installation, and Initial Commissioning of the MTA Beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Craig; Garcia, Fernanda; Gerardi, Michael; Johnstone, Carol; Kobilarcik, Thomas; Kucera, Michael; Kufer, Mathew; Newhart, Duane; Rakhno, Igor; Vogel, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    A new experimental area designed to develop, test and verify muon ionization cooling apparatus using the 400-MeV Fermilab Linac proton beam has been fully installed and is presently being commissioned. Initially, this area was used for cryogenic tests of liquid-hydrogen absorbers for the MUCOOL R&D program and, now, for high-power beam tests of absorbers, high-gradient rf cavities in the presence of magnetic fields (including gas-filled cavities), and other prototype muon-cooling apparatus. The experimental scenarios being developed for muon facilities involve collection, capture, and cooling of large-emittance, high-intensity muon beams--~10**13 muons, so that conclusive tests of the apparatus require full Linac beam, which is 1.6 x 10**13 p/pulse. To support the muon cooling facility, this new primary beamline extracts and transports beam directly from the Linac to the test facility. The design concept for the MuCool facility is taken from an earlier proposal, but modifications were necessary to accommo...

  13. Beamline Design and Instrumentation for the Imaging and Coherence Beamline I13L at the Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, U. H.; Pešić, Z. D.; De Fanis, A.; Rau, C.

    2013-03-01

    I13L is a 250 m long hard x-ray beamline (6 keV to 35 keV) at the Diamond Light Source. The beamline comprises of two independent experimental endstations: one for imaging in direct space using x-ray microscopy and one for imaging in reciprocal space using coherent diffraction based imaging techniques. In this paper we will discuss the fundamental design concepts of the beamline and explain their implications for the civil engineering of the endstation building and the beamline instrumentation. For the latter this paper will focus on the beamline mirror systems and monochromators.

  14. Comparing the effect of low and high emittance on synchrotron radiation and beamline design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gholampour Azhir

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have discussed about the role of two emittance values suggested for Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF (3.278 and 0.476 nm.rad on different radiation features of the synchrotron light sources (bending magnet, shaker and oscillator such as spot size, divergence of the beam on light spot, brilliance and important quantities in beamline design such as photon cross-section, optical element sizes and energy resolution  

  15. X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigations on radioactive matter using MARS beamline at SOLEIL synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorens, Isabelle; Solari, Pier Lorenzo; Sitaud, Bruno [Synchrotron SOLEIL - l' Orme des Merisiers Saint Aubin, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); and others

    2014-07-01

    The MARS beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron is dedicated to the characterization of radioactive material samples. One great advantage of the beamline is the possibility to characterize about 380 radionuclides by different X-ray techniques in the same place. This facility is unique in Europe. A wide energy range from around 3.5 keV to 36 keV K-edges from K to Cs, and L3 edges from Cd to Am and beyond can be used. The MARS beamline is optimized for X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques (XANES/EXAFS), powder diffraction (XRD) but X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis, High Energy Resolution Fluorescence Detected-XAS (HERFD-XAS), X-ray Emission (XES) and μ-XAS/XRD are also possible. A description of the beamline as well as its performances are given in a first part. Then some scientific examples of XAS studies from users are presented which cover a wide variety of topics in radiochemistry and nuclear materials.

  16. CERN’s 2016 Beamline for Schools competition starts on 17 November

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Spread the word: CERN is offering high-school students from around the world the chance to create and perform a scientific experiment on a CERN accelerator beamline. What better way to learn about physics?    (Video: Noemi Caraban​/CERN ) Now in its third year, the Beamline for Schools competition is open to teams of at least five students aged 16 and with at least one adult supervisor or “coach”. Students can find out about the beamline and facilities via http://cern.ch/bl4s, then think of a simple, creative experiment. They can register their team from 17 November to start receiving e-mail updates. They then submit a written proposal and a short video by 31 March 2016. The winners will be announced in June and will come to CERN, preferably in September 2016. Previous winners have tested webcams and classroom-grown crystals at the beamline, others have studied how particles decay and investigated high-energy gamma rays. All participants will receive...

  17. Optical design of the NSRL undulator beamline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y W; Sheng, L S; Zhang, G B; Gao, H

    1998-05-01

    The optical design of the NSRL undulator beamline is presented. The NSRL undulator has 29 periods of 9.2 cm that produce a photon energy of 7.7-124 eV with the fundamental and third harmonics at a ring energy of 800 MeV. The beamline consists of a typical Kirkpatrick-Baez prefocusing mirror system, a modified spherical-grating monochromator (SGM) and a refocusing toroidal mirror. The monochromator has two including angles of 148 and 157 degrees with two plane mirrors inserted into the entrance arm in order to cover the wide energy range with high grating diffraction efficiency. Calculation shows that the resolving power of the monochromator can be greater than 5000 with the slits fully opened and 20000 with a 20 micro m opening of the slits. The spot at the sample is about 1.5 (H) mm x 0.5 (V) mm.

  18. EIS: the scattering beamline at FERMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciovecchio, Claudio; Battistoni, Andrea; Giangrisostomi, Erika; Bencivenga, Filippo; Principi, Emiliano; Mincigrucci, Riccardo; Cucini, Riccardo; Gessini, Alessandro; D'Amico, Francesco; Borghes, Roberto; Prica, Milan; Chenda, Valentina; Scarcia, Martin; Gaio, Giulio; Kurdi, Gabor; Demidovich, Alexander; Danailov, Miltcho B; Di Cicco, Andrea; Filipponi, Adriano; Gunnella, Roberto; Hatada, Keisuke; Mahne, Nicola; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Svetina, Cristian; Godnig, Roberto; Abrami, Alessandro; Zangrando, Marco

    2015-05-01

    The Elastic and Inelastic Scattering (EIS) beamline at the free-electron laser FERMI is presented. It consists of two separate end-stations: EIS-TIMEX, dedicated to ultrafast time-resolved studies of matter under extreme and metastable conditions, and EIS-TIMER, dedicated to time-resolved spectroscopy of mesoscopic dynamics in condensed matter. The scientific objectives are discussed and the instrument layout illustrated, together with the results from first exemplifying experiments.

  19. An Updated AP2 Beamline TURTLE Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gormley, M.; O' Day, S.

    1991-08-23

    This note describes a TURTLE model of the AP2 beamline. This model was created by D. Johnson and improved by J. Hangst. The authors of this note have made additional improvements which reflect recent element and magnet setting changes. The magnet characteristics measurements and survey data compiled to update the model will be presented. A printout of the actual TURTLE deck may be found in appendix A.

  20. Novel approaches in the SR beamline design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaznatcheev, K., E-mail: kaznatch@bnl.gov [Photon Science Directorates, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Idir, M.; Chubar, O. [Photon Science Directorates, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States)

    2013-05-11

    High brightness third generation x-ray sources bring new experimental possibilities and impose new challenges. Coherent scattering and diffraction-limited microscopy require wave-preserving optics, high-resolution inelastic scattering novel optical elements, where x-ray interferometry or the requirements of precise polarization measurements change the optical layout. With NSLS-II development as an illustration we discuss recent trends in beamline design.

  1. Carnation-22光子照射疗法在尿道端端吻合术患者术后护理中的应用%Application of Carnation-22 photon therapeutic in postoperative nursing of patients with end-to-end anastomosis of urethra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斌; 阮琦; 张丽

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the nursing effect of Carnation-22 photon therapeutic apparatus in patients with end-to-end anastomosis of urethra. Methods From October 2014 to October 2015, 200 patients with urethral stricture were randomly selected and divided into two groups after end-to-end anastomosis of urethra according to the admission order. 100 patients in the control group were given conventional nursing after operation. 100 patients in the observation group were given Carnation-22 photon therapeutic apparatus based on the routine nursing. The swelling and exudation of perineum incision, results of middle urine culture, patient comfort and satisfaction degree of patients were compared in two groups.Results Healing rate in the observation group (90.0%) was higher than that in the control group (76.0%);the positive rate of middle urine culture in the observation group (11.0%) was lower than that in the control group (23.0%);the ratio of patients with pain sense in the observation group (38.0%) was lower than that in the control group (78.0%); the percentage of patient degree >90 in the observation group (95.0%) was higher than that in the control group (78.0%)(P90分(95.0%)的百分率高于对照组(78.0%),差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论尿道端端吻合术后患者应用光子治疗仪照射后,能促进伤口愈合,减少感染率,缩短住院时间,且无明显不良反应,患者依从性好。

  2. Development of the XFP beamline for x-ray footprinting at NSLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohon, Jen, E-mail: jbohon@bnl.gov; Sullivan, Michael; Abel, Don; Toomey, John; Chance, Mark R., E-mail: mark.chance@case.edu [Case Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Center for Proteomics and Bioinformatics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Dvorak, Joseph [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-07-27

    For over a decade, synchrotron-based footprinting studies at the NSLS X28C beamline have provided unique insights and approaches for examining the solution-state structures of large macromolecular assemblies, membrane proteins, and soluble proteins, for time-resolved studies of macromolecular dynamics, and most recently for in vivo studies of RNA-protein complexes. The transition from NSLS to NSLS-II has provided the opportunity to create an upgraded facility for the study of increasingly complex systems; progress on the development of the XFP (X-ray Footprinting for In Vitro and In Vivo Structural Studies of Biological Macromolecules) beamline at NSLS-II is presented here. The XFP beamline will utilize a focused 3-pole wiggler source to deliver a high flux density x-ray beam, where dynamics can be studied on the microsecond to millisecond timescales appropriate for probing biological macromolecules while minimizing sample perturbation. The beamline optics and diagnostics enable adaptation of the beam size and shape to accommodate a variety of sample morphologies with accurate measurement of the incident beam, and the upgrades in sample handling and environment control will allow study of highly sensitive or unstable samples. The XFP beamline is expected to enhance relevant flux densities more than an order of magnitude from that previously available at X28C, allowing static and time-resolved structural analysis of highly complex samples that have previously pushed the boundaries of x-ray footprinting technology. XFP, located at NSLS-II 17-BM, is anticipated to become available for users in 2016.

  3. 7-GeV advanced photon source beamline initiative: Conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The DOE is building a new generation 6-7 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source known as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory. This facility, to be completed in FY 1996, can provide 70 x-ray sources of unprecedented brightness to meet the research needs of virtually all scientific disciplines and numerous technologies. The technological research capability of the APS in the areas of energy, communications and health will enable a new partnership between the DOE and US industry. Current funding for the APS will complete the current phase of construction so that scientists can begin their applications in FY 1996. Comprehensive utilization of the unique properties of APS beams will enable cutting-edge research not currently possible. It is now appropriate to plan to construct additional radiation sources and beamline standard components to meet the excess demands of the APS users. In this APS Beamline Initiative, 2.5-m-long insertion-device x-ray sources will be built on four straight sections of the APS storage ring, and an additional four bending-magnet sources will also be put in use. The front ends for these eight x-ray sources will be built to contain and safeguard access to these bright x-ray beams. In addition, funds will be provided to build standard beamline components to meet scientific and technological research demands of the Collaborative Access Teams. The Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the APS Beamline Initiative describes the scope of all the above technical and conventional construction and provides a detailed cost and schedule for these activities. The document also describes the preconstruction R&D plans for the Beamline Initiative activities and provides the cost estimates for the required R&D.

  4. A comparative study of the spectra recorded at RRCAT synchrotron BL-8 dispersive EXAFS beamline with other beamlines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhijeet Gaur; B D Shrivastava; S N Jha; D Bhattacharyya; A Poswal

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to make a comparative study of the EXAFS spectra recorded at the BL-8 dispersive EXAFS beamline at 2 GeV Indus-2 synchrotron source at RRCAT, Indore (India) with those recorded at other synchrotron EXAFS beamlines, viz., X-19A at NSLS, BNL (USA), EXAFS wiggler beamline 4-1 at the SSRL (USA) and beamline 11.1 at ELETTRA (Italy). For this purpose, EXAFS spectra at Cu K-edge in copper metal have been recorded at these four beamlines. Further, EXAFS spectra at Cu K-edge in a copper complex have also been recorded at BL-8 beamline and beamline 11.1 at ELETTRA (Italy). The obtained experimental () data have been background-subtracted and then normalized. The normalized data have been then converted to () data, which have been Fourier-transformed and then fitted with the theoretical model, thereby yielding different structural parameters. It has been shown that the results obtained from the EXAFS spectra recorded at the BL-8 beamline are comparable with those obtained from other synchrotron EXAFS beamlines and also with the crystallographic results reported by earlier workers. The reliability, usefulness and data quality of the BL-8 beamline have been discussed.

  5. (SUNY beamline facilities at the National Synchrotron Light Source)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppens, P.

    1992-01-01

    This report contains short discussions on the following topics which mainly deal with superconductors: crystallography; surface structure; scattering and EXAFS studies; small angle scattering of x-rays. (LSP)

  6. Rossendorf Beamline at ESRF (ROBL-CRG). Bi-annual report 2009/2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheinost, Andreas C.; Baehtz, Carsten (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    The Rossendorf Beamline (ROBL) - located at BM20 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France - is in operation since 1998. This 7th report covers the period from January 2009 to December 2010. In these two years, 67 peer- reviewed papers have been published based on experiments done at the beamline, more than in any biannual period before. Six highlight reports have been selected for this report to demonstrate the scientific strength and diversity of the experiments performed on the two end-stations of the beamline, dedicated to Radiochemistry (RCH) and Materials Research (MRH). The beamtime was more heavily overbooked than ever before, with an acceptance rate of only 25% experiments. We would like to thank our external proposal review members, Prof. Andre Maes (KU Leuven, Belgium), Prof. Laurent Charlet (UJF Grenoble, France), Dr. Andreas Leinweber (MPI Metallforschung, Stuttgart, Germany), Prof. David Rafaja (TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany), Prof. Dirk Meyer (TU Dresden, Germany), who evaluated the inhouse proposals in a thorough manner, thereby ensuring that beamtime was distributed according to scientific merit. The period was not only characterized by very successful science, but also by intense work on the optics upgrade. In spring 2009, a workshop was held at ROBL, assembling beamline experts from German, Spanish and Swiss synchrotrons, to evaluate the best setup for the new optics. These suggestions was used to prepare the call for tender published in July 2009. From the tender acceptance in November 2009 on, a series of design review meetings and factory acceptance tests followed. Already in July 2010, the first piece of equipment was delivered, the new double-crystal, double-multilayer monochromator. The disassembly of the old optics components started end of July, 2011, followed by the installation of the new components. As of December 2011, the new optics have seen the first test beam and thorough hot commissioning will

  7. Validation of Monte-Carlo simulations with measurements at the ICON beam-line at SINQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giller, L. [LRS, Physics Department, Ecole Polytechnique Federal de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Filges, U. [LDM, NUM Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)], E-mail: uwe.filges@psi.ch; Kuehne, G. [ASQ, NUM Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Wohlmuther, M. [ABE, GFA Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Zanini, L. [ASQ, NUM Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2008-02-11

    ICON is the new cold neutron imaging facility at the neutron spallation source SINQ. The ICON facility is placed at beam-line S52 with direct view to the cold liquid D{sub 2} moderator. The beam-line includes a 4.4 m long collimation section followed by a 11 m long flight path to the imaging system. The essential part of the collimation section is composed of six revolving drums and a variable aperture wheel. Depending on the investigated object, different apertures are used. Measurements have shown that each setup has a different spatial neutron flux distribution and specific beam profiles. Measured beam profiles have been used to validate results of simulations coupling the Monte-Carlo program MCNPX with the neutron ray-tracing program McStas. In a first step, MCNPX was used to calculate neutron spectra closed to the SINQ target, at the entrance of the collimation section. These results served as an input for McStas where the beam-line itself was simulated. In the present paper, experimental and theoretical results will be compared and discussed.

  8. Validation of Monte-Carlo simulations with measurements at the ICON beam-line at SINQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, L.; Filges, U.; Kühne, G.; Wohlmuther, M.; Zanini, L.

    2008-02-01

    ICON is the new cold neutron imaging facility at the neutron spallation source SINQ. The ICON facility is placed at beam-line S52 with direct view to the cold liquid D 2 moderator. The beam-line includes a 4.4 m long collimation section followed by a 11 m long flight path to the imaging system. The essential part of the collimation section is composed of six revolving drums and a variable aperture wheel. Depending on the investigated object, different apertures are used. Measurements have shown that each setup has a different spatial neutron flux distribution and specific beam profiles. Measured beam profiles have been used to validate results of simulations coupling the Monte-Carlo program MCNPX with the neutron ray-tracing program McStas. In a first step, MCNPX was used to calculate neutron spectra closed to the SINQ target, at the entrance of the collimation section. These results served as an input for McStas where the beam-line itself was simulated. In the present paper, experimental and theoretical results will be compared and discussed.

  9. A Superbend X-Ray Microdiffraction Beamline at the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, N.; Kunz, M.; Chen, K.; Celestre, R.S.; MacDowell, A.A.; Warwick, T.

    2009-03-10

    Beamline 12.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source is a newly commissioned beamline dedicated to x-ray microdiffraction. It operates in both monochromatic and polychromatic radiation mode. The facility uses a superconducting bending magnet source to deliver an X-ray spectrum ranging from 5 to 22 keV. The beam is focused down to {approx} 1 um size at the sample position using a pair of elliptically bent Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors enclosed in a vacuum box. The sample placed on high precision stages can be raster-scanned under the microbeam while a diffraction pattern is taken at each step. The arrays of diffraction patterns are then analyzed to derive distribution maps of phases, strain/stress and/or plastic deformation inside the sample.

  10. Recent developments on techniques for differential phase imaging at the medical beamline of ELETTRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfelli, F.; Pelliccia, D.; Cedola, A.; Astolfo, A.; Bukreeva, I.; Cardarelli, P.; Dreossi, D.; Lagomarsino, S.; Longo, R.; Rigon, L.; Sodini, N.; Menk, R. H.

