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Sample records for facilities area sewage

  1. Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark R. Cole

    2013-12-01

    The Central Facilities Area (CFA), located in Butte County, Idaho, at the Idaho National Laboratory has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non-contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell #1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell #2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell #3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5-acre land application site that uses a center-pivot irrigation sprinkler system. As flows at CFA have decreased in recent years, the amount of wastewater discharged to the land application site has decreased from 13.64 million gallons in 2004 to no discharge in 2012 and 2013. In addition to the decreasing need for land application, approximately 7.7 MG of supplemental water was added to the system in 2013 to maintain a water level and prevent the clay soil liners in the cells from drying out and “cracking.” The Idaho National Laboratory is concerned that the sewage lagoons and land application site may be oversized for current and future flows. A further concern is the sustainability of the large volumes of supplemental water that are added to the system according to current operational practices. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the system capacity, operational practices, and potential improvement alternatives, as warranted.

  2. Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesbrecht, Alan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The Central Facilities Area (CFA) located in Butte County, Idaho at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell 1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell 2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell 3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5 acre land application site that utilizes a center pivot irrigation sprinkler system. The purpose of this current study is to update the analysis and conclusions of the December 2013 study. In this current study, the new seepage rate and influent flow rate data have been used to update the calculations, model, and analysis.

  3. Operation and Maintenance Manual for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norm Stanley

    2011-02-01

    This Operation and Maintenance Manual lists operator and management responsibilities, permit standards, general operating procedures, maintenance requirements and monitoring methods for the Sewage Treatment Plant at the Central Facilities Area at the Idaho National Laboratory. The manual is required by the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000141-03) the sewage treatment plant.

  4. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This renewal application for a Recycled Water Reuse Permit is being submitted in accordance with the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.17 “Recycled Water Rules” and the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit LA-000141-03 for continuing the operation of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant located at the Idaho National Laboratory. The permit expires March 16, 2015. The permit requires a renewal application to be submitted six months prior to the expiration date of the existing permit. For the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant, the renewal application must be submitted by September 16, 2014. The information in this application is consistent with the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater and discussions with Idaho Department of Environmental Quality personnel.

  5. 2010 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

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    Mike lewis

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2009, through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2010 permit year, approximately 2.2 million gallons of treated wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area at Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment plant.

  6. 2012 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2011, through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of compliance conditions and activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2012 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant.

  7. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Closure of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and Land Application Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael G.

    2016-09-23

    This quality assurance project plan describes the technical requirements and quality assurance activities of the environmental data collection/analyses operations to close Central Facilities Area Sewage treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and the land application area. It describes the organization and persons involved, the data quality objectives, the analytical procedures, and the specific quality control measures to be employed. All quality assurance project plan activities are implemented to determine whether the results of the sampling and monitoring performed are of the right type, quantity, and quality to satisfy the requirements for closing Lagoon 3 and the land application area.

  8. 2011 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael G. Lewis

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2010, through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Site description; (2) Facility and system description; (3) Permit required monitoring data and loading rates; (4) Status of special compliance conditions and activities; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 permit year, approximately 1.22 million gallons of treated wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area at Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment plant.

  9. 2015 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2014, through October 31, 2015.

  10. 2013 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2012, through October 31, 2013. The report contains, as applicable, the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of compliance conditions and activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2013 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant and therefore, no effluent flow volumes or samples were collected from wastewater sampling point WW-014102. However, soil samples were collected in October from soil monitoring unit SU-014101.

  11. Field Sampling Plan for Closure of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and Land Application Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael George [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-10-01

    This field sampling plan describes sampling of the soil/liner of Lagoon 3 at the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant. The lagoon is to be closed, and samples obtained from the soil/liner will provide information to determine if Lagoon 3 and the land application area can be closed in a manner that renders it safe to human health and the environment. Samples collected under this field sampling plan will be compared to Idaho National Laboratory background soil concentrations. If the concentrations of constituents of concern exceed the background level, they will be compared to Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act preliminary remediation goals and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels. If the concentrations of constituents of concern are lower than the background levels, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels, or the preliminary remediation goals, then Lagoon 3 and the land application area will be closed. If the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels and/or the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act preliminary remediation goals are exceeded, additional sampling and action may be required.

  12. 2014 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2013, through October 31, 2014. The report contains, as applicable, the following information; Site description; Facility and system description; Permit required monitoring data and loading rates; Status of compliance conditions and activities; and Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. The current permit expires on March 16, 2015. A permit renewal application was submitted to Idaho Department of Environmental Quality on September 15, 2014. During the 2014 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant and therefore, no effluent flow volumes or samples were collected from wastewater sampling point WW-014102. Seepage testing of the three lagoons was performed between August 26, 2014 and September 22, 2014. Seepage rates from Lagoons 1 and 2 were below the 0.25 inches/day requirement; however, Lagoon 3 was above the 0.25 inches/day. Lagoon 3 has been isolated and is being evaluated for future use or permanent removal from service.

  13. 300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

  14. Lagoon Seepage Testing Report for Central Facilities Area (CFA) Sewage Lagoons at Idaho National Laboratory, Butte County, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Bridger [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    J-U-B ENGINEERS, Inc. (J-U-B) performed seepage tests on the CFA Wastewater Lagoons 1, 2, and 3 between August 26th and September 22nd, 2014. The lagoons were tested to satisfy the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) Rules (IDAPA 58.01.16) that require all lagoons be tested at a frequency of every 10 years and the Compliance Activity CA-141-03 in the DEQ Wastewater Reuse Permit for the CFA Sewage Treatment Plant (LA-000141-03). The lagoons were tested to determine if the average seepage rates are less than 0.25 in/day, the maximum seepage rate allowed for lagoons built prior to April 15, 2007. The average seepage rates were estimated for each lagoon and are given in Table-ES1. The average seepage rates for Lagoons 1 and 2 are less than the allowable seepage rate of 0.25 in/day. Lagoon 1 and 2 passed the seepage test and will not have to be tested again until the year 20241. However, the average seepage rate for Lagoon 3 appears to exceed the allowable seepage rate of 0.25 in/day which means the potential source for the excessive leakage should be investigated further.

  15. Aperture area measurement facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST has established an absolute aperture area measurement facility for circular and near-circular apertures use in radiometric instruments. The facility consists of...

  16. Study of Cyclospora cayetanensis in health care facilities, sewage water and green leafy vegetables in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherchand, J B; Cross, J H; Jimba, M; Sherchand, S; Shrestha, M P

    1999-03-01

    Cyclospora cayetanensis, a newly emerging parasite, is endemic in Nepal. A total of 2,123 stool specimens were collected from 3 health care facilities based on clinical symptoms during the period between 1995 to October, 1998. Out of these specimens, cayetanensis oocysts were found in 632 (29.8%). To identify possible sources for Cyclospora infection, drinking water, sewage water, green-leafy vegetables including fecal samples of various animals were collected and examined. The vegetable leaves were washed in distilled water then the washings, sewage water and drinking water were centrifuged and the sediment were examined microscopically. As a result, oocyst of Cyclospora were identified in sewage water and vegetable washings on four different occasions in June, August, October and November. The positive results were also confirmed as C. cayetanensis by development of 2 sporocysts after 2 week incubation period in potassium dichromate. A survey of 196 domestic animals from the same areas demonstrated that two chickens were positive for Cyclospora-like organism and others were negative. Although further studies are needed to clarify the direct link between Cyclospora infection and these sources, the results suggest that sewage water, green leafy vegetables are possible sources of infection and chickens could be possible reservoir host of Cyclospora in Nepal.

  17. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations for the 600 Area facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-08-01

    This document determines the need for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans for Westinghouse Hanford Company's 600 Area facilities on the Hanford Site. The Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations were prepared in accordance with A Guide For Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans (WHC 1991). Five major Westinghouse Hanford Company facilities in the 600 Area were evaluated: the Purge Water Storage Facility, 212-N, -P, and -R Facilities, the 616 Facility, and the 213-J K Storage Vaults. Of the five major facilities evaluated in the 600 Area, none will require preparation of a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan.

  18. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV Operations Office

    1999-05-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense. The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of CAS 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon, located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Area 25 Sewage Lagoons (Figure 1-2) (IT, 1999b) are located approximately 0.3 mi south of the Test Cell 'C' (TCC) Facility and were used for the discharge of sanitary effluent from the TCC facility. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 232 or the sewage lagoons.

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE/NV

    1999-05-01

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the U. S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of Corrective Action Site 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon. Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, received sanitary effluent from four buildings within the Test Cell ''C'' Facility from the mid-1960s through approximately 1996. The Test Cell ''C'' Facility was used to develop nuclear propulsion technology by conducting nuclear test reactor studies. Based on the site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, herbicides, gamma emitting radionuclides, isotopic plutonium, isotopic uranium, and strontium-90. A detailed conceptual site model is presented in Section 3.0 and Appendix A of this Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The conceptual model serves as the basis for the sampling strategy. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Field work will be conducted following approval of the plan. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the Corrective Action Decision Document.

  20. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Tobiason

    2001-07-01

    This Closure Report (CR) describes the remediation activities performed and the results of verification sampling conducted at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230, Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and CAU 320, Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box. The CAU is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). The CAU is located in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1) and consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 22-03-01- Sewage Lagoon (CAU 230); and 22-99-01- Strainer Box (CAU 320). Included with CAS 22-99-01 is a buried Imhoff tank and a sludge bed. These CAUs will be collectively referred to in this plan as the Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site. Site characterization activities were done during September 1999. Characterization of the manholes associated with the septic system leading to the Imhoff tank was done during March 2000. The results of the characterization presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) indicated that only the sludge bed (CAS 22-99-01) contained constituents of concern (COC) above action levels and required remediation (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 2000a).

  1. H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application sites groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    During first quarter 1995, samples from monitoring wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were analyzed for constituents required by SCDHEC Construction Permit 13,173. H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) samples were analyzed for constituents required by SCDHEC Construction Permit 12,076. All samples are also analyzed as requested for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permits. The only constituent that exceeded the SCDHEC final Primary Drinking Water Standard in any well was lead which was found in wells HSS 3D and PSS 3D. Aluminum and iron were above Flag 2 criteria in one or more wells in the three sites during first quarter 1995.

  2. CHARM Facility Test Area Radiation Field Description

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Specification document summarising the radiation field of the CHARM facility test area. This will act as a guide to any potential users of the facility as to what they can expect in terms of radiation, given in the form of radiation spectra information and fluence for each test position, along with general radiation maps for the test area and Montrac test location.

  3. 400 Area/Fast Flux Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 400 Area at Hanford is home primarily to the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), a DOE-owned, formerly operating, 400-megawatt (thermal) liquid-metal (sodium)-cooled...

  4. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Air port Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-06-10

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operation Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230/320 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 230 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; while CAU 320 consists of CAS 22-99-01, Strainer Box. These CAUs are referred to as CAU 230/320 or the Sewage Lagoons Site. The Sewage Lagoons Site also includes an Imhoff tank, sludge bed, and associated buried sewer piping. Located in Area 22, the site was used between 1951 to 1958 for disposal of sanitary sewage effluent from the historic Camp Desert Rock Facility at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada. Based on site history, the contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and radionuclides. Vertical migration is estimated to be less than 12 feet below ground surface, and lateral migration is limited to the soil immediately adjacent to or within areas of concern. The proposed investigation will involve a combination of field screening for VOCs and TPH using the direct-push method and excavation using a backhoe to gather soil samples for analysis. Gamma spectroscopy will also be conducted for waste management purposes. Sampling locations will be biased to suspected worst-case areas including the nearby sludge bed, sewage lagoon inlet(s) and outlet(s), disturbed soil surrounding the lagoons, surface drainage channel south of the lagoons, and the area near the Imhoff tank. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  5. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US DOE/Nevada Operations Office

    1999-06-10

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operation Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230/320 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 230 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; while CAU 320 consists of CAS 22-99-01, Strainer Box. These CAUs are referred to as CAU 230/320 or the Sewage Lagoons Site. The Sewage Lagoons Site also includes an Imhoff tank, sludge bed, and associated buried sewer piping. Located in Area 22, the site was used between 1951 to 1958 for disposal of sanitary sewage effluent from the historic Camp Desert Rock Facility at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada. Based on site history, the contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and radionuclides. Vertical migration is estimated to be less than 12 feet below ground surface, and lateral migration is limited to the soil immediately adjacent to or within areas of concern. The proposed investigation will involve a combination of field screening for VOCs and TPH using the direct-push method and excavation using a backhoe to gather soil samples for analysis. Gamma spectroscopy will also be conducted for waste management purposes. Sampling locations will be biased to suspected worst-case areas including the nearby sludge bed, sewage lagoon inlet(s) and outlet(s), disturbed soil surrounding the lagoons, surface drainage channel south of the lagoons, and the area near the Imhoff tank. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  6. Real-time estimation of small-area populations with human biomarkers in sewage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daughton, Christian G., E-mail: daughton.christian@epa.gov

    2012-01-01

    A new approach is conceptualized for measuring small-area human populations by using biomarkers in sewage. The basis for the concept (SCIM: Sewage Chemical-Information Mining) is supported by a comprehensive examination and synthesis of data published across several disciplines, including medicine, microbiology, clinical chemistry, and environmental science. Accurate measures of human populations are fundamental to numerous disciplines, including economics, marketing, politics, sociology, public health and safety (e.g., disease management; assessment of natural hazards; disaster prevention and response), quality of life, and the environment. Knowing the size, distribution, and flow of a small-area (local) population facilitates understanding the numerous and complex linkages and interactions between humans and the environment. Examples include material-flow (substance-flow) analysis, determining the magnitude of per capita contribution of pollutant loadings to watersheds, or forecasting future impacts of local populations on the environment or a population's demands on resources. While no definitive approach exists for measuring small-area populations, census-taking is a long-established convention. No approach exists, however, for gauging small-area populations in real-time, as none is able to capture population dynamics, which involve transient changes (e.g., daily influx and efflux) and lasting changes (e.g., births, deaths, change in residence). Accurate measurement of small-area populations in real time has never been possible but is essential for facilitating the design of more sustainable communities. Real-time measurement would provide communities the capability of testing what-if scenarios in design and policy decisions. After evaluation of a range of biomarkers (including the nitrogenous waste product creatinine, which has been long used in clinical chemistry as a parameter to normalize the concentrations of other urinary excretion products to

  7. Comparative study of heavy metals in "soil-wheat" systems between sewage-irrigated areas and clean-water-irrigated areas in suburban Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ye; Han, Sha-Sha; Chen, Zhi-Fan; Liu, Jing; Hu, Honq-Xia

    2015-01-01

    After years of irrigating farmland with wastewater, concern is increasing about health risks from heavy metals contaminating wheat grown in sewage-irrigated soils in suburban areas of Beijing, China. The study discussed in this article aimed to compare the characteristics of heavy metal distribution in a sewage-irrigated "soil-wheat" system with those from a clean-water-irrigated area by collecting and analyzing samples from both areas. The results indicated that the average concentrations of copper, chromium, lead, and zinc in sewage-irrigated soil were higher than the values in the clean-water-irrigated region. Irrigation with wastewater could lead to increased bioconcentration factors. Therefore, issues of food contamination caused by sewage irrigation deserve more attention.

  8. Facile synthesis of sewage sludge-derived in-situ multi-doped nanoporous carbon material for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shi-Jie; Dai, Xiao-Hu

    2016-06-01

    Developing efficient, low-cost, and stable carbon-based catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to replace the expensive platinum-based electrocatalysts remains a major challenge that hamper the practical application of fuel cells. Here, we report that N, Fe, and S co-doped nanoporous carbon material, derived via a facile one-step pyrolysis of sewage sludge, the major byproduct of wastewater treatment, can serve as an effective electrocatalyst for ORR. Except for the comparable catalytic activity with commercial 20% Pt/C via a nearly four-electron transfer pathway in both alkaline and acid medium, the as-synthesized co-doped electrocatalyst also exhibits excellent methanol crossover resistance and outstanding long-term operation stability. The organic compounds in sewage sludge act as the carbon source and the in-situ N and S dopant in the fabrication, while the inorganic compounds serve as the in-built template and the in-situ Fe dopant. Our protocol demonstrates a new approach in the economic and eco-friendly benign reuse of sewage sludge, and also provides a straightforward route for synthesizing excellent carbon-based electrocatalysts as promising candidates for ORR directly from a type of waste/pollution.

  9. Evaluation of treated sewage reuse potential and membrane-based water reuse technology for the Bangkok Metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Prasertkulsak, Sirilak; Hamjinda, Nutta Sangnarin; Kootatep, Thammarat; Itonaga, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Only 3.4% of total water use in the Bangkok Metropolitan area is reused treated sewage. This study anticipates that further treated-sewage reuse in industrial sectors, commercial buildings and public parks, in addition to present in-plant and street cleaning purposes, would increase total water reuse to about 10%. New water reuse technologies using membrane bioreactor (MBR) and microfiltration (MF) as tertiary treatment were implemented to assess their potential for their application in the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MBR was applied to the treatment of raw sewage in a central treatment plant of the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MF membrane was used for polishing the effluent of the treatment plant. The results show the quality of treated water from MBR and tertiary MF treatment could meet stringent water reuse quality standard in terms of biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids and biological parameters. Constant permeate flux of the membrane was achieved over long-term operation, during which inorganic fouling was observed. This is due to the fact that incoming sewage contains a considerable amount of inorganic constituents contributed from storm water and street inlet in the combined sewerage systems. The total cost of the MBR for sewage treatment and production of reuse water is estimated to be about USD1.10/m3.

  10. Distributed architecture and distributed processing mode in urban sewage treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruipeng; Yang, Yuanming

    2017-05-01

    Decentralized rural sewage treatment facility over the broad area, a larger operation and management difficult, based on the analysis of rural sewage treatment model based on the response to these challenges, we describe the principle, structure and function in networking technology and network communications technology as the core of distributed remote monitoring system, through the application of case analysis to explore remote monitoring system features in a decentralized rural sewage treatment facilities in the daily operation and management. Practice shows that the remote monitoring system to provide technical support for the long-term operation and effective supervision of the facilities, and reduced operating, maintenance and supervision costs for development.

  11. [Matching study on treatment of sewage from highway service area by ecological soil system in Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Yang, Zhi-Min; He, Juan

    2011-04-01

    The osmotic coefficient by clear water and sewage, static adsorption, dynamic and water penetration tests were conducted to determine the parameters, which including materials matching, hydraulic loading, and wet to dry ratio, in the treatment of sewage from highway service area (SHSA) in Chongqing by ecological soil system. The results showed that, according to principles of easier getting, high and stable hydraulic load, large decontamination capability, the materials matching of working layer SHSA was made of 30.67% soil, 61.33% sand and 8.00% cinder in Chongqing, and the supporting layer was consisted of 0.20 m cable and 0.10 m broken stone (height). The total height of the ecological soil system was 1.6 m, at which 1.00, 1.20, 1.40, 1.60 m department of hydraulic loading were 0.344, 0.322, 0.307, 0.298 m x d(-1), respectively. The flooding period of working layer was 1 d and the drying period 1.5 d, i. e, the ratio of wet to dry was 1:1.5.

  12. PCDD/F in sewage sludges from two waste water treatment facilities in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Pereira, M. de [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi (Brazil). Dept. de Geoquimica - Instituto de Quimica; Kuch, B. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserbau, Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft, Abt. Hydrochemie, Fakultaet fuer Bauingenieur- und Vermessungswesen

    2004-09-15

    In Brazil, up to now, there is no specific legislation regarding the maximum equivalent concentration levels of organochlorine compounds in especial polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) in sewage sludge/biocompost considered for agricultural use or final deposition in soils. Besides the great risk heavy metals pose to humans and environment, PCDD/PCDF are types of persistent environmental contaminants with enhanced toxicity and carcinogenic and bioaccumulating properties. To PCDD/F, the human exposure is primarily attributed to background contamination caused by diffuse contamination of these pollutants coming from different sources and subsequently biomagnification through the trophic chain. As alternative paths of the diffuse contamination with PCDD/F, the transport of these substances by air deposition, by residual waters from household, industrial processes as well as by laundry of products treated with contaminated chemicals and the microbial activity on chlorophenols are listed. Possible transference pathways of these compounds to humans would be both the uptake via contaminated crops and grazing livestock, coming from sludge-amended soils 11. Concerning PCDD/F, a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 1-4 pg I-TEQ/kg/day is recommended, according to the WHO/EURO standard guidelines, which would be exceeded if a persons diet came solely from land treated with sewage sludge containing high concentrations of PCDD/F. This work shows the results of a first study about the heavy metal, PCDD/PCDF content of sewage sludge coming from both an urban and a semi-agricultural area in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in comparison to results found in the region of Baden-Wuerttenberg, south Germany. The potential toxicity and probably sources related to these contaminants in Brazilian sewage sludge was also investigated.

  13. PCDD/F in sewage sludges from two waste water treatment facilities in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Pereira, M. de [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi (Brazil). Dept. de Geoquimica - Instituto de Quimica; Kuch, B. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserbau, Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft, Abt. Hydrochemie, Fakultaet fuer Bauingenieur- und Vermessungswesen

    2004-09-15

    In Brazil, up to now, there is no specific legislation regarding the maximum equivalent concentration levels of organochlorine compounds in especial polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) in sewage sludge/biocompost considered for agricultural use or final deposition in soils. Besides the great risk heavy metals pose to humans and environment, PCDD/PCDF are types of persistent environmental contaminants with enhanced toxicity and carcinogenic and bioaccumulating properties. To PCDD/F, the human exposure is primarily attributed to background contamination caused by diffuse contamination of these pollutants coming from different sources and subsequently biomagnification through the trophic chain. As alternative paths of the diffuse contamination with PCDD/F, the transport of these substances by air deposition, by residual waters from household, industrial processes as well as by laundry of products treated with contaminated chemicals and the microbial activity on chlorophenols are listed. Possible transference pathways of these compounds to humans would be both the uptake via contaminated crops and grazing livestock, coming from sludge-amended soils 11. Concerning PCDD/F, a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 1-4 pg I-TEQ/kg/day is recommended, according to the WHO/EURO standard guidelines, which would be exceeded if a persons diet came solely from land treated with sewage sludge containing high concentrations of PCDD/F. This work shows the results of a first study about the heavy metal, PCDD/PCDF content of sewage sludge coming from both an urban and a semi-agricultural area in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in comparison to results found in the region of Baden-Wuerttenberg, south Germany. The potential toxicity and probably sources related to these contaminants in Brazilian sewage sludge was also investigated.

  14. [Pollution characteristics and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides in groundwater at Xiaodian Sewage Irrigation Area, Taiyuan City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-le; Zhang, Cai-xiang; Wang, Yan-xin; Liao, Xiao-ping; Yao, Lin-lin; Liu, Min; Xu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Sewage irrigation has been widely used in areas of water shortage in northern China, and it may introduce organic contaminants into groundwater. To characterize the organic contaminants in groundwater in sewage irrigation area, the Xiaodian sewage irrigation area in Shanxi Province was chosen as the case study area. A total of 16 groundwater samples (13 from shallow aquifer, 3 from deep aquifer) were collected. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were ainalyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The results showed that the concentrations of PAHs ranged from 13.98 to 505.89 ng x L(-1) with an average concentration of 115.67 ng x (L)(-1). The 2 and 3 ring-PAHs were the main components, while naphthalene and phenanthrene were most frequently detected. The concentrations of OCPs were in the range of 13.91-103.23 ng x L(-1) with an average concentration of 40.99 ng x L(-1), while alpha-HCH, delta-HCH, o,p'-DDD, Aldrin, Endosulfan-sulfate and HCB were most frequently detected. Overall, shallow aquifers appeared more contaminated with these pollutants than deep aquifers. In the area, the order of the organic contaminants concentration in groundwater was: East Main Channel groundwater was influenced by the sewage irrigation.

  15. Effects of Sewage Sludges Contaminated with Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons on Sludge-Treated Areas (Soils and Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethel Eljarrat

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The fate of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in sewage sludges after different management techniques — such as agricultural application, land restoration, and marine disposal — was studied. Changes observed in the concentrations, in the ratio between PCDD and PCDF levels, and in the isomeric distribution suggest the influence of the sewage sludge on the sludge-treated areas (soils and sediments. Whereas land application techniques seem to produce no serious environmental consequences, marine disposal practices produce considerable increases in the levels of contamination in marine sediments.

  16. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-08-15

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  17. The contribution of pharmaceutically active compounds from healthcare facilities to a receiving sewage treatment plant in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleywegt, Sonya; Pileggi, Vince; Lam, Yuet Ming; Elises, Alan; Puddicomb, Aaron; Purba, Gurminder; Di Caro, Joanne; Fletcher, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations and percent loadings of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and other emerging contaminants released from healthcare facilities (2 hospitals and a long-term care facility) to a sewage treatment plant (STP) in a large urban sewershed were evaluated. An additional hospital outside the sewershed was also monitored. Fourteen of the 24 steroids/hormones and 88 of the 117 PhACs and emerging contaminants were detected at least once. Commonly used substances, including cotinine, caffeine and its metabolite 1,7-dimethylxanthine, ibuprofen and naproxen (analgesics), venlafaxine (antidepressant), and N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (insect repellant), were detected in all samples at all sites. Concentrations detected in the large specialty hospital outside the sewershed were similar to those within the sewershed. Cytotoxic drugs (tamoxifen and cyclophosphamide) and x-ray contrast media (iopamidol and diatrizoic acid) were infrequently detected in hospital effluents. Analysis for antibiotics indicated that azithromycin, clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, ofloxacin, and sulfamethoxazole were consistently detected in hospital wastewaters, as was triclosan (antibacterial agent). Fifteen compounds individually contributed greater than 1% to the total PhAC and emerging contaminant load to the STP from the 2 hospitals in the sewershed, and 9 compounds in the STP effluent exceeded ecotoxicological criteria. The present survey demonstrates that point source discharges from healthcare facilities in this sewershed make a small contribution to the overall PhAC and emerging contaminant loading compared with the total concentrations entering the receiving STP.

  18. The source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the topsoil in Xiaodian sewage irrigation area, North of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Le; Wang, Yan-Xin; Zhang, Cai-Xiang; Dong, Yi-Hui; Du, Bin; Liao, Xiao-Ping

    2014-12-01

    31 topsoil samples were collected by grid method in Xiaodian sewage irrigation area, Taiyuan City, North of China. The concentrations of 16 kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrum. Generally speaking, the distribution order of PAHs in the area is: those with five and six rings > those with four rings > those with two and three rings. Source apportionment shows a significant zonation of the source of PAHs: the civil coal pollution occurred in the north part, the local and far factory pollution happened in the middle area and the mixed pollution sources from coal and wood combustion, automotive emission, presented in the south area. The distribution of PAHs has a definite relationship with the sewage water flow and soil adsorption. The related coefficient between PAHs and physicochemical property showed there was a negative correlation between pH, silt, clay and PAHs while there was a positive correlation between total organic carbon, sand and PAHs.

  19. Rural sewage treatment processing in Yongjia County, Zhejiang Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. H.; Kuan, T. H.

    2016-08-01

    Issues regarding water pollution in rural areas of China have garnered increased attention over the years. Further discussion on the circumstances and results of existing domestic sewage treatment methods may serve as an appropriate reference in solving these important issues. This article explored the current conditions of water contamination in rural areas of China, introduced the characteristics and effects of applicable sewage treatment technology, and summarized the results of the planning, installation, and operation of rural sewage treatment facilities in Yongjia County in Zhejiang Province. However, relying on a single technical design rule is not adequate for solving the practical problems that these villages face. Instead, methods of planning rural sewage treatment should be adapted to better suit local conditions and different residential forms. It is crucial, ultimately, for any domestic sewage treatment system in a rural area to be commissioned, engineered, and maintained by a market-oriented professional company.

  20. Removal of antibiotics from wastewater by sewage treatment facilities in Hong Kong and Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkowska, A; Leung, H W; So, M K; Taniyasu, S; Yamashita, N; Yeung, Leo W Y; Richardson, Bruce J; Lei, A P; Giesy, J P; Lam, Paul K S

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of nine antibiotics [erythromycin-H(2)O (ERY-H(2)O); trimethoprim (TMP); tetracycline (TET); norfloxacin (NOR); penicillin G (PEN G); penicillin V (PEN V); cefalexin (CLX); cefotaxim (CTX); and cefazolin (CFZ)] were measured in influent and effluent samples from four sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Hong Kong as well as in influent samples from one STP in Shenzhen. Levels of PEN V and CFZ were below method detection limits in all of the samples analyzed. CLX concentrations were the highest in most of the Hong Kong samples, ranging from 670 to 2900 ng/L and 240 to 1800 ng/L in influent and effluent samples, respectively, but CLX was not detected in the samples from Shenzhen. Comparatively lower concentrations were observed for ERY-H(2)O (470-810 ng/L) and TET (96-1300 ng/L) in the influent samples from all STPs in Hong Kong. CTX was found to be the dominant antibiotic in the Shenzhen STP influents with a mean concentration of 1100 ng/L, but occurred at lower concentrations in Hong Kong sewage. These results likely reflect regional variations in the prescription and use patterns of antibiotics between Hong Kong and Shenzhen. Antibiotic removal efficiencies depended on their chemical properties and the wastewater treatment processes used. In general, relatively higher removal efficiencies were observed for NOR (5-78%) and TET (7-73%), which are readily adsorbed to particulate matter, while lower removal efficiencies were observed for ERY-H(2)O (9-19%), which is relatively persistent in the environment. Antibiotics were removed more efficiently at Hong Kong STPs employing secondary treatment processes compared with those using primary treatment only. Concentrations of NOR measured in effluents from STPs in Hong Kong were lower than the predicted no-effect concentration of 8000 ng/L determined in a previous study. Therefore, concentrations of antibiotics measured in this preliminary study would be unlikely to cause adverse effects on microorganisms used

  1. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public.