    2013-06-01

    Over the last decade different phase contrast approaches have been exploited at the medical beamline SYRMEP of the synchrotron radiation facility Elettra in Trieste, Italy. In particular special focus has been drawn to analyzer based imaging and the associated imaging theory and processing. Analyzer based Imaging (ABI) and Diffraction Enhanced Imaging (DEI) techniques have been successfully applied in several biomedical applications. Recently it has been suggested to translate the acquired knowledge in this field towards a Thomson Backscattering Source (TBS), which is presently under development at the Frascati National Laboratories of INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) in Rome, Italy. Such source is capable of producing intense and quasi-monochromatic hard X-ray beams. For the technical implementation of biomedical phase imaging at the TBS a grating interferometer for differential phase contrast imaging has been designed and successfully tested at SYRMEP beamline.

  11. Small-angle X-ray scattering at the ESRF high-brillance beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boesecke, P.; Diat, O. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 38 -Grenoble (France)

    1997-10-01

    The high-brilliance beamline (BL4/ID2) at the European synchrotron radiation facility (ESRF) in Grenoble has been constructed with the emphasis on time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering and macromolecular crystallography. It has been open to users for two years. The beamline has opened up new areas in small-angle scattering research, facilitating (a) small-angle crystallography on structures with unit cells of several hundredths of nanometres, (b) overlap with the light scattering range for the study of optical systems, (c) high photon flux for time-resolved experiments and (d) a high spatial coherence allowing submicrometre imaging with X-rays. The set-up and the detector system of the small-angle scattering station are presented. A method for obtaining absolute scattering intensities is described. The parasitic background at the station is discussed in terms of absolute scattering intensities. (orig.). 22 refs.

  12. Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the ALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, J.H.; Gullikson, E.M.; Koike, M. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    More sophisticated optics for the x-ray, soft x-ray and far ultraviolet spectral regions being developed for synchrotron radiation research and many other applications, require accurate calibration and standards facilities for measuring reflectivity of mirrors and multilayer coatings, transmission of thin films, bandpass of multilayers, efficiency of gratings or detectors, etc. For this purpose beamline 6.3.2 was built at the ALS. Its energy coverage, versatility, simplicity and convenience also make it useful for a wide range of other experiments. The paper describes the components of this beamline, consisting of: a four jaw aperture; a horizontal focusing mirror; a monochromator; exit slit; vertical focusing mirror; mechanical and vacuum system; reflectometer; filter wheels; and data acquisition system.

  13. Evaluation of severe stenosis of end-to-end and end-to-side anastomosis of transplant renal artery with color Doppler sonography%彩色多普勒超声对端-端与端-侧吻合移植肾动脉重度狭窄的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建初; Robert J Min; Amelia Ng; David Trost; Michael Goldstein; Sandip Kupur; John Wang; David Serur; 姜玉新; 高敬; 张丽娜; 戴睛; 孟华; 蔡胜; 吕珂; 孝梦甦; 张一休

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨两种吻合方式(端-端吻合与端-侧吻合)移植肾动脉重度狭窄(内径减少≥80%)的彩色多普勒超声诊断指标的差异.方法 回顾性分析彩色多普勒超声检查发现后并经数字减影血管造影(DSA)证实的38例移植肾动脉重度狭窄患者(端-端吻合和端-侧吻合各19例).超声测量髂动脉、移植肾动脉主干和吻合口峰值流速(PSV),肾内叶间动脉或段动脉PSV和加速时间(AT),计算狭窄处与狭窄近端PSV比值(简称PSV前比).结果 血管造影显示所有患者的动脉内径减少≥80%,狭窄部位位于髂动脉4例,吻合口20例和移植肾动脉14例.狭窄处PSV、髂动脉PSV及PSV前比在两种吻合方式之间差异均有统计学意义(P0.05).结论 两种吻合方式移植肾动脉重度狭窄患者的肾动脉血流动力学差异很可能是导致它们之间狭窄处PSV和PSV前比差异的主要原因.为了提高移植肾动脉重度狭窄的诊断准确性,应依据吻合方式来建立PSV前比的诊断阈值,而同-AT诊断阈值很可能适合两种吻合方式患者.%Objective To investigate differences in Doppler parameters between severe transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS,arterial lumen reduction ≥80%) with end-to-end anastomosis and that with end-to-side anastomosis. Methods Color Doppler sonography(CDS) and digital subtraction angiography(DSA) images were reviewed retrospectively in 38 patients with severe TRAS (19 cases with end-to-end anastomosis and 19 cases with end-to-side anastomosis). All 38 cases with severe TRAS were initially diagnosed with CDS and confirmed by DSA afterwards. Doppler parameters,including the peak systolic velocity(PSV) in the renal, lilac, anastomosis site and segmental or interlobar artery, pre-PSV ratio (the ratio of the PSV at the stenotic site to that in the iliae artery), acceleration time(AT) in the intrarenal arteries, were measured or calculated. Results DSA demonstrated all patients with severe arterial

  14. SASE3: soft x-ray beamline at European XFEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Civita, Daniele; Gerasimova, Natalia; Sinn, Harald; Vannoni, Maurizio

    2014-09-01

    The European XFEL in Hamburg will be comprised of a linear accelerator and three Free-Electron-Laser beamlines (SASE1, SASE2 and SASE3) covering the energy range from 250 eV to 24 keV. It will provide up to 2700 pulses in trains of 600 microsecond duration at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. SASE3 beamline is the soft X-ray beamline (0.25 - 3 keV) and delivers photon pulses to SQS (Small Quantum System) and SCS (Spectroscopy & Coherent Scattering) experiments. The beamline is able to operate in both monochromatic and non-monochromatic mode. The latter provides the inherent FEL bandwidth at higher intensities. The beamline from photon source to experimental station is about 450 m long. The length of the beamline is related to the optics single-shotdamage issue. The almost diffraction-limited beam is propagated along the beamline with very long (up to 800 mm clear aperture), cooled (with eutectic bath) and super-polished (50 nrad RMS slope error and less than 3 nm PV residual height error) mirrors. The VLS-PG (variable line spacing - plane grating) monochromator covers the entire beamline energy range and its optical design is guided by the optimization of the energy resolving power, the minimization of the pulse broadening and the maximization of optics damage tolerance. Grating substrates are 530 mm long, eutectic cooled and present outstanding surface quality. The VLS parameters of the blazed profile are also a real challenge under manufacturing and measuring point of view. Adaptive optics in the horizontal (the second offset mirror) and vertical (monochromator premirror) plane are foreseen in the optical layout to increase the beamline tunability and to preserve the highly coherent beam properties. Beamline optical design, expected performance and also mechanical aspects of main beamline components are reported.

  15. 基于序列号和可靠应答机制DSR安全路由的实现%Exploring an Effective Design of Secure Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) Protocol Using Request Sequence Number and End-to-End Acknowledgement Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建平; 史浩山

    2011-01-01

    Aim. The introduction of the full paper analyzes a type of black-hole attack on a route request (RREQ) packet. To avoid such attack, it proposes the exploration of a secure DSR protocol design, which is explained in sections 1 and 2. Section 1 explains that the sequence number of the RREQ packet is monotonically increasing.The core of section 2 consists of: ( 1 ) we perform the secure DSR routing protocol design with the sequence number increment principle and the end-to-end acknowledgement principle so that the route can effectively resist the blackhole attack; (2) to establish the credible routing information list, we design the procedural steps for processing the nodes in the RREQ packet and the end-to-end acknowledgement packet, which are illustrated by the block diagram shown in Fig. 2. To validate the effectiveness for resisting the black-hole attack, section 3 simulates the DSR protocol design obtained with our method; the simulation results, given in Figs. 6 and 7, and their analysis show preliminarily that: ( 1 ) the secure DSR protocol design obtained with our method can effectively resist the black-hole attack on the RREQ packet, guarantee secure routing information without expending much resource; (2) compared with the conventional DSR protocol design, our DSR protocol design has higher packet delivery ratio and smaller average delay.%文章分析了动态源路由(DSR)协议面临的路由请求(route request,RREQ)报文的黑洞攻击,针对该攻击,设计一种利用可靠的端到端应答机制和根据RREQ报文序列号连续递增原则来建立路由信息表.该设计在不消耗过多资源的基础上保证路由信息.通过仿真验证该设计能够很好地抵御RREQ报文的黑洞攻击,且与经典的DSR路由协议相比,分组投递率维持在较高水平上,且平均时延很小,具有更好的性能.

  16. Diagnostics Beamline for the SRF Gun Project

    CERN Document Server

    Kamps, T; Goldammer, K; Krämer, Dietrich; Kuske, P; Kuszynski, J; Lipka, D; Marhauser, F; Quast, T; Richter, R

    2005-01-01

    A superconducting rf photo electron injector (SRF gun) is currently under construction by a collaboration between BESSY, DESY, FZR and MBI. The project aims at the design and setup of an CW SRF gun including a diagnostics beamline for the ELBE FEL and to address R&D issues on low emittance injectors for future light sources such as the BESSY FEL. Of critical importance for the injector performance is the control of the electron beam parameters. For this reason a compact diagnostics beamline is under development serving a multitude of operation settings ranging from low-charge (77pC), low-emittance (1 pi mm mrad) mode to high-charge (2.5nC) operation of the gun. For these operation modes beam dynamics simulations are resulting in boundary conditions for the beam instrumentation. Proven and mature technology is projected wherever possible, for example for current and beam position monitoring. The layout of the beam profile and emittance measurement systems is described. For the bunch length, which varies be...

  17. Beam Characterization at the KAERI UED Beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Setiniyaz, Sadiq; Baek, In-Hyung; Nam, Jinhee; Chae, MoonSik; Han, Byung-Heon; Gudkov, Boris; Jang, Kyu Ha; Park, Sunjeong; Miginsky, Sergey; Vinokurov, Nikolay; Jeong, Young Uk

    2016-01-01

    The UED (ultrafast electron diffraction) beamline of the KAERI's (the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute's) WCI (World Class Institute) Center has been successfully commissioned. We have measured the beam emittance by using the quadrupole scan technique and the charge by using a novel measurement system we have developed. In the quadrupole scan, a larger drift distance between the quadrupole and the screen is preferred because it gives a better thin-lens approximation. A high bunch-charge beam, however, will undergo emittance growth in the long drift caused by the space-charge force. We present a method that mitigates this growth by introducing a quadrupole scan with a short drift and without using the thin-lens approximation. The quadrupole in this method is treated as a thick lens, and the emittance is extracted by using the thick-lens equations. Apart from being precise, our method can be readily applied without making any change to the beamline and has no need for a big drift space. For charge measure...

  18. Diagnostics Beamline for the SRF Gun Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Kamps; V. Durr; K. Goldammer; D. Kramer; P. Kuske; J. Kuszynski; D. Lipka; F. Marhauser; T. Quast; D. Richter; U. Lehnert; P. Michel; J. Teichert; P. Evtushenko; I. Will

    2005-08-22

    A superconducting radio-frequency photo electron injector (SRF gun) is currently under construction by a collaboration of BESSY, DESY, FZR and MBI. The project aims at the design and setup of a CW SRF gun including a diagnostics beamline for the ELBE FEL and to address R&D issues on low emittance injectors for future light sources such as the BESSY FEL. Of critical importance for the injector performance is the control of the electron beam parameters. For this reason a compact diagnostics beamline is under development serving a multitude of operation settings ranging from low-charge (77pC), low-emittance (1 mm mrad) mode to high-charge (2.5nC) operation of the gun. For these operation modes beam dynamics simulations are resulting in boundary conditions for the beam instrumentation. Proven and mature technology is projected wherever possible, for example for current and beam position monitoring. The layout of the beam profile and emittance measurement systems is described. For the bunch length, which varies between 5 ps and 50 ps, two schemes using electro-optical sampling and Cherenkov radiation are detailed. The beam energy and energy spread is measured with a 180-degree spectrometer.

  19. Optimization of a general-purpose, actively scanned proton beamline for ocular treatments: Geant4 simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersimoni, Pierluigi; Rimoldi, Adele; Riccardi, Cristina; Pirola, Michele; Molinelli, Silvia; Ciocca, Mario

    2015-03-08

    The Italian National Center for Hadrontherapy (CNAO, Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica), a synchrotron-based hospital facility, started the treatment of patients within selected clinical trials in late 2011 and 2012 with actively scanned proton and carbon ion beams, respectively. The activation of a new clinical protocol for the irradiation of uveal melanoma using the existing general-purpose proton beamline is foreseen for late 2014. Beam characteristics and patient treatment setup need to be tuned to meet the specific requirements for such a type of treatment technique. The aim of this study is to optimize the CNAO transport beamline by adding passive components and minimizing air gap to achieve the optimal conditions for ocular tumor irradiation. The CNAO setup with the active and passive components along the transport beamline, as well as a human eye-modeled detector also including a realistic target volume, were simulated using the Monte Carlo Geant4 toolkit. The strong reduction of the air gap between the nozzle and patient skin, as well as the insertion of a range shifter plus a patient-specific brass collimator at a short distance from the eye, were found to be effective tools to be implemented. In perspective, this simulation toolkit could also be used as a benchmark for future developments and testing purposes on commercial treatment planning systems.

  20. Characterization of a next-generation piezo bimorph X-ray mirror for synchrotron beamlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Simon G; Nistea, Ioana; Sutter, John P; Sawhney, Kawal; Fermé, Jean Jacques; Thellièr, Christophe; Peverini, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Piezo bimorph mirrors are versatile active optics used on many synchrotron beamlines. However, many bimorphs suffer from the `junction effect': a periodic deformation of the optical surface which causes major aberrations to the reflected X-ray beam. This effect is linked to the construction of such mirrors, where piezo ceramics are glued directly below the thin optical substrate. In order to address this problem, a next-generation bimorph with piezos bonded to the side faces of a monolithic substrate was developed at Thales-SESO and optimized at Diamond Light Source. Using metrology feedback from the Diamond-NOM, the optical slope error was reduced to ∼ 0.5 µrad r.m.s. for a range of ellipses. To maximize usability, a novel holder was built to accommodate the substrate in any orientation. When replacing a first-generation bimorph on a synchrotron beamline, the new mirror significantly improved the size and shape of the reflected X-ray beam. Most importantly, there was no evidence of the junction effect even after eight months of continuous beamline usage. It is hoped that this new design will reinvigorate the use of active bimorph optics at synchrotron and free-electron laser facilities to manipulate and correct X-ray wavefronts.

  1. Characterization of a next-generation piezo bimorph X-ray mirror for synchrotron beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, Simon G., E-mail: simon.alcock@diamond.ac.uk; Nistea, Ioana; Sutter, John P.; Sawhney, Kawal [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Fermé, Jean-Jacques; Thellièr, Christophe; Peverini, Luca [Thales-SESO, 305 rue Louis Armand, Pôle d’Activités d’Aix les Milles, Aix-en-Provence (France)

    2015-01-01

    A next-generation bimorph mirror with piezos bonded to the side faces of a monolithic substrate was created. When replacing a first-generation bimorph mirror suffering from the junction effect, the new type of mirror significantly improved the size and shape of the reflected synchrotron X-ray beam. No evidence of the junction effect was observed even after eight months of continuous beamline usage. Piezo bimorph mirrors are versatile active optics used on many synchrotron beamlines. However, many bimorphs suffer from the ‘junction effect’: a periodic deformation of the optical surface which causes major aberrations to the reflected X-ray beam. This effect is linked to the construction of such mirrors, where piezo ceramics are glued directly below the thin optical substrate. In order to address this problem, a next-generation bimorph with piezos bonded to the side faces of a monolithic substrate was developed at Thales-SESO and optimized at Diamond Light Source. Using metrology feedback from the Diamond-NOM, the optical slope error was reduced to ∼0.5 µrad r.m.s. for a range of ellipses. To maximize usability, a novel holder was built to accommodate the substrate in any orientation. When replacing a first-generation bimorph on a synchrotron beamline, the new mirror significantly improved the size and shape of the reflected X-ray beam. Most importantly, there was no evidence of the junction effect even after eight months of continuous beamline usage. It is hoped that this new design will reinvigorate the use of active bimorph optics at synchrotron and free-electron laser facilities to manipulate and correct X-ray wavefronts.

  2. Students on the Beamline: classroom, research, and discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patry, J.; Walker, T.

    2012-12-01

    High level research is mainly the focus of trained scientists who possess a science specific background. The Canadian Light Source outreach service has developed a two stage research immersion approach which brings together students, teachers, and renowned scientists: Students on the Beamline. The first stage offers a training session for teachers to develop their professional competencies in regards to authentic science research and the synchrotron facility. During the second stage, students from classrooms apply a research protocol of their own design with the help of their teacher and synchrotron scientists. During this presentation, we will first explain the professional approach of the training. In the second part, two experiments designed by students will be presented which are geophysically based so to speak: Study of the Meteoritic Melt Sheet of the Manicouagan Basin and Effects of Olivine on the capture of NOx. Results have shown that teachers bring in the classroom a more authentic and new experience in research application. As for the students, their unique research has contributed to the increase of our knowledge and a better understanding of the scientific inquiry process.Scientist and teacher working together on the synchrotron

  3. Radiation protection at synchrotron radiation facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J C; Vylet, V

    2001-01-01

    A synchrotron radiation (SR) facility typically consists of an injector, a storage ring, and SR beamlines. The latter two features are unique to SR facilities, when compared to other types of accelerator facilities. The SR facilities have the characteristics of low injection beam power, but high stored beam power. The storage ring is generally above ground with people occupying the experimental floor around a normally thin concrete ring wall. This paper addresses the radiation issues, in particular the shielding design, associated with the storage ring and SR beamlines. Normal and abnormal beam losses for injection and stored beams, as well as typical storage ring operation, are described. Ring shielding design for photons and neutrons from beam losses in the ring is discussed. Radiation safety issues and shielding design for SR beamlines, considering gas bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation, are reviewed. Radiation source terms and the methodologies for shielding calculations are presented.

  4. MX: A beamline control system toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, William M.

    2000-06-01

    The development of experimental and beamline control systems for two Collaborative Access Teams at the Advanced Photon Source has resulted in the creation of a portable data acquisition and control toolkit called MX. MX consists of a set of servers, application programs and libraries that enable the creation of command line and graphical user interface applications that may be easily retargeted to new and different kinds of motor and device controllers. The source code for MX is written in ANSI C and Tcl/Tk with interprocess communication via TCP/IP. MX is available for several versions of Unix, Windows 95/98/NT and DOS. It may be downloaded from the web site http://www.imca.aps.anl.gov/mx/.

  5. Facilities for small-molecule crystallography at synchrotron sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Sarah A; Nowell, Harriott; Warren, Mark R; Wilcox, Andrian; Allan, David R

    2016-01-01

    Although macromolecular crystallography is a widely supported technique at synchrotron radiation facilities throughout the world, there are, in comparison, only very few beamlines dedicated to small-molecule crystallography. This limited provision is despite the increasing demand for beamtime from the chemical crystallography community and the ever greater overlap between systems that can be classed as either small macromolecules or large small molecules. In this article, a very brief overview of beamlines that support small-molecule single-crystal diffraction techniques will be given along with a more detailed description of beamline I19, a dedicated facility for small-molecule crystallography at Diamond Light Source.

  6. LNLS: light source, beamlines, end stations and scientific instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicentin, Flavio Cesar [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The LNLS is operational since 1997 and has a second-generation light source with a 1,37GeV electron storage ring and 2,08 keV critical energy. Besides the storage ring there are various beamlines installed mainly in magnetic dipoles, however were opened three beamlines based in insertion devices, wiggler and undulator. The LNLS is now operating with 16 beamlines which are open to the external user community: 9 of them are dedicated to structural studies and the other 7 to spectroscopic techniques. The beamlines devoted to structural studies involve X-ray diffraction (XRD1, XRD2, XPD and XDS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS1 and SAXS2), protein crystallography (MX1 and MX2) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The beamlines dedicated to spectroscopic studies are X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS1, XAFS2 and DXAS), soft X-ray spectroscopy (SXS), spherical grating monochromator (SGM), plane grating monochromator (PGM) and toroidal grating monochromator (TGM). Two more beamlines are expected to begin their operation in 2012: X-ray tomography and infrared spectroscopy. Each beamline has its own characteristics in terms of photon energy range, flux, resolution and beam size, but many of the optical elements and instrumentation are common to various beamlines and the main are mirrors, monochromators (crystal and diffraction grating), slits and filters. For X-ray and VUV spectroscopy, several experimental techniques can be explored including XAS, XMCD, XMLD, XPS, AES, UPS, XEOL, reflectivity and PePiCo. For that, these beamlines share different end stations and instrumentation that can be easily installed and commissioned for attend a specific experiment. (author)

  7. The test beamline of the European Spallation Source - Instrumentation development and wavelength frame multiplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woracek, R.; Hofmann, T.; Bulat, M.

    2016-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS), scheduled to start operation in 2020, is aiming to deliver the most intense neutron beams for experimental research of any facility worldwide. Its long pulse time structure implies significant differences for instrumentation compared to other spallation sources...... which, in contrast, are all providing short neutron pulses. In order to enable the development of methods and technology adapted to this novel type of source well in advance of the first instruments being constructed at ESS, a test beamline (TBL) was designed and built at the BER II research reactor...

  8. Target and orbit feedback simulations of a muSR beamline at BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKay, W. W. [Residence, 25 Rhododendron Circle, Asheville, NC (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pile, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    Well-polarized positive surface muons are a tool to measure the magnetic properties of materials since the precession rate of the spin can be determined from the observation of the positron directions when the muons decay. The use of the AGS complex at BNL has been explored for a muSR facility previously. Here we report simulations of a beamline with a target inside a solenoidal field, and of an orbit feed-back system with single muon beam positioning monitors based on technology available today

  9. Target and orbit feedback simulations of a muSR beamline at BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKay, W. W. [Residence, 25 Rhododendron Circle, Asheville, NC (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pile, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    Well-polarized positive surface muons are a tool to measure the magnetic properties of materials since the precession rate of the spin can be determined from the observation of the positron directions when the muons decay. The use of the AGS complex at BNL has been explored for a muSR facility previously. Here we report simulations of a beamline with a target inside a solenoidal field, and of an orbit feed-back system with single muon beam positioning monitors based on technology available today

  10. Synchrotron total reflection X-ray fluorescence at BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, M. K.; Singh, A. K.; Das, Gangadhar; Chowdhury, Anupam; Lodha, G. S.

    2014-04-01

    Determination of ultra trace elements is important in many disciplines both in basic and applied sciences. Numerous applications show their importance in medical science, environmental science, materials science, food processing and semiconductor industries and in maintaining the quality control of ultra pure chemicals and reagents. We report commissioning of a synchrotron based total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) facility on the BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2. This paper describes the performance of the BL-16 TXRF spectrometer and the detailed description of its capabilities through examples of measured results.

  11. A new method to suppress high-order harmonics for synchrotron radiation soft x-ray beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Zhi-Ying; Xing, Hai-Ying; Tang, Kun; Han, Yong; Chen, Dong-Liang; Zhao, Yi-Dong

    2014-01-01

    A feasible and convenient method has been proposed to suppress higher-harmonics for varied-line-spacing (VLS) plane grating monochromator in soft x-ray region. Related calculations and experiments demonstrate that decreasing the included angle slightly by changing the parameter of exit arm length can significantly improve light purity. This method is suitable and has been used for experiments of detector calibration in beamline 4B7B at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF).

  12. Conceptual design of an undulator system for a dedicated bio-imaging beamline at the European X-ray FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2012-01-01

    We describe a future possible upgrade of the European XFEL consisting in the construction of an undulator beamline dedicated to life science experiments. The availability of free undulator tunnels at the European XFEL facility offers a unique opportunity to build a beamline optimized for coherent diffraction imaging of complex molecules, like proteins and other biologically interesting structures. Crucial parameters for such bio-imaging beamline are photon energy range, peak power, and pulse duration. Key component of the setup is the undulator source. The peak power is maximized in the photon energy range between 3 keV and 13 keV by the use of a very efficient combination of self-seeding, fresh bunch and tapered undulator techniques. The unique combination of ultra-high peak power of 1 TW in the entire energy range, and ultrashort pulse duration tunable from 2 fs to 10 fs, would allow for single shot coherent imaging of protein molecules with size larger than 10 nm. Also, the new beamline would enable imagin...

  13. Upgrading design of the 3B1A beamline for x-ray nanometre lithography of microelectronic devices at BSRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Fu-Ting; Ye Tian-Chun; Peng Liang-Qiang; Chen Da-Peng; Zhang Ju-Fang; Han Yong

    2004-01-01

    Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility is a partly dedicated synchrotron radiation source operated in either parasitic or dedicated mode. The 3B1A beamline, extracted from a bending magnet, was originally designed as a soft x-ray beamline for submicro x-ray lithography with critical lateral size just below 1μm in 1988 and no change has been made since it was built. But later the required resolution of x-ray lithography has changed from sub-micrometre to the nanometre in the critical lateral size. This beamline can longer more meet the requirement for x-ray nano lithography and has to be modified to fit the purpose. To upgrade the design of the 3B1A beamline for x-ray nano lithography, a mirror is used to reflect and scan the x-ray beam for the nano lithography station, but the mirror's grazing angle is changed to 27.9mrad in the vertical direction, and the convex curve needs to be modified to fit the change; the tiny change of mirror scanning angle is firstly considered to improve the uniformity of the x-ray spot on the wafer by controlling the convex curve.

  14. A study on radiation shielding and safety analysis for a synchrotron radiation beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, Yoshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Mikazuhi, Hyogo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    Methods of shielding design and safety analysis are presented for a beam-line of synchrotron radiation. This paper consists of the shielding and safety study of synchrotron radiation with extremely intense and low energy photon below several hundreds keV, and the study for the behavior of remarkable high-energy photons up to 8 GeV, which can creep into beam-lines. A new shielding design code, STAC8 was developed to estimate the leakage dose outside the beam line hutch (an enclosure of the beam, optical elements or experimental instruments) easily and quickly with satisfactory accuracy. The code can calculate consistently from sources of synchrotron radiation to dose equivalent outside hutches with considering the build up effect and polarization effect. Validity of the code was verified by comparing its calculations with those of Monte Carlo simulations and measurement results of the doses inside the hutch of the BL14C of Photon Factory in the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), showing good agreements. The shielding design calculations using STAC8 were carried out to apply to the practical beam-lines with the considering polarization effect and clarified the characteristics of the typical beam-line of the third generation synchrotron radiation facility, SPring-8. In addition, the shielding calculations were compared with the measurement outside the shield wall of the bending magnet beam-line of SPring-8, and showed fairly good agreement. The new shielding problems, which have usually been neglected in shielding designs for existing synchrotron radiation facilities, are clarified through the analysis of the beam-line shielding of SPring-8. The synchrotron radiation from the SPring-8 has such extremely high-intensity involving high energy photons that the scattered synchrotron radiation from the concrete floor of the hutch, the ground shine, causes a seriously high dose. The method of effective shielding is presented. For the estimation of the gas

  15. Status of the crystallography beamlines at PETRA III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Anja; Pakendorf, Tim; Reime, Bernd; Meyer, Jan; Fischer, Pontus; Stübe, Nicolas; Panneerselvam, Saravanan; Lorbeer, Olga; Stachnik, Karolina; Warmer, Martin; Rödig, Philip; Göries, Dennis; Meents, Alke

    2016-03-01

    Since 2013, three beamlines for macromolecular crystallography are available to users at the third-generation synchrotron PETRA III in Hamburg: P11, P13 and P14, the latter two operated by EMBL. Beamline P11 is operated by DESY and is equipped with a Pilatus 6M detector. Together with the photon flux of 2× 10^{13} ph/s provided by the very brilliant X-ray source of PETRA III, a full data set can be typically collected in less than 2min. P11 provides state-of-the-art microfocusing capabilities with beam sizes down to 1× 1 μ m2, which makes the beamline ideally suited for investigation of microcrystals and serial crystallography experiments. An automatic sample changer allows fast sample exchange in less than 20s, which enables high-throughput crystallography and fast crystal screening. For sample preparation, an S2 biosafety laboratory is available in close proximity to the beamline.

  16. Optical pseudomotors for soft x-ray beamlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedreira, P; Sics, I; Sorrentino, A; Pereiro, E; Aballe, L; Foerster, M; Pérez-Dieste, V; Escudero, C; Nicolas, J

    2016-05-01

    Optical elements of soft x-ray beamlines usually have motorized translations and rotations that allow for the fine alignment of the beamline. This is to steer the photon beam at some positions and to correct the focus on slits or on sample. Generally, each degree of freedom of a mirror induces a change of several parameters of the beam. Inversely, several motions are required to actuate on a single optical parameter, keeping the others unchanged. We define optical pseudomotors as combinations of physical motions of the optical elements of a beamline, which allow modifying one optical parameter without affecting the others. We describe a method to obtain analytic relationships between physical motions of mirrors and the corresponding variations of the beam parameters. This method has been implemented and tested at two beamlines at ALBA, where it is used to control the focus of the photon beam and its position independently.

  17. Experimental stations at I13 beamline at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pešić, Z. D.; De Fanis, A.; Wagner, U.; Rau, C.

    2013-03-01

    The I13 beamline of Diamond Light Source has been operational since December 2011. The beamline encompass two fully independent branches devoted to coherent imaging experiments (coherent x-ray diffraction, coherent diffraction imaging and ptychography) and x-ray imaging (in-line phase contrast imaging, tomography and full-field microscopy). This paper gives an overview of the current status of experimental stations on both branches and outlines planned developments.

  18. A new Mtest beamline for the 1999 fixed target run

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. N. Brown and T. R. Kobilarcik

    2000-05-18

    The beamline cryogenic system for the Meson area will not be run for the 1999 fixed target run. The current MTest (MT) beamline relies on cryogenic magnets. A non-cryogenic solution is proposed which can yield up to 1 x 10{sup 6} pions per cycle at 120 GeV/c per 1 x 10{sup 11} incident protons at 800 GeV/c.

  19. Comparação entre dois fios de sutura não absorvíveis na anastomose traqueal término-terminal em cães Comparison of two nonabsorbable suture materials in the end-to-end tracheal anastomosis in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Canevese Rahal

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Doze cães sem raça definida, com idade variando entre 1 e 6 anos e peso de 6 a 20kg, foram submetidos a ressecção traqueal e anastomose término-terminal, na qual foram testados os fios poliéster trançado não capilar e náilon monofilamento. Seis animais, cada três com um mesmo tipo de fio de sutura, sofreram a excisão equivalente a três anéis traqueais. Com 15 dias foi executada uma nova intervenção onde se ressecou o equivalente a mais seis anéis, perfazendo um total de nove. Ao final de outros 15 dias foram sacrificados. Os outros seis animais, cada três com um mesmo tipo de fio, foram submetidos à excisão equivalente a três anéis traqueais e mantidos por 43 dias. As traquéias foram avaliadas por exames clínicos, radiográficos, macroscópicos e histopatológicos. O fio de náilon monofilamento apresentou menos reação tecidual do que o poliéster trançado não capilar, promoveu uma anastomose segura e com menor chance de formação de granuloma.Twelve mongrel dogs, with age between 1 and 6 years old and weight between 12 and 40 pounds, were submitted to tracheal resection and end-to-end anastomosis in which were tested braided polyester no capillary and monofilament nylon materiais. Six animais, every threeones with a same type of suture material, suffered the excision equivalent to three tracheal rings. A new intervention was performed with fifteen days, in which the equivalent of more six tracheal rings were removed, completing the total of nine. At the end of more fifteen days they were sacrificed. The other six animals, every three with a same type of suture material, were submitted to the excision equivalent to three tracheal rings and maintained for 43 days. The tracheal anastomosis were evaluated to clinic, radiographic, macroscopic and histopathologic studies. The monofilament nylon material exhibited less reaction than polyester and promoted a secure anastomosis with less risk of granuloma formation.

  20. Beamline Insertions Manager at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Michael C. [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The beam viewer system at Jefferson Lab provides operators and beam physicists with qualitative and quantitative information on the transverse electron beam properties. There are over 140 beam viewers installed on the 12 GeV CEBAF accelerator. This paper describes an upgrade consisting of replacing the EPICS-based system tasked with managing all viewers with a mixed system utilizing EPICS and high-level software. Most devices, particularly the beam viewers, cannot be safely inserted into the beam line during high-current beam operations. Software is partly responsible for protecting the machine from untimely insertions. The multiplicity of beam-blocking and beam-vulnerable devices motivates us to try a data-driven approach. The beamline insertions application components are centrally managed and configured through an object-oriented software framework created for this purpose. A rules-based engine tracks the configuration and status of every device, along with the beam status of the machine segment containing the device. The application uses this information to decide on which device actions are allowed at any given time.

  1. Conceptual design of an undulator system for a dedicated bio-imaging beamline at the European X-ray FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    We describe a future possible upgrade of the European XFEL consisting in the construction of an undulator beamline dedicated to life science experiments. The availability of free undulator tunnels at the European XFEL facility offers a unique opportunity to build a beamline optimized for coherent diffraction imaging of complex molecules, like proteins and other biologically interesting structures. Crucial parameters for such bio-imaging beamline are photon energy range, peak power, and pulse duration. Key component of the setup is the undulator source. The peak power is maximized in the photon energy range between 3 keV and 13 keV by the use of a very efficient combination of self-seeding, fresh bunch and tapered undulator techniques. The unique combination of ultra-high peak power of 1 TW in the entire energy range, and ultrashort pulse duration tunable from 2 fs to 10 fs, would allow for single shot coherent imaging of protein molecules with size larger than 10 nm. Also, the new beamline would enable imaging of large biological structures in the water window, between 0.3 keV and 0.4 keV. In order to make use of standardized components, at present we favor the use of SASE3-type undulator segments. The number segments, 40, is determined by the tapered length for the design output power of 1 TW. The present plan assumes the use of a nominal electron bunch with charge of 0.1 nC. Experiments will be performed without interference with the other three undulator beamlines. Therefore, the total amount of scheduled beam time per year is expected to be up to 4000 hours.

  2. Surface and interface analysis of nanomaterials at microfocus beamline (BL-16) of Indus-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Gangadhar; Khooha, Ajay; Kane, S. R.; Singh, A. K.; Tiwari, M. K.

    2016-05-01

    Analysis of chemical nature and electronic structure at the interface of a thin film medium is important in many technological applications as well as to understand overall efficiency of a thin film device. Synchrotron radiation based x-ray spectroscopy is a promising technique to study interface nature of the nanomaterials with atomic resolutions. A combined x-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence measurement facility has been recently constructed at the BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2 synchrotron facility to accomplish surface-interface microstructural characterization of thin layered materials. It is also possible to analyze contaminates or adsorbed ad-atoms on the surface of the thin nanostructure materials. The BL-16 beamline also provides an attractive platform to perform a variety of analytical research activities especially in the field of micro x-ray fluorescence and ultra-trace elements analysis using Synchrotron radiation. We describe various salient features of the BL-16 reflectometer experimental station and the detailed description of its capabilities through the measured results, obtained for various thin layered nanomaterials.

  3. Support for the Advanced Polymers Beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Benjamin S. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Stonybrook, NY (United States)

    2008-10-01

    The primary focus of the X27C beamline is to investigate frontier polymer science and engineering problems with emphasis on real-time studies of structures, morphologies and dynamics from atomic, nanoscopic, microscopic to mesoscopic scales using simultaneous small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) techniques. The scientific merit of this project is as follows. Currently, many unique sample chambers for in-situ synchrotron studies, developed by the PI (B. Hsiao) and Co-PI (B. Chu), are available for general users of X27C at NSLS. These instruments include a gel/melt spinning apparatus, a continuous fiber drawing apparatus, a tensile stretching apparatus, a high pressure X-ray cell using supercritical carbon dioxide, a parallel plate strain-controlled shear stage and a dynamic rheometer for small-strain oscillatory deformation study. Based on the use of these instruments in combination with synchrotron X-rays, many new insights into the relationships between processing and structure have been obtained in recent years. The broader impact of this project is as follows. The X27C beamline is the first synchrotron facility in the United States dedicated to chemistry/materials research (with emphasis on polymers). The major benefit of this facility to the materials community is that no extensive synchrotron experience and equipment preparation are required from general users to carry out cutting-edge experiments.