  2. Areas permitted for irrigation, storage, evaporation, and disposal of treated sewage effluent in the upper Carson River Basin, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of areas permitted for irrigation, storage, evaporation, and disposal of treated sewage effluent in the Upper Carson River Basin, California...

  3. State Wildlife Management Area Public Facilities - points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This point theme contains facilities and features for WMAs that are best represented as points. WMAs are part of the Minnesota state recreation system created to...

  4. State Wildlife Management Area Public Facilities - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This line theme contains facilities and features for WMAs that are best represented as lines. WMAs are part of the Minnesota state recreation system created to...

  5. Total system hazards analysis for the western area demilitarization facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, R.; Mniszewski, K.; Swider, E.

    1984-08-01

    The results of a hazards analysis of the Western Area Demilitarization facility (WADF) at Hawthorne, Nevada are summarized. An overview of the WADF systems, the hazards analysis methodology that was applied, a general discussion of the fault tree analysis results, and a compilation of the conclusions and recommendations for each area of the facility are given.

  6. Long-term impact of municipal sewage irrigation on treated soil and black locust trees in a semi-arid suburban area of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masoud Tabari; Azadeh Salehi

    2009-01-01

    The effects of municipal sewage irrigation on the soil and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) trees were studied. For this purpose, two artificial black locust stands under irrigation of municipal sewage and well water were selected in south of Tehran, Iran. Data were collected using technique of systematic random sampling with 4 replicates in either of both stands. It was found that growth of black locust trees, as indicated by diameter at breast height, total height, crown length, average crown diameter, basal area and volume, in sewage irrigation stand was much higher than that of well water irrigation stand (P < 0.01). Plant analysis indicated that concentrations of leaf nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) were greater in sewage-irrigated trees, with no toxicity to the minerals of tree leaf, than those of well water-irrigated trees, and positively correlated with their respective value in soil. Ni, Cr and Pb were not detected in leaf samples. Application of sewage resulted in a 1.5-fold increase in the concentrations of soil nutrients, Ni, Cr and Pb. Among these minerals only Pb and Ni in some soil samples exceeded the toxicity limit. The increase in pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and organic carbon of soil was also observed in sewage irrigation. Results confirm that besides use as irrigation water, municipal sewages are also a potential source of plant nutrients. However, significant accumulation of heavy metals such as Pb and Ni in soil needs to be monitored.

  7. Technical Applicability for Decentralized Sewage Treatment in Rural Areas%农村分散式污水处理的适宜技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨利伟; 黄延琳; 周岳溪; 王海燕; 梁娟

    2011-01-01

    在比较国内外现有的分散式处理技术的优缺点的基础上,结合现阶段我国农村水污染现状和水污染特征,分析了如何因地制宜地选择适宜技术,重点分析了农村分散式污水处理源头分离技术的优点及必要性,同时介绍了蚯蚓生态滤池、人工湿地、地下渗滤系统和滴滤池及一体化处理设备等分散污水处理技术的适用特点,为今后在我国农村推广稳定高效的分散式污水处理设施提供必要的技术参考.%Based on the comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of the distributed processing technology in domestic and abroad, and combining with nowadays the present situation and characteristic of the water pollution in rural areas of our country, problem as how to choose the appropriate technology according to local conditions was expounded. And the advantage and necessity of the source separation of decentralized sewage treatment in rural ureas was highlighted. At the same time, the applicable features for decentralized sewage treatment, which was consisted of earthworm filter bed, constructed wetlands, subsurface infiltration system and trickling filter and the integration of processing equipment were discussed. The results may serve as an effective technical reference for promoting stable and efficient decentralized treatment facilities in the future.

  8. 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Hazards Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL, L.R.

    1999-01-15

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of emergency planning activities for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The technical basis for project-specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  9. Biological and chemical evaluation of sewage water pollution in the Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberholster, P.J. [CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)], E-mail: anna.oberholster@up.ac.za; Botha, A.-M. [Department of Genetics, University of Pretoria, Hillcrest, Pretoria ZA002 (South Africa); Cloete, T.E. [Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria, Hillcrest, Pretoria ZA002 (South Africa)

    2008-11-15

    Macroinvertebrate communities in Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area and their relationship with water quality were studied with the aim to evaluate their use as potential indicators of pollution. Sampling locations were selected to include outlets from swage effluent, agricultural and informal residential runoff. A large increase in nutrient concentrations was observed downstream from discharged treated sewage with an associated decrease in species richness. Bioassays performed included: Daphnia magna, Hydra attenuate, Lactuca sativa, Allium cepa and Pyxicephalus adspersus. The highest percentage of lethality response to a screen (100% concentration) of sampled wetland water by test specimens were observed at the point source input of the Hartbeespoort treated sewage plant. Data generated from the AUSRIVAS method and multitrophic level bioassays revealed the deterioration of the wetland possibly due to factors such as increasing urbanization, industrialization, agriculture runoff and rapid human settlement in the Hennops River catchment area and its principal tributaries. - Bioassays confirmed the degradation of a freshwater wetland system due to effluent from a variety of sources.

  10. 200 area effluent treatment facility opertaional test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, A.F.

    1995-10-26

    This document reports the results of the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (200 Area ETF) operational testing activities. These Operational testing activities demonstrated that the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area ETF have been met and identified open items which require retesting.

  11. Compilation of historical information of 300 Area facilities and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1992-12-01

    This document is a compilation of historical information of the 300 Area activities and facilities since the beginning. The 300 Area is shown as it looked in 1945, and also a more recent (1985) look at the 300 Area is provided.

  12. Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA). Power Systems Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situ, Cindy H.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides a detailed description of the Johnson Space Center's Power Systems Facility located in the Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA). Facilities and the resources used to support power and battery systems testing are also shown. The contents include: 1) Power Testing; 2) Power Test Equipment Capabilities Summary; 3) Source/Load; 4) Battery Facilities; 5) Battery Test Equipment Capabilities Summary; 6) Battery Testing; 7) Performance Test Equipment; 8) Battery Test Environments; 9) Battery Abuse Chambers; 10) Battery Abuse Capabilities; and 11) Battery Test Area Resources.

  13. Addendum to the composite analysis for the E-Area Vaults and Saltstone Disposal Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-03-13

    This report documents the composite analysis performed on the two active SRS low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility.

  14. Resilience of sewage services to climate change uncertainty: analysis of the management of sewer overflows in two Parisian suburban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioust, E.; Deroubaix, J. F.; Barroca, B.; Bonierbale, T.; de Gouvello, B.; Deutsch, J. C.; Hubert, G.

    2009-04-01

    This paper considers the resilience perspective as an approach for understanding social and political vulnerabilities of urban services. The authors examine to what extend uncertainty due to climate change may affect the resilience of these urban services. The resilience perspective is increasingly used for analysing social groups' capacities to adapt to and live with disturbances. A lot of work on resilience has focused on the capacity to absorb shocks and still maintain functions. But there is also another aspect of resilience, which leads to take into account systems vulnerabilities and to aim at understanding their equilibrium and re-organization capacity. The purpose with this paper is to assess sewage systems capacities to adapt to climate change. Indeed, climate change could cause an increase of extreme rain events and, as a matter of consequence, an increase of sewer overflows and flooding of urbanised areas. Sewer systems have to cope with this change that may gravely affect urban planning. In recent studies of political science, risk management has been considered as a public policy involving and resulting from complex social, political and technical processes (Gilbert et al. 2003). From this point of view, the management of wastewaters and storm waters has to be considered not only as a technical but also as a political and a social system. Therefore, political science can be a fruitful perspective to understand the stakeholders perceptions of uncertainty and the way they are going to integrate this issue in their practices. The authors analyse the adaptive capacities of two sewer systems located in the Parisian suburban area. The chosen areas are highly populated. Each network is managed within a political and administrative unit called "Département". Both authorities of these "Départements" implement a public sewage service. Nonetheless these networks are connected and part of the greater Paris sewage policy. In both areas a real time control of

  15. Research on Management Model of Sewage Treatment Facilities in Urban-rural Fringe of Beijing%北京市城乡结合部污水处理设施运行管理模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪元元; 王凤春; 马东春

    2011-01-01

    Based on the investigation of sewage treatment project in urban-rural fringe of Beijing,this study analyzed the current management situation and problems of sewage treatment facilities. Furthermore, the management mechanism of operation for sewage treatment facilities in urban-rural fringe was discussed. It can be concluded that the unified management model by establishing the "Administrative Bureau of Sewage Treatment Facilities" in the district and county level is a very effective way for sewage treatment in urban-rural fringe. And finally,some relative operation management policies were suggested.%基于对北京市城乡结合部污水处理工程示范村的调查研究,对该地区的污水处理设施运行管理现状和存在的问题进行科学分析.同时,对当前城乡结合部污水处理设施运行管理机制进行了探讨,指出区县水务局成立“污水处理设施管理所”进行统一管理是城乡结合部地区污水处理设施运行的有效管理模式,并且提出了一系列相应的运行管理政策.

  16. Optimum BET surface areas for activated carbon produced from textile sewage sludges and its application as dye removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacan, Erdal

    2016-01-15

    The purpose of this experimental study is to determine optimum preparation conditions for activated carbons obtained from textile sewage sludge (TSS) for removal of dyes from aqueous solutions. The textile sewage sludge activated carbon (TSSAC) was prepared by chemical activation with potassium hydroxide using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The most influential factor on each experimental design responses was identified via ANNOVA analysis. Based on the central composite design (CCD), quadratic model was developed to correlate the preparation variables for one response which is the Brunauer-Emmelt-Teller (BET) surface area. RSM based on a three-variable CCD was used to determine the effect of pyrolyzed temperature (400-700 °C), carbonization time (45-180 min) and KOH: weight of TSS (wt%) impregnation ratio (0.5:1-1.5:1) on BET surface area. According to the results, pyrolyzed temperature and impregnation ratio were found as the significant factors for maximizing the BET surface area. The major effect which influences the BET surface area was found as pyrolyzed temperature. Both carbonization time and impregnation ratio of KOH had no significant effect. The optimum conditions for preparing TSSAC, based on response surface and contour plots, were found as follows: pyrolyzed temperature 700 °C, carbonization time of 45 min and chemical impregnation ratio of 0.5. The maximum and optimum BET surface area of TSSAC were found as 336 m(2)/g and 310.62 m(2)/g, respectively. Synozol Blue reactive (RSB) and Setapers Yellow-Brown (P2RFL) industrial textile dyes adsorption capacities were investigated. As expected the TSSAC which has the biggest BET surface area (336 m(2)/g) adsorbed dye best. The maximum (RSB) and (P2RFL) uptake capacities were found as 8.5383 mg/g and 5.4 mg/g, respectively. The results of this study indicated the applicability of TSSAC for removing industrial dyes from aqueous solution.

  17. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application documentation consists of both Part A and a Part B permit application documentation. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this treatment and storage unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Once the initial Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit is issued, the following process will be used. As final, certified treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific documents are developed, and completeness notifications are made by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology, additional unit-specific permit conditions will be incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit through the permit modification process. All treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that are included in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application will operate under interim status until final status conditions for these units are incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility contains information current as of May 1, 1993.

  18. Sewage Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    A million gallon-a-day sewage treatment plant in Huntington Beach, CA converts solid sewage to activated carbon which then treats incoming waste water. The plant is scaled up 100 times from a mobile unit NASA installed a year ago; another 100-fold scale-up will be required if technique is employed for widespread urban sewage treatment. This unique sewage-plant employed a serendipitous outgrowth of a need to manufacture activated carbon for rocket engine insulation. The process already exceeds new Environmental Protection Agency Standards Capital costs by 25% compared with conventional secondary treatment plants.

  19. A field investigation of sewage sludge treatments on agricultural production areas at DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Fish and Wildlife Service and the City of Omaha participated in a six year study (1985-1990) to evaluate the environmental impacts of sewage sludge, composted...

  20. Justification for Continued Operation of the SRS Saltstone Facility (Z-Area)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, W.A.

    1999-01-20

    Saltstone Production and Disposal Facilities (Z-Area) are a part of the Defense Waste Processing Facilities (DWPF). Z-Area facilities are just one segment of an integrated waste management and disposal system located at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The bases for the Justification of Continuing Operations (JCO) of the Saltstone Production and Disposal Facilities (Z-Area) at SRS are provided.

  1. RATES OF GASTROINTESTINAL ILLNESS AMONG AREAS IMPACTED BY COMBINED SEWER FACILITIES: ANALYSIS OF MASSACHUSETTS DATA, 2003-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have reported a temporal association between heavy rainfall and gastrointestinal infection (GI). Combined sewer systems (CSSs), which are present in many urban areas in the US, were designed to collect rainwater runoff, domestic sewage, and industrial wastewater ...

  2. A single-stage biological process for municipal sewage treatment in tourist areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iaconi, C; De Sanctis, M; Lopez, A

    2014-11-01

    This pilot scale study aims to test the effectiveness of an innovative compact biological system (SBBGR - Sequencing Batch Biofilter Granular Reactor) for treating municipal wastewater in tourist areas characterised by intense seasonal water demand and wastewater discharge. The results obtained after a long term operation of 463 days have shown that the proposed system is able to assure average removal efficiencies higher than 90% for COD (chemical oxygen demand), total suspended solids and TKN (total Kjeldahl nitrogen) independently of the influent concentration values and organic loading, which ranged from 0.2 to 5.1 kgCOD/m(3)biofilter.d Furthermore, the plant showed a high degree of operation flexibility and stability in response to the organic load variations occurring in tourist areas. In fact, no significant deterioration in the plant's effluent quality was observed even during a sudden several-fold increase in organic loading. High nitrogen removal efficiencies (80%, on average) were also achieved thanks to the establishment of simultaneous nitrification-denitrification process favoured by the plant's high biomass concentration and operating conditions. Finally, the system was characterized by an excess sludge production much lower (60-80% lower) than that of conventional biological systems operating without a primary clarifier. An acceptable level of stabilization of excess sludge was also obtained so that a further stabilization process was no longer required.

  3. Constructed wetland with a polyculture of ornamental plants for wastewater treatment at a rural tourism facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calheiros, Cristina S C; Bessa, Vânia S.; Mesquita, Raquel B R

    2015-01-01

    Sewage management in remote rural and mountain areas constitutes a challenge because of the lack of adequate infrastructure and economical capability. Tourism facilities, in particular, possess a special challenge because of huge variability in sewage production and composition as a consequence o...

  4. Constructed wetland with a polyculture of ornamental plants for wastewater treatment at a rural tourism facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calheiros, Cristina S C; Bessa, Vânia S.; Mesquita, Raquel B R

    2015-01-01

    Sewage management in remote rural and mountain areas constitutes a challenge because of the lack of adequate infrastructure and economical capability. Tourism facilities, in particular, possess a special challenge because of huge variability in sewage production and composition as a consequence o...

  5. 单次污水灌溉后长期污灌土壤镉的垂向分布特征%Vertical variability of cadmium after one sewage irrigation in long-term sewage-irrigated areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛璐君; 齐学斌; 郭建青; 樊向阳; 刘燕; 胡艳玲

    2016-01-01

    以河南省新乡市娘娘庙污灌区一块约328 m2的田块为研究区,采用均值、变异系数、半方差函数及分维数等相结合的方法,分析一次污水灌溉前后10 d 内东西向剖面 A、B、C 和 D(南北向每相距10.5 m 设置1个剖面,由北至南依次编号为 A、B、C 和 D)的土壤有效镉的垂向空间变异及其分布特征,为田块土壤中有效态镉分布与土壤植物修复相结合的研究思路提供基础性探讨。结果表明:灌水后,土壤有效镉含量在剖面A、B、C 和 D 的均值分别减少0.06 mg•kg-1、0.11 mg•kg-1、0.14 mg•kg-1和0.23 mg•kg-1,呈现中等离散程度;在0.393~1.308 m变程范围内,块基比C0/(C0+C)<25%,土壤有效镉剖面总体表现出由随机性引发的变异较小,空间相关性较强;剖面 A、C 和 D 土壤有效态镉的分维数降低,空间变异程度减弱。Kriging 插值结果表明该区有效镉呈条带状分布格局,且在0~15 cm 土层呈现累积现象;沿灌水方向,土壤有效镉含量剖面等值线分布由密集到稀疏。相关分析表明,土壤有效镉含量与土壤有机质含量呈正相关,与土壤含水率呈中等程度相关,与 pH 呈现强负相关,表现为土壤有机质含量越高土壤有效镉含量越大, pH 越高土壤有效镉含量越小;污水灌溉对土壤有效镉、土壤含水率、土壤 pH 和土壤有机质的影响显著,同时会削弱有效镉与各影响因子间的相关关系。伴随着污水灌溉动态的有效镉分布和变异特征可以为应用植物吸附进行土壤重金属污染修复方面的研究提供基础数据。%There is limited development of agricultural economy in the north area of China that has been irrigated with sewage water for a long time, because of the uneven distribution of water resources and different levels of soil pollution. The main contaminants of sewage irrigation are heavy metals, which contamination area has been expanding over the years. A

  6. 34 CFR 75.608 - Areas in the facilities for cultural activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... areas in the facilities that are adaptable for artistic and other cultural activities. (Authority: 20 U... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas in the facilities for cultural activities. 75.608... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.608 Areas in the facilities for cultural activities. A...

  7. PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION TESTING FOR THE 200 AREA EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HALGREN DL

    2010-03-12

    The hydrogen peroxide decomposer columns at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) have been taken out of service due to ongoing problems with particulate fines and poor destruction performance from the granular activated carbon (GAC) used in the columns. An alternative search was initiated and led to bench scale testing and then pilot scale testing. Based on the bench scale testing three manganese dioxide based catalysts were evaluated in the peroxide destruction pilot column installed at the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The ten inch diameter, nine foot tall, clear polyvinyl chloride (PVC) column allowed for the same six foot catalyst bed depth as is in the existing ETF system. The flow rate to the column was controlled to evaluate the performance at the same superficial velocity (gpm/ft{sup 2}) as the full scale design flow and normal process flow. Each catalyst was evaluated on peroxide destruction performance and particulate fines capacity and carryover. Peroxide destruction was measured by hydrogen peroxide concentration analysis of samples taken before and after the column. The presence of fines in the column headspace and the discharge from carryover was generally assessed by visual observation. All three catalysts met the peroxide destruction criteria by achieving hydrogen peroxide discharge concentrations of less than 0.5 mg/L at the design flow with inlet peroxide concentrations greater than 100 mg/L. The Sud-Chemie T-2525 catalyst was markedly better in the minimization of fines and particle carryover. It is anticipated the T-2525 can be installed as a direct replacement for the GAC in the peroxide decomposer columns. Based on the results of the peroxide method development work the recommendation is to purchase the T-2525 catalyst and initially load one of the ETF decomposer columns for full scale testing.

  8. Sewage Scandal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Zijin Mining Group’s sewage mishap arouses concerns about the environmental cost of development Zijin Mining Group Co.,China’s largest gold producer and a public company,is struggling to find its way out of a credibility crisis

  9. Appraisal of potential for injection-well recharge of the Hueco bolson with treated sewage effluent : preliminary study at the northeast El Paso area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Sergio; Weeks, Edwin P.; White, Donald E.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of El Paso and the Texas Department of Water Resources, made a preliminary study of specific factors related to recharging the Hueco bolson in the northeast El Paso area with treated sewage effluent. The city is interested in the location and spacing of injection wells relative to (1) maintaining the injected effluent in the aquifer for a predetermined amount of time (residence time) before it is pumped out, (2) recovery by pumping of as much of the injected effluent as possible, and (3) the long-term effects of injection on water-level declines.

  10. Sewage Treatment for Isolated Living Areas in Hilly Region%丘陵区独立生活区污水处理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏卫生; 胡贤辉; 黄道友; 张杰; 林佳庆

    2013-01-01

    In hilly region of middle Hunan, three typical isolated living areas were chosen to study sewage treatment.First, the wastewater was fermented with automatic continuous fermenting pools.Then, the plant ash which be chosen as additive was added to fermenting pool.The results showed that chemical or biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen content and total phosphor content were changed little by fermenting pool, but the effective absorption of plant can reduce them to lower level; adding plant ash can shorten fermenting time for domestic sewage, thereby enhancing absorption effect of nitrogen, and it can reducing BOD and COD value in water quickly, thereby achieving better treatment effect; accelerating the fermenting rate and reducing the total amount of bacteria can adequately ferment sewage that containing low content of organic matters, then, after the fermented wastewater was absorbed by woodland and grassland with proper area, the sewage can be drained purely.%在湖南省湘中丘陵区选择3个典型的独立生活区,用自动连续发酵池对生活污水进行发酵,并在发酵时通过对比选择加入草木灰作为添加剂,对丘陵区独立生活区的污水处理进行了研究.结果表明:发酵池对化学或生化需氧量以及总氮、总磷含量的改变较少,但植物的有效吸收能使其降低到较低的水平;加入草木灰后能缩短生活污水的发酵时间,使氮的吸收效果更好,水中的BOD和COD值也能快速降低,从而能达到较好的处理效果;加快发酵速率并减少细菌总量,使得有机物含量较低的污水充分发酵,并经适当面积的林地、草地吸收后,排水均能达到较好的净化.

  11. Quantitative risk analysis of oil storage facilities in seismic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbrocino, Giovanni; Iervolino, Iunio; Orlando, Francesca; Salzano, Ernesto

    2005-08-31

    Quantitative risk analysis (QRA) of industrial facilities has to take into account multiple hazards threatening critical equipment. Nevertheless, engineering procedures able to evaluate quantitatively the effect of seismic action are not well established. Indeed, relevant industrial accidents may be triggered by loss of containment following ground shaking or other relevant natural hazards, either directly or through cascade effects ('domino effects'). The issue of integrating structural seismic risk into quantitative probabilistic seismic risk analysis (QpsRA) is addressed in this paper by a representative study case regarding an oil storage plant with a number of atmospheric steel tanks containing flammable substances. Empirical seismic fragility curves and probit functions, properly defined both for building-like and non building-like industrial components, have been crossed with outcomes of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for a test site located in south Italy. Once the seismic failure probabilities have been quantified, consequence analysis has been performed for those events which may be triggered by the loss of containment following seismic action. Results are combined by means of a specific developed code in terms of local risk contour plots, i.e. the contour line for the probability of fatal injures at any point (x, y) in the analysed area. Finally, a comparison with QRA obtained by considering only process-related top events is reported for reference.

  12. Central Facilities Area Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego; Brion Bennett

    2011-11-01

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Central Facilities Area facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facilityspecific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  13. Sewage Scandal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Zijin Mining Group Co.,China's largest gold producer and a public company,is struggling to find its way out of a credibility crisis caused by a belatedly revealed leak of mine sewage that polluted a major river.The spill,containing acidic copper from a smelter in Longyan City,Fujian Province,killed fish,fouled drinking water and drew cries for compensation from the neighboring Guangdong Province.

  14. NEUTRALIZING WASTEWATER FROM PUBLIC UTILITIES ON RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bugajski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed at determining a potential use of domestic sewage treatment plants based on activated sludge for the disposal of wastes drained from schools in rural areas. Selected pollutant indicators, such as: BOD5, COD, total suspended solids, total nitrogen and phosphates were the basis for determining the composition of raw sewage discharged by public utility objects and the quality of treated sewage considering the days when lessons were taking place at school and days free from classes. The analysis of the results revealed that household sewage treatment plants based on activated sludge may be used for waste disposal from public facilities, such as schools.

  15. 浅析我国农村生活污水分散式处理模式%Analysis on Village Sewage Decentralized Treatment in Rural Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄琼瑜

    2012-01-01

    我国农村居住分散,经济条件差别较大,污水处理工程的建设需根据当地环境和自然条件现状、经济承受能力等条件因地制宜进行。本文主要介绍了我国农村常见的几种农村生活污水分散式处理模式,并指出这几种技术利弊,我国农村应根据自身特点,研发出适合本地区的农村污水处理模式。%The scattered rural villages in China differed widely in levels of economical development. A series of fac-tors, such as the local environment situation, the natural conditions and economical affordability and so on, should be taken into accounted for the construction of sewage treatment program. The advantages and disadvantages of some decen-tralized treatments were recommended, and the rural sewage treatment was pointed out according to the rural area charac-teristic, environmental and economical characteristic.

  16. Characteristics and Countermeasures about Sewage Treatment Facilities in Small Towns%小城镇污水处理设施的特点及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 徐国勋; 鲁剑; 何利平; 杨坤

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of investigation of the situation of sewage treatment facilities in small towns in China, the characteristics of small wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were summarized. The result for 157 WWTPs with treatment capacity of below 1 x 104 mVd indicated that the constructed wetland was most widely applied, its utilization rate was about 45. 96% , and oxidation ditch was the second, its utilization rate was 21.74%. However, the constructed wetland had some problems, such as climate influence on treatment efficiency, large footprint, secondary pollution of groundwater, inconvenient reaping and cleaning of plants and so on. Therefore, the process flows of small WWTPs were analyzed, and it was recommended that oxidation ditch and SBR should be preferentially used to enable small WWTPs to operate continuously and stably. Constructive and operational countermeasures about power source, automatization, structural materials, cost control, equipment type selection, management and so on were put forward.%在调查全国小城镇污水处理设施现状的基础上,总结了目前我国小型污水处理厂的特点.对157座规模在1×104 m3/d以下的小型污水厂的调查表明,人工湿地的使用率最高,为45.96%;其次为氧化沟,所占比例达21.74%.但是人工湿地存在较多问题,如处理效果易受气候影响、占地大、易对地下水造成二次污染、植物收割及清理麻烦等.为此分析了小型污水处理厂的工艺流程,提出优先采用氧化沟和SBR工艺,以使污水处理设施能持续、稳定的运行.此外,还从小型污水处理厂的电源、自动化、结构材料、成本控制、设备造型和管理等方面提出了建议和运行的对策.

  17. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan TA-60 Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) is applicable to operations at the Technical Area -60 (TA-60) Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area off Eniwetok Drive, in Los Alamos County, New Mexico.

  18. Trace metals in settling particles from the sewage impacted Buenos Aires coastal area in the Río de la Plata estuary, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatone, L M; Bilos, C; Skorupka, C N; Colombo, J C

    2013-03-01

    Sediment traps deployed in Buenos Aires sewage outfall area collected a substantial amount of material (average mass flux 22 ± 12 g cm (2) year(-1)) with very high metal concentrations, mostly in the range of hazardous exposition for organisms (Zn: 138-671, Cu: 41-273, Cr: 44-255 and Pb: 26-260 μg g(-1)). The combination of high mass fluxes and concentrations results in huge metal fluxes (0.005-0.7 to 3.6-31 g m(-2) day(-1) for minor elements and Fe, respectively). Metal concentrations were correlated to the total mass flux and total organic carbon but with different trends for redox-sensitive Fe and Mn (negative) and anthropogenic elements (positive). This reflects the key role of organic discharges promoting anoxia with Fe and Mn evasion, and also contributing toxic metals.

  19. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond.

  20. Distribution of physical activity facilities in Scotland by small area measures of deprivation and urbanicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogilvie David

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of physical activity facilities by area-level deprivation in Scotland, adjusting for differences in urbanicity, and exploring differences between and within the four largest Scottish cities. Methods We obtained a list of all recreational physical activity facilities in Scotland. These were mapped and assigned to datazones. Poisson and negative binomial regression models were used to investigate associations between the number of physical activity facilities relative to population size and quintile of area-level deprivation. Results The results showed that prior to adjustment for urbanicity, the density of all facilities lessened with increasing deprivation from quintiles 2 to 5. After adjustment for urbanicity and local authority, the effect of deprivation remained significant but the pattern altered, with datazones in quintile 3 having the highest estimated mean density of facilities. Within-city associations were identified between the number of physical activity facilities and area-level deprivation in Aberdeen and Dundee, but not in Edinburgh or Glasgow. Conclusions In conclusion, area-level deprivation appears to have a significant association with the density of physical activity facilities and although overall no clear pattern was observed, affluent areas had fewer publicly owned facilities than more deprived areas but a greater number of privately owned facilities.