  4. Diamond beamline I07: a beamline for surface and interface diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklin, Chris; Arnold, Tom; Rawle, Jonathan; Warne, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Beamline I07 at Diamond Light Source is dedicated to the study of the structure of surfaces and interfaces for a wide range of sample types, from soft matter to ultrahigh vacuum. The beamline operates in the energy range 8-30 keV and has two endstations. The first houses a 2+3 diffractometer, which acts as a versatile platform for grazing-incidence techniques including surface X-ray diffraction, grazing-incidence small- (and wide-) angle X-ray scattering, X-ray reflectivity and grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction. A method for deflecting the X-rays (a double-crystal deflector) has been designed and incorporated into this endstation, extending the surfaces that can be studied to include structures formed on liquid surfaces or at liquid-liquid interfaces. The second experimental hutch contains a similar diffractometer with a large environmental chamber mounted on it, dedicated to in situ ultrahigh-vacuum studies. It houses a range of complementary surface science equipment including a scanning tunnelling microscope, low-energy electron diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ensuring that correlations between the different techniques can be performed on the same sample, in the same chamber. This endstation allows accurate determination of well ordered structures, measurement of growth behaviour during molecular beam epitaxy and has also been used to measure coherent X-ray diffraction from nanoparticles during alloying.

  5. Justification for the development of a bending magnet beamline at sector 10 at the APS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemner, K. M.; Biosciences Division

    2006-09-18

    The long-planned and much-needed merger of EnviroCAT into the Materials Research Collaborative Access Team (MR-CAT) will provide dedicated state-of-the-art facilities that are critical to research on a broad range of issues in environmental sciences. These CATs will focus on developing a bending magnet (BM) beamline for x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and micro x-ray analysis of environmental samples through integration with existing insertion device (ID) capabilities in XAFS, micro x-ray analysis, and x-ray scattering. In addition, the expanded MR-CAT will serve as the hub of personnel and laboratory infrastructure support for molecular environmental science and biogeochemical science at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). In conjunction with the merger of EnviroCAT into MR-CAT, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will become a member institution of MR-CAT, joining the present members (University of Notre Dame, Illinois Institute of Technology, University of Florida, British Petroleum, and Argonne's Chemical Engineering and Biosciences Division). The motivation for blending capabilities meeting the needs of EnviroCAT users into the MR-CAT facilities is the explosion of synchrotron-radiation-based research in the field known as molecular environmental science (MES). This research is driven largely by the need to remediate contaminated environmental materials and to understand the scientific foundations that govern contaminant transport in the environment. Synchrotron radiation is playing a crucial role in solving environmental science problems by offering x-ray-based analytical techniques for detailed molecular- and atomic-level studies of these systems. This document focuses on the scientific justification for developing a specific type of BM beamline capability at Sector 10 for XAFS and micro x-ray analysis to support the growing MES community. However, the modification of Sector 10 will meet other future needs by providing (1) an existing

  6. Medical research and multidisciplinary applications with laser-accelerated beams: the ELIMED netwotk at ELI-Beamlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramontana, A.; Anzalone, A.; Candiano, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Korn, G.; Licciardello, T.; Maggiore, M.; Manti, L.; Margarone, D.; Musumarra, A.; Perozziello, F.; Pisciotta, P.; Raffaele, L.; Romano, F.; Romano, F. P.; Stancampiano, C.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Torrisi, L.; Tudisco, S.

    2014-04-01

    Laser accelerated proton beams represent nowadays an attractive alternative to the conventional ones and they have been proposed in different research fields. In particular, the interest has been focused in the possibility of replacing conventional accelerating machines with laser-based accelerators in order to develop a new concept of hadrontherapy facilities, which could result more compact and less expensive. With this background the ELIMED (ELIMED: ELI-Beamlines MEDical applications) research project has been launched by LNS-INFN researchers (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania, IT) and ASCR-FZU researchers (Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic-Fyzikální ústar, Prague, Cz), within the pan-European ELI-Beamlines facility framework. Its main purposes are the demonstration of future applications in hadrontherapy of optically accelerated protons and the realization of a laser-accelerated ion transport beamline for multidisciplinary applications. Several challenges, starting from laser-target interaction and beam transport development, up to dosimetric and radiobiological issues, need to be overcome in order to reach the final goals. The design and the realization of a preliminary beam handling and dosimetric system and of an advanced spectrometer for high energy (multi-MeV) laser-accelerated ion beams will be shortly presented in this work.

  7. Measuring circular dichroism in a capillary cell using the b23 synchrotron radiation CD beamline at diamond light source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jávorfi, Tamás; Hussain, Rohanah; Myatt, Daniel; Siligardi, Giuliano

    2010-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) is a well-established method in structural biology. The first UV-VIS beamline dedicated to circular dichroism at Diamond Light Source, a third generation synchrotron facility in South Oxfordshire, has recently become operational and it is now available for the user community. Herein we present an important application of SRCD: the CD measurement of protein solutions in fused silica rectangular capillary cells. This was achieved without the use of any lens between the photoelastic modulator and the photomultiplier tube detectors by exploiting the high photon flux of the collimated beam that can be as little as half a millimeter squared. Measures to minimize or eliminate vacuum-UV protein denaturation effects are discussed. The CD spectra measured in capillaries is a proof of principle to address CD measurements in microdevice systems using the new B23 SRCD beamline.

  8. The National Ignition Facility front-end laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhart, S.C.; Beach, R.J.; Crane, J.H.; Davin, J.M.; Perry, M.D.; Wilcox, R.B.

    1995-07-07

    The proposed National Ignition Facility is a 192 beam Nd:glass laser system capable of driving targets to fusion ignition by the year 2005. A key factor in the flexibility and performance of the laser is a front-end system which provides a precisely formatted beam to each beamline. Each of the injected beams has individually controlled energy, temporal pulseshape, and spatial shape to accommodate beamline-to-beamline variations in gain and saturation. This flexibility also gives target designers the options for precisely controlling the drive to different areas of the target. The design of the Front-End laser is described, and initial results are discussed.

  9. The SLS Beamlines Data Acquisition and Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Krempasky, J; Vermeulen, D; Maden, D; Korhonen, T T; Portmann, W; Hunt, S; Abela, R; Muntwiler, M

    2001-01-01

    On December 15th the Swiss Light Source (SLS) produced a stored beam for the first time. This important milestone was achieved in a very tight time schedule. The fact that all major systems are controlled by Epics made this challenge feasible. In the first phase there are four beamlines: two for the surface science community, one for powder and surface diffraction and computed micro-tomography, and the last one for protein crystallography. All of them are equipped with insertion devices, which users want to treat as active sub-systems like a monochromator or experimental station. The beamline control systems are based on the same hardware and software technology as is the machine. This implies extensive use of Personal Computers running Linux RedHat 6.2 and VME systems (PowerPC). The advantage of this choice is a staightforward implementation of the insertion devices into the beamline and experiment framework. Although the experiment Application Program Interfaces differ from beamline to beamline, the standar...

  10. Optics Concept for a Pair of Undulator Beamlines for MX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, L E; Allaire, M; Chance, M R; Hendrickson, W A; Héroux, A; Jakoncic, J; Liu, Q; Orville, A M; Robinson, H H; Schneider, D K; Shi, W; Soares, A S; Stojanoff, V; Stoner-Ma, D; Sweet, R M

    2011-09-01

    We describe a concept for x-ray optics to feed a pair of macromolecular crystallography (MX) beamlines which view canted undulator radiation sources in the same storage ring straight section. It can be deployed at NSLS-II and at other low-emittance third-generation synchrotron radiation sources where canted undulators are permitted, and makes the most of these sources and beamline floor space, even when the horizontal angle between the two canted undulator emissions is as little as 1-2 mrad. The concept adopts the beam-separation principles employed at the 23-ID (GM/CA-CAT) beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), wherein tandem horizontally-deflecting mirrors separate one undulator beam from the other, following monochromatization by a double-crystal monochromator. The scheme described here would, in contrast, deliver the two tunable monochromatic undulator beams to separate endstations that address rather different and somewhat complementary purposes, with further beam conditioning imposed as required. A downstream microfocusing beamline would employ dual-stage focusing for work at the micron scale and, unique to this design, switch to single stage focusing for larger beams. On the other hand, the upstream, more highly automated beamline would only employ single stage focusing.

  11. Optics Concept for a Pair of Undulator Beamlines for MX*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, L.E.; Allaire, M.; Chance, M.R.; Hendrickson, W.A.; Héroux, A.; Jakoncic, J.; Liu, Q.; Orville, A.M.; Robinson, H.H.; Schneider, D.K.; Shi, W.; Soares, A.S.; Stojanoff, V.; Stoner-Ma, D.; Sweet, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a concept for x-ray optics to feed a pair of macromolecular crystallography (MX) beamlines which view canted undulator radiation sources in the same storage ring straight section. It can be deployed at NSLS-II and at other low-emittance third-generation synchrotron radiation sources where canted undulators are permitted, and makes the most of these sources and beamline floor space, even when the horizontal angle between the two canted undulator emissions is as little as 1-2 mrad. The concept adopts the beam-separation principles employed at the 23-ID (GM/CA-CAT) beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), wherein tandem horizontally-deflecting mirrors separate one undulator beam from the other, following monochromatization by a double-crystal monochromator. The scheme described here would, in contrast, deliver the two tunable monochromatic undulator beams to separate endstations that address rather different and somewhat complementary purposes, with further beam conditioning imposed as required. A downstream microfocusing beamline would employ dual-stage focusing for work at the micron scale and, unique to this design, switch to single stage focusing for larger beams. On the other hand, the upstream, more highly automated beamline would only employ single stage focusing. PMID:21822346

  12. DCS - A High Flux Beamline for Time Resolved Dynamic Compression Science – Design Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capatina, D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); D' Amico, Kevin L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Nudell, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Collins, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schmidt, Oliver [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-07-27

    The Dynamic Compression Sector (DCS) beamline, a national user facility for time resolved dynamic compression science supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the Department of Energy (DOE), has recently completed construction and is being commissioned at Sector 35 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The beamline consists of a First Optics Enclosure (FOE) and four experimental enclosures. A Kirkpatrick–Baez focusing mirror system with 2.2 mrad incident angles in the FOE delivers pink beam to the experimental stations. A refocusing Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror system is situated in each of the two most downstream enclosures. Experiments can be conducted in either white, monochromatic, pink or monochromatic-reflected beam mode in any of the experimental stations by changing the position of two interlocked components in the FOE. The beamline Radiation Safety System (RSS) components have been designed to handle the continuous beam provided by two in-line revolver undulators with periods of 27 and 30 mm, at closed gap, 150 mA beam current, and passing through a power limiting aperture of 1.5 x 1.0 mm2. A novel pink beam end station stop [1] is used to stop the continuous and focused pink beam which can achieve a peak heat flux of 105 kW/mm2. A new millisecond shutter design [2] is used to deliver a quick pulse of beam to the sample, synchronized with the dynamic event, the microsecond shutter, and the storage ring clock.

  13. DCS - A high flux beamline for time resolved dynamic compression science – Design highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capatina, D., E-mail: capatina@aps.anl.gov; D’Amico, K., E-mail: kdamico@aps.anl.gov; Nudell, J., E-mail: jnudell@aps.anl.gov; Collins, J., E-mail: collins@aps.anl.gov; Schmidt, O., E-mail: oschmidt@aps.anl.gov [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    The Dynamic Compression Sector (DCS) beamline, a national user facility for time resolved dynamic compression science supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the Department of Energy (DOE), has recently completed construction and is being commissioned at Sector 35 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The beamline consists of a First Optics Enclosure (FOE) and four experimental enclosures. A Kirkpatrick–Baez focusing mirror system with 2.2 mrad incident angles in the FOE delivers pink beam to the experimental stations. A refocusing Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror system is situated in each of the two most downstream enclosures. Experiments can be conducted in either white, monochromatic, pink or monochromatic-reflected beam mode in any of the experimental stations by changing the position of two interlocked components in the FOE. The beamline Radiation Safety System (RSS) components have been designed to handle the continuous beam provided by two in-line revolver undulators with periods of 27 and 30 mm, at closed gap, 150 mA beam current, and passing through a power limiting aperture of 1.5 x 1.0 mm{sup 2}. A novel pink beam end station stop [1] is used to stop the continuous and focused pink beam which can achieve a peak heat flux of 105 kW/mm{sup 2}. A new millisecond shutter design [2] is used to deliver a quick pulse of beam to the sample, synchronized with the dynamic event, the microsecond shutter, and the storage ring clock.

  14. Design of a large acceptance, high efficiency energy selection system for the ELIMAIA beam-line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, F.; Maggiore, M.; Andó, L.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.; Allegra, L.; Amato, A.; Gallo, G.; Korn, G.; Leanza, R.; Margarone, D.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.

    2016-08-01

    A magnetic chicane based on four electromagnetic dipoles is going to be realized by INFN-LNS to be used as an Energy Selection System (ESS) for laser driven proton beams up to 300 MeV and C6+ up to 70 MeV/u. The system will provide, as output, ion beams with a contrallable energy spread varying from 5% up to 20% according to the aperture slit size. Moreover, it has a very wide acceptance in order to ensure a very high transmission efficiency and, in principle, it has been designed to be used also as an active energy modulator. This system is the core element of the ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical and Multidisciplinary applications) beam transport, dosimetry and irradiation line that will be developed by INFN-LNS (It) and installed at the ELI-Beamlines facility in Prague (Cz). ELIMED will be the first user's open transport beam-line where a controlled laser-driven ion beam will be used for multidisciplinary research. The definition of well specified characteristics, both in terms of performance and field quality, of the magnetic chicane is crucial for the system realization, for the accurate study of the beam dynamics and for the proper matching with the Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles (PMQs) used as a collection system already designed. Here, the design of the magnetic chicane is described in details together with the adopted solutions in order to realize a robust system form the magnetic point of view. Moreover, the first preliminary transport simulations are also described showing the good performance of the whole beam line (PMQs+ESS).

  15. Performance specifications for proton medical facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, W.T.; Staples, J.W.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Renner, T.R.; Singh, R.P.; Nyman, M.A.; Collier, J.M.; Daftari, I.K.; Petti, P.L.; Alonso, J.R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Kubo, H.; Verhey, L.J. [University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States). Cancer Center]|[California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). School of Medicine; Castro, J.R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States). Cancer Center]|[California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). School of Medicine

    1993-03-01

    Performance specifications of technical components of a modern proton radiotherapy facility are presented. The technical items specified include: the accelerator; the beam transport system including rotating gantry; the treatment beamline systems including beam scattering, beam scanning, and dosimetric instrumentation; and an integrated treatment and accelerator control system. Also included are treatment ancillary facilities such as diagnostic tools, patient positioning and alignment devices, and treatment planning systems. The facility specified will accommodate beam scanning enabling the three-dimensional conformal therapy deliver .

  16. Simulating the Beam-line at CERN's ISOLDE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    McGrath, Casey

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing the optical matching along portions of the ISOLDE beam-line and automating this procedure will make it easier for scientists to determine what the strengths of the electrical elds of each beam-line element should be in order to reduce particle loss. Simulations are run using a program called MAD-X, however, certain issues were discovered that hindered an immediate success of the simulations. Specifically, the transfer matrices for electrostatic components like the switchyards, kickers, and electric quadrupoles were missing from the original coding. The primary aim of this project was to design these components using AutoCAD and then extract the transfer matrices using SIMION. Future work will then implement these transfer matrices into the MAD-X code to make the simulations of the beam-line more accurate.

  17. Hard X-ray micro-focusing beamline at SSRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽丽; 兰旭颖; 毛成文; 王娟; 蒋晖; 郑怡; 董朝晖; 曾乐勇; 李爱国; 闫帅; 蒋升; 杨科; 王华; 何上明; 梁东旭; 张玲; 何燕

    2015-01-01

    The hard X-ray micro-focusing beamline (BL15U1) of SSRF is dedicated to hard X-ray micro/nano-spectrochemical analysis consisting of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. It is one of the most versatile instruments in hard X-ray microscopy sci-ence. Since its commission in 2009, BL15U1 has allocated over 25000 h beamtime for users, and about 700 proposals have been executed. The beamline and the experimental end-station were upgraded for several times to facilitate the users’ experimental needs and make it more convenient to operate. In this paper, we give a review on the beamline, describing its characteristics, recent technical developments, and a few examples of scientific progresses achieved in recent years on BL15U1.

  18. The Materials Science beamline upgrade at the Swiss Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willmott, P. R., E-mail: philip.willmott@psi.ch; Meister, D.; Leake, S. J.; Lange, M.; Bergamaschi, A. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); and others

    2013-07-16

    The wiggler X-ray source of the Materials Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source has been replaced with a 14 mm-period cryogenically cooled in-vacuum undulator. In order to best exploit the increased brilliance of this new source, the entire front-end and optics have been redesigned. The Materials Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source has been operational since 2001. In late 2010, the original wiggler source was replaced with a novel insertion device, which allows unprecedented access to high photon energies from an undulator installed in a medium-energy storage ring. In order to best exploit the increased brilliance of this new source, the entire front-end and optics had to be redesigned. In this work, the upgrade of the beamline is described in detail. The tone is didactic, from which it is hoped the reader can adapt the concepts and ideas to his or her needs.

  19. Beam Position Monitoring in the CSU Accelerator Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Joshua; Vankeuren, Max; Watras, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    A Beam Position Monitoring (BPM) system is an integral part of an accelerator beamline, and modern accelerators can take advantage of newer technologies and designs when creating a BPM system. The Colorado State University (CSU) Accelerator Facility will include four stripline detectors mounted around the beamline, a low-noise analog front-end, and digitization and interface circuitry. The design will support a sampling rate greater than 10 Hz and sub-100 μm accuracy.

  20. Current schemes for National Synchrotron Light Source UV beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.P.; Howells, M.R.; McKinney, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    We describe in some detail four beamlines proposed for the National Synchrotron Light Source uv ring at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Three grazing-incidence instruments, one of the plane grating Mijake type and two with toroidal gratings at grazing angles of 2-1/2/sup 0/ and 15/sup 0/ are described. Two normal incidence instruments, one using the source as entrance slit and accepting 75 milliradians horizontally are also discussed. In each case we have estimated the output fluxes expected from such beamlines.

  1. New synchrotron radiation facility project. Panel on new synchrotron radiation facility project

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, S; Kimura, Y

    2003-01-01

    The project for constructing a new synchrotron radiation facility dedicated to the science in VUV (or EUV) and Soft X-ray (SX) region has been discussed for these two years at the Panel on New Synchrotron Radiation Facility Project. The Panel together with the Accelerator Design Working Group (WG), Beamline Design WG and Research Program WG suggested to the Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Sports the construction of a 1.8 GeV electron storage ring suitable for 'Top-Up' operation and beamlines and monochromators designed for undulator radiation. The scientific programs proposed by nationwide scientists are summarized with their requirements of the characteristics of the beam. (author)

  2. The Pharmaceutical Industry Beamline of Pharmaceutical Consortium for Protein Structure Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nishijima, K

    2002-01-01

    The Pharmaceutical Industry Beamline was constructed by the Pharmaceutical Consortium for Protein Structure Analysis which was established in April 2001. The consortium is composed of 22 pharmaceutical companies affiliating with the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association. The beamline is the first exclusive on that is owned by pharmaceutical enterprises at SPring-8. The specification and equipments of the Pharmaceutical Industry Beamline is almost same as that of RIKEN Structural Genomics Beamline I and II. (author)

  3. Development of an EUV Test Facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    In late 1989, the facility was upgraded in size and capability to perform the AXAF end -to- end calibrations (see http: ·:optics.nasa.go...and hard X-ray optics and detectors. To support this testing, the SLF detectors include a front - illuminated CCD (charge-coupled device) and a...scanning CZT (cadmium- zinc-telluride) detector, with low- energy cut-offs of 0.8 and 3 keY, respectively2• Several enhancements to the facility

  4. The ID23-2 structural biology microfocus beamline at the ESRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flot, David, E-mail: flot@esrf.fr [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Mairs, Trevor; Giraud, Thierry; Guijarro, Matias; Lesourd, Marc; Rey, Vicente; Brussel, Denis van; Morawe, Christian; Borel, Christine; Hignette, Olivier; Chavanne, Joel; Nurizzo, Didier; McSweeney, Sean; Mitchell, Edward [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, 38043 Grenoble (France)

    2010-01-01

    Beamline ID23-2, the first dedicated and highly automated high-throughput monochromatic macromolecular crystallography microfocus beamline, is described. The first phase of the ESRF beamline ID23 to be constructed was ID23-1, a tunable MAD-capable beamline which opened to users in early 2004. The second phase of the beamline to be constructed is ID23-2, a monochromatic microfocus beamline dedicated to macromolecular crystallography experiments. Beamline ID23-2 makes use of well characterized optical elements: a single-bounce silicon (111) monochromator and two mirrors in Kirkpatrick–Baez geometry to focus the X-ray beam. A major design goal of the ID23-2 beamline is to provide a reliable, easy-to-use and routine microfocus beam. ID23-2 started operation in November 2005, as the first beamline dedicated to microfocus macromolecular crystallography. The beamline has taken the standard automated ESRF macromolecular crystallography environment (both hardware and software), allowing users of ID23-2 to be rapidly familiar with the microfocus environment. This paper describes the beamline design, the special considerations taken into account given the microfocus beam, and summarizes the results of the first years of the beamline operation.

  5. A BEAMLINE FOR HIGH PRESSURE STUDIES AT THE ADVANCED LIGHT SOURCE WITH A SUPERCONDUCTING BENDING MAGNET AS THE SOURCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, M; MacDowell, A A; Caldwell, W A; Cambie, D; Celestre, R S; Domning, E E; Duarte, R M; Gleason, A; Glossinger, J; Kelez, N; Plate, D W; Yu, T; Zaug, J M; Padmore, H A; Jeanloz, R; Alivisatos, A P; Clark, S M

    2005-04-19

    A new facility for high-pressure diffraction and spectroscopy using diamond anvil high-pressure cells has been built at the Advanced Light Source on Beamline 12.2.2. This beamline benefits from the hard X-radiation generated by a 6 Tesla superconducting bending magnet (superbend). Useful x-ray flux is available between 5 keV and 35 keV. The radiation is transferred from the superbend to the experimental enclosure by the brightness preserving optics of the beamline. These optics are comprised of: a plane parabola collimating mirror (M1), followed by a Kohzu monochromator vessel with a Si(111) crystals (E/{Delta}E {approx} 7000) and a W/B{sub 4}C multilayer (E/{Delta}E {approx} 100), and then a toroidal focusing mirror (M2) with variable focusing distance. The experimental enclosure contains an automated beam positioning system, a set of slits, ion chambers, the sample positioning goniometry and area detectors (CCD or image-plate detector). Future developments aim at the installation of a second end station dedicated for in situ laser-heating on one hand and a dedicated high-pressure single-crystal station, applying both monochromatic as well as polychromatic techniques.

  6. A Beamline for High-Pressure Studies at the Advanced Light Sourcewith a Superconducting Bending Magnet as the Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Martin; MacDowell, Alastair A.; Caldwell, Wendel A.; Cambie, Daniella; Celestre, Richard S.; Domning, Edward E.; Duarte,Robert M.; Gleason, Arianna E.; Glossinger, James M.; Kelez, Nicholas; Plate, David W.; Yu, Tony; Zaug, Joeseph M.; Padmore, Howard A.; Jeanloz,Raymond; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Clark, Simon M.

    2005-06-30

    A new facility for high-pressure diffraction and spectroscopy using diamond anvil high-pressure cells has been built at the Advanced Light Source on Beamline 12.2.2. This beamline benefits from the hard X-radiation generated by a 6 Tesla superconducting bending magnet (superbend). Useful x-ray flux is available between 5 keV and 35 keV. The radiation is transferred from the superbend to the experimental enclosure by the brightness preserving optics of the beamline. These optics are comprised of: a plane parabola collimating mirror (M1), followed by a Kohzu monochromator vessel with a Si(111) crystals (E/DE {approx}7000) and a W/B4C multilayers (E/DE {approx} 100), and then a toroidal focusing mirror (M2) with variable focusing distance. The experimental enclosure contains an automated beam positioning system, a set of slits, ion chambers, the sample positioning goniometry and area detectors (CCD or image-plate detector). Future developments aim at the installation of a second end station dedicated for in situ laser-heating on one hand and a dedicated high-pressure single-crystal station, applying both monochromatic as well as polychromatic techniques.

  7. Third-Order Apochromatic Drift-Quadrupole Beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Balandin, V; Decking, W; Golubeva, N

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the design of a straight drift-quadrupole system which can transport certain beam ellipses (apochromatic beam ellipses) without influence of the second and of the third order chromatic and geometric aberrations of the beamline transfer map.

  8. The Diamond Beamline Controls and Data Acquisition Software Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, N.

    2010-06-01

    The software for the Diamond Light Source beamlines[1] is based on two complementary software frameworks: low level control is provided by the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) framework[2][3] and the high level user interface is provided by the Java based Generic Data Acquisition or GDA[4][5]. EPICS provides a widely used, robust, generic interface across a wide range of hardware where the user interfaces are focused on serving the needs of engineers and beamline scientists to obtain detailed low level views of all aspects of the beamline control systems. The GDA system provides a high-level system that combines an understanding of scientific concepts, such as reciprocal lattice coordinates, a flexible python syntax scripting interface for the scientific user to control their data acquisition, and graphical user interfaces where necessary. This paper describes the beamline software architecture in more detail, highlighting how these complementary frameworks provide a flexible system that can accommodate a wide range of requirements.

  9. New X-ray emission spectrometer at the Rossendorf Beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvashnina, Kristina O.; Scheinost, Andreas C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Molecular Structures

    2016-07-01

    A preliminary Johann-type X-ray emission spectrometer has recently been installed and tested at the Rossendorf Beamline (ROBL). The spectrometer consists of a single spherically bent crystal analyzer and an avalanche photodiode detector positioned on the vertical Rowland cycle with 1 m diameter. The instrument has been tested at the Zr-K edge.

  10. Remote access and automation of SPring-8 MX beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Go, E-mail: ueno@spring8.or.jp; Hikima, Takaaki; Yamashita, Keitaro; Hirata, Kunio; Yamamoto, Masaki [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 JAPAN (Japan); Hasegawa, Kazuya; Murakami, Hironori; Furukawa, Yukito; Mizuno, Nobuhiro; Kumasaka, Takashi [SPring-8/JASRI, 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 JAPAN (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    At SPring-8 MX beamlines, a remote access system has been developed and started user operation in 2010. The system has been developed based on an automated data collection and data management architecture utilized for the confirmed scheme of SPring-8 mail-in data collection. Currently, further improvement to the remote access and automation which covers data processing and analysis are being developed.

  11. Design of 3B3 beamline control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Both structure and design of the control system in BSRF-3B3 beamline, are discussed and the subsystems are described. The LabVIEW software has advantages on data collecting and real time inspecting. In the process of data collecting, some methods are taken to solve the problems that may be met.

  12. The CG-1D Neutron Imaging Beamline at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santodonato, Lou; Bilheux, Hassina; Bailey, Barton; Bilheux, Jean; Nguyen, Phong; Tremsin, Anton; Selby, Doug; Walker, Lakeisha

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Neutron Sciences Directorate has installed a neutron imaging beamline at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) cold guide hall. CG-1D is one of the three instruments that make up the CG1 instrument suite. The beamline optics and detector have recently been upgraded to meet the needs of the neutron imaging community (better "smoothing" of guide system artifacts, higher flux or spatial resolution). These upgrades comprise a new diffuser/aperture system, two new detectors, a He-filled flight tube and silicon (Si) windows. Shielding inside the flight tube, beam scrapers and a beam stop ensure that biological dose is less than 50 μSv/hr outside of the radiation boundary. A set of diffusers and apertures (pinhole geometry) has been installed at the exit of the guide system to allow motorized L/D variation. Samples sit on a translation/rotation stage for alignment and tomography purposes. Detectors for the CG-1D beamline are (1) an ANDOR DW936 charge coupled device (CCD) camera with a field of view of approximately 7 cm x 7 cm and ∼ 80 microns spatial resolution and 1 frame per second time resolution, (2) a new Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) detector with a 2.8 cm x 2.8 cm field of view and 55 microns spatial resolution, and 5 μs timing capability. 6LiF/ZnS scintillators of thickness varying from 50 to 200 microns are being used at this facility. An overview of the beamline upgrade and preliminary data is presented here.

  13. Advanced photoelectric effect experiment beamline at Elettra: A surface science laboratory coupled with Synchrotron Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaccione, G; Vobornik, I; Fujii, J; Krizmancic, D; Annese, E; Giovanelli, L; Maccherozzi, F; Salvador, F; De Luisa, A; Benedetti, D; Gruden, A; Bertoch, P; Polack, F; Cocco, D; Sostero, G; Diviacco, B; Hochstrasser, M; Maier, U; Pescia, D; Back, C H; Greber, T; Osterwalder, J; Galaktionov, M; Sancrotti, M; Rossi, G

    2009-04-01

    We report the main characteristics of the advanced photoelectric effect experiments beamline, operational at Elettra storage ring, featuring a fully independent double branch scheme obtained by the use of chicane undulators and able to keep polarization control in both linear and circular mode. The paper describes the novel technical solutions adopted, namely, (a) the design of a quasiperiodic undulator resulting in optimized suppression of higher harmonics over a large photon energy range (10-100 eV), (b) the thermal stability of optics under high heat load via cryocoolers, and (c) the end station interconnected setup allowing full access to off-beam and on-beam facilities and, at the same time, the integration of users' specialized sample growth chambers or modules.

  14. A Johann-type X-ray emission spectrometer at the Rossendorf beamline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvashnina, Kristina O; Scheinost, Andreas C

    2016-05-01

    This paper gives a detailed description, including equations, of the Johann-type X-ray emission spectrometer which has been recently installed and tested at the Rossendorf beamline (ROBL) of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The spectrometer consists of a single spherically bent crystal analyzer and an avalanche photodiode detector positioned on the vertical Rowland cycle of 1 m diameter. The hard X-ray emission spectrometer (∼3.5-25 keV) operates at atmospheric pressure and covers the Bragg angles of 65°-89°. The instrument has been tested at high and intermediate incident energies, i.e. at the Zr K-edge and at the Au L3-edge, in the second experimental hutch of ROBL. The spectrometer is dedicated for studying actinides in materials and environmental samples by high-energy-resolution X-ray absorption and X-ray emission spectroscopies.

  15. ELIMED: MEDICAL APPLICATION AT ELI-BEAMLINES. STATUS OF THE COLLABORATION AND FIRST RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Schillaci

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ELI-Beamlines is one of the four pillars of the ELI (Extreme Light Infrastructure pan-European project. It will be an ultrahigh-intensity, high repetition-rate, femtosecond laser facility whose main goal is to generate and apply high-brightness X-ray sources and accelerated charged particles. In particular, medical applications are treated by the ELIMED task force, which has been launched by collaboration between ELI and INFN researchers. ELIMED aims to demonstrate the clinical applicability of laser accelerated ions. In this article, the state of the ELIMED project and the first scientific results are reported. The design and realisation of a preliminary beam handling system and of an advanced spectrometer for diagnostics of high energy (multi-MeV laser-accelerated ion beams will also be briefly presented.

  16. Low-dose, high-resolution and high-efficiency ptychography at STXM beamline of SSRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zijian; Wang, Chunpeng; Liu, Haigang; Tao, Xulei; Tai, Renzhong

    2017-06-01

    Ptychography is a diffraction-based X-ray microscopy method that can image extended samples quantitatively while remove the resolution limit imposed by image-forming optical elements. As a natural extension of scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) imaging method, we developed soft X-ray ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging (PCDI) method at the STXM endstation of BL08U beamline of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Compared to the traditional STXM imaging, the new PCDI method has resulted in significantly lower dose, higher resolution and higher efficiency imaging in our platform. In the demonstration experiments shown here, a spatial resolution of sub-10 nm was obtained for a gold nanowires sample, which is much better than the limit resolution 30 nm of the STXM method, while the radiation dose is only 1/12 of STXM.

  17. Beamline 9.3.2 - a high-resolution, bend-magnet beamline with circular polarization capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moler, E.J.; Hussain, Z.; Howells, M.R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.3.2 is a high resolution, SGM beamline on an ALS bending magnet with access to photon energies from 30-1500 eV. Features include circular polarization capability, a rotating chamber platform that allows switching between experiments without breaking vacuum, an active feedback system that keeps the beam centered on the entrance slit of the monochromator, and a bendable refocusing mirror. The beamline optics consist of horizontally and vertically focussing mirrors, a Spherical Grating Monochromator (SGM) with movable entrance and exit slits, and a bendable refocussing mirror. In addition, a movable aperature has been installed just upstream of the vertically focussing mirror which can select the x-rays above or below the plane of the synchrotron storage ring, allowing the user to select circularly or linearly polarized light. Circularly polarized x-rays are used to study the magnetic properties of materials. Beamline 9.3.2 can supply left and right circularly polarized x-rays by a computer controlled aperture which may be placed above or below the plane of the synchrotron storage ring. The degree of linear and circular polarization has been measured and calibrated.

  18. Monte Carlo simulation for the transport beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, F.; Cuttone, G.; Jia, S. B.; Varisano, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Attili, A.; Marchetto, F.; Russo, G. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy); Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics Czech Academy of Science, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Carpinelli, M. [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Tramontana, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy)

    2013-07-26

    In the framework of the ELIMED project, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are widely used to study the physical transport of charged particles generated by laser-target interactions and to preliminarily evaluate fluence and dose distributions. An energy selection system and the experimental setup for the TARANIS laser facility in Belfast (UK) have been already simulated with the GEANT4 (GEometry ANd Tracking) MC toolkit. Preliminary results are reported here. Future developments are planned to implement a MC based 3D treatment planning in order to optimize shots number and dose delivery.

  19. A new method to suppress high-order harmonics for a synchrotron radiation soft X-ray beamline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhi-Ying; Xing, Hai-Ying; Hong, Cai-Hao; Tang, Kun; Han, Yong; Chen, Dong-Liang; Zhao, Yi-Dong

    2015-04-01

    A feasible and convenient method is proposed to suppress higher-harmonics for a varied-line-spacing plane grating monochromator in the soft X-ray region. Related calculations and experiments demonstrate that decreasing the included angle slightly by changing the parameter of the exit arm length can significantly improve light purity. This method is suitable and has been used for experiments of detector calibration in beamline 4B7B at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375227, 61204008)

  20. The At-Wavelength Metrology Facility at BESSY-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Schäfers

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The At-Wavelength Metrology Facility at BESSY-II is dedicated to short-term characterization of novel UV, EUV and XUV optical elements, such as diffraction gratings, mirrors, multilayers and nano-optical devices like reflection zone plates. It consists of an Optics Beamline PM-1 and a Reflectometer in a clean-room hutch as a fixed end station. The bending magnet Beamline is a Plane Grating Monochromator beamline (c-PGM equipped with an SX700 monochromator. The beamline is specially tailored for efficient high-order suppression and stray light reduction. The versatile 11-axes UHV-Reflectometer can house life-sized optical elements, which are fully adjustable and of which the reflection properties can be measured in the full incidence angular range as well as in the full azimuthal angular range to determine polarization properties.