  1. Safety analysis--200 Area Savannah River Site: Separations Area operations Building 211-H Outside Facilities. Supplement 11, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The H-Area Outside Facilities are located in the 200-H Separations Area and are comprised of a number of processes, utilities, and services that support the separations function. Included are enriched uranium loadout, bulk chemical storage, water handling, acid recovery, general purpose evaporation, and segregated solvent facilities. In addition, services for water, electricity, and steam are provided. This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the H-Area Outside Facilities and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the SR Implementation Plan for DOE order 5481.1A. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the facility can be operated without undue risk to onsite or offsite populations, to the environment, and to operating personnel. In this report, risks are defined as the expected frequencies of accidents, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequences in person-rem. Following the summary description of facility and operations is the site evaluation including the unique features of the H-Area Outside Facilities. The facility and process design are described in Chapter 3.0 and a description of operations and their impact is given in Chapter 4.0. The accident analysis in Chapter 5.0 is followed by a list of safety related structures and systems (Chapter 6.0) and a description of the Quality Assurance program (Chapter 7.0). The accident analysis in this report focuses on estimating the risk from accidents as a result of operation of the facilities. The operations were evaluated on the basis of three considerations: potential radiological hazards, potential chemical toxicity hazards, and potential conditions uniquely different from normal industrial practice.

  2. Determining health-care facility catchment areas in Uganda using data on malaria-related visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinszer, Kate; Charland, Katia; Kigozi, Ruth; Dorsey, Grant; Kamya, Moses R; Buckeridge, David L

    2014-03-01

    To illustrate the use of a new method for defining the catchment areas of health-care facilities based on their utilization. The catchment areas of six health-care facilities in Uganda were determined using the cumulative case ratio: the ratio of the observed to expected utilization of a facility for a particular condition by patients from small administrative areas. The cumulative case ratio for malaria-related visits to these facilities was determined using data from the Uganda Malaria Surveillance Project. Catchment areas were also derived using various straight line and road network distances from the facility. Subsequently, the 1-year cumulative malaria case rate was calculated for each catchment area, as determined using the three methods. The 1-year cumulative malaria case rate varied considerably with the method used to define the catchment areas. With the cumulative case ratio approach, the catchment area could include noncontiguous areas. With the distance approaches, the denominator increased substantially with distance, whereas the numerator increased only slightly. The largest cumulative case rate per 1000 population was for the Kamwezi facility: 234.9 (95% confidence interval, CI: 226.2-243.8) for a straight-line distance of 5 km, 193.1 (95% CI: 186.8-199.6) for the cumulative case ratio approach and 156.1 (95% CI: 150.9-161.4) for a road network distance of 5 km. Use of the cumulative case ratio for malaria-related visits to determine health-care facility catchment areas was feasible. Moreover, this approach took into account patients' actual addresses, whereas using distance from the facility did not.

  3. Lagoon Seepage Testing Procedures for Central Facilities Area (CFA) Sewage Lagoons at Idaho National Laboratory Butte County, Idaho April 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Giesbrecht

    2014-05-01

    The lagoon seepage testing procedures are documented herein as required by the Wastewater Rules (IDAPA 58.01.16.493). The Wastewater Rules and Wastewater Reuse Permit LA-000141-03 require that the procedure used for performing a seepage test be approved by IDEQ prior to conducting the seepage test. The procedures described herein are based on a seepage testing plan that was developed by J-U-B ENGINEERS, Inc. (J-U-B) and has been accepted by several IDEQ offices for lagoons in Idaho.

  4. [Pollution by heavy metals in the petrochemical sewage waters of the sea area of Daya Bay and assessment on potential ecological risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shan-Nan; Li, Chun-Hou; Xu, Jiao-Jiao; Xiao, Ya-Yuan; Lin, Lin; Huang, Xiao-Ping

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to gain a clear understanding on the status of pollution by heavy metals in the petrochemical sewage and the potential ecological risk caused by heavy metal pollution in the sea area of Daya Bay. The contents and spatial distributions of heavy metals including Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr, As and Hg in seawater, sediment and fishes collected from Daya Bay were analyzed. The comprehensive pollution index (CPI) and ecological risk indexes (ERIs) were used to evaluate the contaminated severity and potential ecological risks of heavy metals in seawater and sediment. The results showed that the contents of these heavy metals, except for those of Zn and Pb, in several stations set in Daya Bay from 2011 to 2012 were relatively low, which were lower than the quality standard of class I according to the China National Standard Criteria for Seawater Quality, suggesting that the seawater in Daya Bay has not been polluted yet by these heavy metals. The average CPI of heavy metals in seawater during flooding season (0.72) was higher than that during dry season (0.38) whereas the average CPI of heavy metals in sediment during dry season (7.77) was higher than that during flooding season (5.70). Hg was found to be the primary contaminating heavy metal in sediment during dry season, which was followed by As and Zn whereas during flooding season, Hg was the primary contaminating metal in sediment, followed by Zn and Cu. The contents of these 7 heavy metals in fishes collected from the surveyed areas were lower than those of the standard requirements. A correlation analysis indicated that there were significant differences in the correlations between the midst of the heavy metals in sea water and the different periods. The ERIs of heavy metals in sediment during dry season (129.20) was higher than that during flooding season (102.86), and 25% of the sampling sites among all stations were under the risk of high-level alarm. The potential ERIs of heavy metals in sediment in

  5. COMPOSITIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE SEWAGE INCOMING TO AND DISCHARGED FROM THE SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT IN KOLBUSZOWA DOLNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Chmielowski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the compositional analysis of sewage supplied to and discharged from the wastewater treatment plant in Kolbuszowa Dolna in the Subcarpathian region. The analysis was based on three basic indicators of sewage pollution (BOD5, CODCr, total suspended solids and two biogenic indicators (total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The composition of sewage was studied in the years 2010–2015. Basic descriptive statistics for the values of the analyzed indicators of sewage pollution were summarized and the obtained results were interpreted. The study showed that the sewage was susceptible to biological treatment. Descriptive statistics for the relationship between the following indicators were presented: CODCr/BOD5, BOD5/Ntot, BOD5/Ptot. The collected results indicate high variability of the composition of sewage entering the studied facility. The coefficients of variation for the values of basic indicators (BOD5, CODCr, total suspended solids in the raw sewage were similar and amounted to Wn = 0.45 while for total nitrogen it was Wn = 0.33 and for total phosphorus Wn = 0.40. The analysis of the collected material showed that sewage entering the treatment plant was readily biodegradable. On the other hand, the treated sewage was characterized by low values of the analyzed indicators, much below the permissible values provided by the water permit. The raw sewage was divided into five groups depending on the concentration of each pollution indicator. The number of raw sewage samples was determined for each group of the analyzed pollution indicator concentrations.

  6. Presence of faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes in ready-to-eat salads, from an area where crops are irrigated with untreated sewage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Rosas, Javier; Cerna-Cortés, Jorge F; Méndez-Reyes, Eligio; Lopez-Hernandez, Daniel; Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Estrada-Garcia, Teresa

    2012-05-15

    Consumption of ready-to-eat (RTE) salads has increased worldwide. Consequently, the number of outbreaks caused by food-borne pathogens, including diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEPs), associated with the consumption of RTE-salads has increased. DEPs include enterotoxigenic (ETEC), typical and atypical enteropathogenic (tEPEC, aEPEC), enteroinvasive (EIEC), enteroaggregative (EAEC), diffuse adherent (DAEC) and Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) E. coli. In less-developed areas of the world, fresh crops continue to be irrigated with untreated sewage water. The aims of this study were to evaluate the microbiological quality and prevalence of DEPs in RTE-salads of raw vegetables, purchased from restaurants at Pachuca-City, Hidalgo, Mexico, where most locally consumed vegetables are irrigated with untreated sewage water. A total of 130 salads were purchased from restaurants of three categories: A) national chain restaurants and B) local restaurants, both with the H distinctive (a recognition that the Secretary of Tourism grants to restaurants that manage supplies with high levels of hygiene); and C) local small inexpensive restaurants without H distinctive. A total of 6 restaurants were included, 2 per category (A(1-2), B(1-2), C(1-2)). Each sample was tested for the presence of faecal coliforms (FC) and E. coli by standard procedures. E. coli strains were further characterized for the presence of DEPs loci by two multiplex polymerase chain reactions. Among the 130 salad samples 99% (129) were contaminated with FC; 85% (110/129) harboured E. coli and 7% (8/110) DEPs. The amount of positive salad samples for FC and E. coli was similar between restaurants and categories. The FC mean (571 FC/g) of all samples was significantly higher (p<0.001) than the E. coli mean (63 E. coli/g). A weak correlation of 7.7% (r(2)=0.077, p=0.003) between median FC and E. coli MPN (most probable number) per sample was found. Of the 8 salad samples contaminated with DEPs, 2 were spinach salads

  7. Facile synthesis of high surface area molybdenum nitride and carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Aaron; Serov, Alexey; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Brosha, Eric L.; Atanassov, Plamen; Ward, Tim L.

    2015-08-01

    The synthesis of high surface area γ-Mo2N and α-Mo2C is reported (116 and 120 m2/g) without the temperature programmed reduction of MoO3. γ-Mo2N was prepared in an NH3-free synthesis using forming gas (7 at% H2, N2-balance) as the reactive atmosphere. Three precursors were studied ((NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O, (NH4)2 Mg(MoO4)2, and MgMoO4) along with the sacrificial support method (SSM) as a means of reducing the particle size of Mo2N and Mo2C. In situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were carried out to identify reaction intermediates, the temperature at which various intermediates form, and the average domain size of the Mo2N products. Materials were synthesized in bulk and further characterized by XRD, HRTEM, XPS, and BET.

  8. The utilization characteristics of social facilities in the border area of Semarang city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setioko, Bambang; Olivia, Deasy; Pandelaki, Edward E.; Murtini, Titien Woro

    2017-06-01

    The rapid growth of settlement in border areas is often considered as a problem of big cities in Indonesia, where people from rural areas prefer to move out and settle in the border areas of big cities due to the provision of better social facilities. Border areas generally do not receive adequate attention and are often overlooked by the local government. It is a common phenomenon in Indonesian cities, including in Semarang City. Increased number of settlements in the border areas in Semarang City is in linear with spontaneous urbanization processes which indicate the heterogeneity emerging of settlement areas. In the early stages of Semarang City spatial planning, the need for social facilities in border areas is included based on the regular standard which is commonly applied to the urban core. In a very short period, the numbers and types of existing social facilities are insufficient to fulfill the needs of the community. Nowadays, in the context of rapid urbanization, the growth of social facilities in border areas is very high. The intense growth of settlements in border areas is very high due to the low price of land in Demak Regency in compared to those of other areas in Semarang City. However, only a few developers involved social facilities as a part of housing estate construction. Consequently, most of the occupants utilize a limited number of social facilities provided by the municipal government, which are actually intended to serve the citizens of Semarang City. This research was conducted at Sendang Mulyo Village which is located in the border of Semarang municipal administrative area and included in Demak Regency. This paper discusses the utilization characteristics of social facilities in the border area of Semarang City, with the aim to get the trigger factors. The method analysis consisted of a statistical test and descriptive analysis. The utilization characteristics were formulated based on the relationship between neighborhood and human

  9. Characterization of decontamination and decommissioning wastes expected from the major processing facilities in the 200 Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amato, L.C.; Franklin, J.D.; Hyre, R.A.; Lowy, R.M.; Millar, J.S.; Pottmeyer, J.A. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This study was intended to characterize and estimate the amounts of equipment and other materials that are candidates for removal and subsequent processing in a solid waste facility when the major processing and handling facilities in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site are decontaminated and decommissioned. The facilities in this study were selected based on processing history and on the magnitude of the estimated decommissioning cost cited in the Surplus Facilities Program Plan; Fiscal Year 1993 (Winship and Hughes 1992). The facilities chosen for this study include B Plant (221-B), T Plant (221-T), U Plant (221-U), the Uranium Trioxide (UO{sub 3}) Plant (224-U and 224-UA), the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) or S Plant (202-S), the Plutonium Concentration Facility for B Plant (224-B), and the Concentration Facility for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and REDOX (233-S). This information is required to support planning activities for current and future solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal operations and facilities.

  10. Use of sewage from a treatment plant for recovery degraded area due to implantation of LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gases) pipeline in the Amazon; Uso de lodo de estacao de tratamento de efluente para recuperacao de area degradada pela implantacao de GLP (Gas Liquefeito de Petroleo) - duto na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frade, Amadeu F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Liany do V. [OAS, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Pipelines construction possess characteristics that become them singulars in its conception and its implantation and therefore demanding that the services of support reach the same level of the challenge of these enterprises. Among these services the management of effluent is distinguished due to the high demand of technique-operational and Legal requirements. In this context destination of sewage from the STP (Sewage treatment plant) in remote areas with high requirement of environmental responsibility as the Amazonian forest demands additional cares. This work aim to evaluate an alternative to destination of this residue. For the execution of this work the removed sewage was prepared and incorporated to the soil that will receive plants for the restoration of degraded areas (RDA). The evaluation of the effect of this alternative was based on the analysis of agronomies aspects and quantitative analyses of cost X benefits between the conventional destination (CD) and the application in the RDA. In the conditions carried through until the moment we have: I-Parcel that had received the sewage had gotten better average development; II-Economically apply the sewage in RDA is more advantageous than the CD; III-Qualitatively the global impact in the environment of the alternative is minor who the CD. (author)

  11. Annual Report for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility – Fiscal Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Birdsell, Kay H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-29

    As a condition to the disposal authorization statement issued to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) on March 17, 2010, a comprehensive performance assessment and composite analysis maintenance program must be implemented for the Technical Area 54, Area G disposal facility. Annual determinations of the adequacy of the performance assessment and composite analysis (PA/CA) are to be conducted under the maintenance program to ensure that the conclusions reached by those analyses continue to be valid. This report summarizes the results of the fiscal year (FY) 2015 annual review for Area G.

  12. Annual Report for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birdsell, Kay Hanson [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Atchley, Adam Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Miller, Elizabeth D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-24

    As a condition to the disposal authorization statement issued to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) on March 17, 2010, a comprehensive performance assessment and composite analysis (PA/CA) maintenance program must be implemented for the Technical Area 54, Area G disposal facility. Annual determinations of the adequacy of the PA/CA are to be conducted under the maintenance program to ensure that the conclusions reached by those analyses continue to be valid. This report summarizes the results of the fiscal year (FY) 2016 annual review for Area G.

  13. Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility groundwater monitoring report. 1996 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility is located in the Separations Area, north of H and S Areas, at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The facility permanently disposes of low-level radioactive waste. The facility blends low-level radioactive salt solution with cement, slag, and flyash to form a nonhazardous cementitious waste that is pumped to aboveground disposal vaults. Z Area began these operations in June 1990. Samples from the ZBG wells at the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility are analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Industrial Solid Waste Permit {number_sign}025500-1603 (formerly IWP-217). During second quarter 1996, lead was reported above the SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standard in one well. No other constituents were reported above SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standards for final Primary Drinking Water Standards during first, second, or third quarters 1996. Antimony was detected above SRS flagging criteria during third quarter 1996. In the past, tritium has been detected sporadically in the ZBG wells at levels similar to those detected before Z Area began radioactive operations.

  14. Abbreviated sampling and analysis plan for planning decontamination and decommissioning at Test Reactor Area (TRA) facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    The objective is to sample and analyze for the presence of gamma emitting isotopes and hazardous constituents within certain areas of the Test Reactor Area (TRA), prior to D and D activities. The TRA is composed of three major reactor facilities and three smaller reactors built in support of programs studying the performance of reactor materials and components under high neutron flux conditions. The Materials Testing Reactor (MTR) and Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) facilities are currently pending D/D. Work consists of pre-D and D sampling of designated TRA (primarily ETR) process areas. This report addresses only a limited subset of the samples which will eventually be required to characterize MTR and ETR and plan their D and D. Sampling which is addressed in this document is intended to support planned D and D work which is funded at the present time. Biased samples, based on process knowledge and plant configuration, are to be performed. The multiple process areas which may be potentially sampled will be initially characterized by obtaining data for upstream source areas which, based on facility configuration, would affect downstream and as yet unsampled, process areas. Sampling and analysis will be conducted to determine the level of gamma emitting isotopes and hazardous constituents present in designated areas within buildings TRA-612, 642, 643, 644, 645, 647, 648, 663; and in the soils surrounding Facility TRA-611. These data will be used to plan the D and D and help determine disposition of material by D and D personnel. Both MTR and ETR facilities will eventually be decommissioned by total dismantlement so that the area can be restored to its original condition.

  15. Racial disparities in travel time to radiotherapy facilities in the Atlanta metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peipins, Lucy A; Graham, Shannon; Young, Randall; Lewis, Brian; Flanagan, Barry

    2013-07-01

    Low-income women with breast cancer who rely on public transportation may have difficulty in completing recommended radiation therapy due to inadequate access to radiation facilities. Using a geographic information system (GIS) and network analysis we quantified spatial accessibility to radiation treatment facilities in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area. We built a transportation network model that included all bus and rail routes and stops, system transfers and walk and wait times experienced by public transportation system travelers. We also built a private transportation network to model travel times by automobile. We calculated travel times to radiation therapy facilities via public and private transportation from a population-weighted center of each census tract located within the study area. We broadly grouped the tracts by low, medium and high household access to a private vehicle and by race. Facility service areas were created using the network model to map the extent of areal coverage at specified travel times (30, 45 and 60 min) for both public and private modes of transportation. The median public transportation travel time to the nearest radiotherapy facility was 56 min vs. approximately 8 min by private vehicle. We found that majority black census tracts had longer public transportation travel times than white tracts across all categories of vehicle access and that 39% of women in the study area had longer than 1 h of public transportation travel time to the nearest facility. In addition, service area analyses identified locations where the travel time barriers are the greatest. Spatial inaccessibility, especially for women who must use public transportation, is one of the barriers they face in receiving optimal treatment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Readiness plan, Hanford 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, S.J.

    1994-11-08

    The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) is designed for the collection, treatment, and eventual disposal of liquid waste from the 300 Area Process Sewer (PS) system. The PS currently discharges water to the 300 Area Process Trenches. Facilities supported total 54 buildings, including site laboratories, inactive buildings, and support facilities. Effluent discharges to the process sewer from within these facilities include heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, heat exchangers, floor drains, sinks, and process equipment. The wastewaters go through treatment processes that include iron coprecipitation, ion exchange and ultraviolet oxidation. The iron coprecipitation process is designed to remove general heavy metals. A series of gravity filters then complete the clarification process by removing suspended solids. Following the iron coprecipitation process is the ion exchange process, where a specific resin is utilized for the removal of mercury. The final main unit operation is the ultraviolet destruction process, which uses high power ultraviolet light and hydrogen peroxide to destroy organic molecules. The objective of this readiness plan is to provide the method by which line management will prepare for a Readiness Assessment (RA) of the TEDF. The self-assessment and RA will assess safety, health, environmental compliance and management readiness of the TEDF. This assessment will provide assurances to both WHC and DOE that the facility is ready to start-up and begin operation.

  17. Sewage Purification Business Process Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esad Ahmetagić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the current level of drainage and sewage purification facilities built in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, a territorial unit of the Republic of Serbia. It also points out the issues related to organized business management in companies involved in this business.The management of business processes in sewage purification involves a comprehensive cycle: business organizing process, issues of standard, investments, workforce, and information system design as factors in establishing an effective organization of business processes. The definition of gap existing between the current approach to organizing business activities and the need to establish an approach based on knowledge, information technologies, and effective business process management points to the necessity for organization redesign and standard definition in business process management. Sewage purification business process management in Vojvodina, the Republic of Serbia has been elaborated through theoretical presentation and a practical example realized by electronic ISO 9001:2008 system of quality management in public water utility company JKP "Vodokanal" Sombor.

  18. Facility Closure Report for T-Tunnel (U12t), Area 12, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-08-01

    This Facility Closure Report (FCR) has been prepared to document the actions taken to permanently close the remaining accessible areas of U12t-Tunnel (T-Tunnel) in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The closure of T-Tunnel was a prerequisite to transfer facility ownership from the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). Closure of the facility was accomplished with the cooperation and concurrence of both NNSA/NSO and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). The purpose of this FCR is to document that the closure of T-Tunnel complied with the closure requirements specified in the Facility Closure Plan for N- and T-Tunnels Area 12, Nevada Test Site (Appendix D) and that the facility is ready for transfer to NNSA/NSO. The Facility Closure Plan (FCP) is provided in Appendix D. T-Tunnel is located approximately 42 miles north of Mercury in Area 12 of the NTS (Figure 1). Between 1970 and 1987, T-Tunnel was used for six Nuclear Weapons Effects Tests (NWETs). The tunnel was excavated horizontally into the volcanic tuffs of Rainier Mesa. The T-Tunnel complex consists of a main access drift with two NWET containment structures, a Gas Seal Plug (GSP), and a Gas Seal Door (GSD) (Figure 2). The T-Tunnel complex was mothballed in 1993 to preserve the tunnel for resumption of testing, should it happen in the future, to stop the discharge of tunnel effluent, and to prevent unauthorized access. This was accomplished by sealing the main drift GSD.

  19. F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Semiannual Correction Action Report, Vol. I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-11-18

    The groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) at the Savannah River Site is routinely monitored for selected hazardous and radioactive constituents. This report presents the results of the required groundwater monitoring program.

  20. Identification of circo-like virus-Brazil genomic sequences in raw sewage from the metropolitan area of São Paulo: evidence of circulation two and three years after the first detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Beres Castrignano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Two novel viruses named circo-like virus-Brazil (CLV-BR hs1 and hs2 were previously discovered in a Brazilian human fecal sample through metagenomics. CLV-BR hs1 and hs2 possess a small circular DNA genome encoding a replication initiator protein (Rep, and the two genomes exhibit 92% nucleotide identity with each other. Phylogenetic analysis based on the Rep protein showed that CLV-BRs do not cluster with circoviruses, nanoviruses, geminiviruses or cycloviruses. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to search for CLV-BR genomes in sewage and reclaimed water samples from the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, to verify whether the first detection of these viruses was an isolated finding. METHODS Sewage and reclaimed water samples collected concomitantly during the years 2005-2006 were purified and concentrated using methodologies designed for the study of viruses. A total of 177 treated reclaimed water samples were grouped into five pools, as were 177 treated raw sewage samples. Nucleic acid extraction, polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing were then performed.e FINDINGS CLV-BR genomes were detected in two pools of sewage samples, p6 and p9. Approximately 28% and 51% of the CLV-BR genome was amplified from p6 and p9, respectively, including 76% of the Rep gene. The detected genomes are most likely related to CLV-BR hs1. Comparative analysis showed several synonymous substitutions within Rep-encoding sequences, suggesting purifying selection for this gene, as has been observed for other eukaryotic circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA (CRESS-DNA viruses. MAIN CONCLUSION The results therefore indicated that CLV-BR has continued to circulate in Brazil two and three years after first being detected.

  1. Identification of circo-like virus-Brazil genomic sequences in raw sewage from the metropolitan area of São Paulo: evidence of circulation two and three years after the first detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrignano, Silvana Beres; Nagasse-Sugahara, Teresa Keico; Garrafa, Patrícia; Monezi, Telma Alves; Barrella, Karina Medici; Mehnert, Dolores Ursula

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Two novel viruses named circo-like virus-Brazil (CLV-BR) hs1 and hs2 were previously discovered in a Brazilian human fecal sample through metagenomics. CLV-BR hs1 and hs2 possess a small circular DNA genome encoding a replication initiator protein (Rep), and the two genomes exhibit 92% nucleotide identity with each other. Phylogenetic analysis based on the Rep protein showed that CLV-BRs do not cluster with circoviruses, nanoviruses, geminiviruses or cycloviruses. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to search for CLV-BR genomes in sewage and reclaimed water samples from the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, to verify whether the first detection of these viruses was an isolated finding. METHODS Sewage and reclaimed water samples collected concomitantly during the years 2005-2006 were purified and concentrated using methodologies designed for the study of viruses. A total of 177 treated reclaimed water samples were grouped into five pools, as were 177 treated raw sewage samples. Nucleic acid extraction, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and Sanger sequencing were then performed.e FINDINGS CLV-BR genomes were detected in two pools of sewage samples, p6 and p9. Approximately 28% and 51% of the CLV-BR genome was amplified from p6 and p9, respectively, including 76% of the Rep gene. The detected genomes are most likely related to CLV-BR hs1. Comparative analysis showed several synonymous substitutions within Rep-encoding sequences, suggesting purifying selection for this gene, as has been observed for other eukaryotic circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA (CRESS-DNA) viruses. MAIN CONCLUSION The results therefore indicated that CLV-BR has continued to circulate in Brazil two and three years after first being detected. PMID:28146157

  2. Alternative energy facility siting policies for urban coastal areas: executive summary of findings and policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morell, D; Singer, G

    1980-11-01

    An analysis was made of siting issues in the coastal zone, one of the nation's most critical natural resource areas and one which is often the target for energy development proposals. The analysis addressed the changing perceptions of citizens toward energy development in the coastal zone, emphasizing urban communities where access to the waterfront and revitalization of waterfront property are of interest to the citizen. The findings of this analysis are based on an examination of energy development along New Jersey's urban waterfront and along the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast, and on redevelopment efforts in Seattle, San Francisco, Boston, and elsewhere. The case studies demonstrate the significance of local attitudes and regional cooperation in the siting process. In highly urbanized areas, air quality has become a predominant concern among citizen groups and an influential factor in development of alternative energy facility siting strategies, such as consideration of inland siting connected by pipeline to a smaller coastal facility. The study addresses the economic impact of the permitting process on the desirability of energy facility investments, and the possible effects of the location selected for the facility on the permitting process and investment economics. The economic analysis demonstrates the importance of viewing energy facility investments in a broad perspective that includes the positive or negative impacts of various alternative siting patterns on the permitting process. Conclusions drawn from the studies regarding Federal, state, local, and corporate politics; regulatory, permitting, licensing, environmental assessment, and site selection are summarized. (MCW)

  3. Vegetation communities associated with the 100-Area and 200-Area facilities on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegen, J.A.

    1994-01-17

    The Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, lies within the broad semi-arid shrub-steppe vegetation zone of the Columbia Basin. Thirteen different habitat types on the Hanford Site have been mapped in Habitat Types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and Plant Species of Concern (Downs et al. 1993). In a broad sense, this classification is correct. On a smaller scale, however, finer delineations are possible. This study was conducted to determine the plant communities and estimate vegetation cover in and directly adjacent to the 100 and 200 Areas, primarily in relation to waste sites, as part of a comprehensive ecological study for the Compensation Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) characterization of the 100 and 200 Areas. During the summer of 1993, field surveys were conducted and a map of vegetation communities in each area, including dominant species associations, was produced. The field surveys consisted of qualitative community delineations. The community delineations described were made by field reconnaissance and are qualitative in nature. The delineations were made by visually determining the dominant plant species or vegetation types and were based on the species most apparent at the time of inspection. Additionally, 38 transects were run in these plant communities to try to obtain a more accurate representation of the community. Because habitat disturbances from construction/operations activities continue to occur in these areas, users of this information should be cautious in applying these maps without a current ground survey. This work will complement large-scale habitat maps of the Hanford Site.

  4. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-04-11

    This report is the first revision to ``Radiological Performance Assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility, Revision 0'', which was issued in April 1994 and received conditional DOE approval in September 1994. The title of this report has been changed to conform to the current name of the facility. The revision incorporates improved groundwater modeling methodology, which includes a large data base of site specific geotechnical data, and special Analyses on disposal of cement-based wasteforms and naval wastes, issued after publication of Revision 0.

  5. Analysis of Decentralized Domestic Sewage Treatment Technologies and Facilities in Japan%日本分散型生活污水处理技术与设施建设状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    水落元之; 小柳秀明; 久山哲雄; 常杪

    2012-01-01

    Japan' s domestic wastewater treatment works consists of the sewage treatment programs , the rural community wastewater treatment programs and the household (on-site) treatment programs. The rural community wastewater treatment programs and household treatment programs are implemented primarily for scarcely populated areas such as farm villages to provide services based on decentral-ized-type treatment systems for domestic wastewater. Historically, the sewage treatment programs focused primarily on the development of large-scale sewage systems in urban areas; however, in recent years, more effort has been put into the development of small-scale sewage systems in provincial towns and cities. Further, some lakes and inner bays have been experiencing an eutrophication problem in which their water quality has been deteriorating over a long period of time, and their situations have not yet been improved. As an effort to cope with these situations, advanced treatment technologies have been introduced into these decentralized domestic wastewater treatment systems. The technological trends in this area were analyzed based on the relevant data published in Japan. The results showed that the main technologies used in Japan could be categorized roughly into three types; ① the intermittent aeration activated sludge process; (2) the advanced oxidation ditch process; and ③ the membrane separation activated sludge process. All of these three types of processes, which combine a biological nitrogen removal process and a phosphorus removal process utilizing a coagulation sedimentation method, have been actively introduced into the rural community wastewater treatment programs.%日本的生活污水处理是由下水道事业(指城市污水处理厂及管网建设)、农业村落污水处理事业以及净化槽事业构成.其中农业村落污水处理事业以及净化槽事业面向农村等人口密度较小区域,以分散型生活污水处理为基本处理模式.下水

  6. THE IMPACT OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT ON THE AMOUNT OF HEAVY METALS IN WATER OF THE SUPRAŚL RIVER CATCHMENT AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Skorbiłowicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of treated sewage flowing from sewage treatment plants located in the basin of the Supraśl river on the concentration and load of metals in river waters and its main tributaries. Three measuring- control points were chosen, on the river and its tributaries, located near Gródek, Sokółka and Dobrzyniewo. Selected points were located behind the discharge of treated wastewater from sewage treatment plants respectively – Gródek, Sokółka and Bialystok. The samples of treated sewage and water were collected in a period from May to November, once a month in 2014. Each individual sample was examined for the content of dissolved form of the following metals: Pb2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Fe2+/3+. After taking into account water flow of the Biała, Sokołda and Supraśl in every month, metals loads expressed in mg·h-1, transported by the Supraśl and its tributaries waters were calculated. In the study monthly metals loads discharged into the Biała, Sokołda and Supraśl by sewage treatment plants in Białystok, Sokółka and Gródek were also calculated. The studies have shown the impact of metals load in treated wastewater on metals loads in waters of studied rivers based on the obtained correlation. Most of the searched relations between loafs of Pb2+ – r = 0,88; Cd2+ – r = 0,98; Fe2+/3+ – r = 0,45; Ni2+ – r = 0,55; Zn2+ – r = 0,86 were obtained in case of wastewater treatment plant in Gródek and Supraśl waters. In the study period we observed a diversity in concentration of Cd2+, Fe2+/3+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ in treated sewage and in river waters, which affected loads of this metals.

  7. Research Progress on the Technological Study of Domestic Sewage Treatment in Rural Area by Biological Method%生物法处理农村生活污水工艺研究的进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文伟; 薛林贵; 莫天录; 李国强; 杨蕊琪

    2016-01-01

    当前,农村生活污水是农村水环境污染的主要来源,也是造成湖泊富营养化的原因之一。为确保农村饮水安全和农村居民身体健康,农村生活污水的有效处理及生态环境的综合治理已刻不容缓。纵观国内外污水处理的成熟工艺,要使我国污水处理后达到国家一级排放标准,从技术、经济、效率综合考虑,采用生物法处理农村生活污水是最理想的选择。生物法处理污水具有效率高、费用低、能耗低、出水质好、管理简单等优点。本文主要综述了目前国内外常用的生活污水处理工艺的工作原理、具体特点以及农村生活污水处理的进展,展望了未来农村生活污水处理工艺的发展前景。%At present, the domestic sewage discharge is the important source of water pollution in rural area, and it is an important factor in lake eutrophication. In order to ensure rural drinking water safety and rural residents in good health, effective treatment of rural domestic sewage and the ecological environment comprehensive treatment are imperative. Throughout the mature technology of the wastewater treatment at home and abroad to reach level of wastewater discharge standard, from point view of the technology, economy, efficiency, comprehensive consideration, rural domestic sewage can be treated by biological method which is the most ideal choice. Biological wastewater treatment has many advantages which are high efficiency, low cost, low energy consumption good water quality, simple management, etc. The current works, characteristics and application of common sewage treatment process at home and abroad were described, and the development prospects of rural sewage treatment process in the next years were discussed.

  8. Target Area design basis and system performance for the National Ignition Facility. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, M.; Karpenko, V.; Hagans, K.; Anderson, A.; Latkowski, J.; Warren, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Wavrik, R.; Garcia, R.; Boyes, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The NIF Target Area is designed to confine the ICF target experiments leading up to and including fusion ignition and gain. The Target Area will provide appropriate in-chamber conditions before, during, and after each shot. The repeated introduction of large amounts of laser energy into the chamber and emission of fusion energy from targets represents a new challenge in ICF facility design. Prior to a shot, the facility provides proper illumination geometry, target chamber vacuum, and a stable platform for the target and its diagnostics. During a shot, the impact of the energy introduced into the chamber is minimized, and workers and the public are protected from excessive prompt radiation doses. After the shot, the residual radioactivation is managed to allow required accessibility. Tritium and other radioactive wastes are confined and disposed of. Diagnostic data is also retrieved, and the facility is readied for the next shot. The Target Area will accommodate yields up to 20 MJ, and its design lifetime is 30 years. The Target Area provides the personnel access needed to support the use precision diagnostics. The annual shot mix for design purposes is shown. Designing to this experimental envelope ensures the ability and flexibility to move through the experimental campaign to ignition efficiently.

  9. Federal register, Volume 60, No. 234, Wednesday, December 6, 1995 proposed rules. Part 2. 40 CFR part 122, et al. National pollutant discharge elimination system permit application requirements for publicly owned treatment works and other treatment works treating domestic sewage; proposed rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-06

    The Environmental Protection Agency proposes to amend permit application requirements and application forms for publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) and other treatment works treating domestic sewage (TWTDS). TWTDS include facilities that generate sewage sludge, provide commercial treatment of sewage sludge, manufacture a product derived from sewage sludge, or provide disposal of sewage sludge.

  10. E AREA LOW LEVEL WASTE FACILITY DOE 435.1 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, E

    2008-03-31

    This Performance Assessment for the Savannah River Site E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility was prepared to meet requirements of Chapter IV of the Department of Energy Order 435.1-1. The Order specifies that a Performance Assessment should provide reasonable assurance that a low-level waste disposal facility will comply with the performance objectives of the Order. The Order also requires assessments of impacts to water resources and to hypothetical inadvertent intruders for purposes of establishing limits on radionuclides that may be disposed near-surface. According to the Order, calculations of potential doses and releases from the facility should address a 1,000-year period after facility closure. The point of compliance for the performance measures relevant to the all pathways and air pathway performance objective, as well as to the impact on water resources assessment requirement, must correspond to the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste following the assumed end of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure. During the operational and institutional control periods, the point of compliance for the all pathways and air pathway performance measures is the SRS boundary. However, for the water resources impact assessment, the point of compliance remains the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste during the operational and institutional control periods. For performance measures relevant to radon and inadvertent intruders, the points of compliance are the disposal facility surface for all time periods and the disposal facility after the assumed loss of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure, respectively. The E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility is located in the central region of the SRS known as the General Separations Area. It is an elbow-shaped, cleared area, which curves to the northwest

  11. E AREA LOW LEVEL WASTE FACILITY DOE 435.1 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, E

    2008-03-31

    This Performance Assessment for the Savannah River Site E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility was prepared to meet requirements of Chapter IV of the Department of Energy Order 435.1-1. The Order specifies that a Performance Assessment should provide reasonable assurance that a low-level waste disposal facility will comply with the performance objectives of the Order. The Order also requires assessments of impacts to water resources and to hypothetical inadvertent intruders for purposes of establishing limits on radionuclides that may be disposed near-surface. According to the Order, calculations of potential doses and releases from the facility should address a 1,000-year period after facility closure. The point of compliance for the performance measures relevant to the all pathways and air pathway performance objective, as well as to the impact on water resources assessment requirement, must correspond to the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste following the assumed end of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure. During the operational and institutional control periods, the point of compliance for the all pathways and air pathway performance measures is the SRS boundary. However, for the water resources impact assessment, the point of compliance remains the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste during the operational and institutional control periods. For performance measures relevant to radon and inadvertent intruders, the points of compliance are the disposal facility surface for all time periods and the disposal facility after the assumed loss of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure, respectively. The E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility is located in the central region of the SRS known as the General Separations Area. It is an elbow-shaped, cleared area, which curves to the northwest

  12. Request for modification of 200 Area effluent treatment facility final delisting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWMAN, R.C.

    1998-11-19

    A Delisting Petition submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in August 1993 addressed effluent to be generated at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility from treating Hanford Facility waste streams. This Delisting Petition requested that 71.9 million liters per year of treated effluent, bearing the designation 'F001' through 'F005', and/or 'F039' that is derived from 'F001' through 'F005' waste, be delisted. On June 13, 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency published the final rule (Final Delisting), which formally excluded 71.9 million liters per year of 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility effluent from ''being listed as hazardous wastes'' (60 FR 31115 now promulgated in 40 CFR 261). Given the limited scope, it is necessary to request a modification of the Final Delisting to address the management of a more diverse multi-source leachate (F039) at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility. From past operations and current cleanup activities on the Hanford Facility, a considerable amount of both liquid and solid Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 regulated mixed waste has been and continues to be generated. Ultimately this waste will be treated as necessary to meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Land Disposal Restrictions. The disposal of this waste will be in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act--compliant permitted lined trenches equipped with leachate collection systems. These operations will result in the generation of what is referred to as multi-source leachate. This newly generated waste will receive the listed waste designation of F039. This waste also must be managed in compliance with the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  13. Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, J.L. Jr. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Samples from the ZBG wells at the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility are analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Industrial Solid Waste Permit {number_sign}025500-1603 (formerly IWP-217). No constituents were reported above SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standards or final Primary Drinking Water Standards during first or third quareters 1997. No constituents were detected above SRS flagging criteria during first or third quarters 1997.

  14. Annual Report for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shuman, Rob [WPS: WASTE PROJECTS AND SERVICES

    2012-05-22

    As a condition to the Disposal Authorization Statement issued to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) on March 17, 2010, a comprehensive performance assessment and composite analysis maintenance program must be implemented for the Technical Area 54, Area G disposal facility. Annual determinations of the adequacy of the performance assessment and composite analysis are to be conducted under the maintenance program to ensure that the conclusions reached by those analyses continue to be valid. This report summarizes the results of the fiscal year 2011 annual review for Area G. Revision 4 of the Area G performance assessment and composite analysis was issued in 2008 and formally approved in 2009. These analyses are expected to provide reasonable estimates of the long-term performance of Area G and, hence, the disposal facility's ability to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) performance objectives. Annual disposal receipt reviews indicate that smaller volumes of waste will require disposal in the pits and shafts at Area G relative to what was projected for the performance assessment and composite analysis. The future inventories are projected to decrease modestly for the pits but increase substantially for the shafts due to an increase in the amount of tritium that is projected to require disposal. Overall, however, changes in the projected future inventories of waste are not expected to compromise the ability of Area G to satisfy DOE performance objectives. The Area G composite analysis addresses potential impacts from all waste disposed of at the facility, as well as other sources of radioactive material that may interact with releases from Area G. The level of knowledge about the other sources included in the composite analysis has not changed sufficiently to call into question the validity of that analysis. Ongoing environmental surveillance activities are conducted at, and in the vicinity of, Area G. However, the information generated by

  15. Partial Closure Report for the Area 514 Treatment and Storage Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abri, M

    2005-05-02

    The purpose of this partial closure report is to inform the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) of the status of final closure of the Area 514 Treatment and Storage Facility (Area 514) and fulfill the DTSC requirements to proceed with the implementation of the interim action. Area 514 is located at the Livermore main site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). LLNL is owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and operated jointly by DOE and the University of California. LLNL received its permit to operate hazardous waste facilities from DTSC in 1997. The hazardous waste treatment and storage operations of Area 514 were transferred to a newly constructed complex, the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF), in 2003. Once the DWTF was operational, the final closure of Area 514 began in accordance with the DTSC-approved closure plan in June 2004. Abri Environmental Engineering, Inc., was retained by LLNL to observe the A514 closure process and prepare this partial closure report and certification. Prior to closure, the configuration of the Area 514 Treatment and Storage Facility consisted of Building 514, the Area 514-1 Container Storage and Treatment unit, the Area 514-2 Container Storage Unit (CSU), the Area 514-3 CSU, Building 513, the Wastewater Treatment Tank Farm unit, and the associated Area 514 yard area. The fenced area of Area 514 included approximately 27,350 ft2 on the LLNL Livermore site. To date, except for the 514-3 CSU, all of the other Area 514 structures have been demolished; and sampling and analysis have taken place. The non-hazardous wastes have been disposed of. At the time of writing this report, the hazardous, mixed, and low-level radioactive wastes are in the process of profiling for final disposition. Once the disposition of all wastes has been finalized, the implementation of the approved closure plan will be completed. As a part of the closure process, LLNL is required to submit a closure report and a

  16. [Environmental impacts of sewage treatment system based on emergy analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Li, Yuan-Wei; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Min; Deng, Shi-Huai

    2013-02-01

    "Integrated sewage treatment system" (ISTS) consists of sewage treatment plant system and their products (treated water and dewatered sludge) disposal facilities, which gives a holistic view of the whole sewage treatment process. During its construction and operation, ISTS has two main impacts on the environment, i.e., the consumption of resources and the damage of discharged pollutants on the environment, while the latter was usually ignored by the previous researchers when they assessed the impacts of wastewater treatment system. In order to more comprehensively understanding the impacts of sewage treatment on the environment, an analysis was made on the ISTS based on the theories of emergy analysis, and, in combining with ecological footprint theory, the sustainability of the ISTS was also analyzed. The results showed that the emergy of the impacts of water pollutants on the environment was far larger than that of the impacts of air pollutants, and NH3-N was the main responsible cause. The emergy consumption of ISTS mainly came from the emergy of wastewater and of local renewable resources. The "sewage treatment plant system + landfill system" had the highest emergy utilization efficiency, while the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + incineration system" had the lowest one. From the aspect of environmental sustainability, the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + landfill system" was the best ISTS, while the "sewage treatment plant system + incineration system" was the worst one.

  17. A systematic method for identifying vital areas at complex nuclear facilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, David Franklin; Hockert, John

    2005-05-01

    Identifying the areas to be protected is an important part of the development of measures for physical protection against sabotage at complex nuclear facilities. In June 1999, the International Atomic Energy Agency published INFCIRC/225/Rev.4, 'The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities.' This guidance recommends that 'Safety specialists, in close cooperation with physical protection specialists, should evaluate the consequences of malevolent acts, considered in the context of the State's design basis threat, to identify nuclear material, or the minimum complement of equipment, systems or devices to be protected against sabotage.' This report presents a structured, transparent approach for identifying the areas that contain this minimum complement of equipment, systems, and devices to be protected against sabotage that is applicable to complex nuclear facilities. The method builds upon safety analyses to develop sabotage fault trees that reflect sabotage scenarios that could cause unacceptable radiological consequences. The sabotage actions represented in the fault trees are linked to the areas from which they can be accomplished. The fault tree is then transformed (by negation) into its dual, the protection location tree, which reflects the sabotage actions that must be prevented in order to prevent unacceptable radiological consequences. The minimum path sets of this fault tree dual yield, through the area linkage, sets of areas, each of which contains nuclear material, or a minimum complement of equipment, systems or devices that, if protected, will prevent sabotage. This method also provides guidance for the selection of the minimum path set that permits optimization of the trade-offs among physical protection effectiveness, safety impact, cost and operational impact.

  18. Optimization of Upstream Detention Reservoir Facilities for Downstream Flood Mitigation in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thuy Ngo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A detention reservoir is one of the most effective engineered solutions for flood damage mitigation in urban areas. Detention facilities are constructed to temporarily store storm water and then slowly drain when the peak period has passed. This delayed drainage may coincide with upstream floods and aggravate the flood risk downstream. Optimal operation and design are needed to improve the performance of detention reservoirs for flood reduction. This study couples hydrologic simulation software (EPA-SWMM with an evolutional optimizer (extraordinary particle swarm optimization, EPSO to minimize flood damage downstream while considering the inundation risk at the detention reservoir. The optimum design and operation are applied to an urban case study in Seoul, Korea, for historical severe flooding events and designed rainfall scenarios. The optimal facilities outperform the present facilities in terms of flood damage reduction both downstream and in the detention reservoir area. Specifically, the peak water level at the detention pond under optimal conditions is significantly smaller than that of the current conditions. The comparison of the total flooded volume in the whole watershed shows a dramatic reduction of 79% in a severe flooding event in 2010 and around 20% in 2011 and in 180 min designed rainfall scenarios.

  19. Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. Facility description - Layout E. Spiral ramp with one operational area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Stig [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Forsgren, Ebbe [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Lange, Fritz [Lange Art AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    below ground. The proposal is based on a hypothetical inland location with a rail link. The report describes a layout with a spiral ramp as access to the deposition area and with a single operational area above ground. The ramp will be used as a transport route for heavy and bulky transports. A shaft, that connects the operational area with the central area of the deposition area, is used for utility systems and for staff transports between the surface and the deposition area. It has been assumed that the deposition areas and the central area are on the same level. The appendix, describing a two level alternative, shows how the underground area could be arranged if the deposition area for regular operation were to be divided into two levels. The facility description concentrates on the situation during regular operation. It also describes the gradual expansion programme, including land requirements and connections to existing infrastructure. The report concludes with some perspective sketches, which give a vision of how the repository might look when ready for operation. This facility description is a translation of the Swedish SKB report R-02-18. It is important to note that the report gives an example of one possible design for the deep repository. Many issues concerning system design, functional solutions, layout and design ought to be investigated further before deciding on the final design.

  20. Allowable residual-contamination levels for decommissioning facilities in the 100 areas of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.

    1983-07-01

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by UNC Nuclear Industries to determine Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for five generic categories of facilities in the 100 Areas of the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to provide ARCL data useful to UNC engineers in conducting safety and cost comparisons for decommissioning alternatives. The ARCL results are based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for three specific modes of future use of the land and facilities. These modes of use are restricted, controlled, and unrestricted. The information on ARCL values for restricted and controlled use provided by this report is intended to permit a full consideration of decommissioning alternatives. ARCL results are presented both for surface contamination remaining in facilities (in dpm/100 cm/sup 2/), and for unconfined surface and confined subsurface soil conditions (in pCi/g). Two confined soil conditions are considered: contamination at depths between 1 and 4 m, and contamination at depths greater than or equal to 5 m. A set of worksheets are presented in an appendix for modifying the ARCL values to accommodate changes in the radionuclide mixture or concentrations, to consider the impacts of radioactive decay, and to predict instrument responses. Finally, a comparison is made between the unrestricted release ARCL values for the 100 Area facilities and existing decommissioning and land disposal regulations. For surface contamination, the comparison shows good agreement. For soil contamination, the comparison shows good agreement if reasonable modification factors are applied to account for the differences in modeling soil contamination and licensed low-level waste.

  1. Identifying Potential Areas for Siting Interim Nuclear Waste Facilities Using Map Algebra and Optimization Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL; Belles, Randy [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Tuttle, Mark A [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The renewed interest in siting new nuclear power plants in the United States has brought to the center stage, the need to site interim facilities for long-term management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). In this paper, a two-stage approach for identifying potential areas for siting interim SNF facilities is presented. In the first stage, the land area is discretized into grids of uniform size (e.g., 100m x 100m grids). For the continental United States, this process resulted in a data matrix of about 700 million cells. Each cell of the matrix is then characterized as a binary decision variable to indicate whether an exclusion criterion is satisfied or not. A binary data matrix is created for each of the 25 siting criteria considered in this study. Using map algebra approach, cells that satisfy all criteria are clustered and regarded as potential siting areas. In the second stage, an optimization problem is formulated as a p-median problem on a rail network such that the sum of the shortest distance between nuclear power plants with SNF and the potential storage sites from the first stage is minimized. The implications of obtained results for energy policies are presented and discussed.

  2. Hypergol Maintenance Facility Hazardous Waste South Staging Areas, SWMU 070 Corrective Measures Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ralinda R.

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the Corrective Measures Implementation (CMI) Year 10 Annual Report for implementation of corrective measures at the Hypergol Maintenance Facility (HMF) Hazardous Waste South Staging Areas at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The work is being performed by Tetra Tech, Inc., for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) NNK12CA15B, Task Order (TO) 07. Mr. Harry Plaza, P.E., of NASA's Environmental Assurance Branch is the Remediation Project Manager for John F. Kennedy Space Center. The Tetra Tech Program Manager is Mr. Mark Speranza, P.E., and the Tetra Tech Project Manager is Robert Simcik, P.E.

  3. Protocol for the E-Area Low Level Waste Facility Disposal Limits Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swingle, R

    2006-01-31

    A database has been developed to contain the disposal limits for the E-Area Low Level Waste Facility (ELLWF). This database originates in the form of an EXCEL{copyright} workbook. The pertinent sheets are translated to PDF format using Adobe ACROBAT{copyright}. The PDF version of the database is accessible from the Solid Waste Division web page on SHRINE. In addition to containing the various disposal unit limits, the database also contains hyperlinks to the original references for all limits. It is anticipated that database will be revised each time there is an addition, deletion or revision of any of the ELLWF radionuclide disposal limits.

  4. Facile syntheses of 3-dimension graphene aerogel and nanowalls with high specific surface areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lina; Yang, Zhongbo; Yang, Jun; Wu, Yonggang; Wei, Dongshan

    2017-06-01

    We propose facile synthesis methods to prepare two three-dimension (3D) multi-porous graphene structures including graphene aerogel and graphene nanowalls. The graphene aerogel was prepared via the hydrothermal reduction and tert-butanol freeze-drying. The graphene nanowalls were prepared by growing the obtained graphene aerogel via a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). High specific surface areas of these two structures up to 795 m2/g were obtained by BET analyses. The crystallized, multi-porous, and thermal stable features of these two 3D graphene structures were verified via the X-ray diffraction, SEM, Raman spectroscopy and thermal gravity analysis characterizations.

  5. Radio-Ecological Conditions of Groundwater in the Area of Uranium Mining and Milling Facility - 13525

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titov, A.V.; Semenova, M.P.; Seregin, V.A.; Isaev, D.V.; Metlyaev, E.G. [FSBU SRC A.I.Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of FMBA of Russia, Zhivopisnaya Street, 46, Moscow (Russian Federation); Glagolev, A.V.; Klimova, T.I.; Sevtinova, E.B. [FSESP ' Hydrospecgeologiya' (Russian Federation); Zolotukhina, S.B.; Zhuravleva, L.A. [FSHE ' Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology no. 107' under FMBA of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Manmade chemical and radioactive contamination of groundwater is one of damaging effects of the uranium mining and milling facilities. Groundwater contamination is of special importance for the area of Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association, JSC 'PPMCA', because groundwater is the only source of drinking water. The paper describes natural conditions of the site, provides information on changes of near-surface area since the beginning of the company, illustrates the main trends of contaminators migration and assesses manmade impact on the quality and mode of near-surface and ground waters. The paper also provides the results of chemical and radioactive measurements in groundwater at various distances from the sources of manmade contamination to the drinking water supply areas. We show that development of deposits, mine water discharge, leakages from tailing dams and cinder storage facility changed general hydro-chemical balance of the area, contributed to new (overlaid) aureoles and flows of scattering paragenetic uranium elements, which are much smaller in comparison with natural ones. However, increasing flow of groundwater stream at the mouth of Sukhoi Urulyungui due to technological water infiltration, mixing of natural water with filtration streams from industrial reservoirs and sites, containing elevated (relative to natural background) levels of sulfate-, hydro-carbonate and carbonate- ions, led to the development and moving of the uranium contamination aureole from the undeveloped field 'Polevoye' to the water inlet area. The aureole front crossed the southern border of water inlet of drinking purpose. The qualitative composition of groundwater, especially in the southern part of water inlet, steadily changes for the worse. The current Russian intervention levels of gross alpha activity and of some natural radionuclides including {sup 222}Rn are in excess in drinking water; regulations for fluorine and manganese

  6. 77 FR 50165 - Escape and Evacuation Plans for Surface Coal Mines, Surface Facilities and Surface Work Areas of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... Administration. Title: Escape and Evacuation Plans for Surface Coal Mines, Surface Facilities ] and Surface Work... Safety and Health Administration Escape and Evacuation Plans for Surface Coal Mines, Surface Facilities and Surface Work Areas of Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration,...

  7. SPECIAL ANALYSIS AIR PATHWAY MODELING OF E-AREA LOW-LEVEL WASTE FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiergesell, R.; Taylor, G.

    2011-08-30

    This Special Analysis (SA) was initiated to address a concern expressed by the Department of Energy's Low Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) Review Team during their review of the 2008 E-Area Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC, 2008). Their concern was the potential for overlapping of atmospheric plumes, emanating from the soil surface above SRS LLW disposal facilities within the E-Area, to contribute to the dose received by a member of the public during the Institutional Control (IC) period. The implication of this concern was that the dose to the maximally-exposed individual (MEI) located at the SRS boundary might be underestimated during this time interval. To address this concern a re-analysis of the atmospheric pathway releases from E-Area was required. In the process of developing a new atmospheric release model (ARM) capable of addressing the LFRG plume overlap concern, it became obvious that new and better atmospheric pathway disposal limits should be developed for each of the E-Area disposal facilities using the new ARM. The scope of the SA was therefore expanded to include the generation of these new limits. The initial work conducted in this SA was to develop a new ARM using the GoldSim{reg_sign} program (GTG, 2009). The model simulates the subsurface vapor diffusion of volatile radionuclides as they release from E-Area disposal facility waste zones and migrate to the land surface. In the process of this work, many new features, including several new physical and chemical transport mechanisms, were incorporated into the model. One of the most important improvements was to incorporate a mechanism to partition volatile contaminants across the water-air interface within the partially saturated pore space of the engineered and natural materials through which vapor phase transport occurs. A second mechanism that was equally important was to incorporate a maximum concentration of 1.9E-07 Ci/m{sup 3} of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in the air

  8. Savannah River Plant engineering and design history. Volume 4: 300/700 Areas & general services and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-01-01

    The primary function of the 300 Area is the production and preparation of the fuel and target elements required for the 100 Area production reactors. Uranium slugs and lithium-aluminium alloy control and blanket rods are prepared in separate structures. Other facilities include a test pile, a physics assembly laboratory, an office and change house, an electrical substation, and various service facilities such as rail lines, roads, sewers, steam and water distribution lines, etc. The 700 Area contains housing and facilities for plant management, general plant services, and certain technical activities. The technical buildings include the Main Technical Laboratory, the Waste Concentration Building, the Health Physics Headquarters, and the Health Physics Calibration building. Sections of this report describe the following: development of the 300-M Area; selection and description of process; design of main facilities of the 300 Area; development of the 700-A Area; design of the main facilities of the 700 Area; and general services and facilities, including transportation, plant protection, waste disposal and drainage, site work, pilot plants, storage, and furniture and fixtures.

  9. Groundwater monitoring plan for the Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DB Barnett

    2000-05-17

    Seven years of groundwater monitoring at the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) have shown that the uppermost aquifer beneath the facility is unaffected by TEDF effluent. Effluent discharges have been well below permitted and expected volumes. Groundwater mounding from TEDF operations predicted by various models has not been observed, and waterlevels in TEDF wells have continued declining with the dissipation of the nearby B Pond System groundwater mound. Analytical results for constituents with enforcement limits indicate that concentrations of all these are below Practical Quantitation Limits, and some have produced no detections. Likewise, other constituents on the permit-required list have produced results that are mostly below sitewide background. Comprehensive geochemical analyses of groundwater from TEDF wells has shown that most constituents are below background levels as calculated by two Hanford Site-wide studies. Additionally, major ion proportions and anomalously low tritium activities suggest that groundwater in the aquifer beneath the TEDF has been sequestered from influences of adjoining portions of the aquifer and any discharge activities. This inference is supported by recent hydrogeologic investigations which indicate an extremely slow rate of groundwater movement beneath the TEDF. Detailed evaluation of TEDF-area hydrogeology and groundwater geochemistry indicate that additional points of compliance for groundwater monitoring would be ineffective for this facility, and would produce ambiguous results. Therefore, the current groundwater monitoring well network is retained for continued monitoring. A quarterly frequency of sampling and analysis is continued for all three TEDF wells. The constituents list is refined to include only those parameters key to discerning subtle changes in groundwater chemistry, those useful in detecting general groundwater quality changes from upgradient sources, or those retained for comparison with end

  10. Spatial and temporal effects of port facilities expansion on the surface area of shallow coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez-Rocha, V; Ortiz-Lozano, L

    2013-07-01

    There is a close relationship between ports and reef areas, mainly because reefs provide protection to vessels against extreme weather events like storms and hurricanes. This historical relationship has generated severe impacts on reef ecosystems. In order to identify the main impacts from the construction of port facilities in shallow coral reef areas, we analyzed and described the effects of land reclamation and coastal structure construction associated to port growth throughout a century in the Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano National Park, Mexico. We used aerial photographs and maps of the nineteenth and early twentieth century to assess the impacts caused by port expansion activities on shallow coral reefs. Three types of impacts were identified: (a) direct reef area loss caused by landfills and perpendicular coastal structures construction leading to the loss of nearly 50 % of the fringing reef near to the port; (b) fragmentation in short- and medium-term scale, which affects two fringing reefs, and (c) long-term modification of coastal dynamics leading to sedimentation and loss of a complete reef area. On the eve of a new expansion of Veracruz Port, we used the New Port Project Plan, long-shore net drift geomorphic indicators and the port impact typology from the 100-year period assessment to evaluate a possible future scenario. The scenario describes how the new expansion project will repeat the three types of impacts affecting a whole reef area, which is currently part of the National Park.