  1. Monochromator development at 4W1B beamline of BSRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yaning; Yan, Y.; Hu, T. D.; Liu, T.; Xian, D. C.

    2001-07-01

    The 4W1B is a X-ray monochromator beamline for XAFS at BSRF. During the upgrading phase, we have redesigned the monochromator to improve the performance of the beamline. It is a goniometer based, fixed exit double crystal monochromator. A mechanical linkage is employed to adjust the distance between the surfaces of the two crystals as the Bragg angle is changed to keep the outgoing beam direction constant. The whole mechanism is driven by only one stepping motor. The testing result shows that over the scanning range of 5-30°, the shift of outgoing beam position is less then 70 μm in the vertical direction. The basic principle, the mechanical realization, and the error analysis are discussed in detail. The performance and the testing results are also presented in this paper.

  2. Advances on the Brazilian toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavasso Filho, R.L. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, Box 6192, Campinas, SP 13084-971 (Brazil); Homem, M.G.P. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, Box 6192, Campinas, SP 13084-971 (Brazil); Landers, R. [Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin' , Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Box 6165, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); Naves de Brito, A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, Box 6192, Campinas, SP 13084-971 (Brazil)]. E-mail: arnaldo@lnls.br

    2005-06-15

    We report on an important advance for the vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray TGM beamline at Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS). This beamline provides photons in the energy range 12-330 eV using three gratings. It is well known that TGMs deliver relatively high flux at these energies but harmonic contamination can be a serious problem. Of special interest for the users is the range between 12 and 21 eV covered by one of the gratings for studies of outer and inner valence ionization processes in gases as well as solids. Here, we report a solution to the harmonic contamination problems based on a noble gas phase filter combined with thin metal foil barriers.

  3. Elliptical multipole wiggler beamlines at the advanced photon source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beno, M.A. E-mail: beno@anl.gov; Kurtz, C.; Munkholm, A.; Ruett, U.; Engbretson, M.; Jennings, G.; Linton, J.; Knapp, G.S.; Montano, P.A

    2001-07-21

    The Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotron Radiation Center Collaborative Access Team has built three independent beamlines, which simultaneously utilize the X-ray radiation from an elliptical multipole wiggler, located at Sector 11 of the Advanced Photon Source. This insertion device produces circularly polarized X-rays on-axis and linearly polarized X-rays above and below the ring plane. The lower linearly polarized radiation is used in the monochromatic 11ID-D station for scattering and spectroscopy experiments in the 5-40 keV range. The on-axis circularly polarized photons are used for magnetic Compton scattering experiments in the 11ID-B station. The upper linearly polarized radiation is utilized by the high-energy diffraction station, 11ID-C. We report here on the beamline optics and experimental station equipment.

  4. Successful test of SPS-to-LHC beamline

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    On 23 October there was great excitement in the Prevessin control room when, on the first attempt, a beam passed over 2.5 km down the new SPS-to-LHC transfer line, TI8, to within a few metres of the LHC tunnel. Members of the AB, AT and TS departments involved in the beamline and its test, celebrate their success with the Director General, Robert Aymar, and the LHC Project Leader, Lyn Evans.

  5. Successful test of SPS-to-LHC beamline

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 23 October there was great excitement in the Prevessin control room when, on the first attempt, a beam passed over 2.5 km down the new SPS-to-LHC transfer line, TI8, to within a few metres of the LHC tunnel. Above: members of the AB, AT and TS departments involved in the beamline and its test, celebrate their success with the Director General, Robert Aymar, and the LHC Project Leader, Lyn Evans.

  6. Surface science station of the infrared beamline at SPring-8

    CERN Document Server

    Sakurai, M; Kimura, H; Nishida, S; Nanba, T

    2001-01-01

    An experimental station for surface science has been constructed at the infrared beamline (BL43IR) of SPring-8, Japan. The station utilizes synchrotron radiation in the energy range of 100-20000 cm sup - sup 1 to perform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) of surfaces. It consists of an experimental section, a preparation chamber, gas handling equipment and a pair of focusing optics. In situ observation of vibrational spectra is possible using both IRAS and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy.

  7. Confining continuous manipulations of accelerator beam-line optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstutz, Ph.; Plath, T.; Ackermann, S.; Bödewadt, J.; Lechner, C.; Vogt, M.

    2017-04-01

    Altering the optics in one section of a linear accelerator beam line will in general cause an alteration of the optics in all downstream sections. In circular accelerators, changing the optical properties of any beam-line element will have an impact on the optical functions throughout the whole machine. In many cases, however, it is desirable to change the optics in a certain beam-line section without disturbing any other parts of the machine. Such a local optics manipulation can be achieved by adjusting a number of additional corrector magnets that restore the initial optics after the manipulated section. In that case, the effect of the manipulation is confined in the region between the manipulated and the correcting beam-line elements. Introducing a manipulation continuously, while the machine is operating, therefore requires continuous correction functions to be applied to the correcting quadrupole magnets. In this paper, we present an approach to calculate such continuous correction functions for six quadrupole magnets by means of a homotopy method. Besides a detailed derivation of the method, we present its application to an algebraic example, as well as its demonstration at the seeding experiment sFLASH at the free-electron laser FLASH located at DESY in Hamburg.

  8. New fast closing shutter for the PETRA III beamlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, U.; Hesse, M.; Müller, S.; Peters, H.-B.; Timmann, B.; Wengler, R.; Zink, H.

    2008-03-01

    The conversion of the PETRA storage ring at the Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY) to the third generation synchrotron radiation light source PETRAIII [1] poses a challenge to the design of the beamline transport system. One of these challenges is to supply 14 beamlines and experiments windowless with the extremely collimated undulator radiation from the storage ring. The windowless connection includes the risk of accidental venting of the storage ring by experiments connected to the beamlines. To stop the inrush of such an accidental venting fast closing shutter (FCS) systems with closing times in the 10msec range are mandatory. The strong radiation background in the storage ring tunnel requires the installation of all metal valves. A new small fast closing shutter with an aperture of 40mm fitting to the strong collimated undulator beams and with a closing time beam time losses for all users. The mechanical and electronic layouts as well as first experiences with the new fast closing shutter system developed for PETRAIII are presented.

  9. Performance of a novel VUV bending magnet beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Y F; Hsieh, T F; Huang, L R; Chung, S C; Cheng, N F; Hsiung, G Y; Wang, D J; Chen, C T; Tsang, K L

    2001-01-01

    A novel high resolution, high flux bending magnet beamline with an energy range from 5 to 40 eV has been constructed at SRRC. This Dragon-like beamline, which horizontally collects 50 mrad of synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet source, uses four cylindrical gratings with an included angle of 140 deg. and a movable curved exit slit. The average photon flux with an energy resolving power of 1000 is about 2x10 sup 1 sup 2 photons/s, which is among the highest of all existing VUV bending magnet beamlines. An energy resolving power of 24,000 at 6.8 eV has been obtained from the Schumann-Runge bands (B sup 3 limit construction operator in a limit construction/sum L: summation operator operator End lower limit of a limit construction u lower limit End limit End sup - /leftarrow/gets A: =leftward arrow X sup 3 limit construction operator in a limit construction/sum L: summation operator operator End lower limit of a limit construction g lower limit End limit End sup -) absorption spectra of O sub 2 gas. A pho...

  10. Pulsed beam tests at the SANAEM RFQ beamline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turemen, G.; Akgun, Y.; Alacakir, A.; Kilic, I.; Yasatekin, B.; Ergenlik, E.; Ogur, S.; Sunar, E.; Yildiz, V.; Ahiska, F.; Cicek, E.; Unel, G.

    2017-07-01

    A proton beamline consisting of an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source, two solenoid magnets, two steerer magnets and a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) is developed at the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority’s (TAEA) Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center (SNRTC-SANAEM) in Ankara. In Q4 of 2016, the RFQ was installed in the beamline. The high power tests of the RF power supply and the RF transmission line were done successfully. The high power RF conditioning of the RFQ was performed recently. The 13.56 MHz ICP source was tested in two different conditions, CW and pulsed. The characterization of the proton beam was done with ACCTs, Faraday cups and a pepper-pot emittance meter. Beam transverse emittance was measured in between the two solenoids of the LEBT. The measured beam is then reconstructed at the entrance of the RFQ by using computer simulations to determine the optimum solenoid currents for acceptance matching of the beam. This paper will introduce the pulsed beam test results at the SANAEM RFQ beamline. In addition, the high power RF conditioning of the RFQ will be discussed.

  11. Conceptual design of NBI beamline for VEST plasma heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T.S., E-mail: tskim@kaeri.re.kr; In, S.R.; Jeong, S.H.; Park, M.; Chang, D.H.; Jung, B.K.; Lee, K.W.

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • VEST NBI injector is conceptually designed to support further VEST plasma experiment. • VEST NBI injector composed of 2 sets of 20 keV/25A magnetic cusp type bucket ion source, neutralizer ducts, electrostatic ion dumps, NB vessel with cryopump, and rotating calorimerter. • The vacuum vessel of the beamline is divided into two parts for high injection efficiency and different direction (co- and counter-current) of neutral beam injection. • An ion source for the VEST NBI system was also designed to deliver neutral hydrogen beams with a power of 0.3 MW. The plasma generator of the VEST NB ion source has modified TFTR bucket multi-cusp chamber. The plasma generator has twelve hair-pin shaped tungsten filaments used as a cathode and an arc chamber including a bucket and an electron dump which serve as anode. The accelerator system consists of three grids, each having extraction area of 100 mm × 320 mm and 64 shaped slits of 3 mm spacing. • The preliminary structure design and the layout of the main components of the injector have been completed. Simulation and calculation for optimization of the NB beamline design results prove that the parameters of ion source, neutralization efficiency (76%:95% equilibrium neutralization efficiency), and beam power transmission efficiency (higher than 90%) are in agreement with design targets of the VEST NB beamline. • This VEST NBI system will provide a neutral beam of ∼0.6 MW for both heating and current drive in torus plasma. - Abstract: A 10 m s-pulsed NBI (Neutral Beam Injection) system for VEST (Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus) plasma heating is designed to provide a beam power of more than 0.6 MW with 20 keV H° neutrals. The VEST NBI injector is composed of 2 sets of 20 keV/25A magnetic cusp type bucket ion source, neutralizer ducts, residual ion dump, NB vessel with a cryopump, and rotating calorimeter. The position and size of these beamline components are roughly determined with geometric

  12. Strategies for in situ laser heating in the diamond anvil cell at an X-ray diffraction beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petitgirard, Sylvain, E-mail: sylvain.petitgirard@uni-bayreuth.de [ID27, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Bayerisches GeoInstitut (BGI), University of Bayreuth, 95444 Bayreuth (Germany); Salamat, Ashkan, E-mail: sylvain.petitgirard@uni-bayreuth.de [ID27, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Lyman Laboratory of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Beck, Pierre [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG), 414 rue de la Piscine, 38000 Grenoble (France); Weck, Gunnar [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA), DPTA, 91680 Bruyères le Châtel (France); Bouvier, Pierre [Laboratoire des Materiaux et du Genie Physique, CNRS, Grenoble Institute of Technology, 3 parvis Louis Neel, F-38016 Grenoble (France)

    2013-11-08

    An overview of several innovations regarding in situ laser-heating techniques in the diamond anvil cell at the high-pressure beamline ID27 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility is presented. An overview of several innovations regarding in situ laser-heating techniques in the diamond anvil cell at the high-pressure beamline ID27 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility is presented. Pyrometry measurements have been adapted to allow simultaneous double-sided temperature measurements with the installation of two additional online laser systems: a CO{sub 2} and a pulsed Nd:YAG laser system. This reiteration of laser-heating advancements at ID27 is designed to pave the way for a new generation of state-of-the-art experiments that demand the need for synchrotron diffraction techniques. Experimental examples are provided for each major development. The capabilities of the double pyrometer have been tested with the Nd:YAG continuous-wave lasers but also in a time-resolved configuration using the nanosecond-pulsed Nd:YAG laser on a Fe sample up to 180 GPa and 2900 K. The combination of time-resolved X-ray diffraction with in situ CO{sub 2} laser heating is shown with the crystallization of a high-pressure phase of the naturally found pyrite mineral MnS{sub 2} (11 GPa, 1100–1650 K)

  13. NIST high throughput variable kinetic energy hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, C., E-mail: cweiland@bnl.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Rumaiz, A.K. [National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Lysaght, P. [SEMATECH, 257 Fuller Road, Albany, NY 12203 (United States); Karlin, B.; Woicik, J.C.; Fischer, D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •High throughput HAPXES beamline provides beam energies between 2.1 and 6 keV. •Recent results in depth profiling of materials for next-generation CMOS. •Facility ideal or measurement of energy level alignment at buried interfaces. •Approved beamline NSLS II will provide wider energy range and X-ray flux. -- Abstract: We present an overview of the National Institute of Standards and Technology beamline X24A at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Lab and recent work performed at the facility. The beamline is equipped for HAXPES measurements, with an energy range from 2.1 to 6 keV with Si(1 1 1) crystals. Recent measurements performed at the beamline include non-destructive depth dependent variable kinetic energy measurements of dielectric and semiconductor films and interfaces for microelectronics applications, band alignment at buried interfaces, and the electronic structure of bulk-like materials. The design and operation of the current beamline will be discussed, as well as the future NIST beamline at NSLS II.

  14. The EIS beamline at the seeded free-electron laser FERMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoncig, A.; Mincigrucci, R.; Principi, E.; Bencivenga, F.; Calvi, A.; Foglia, L.; Kurdi, G.; Raimondi, L.; Manfredda, M.; Mahne, N.; Gobessi, R.; Gerusina, S.; Fava, C.; Zangrando, M.; Matruglio, A.; Dal Zilio, S.; Masciotti, V.; Masciovecchio, C.

    2017-05-01

    Among the fourth-generation light sources, the Italian free-electron laser (FEL) FERMI is the only one operating in the high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) seeding mode. FERMI delivers pulses characterized by a quasi transform limited temporal structure, photon energies lying in the extreme ultra-violet (EUV) region, supreme transversal and longitudinal coherences, high peak brilliance, and full control of the polarization. Such state of the art performances recently opened the doors to a new class of time-resolved spectroscopies, difficult or even impossible to be performed using self-amplified spontaneous sources (SASE) light sources. FERMI is currently equipped with three operating beamlines opened to external users (DiProI, LDM and EIS), while two more are under commissioning (MagneDYN and TeraFERMI). Here, we present the recent highlights of the EIS (Elastic and Inelastic Scattering) beamline, which has been purposely designed to take full advantage from the coherence, the intensity, the harmonics content, and the temporal duration of the pulses. EIS is a flexible experimental facility for time-resolved EUV scattering experiments on condensed matter systems, consisting of two independent end-stations. The first one (EIS-TIMEX) aims to study materials in metastable and warm dense matter (WDM) conditions, while the second end-station (EIS-TIMER) is fully oriented to the extension of four-wave mixing (FWM) spectroscopies towards the EUV spectral regions, trying to reveal the behavior of matter in portions of the mesoscopic regime of exchanged momentum impossible to be probed using conventional light sources.

  15. The macromolecular crystallography beamline I911-3 at the MAX IV laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ursby, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.ursby@maxlab.lu.se; Unge, Johan; Appio, Roberto [Lund University, POB 118, Lund SE-221 00 (Sweden); Logan, Derek T. [Lund University, POB 124, Lund SE-221 00 (Sweden); Fredslund, Folmer; Svensson, Christer; Larsson, Krister; Labrador, Ana [Lund University, POB 118, Lund SE-221 00 (Sweden); Thunnissen, Marjolein M. G. M. [Lund University, POB 124, Lund SE-221 00 (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    The updated macromolecular crystallography beamline I911-3 at the MAX II storage ring is described. The macromolecular crystallography beamline I911-3, part of the Cassiopeia/I911 suite of beamlines, is based on a superconducting wiggler at the MAX II ring of the MAX IV Laboratory in Lund, Sweden. The beamline is energy-tunable within a range between 6 and 18 keV. I911-3 opened for users in 2005. In 2010–2011 the experimental station was completely rebuilt and refurbished such that it has become a state-of-the-art experimental station with better possibilities for rapid throughput, crystal screening and work with smaller samples. This paper describes the complete I911-3 beamline and how it is embedded in the Cassiopeia suite of beamlines.

  16. Advanced light source vacuum policy and vacuum guidelines for beamlines and experiment endstations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Z.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to: (1) Explain the ALS vacuum policy and specifications for beamlines and experiment endstations. (2) Provide guidelines related to ALS vacuum policy to assist in designing beamlines which are in accordance with ALS vacuum policy. This document supersedes LSBL-116. The Advanced Light Source is a third generation synchrotron radiation source whose beam lifetime depends on the quality of the vacuum in the storage ring and the connecting beamlines. The storage ring and most of the beamlines share a common vacuum and are operated under ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) conditions. All endstations and beamline equipment must be operated so as to avoid contamination of beamline components, and must include proper safeguards to protect the storage ring vacuum from an accidental break in the beamline or endstation vacuum systems. The primary gas load during operation is due to thermal desorption and electron/photon induced desorption of contaminants from the interior of the vacuum vessel and its components. The desorption rates are considerably higher for hydrocarbon contamination, thus considerable emphasis is placed on eliminating these sources of contaminants. All vacuum components in a beamline and endstation must meet the ALS vacuum specifications. The vacuum design of both beamlines and endstations must be approved by the ALS Beamline Review Committee (BRC) before vacuum connections to the storage ring are made. The vacuum design is first checked during the Beamline Design Review (BDR) held before construction of the beamline equipment begins. Any deviation from the ALS vacuum specifications must be approved by the BRC prior to installation of the equipment on the ALS floor. Any modification that is incorporated into a vacuum assembly without the written approval of the BRC is done at the user`s risk and may lead to rejection of the whole assembly.