  11. Public facility planning in urban villagers' community based on Public Participation GIS: a case study of Wuhan new urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zeng, Zheng; Yu, Yang

    2009-10-01

    As a unique group in China's urbanization, "urban villager" is the concern of various parties of the society. From "farmers" to "urban residents", urban villagers' means of production and life style change dramatically. At present, public facility planning in urban villagers' community always fail to meet their particular demands. Taking PPGIS as an instrument, the paper analyzes the present status of public facilities in urban villagers' community and the new demand on public facilities from the changing production means and life style. The purpose is to put forward suggestions for public facility setting in urban villagers' community and offer theoretic guidance and proposal for Wuhan new urban areas. PPGIS is gradually being applied to social science researches in recent years. Through the integrated platform, it can achieve the objective of communication, coordination, cooperation and collaboration of different interests. In this research, ephemeral mapping, sketch mapping, scale mapping and aerial photographs are used to acquire spatial data of public facilities and attribute data of urban villagers in their community. Through the comparison of data, the research shows that while urban villagers in Wuhan new urban areas gradually accept city life, they inevitably maintain certain rural habits and customs. Therefore, the public facility planning in this particular kind of communities can neither be treated equal as countryside facility planning, nor simply adopt the practice in urban residential areas' planning; rather the planning system should take into account facilities of different categories at all levels, communities of different types and residential groups.

  12. A national study on nurses' retention in healthcare facilities in underserved areas in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Alameddine, Mohamad; Jamal, Diana; Dimassi, Hani; Dumit, Nuhad Y; McEwen, Mary K; Jaafar, Maha; Murray, Susan F

    2013-09-30

    Nursing shortages and maldistribution are priority issues for healthcare systems around the globe. Such imbalances are often aggravated in underserved areas, especially in developing countries. Despite the centrality of this issue, there is a dearth of studies that examine the retention of nurses in underserved areas in the Middle East Region. This study investigates the characteristic and the factors associated with the retention of nurses working in rural areas in Lebanon. This study uses a non-experimental cross-sectional design to survey nurses working in underserved areas of Lebanon. Underserved areas in Lebanon were identified using WHO definition. A total of 103 health facilities (hospitals and primary healthcare centers) located in these areas were identified and all nurses working at these facilities received a copy of the survey questionnaire. The questionnaire included five sections: demographic, work-life, career plan, job satisfaction, and assessment of work environment. Analysis included univariate and bivariate (chi-square, Student's t-test and ANOVA) tests to describe the respondents and examine the significance between nurses' characteristics and their intent to stay. A logistic regression model was constructed to identify factors associated with nurses' intent to stay in underserved areas. A total of 857 nurses from 63 Primary Healthcare (PHC) centers and hospitals responded to the questionnaire (75.5% response rate). Only 35.1% of nurses indicated their intent to stay in their current job over the coming one to three years. Surveyed nurses were most satisfied with relationship with co-workers and least satisfied with extrinsic rewards. Rural nurses working in PHC centers were more satisfied than their hospital counterparts on all aspects of work and had significantly higher intention to stay (62.5% compared to 31.5% in hospitals, P Lebanon, especially in the hospital sector. The status quo is disquieting as it reflects an unstable and

  13. A national study on nurses’ retention in healthcare facilities in underserved areas in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Nursing shortages and maldistribution are priority issues for healthcare systems around the globe. Such imbalances are often aggravated in underserved areas, especially in developing countries. Despite the centrality of this issue, there is a dearth of studies that examine the retention of nurses in underserved areas in the Middle East Region. This study investigates the characteristic and the factors associated with the retention of nurses working in rural areas in Lebanon. Methods This study uses a non-experimental cross-sectional design to survey nurses working in underserved areas of Lebanon. Underserved areas in Lebanon were identified using WHO definition. A total of 103 health facilities (hospitals and primary healthcare centers) located in these areas were identified and all nurses working at these facilities received a copy of the survey questionnaire. The questionnaire included five sections: demographic, work-life, career plan, job satisfaction, and assessment of work environment. Analysis included univariate and bivariate (chi-square, Student’s t-test and ANOVA) tests to describe the respondents and examine the significance between nurses’ characteristics and their intent to stay. A logistic regression model was constructed to identify factors associated with nurses’ intent to stay in underserved areas. Results A total of 857 nurses from 63 Primary Healthcare (PHC) centers and hospitals responded to the questionnaire (75.5% response rate). Only 35.1% of nurses indicated their intent to stay in their current job over the coming one to three years. Surveyed nurses were most satisfied with relationship with co-workers and least satisfied with extrinsic rewards. Rural nurses working in PHC centers were more satisfied than their hospital counterparts on all aspects of work and had significantly higher intention to stay (62.5% compared to 31.5% in hospitals, P Lebanon, especially in the hospital sector. The status quo is disquieting as it

  14. Extraction of certain heavy metals from sewage sludge using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    2011 Nigerian Society for Experimental Biology. Printed in ... Sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants contains organic compounds, ... treatment plants receive discharges not only from residential area but also from industry.

  15. The Beam Profile Monitoring System for the IRRAD Proton Facility at the CERN PS East Area

    CERN Document Server

    Gkotse, Blerina; Matli, Emanuele; Ravotti, Federico; Gan, Kock Kiam; Kagan, Harris; Smith, Shane; Warner, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    In High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments, devices are frequently required to withstand a certain radiation level. As a result, detectors and electronics must be irradiated to determine their level of radiation tolerance. To perform these irradiations, CERN built a new irradiation facility in the East Area at the Proton Synchrotron (PS) accelerator. At this facility, named IRRAD, a high-intensity 24 GeV/c proton beam is used. During irradiation, it is necessary to monitor the intensity and the transverse profile of the proton beam. The Beam Profile Monitor (BPM) for IRRAD uses 39-channel pixel detectors to monitor the beam position. These pixel detectors are constructed using thin foil copper pads positioned on a flex circuit. When protons pass through the copper pads, they induce a measurable current. To measure this current and determine the total flux of protons passing through the thin foil copper detectors, a new data acquisition system was designed as well as a new database and on-line display system. In...

  16. Hazard categorization for 300 area N reactor fuel fabrication and storage facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brehm, J.R., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-12

    A final hazard categorization has been prepared for the 300 Area Fuel Supply Shutdown (FSS) facility in accordance with DOE-STD-1027-92, ''Hazard Categorization and Accident Analysis Techniques for Compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports'' (DOE 1992). Prior to using the hazard category methodology, hazard classifications were prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) controlled manual, WHC-CM-4-46, ''Safety Analysis Manual'', Chapter 4.0, ''Hazard Classification.'' A hazard classification (Huang 1995) was previously prepared for the FSS in accordance with WHC-CM-4-46. The analysis lead to the conclusion that the FSS should be declared a Nuclear facility with a Moderate Hazard Class rating. The analysis and results contained in the hazard classification can be used to provide additional information to support other safety analysis documentation. Also, the hazard classification provides analyses of the toxicological hazards inherent with the FSS inventory: whereas, a hazard categorization prepared in accordance with DOE-STD-1027-92, considers only the radiological component of the inventory.

  17. Reconnaissance of geothermal resources near US naval facilities in the San Diego area, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngs, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    A reconnaissance study has found little evidence of potential geothermal resources useful at naval facilities in the greater San Diego metropolitan area. However, there is a zone of modest elevated water well temperatures and slightly elevated thermal gradients that may include the eastern portion of the Imperial Beach Naval Air Station south of San Diego Bay. An increase of 0.3/sup 0/ to 0.4/sup 0/F/100 ft over the regional thermal gradient of 1.56/sup 0/F/100 ft was conservatively calculated for this zone. The thermal gradient can be used to predict 150/sup 0/F temperatures at a depth of approximately 4000 ft. This zone of greatest potential for a viable geothermal resource lies within a negative gravity anomaly thought to be caused by a tensionally developed graben, approximately centered over the San Diego Bay. Water well production in this zone is good to high, with 300 gpm often quoted as common for wells in this area. The concentration of total dissolved solids (TDS) in the deeper wells in this zone is relatively high due to intrusion of sea water. Productive geothermal wells may have to be drilled to depths economically infeasible for development of the resource in the area of discussion.

  18. Environmental effectiveness of swine sewage management: a multicriteria AHP-based model for a reliable quick assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizzari, Marco; Modica, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Environmental issues related to swine production are still a major concern for the general public and represent a key challenge for the swine industry. The environmental impact of higher livestock concentration is particularly significant where it coincides with weaker policy standards and poor manure management. Effective tools for environmental monitoring of the swine sewage management process become essential for verifying the environmental compatibility of farming facilities and for defining suitable policies aimed at increasing swine production sustainability. This research aims at the development and application of a model for a quick assessment of the environmental effectiveness of the pig farming sewage management process. In order to define the model, multicriteria techniques, and in particular, Saaty's analytic hierarchy process, were used to develop an iterative process in which the various key factors influencing the process under investigation were analyzed. The model, named EASE (Environmental Assessment of Sewages management Effectiveness), was optimized and applied to the Lake Trasimeno basin (Umbria, Italy), an area of high natural, environmental and aesthetic value. In this context, inadequate disposal of pig sewage represents a potential source of very considerable pollution. The results have demonstrated how the multicriteria model can represent a very effective and adaptable tool also in those decision-making processes aimed at the sustainable management of livestock production.

  19. F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Correction Action Report, Third and Fourth Quarter 1998, Volumes I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-23

    The groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF), also known as the F-Area Seepage Basins, at the Savannah Site (SRS) is monitored periodically for selected hazardous and radioactive constituents. This report presents the results of the required groundwater monitoring program.

  20. H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Corrective Action Report, Third and Fourth Quarter 1998, Volumes I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-23

    The groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF), also known as the H-Area Seepage Basins, at the Savannah Site (SRS) is monitored periodically for selected hazardous and radioactive constituents. This report presents the results of the required groundwater monitoring program.

  1. Analysis of Water Quality of Sewage Ditch in Rural-Urban Fringe Area%成都市城乡结合部排污渠污水水质规律分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈茂霞; 王欢; 周后珍; 谭周亮; 李旭东

    2013-01-01

    A sewage ditch in rural-urban fringe area in Pixian County,Chengdu was selected as the object of investigation in this study.The water quality variations in winter,spring and summer of this sewage ditch was studied by means of 24h sampling and every other day intermittent sampling.Ammonia CODCr and temperature were the main detection indexes.Detection analysis showed that water quality in this sewage ditch was long-term stable and the variation of each pollution index in winter and spring was not significant,the average value of ammonia nitrogen and CODCr were 47.89mg/L and 410.67mg/L respectively.24h water quality testing showed that there is large fluctuation in water quality,the ammonia nitrogen and CODCr in the nighttime was lower and more stable than that in the daytime.Summer rainfall diluted the water in the sewage ditch and made the ammonia nitrogen,CODCr to a low level.It could be recovered in 1 day in the condition of no more rain.Abnormal water with high ammonia nitrogen and CODCr appeared frequently.Relevant suggestions for watershed management were proposed according to the research results.%本文以成都市郫县城乡结合部某排污渠为调查对象,以氨氮、CODCr、温度为主要指标,通过24h全天取样与以天为单位间歇取样的方式,考察其冬季、春季和夏季的水质变化.检测分析表明:该排污渠长期水质较稳定,冬季和春季各污染指标动态变化不大,氨氮和CODCr平均值分别为47.89mg/L和410.67mg/L; 24h水质检测表明,水质整体波动较大,夜间氨氮和CODCr含量较白天的低且稳定;夏季降雨的稀释作用使得其中氨氮和CODCr含量降低至较低水平,且在没有再次降雨的情况下,需1d时间可恢复稳定;另外,异常水质出现较多,且氨氮和CODCr含量较高.根据相关研究结果,提出了该流域治理的相关建议.

  2. Sewage-fed aquaculture: a sustainable approach for wastewater treatment and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Chaturvedi, Manoj K M; Sharma, Saroj Kumar; Asolekar, Shyam R

    2015-10-01

    This study assesses the long-term sustainability for operation and maintenance (O&M) of sewage-fed aquaculture-based sewage treatment system. The study focused on the integrated assessment of an engineered pond system of 8 million liters per day capacity in the city of Karnal, the State of Haryana, northern India. Major areas during the assessment included health, environmental, societal and institutional views aspects as well as the quality of treated effluent subjected for reuse. The treatment facility met the Indian regulatory standards (downstream reuse and discharge into the legally permitted water bodies) in terms of physical-chemical parameters. The total coliform and faecal coliform removal were up to 2-3 log units; nevertheless, it was not capable to come across the bacterial count requirement (aquaculture practices). The system was able to generate sufficient net income required for routine O&M. Annual revenue collected by the Municipal Corporation from the lease of the facility as well as selling of treated wastewater was $3,077 and $16,667-$25,000, respectively. The additional benefit from the facility for the farmers included the saving of fertilizers and cheapest source of water available for irrigation. Recycling of treated sewages for irrigation is also returned nutrients to the surrounding farms in Karnal. This exercise has saved significant quantities of chemical fertilizer (26-41 Ton of nitrogen, 10-18 Ton of phosphorous and 38-58 Ton of potassium per year) and the overall benefit for farmers during cultivation of one acre of crop was calculated to be approximately $133 per year.

  3. Sewage sludge treatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

  4. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage effluent, continental and coastal waters from the Northwestern Mediterrean Sea: Comparison between two contrasted catchment areas (Marseilles Bay and Vermeille coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigue, Catherine; Ferretto, Nicolas; Méjanelle, Laurence; Tedetti, Marc; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Goutx, Madeleine

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed from sewage treatment plant waters and surface waters collected in continental (rivers), harbour and off-shore marine sites from Marseilles Bay and Vermeille coastal areas between 2009 and 2013 (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, France). After collection, water samples were first filtered on glass fiber filters, then PAHs from the dissolved phase were extracted using liquid-liquid or solid phase extraction (SPE) methods, while those from particles were treated according to Bligh and Dyer method. After a possible purification step, extracts were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Regardless of the study area, dissolved and particulate PAH (18 parents + alkylated homologues) concentration averages were 150.2 ± 140.5 ng l-1and 39.4 ± 71.2 ng l-1, respectively. Interestingly, the concentration in dissolved PAHs was on average 3.8 higher than the concentration in particulate PAHs. In addition, a gradient of PAH concentrations was observed from coastal waters with the highest values in harbours and outlet sewage effluents and the lowest values in off-shore marine waters. Intermediate concentrations were recorded in continental waters. In the Marseilles Bay, dissolved PAH concentrations were significantly higher and associated to increased signatures of unburned and combusted fossil fuels, mainly from heating, during the cold period (November-April). In contrast, unburned petroleum signature dominated in the warm period (May-October), emphasizing the intense shipping traffic and urban/industrial activities occurring in one of the largest Mediterranean harbour and city. Conversely, in the Vermeille coastal waters, dissolved PAH concentrations were higher during the warm period when particulate PAHs displayed the lowest concentrations, suggesting a seasonal related partition between dissolved and particulate PAHs. In addition, in the Vermeille coastal waters, PAHs were dominated by

  5. Classification of basic facilities for high-rise residential: A survey from 100 housing scheme in Kajang area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, Adi Irfan Che; Sairi, Ahmad; Tawil, Norngainy Mohd; Wahab, Siti Rashidah Hanum Abd; Razak, Muhd Zulhanif Abd

    2016-08-01

    High demand for housing and limited land in town area has increasing the provision of high-rise residential scheme. This type of housing has different owners but share the same land lot and common facilities. Thus, maintenance works of the buildings and common facilities must be well organized. The purpose of this paper is to identify and classify basic facilities for high-rise residential building hoping to improve the management of the scheme. The method adopted is a survey on 100 high-rise residential schemes that ranged from affordable housing to high cost housing by using a snowball sampling. The scope of this research is within Kajang area, which is rapidly developed with high-rise housing. The objective of the survey is to list out all facilities in every sample of the schemes. The result confirmed that pre-determined 11 classifications hold true and can provide the realistic classification for high-rise residential scheme. This paper proposed for redefinition of facilities provided to create a better management system and give a clear definition on the type of high-rise residential based on its facilities.

  6. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, J.P.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Gillies, D.C. [eds.

    1999-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the US Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the US Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Shallow infiltration is not discussed in detail in this report because the focus in on three major aspects of the deep unsaturated-zone system: geologic framework, the gaseous-phase system, and the aqueous-phase system. However, because the relation between shallow infiltration and deep percolation is important to an overall understanding of the unsaturated-zone flow system, a summary of infiltration studies conducted to date at Yucca Mountain is provided in the section titled Shallow Infiltration. This report describes results of several Site Characterization Plan studies that were ongoing at the time excavation of the ESF North Ramp began and that continued as excavation proceeded.

  7. Vast Area Detection for Experimental Radiochemistry (VADER) at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Justin; Bettencourt, Ron; Shaughnessy, Dawn; Gharibyan, Narek; Talison, Bahram; Morris, Kevin; Smith, Cal

    2015-08-01

    At the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the flux of neutrons and charged particles at peak burn in an inertial confinement fusion capsule induces measureable concentrations of nuclear reaction products in the target material. Radiochemical analysis of post-shot debris can be used to determine diagnostic parameters associated with implosion of the capsule, including fuel areal density and ablator-fuel mixing. Additionally, analysis of debris from specially doped targets can support nuclear forensic research. We have developed and are deploying the Vast Area Detection for Experimental Radiochemistry (VADER) diagnostic to collect shot debris and interact with post-shot reaction products at the NIF. VADER uses quick release collectors that are easily reconfigured for different materials and geometries. Collectors are located ~50 cm from the NIF target; each of up to 9 collectors views ~0.005-0.0125 steradians solid angle, dependent upon configuration. Dynamic loading of the NIF target vaporized mass was modelled using LS-DYNA. 3-dimensional printing was utilized to expedite the design process. Model-based manufacturing was used throughout. We will describe the design and operation of this diagnostic as well as some initial results.

  8. Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in municipal sewage sludge from a river in highly urbanized metropolitan area in Hanoi, Vietnam: levels, accumulation pattern and assessment of land application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Cao Vu; Cam, Bui Duy; Mai, Pham Thi Ngoc; Dzung, Bach Quang

    2015-02-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sludge from Kim Nguu River, Hanoi, Vietnam, were analyzed to understand the contamination levels, distribution and accumulation pattern of municipal sludge from a highly urbanized area that receive direct discharge of wastewater. High concentrations of heavy metals such as As, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were observed in sludge, which were exceeded the Vietnamese regulation threshold values. In general, contamination status of heavy metals in sludge was in the similar range or slightly lower than those previously reported in sludge from the same area. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were 24.3, 2.65, 105, 166, 60.8, 73.7 and 569 mg/kg dry wt., respectively. Our result also indicates increased levels of PAHs, which are among the first data on PAHs accumulation in municipal sludge from metropolitan area in Vietnam. PAH concentrations ranged from 218 to 751 mg/kg dry wt. (mean: 456 mg/kg dry wt.), which were greater than those reported in sewage sludge from other countries as well as in sediments and soils collected from the same area. Accumulation pattern revealed the predominant of higher-ringed PAH compounds. Indicator ratios suggest the sources of PAHs were probably derived from biomass (wood and coal) and fossil fuel combustion and petroleum emissions. Most of the sludge samples contain PAHs concentrations exceeding various international guidelines values for sludge and sediment, such as probable effect levels, suggesting the possible risk for adverse biological effects in the study area and in the landfill sites where dredged sludge was dumped.

  9. 太原市污灌区有机氯农药垂直分布特征及源解析%Vertical Distribution and Source Analysis of Organochlorine Pesticides in Sewage Irrigation Area,Taiyuan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖小平; 张彩香; 赵旭; 向青清; 李佳乐

    2012-01-01

    Nine profile soil samples were collected from Xiaodian sewage irrigation area in Taiyuan city,and the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides(OCPs) were determined by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector(GC-ECD) to analyze the vertical distribution.The results showed that the OCPs were mainly accumulated in the surface soil layer(0-30 cm) with the maximum concentration of 98.56 ng·g-1,and HCHs,DDTs,endosulfans and methoxychlor were the predominant contaminants compared with other pesticides in the surface soil,which accounted for 85.1% in total OCPs.The concentrations of OCPs were clearly decreased with the increasing of the depth to the top layer in the most profile soils.β-HCH and DDE(sum of o,p′-DDE and p,p′-DDE) were the main contaminants in HCH pesticides and DDT pesticides,respectively.Composition analysis indicated that new DDT sources might be introduced into the groundwater irrigation and swamp area recently,and the main source of HCHs and DDTs was the residual of history use in other areas.Most profile soils were defined silt loam in study area.The correlations between the concentration of OCPs and the total organic carbon(TOC) were positively significant in sewage irrigation area and groundwater irrigation area,but they were not significantly correlated in swamp area and background area.%采用气相色谱-电子捕获检测器(GC-ECD)方法分析了太原市小店污灌区9个土壤剖面中有机氯农药(OCPs)的垂直分布特征.结果表明,OCPs主要积累在土壤上层0~30 cm,含量最大值为98.56 ng·g-1,其中六六六(HCHs)、滴滴涕(DDTs)、硫丹(endosulfans)和甲氧滴滴涕(methoxychlor)为主要污染物质,占总有机氯农药的85.1%,其它有机氯农药物质相对含量较少.绝大部分剖面土中OCPs含量随着深度增加而明显减少,β-HCH和DDE(o,p'-DDE+p,p'-DDE)在HCH农药和DDT农药中占主要成分.组分分析表明,清灌区和沼泽区

  10. Welfare and performance in layers following temporary exclusion from the litter area on introduction to the layer facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, M; Wall, H; Holm, L; Wichman, A; Palme, R; Tauson, R

    2015-04-01

    When introduced to the laying facility, pullets are sometimes temporarily excluded from the litter area in order to help them locate food and water, and to prevent floor-laid eggs. This procedure is not permitted in Sweden, because it involves denying access to both litter and space, which may have a negative effect on bird welfare. The present study investigated how the welfare and performance of layers were affected by this temporary exclusion on introduction of hens to the laying facility. The study included 600 floor-reared Dekalb White layers obtained at 16 wk age and housed in 6 groups of 100 in a conventional single-tier floor-laying system. Birds were either given full access to the litter area during the whole study or were excluded from the litter area during the first 2 wk after transfer to the laying facility. From 18 to 72 wk age, birds in both treatments had full access to the litter area. Excluding birds from the litter area for 2 wk resulted in better feather cover and reduced fearfulness, according to novel object and tonic immobility tests. Furthermore, birds initially excluded from the litter area produced eggs with a lower proportion of shell irregularities than birds with full access to the litter area throughout. No difference was found in corticosterone metabolites in droppings rate of lay, mortality, or proportion of floor-laid eggs. In conclusion, none of the parameters studied indicated that the welfare of laying hens was compromised by temporary exclusion from the litter area on introduction to the laying facility. In fact, some of the data suggested that bird welfare had improved.

  11. RCRA Facility Investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    This report presents compiled information concerning a facility investigation of waste area group 6(WAG-6), of the solid waste management units (SWMU'S) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The WAG is a shallow ground disposal area for low-level radioactive wastes and chemical wastes. The report contains information on hydrogeological data, contaminant characterization, radionuclide concentrations, risk assessment from doses to humans and animals and associated cancer risks, exposure via food chains, and historical data. (CBS)

  12. RCRA Facility Investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    This report presents compiled information concerning a facility investigation of waste area group 6(WAG-6), of the solid waste management units (SWMU's) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The WAG is a shallow ground disposal area for low-level radioactive wastes and chemical wastes. The report contains information on hydrogeological data, contaminant characterization, radionuclide concentrations, risk assessment and baseline human health evaluation including a toxicity assessment, and a baseline environmental evaluation.

  13. Mixed Waste Management Facility FSS Well Data Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth Quarter 1994 and 1994 summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1994, ten constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults, and the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. No constituent exceeded final PDWS in samples from the upgradient monitoring wells. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  14. Determining geographic areas and populations with timely access to cardiac catheterization facilities for acute myocardial infarction care in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters Nigel M

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study uses geographic information systems (GIS as a tool to evaluate and visualize the general accessibility of areas within the province of Alberta (Canada to cardiac catheterization facilities. Current American and European guidelines suggest performing catheterization within 90 minutes of the first medical contact. For this reason, this study evaluates the populated places that are within a 90 minute transfer time to a city with a catheterization facility. The three modes of transport considered in this study are ground ambulance, rotary wing air ambulance and fixed wing air ambulance. Methods Reference data from the Alberta Chart of Call were interpolated into continuous travel time surfaces. These continuous surfaces allowed for the delineation of isochrones: lines that connect areas of equal time. Using Dissemination Area (DA centroids to represent the adult population, the population numbers were extracted from the isochrones using Statistics Canada census data. Results By extracting the adult population from within isochrones for each emergency transport mode analyzed, it was found that roughly 70% of the adult population of Alberta had access within 90 minutes to catheterization facilities by ground, roughly 66% of the adult population had access by rotary wing air ambulance and that no population had access within 90 minutes using the fixed wing air ambulance. An overall understanding of the nature of air vs. ground emergency travel was also uncovered; zones were revealed where the use of one mode would be faster than the others for reaching a facility. Conclusion Catheter intervention for acute myocardial infarction is a time sensitive procedure. This study revealed that although a relatively small area of the province had access within the 90 minute time constraint, this area represented a large proportion of the population. Within Alberta, fixed wing air ambulance is not an effective means of transporting

  15. Determining geographic areas and populations with timely access to cardiac catheterization facilities for acute myocardial infarction care in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Alka B; Waters, Nigel M; Ghali, William A

    2007-10-16

    This study uses geographic information systems (GIS) as a tool to evaluate and visualize the general accessibility of areas within the province of Alberta (Canada) to cardiac catheterization facilities. Current American and European guidelines suggest performing catheterization within 90 minutes of the first medical contact. For this reason, this study evaluates the populated places that are within a 90 minute transfer time to a city with a catheterization facility. The three modes of transport considered in this study are ground ambulance, rotary wing air ambulance and fixed wing air ambulance. Reference data from the Alberta Chart of Call were interpolated into continuous travel time surfaces. These continuous surfaces allowed for the delineation of isochrones: lines that connect areas of equal time. Using Dissemination Area (DA) centroids to represent the adult population, the population numbers were extracted from the isochrones using Statistics Canada census data. By extracting the adult population from within isochrones for each emergency transport mode analyzed, it was found that roughly 70% of the adult population of Alberta had access within 90 minutes to catheterization facilities by ground, roughly 66% of the adult population had access by rotary wing air ambulance and that no population had access within 90 minutes using the fixed wing air ambulance. An overall understanding of the nature of air vs. ground emergency travel was also uncovered; zones were revealed where the use of one mode would be faster than the others for reaching a facility. Catheter intervention for acute myocardial infarction is a time sensitive procedure. This study revealed that although a relatively small area of the province had access within the 90 minute time constraint, this area represented a large proportion of the population. Within Alberta, fixed wing air ambulance is not an effective means of transporting patients to a catheterization facility within the 90 minute time

  16. Factors influencing sustainability of communally-managed water facilities in rural areas of Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kativhu, T.; Mazvimavi, D.; Tevera, D.; Nhapi, I.

    2017-08-01

    Sustainability of point water facilities is a major development challenge in many rural settings of developing countries not sparing those in the Sub-Saharan Africa region. This study was done in Zimbabwe to investigate the factors influencing sustainability of rural water supply systems. A total of 399 water points were studied in Nyanga, Chivi and Gwanda districts. Data was collected using a questionnaire, observation checklist and key informant interview guide. Multi-Criteria analysis was used to assess the sustainability of water points and inferential statistical analysis such as Chi square tests and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to determine if there were significant differences on selected variables across districts and types of lifting devices used in the study area. The thematic approach was used to analyze qualitative data. Results show that most water points were not functional and only 17% across the districts were found to be sustainable. A fusion of social, technical, financial, environmental and institutional factors was found to be influencing sustainability. On technical factors the ANOVA results show that the type of lifting device fitted at a water point significantly influences sustainability (F = 37.4, p survey. Active participation by communities at the planning stage of water projects was also found to be critical for sustainability although field results showed passive participation by communities at this critical project stage. Financial factors of adequacy of financial contributions and establishment of operation and maintenance funds were also found to be of great importance in sustaining water supply systems. It is recommended that all factors should be considered when assessing sustainability since they are interrelated.

  17. Evaluation of alternatives for the future of facilities at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center. [State and NRC-licensed burial areas; low-level liquid waste treatment facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-08-01

    Regulatory considerations are discussed. Alternatives for the continued operation or decommissioning of the state-licensed burial area, the low-level waste treatment facilities, and the NRC licensed burial area are evaluated. Radiological impact analyses were also performed for alternatives on other facilities. (DLC)

  18. Application of A/O2 Biofilm Process in Treatment and Reuse of Sewage from Urban Residential Area%生物膜法A/O2工艺处理城市小区污水并回用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛会超; 宋彬; 姜广辉; 陈国栋

    2012-01-01

    介绍了采用生物膜法A/O2工艺处理济南某居民小区生活污水并回用的工程设计和运行情况.运行结果表明,该工艺对COD的去除率达93%,脱氮率达60%.出水水质能稳定达到《城市污水再生利用城市杂用水水质》( GB/T 18920-2002)标准,并全部回用于小区绿化和道路喷洒降尘,实现了小区水资源的高效利用,并减轻了环境负荷.%The design and operation of A/Cr biofilm process for treatment and reuse of sewage from a residential area in Jinan were introduced. The results showed that the removal rates of COD and nitrogen were 93% and 60% respectively. The effluent quality satisfied the requirement of Reuse of Urban Recycling Water—Water Quality Standard for Urban Miscellaneous Water Consumption (GB/T 18920 - 2002). The effluent, as reclaimed water, was used for greening and spraying road, which achieves efficient use of water resources and reduces the environmental load.

  19. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 116: Area 25 Test Cell C Facility, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2011-09-29

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 116, Area 25 Test Cell C Facility. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 [as amended March 2010]). CAU 116 consists of the following two Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Area 25 of the Nevada National Security Site: (1) CAS 25-23-20, Nuclear Furnace Piping and (2) CAS 25-41-05, Test Cell C Facility. CAS 25-41-05 consisted of Building 3210 and the attached concrete shield wall. CAS 25-23-20 consisted of the nuclear furnace piping and tanks. Closure activities began in January 2007 and were completed in August 2011. Activities were conducted according to Revision 1 of the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 116 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2008). This CR provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and provides data confirming that closure objectives for CAU 116 were met. Site characterization data and process knowledge indicated that surface areas were radiologically contaminated above release limits and that regulated and/or hazardous wastes were present in the facility.

  20. HAUSEHOLD SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT CHOSEN LUBLIN COMMUNES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jadwiga Sender

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic elements of environmental and economic policy of Poland is water and sewage management. On the area of Poland with less developed sewage infrastructure part of the population using household sewage systems. But mostly they are used no outflow tanks (92%. The dynamic development of settlements around urban areas should be focused on particular care for the natural environment, also water. The aim of the study was to determine the share of sewage treatment plants in the development of wastewater management in four municipalities adjacent to Lublin city. The study involved the demographic analysis in municipalities, the development of water and sewage systems as well as participation of sewage treatment plants in this system during the years 2005 -2014. In all the studied municipalities there was an upward trend associated with the expansion of of water supply network and sewerage. In all the studied municipalities it occurred a total of 1,413 units of sewage treatment plants, and only 227 of them were financed from the municipality. The largest number of sewage treatment was within the municipality Niemce. In recent years, most municipalities there was a slight decline in sewage treatment plants investments. This is due to the development of the sewerage network in the areas of municipalities.

  1. Design bases: Bauxite-sulfuric acid feed facilities 100-K Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etheridge, E.L.

    1993-06-10

    This document defines the objective, bases, and functional requirements governing the preparation of detail design of the bauxite-sulfuric acid feed facilities to be installed in the 183-KE and KW buildings. These facilities will produce the chemical coagulant used in the treatment of Columbia River water in the water plants; they will replace existing liquid alum feed systems. The treated water will be used as reactor coolant.

  2. Evaluation of bangkok sewage sludge for possible agricultural use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasda, Nuanjun; Panichsakpatana, Supamard; Limtong, Pitayakon; Oliver, Robert; Montange, Denis

    2006-04-01

    Bangkok (Thailand) covers more than 1500 km2 and has 10 million inhabitants. The disposal of wastewater is creating huge problems of pollution. The estimated amount of sewage sludge was estimated to be around 108 tonnes dry matter (DM) per day in 2005. In order to find a lasting way of disposal for this sewage sludge, the suitability of the sludge produced from three waste-water treatment plants for use as fertilizing material was investigated. Monthly samplings and analysis of sewage sludge from each plant showed that the composition of sludge varied according to the area of collection and period of sampling, and there was no link to rainfall cycle. Plant nutrient content was high (i.e. total N from 19 to 38 g kg(-1) DM) whereas organic matter content was low. The concentrations of heavy metals varied between sludge samples, and were sometimes higher than the E.U. or U.S. regulations for sewage sludge use in agriculture. Faecal coliforms were present in the sludge from one of the plants, indicating a possible contamination by night soil. In order to decrease this potentially pathogenic population the sewage sludge should be heated by composting. As the C/N ratio of sewage sludge was low (around 6) some organic by-products with high carbon content could be added as structural material to enhance the composting.

  3. Sanitation in classroom and food preparation areas in child-care facilities in North Carolina and South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgenent, Kelly C; Cates, Sheryl C; Fraser, Angela; Chapman, Benjamin; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Chen, Xi

    2014-11-01

    Approximately 60% of U.S. children aged five and younger spend time in child-care settings. Such environments increase the risk of diarrheal disease, including diseases caused by enteric pathogens. To describe adherence to sanitation standards in classrooms and food preparation areas in child-care facilities, the authors conducted site visits in 40 North Carolina and South Carolina child-care facilities. Audits in up to two classrooms (rooms providing care for infants and toddlers) and the kitchen were performed using a form similar to a regulatory inspection form. Audit data were used to calculate indices to describe adherence to sanitation standards and were based on state environmental health regulations for child-care centers, the Food and Drug Administration's Food Code 2009, and guidance from food safety experts. Most facilities participating in the authors' study adhered to sanitation standards within the classroom; however, deficiencies with regard to sanitation in food preparation areas and refrigerator operating temperatures were noted. These results provide insight into possible risk factors for enteric disease transmission in child-care facilities.

  4. Pollution and Potential Environment Risk Assessment of Soil Heavy Metals in Sewage Irrigation Area%长期污灌农田土壤重金属污染及潜在环境风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈涛; 常庆瑞; 刘京; 刘钊; 刘海飞

    2012-01-01

    In a typical sewage irrigation area, 52 surface soil samples were collected to determine total concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmi-um(Cd), chromium(Cr), copper(Cu), mercury(Hg), nickel(Ni), lead(Pb) and zinc(Zn). The Nemero Synthesis Index and Hakanson's Environment Risk Index of soil heavy metals were evaluated and compared at different wastewater irrigation histories and distances from irrigation canal. The results showed that some soil heavy metals had been enriched in the topsoil due to long-term sewage irrigation. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn were 9.88 mg·kg-1, 1.45 mg·kg-1, 88.41 mg·kg-1, 52.24 mg·kg-1, 1.38 mg·kg-1, 34.14 mg·kg-1, 55.01 mg·kg-1 and 151.16 mg·kg-1, respectively. In nearly half of samples, Cd and Hg concentrations have exceeded the pollution levels based on Chinese Environment Quality Standard for Soils, which have exhibited a very serious pollution trend. Based on the pollution index of eight elements, they followed: Cd>Hg>Ni>Cu>Zn>As>Cr>Pb. In addition, there existed extremely strong comprehensive environment risks for soil heavy metals, in which slight-strong ecological risk for Cd and strong ecological risk for Hg. The risk order of soil heavy metals is Hg>Cd>Pb>Cu>As>Ni>Cr>Zn. The comprehensive pollution index and ecological risk index of heavy metal increased with the increasing sewage irrigation histories and decreasing distances from irrigation canal. It is concluded that long-term wastewater irrigation was harmful to the ecological environment of farmland soils. In order to protect agricultural production safety and promote soil resource sustainable utilization, some necessary measures against soil heavy metal pollution in sewage irrigation farmland should be taken as soon as possible.%以西安市某典型污灌区农田土壤为研究对象,分析长期污水灌溉对表层土壤重金属含量及富集状况的影响,采用内梅罗指数法和Hakanson潜在生态危害指数法对其污

  5. State waste discharge permit application for the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Application is being made for a permit pursuant to Chapter 173--216 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), to discharge treated waste water and cooling tower blowdown from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) to land at the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). The ETF is located in the 200 East Area and the SALDS is located north of the 200 West Area. The ETF is an industrial waste water treatment plant that will initially receive waste water from the following two sources, both located in the 200 Area on the Hanford Site: (1) the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and (2) the 242-A Evaporator. The waste water discharged from these two facilities is process condensate (PC), a by-product of the concentration of waste from DSTs that is performed in the 242-A Evaporator. Because the ETF is designed as a flexible treatment system, other aqueous waste streams generated at the Hanford Site may be considered for treatment at the ETF. The origin of the waste currently contained in the DSTs is explained in Section 2.0. An overview of the concentration of these waste in the 242-A Evaporator is provided in Section 3.0. Section 4.0 describes the LERF, a storage facility for process condensate. Attachment A responds to Section B of the permit application and provides an overview of the processes that generated the wastes, storage of the wastes in double-shell tanks (DST), preliminary treatment in the 242-A Evaporator, and storage at the LERF. Attachment B addresses waste water treatment at the ETF (under construction) and the addition of cooling tower blowdown to the treated waste water prior to disposal at SALDS. Attachment C describes treated waste water disposal at the proposed SALDS.

  6. Closure Plan for the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-10-30

    A closure plan has been developed to comply with the applicable requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.2 Manual and Guidance. The plan is organized according to the specifications of the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans.

  7. Cost Reduction Ability by Electricity Tariff Selection for Construction Facilities Located in Non-price Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makasheva Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available State of the art in the tariff type selection in the retail and the wholesale electricity market for construction or reconstruction facilities located at Far East are considered. As a management solution the electricity tariff’s selection for enterprises at stage of construction or reconstruction is accented.

  8. Experimental characterization of HOTNES: A new thermal neutron facility with large homogeneity area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedogni, R.; Sperduti, A.; Pietropaolo, A.; Pillon, M.; Pola, A.; Gómez-Ros, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    A new thermal neutron irradiation facility, called HOTNES (HOmogeneous Thermal NEutron Source), was established in the framework of a collaboration between INFN-LNF and ENEA-Frascati. HOTNES is a polyethylene assembly, with about 70 cmx70 cm square section and 100 cm height, including a large, cylindrical cavity with diameter 30 cm and height 70 cm. The facility is supplied by a 241Am-B source located at the bottom of this cavity. The facility was designed in such a way that the iso-thermal-fluence surfaces, characterizing the irradiation volume, coincide with planes parallel to the cavity bottom. The thermal fluence rate across a given isofluence plane is as uniform as 1% on a disk with 30 cm diameter. Thermal fluence rate values from about 700 cm-2 s-1 to 1000 cm-2 s-1 can be achieved. The facility design, previously optimized by Monte Carlo simulation, was experimentally verified. The following techniques were used: gold activation foils to assess the thermal fluence rate, semiconductor-based active detector for mapping the irradiation volume, and Bonner Sphere Spectrometer to determine the complete neutron spectrum. HOTNES is expected to be attractive for the scientific community involved in neutron metrology, neutron dosimetry and neutron detector testing.

  9. Design Study and Optimization of Irradiation Facilities for Detector and Accelerator Equipment Testing in the SPS North Area at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Biskup, Bartolomej; Stekl, Ivan

    Due to increasing performance of LHC during the last years, the strong need of new detector and electronic equipment test areas at CERN appeared from user communities. This thesis reports on two test facilities: GIF++ and H4IRRAD. GIF++, an upgrade of GIF facility, is a combined high-intensity gamma and particle beam irradiation facility for testing detectors for LHC. It combines a high-rate 137Cs source, providing photons with energy of 662 keV, together with the high-energy secondary particle beam from SPS. H4IRRAD is a new mixed-field irradiation area, designed for testing LHC electronic equipment for radiation damage effects. In particular, large volume assemblies such as full electronic racks of high current power converters can be tested. The area uses alternatively an attenuated primary 400 GeV/c proton beam from SPS, or a secondary, mainly proton, beam of 280 GeV/c directed towards a copper target. Different shielding layers are used to reproduce a radiation field similar to the LHC “tunnel” and �...

  10. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act corrective measures study: Area 6 decontamination pond facility, corrective action unit no. 92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 92, the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility (DPF), is an historic disposal unit located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada (Figures 1 - 1, 1-2, and 1-3). The NTS is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), which has been required by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) to characterize the DPF under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part A Permit (NDEP, 1995) for the NTS and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265 (1996c). The DPF is prioritized in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) but is governed by the permit. The DPF was characterized through sampling events in 1994, 1996, and 1997. The results of these sampling events are contained in the Final Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Site Environmental Restoration Site Characterization Report, Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility, Revision I (DOE/NV, 1997). This Corrective Measures Study (CMS) for the Area 6 DPF has been prepared for the DOE/NV`s Environmental Restoration Project. The CMS has been developed to support the preparation of a Closure Plan for the DPF. Because of the complexities of the contamination and regulatory issues associated with the DPF, DOE/NV determined a CMS would be beneficial to the evaluation and selection of a closure alternative.

  11. Evaluation of Low-Level Waste Disposal Receipt Data for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shuman, Robert [WPS: WASTE PROJECTS AND SERVICES

    2012-04-17

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) generates radioactive waste as a result of various activities. Operational or institutional waste is generated from a wide variety of research and development activities including nuclear weapons development, energy production, and medical research. Environmental restoration (ER), and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) waste is generated as contaminated sites and facilities at LANL undergo cleanup or remediation. The majority of this waste is low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and is disposed of at the Technical Area 54 (TA-54), Area G disposal facility. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 (DOE, 2001) requires that radioactive waste be managed in a manner that protects public health and safety, and the environment. To comply with this order, DOE field sites must prepare and maintain site-specific radiological performance assessments for LLW disposal facilities that accept waste after September 26, 1988. Furthermore, sites are required to conduct composite analyses that account for the cumulative impacts of all waste that has been (or will be) disposed of at the facilities and other sources of radioactive material that may interact with the facilities. Revision 4 of the Area G performance assessment and composite analysis was issued in 2008 (LANL, 2008). These analyses estimate rates of radionuclide release from the waste disposed of at the facility, simulate the movement of radionuclides through the environment, and project potential radiation doses to humans for several on-site and off-site exposure scenarios. The assessments are based on existing site and disposal facility data and on assumptions about future rates and methods of waste disposal. The accuracy of the performance assessment and composite analysis depends upon the validity of the data used and assumptions made in conducting the analyses. If changes in these data and assumptions are significant, they may invalidate or call

  12. 38 CFR 17.63 - Approval of community residential care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... extended care facilities have one), hot and cold water, electricity, plumbing, sewage, cooking, laundry... functional toilet and lavatory, and bathing or shower facility for every six people living in the facility...

  13. Sewage-pollution indicator bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Rodrigues, V.; Alwares, E.; Rodrigues, C.; Baksh, R.; Jayan, S.; Mohandass, C.

    Spatial distribution and annual cycle of sewage pollution indicator (total coliforms and total fecal coliforms) and human pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis) in water and sediment samples in the Mandovi and Zuari...

  14. H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. Third and fourth quarters 1996, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF), also known as the H-Area Seepage Basins, at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is monitored periodically for various hazardous and radioactive constituents as required by Module III, Section D, of the 1995 Resource Conservation and Recovery ACT (RCRA) Renewal Permit (South Carolina Hazardous and Mixed Waste Permit SC1-890-008-989), effective October 5, 1995. Currently, the H-Area HWMF monitoring network consists of 130 wells of the HSB series and 8 wells of the HSL series screened in the three hydrostratigraphic units that make up the uppermost aquifer beneath the H-Area HWMF. This report presents the results of the required groundwater monitoring program as identified in provision IIIDH.11.c

  15. Radiological performance assessment for the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.; Fowler, J.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-12-18

    This radiological performance assessment (RPA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) was prepared in accordance with the requirements of Chapter III of the US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. The Order specifies that an RPA should provide reasonable assurance that a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility will comply with the performance objectives of the Order. The performance objectives require that: (1) exposures of the general public to radioactivity in the waste or released from the waste will not result in an effective dose equivalent of 25 mrem per year; (2) releases to the atmosphere will meet the requirements of 40 CFR 61; (3) inadvertent intruders will not be committed to an excess of an effective dose equivalent of 100 mrem per year from chronic exposure, or 500 mrem from a single acute exposure; and (4) groundwater resources will be protected in accordance with Federal, State and local requirements.

  16. Facility effluent monitoring plan for K area spent fuel storage basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunacek, G.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400. 1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document was prepared using the specific guidelines identified in WHC-EP-0438-1, A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, and assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the second revision to the original annual report. Long-range integrity ofthe effluent monitoring systenu shall be ensured with updates of this report whenever a new process or oper&ion introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimwn of every three years.

  17. Improving pedestrian facilities in congested urban areas: a case study of Chennai city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, B.; Prasanna Kumar, R.

    2017-07-01

    Traffic congestion and lack of public pedestrian space are some problems faced by most urban metropolises. Conventionally walking has been a mode of transportation in Indian cities. The percentage of pedestrians may vary from 16 to 57 depending upon the city. Encounters between vehicular traffic and pedestrian traffic are at its rise currently. Rapid industrialization and urbanization in India has resulted in neglecting of pedestrian facilities. Consequently pedestrian are at greater risk for their safety more especially in the commercial zones of large cities. A change in perspective spotlight will create a sense of awareness that the pedestrian traffic is also vital as the vehicular traffic. Soothing the traffic would moderately cut the driving expediency but the pedestrians will get a much safer and peaceful route to their terminuses. Safety and comfort are the two pans of a balance while considering the pedestrian traffic. Considering these aspects, this study deals a study in improving pedestrian facilities by analysing the existing skeleton of the selected locations. The adequacy of facility is checked based on IRC latest guidelines and counteractive measures are postulated.

  18. Evaluation of the 183-D Water Filtration Facility for Bat Roosts and Development of a Mitigation Strategy, 100-D Area, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, C. T.; Gano, K. A.; Lucas, J. G.

    2011-03-07

    The 183-D Water Filtration Facility is located in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site, north of Richland, Washington. It was used to provide filtered water for cooling the 105-D Reactor and supplying fire-protection and drinking water for all facilities in the 100-D Area. The facility has been inactive since the 1980s and is now scheduled for demolition. Therefore, an evaluation was conducted to determine if any part of the facility was being used as roosting habitat by bats.

  19. F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. Third and fourth quarters 1996, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    SRS monitors groundwater quality at the F-Area HWMF as mandated by the permit and provides results of this monitoring to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) semiannually as required by the permit. The facility is describes in the introduction to Module III, Section C, of the permit. The F-Area HWMF well network monitors three district hydrostratigraphic units in the uppermost aquifer beneath the facility. The hydrostratigraphy at the F-Area HWMF is described in permit section IIIC.H.2, and the groundwater monitoring system is described in IIIC.H.4 and Appendix IIIC-B. A detailed description of the uppermost aquifer is included in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B post-closure care permit application for the F-Area HWMF submitted to SCDHEC in December 1990. Sampling and analysis are conducted as required by section IIIC.H.6 at the intervals specified in permit sections IIIC.H.10 and Appendix IIIC-D for the constituents specified in Appendix IIIC-D. Groundwater quality is compared to the GWPS list in section IIIC.H.1 and Appendix IIIC-A.

  20. Assessment of airborne microorganism contamination in an industrial area characterized by an open composting facility and a wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisoli, Pietro; Rodolfi, Marinella; Villani, Simona; Grignani, Elena; Cottica, Danilo; Berri, Angelo; Picco, Anna Maria; Dacarro, Cesare

    2009-02-01

    In order to assess the potential exposure hazard to workers and people living in the immediate surroundings of an area characterized by an open composting facility and a wastewater treatment plant, a quantitative and a qualitative analysis of airborne microorganisms were carried out. Air sampling was performed once a week for four consecutive weeks in summer and winter. Six sites were selected as air sampling sites: one was upwind at approximately 40 m from the facilities; the other five were downwind at increasing distances from the facilities, with the furthest at 100 m away. Monitoring permitted us to verify the influence that the composting activities and wastewater treatment had on the bacterial and fungal contamination of the air. The results obtained have been expressed by means of contamination indexes that have already been used in previous works: a major microbiological contamination near the plants was evidenced. Near the facilities, mesophilic bacteria, psychrophilic bacteria and microfungi showed the highest median concentrations, respectively, of 307.5, 327.5 and 257.5 CFU/m(3). Moreover, the season generally influenced the concentration of the bacteria as well as of the fungi; higher in summer than in winter. The contamination index global index of microbial contamination (GIMC/m(3)) showed mean values of 4058.9 in summer and 439.7 in winter and the contamination index-amplification index (AI) showed values of 4.5 and 1.1 in the same seasons, respectively. Controlling the seasonal effect, mesophilic bacteria, Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae showed a significant decline in concentration with respect to upwind air samples and with increasing distance. Both GIMC and AI showed a significant decline with respect to upwind air samples by increasing the distance from facilities after adjusting for the seasonal effect. In conclusion, even if these plants do not represent a potential risk for nearby populations, they may pose a potential health risk

  1. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Joseph P.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Gillies, Daniel C.; Rousseau, Joseph P.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Gillies, Daniel C.

    1999-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the U.S. Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the U.S. Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that gas flow and liquid flow within the welded tuffs of the unsaturated zone occur primarily through fractures. Fracture densities are highest in the Tiva Canyon welded (TCw) and Topopah Spring welded (TSw) hydrogeologic units. Although fracture density is much lower in the intervening nonwelded and bedded tuffs of the Paintbrush nonwelded hydrogeologic unit (PTn), pneumatic and aqueous-phase isotopic evidence indicates that substantial secondary permeability is present locally in the PTn, especially in the vicinity of faults. Borehole air-injection tests indicate that bulk air-permeability ranges from 3.5x10-14 to 5.4x10-11 square meters for the welded tuffs and from 1.2x10-13 to 3.0x10-12 square meters for the non welded and bedded tuffs of the PTn. Analyses of in-situ pneumatic-pressure data from monitored boreholes produced estimates of bulk permeability that were comparable to those determined from the air-injection tests. In many cases, both sets of estimates are two to three orders of magnitude larger than estimates based on laboratory analyses of unfractured core samples. The in-situ pneumatic-pressure records also indicate that the unsaturated-zone pneumatic system consists of four subsystems that coincide with the four major hydrogeologic units of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In

  2. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. N. Doyle

    2002-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The site is located within the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (R-MAD) compound and consists of Building 3126, two outdoor decontamination pads, and surrounding areas within an existing fenced area measuring approximately 50 x 37 meters (160 x 120 feet). The site was used from the early 1960s to the early 1970s as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station program to decontaminate test-car hardware and tooling. The site was reactivated in the early 1980s to decontaminate a radiologically contaminated military tank. This Closure Report (CR) describes the closure activities performed to allow un-restricted release of the R-MAD Decontamination Facility.

  3. Basic Data Report -- Defense Waste Processing Facility Sludge Plant, Savannah River Plant 200-S Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amerine, D.B.

    1982-09-01

    This Basic Data Report for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)--Sludge Plant was prepared to supplement the Technical Data Summary. Jointly, the two reports were intended to form the basis for the design and construction of the DWPF. To the extent that conflicting information may appear, the Basic Data Report takes precedence over the Technical Data Summary. It describes project objectives and design requirements. Pertinent data on the geology, hydrology, and climate of the site are included. Functions and requirements of the major structures are described to provide guidance in the design of the facilities. Revision 9 of the Basic Data Report was prepared to eliminate inconsistencies between the Technical Data Summary, Basic Data Report and Scopes of Work which were used to prepare the September, 1982 updated CAB. Concurrently, pertinent data (material balance, curie balance, etc.) have also been placed in the Basic Data Report. It is intended that these balances be used as a basis for the continuing design of the DWPF even though minor revisions may be made in these balances in future revisions to the Technical Data Summary.

  4. ETHERNES: A new design of radionuclide source-based thermal neutron facility with large homogeneity area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedogni, R; Sacco, D; Gómez-Ros, J M; Lorenzoli, M; Gentile, A; Buonomo, B; Pola, A; Introini, M V; Bortot, D; Domingo, C

    2016-01-01

    A new thermal neutron irradiation facility based on an (241)Am-Be source embedded in a polyethylene moderator has been designed, and is called ETHERNES (Extended THERmal NEutron Source). The facility shows a large irradiation cavity (45 cm × 45 cm square section, 63 cm in height), which is separated from the source by means of a polyethylene sphere acting as shadowing object. Taking advantage of multiple scattering of neutrons with the walls of this cavity, the moderation process is especially effective and allows obtaining useful thermal fluence rates from 550 to 800 cm(-2) s(-1) with a source having nominal emission rate 5.7×10(6) s(-1). Irradiation planes parallel to the cavity bottom have been identified. The fluence rate across a given plane is as uniform as 3% (or better) in a disk with 30 cm (or higher) diameter. In practice, the value of thermal fluence rate simply depends on the height from the cavity bottom. The thermal neutron spectral fraction ranges from 77% up to 89%, depending on the irradiation plane. The angular distribution of thermal neutrons is roughly isotropic, with a slight prevalence of directions from bottom to top of the cavity. The mentioned characteristics are expected to be attractive for the scientific community involved in neutron metrology, neutron dosimetry and neutron detector testing.

  5. Facile Fabrication of Large Area Polystyrene Colloidal Crystal Monolayer via Surfactant-free Langmuir-Blodgett Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Wei-dong; L(U) Zhi-cheng; JI Nan; WANG Chun-xu; ZHAO Bing; ZHANG Jun-hu

    2007-01-01

    A facile and novel method for the production of a large area of well-ordered polystyrene(PS) colloidal crystal monolayer was established using the surfactant-free Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. The hydrophobic property(film-forming ability) of PS spheres was improved by a thermo-rheology treatment before LB assembly, and a large film was obtained. In contrast to the traditional LB technique, no surfactant was needed in this method, which could eliminate the additional contamination of surfactants in the preparation process and provided the products with versatile applications in nanosphere lithography(NSL) for biosensor, surface plasmon resonance, and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  6. H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Semiannual Corrective Action Report, First and Second Quarter 1998, Volumes I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1998-10-30

    This report addresses groundwater quality and monitoring data during first and second quarter 1998 for the H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF). The report fulfills the semiannual reporting requirements of Module III, Section D, of the 1995 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Renewal Permit (South Carolina Hazardous and Mixed Waste Permit SC1-890-008-989), effective October 5, 1995 (hereinafter referred to as the RCRA permit), and Section C of the Underground Injection Control Permit Application (hereinafter referred to as the UIC permit). The HWMF is described in the Introduction of Module III, Section C, of the RCRA permit.

  7. Program Plan for Revision of the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, James R.

    2005-12-07

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Saltstone Project, are embarking on the next revision to the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) performance assessment (PA). This program plan has been prepared to outline the general approach, scope, schedule and resources for the PA revision. The plan briefly describes the task elements of the PA process. It discusses critical PA considerations in the development of conceptual models and interpretation of results. Applicable quality assurance (QA) requirements are identified and the methods for implementing QA for both software and documentation are described. The plan identifies project resources supporting the core team and providing project oversight. Program issues and risks are identified as well as mitigation of those risks. Finally, a preliminary program schedule has been developed and key deliverables identified. A number of significant changes have been implemented since the last PA revision resulting in a new design for future SDF disposal units. This revision will encompass the existing and planned disposal units, PA critical radionuclides and exposure pathways important to SDF performance. An integrated analysis of the overall facility layout, including all disposal units, will be performed to assess the impact of plume overlap on PA results. Finally, a rigorous treatment of uncertainty will be undertaken using probabilistic simulations. This analysis will be reviewed and approved by DOE-SR, DOE-HQ and potentially the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This revision will be completed and ready for the start of the DOE review at the end of December 2006. This work supports a Saltstone Vault 2 fee-bearing milestone. This milestone includes completion of the Vault 2 module of the PA revision by the end of FY06.

  8. Thermal behavior of sewage sludge derived fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xin-Rui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The utility of sewage sludge as a biomass fuel is taken as an approach to deal with global warming. Thermal characterization of this new type of fuel is a premise before it is practically used in real facilities. Four sludge derived fuels were examined by thermal calorimeters (TG-DTA, C80, and TAM at temperature ramp and isothermal conditions. Heat generation at low temperature was found in some sludge species. The corresponding spontaneous ignition was measured in an adiabatic spontaneous ignition tester at 80 °C. The reason of the thermal behaviors of the sludge fuels was discussed. The critical temperature of large scale pile-up was predicted. .

  9. Challenge of urban sewage disposal in a karst region: Mérida, Yucátan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, E. C.; Villasuso, M.