  17. Energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction beamline at Indus-2 synchrotron source

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K K Pandey; H K Poswal; A K Mishra; Abhilash Dwivedi; R Vasanthi; Nandini Garg; Surinder M Sharma

    2013-04-01

    An energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction beamline has been designed, developed and commissioned at BL-11 bending magnet port of the Indian synchrotron source, Indus-2. The performance of this beamline has been benchmarked by measuring diffraction patterns from various elemental metals and standard inorganic powdered samples. A few recent high-pressure investigations are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the beamline.

  18. Advanced light source vacuum policy and vacuum guidelines for beamlines and experiment endstations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Z.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to: (1) Explain the ALS vacuum policy and specifications for beamlines and experiment endstations. (2) Provide guidelines related to ALS vacuum policy to assist in designing beamlines which are in accordance with ALS vacuum policy. This document supersedes LSBL-116. The Advanced Light Source is a third generation synchrotron radiation source whose beam lifetime depends on the quality of the vacuum in the storage ring and the connecting beamlines. The storage ring and most of the beamlines share a common vacuum and are operated under ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) conditions. All endstations and beamline equipment must be operated so as to avoid contamination of beamline components, and must include proper safeguards to protect the storage ring vacuum from an accidental break in the beamline or endstation vacuum systems. The primary gas load during operation is due to thermal desorption and electron/photon induced desorption of contaminants from the interior of the vacuum vessel and its components. The desorption rates are considerably higher for hydrocarbon contamination, thus considerable emphasis is placed on eliminating these sources of contaminants. All vacuum components in a beamline and endstation must meet the ALS vacuum specifications. The vacuum design of both beamlines and endstations must be approved by the ALS Beamline Review Committee (BRC) before vacuum connections to the storage ring are made. The vacuum design is first checked during the Beamline Design Review (BDR) held before construction of the beamline equipment begins. Any deviation from the ALS vacuum specifications must be approved by the BRC prior to installation of the equipment on the ALS floor. Any modification that is incorporated into a vacuum assembly without the written approval of the BRC is done at the user`s risk and may lead to rejection of the whole assembly.

  19. Wavefront propagation through the beamline designed for seeding the DESY XUV FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Reininger, R; Gürtler, P; Bahrdt, J

    2001-01-01

    A beamline designed to reduce the spectral bandwidth of the DESY XUV FEL is described. The beamline is intended to cover the wavelength range from 6.4 to 50 nm with three variable line spacing gratings. A plane mirror in front of the grating is used to maintain constant magnification in the dispersion direction. The electric field generated by the first undulator at three wavelengths, 6.4, 13, and 25 nm, is propagated through the beamline. The results show that the beamline has the resolution and imaging properties required for seeding the second undulator at these wavelengths.

  20. HERMES: a soft X-ray beamline dedicated to X-ray microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkhou, Rachid; Stanescu, Stefan; Swaraj, Sufal; Besson, Adrien; Ledoux, Milena; Hajlaoui, Mahdi; Dalle, Didier

    2015-07-01

    The HERMES beamline (High Efficiency and Resolution beamline dedicated to X-ray Microscopy and Electron Spectroscopy), built at Synchrotron SOLEIL (Saint-Auban, France), is dedicated to soft X-ray microscopy. The beamline combines two complementary microscopy methods: XPEEM (X-ray Photo Emitted Electron Microscopy) and STXM (Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy) with an aim to reach spatial resolution below 20 nm and to fully exploit the local spectroscopic capabilities of the two microscopes. The availability of the two methods within the same beamline enables the users to select the appropriate approach to study their specific case in terms of sample environment, spectroscopy methods, probing depth etc. In this paper a general description of the beamline and its design are presented. The performance and specifications of the beamline will be reviewed in detail. Moreover, the article is aiming to demonstrate how the beamline performances have been specifically optimized to fulfill the specific requirements of a soft X-ray microscopy beamline in terms of flux, resolution, beam size etc. Special attention has been dedicated to overcome some limiting and hindering problems that are usually encountered on soft X-ray beamlines such as carbon contamination, thermal stability and spectral purity.

  1. MX1: a bending-magnet crystallography beamline serving both chemical and macromolecular crystallography communities at the Australian Synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowieson, Nathan Philip; Aragao, David; Clift, Mark; Ericsson, Daniel J.; Gee, Christine; Harrop, Stephen J.; Mudie, Nathan; Panjikar, Santosh; Price, Jason R.; Riboldi-Tunnicliffe, Alan; Williamson, Rachel; Caradoc-Davies, Tom, E-mail: tom.caradoc-davies@synchrotron.org.au [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia)

    2015-01-01

    The macromolecular crystallography beamline MX1 at the Australian Synchrotron is described. MX1 is a bending-magnet crystallography beamline at the 3 GeV Australian Synchrotron. The beamline delivers hard X-rays in the energy range from 8 to 18 keV to a focal spot at the sample position of 120 µm FWHM. The beamline endstation and ancillary equipment facilitate local and remote access for both chemical and biological macromolecular crystallography. Here, the design of the beamline and endstation are discussed. The beamline has enjoyed a full user program for the last seven years and scientific highlights from the user program are also presented.

  2. The BALDER Beamline at the MAX IV Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klementiev, K.; Norén, K.; Carlson, S.; Sigfridsson Clauss, K. G. V.; Persson, I.

    2016-05-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) includes well-established methods to study the local structure around the absorbing element - extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), and the effective oxidation number or to quantitatively determine the speciation of an element in a complex matrix - X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). The increased brilliance and intensities available at the new generation of synchrotron light sources makes it possible to study, in-situ and in-operando, much more dilute systems with relevance for natural systems, as well as the micro-scale variability and dynamics of chemical reactions on the millisecond time-scale. The design of the BALDER beamline at the MAX IV Laboratory 3 GeV ring has focused on a high flux of photons in a wide energy range, 2.4-40 keV, where the K-edge is covered for the elements S to La, and the L 3-edge for all elements heavier than Sb. The overall design of the beamline will allow large flexibility in energy range, beam size and data collection time. The other focus of the beamline design is the possibility to perform multi-technique analyses on samples. Development of sample environment requires focus on implementation of auxiliary methods in such a way that techniques like Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and/or mass spectrometry can be performed simultaneously as the XAS study. It will be a flexible system where different instruments can be plugged in and out depending on the needs for the particular investigation. Many research areas will benefit from the properties of the wiggler based light source and the capabilities to perform in-situ and in-operando measurements, for example environmental and geochemical sciences, nuclear chemistry, catalysis, materials sciences, and cultural heritage.

  3. Preliminary design of multi-function LIGA beamline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One design of multi-function LIGA beamline has been reported. In this design, two plane mirrors and a series of filters have been employed. One can choose the spectrum range of X-ray easily according to the exposure requirement by adjusting the grazing angle of mirrors and the thickness of filters. And the spot size in the horizontal direction is up to 120mm, which is large enough for exposing 5 inch silicon slice. The typical exposure time is about 1.2h, 1.8h, 0.5h, corresponding to PMMA thickness of 500 μ m, 200 μ m, 20 t m, respectively.

  4. Microfocusing at the PG1 beamline at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziarzhytski, Siarhei, E-mail: siarhei.dziarzhytski@desy.de [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22067 Hamburg (Germany); Gerasimova, Natalia [European XFEL GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Ring 19, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Goderich, Rene [University of South Florida (United States); Mey, Tobias [Laser Laboratorium Göttingen eV, Hans-Adolf-Krebs-Weg 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Reininger, Ruben [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Rübhausen, Michael [University of Hamburg and Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Siewert, Frank [Institute for Nanometre Optics and Technology at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin/BESSY II, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Weigelt, Holger; Brenner, Günter [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22067 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-01-01

    The Kirkpatrick–Baez (KB) refocusing mirrors unit at the PG1 beamline at FLASH has been newly designed, developed and fully commissioned. The vertical focal size of the KB optics is measured to be 5.8 ± 1 µm FWHM and the horizontal 6 ± 2 µm FWHM; astigmatism has been minimized to below 1 mm between waist positions. Such a tight focus is essential for the VUV double Raman spectrometer as it serves as an entrance slit for the first monochromator and defines its resolution to a very large extent. The Raman spectrometer is a permanent end-station at the PG1 beamline, dedicated to inelastic soft X-ray scattering experiments. The Kirkpatrick–Baez (KB) refocusing mirror system installed at the PG1 branch of the plane-grating monochromator beamline at the soft X-ray/XUV free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH) is designed to provide tight aberration-free focusing down to 4 µm × 6 µm full width at half-maximum (FWHM) on the sample. Such a focal spot size is mandatory to achieve ultimate resolution and to guarantee best performance of the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) off-axis parabolic double-monochromator Raman spectrometer permanently installed at the PG1 beamline as an experimental end-station. The vertical beam size on the sample of the Raman spectrometer, which operates without entrance slit, defines and limits the energy resolution of the instrument which has an unprecedented design value of 2 meV for photon energies below 70 eV and about 15 meV for higher energies up to 200 eV. In order to reach the designed focal spot size of 4 µm FWHM (vertically) and to hold the highest spectrometer resolution, special fully motorized in-vacuum manipulators for the KB mirror holders have been developed and the optics have been aligned employing wavefront-sensing techniques as well as ablative imprints analysis. Aberrations like astigmatism were minimized. In this article the design and layout of the KB mirror manipulators, the alignment procedure as well as microfocus

  5. The polariser beamline at TRIUMF for nuclear structure physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, A.; Pearson, M. R.; Levy, C. D. P.; Billowes, J.; Buchinger, F.; Chow, K. H.; Crawford, J. E.; Hossein, M. D.; Kiefl, R. F.; Macfarlane, W. A.; Mané, E.; Morris, G. D.; Parolin, T. J.; Saadaoui, H.; Salman, Z.; Shelbaya, O. T. J.; Smadella, M.; Song, Q.; Wang, D.

    2011-10-01

    Originally built to provide polarised ion beams for condensed matter experiments, the polariser beamline at TRIUMF is coupled to both beta-NMR and beta-NQR spectrometers. In addition, the beam can be passed through a radio-frequency quadrupole cooler and buncher (RFQ) providing bunched beams. Recently, a laser spectroscopy and beta-NQR program was started to investigate the ground state structure of exotic nuclei. Results from recent experiments including zero-field beta-NQR studies to determine the quadrupole moment of the halo nucleus Li-11 and laser spectroscopy to determine the charge radius of Rb-74.

  6. ROCK: the new Quick-EXAFS beamline at SOLEIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briois, V.; La Fontaine, C.; Belin, S.; Barthe, L.; Moreno, Th; Pinty, V.; Carcy, A.; Girardot, R.; Fonda, E.

    2016-05-01

    ROCK is a new beamline at SOLEIL dedicated to Quick-EXAFS measurements. The optical layout has been optimized to get full advantage of the monochromators, which were designed at SOLEIL and successfully used at SAMBA from 2009 to 2014. ROCK has started user operations since March 2015. It is mainly employed to monitor fast kinetic processes in materials used in catalysis and energy sciences. A review of the ROCK performances and capabilities is presented. The high automation achieved for fast change of monochromators, optimization of mirrors for harmonic rejection and detectors allows the simultaneous operando characterization of different chemical elements present in a material during the same reaction.

  7. Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) and Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE): Conceptual Design Report. Volume 3: Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility for DUNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strait, James [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); McCluskey, Elaine [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lundin, Tracy [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Willhite, Joshua [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Hamernik, Thomas [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Papadimitriou, Vaia [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Marchionni, Alberto [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kim, Min Jeong [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Frascati (Italy). National Lab. of Frascati (INFN-LNF); Nessi, Marzio [Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland); Montanari, David [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Heavey, Anne [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-01-21

    This volume of the LBNF/DUNE Conceptual Design Report covers the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility for DUNE and describes the LBNF Project, which includes design and construction of the beamline at Fermilab, the conventional facilities at both Fermilab and SURF, and the cryostat and cryogenics infrastructure required for the DUNE far detector.

  8. Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) and Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) Conceptual Design Report Volume 3: Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility for DUNE June 24, 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Strait, James; Lundin, Tracy; Willhite, Joshua; Hamernik, Thomas; Papadimitriou, Vaia; Marchionni, Alberto; Kim, Min Jeong; Nessi, Marzio; Montanari, David; Heavey, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This volume of the LBNF/DUNE Conceptual Design Report cover the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility for DUNE and describes the LBNF Project, which includes design and construction of the beamline at Fermilab, the conventional facilities at both Fermilab and SURF, and the cryostat and cryogenics infrastructure required for the DUNE far detector.

  9. Plastique: A synchrotron radiation beamline for time resolved fluorescence in the frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stasio, Gelsomina; Zema, N.; Antonangeli, F.; Savoia, A.; Parasassi, T.; Rosato, N.

    1991-06-01

    PLASTIQUE is the only synchrotron radiation beamline in the world that performs time resolved fluorescence experiments in frequency domain. These experiments are extremely valuable sources of information on the structure and dynamics of molecules. We describe the beamline and some initial data.

  10. CERN announces the fourth annual Beamline for Schools competition

    CERN Multimedia

    BL4S team

    2016-01-01

    CERN is pleased to announce the fourth annual Beamline for Schools (BL4S) competition. Once again, in 2017, a fully equipped beamline will be made available at CERN for students. As in previous years, two teams will be invited to the Laboratory to execute the experiments they proposed in their applications. The 2017 competition is being made possible thanks to support from the Alcoa Foundation for the second consecutive year.   The competition is open to teams of high-school students aged 16 or older who, if they win, are invited (with two supervisors) to CERN to carry out their experiment. Teams must have at least five students but there is no upper limit to a team’s size (although just nine students per winning team will be invited to CERN). Teams may be composed of pupils from a single school, or from a number of schools working together. As science-loving mega-celebrity Will.I.Am told us: “If you’re interested in science, technology, engineering or ...

  11. In situ beamline analysis and correction of active optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, John; Alcock, Simon; Sawhney, Kawal

    2012-11-01

    At the Diamond Light Source, pencil-beam measurements have enabled long-wavelength slope errors on X-ray mirror surfaces to be examined under ultra-high vacuum and beamline mounting without the need to remove the mirror from the beamline. For an active mirror an automated procedure has been implemented to calculate the actuator settings that optimize its figure. More recently, this in situ pencil-beam method has been applied to additional uses for which ex situ measurements would be inconvenient or simply impossible. First, it has been used to check the stability of the slope errors of several bimorph mirrors at intervals of several weeks or months. Then, it also proved useful for the adjustment of bender and sag compensation actuators on mechanically bent mirrors. Fits to the bending of ideal beams have been performed on the slope errors of a mechanically bent mirror in order to distinguish curvatures introduced by the bending actuators from gravitational distortion. Application of the optimization procedure to another mechanically bent mirror led to an improvement of its sag compensation mechanism.

  12. Design and implementation of a robust and cost-effective double-scattering system at a horizontal proton beamline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmbrecht, S.; Baumann, M.; Enghardt, W.; Fiedler, F.; Krause, M.; Lühr, A.

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: particle therapy has the potential to improve radiooncology. With more and more facilities coming into operation, also the interest for research at proton beams increases. Though many centers provide beam at an experimental room, some of them do not feature a device for radiation field shaping, a so called nozzle. Therefore, a robust and cost-effective double-scattering system for horizontal proton beamlines has been designed and implemented. Materials and methods: the nozzle is based on the double scattering technique. Two lead scatterers, an aluminum ridge-filter and two brass collimators were optimized in a simulation study to form a laterally homogeneous 10 cm × 10 cm field with a spread-out Bragg-peak (SOBP). The parts were mainly manufactured using 3D printing techniques and the system was set up at OncoRay's experimental beamline. Measurement of the radiation field were carried out using a water phantom. Results: high levels of dose homogeneity were found in lateral (dose variation ΔD/D design let it appear as a valuable option for proton therapy centers intending to foster their experimental portfolio.

  13. A Project to Design and Build the Magnets for a New Test Beamline, the ATF2, at KEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Cherrill M.; /slac; Sugahara, Ryuhei; Masuzawa, Mika; /KEK, Tsukuba; Bolzon, Benoit; Jeremie, Andrea; /Annecy, LAPP

    2011-02-07

    In order to achieve the high luminosity required at the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC), it is critical to focus the beams to nanometer size with the ILC Beam Delivery System, and to maintain the beams collisions with a nanometer-scale stability. To establish the technologies associated with this ultra-high precision beam handling, a special beamline has been designed and built as an extension of the existing extraction beamline of the Accelerator Test Facility at KEK, Japan. The ATF provides an adequate ultra-low emittance electron beam that is comparable to the ILC requirements; the ATF2 mimics the ILC final focus system to create a tightly focused, stable beam. There are 37 magnets in the ATF2, 29 quadrupoles, 5 sextupoles and 3 bends. These magnets had to be acquired in a short time and at minimum cost, which led to various acquisition strategies; but nevertheless they had to meet strict requirements on integrated strength, physical dimensions, compatibility with existing magnet movers and beam position monitors, mechanical stability and field stability and quality. This paper will describe how 2 styles of quadrupoles, 2 styles of sextupoles, one dipole style and their supports were designed, fabricated, refurbished or modified, measured and aligned by a small team of engineers from 3 continents.

  14. End-to-End Key Exchange through Disjoint Paths in P2P Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daouda Ahmat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their inherent features, P2P networks have proven to be effective in the exchange of data between autonomous peers. Unfortunately, these networks are subject to various security threats that cannot be addressed readily since traditional security infrastructures, which are centralized, cannot be applied to them. Furthermore, communication reliability across the Internet is threatened by various attacks, including usurpation of identity, eavesdropping or traffic modification. Thus, in order to overcome these security issues and allow peers to securely exchange data, we propose a new key management scheme over P2P networks. Our approach introduces a new method that enables a secret key exchange through disjoint paths in the absence of a trusted central coordination point which would be required in traditional centralized security systems.

  15. Integration of DST's for non-conflicting end-to-end flight scheduling Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR effort we propose an innovative approach for the integration of Decision Support Tools (DSTs) for increased situational awareness, improved cooperative...