    2013-05-01

    , efficient systems that provide almost tertiary-level sewage treatment have been developed and installed in various localities worldwide. Fitting the old parts of Mérida with several such systems would be less disruptive than blasting a monolithic sewer network through the city's rocky base, and it would minimize the problem of pumping sewage in an almost completely flat-lying area. Appropriate reuse of water from such local treatment facilities would be more flexible than from a single central system. Furthermore, injecting water into the aquifer after secondary or tertiary treatment would be a huge improvement over pumping of untreated "aguas negras" into the saline intrusion. Finally, there is a renaissance of sorts in sewage treatment technology, and it would be much easier to upgrade a number of individual systems as they became obsolete than to replace a monolithic central system. Safe, effective operation and monitoring of the suggested of sewage system would be challenging. Yet, as more cities join those 500 world-wide that now have populations approaching or exceeding one million, use of streams to export pollution may become infeasible. Perhaps Mérida can become a model to demonstrate that people can safely process and reuse their own wastewater.

  10. Sewage sludge drying process integration with a waste-to-energy power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, A; Bonfiglioli, L; Pellegrini, M; Saccani, C

    2015-08-01

    Dewatered sewage sludge from Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is encountering increasing problems associated with its disposal. Several solutions have been proposed in the last years regarding energy and materials recovery from sewage sludge. Current technological solutions have relevant limits as dewatered sewage sludge is characterized by a high water content (70-75% by weight), even if mechanically treated. A Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) with good thermal characteristics in terms of Lower Heating Value (LHV) can be obtained if dewatered sludge is further processed, for example by a thermal drying stage. Sewage sludge thermal drying is not sustainable if the power is fed by primary energy sources, but can be appealing if waste heat, recovered from other processes, is used. A suitable integration can be realized between a WWTP and a waste-to-energy (WTE) power plant through the recovery of WTE waste heat as energy source for sewage sludge drying. In this paper, the properties of sewage sludge from three different WWTPs are studied. On the basis of the results obtained, a facility for the integration of sewage sludge drying within a WTE power plant is developed. Furthermore, energy and mass balances are set up in order to evaluate the benefits brought by the described integration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report, Third and fourth quarters 1995: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Groundwater at the H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) is monitored in compliance with applicable regulations. Monitoring results are compared to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental control (SCDHEC) Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS). Historically as well as currently, nitrate-nitrite as nitrogen, nonvolatile beta, and tritium have been among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Other radionuclides and hazardous constituents also exceeded the GWPS in the second half of 1995. Elevated constituents were found primarily in the water table (Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2}), however, constitutents exceeding standards also occurred in several different aquifer zones monitoring wells. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the H-Area HWMF have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988.

  12. F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report, Third and fourth quarters 1995: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Groundwater at the F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) is monitored in compliance with applicable regulations. Monitoring results are compared to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS). Historically and currently, gross alpha, nitrates, nonvolatile beta, and tritium are among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Numerous other radionuclides and hazardous constituents also exceed the GWPS in the groundwater during the second half of 1995, notably cadmium, lead, radium-226, radium-228, strontium-90, and total alpha-emitting radium. The elevated constituents were found primarily in the water table (aquifer zone IIB{sub 2}), however, several other aquifer unit monitoring wells contained elevated levels of constituents. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the F-Area HWMF have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988.

  13. Performance of the Iron-Caron Coupling Constructed Wetland for Rural Sewage Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ruize; Peng, Yutao; Zhong, Shan; Tu, Lijun; Xie, Yuanshan; Zhang, Lishan

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, rural decentralized sewage treatment have gained widespread attention. Although wastewater treatment facility has been developed for rural areas, most rural population are left without adequate wastewater treatment systems. In the present study, the performance of iron-carbon coupling constructed wetland system (ICCWS) and constructed wetland system (CWS) receiving synthetic domestic wastewater were compared in side-by-side trials. Studies have found that CWS filled with spherical iron-carbon packing showed better treatment efficiency than normal CWS. When the HRT is 3 days, the ICCWS have 95.8% COD and 96.6% PO4 3- removal rate, higher than 67.0% COD and 74.3% PO4 3- removal rate in CWS respectively. The use of ICCWS planted with canna and cattail proved to be efficient technology for the removal of rural wastewater pollutants.

  14. M-Area and Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facilities groundwater monitoring and corrective-action report (U). Third and fourth quarters 1996, Vol. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the groundwater monitoring and corrective-action program at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) and the Metallurgical Laboratory (Met Lab) HWMF at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during 1996.

  15. Facile electrochemical transfer of large-area single crystal epitaxial graphene from Ir(1 1 1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Line; Kongsfelt, Mikkel; Ulstrup, Søren

    2015-01-01

    introduced by the polishing procedure. Furthermore, areas with numerous wrinkles exist inbetween these lines, forming a network across the entire graphene crystal. Hence, the initial characteristics and imprints left on the sheet of graphene in terms of strain and wrinkles from the growth process remain...

  16. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. M. Obi

    2000-12-01

    The Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Decontamination Facility is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254. CAU 254 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site and consists of a single Corrective Action Site CAS 25-23-06. CAU 254 will be closed, in accordance with the FFACO of 1996. CAU 254 was used primarily to perform radiological decontamination and consists of Building 3126, two outdoor decontamination pads, and surrounding soil within an existing perimeter fence. The site was used to decontaminate nuclear rocket test-car hardware and tooling from the early 1960s through the early 1970s, and to decontaminate a military tank in the early 1980s. The site characterization results indicate that, in places, the surficial soil and building materials exceed clean-up criteria for organic compounds, metals, and radionuclides. Closure activities are expected to generate waste streams consisting of nonhazardous construction waste. petroleum hydrocarbon waste, hazardous waste, low-level radioactive waste, and mixed waste. Some of the wastes exceed land disposal restriction limits and will require off-site treatment before disposal. The recommended corrective action was revised to Alternative 3- ''Unrestricted Release Decontamination, Verification Survey, and Dismantle Building 3126,'' in an addendum to the Correction Action Decision Document.

  17. X-ray area backlighter development at the National Ignition Facility (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrios, M. A., E-mail: barriosgarci1@llnl.gov; Fournier, K. B.; Smith, R.; Lazicki, A.; Rygg, R.; Fratanduono, D. E.; Eggert, J.; Park, H.-S.; Huntington, C.; Bradley, D. K.; Landen, O. L.; Collins, G. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    1D spectral imaging was used to characterize the K-shell emission of Z ≈ 30–35 and Z ≈ 40–42 laser-irradiated foils at the National Ignition Facility. Foils were driven with up to 60 kJ of 3ω light, reaching laser irradiances on target between 0.5 and 20 × 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. Laser-to-X-ray conversion efficiency (CE) into the He{sub α} line (plus satellite emission) of 1.0%–1.5% and 0.15%–0.2% was measured for Z ≈ 30–32 and Z ≈ 40–42, respectively. Measured CE into He{sub α} (plus satellite emission) of Br (Z = 35) compound foils (either KBr or RbBr) ranged between 0.16% and 0.29%. Measured spectra are compared with 1D non-local thermodynamic equilibrium atomic kinetic and radiation transport simulations, providing a fast and accurate predictive capability.

  18. Competitive adsorption of heavy metals in soil underlying an infiltration facility installed in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M A; Furumai, H; Nakajima, F

    2009-01-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals at elevated concentration and potential of considerable amount of the accumulated heavy metals to reach the soil system was observed from earlier studies in soakaways sediments within an infiltration facility in Tokyo, Japan. In order to understand the competitive adsorption behaviour of heavy metals Zn, Ni and Cu in soil, competitive batch adsorption experiments were carried out using single metal and binary metal combinations on soil samples representative of underlying soil and surface soil at the site. Speciation analysis of the adsorbed metals was carried out through BCR sequential extraction method. Among the metals, Cu was not affected by competition while Zn and Ni were affected by competition of coexisting metals. The parameters of fitted 'Freundlich' and 'Langmuir' isotherms indicated more intense competition in underlying soil compared to surface soil for adsorption of Zn and Ni. The speciation of adsorbed metals revealed less selectivity of Zn and Ni to soil organic matter, while dominance of organic bound fraction was observed for Cu, especially in organic rich surface soil. Compared to underlying soil, the surface soil is expected to provide greater adsorption to heavy metals as well as provide greater stability to adsorbed metals, especially for Cu.

  19. A facility for the test of large area muon chambers at high rates

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; Belli, G; Bonifas, A; Carabelli, V; Gatignon, L; Hessey, N P; Maggi, M; Peigneux, J P; Reithler, H; Silari, Marco; Vitulo, P; Wegner, M

    2000-01-01

    Operation of large area muon detectors at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be characterized by large sustained hit rates over the whole area, reaching the range of kHz/\\scm. We describe a dedicated test zone built at CERN to test the performance and the aging of the muon chambers currently under development. A radioactive source delivers photons causing the sustained rate of random hits, while a narrow beam of high energy muons is used to directly calibrate the detector performance. A system of remotely controlled lead filters serves to vary the rate of photons over four orders of magnitude, to allow the study of performance as a function of rate.

  20. Assessing sewage impact in a South-West Atlantic rocky shore intertidal algal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becherucci, Maria Eugenia; Santiago, Lucerito; Benavides, Hugo Rodolfo; Vallarino, Eduardo Alberto

    2016-05-15

    The spatial and seasonal variation of the specific composition and community parameters (abundance, diversity, richness and evenness) of the intertidal algal assemblages was studied at four coastal sampling sites, distributed along an environmental gradient from the sewage water outfall of Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Two of them were located close to the sewage outfall (<800m) (impacted area) and the two other were 8 and 9km distant (non-impacted area). The algal abundance was monthly analyzed from October 2008 to May 2009. The algal assemblages varied according to the pollution gradient in spring, summer and autumn, being autumn the season when the highest difference was observed. Ceramium uruguayense was recognized as an indicator species for the non-impacted areas, while Berkeleya sp. represented an indicator species for the sewage outfall impact. Ulva spp. did not reflect the typical pattern observed for other sewage pollution areas.

  1. Functional diversity of macrobenthic assemblages decreases in response to sewage discharges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gusmao, Joao B.; Brauko, Kalina M.; Eriksson, Britas K.; Lana, Paulo C.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of sewage discharge on a subtropical estuary by comparing the functional diversity of intertidal macroinvertebrate assemblages in contaminated with non-contaminated reference areas. Functional structure was assessed using biological traits analysis (BTA) and four multivariate

  2. Opacity and Mass Emission Relationship in Forging Areas of Large Caliber Metal Parts Facilities,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    SEDICK JACA COIORATIN MCC560 PINI/OWN ROAD FONT WASHINGTO. PA 190S - JOSEPH T. CLANCY ARRADCON NOVEMBER 1961 US ARMY ARMAMENT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT... JACA Corporation Joseph T. Clancy, ARRADCOM DAAKIO-7 9-C-Ol 57 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. tPROJE, r I ,K AREA...WORK UNIT NUMBERS JACA Corporation 550 Pinetown Road, MMT-5794084 and . ,Mff-58040,1,,’ Fort Washington. PA 19035 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND

  3. 77 FR 1495 - Criteria for Determining Priorities Among Correctional Facility Health Professional Shortage Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ...In accordance with the requirements of section 333A(b)(1) of the Public Health Service (PHS) Act, as amended by the Health Care Safety Net Amendments of 2002, 42 U.S.C. 254f-1(b)(1), the Secretary of HHS shall establish the criteria which she will use to make determinations under section 333A(a)(1)(A) of the health professional shortage areas (HPSAs) with the greatest shortages. This notice......

  4. Environmental Assessment: Demolition of Munitions Storage Area Facilities at Ellsworth AFB, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    catostomus Longnose Sucker T Coldwater lakes and streams No Pennington/ Meade Macryhbopsis gelida Sturgeon Chub C T Medium to large turbid...soil samples were taken from the bottom of the UST excavations. No radioactivity readings were detected above background limits and the soil was...distribution of population by age in areas potentially affected by implementation of the Proposed Action. For the purpose of the environmental justice

  5. Development of GIS for feasibility study on effective use of sewage heat; Gesui netsu yuko riyo kanosei kaiseki tsuru toshite no GIS no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichinose, T. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Kawahara, H. [Fujitsu Facom Information Processing Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Hanaki, K. [Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)] Matsuo, T. [Univ.of Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School

    1996-11-22

    Water and energy in addition to matter such as products and materials from outside flowed into the urban areas, and waste, sewage, the exhausted gas and the waste heat were released into the environment as a result of the urban action. This process is called the urban metabolism analogous to the metabolism of living things. Reducing loads to environment in the urban action is nothing but to optimize the urban metabolism structures. In this study, concerning districts of the heat supply facilities to effectively reuse the heat energy obtained from sewage being a representative unused energy in urban areas, GIS was developed for conducting the analysis on the spatial conformity to reuse the waste heat in the work of head demand and heat supply. The feasibility investigation on the effective use of the sewage heat was carried out as objective examples of 23 districts in Tokyo by using this method. It was confirmed that the relationship between heat demand and supply and the amount of usable heat depended on the land use in the district. 10 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Treating urban sewage using constructed wetlands; Depuracion de aguas residuales urbanas mediante humedales contruidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J. [ETS Camins, Canals i Ports. UPC. Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, A. [Biologa. Barcelona. (Spain); Junqueras, X. [Biologo. Barcelona (Spain)

    1997-09-01

    Constructed wetlands are a low-cost alternative for treating sewage from small urbanized areas. The ``Can Massaguer`` children`s holiday home has a 230 m``2 subsurface flow wetland for secondary treatment of the sewage generated by 130 people. The system comprises two porous substrate beds with macrophytes (ditch reed, Phragmites australis) and entry and exit units. Its high purification performance and nil running costs make it ideal for treating wastewaters from small built-up areas. (Author)

  7. Linking sewage pollution and water quality to spatial patterns of Porites lobata growth anomalies in Puako, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Reyn M; Kim, Catherine J S; Tracy, Allison M; Most, Rebecca; Harvell, C Drew

    2016-03-15

    Sewage pollution threatens the health of coastal populations and ecosystems, including coral reefs. We investigated spatial patterns of sewage pollution in Puako, Hawaii using enterococci concentrations and δ(15)N Ulva fasciata macroalgal bioassays to assess relationships with the coral disease Porites lobata growth anomalies (PGAs). PGA severity and enterococci concentrations were high, spatially variable, and positively related. Bioassay algal δ(15)N showed low sewage pollution at the reef edge while high values of resident algae indicated sewage pollution nearshore. Neither δ(15)N metric predicted PGA measures, though bioassay δ(15)N was negatively related to coral cover. Furthermore, PGA prevalence was much higher than previously recorded in Hawaii and the greater Indo-Pacific, highlighting Puako as an area of concern. Although further work is needed to resolve the relationship between sewage pollution and coral cover and disease, these results implicate sewage pollution as a contributor to diminished reef health.

  8. Application of MF,Ozone and RO in Treatment of Municipal Sewage Reused as Circulating Cooling Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Liqiang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Reuse of treated municipal sewage as circulating cooling water of fossil-fired power plants is a very theme worthy to be studied and spread because of the water shortage in most areas of China. This paper presents a process using coagulation + MF + ozone + partial RO to deal with the recycled sewage after treated preliminarily in sewage treatment plant. The process solves effectively the problem of higher TDS and higher total hardness in product water in winter, thus is especially fit for cities where sewage quality changes obviously with seasons.

  9. Sewage sludge - arisings, composition, disposal capacities; Klaerschlamm - Mengen, Zusammensetzung, Entsorgungskapazitaeten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulstich, M.; Rabus, J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft; Urban, A.I.; Friedel, M. [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachgebiet Abfalltechnik

    1998-09-01

    One of the main disposal paths for sewage sludge in the past was landfilling. This option was severely restricted by the issue of the Technical Code on Household Waste in 1993. In its agricultural applications sewage sludge serves as a fertiliser and a soil improvement agent. Estimates on potential thermal treatment capacities have shown that there are enough public power plants to accommodate and provide thermal treatment for the total of sewage sludge arisings in Germany. As can be seen from the estimates presented in this paper, it would not even be necessary to restrict oneself to public power plant capacities. The paper points out possibilities of using plant capacities already existing in industrial firing plants and certain production sectors. It uses a comparison to show that sewage sludge would have to be dried in order to permit its thermal treatment in these private facilities. Aside from this, there are a number of new techniques entering the market which from the technical viewpoint also appear to be well suited for thermal sewage sludge treatment. [Deutsch] Ein wesentlicher Entsorgungsweg von Klaerschlamm war in der Vergangenheit die Verbringung auf eine Deponie. Diese Moeglichkeit ist durch die TA Siedlungsabfall von 1993 stark eingeschraenkt. Bei der landwirtschaftlichen Verwertung wird durch den Klaerschlamm eine Duengewirkung sowie eine Bodenverbesserung erreicht. Eine Abschaetzung der potentiellen thermischen Behandlungskapazitaeten zeigt, dass die gesamte bundesdeutsche Klaerschlammenge in oeffentlichen Kraftwerken unterzubringen und thermisch zu behandeln waere. Wie die hier dargestellten Abschaetzungen gezeigt haben, ist man durchaus nicht allein auf die Nutzung oeffentlicher Kraftwerkskapazitaeten angewiesen. Es wurden Moeglichkeiten zur Nutzung vorhandener Anlagenkapazitaeten in industriellen Feuerungsanlagen und in Produktionsbereichen aufgezeigt. Wie aus einem Vergleich erkennbar wird, ist allerdings eine Trocknung der Klaerschlaemme

  10. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 117: Area 26 Pluto Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burmeister

    2009-06-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 117: Area 26 Pluto Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. Corrective Action Unit 117 comprises Corrective Action Site (CAS) 26-41-01, Pluto Disassembly Facility, located in Area 26 of the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and provide data confirming that the closure objectives for CAU 117 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Review the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. • Document Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 117 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. From May 2008 through February 2009, closure activities were performed as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 117, Area 26 Pluto Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purpose of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were: • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent, implement appropriate corrective actions, and properly dispose of wastes. Analytes detected during the closure activities were evaluated against final action levels to determine COCs for CAU 117. Assessment of the data generated from closure activities indicated that the final action levels were exceeded for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) reported as total Aroclor and

  11. 芝罘岛污水排放对大型底栖动物群落的影响%Effects of Sewage Discharge on the Macrobenthic Com-munity Offshore Area of Yantai,Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘甜甜; 李晓静; 周政权; 陈琳琳; 李宝泉

    2016-01-01

    sewage discharge on the macrobenthic community provides scientific basis for sustain-able development of biodiversity conservation in coastal areas and marine environmental monito-ring.[Methods]A survey was carried out in Sep-tember 2012 on 10 sampling stations at the wa-ter areas near to Zhifu Island,offshore area of Yantai,Shandong province.Community charac-ters,three biodiversity indices,CLUSTER,non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (MDS)ordina-tion analysis,abundance and biomass curves (ABC)analysis were calculated and analyzed by software PRIMER 6.0.[Results]A total of 63 macrobenthic species were identified,including 35 species of Polychaetes,13 species of Mollus-can,1 1 species of Crustacean,3 species of the Echinoderm,one species of other groups,of which the dominant group was Polychaetes.The average biomass and abundance was 8.30 g/m2 and 618.67 ind./m2 ,respectively,of which Molluscan species contributed most to biomass and Pol-ychaetes contributed most to abundance.Three biodiversity indices,Shannon-Wiener index, Richness index and Evenness index,were 3.173±0.102,5.469±0.417 and 0.965±0.007,re-spectively.Pearson correlation analysis showed that Evenness index was significantly positive related to salinity.However,the Shannon-Wiener index and Richness index were not signifi-cantly related to the 1 2 environmental variables.CLUSTER and MDS analysis showed that macrobenthic assemblages could be divided into three sub-groups based on 60% similarity and significant difference was found between different sub-groups.The species composition of sta-tion Z2 nearest to the sewage discharge point was dominated by polychaetes and it showed a miniaturization trend.[Conclusion]The environmental variables such as water depth,dissolved oxygen,and TN influenced the spatial distribution of macrobenthos,and they were significantly related to the biomass and abundance.ABC curves showed that the macrobenthic community at some stations had been suffered moderate disturbance from

  12. M-area hazardous waste management facility groundwater monitoring and corrective-action report, First quarter 1995, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This report, in three volumes, describes the ground water monitoring and c corrective-action program at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the fourth quarter 1994 and first quarter 1995. Concise description of the program and considerable data documenting the monitoring and remedial activities are included in the document. This is Volume 1 covering the following topics: sampling and results; hydrogeologic assessment; water quality assessment; effectiveness of the corrective-action program; corrective-action system operation and performance; monitoring and corrective-action program assessment; proposed monitoring and corrective-action program modifications. Also included are the following appendicies: A-standards; B-flagging criteria; C-figures; D-monitoring results tables; E-data quality/usability assessment.

  13. The influences of Taiwan's National Health Insurance on women's choice of prenatal care facility: Investigation of differences between rural and non-rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chi-Liang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI, implemented in 1995, substantially increased the number of health care facilities that can deliver free prenatal care. Because of the increase in such facilities, it is usually assumed that women would have more choices regarding prenatal care facilities and thus experience reduction in travel cost. Nevertheless, there has been no research exploring these issues in the literature. This study compares how Taiwan's NHI program may have influenced choice of prenatal care facility and perception regarding convenience in transportation for obtaining such care for women in rural and non-rural areas in Taiwan. Methods Based on data collected by a national survey conducted by Taiwan's National Health Research Institutes (NHRI in 2000, we tried to compare how women chose prenatal care facility before and after Taiwan's National Health Insurance program was implemented. Basing our analysis on how women answered questionnaire items regarding "the type of major health care facility used and convenience of transportation to and from prenatal care facility," we investigated whether there were disparities in how women in rural and non-rural areas chose prenatal care facilities and felt about the transportation, and whether the NHI had different influences for the two groups of women. Results After NHI, women in rural areas were more likely than before to choose large hospitals for prenatal care services. For women in rural areas, the relative probability of choosing large hospitals to choosing non-hospital settings in 1998–1999 was about 6.54 times of that in 1990–1992. In contrast, no such change was found in women in non-rural areas. For a woman in a non-rural area, she was significantly more likely to perceive the transportation to and from prenatal care facilities to be very convenient between 1998 and 1999 than in the period between 1990 and 1992. No such improvement was found for women in

  14. Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area facility liquid waste streams: 1994 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, R.G.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Damberg, E.G.; Evans, J.C.; Julya, J.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Ozanich, R.M.; Thompson, C.J.; Vogel, H.R.

    1995-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of characterizing and monitoring the following sources during calendar year 1994: liquid waste streams from Buildings 306, 320, 324, 326, 331, and 3720 in the 300 Area of Hanford Site and managed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory; treated and untreated Columbia River water (influent); and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe). Data were collected from March to December before the sampling system installation was completed. Data from this initial part of the program are considered tentative. Samples collected were analyzed for chemicals, radioactivity, and general parameters. In general, the concentrations of chemical and radiological constituents and parameters in building wastewaters which were sampled and analyzed during CY 1994 were similar to historical data. Exceptions were the occasional observances of high concentrations of chloride, nitrate, and sodium that are believed to be associated with excursions that were occurring when the samples were collected. Occasional observances of high concentrations of a few solvents also appeared to be associated with infrequent building r eases. During calendar year 1994, nitrate, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and gross beta exceeded US Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels.

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 254 is comprised of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-06, Decontamination Facility. A corrective action investigation for this CAS as conducted in January 2000 as set forth in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Samples were collected from various media throughout the CAS and sent to an off-site laboratory for analysis. The laboratory results indicated the following: radiation dose rates inside the Decontamination Facility, Building 3126, and in the storage yard exceeded the average general dose rate; scanning and static total surface contamination surveys indicated that portions of the locker and shower room floor, decontamination bay floor, loft floor, east and west decon pads, north and south decontamination bay interior walls, exterior west and south walls, and loft walls were above preliminary action levels (PALs). The investigation-derived contaminants of concern (COCs) included: polychlorinated biphenyls, radionuclides (strontium-90, niobium-94, cesium-137, uranium-234 and -235), total volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Metals). During the investigation, two corrective action objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate human exposure to COCs. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the Nevada Test Site, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Unrestricted Release Decontamination and Verification Survey; and Alternative 3 - Unrestricted

  16. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 114: Area 25 EMAD Facility Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2010-06-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 114, Area 25 EMAD Facility, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 114 comprises the following corrective action site (CAS) located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site: • 25-41-03, EMAD Facility This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing CAS 25-41-03. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 114 using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before selecting the appropriate corrective action for CAS 25-41-03. It is anticipated that the results of the field investigation and implementation of corrective actions will support a defensible recommendation that no further corrective action is necessary. If it is determined that complete clean closure cannot be accomplished during the SAFER, then a hold point will have been reached and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) will be consulted to determine whether the remaining contamination will be closed under the alternative corrective action of closure in place. This will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to NDEP for review and approval. The CAS will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on April 30, 2009, by representatives of NDEP and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine and implement appropriate corrective actions for CAS 25-41-03. The following text summarizes the SAFER

  17. Sewage slag - a renewable energy source? Two examples for decentralized processes; Klaerschlamm ein 'nachwachsender' Energierohstoff? Zwei Beispiele fuer dezentrale Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulstich, Martin [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Straubing (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Rohstoff- und Energietechnologie; Hamatschek, Eva; Mocker, Mario; Jung, Rolf; Quicker, Peter [ATZ Entwicklungszentrum, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    In the frame of provident environmental and health protection the sewage sludge processing instead of agricultural usage is unavoidable. Several pre-treatment methods and thermal processes for an optimum usage of the energetic potential are available. The optimum sewage sludge processing method is dependent on the boundary conditions of a specific waste water treatment plant. The publication introduces two decentralized methodologies to use the sewage sludge as renewable energy source. In order to use the fertilizer qualities of the sewage slag further research activities are necessary to provide phosphor recovery technologies for ashes from sewage combustion which is only possible in mono combustion facilities. The Hans Huber AG demonstration plant for thermal sewage sludge processing including electricity production was realized in the frame of the EU LIFE program.

  18. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations. Building 221-H, B-Line, Scrap Recovery Facility (Supplement 2A): Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-07-01

    The now HB-Line is located an top of the 221-H Building on the fifth and sixth levels and is designed to replace the aging existing HB-Line production facility. The new HB-Line consists of three separate facilities: the Scrap Recovery Facility, Neptunium Facility, and Plutonium Oxide Facility. The Scrap Recovery Facility is designed to routinely generate nitrate solutions of {sup 235}U{sup 239}Pu and Pu-238 fromscrap for purification by anion exchange or by solvent extraction in the canyon. The now facility incorporates improvements in: (1) engineered controls for nuclear criticality, (2) cabinet integrity and engineered barriers to contain contamination and minimize personnel exposure to airborne contamination, (3) shielding and remote operations to decrease radiation exposure, and (4) equipment and ventilation design to provide flexibility and improved process performance.

  19. Invited article: a test-facility for large-area microchannel plate detector assemblies using a pulsed sub-picosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bernhard; Chollet, Matthieu; Elagin, Andrey; Oberla, Eric; Vostrikov, Alexander; Wetstein, Matthew; Obaid, Razib; Webster, Preston

    2013-06-01

    The Large Area Picosecond Photodetector Collaboration is developing large-area fast photodetectors with time resolution tests on bare 8 in.-square MCP plates or into a smaller chamber for tests on 33-mm circular substrates. We present the experimental setup, detector calibration, data acquisition, analysis tools, and typical results demonstrating the performance of the test facility.

  20. Comparison of Elementary Educational Facility Allocation Patterns and Planning Strategies in Rural Areas:Case Studies of Central and Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao; Min; Shao; Lin; Li; Wei; Qian; Fang

    2016-01-01

    Elementary educational facilities are one of the essential public service facilities in rural China. Based on case studies of two countylevel cities in central and eastern China, this paper explores issues regarding a rational allocation of elementary educational facilities in rural areas, including different allocation patterns and effects, and rural residents’ views on elementary educational facilities, as well as their preference when choosing schools. This paper, on the basis of empirical studies, concludes that relevant policies and planning strategies should be adjusted in accordance with the general trends of rural population being decreasing continuously and the student pool concentrating toward towns, so as to achieve an efficient and fair allocation of elementary educational facilities.

  1. Presence of helminth eggs in sewage sludge from waste water plants; Presencia de huevos de helmintos en lodos procedentes de la depuracion de aguas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Muro, J. L.; Garcia Orenes, F.; Nieto Asensio, N.; Bonora, I. B.; Morenilla Martinez, J. J.

    2003-07-01

    Land application of sewage sludge is a usual practice in wide areas of the Comunidad Valencia, due the low organic contents and nutrients of the soils, and the sewage sludge is a suitable material to use os organic amendment of soils. However the use of sewage sludge involves a very detailed characterization of sewage, to avoid sanitary hazards as the presence of helminth eggs and its high resistant to most of the treatment used to stabilize sewage sludge. The aim of this work was determine the parasitic contamination of helminths found in sewage sludge, stabilized by anaerobic digestion, from two waste water plants of Alicante (Alcoy y Benidorm) destined to agricultural land. Also it was studies the evolution of helminth eggs content of a sewage sludge subjected to composting process. (Author) 12 refs.