  16. IMS Intra- and Inter Domain End-to-End Resilience Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamyod, Chayapol; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluated resilience of the reference IMS based network topology in operation through the keys reliability parameters via OPNET. The reliability behaviors of communication within similar and across registered home IMS domains were simulated and compared. Besides, the reliability effects...

  17. Multi-hop Relaying: An End-to-End Delay Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas

    2015-12-01

    The impact of multi-hopping schemes on the communication latency in a relay channel is studied. The main aim is to characterize conditions under which such schemes decrease the communication latency given a reliability requirement. Both decode-forward (DF) and amplify-forward (AF) with block coding are considered, and are compared with the point-to-point (P2P) scheme which ignores the relay. Latency expressions for the three schemes are derived, and conditions under which DF and AF reduce latency are obtained for high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Interestingly, these conditions are more strict when compared to the conditions under which the same multi-hopping schemes achieve higher long-term (information-theoretic) rates than P2P. It turns out that the relation between the sourcedestination SNR and the harmonic mean of the SNR’s of the channels to and from the relay dictates whether multi-hopping reduces latency or not.

  18. Comparison of Reconstruction and Control algorithms on the ESO end-to-end simulator OCTOPUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montilla, I.; Béchet, C.; Lelouarn, M.; Correia, C.; Tallon, M.; Reyes, M.; Thiébaut, É.

    Extremely Large Telescopes are very challenging concerning their Adaptive Optics requirements. Their diameters, the specifications demanded by the science for which they are being designed for, and the planned use of Extreme Adaptive Optics systems, imply a huge increment in the number of degrees of freedom in the deformable mirrors. It is necessary to study new reconstruction algorithms to implement the real time control in Adaptive Optics at the required speed. We have studied the performance, applied to the case of the European ELT, of three different algorithms: the matrix-vector multiplication (MVM) algorithm, considered as a reference; the Fractal Iterative Method (FrIM); and the Fourier Transform Reconstructor (FTR). The algorithms have been tested on ESO's OCTOPUS software, which simulates the atmosphere, the deformable mirror, the sensor and the closed-loop control. The MVM is the default reconstruction and control method implemented in OCTOPUS, but it scales in O(N2) operations per loop so it is not considered as a fast algorithm for wave-front reconstruction and control on an Extremely Large Telescope. The two other methods are the fast algorithms studied in the E-ELT Design Study. The performance, as well as their response in the presence of noise and with various atmospheric conditions, has been compared using a Single Conjugate Adaptive Optics configuration for a 42 m diameter ELT, with a total amount of 5402 actuators. Those comparisons made on a common simulator allow to enhance the pros and cons of the various methods, and give us a better understanding of the type of reconstruction algorithm that an ELT demands.

  19. End-to-End Concurrent Multipath Transfer Using Transport Layer Multihoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    http://www.kame.net. [3] CAIDA : Packet Sizes and Sequencing, Mar 1998. http://traffic.caida.org. [4] H. Adiseshu, G. Parulkar, and G. Varghese. A...Flow Control. Technical report, Cooperative Association for Internet Data Analysis ( CAIDA ), February 2004. [59] H. Sivakumar, S. Bailey, and R. Grossman

  20. Improving End-To-End Tsunami Warning for Risk Reduction on Canada’s West Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Water based examples include: sea kayaking and canoeing; snorkeling and scuba diving; whale watching; wind and regular board surfing, and marine smal...Provisions requiring the mandatory distribution of emergency alert messages. Broadcasting Regulatory Policy CRTC 2014-444 and Broadcasting Orders...compiled from Legal Surveys Division’s cadastral datasets and survey records archived in the Canada Lands Survey Records. Provincial Offshore Oil and

  1. End-to-End Verification of Information-Flow Security for C and Assembly Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    interchangeably with security. Security is desirable in today’s real-world software. Hack- ers often exploit software bugs to obtain information...communication between processes is disabled. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Sec. 2 intro - duces the observation function and shows how

  2. End-to-end integrated security and performance analysis on the DEGAS Choreographer platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Mikael; Gilmore, Stephen; Haenel, Valentin

    2005-01-01

    with the analysers of the calculi, and the results of the analysis are reflected back into a modified version of the input UML model. The design platform supporting the methodology, Choreographer, interoperates with state-of-the-art UML modelling tools. We illustrate the approach with a well known protocol...... and report on the experience of industrial users who have applied Choreographer in their development work....

  3. Development of an End-to-End Active Debris Removal (ADR) Mission Strategic Plan Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Since the majority of the potential ADR targets are large (>meters) upper stages and payloads between 800 and 1100 km altitude, they are relatively bright, with...

  4. From End to End: tRNA Editing at 5'- and 3'-Terminal Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betat, Heike; Long, Yicheng; Jackman, Jane E.; Mörl, Mario

    2014-01-01

    During maturation, tRNA molecules undergo a series of individual processing steps, ranging from exo- and endonucleolytic trimming reactions at their 5'- and 3'-ends, specific base modifications and intron removal to the addition of the conserved 3'-terminal CCA sequence. Especially in mitochondria, this plethora of processing steps is completed by various editing events, where base identities at internal positions are changed and/or nucleotides at 5'- and 3'-ends are replaced or incorporated. In this review, we will focus predominantly on the latter reactions, where a growing number of cases indicate that these editing events represent a rather frequent and widespread phenomenon. While the mechanistic basis for 5'- and 3'-end editing differs dramatically, both reactions represent an absolute requirement for generating a functional tRNA. Current in vivo and in vitro model systems support a scenario in which these highly specific maturation reactions might have evolved out of ancient promiscuous RNA polymerization or quality control systems. PMID:25535083

  5. From End to End: tRNA Editing at 5'- and 3'-Terminal Positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Betat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During maturation, tRNA molecules undergo a series of individual processing steps, ranging from exo- and endonucleolytic trimming reactions at their 5'- and 3'-ends, specific base modifications and intron removal to the addition of the conserved 3'-terminal CCA sequence. Especially in mitochondria, this plethora of processing steps is completed by various editing events, where base identities at internal positions are changed and/or nucleotides at 5'- and 3'-ends are replaced or incorporated. In this review, we will focus predominantly on the latter reactions, where a growing number of cases indicate that these editing events represent a rather frequent and widespread phenomenon. While the mechanistic basis for 5'- and 3'-end editing differs dramatically, both reactions represent an absolute requirement for generating a functional tRNA. Current in vivo and in vitro model systems support a scenario in which these highly specific maturation reactions might have evolved out of ancient promiscuous RNA polymerization or quality control systems.

  6. Telephony Over IP: A QoS Measurement-Based End to End Control Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Alcuri

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for admitting voice calls in Telephony over IP (ToIP scenarios. This method, called QoS-Weighted CAC, aims to guarantee Quality of Service to telephony applications. We use a measurement-based call admission control algorithm, which detects network congested links through a feedback on overall link utilization. This feedback is based on the measures of packet delivery latencies related to voice over IP connections at the edges of the transport network. In this way we introduce a close loop control method, which is able to auto-adapt the quality margin on the basis of network load and specific service level requirements. Moreover we evaluate the difference in performance achieved by different Queue management configurations to guarantee Quality of Service to telephony applications, in which our goal was to evaluate the weight of edge router queue configuration in complex and real-like telephony over IP scenario. We want to compare many well-know queue scheduling algorithms, such as SFQ, WRR, RR, WIRR, and Priority. This comparison aims to locate queue schedulers in a more general control scheme context where different elements such as DiffServ marking and Admission control algorithms contribute to the overall Quality of Service required by real-time voice conversations. By means of software simulations we want to compare this solution with other call admission methods already described in scientific literature in order to locate this proposed method in a more general control scheme context. On the basis of the results we try to evidence the possible advantages of this QoS-Weighted solution in comparison with other similar CAC solutions ( in particular Measured Sum, Bandwidth Equivalent with Hoeffding Bounds, and Simple Measure CAC, on the planes of complexity, stability, management, tune-ability to service level requirements, and compatibility with actual network implementation.

  7. SecMon: End-to-End Quality and Security Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Ciszkowski, Tomasz; Fiedler, Markus; Kotulski, Zbigniew; Lupu, Radu; Mazurczyk, Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    The Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is becoming a more available and popular way of communicating for Internet users. This also applies to Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems and merging these two have already proven to be successful (e.g. Skype). Even the existing standards of VoIP provide an assurance of security and Quality of Service (QoS), however, these features are usually optional and supported by limited number of implementations. As a result, the lack of mandatory and widely applicable QoS and security guaranties makes the contemporary VoIP systems vulnerable to attacks and network disturbances. In this paper we are facing these issues and propose the SecMon system, which simultaneously provides a lightweight security mechanism and improves quality parameters of the call. SecMon is intended specially for VoIP service over P2P networks and its main advantage is that it provides authentication, data integrity services, adaptive QoS and (D)DoS attack detection. Moreover, the SecMon approach represents a low...

  8. HIDE & SEEK: End-to-End Packages to Simulate and Process Radio Survey Data

    CERN Document Server

    Akeret, Joel; Chang, Chihway; Monstein, Christian; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    As several large radio surveys begin operation within the coming decade, a wealth of radio data will become available and provide a new window to the Universe. In order to fully exploit the potential of these data sets, it is important to understand the systematic effects associated with the instrument and the analysis pipeline. A common approach to tackle this is to forward-model the entire system - from the hardware to the analysis of the data products. For this purpose, we introduce two newly developed, open-source Python packages: the HI Data Emulator (HIDE) and the Signal Extraction and Emission Kartographer (SEEK) for simulating and processing radio survey data. HIDE forward-models the process of collecting astronomical radio signals in a single dish radio telescope instrument and outputs pixel-level time-ordered-data. SEEK processes the time-ordered-data, removes artifacts from Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), automatically applies flux calibration, and aims to recover the astronomical radio signal....

  9. Composable Mission Framework for Rapid End-to-End Mission Design and Simulation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here is the Composable Mission Framework (CMF)?a model-based software framework that shall enable seamless continuity of mission design and...

  10. End-to-end Encryption for SMS Messages in the Health Care Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassinen, Marko; Laitinen, Pertti

    2005-01-01

    The health care domain has a high level of expectation on security and privacy of patient information. The security, privacy, and confidentiality issues are consistent all over the domain. Technical development and increasing use of mobile phones has led us to a situation in which SMS messages are used in the electronic interactions between health care professionals and patients. We will show that it is possible to send, receive and store text messages securely with a mobile phone with no additional hardware required. More importantly we will show that it is possible to obtain a reliable user authentication in systems using text message communication. Programming language Java is used for realization of our goals. This paper describes the general application structure, while details for the technical implementation and encryption methods are described in the referenced articles. We also propose some crucial areas where the implementation of encrypted SMS can solve previous lack of security.

  11. Network Slicing in Industry 4.0 Applications: Abstraction Methods and End-to-End Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmy Jessen; Popovski, Petar; Kalør, Anders Ellersgaard

    2017-01-01

    Industry 4.0 refers to the fourth industrial revolution, and introduces modern communication and computation technologies such as 5G, cloud computing and Internet of Things to industrial manufacturing systems. As a result, many devices, machines and applications will rely on connectivity, while...... having different requirements from the network, ranging from high reliability and low latency to high data rates. Furthermore, these industrial networks will be highly heterogeneous as they will feature a number of diverse communication technologies. In this article, we propose network slicing...... as a mechanism to handle the diverse set of requirements to the network. We present methods for slicing deterministic and packet-switched industrial communication protocols at an abstraction level which is decoupled from the specific implementation of the underlying technologies, and hence simplifies the slicing...

  12. An autonomic joint radio resource management algorithm in end-to-end reconfigurable system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Yuewei; Le yanbien; Xue Yuan; Feng Zhiyong; Zhang Yongjing

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the multi-step Q-learning (MQL) algorithm as an autonomic approach to the joint radio resource management (JRRM) among heterogeneous radio access technologies (RATs) in the B3G environment.Through the "trial-and-error" on-line learning process, the JRRM controller can converge to the optimized admission control policy.The JRRM controller learns to give the best allocation for each session in terms of both the access RAT and the service bandwidth.Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm realizes the autonomy of JRRM and achieves well trade-off between the spectrum utility and the blocking probability comparing to the load-balancing algorithm and the utility-maximizing algorithm.Besides, the proposed algorithm has better online performances and convergence speed than the one-step Q-learning (QL) algorithm.Therefore, the user statisfaction degree could be improved also.

  13. Intelligent end-to-end resource virtualization using Service Oriented Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onur, E.; Sfakianakis, E.; Papagianni, C.; Karagiannis, G.; Kontos, T.; Niemegeers, I.; Chochliouros, I.; Heemstra de Groot, S.; Sjödin, P.; Hidell, M.; Cinkler, T.; Maliosz, M.; Kaklamani, D.I.; Carapinha, J.; Belesioti, M.; Futrps, E.

    2009-01-01

    Service-oriented architecture can be considered as a philosophy or paradigm in organizing and utilizing services and capabilities that may be under the control of different ownership domains. Virtualization provides abstraction and isolation of lower level functionalities, enabling portability of hi

  14. Architecting end-to-end convergence of Web and Telco services

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas, Gérard; Sbata, Karim; Najm, Elie

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Over the last few years, significant evolutions such as the mobile phones' enhanced Web-browsing capabilities and the technical incursion of Web major players into the Telco world (e.g. Google, Facebook) have reduced the gap between Telecom and Web worlds. In this context, converging IMS or Internet Protocol Multimedia Subsystem and Web service platforms has become a key challenge that needs to be addressed by both Web and telecom players. Several interesting solutions...

  15. Websocket Enabler: achieving IMS and Web services end-to-end convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas, Gérard; Sbata, Karim; Najm, Elie

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Over the last few years, significant evolutions such as the mobile phones' enhanced web-browsing capabilities and the technical incursion of Web major players into the Telco world (e.g. Google, Facebook) have reduced the gap between Telecom and Web worlds. In this context, converging IMS and Web service platforms has become a key challenge that needs to be addressed by both Web and Telecom players. Several interesting solutions, illustrating different convergence appro...

  16. Assessing Natural Product-Drug Interactions: An End-to-End Safety Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Amy L; Paine, Mary F; Gurley, Bill J; Brouwer, Kenneth R; Jordan, Scott; Griffiths, James C

    2016-04-01

    The use of natural products (NPs), including herbal medicines and other dietary supplements, by North Americans continues to increase across all age groups. This population has access to conventional medications, with significant polypharmacy observed in older adults. Thus, the safety of the interactions between multi-ingredient NPs and drugs is a topic of paramount importance. Considerations such as history of safe use, literature data from animal toxicity and human clinical studies, and NP constituent characterization would provide guidance on whether to assess NP-drug interactions experimentally. The literature is replete with reports of various NP extracts and constituents as potent inhibitors of drug metabolizing enzymes, and transporters. However, without standard methods for NP characterization or in vitro testing, extrapolating these reports to clinically-relevant NP-drug interactions is difficult. This lack of a clear definition of risk precludes clinicians and consumers from making informed decisions about the safety of taking NPs with conventional medications. A framework is needed that describes an integrated robust approach for assessing NP-drug interactions; and, translation of the data into formulation alterations, dose adjustment, labelling, and/or post-marketing surveillance strategies. A session was held at the 41st Annual Summer Meeting of the Toxicology Forum in Colorado Springs, CO, to highlight the challenges and critical components that should be included in a framework approach.

  17. An Algorithm for End-to-End Performance Analysis of Network Based on Traffic Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Huailiang; Zhang Xin; Wang Dong; Xu Guohua

    2003-01-01

    Based on traffic engineering, the network topology is described with network graph. An algorithm for the derivation of data communication capability in network links and the analysis of connectivity performance between node pairs is given through standardized transformation of the original descriptive matrix for the link performance, and resolution of transitive closure for adjacent-incident matrix of network in view of randomness of network events, which provides a feasible way for analysis and improvement of network performance

  18. Hardware Support for Malware Defense and End-to-End Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    virtual machines. For mobile platforms we developed and prototyped an architecture supporting separation of personalities on the same platform ...prototype motivated additional requirements for the virtual Trusted Platform Module (vTPM) and led to a new vTPM implementation (tpm server cuse...machines running on Linux/KVM on Power (Open-POWER platform ). This implies that virtual machines are protected from a potentially compromised Linux

  19. Improved sample filtering method for measuring end-to-end path capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-wei; TANG Jun-long; ZHANG Da-fang; XIE Gao-gang

    2007-01-01

    By analyzing the effect of cross traffic (CT) enforced on packet delay, an improved path capacity measurement method,pcapminp algorithm, was proposed. With this method, path capacity was measured by filtering probe samples based on measured minimum packet-pair delay. The measurability of minimum packet-pair delay was also analyzed by simulation. The results show that,when comparing with pathrate, ifthe CT load is light, both pcapminp and pathrate have similar accuracy; but in the case of heavy CT load, pcapminp is more accurate than Pathrate. When CT load reaches 90%, pcapminp algorithm has only 5% measurement error,which is 10% lower than that of pathrate algorithm. At any CT load levels, the probe cost of pcapminp algorithm is two magnitudes smaller than that of pathrate, and the measurement duration is one magnitude shorter than that of pathrate algorithm.

  20. End-to-End Network QoS via Scheduling of Flexible Resource Reservation Requests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S.; Katramatos, D.; Yu, D.

    2011-11-14

    Modern data-intensive applications move vast amounts of data between multiple locations around the world. To enable predictable and reliable data transfer, next generation networks allow such applications to reserve network resources for exclusive use. In this paper, we solve an important problem (called SMR3) to accommodate multiple and concurrent network reservation requests between a pair of end-sites. Given the varying availability of bandwidth within the network, our goal is to accommodate as many reservation requests as possible while minimizing the total time needed to complete the data transfers. We first prove that SMR3 is an NP-hard problem. Then we solve it by developing a polynomial-time heuristic, called RRA. The RRA algorithm hinges on an efficient mechanism to accommodate large number of requests by minimizing the bandwidth wastage. Finally, via numerical results, we show that RRA constructs schedules that accommodate significantly larger number of requests compared to other, seemingly efficient, heuristics.