  2. 基于层次分析法的水源地上游农村生活污水处理技术综合性能评价%Comprehensive Performance Evaluation of Rural Domestic Sewage Treatment Techniques Applied in the Upstream of Water Source Area Based on AHP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝晓伟; 干钢; 裴瑶; 潘明杰; 杨才杰; 袁刚

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyze the factors controlling the comprehensive performance of the rural domestic sewage treatment techniques applied in the upstream of the water source area,a comprehensive evaluation index system composed of one objective hierarchy,three criterion hierarchy,and twelve indexes was established based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the weights of each index were determined. The results of the comprehensive evaluation of eight rural domestic sewage treatment techniques applied in the upstream of the water source area showed that the group of combined-process techniques outperformed the group of single-process techniques. Among several single-process techniques, the small-sized integrated sewage treatment instrument, land treatment technique,and small constructed wetlands outperformed the bio-contact oxidation process, purified bio-gas digesters,and stabilization pond process. The combined techniques of bio-ecological process were suitable for the treatment of rural domestic sewage in the upstream of the water source area. As for the specific area, the results of the comprehensive performance evaluation of various treatment techniques and the synthetic analysis of natural,social,and economic conditions in the area were used to provide the technical option and decision making of the rural domestic sewage treatment%通过分析影响农村生活污水处理技术综合性能的相关因素,应用层次分析法(AHP)建立了包含1个目标层、3个准则层和12项指标的水源地上游农村生活污水处理技术综合性能评价指标体系,并确定了各指标权重.对水源地上游8类农村生活污水处理技术性能进行综合评价的结果表明,采用组合工艺的处理技术综合性能优于采用单项工艺的技术;小型一体化污水处理装置、土地处理系统、小型人工湿地的综合性能优于生物接触氧化池、净化沼气池和稳定塘.生物十生态组合工艺处理技术比较适

  3. Utilization of Household Sewage Sludge in Brick making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunGuofeng

    2005-01-01

    Household sewage sludge is a kind of solid waste produced in sewage purifying at sewage farm. in procedure of water purifying, which can be used as raw material for producing fired brick. This article compares the chemical composition between household sewage sludge and clay, and explores two kinds of production process for making brick with Household sewage sludge.

  4. Special Analysis for Disposal of High-Concentration I-129 Waste in the Intermediate-Level Vaults at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, L.B.

    2000-09-26

    This revision was prepared to address comments from DOE-SR that arose following publication of revision 0. This Special Analysis (SA) addresses disposal of wastes with high concentrations of I-129 in the Intermediate-Level (IL) Vaults at the operating, low-level radioactive waste disposal facility (the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility or LLWF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This SA provides limits for disposal in the IL Vaults of high-concentration I-129 wastes, including activated carbon beds from the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), based on their measured, waste-specific Kds.

  5. The land-use of Bandung, its density, overcrowded area and public facility toward a compact city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramita, B.

    2016-04-01

    The concept of a compact city has been introduced since 1973. It is a utopian vision largely driven by a desire to see more efficient uses of resources. In 1980s, the reconfiguration of the physical urban form of metropolitan areas was increasingly debated by both theorists and practitioners. Recently, the concept of a compact city has been more focused on developed countries in which the population tends to decrease. However, in Asia, except Japan which contains many dense cities, it has become a concept which promotes relatively high residential density with mixed land uses, though rather only in population and density. This paper addresses the land-use of Bandung that having the density over 14,000 people/km2, which has been so much potential toward a compact city. Somehow, unprepared ness of urban planning and regulation, the city seemed overwrought to serve its inhabitants. This condition is shown from the demographic condition, especially population density in Bandung based on its sub areas of the city (SWK). The stack of public facilities in a certain district has led the concentration of density and activity, which finally raising the slum and overcrowded settlement. Finally, this paper explores the implications of land use management and describes challenges faced and possible approaches, especially in land-use management strategies to be implemented in Bandung.

  6. SEWAGE SLUDGE AS AN INGREDIENT IN FERTILIZERS AND SOIL SUBSTITUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grobelak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, sludge management especially in medium and small sewage treatment plants is still a significant problem. According to data from the Central Statistical Office and the report on the implementation of the National Urban Wastewater Treatment Program (in polish KPOŚK land application of sewage sludge remains one of the main methods, although there has been considerable interest known: 'application for other purposes ", where the preparation of composts and fertilizers is included. The use of fertilizer produced from sewage sludge (compost, granules, organic and mineral fertilizers, is regulated by the Act on fertilizers and fertilization, and the relevant implementing rules. For example, they define the test procedure (concerning the quality of fertilizers to enable appropriate permissions to market this type of fertilizers. There is still only several technologies existing on the Polish market dedicated to production of fertilizers in advanced technologies of sewage sludge treatment. Usually the treatment plants are trying to obtain the necessary certificates for generated fertilizers (including composts, or soils substitutes. The advantages of these technologies should be no doubt: the loss of waste status, ability to store the fertilizer and unlimited transportation between areas, sanitization of the product (as a result of the use of calcium or sulfur compounds or temperature should be an alternative for drying technology. While the disadvantages are primarily the investment costs and time consuming certification procedures. However, these solutions enable to maintain the organic matter and phosphorus as well as greater control over possible pollution introduced into the soil.

  7. Yield and nutrition of sunflower fertilized with sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann C. de Albuquerque

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of thermally dried sewage sludge on soil fertility, growth and yield of sunflower. The experiment was conducted in a Nitosol area of the Institute of Agricultural Sciences of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, in Montes Claros-MG, Brazil. The treatments consisted of four doses of sewage sludge (0, 10, 20 or 30 t ha-1, dry weight basis, with six replicates in a randomized block design. The levels of nutrients in soil and plant, soil fertility indices, stem diameter, plant height, head diameter and grain yield were evaluated. Stem diameter, plant height, head diameter and grain yield increased with increasing doses of sewage sludge. The application of the residue increased linearly the contents of soil organic matter and N in sunflower leaves. On the other hand, pH, the exchangeable bases, total and effective cation exchange capacity, base saturation, H+Al, Al, soil contents of P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe and B, and the leaf contents of P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe and B were not influenced by the application of sewage sludge doses of up to 30 t ha-1.

  8. Impact of emissions from natural gas production facilities on ambient air quality in the Barnett Shale area: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, Dave; Samburova, Vera

    2014-12-01

    Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in the Barnett Shale region of Texas in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. The purpose of this study was to provide a better understanding of the potential contributions of emissions from gas production operations to population exposure to air toxics in the Barnett Shale region. This goal was approached using a combination of chemical characterization of the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from active wells, saturation monitoring for gaseous and particulate pollutants in a residential community located near active gas/oil extraction and processing facilities, source apportionment of VOCs measured in the community using the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model, and direct measurements of the pollutant gradient downwind of a gas well with high VOC emissions. Overall, the study results indicate that air quality impacts due to individual gas wells and compressor stations are not likely to be discernible beyond a distance of approximately 100 m in the downwind direction. However, source apportionment results indicate a significant contribution to regional VOCs from gas production sources, particularly for lower-molecular-weight alkanes (gas production. Implications: Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. This study focused on directly measuring the ambient air pollutant levels occurring at residential properties located near natural gas extraction and processing facilities, and estimating the relative contributions from gas production and motor vehicle emissions to ambient VOC concentrations. Although only a small-scale case study, the results may be useful for guidance in planning future ambient air quality studies and human exposure estimates in areas of intensive shale gas production.

  9. Impact of Sewage and Industrial Effluent on Soil Plant Health Act on Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of continuous irrigation with sewage effluent on soil properties and status of nutrients and pollutant elements in soils and plants in the adjoining areas of Agra and Mathura cities of Uttar Pradesh was ascertained. The physical properties of soils improved due to sewage water irrigation. An appreciable increase in organic carbon, available N, P, K contents was recorded in the sewage water irrigated soils. Electrical conductivity of sewage water irrigated soils was much below the threshold limit of salinity. Application of sewage water resulted in the accumulation of heavy metals in surface soil. The mean contents of total Cd, Cr, Pb in the soils irrigated with sewage water were 2.85, 75.40 and 40.26 mg kg- 1, respectively. The mean values of available Cd, Cr and Pb in soils were 0.21, 0.33 and 1.27 mg kg-1, respectively. The concentration of Cr in lettuce, cabbage and be seem plants grown on sewage water was higher as compared to its tolerance level indicating their accumulation in plants. In general, Cd was relatively higher in lettuce (0.88 mg kg-1. On the other hand, be seemed contained relatively higher amount of Cr and Pb.

  10. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 113: Area 25 R-MAD Facility, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2011-02-24

    This addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 113: Area 25, Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility, Building 3110, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, DOE/NV--891-VOL I-Rev. 1, dated July 2003, provides details of demolition, waste disposal, and use restriction (UR) modification for Corrective Action Unit 113, Area 25 R-MAD Facility. Demolition was completed on July 15, 2010, when the last of the building debris was disposed. Final field activities were concluded on August 30, 2010, after all equipment was demobilized and UR signs were posted. This work was funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.

  11. FY2010 ANNUAL REVIEW E-AREA LOW-LEVEL WASTE FACILITY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT AND COMPOSITE ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.; Swingle, R.; Crapse, K.; Millings, M.; Sink, D.

    2011-01-01

    The E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) consists of a number of disposal units described in the Performance Assessment (PA)(WSRC, 2008b) and Composite Analysis (CA)(WSRC, 1997; WSRC, 1999): Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Vault, Intermediate Level (IL) Vault, Trenches (Slit Trenches [STs], Engineered Trenches [ETs], and Component-in-Grout [CIG] Trenches), and Naval Reactor Component Disposal Areas (NRCDAs). This annual review evaluates the adequacy of the approved 2008 ELLWF PA along with the Special Analyses (SAs) approved since the PA was issued. The review also verifies that the Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 low-level waste (LLW) disposal operations were conducted within the bounds of the PA/SA baseline, the Savannah River Site (SRS) CA, and the Department of Energy (DOE) Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS). Important factors considered in this review include waste receipts, results from monitoring and research and development (R&D) programs, and the adequacy of controls derived from the PA/SA baseline. Sections 1.0 and 2.0 of this review are a summary of the adequacy of the PA/SA and CA, respectively. An evaluation of the FY2010 waste receipts and the resultant impact on the ELLWF is summarized in Section 3.1. The results of the monitoring program, R&D program, and other relevant factors are found in Section 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4, respectively. Section 4.0 contains the CA annual determination similarly organized. SRS low-level waste management is regulated under DOE Order 435.1 (DOE, 1999a) and is authorized under a DAS as a federal permit. The original DAS was issued by the DOE-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) on September 28, 1999 (DOE, 1999b) for the operation of the ELLWF and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The 1999 DAS remains in effect for the regulation of the SDF. Those portions of that DAS applicable to the ELLWF were superseded by revision 1 of the DAS on July 15, 2008 (DOE, 2008b). The 2008 PA and DAS were officially implemented by the facility on October 31, 2008

  12. Salt enrichment of municipal sewage: New prevention approaches in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Baruch; Avnimelech, Yoram; Juanico, Marcelo

    1996-07-01

    Wastewater irrigation is an environmentally sound wastewater disposal practice, but sewage is more saline than the supplied fresh water and the salts are recycled together with the water. Salts have negative environmental effects on crops, soils, and groundwater. There are no inexpensive ways to remove the salts once they enter sewage, and the prevention of sewage salt enrichment is the most immediately available solution. The body of initiatives presently structured by the Ministry of the Environment of Israel are herein described, with the aim to contribute to the search for a long-term solution of salinity problems in arid countries. The new initiatives are based on: (1) search for new technologies to reduce salt consumption and discharge into sewage; (2) different technologies to cope with different situations; (3) raising the awareness of the public and industry on the environmental implications of salinity pollution; and (4) an elastic legal approach expressed through new state-of-the-art regulations. The main contributor to the salinity of sewage in Israel is the watersoftening process followed by the meat koshering process. Some of the adopted technical solutions are: the discharge of the brine into the sea, the substitution of sodium by potassium salts in the ion-exchangers, the construction of centralized systems for the supply of soft water in industrial areas, the precipitation of Ca and Mg in the effluents from ion-exchangers and recycling of the NaCI solution, a reduction of the discharge of salts by the meat koshering process, and new membrane technology for salt recovery.

  13. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 115: AREA 25 TEST CELL A FACILITY, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2006-03-01

    This Closure Report (CR) describes the activities performed to close CAU 115, Area 25 Test Cell A Facility, as presented in the NDEP-approved SAFER Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2004). The SAFER Plan includes a summary of the site history, process knowledge, and closure standards. This CR provides a summary of the completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and analytical and radiological data to confirm that the remediation goals were met and to document final site conditions. The approved closure alternative as presented in the SAFER Plan for CAU 115 (NNSA/NSO, 2004) was clean closure; however, closure in place was implemented under a Record of Technical Change (ROTC) to the SAFER Plan when radiological surveys indicated that the concrete reactor pad was radiologically activated and could not be decontaminated to meet free release levels. The ROTC is included as Appendix G of this report. The objectives of closure were to remove any trapped residual liquids and gases, dispose regulated and hazardous waste, decontaminate removable radiological contamination, demolish and dispose aboveground structures, remove the dewar as a best management practice (BMP), and characterize and restrict access to all remaining radiological contamination. Radiological contaminants of concern (COCs) included cobalt-60, cesium-137, strontium-90, uranium-234/235/236/238, and plutonium-239/240. Additional COCs included Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and asbestos.

  14. RCRA Facility investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    This report provides a detailed summary of the activities carried out to sample groundwater at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. The analytical results for samples collected during Phase 1, Activity 2 of the WAG 6 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation (RFI) are also presented. In addition, analytical results for Phase 1, activity sampling events for which data were not previously reported are included in this TM. A summary of the groundwater sampling activities of WAG 6, to date, are given in the Introduction. The Methodology section describes the sampling procedures and analytical parameters. Six attachments are included. Attachments 1 and 2 provide analytical results for selected RFI groundwater samples and ORNL sampling event. Attachment 3 provides a summary of the contaminants detected in each well sampled for all sampling events conducted at WAG 6. Bechtel National Inc. (BNI)/IT Corporation Contract Laboratory (IT) RFI analytical methods and detection limits are given in Attachment 4. Attachment 5 provides the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)/Analytical Chemistry Division (ACD) analytical methods and detection limits and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) quarterly compliance monitoring (1988--1989). Attachment 6 provides ORNL/ACD groundwater analytical methods and detection limits (for the 1990 RCRA semi-annual compliance monitoring).

  15. Cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of sewage sludge on Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa Martins, Maria Nilza; de Souza, Victor Ventura; da Silva Souza, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic potential of sewage sludge using Allium cepa bioassay. Solubilized and crude sludge from two sewage treatment stations (STSs), herein named JM and M, were tested. In addition, sanitized, crude and solubilized sludge were also analyzed from STS M. The treatments showed positive response to phytotoxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and/or mutagenicity. Despite negative results for MN F1 (micronuclei counted in F1 root cells, derived from meristematic cells), the monitoring of genotoxic and mutagenic activities of sewage sludge are recommended because in agricultural areas this residue is applied in large scale and continuously. Based on our results we advise caution in the use of sewage sludge in agricultural soils.

  16. Sewage-derived nutrient dynamics in highly urbanized coastal rivers, western Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, S. I.; Saito, M.; Jin, G.; Taniguchi, M.

    2016-12-01

    Water pollution by domestic sewage is one of the critical environmental problems in the early stage of urbanization with significant growth of population. In case of Osaka metropolitan area in Japan, the pollution was significant until 1970s, while it has been improved by the development of sewage treatment systems. However, removal of nitrogen needs the advanced process therefore relatively large part of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) is usually discharged by treated sewage effluent. Besides, increase of sewage-derived pollutant loads through the combined sewage systems during rainfall events is recognized as a new problem in recent years. However, the impacts of sewage-derived loads on the water environment of river and coastal area have not been fully evaluated in previous studies. In the present research, we aimed to examine the dynamics of sewage-derived nutrients in highly urbanized coastal rivers. Study area is located on the coastal area of Osaka bay in Seto Inland Sea, western Japan. Treated sewage effluent is discharged from three sewage treatment plants (KH, SU and SA) to a river and channels. Water and sediment samples were collected and electric conductivity (EC), chlorophyll-a (Chl.-a) and dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) were measured from the discharging points to few kilometers offshore at 100-300 m intervals. Nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus and silica), nitrogen and carbon contents and stable isotope ratios (δ15N and δ13C) of particulate organic matter (POM) and sediment, nitrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios (δ15N and δ18O) in nitrate (NO3-) were measured. Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration were significantly high near the discharging point then it decreased to offshore suggesting that impact zone of sewage effluent is about 1 km from the discharging point. Significant NO3-N uptake by phytoplankton as well as dilution process were suggested in the area. However, the impact zone expanded more than twofold during the rainfall

  17. Weibull model as a tool for assessment of operation reliability in a sewage treatment plant in Niepołomice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Wąsik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the reliability of municipal sewage treatment plant in an area Niepołomicka Industrial Zone. The analysis is based on five indicators of pollution: BOD5, CODCr, total suspension, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. Samples of treated sewage were collected once a month in the period from January 2011 to December 2013. The paper presents an analysis of the effectiveness of individual indicators and identify their basic statistical characteristics. Studies have shown that wastewater treatment plant in Niepołomice is characterized by high efficiency of pollutants removal with mean effectiveness of BOD5 – 98.8%, CODCr – 97.0%, total suspension – 97.3%, total nitrogen – 88.6%, and total phosphorus – 97.0%. The calculated forecast reliability of the discussed treatment plant based on the distribution of indicators in treated wastewater using Weibull model showed, that the facility meet the requirements for removal of these indicators for 365 days in the case of BOD5, CODCr, suspended solids and total phosphorus, while for total nitrogen – 336 days a year.

  18. RCRA Facility Investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 3. Appendixes 1 through 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-09-01

    This report presents compiled information concerning a facility investigation of waste area group 6(WAG-6), of the solid waste management units (SWMU'S) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The WAG is a shallow ground disposal area for low-level radioactive wastes and chemical wastes. The report contains information on hydrogeological data, contaminant characterization, radionuclide concentrations, risk assessment from doses to humans and animals and associated cancer risks, exposure via food chains, and historical data. (CBS)

  19. RCRA Facility Investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 3, Appendixes 1 through 8: Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    This report presents compiled information concerning a facility investigation of waste area group 6(WAG-6), of the solid waste management units (SWMU`S) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The WAG is a shallow ground disposal area for low-level radioactive wastes and chemical wastes. The report contains information on hydrogeological data, contaminant characterization, radionuclide concentrations, risk assessment from doses to humans and animals and associated cancer risks, exposure via food chains, and historical data. (CBS)

  20. RCRA Facility Investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2, Sections 4 through 9: Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    This report presents compiled information concerning a facility investigation of waste area group 6(WAG-6), of the solid waste management units (SWMU`s) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The WAG is a shallow ground disposal area for low-level radioactive wastes and chemical wastes. The report contains information on hydrogeological data, contaminant characterization, radionuclide concentrations, risk assessment and baseline human health evaluation including a toxicity assessment, and a baseline environmental evaluation.

  1. RCRA Facility Investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Sections 4 through 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-09-01

    This report presents compiled information concerning a facility investigation of waste area group 6(WAG-6), of the solid waste management units (SWMU's) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The WAG is a shallow ground disposal area for low-level radioactive wastes and chemical wastes. The report contains information on hydrogeological data, contaminant characterization, radionuclide concentrations, risk assessment and baseline human health evaluation including a toxicity assessment, and a baseline environmental evaluation.

  2. Atributos físico-hídricos de um Latossolo após a aplicação de lodo de esgoto em área degradada do Cerrado Hydro-physical attributes of an Oxisol after sewage sludge application on a Cerrado degraded area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana da Silva de Campos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Os solos cultivados intensivamente e inadequadamente são degradados, assim como a construção de obras civis no meio rural executada sem atender à legislação. O trabalho objetivou definir a interferência do lodo de esgoto na recuperação de atributos de um Latossolo Vermelho. O experimento foi implantado em 2004, em Selviria (MS. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: T1-vegetação de cerrado; T2-solo exposto sem tratamento para recuperação; T3-solo cultivado com eucalipto e braquiária sem o uso do lodo de esgoto e adubação mineral; T4-solo cultivado com eucalipto e braquiária com adubação mineral; T5-solo cultivado com eucalipto e braquiária com uso de 30Mg ha-1 de lodo de esgoto e; T6-solo cultivado com eucalipto e braquiária com uso de 60Mg ha-1 de lodo de esgoto. Nas camadas do solo de 0,00-0,05; 0,05-0,10; 0,10-0,20 e de 0,20-0,30m, foram avaliados os atributos físico-hídricos e teor de matéria orgânica. Os tratamentos com adubação mineral e orgânica estão agindo de forma semelhante para a recuperação dos atributos físico-hídricos e do teor de matéria orgânica. Em solos degradados pela construção de obras civis a aplicação de 30 a 60mg de lodo de esgoto ha-1 recupera as suas propriedades físico-hídricas.Intensively and inadequately managed soils and the civil construction industry in the rural area that are unconcerned with specific legislation, result in several problems in the environment. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of sewage sludge on the recovery of hydro-physical properties of an Oxisol. The experiment was implanted in 2004, in Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The six experimental treatments were arranged according to a randomized complete-block design with four replications. The experimental treatments were: 1 - Native Cerrado vegetation; 2 - degraded soil without treatment for soil recovery; 3 - Eucalyptus citriodora planting and Brachiaria decumbens sowing

  3. Analysis of phthalate esters in soils near an electronics manufacturing facility and from a non-industrialized area by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Hu, Jia; Wang, Jinqi; Chen, Xuerong; Yao, Na; Tao, Jing; Zhou, Yi-Kai

    2015-03-01

    Here, a novel technique is described for the extraction and quantitative determination of six phthalate esters (PAEs) from soils by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography. Recovery of PAEs ranged from 81.4% to 120.3%, and the relative standard deviation (n=6) ranged from 5.3% to 10.5%. Soil samples were collected from roadsides, farmlands, residential areas, and non-cultivated areas in a non-industrialized region, and from the same land-use types within 1 km of an electronics manufacturing facility (n=142). Total PAEs varied from 2.21 to 157.62 mg kg(-1) in non-industrialized areas and from 8.63 to 171.64 mg kg(-1) in the electronics manufacturing area. PAE concentrations in the non-industrialized area were highest in farmland, followed (in decreasing order) by roadsides, residential areas, and non-cultivated soil. In the electronics manufacturing area, PAE concentrations were highest in roadside soils, followed by residential areas, farmland, and non-cultivated soils. Concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) differed significantly (P<0.01) between the industrial and non-industrialized areas. Principal component analysis indicated that the strongest explanatory factor was related to DMP and DnBP in non-industrialized soils and to butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and DMP in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility. Congener-specific analysis confirmed that diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) was a predictive indication both in the non-industrialized area (r(2)=0.944, P<0.01) and the industrialized area (r(2)=0.860, P<0.01). The higher PAE contents in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility are of concern, considering the large quantities of electronic wastes generated with ongoing industrialization.

  4. Storm Sewage Dilution in Smaller Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Vestergaard, Kristian

    1987-01-01

    A numerical model has been used to show how dilution in smaller streams can be effected by unsteady hydraulic conditions caused by a storm sewage overflow.......A numerical model has been used to show how dilution in smaller streams can be effected by unsteady hydraulic conditions caused by a storm sewage overflow....

  5. Supplemental information for a notice of construction for the Fueled Clad Fabrication System, the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility, and the Fuel Assembly Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    This ''Notice of Construction'' has been submitted by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (P.O. Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352), pursuant to WAC 402-80-070, for three new sources of radionuclide emissions at the Hanford Site in Washington State (Figure 1). The three new sources, the Fueled Clad Fabrication System (FCFS) the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) and the Fuel Assembly Area (FAA) will be located in one facility, the Fuels and materials Examination Facility (FMEF) of the 400 Area. The FMEF was originally designed to provide for post- irradiation examination and fabrication of breeder reactor fuels. These FMEF missions were cancelled before the introduction of any fuel materials or any irradiated material. The current plans are to use the facility to fabricate power supplies to be used in space applications and to produce Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will produce materials and assemblies for application in space. The FAA project will produce FFTF fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will share the same building, stack, and, in certain cases, the same floor space. Given this relationship, to the extent possible, these systems will be dealt with separately. The FAA is a comparatively independent operation though it will share the FMEF complex.

  6. Prevention of significant deterioration permit application for the Fueled Clad Fabrication System, the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility, and the Fuel Assembly Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    This New Source Review'' has been submitted by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (PO Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352), pursuant to WAC 173-403-050 and in compliance with the Department of Ecology Guide to Processing A Prevention Of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Permit'' for three new sources of radionuclide emissions at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The three new sources, the Fueled Clad Fabrication System (FCFS), the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF), and the Fuel Assembly Area (FAA), will be located in one facility, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) of the 400 Area. The FMEF was originally designed to provide for post-irradiation examination and fabrication of breeder reactor fuels. These FMEF missions were cancelled before the introduction of any fuel materials or any irradiated material. The current plans are to use the facility to fabricate power supplies for use in space applications and to produce Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will produce materials and assemblies for application in space. The FAA project will produce FFTF fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will share the same building, stack, and, in certain cases, the same floor space. Given this relationship, these systems will be dealt with separately to the extent possible. The FAA is a comparatively independent operation though it will share the FMEF complex.

  7. Identification of sewage leaks by active remote-sensing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldshleger, Naftaly; Basson, Uri

    2016-04-01

    The increasing length of sewage pipelines, and concomitant risk of leaks due to urban and industrial growth and development is exposing the surrounding land to contamination risk and environmental harm. It is therefore important to locate such leaks in a timely manner, to minimize the damage. Advances in active remote sensing Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Frequency Domain Electromagnetic (FDEM) technologies was used to identify leaking potentially responsible for pollution and to identify minor spills before they cause widespread damage. This study focused on the development of these electromagnetic methods to replace conventional acoustic methods for the identification of leaks along sewage pipes. Electromagnetic methods provide an additional advantage in that they allow mapping of the fluid-transport system in the subsurface. Leak-detection systems using GPR and FDEM are not limited to large amounts of water, but enable detecting leaks of tens of liters per hour, because they can locate increases in environmental moisture content of only a few percentage along the pipes. The importance and uniqueness of this research lies in the development of practical tools to provide a snapshot and monitoring of the spatial changes in soil moisture content up to depths of about 3-4 m, in open and paved areas, at relatively low cost, in real time or close to real time. Spatial measurements performed using GPR and FDEM systems allow monitoring many tens of thousands of measurement points per hectare, thus providing a picture of the spatial situation along pipelines and the surrounding. The main purpose of this study was to develop a method for detecting sewage leaks using the above-proposed geophysical methods, since their contaminants can severely affect public health. We focused on identifying, locating and characterizing such leaks in sewage pipes in residential and industrial areas.

  8. Agricultural utilization of sewage sludge: effect on the chemical and physical properties of soils and on the productivity and recovery of degraded areas/ Uso agrícola do lodo de esgoto: influência nas propriedades químicas e físicas do solo, produtividade e recuperação de áreas degradadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tavares Filho

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is an overview of the agricultural recycling of sewage sludge and its impact on the chemical and physical properties of soils and on the productivity and recovery of degraded areas. Sewage sludge contains some of the essential plant nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous, and micronutrients; it also has variable humidity content and is rich in organic matter. Sewage sludge also acts as a soil conditioner, improving soil structure and aggregation, thus decreasing density and increasing aeration of soils.Sewage sludge can complement other crop fertilization techniques by reducing the use of chemical fertilizers and fertilization costs as it increases nutrient availability in soils. As a result, the sludge can enhance plant development and productivity. Sludge application in degraded areas leads to a rapid growth of gramineous and leguminous plants. Plants growing in sludge-applied areas tend to be more vigorous and to cover larger areas (percentage; they also tend to have higher productivity and a better development of the root system. Soil recovery by liming and mineral fertilization can also lead to vegetation regrowth; however, the poor physical and biological soil conditions can deteriorate the cover plants before the soil is actually recovered. Sewage sludge must be processed before being used and cannot be applied directly to agricultural or forested land until biological treatments reduce the sludge organic content and promote organic matter stabilization. In the State of Paraná, Brazil, the direct application of sewage sludge on horticultural and other products that are ingested raw, is not recommended. Sludge fertilization is recommended for corn, wheat, sugarcane, sorghum, fruitiferous plants, and for forest plant species used to recover degraded areas. State regulations determine the levels of heavy metals allowed in the sludge and the maximum dosage of 50 ton biosolid matter/ha, for a 10-year period.Objetivou-se com esta revis

  9. [Epidemiological studies on salmonella in a particular area ("Walcheren Project"). III. The incidence of salmonella in man, insects, gulls as well as foods scrapings from butcher's blocks, effluents of sewage treatment plants and drains from butcher's shops (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edel, W; Van Schothorst, M; Van Leusden, F M; Kampelmacher, E H

    1977-03-15

    In continuation of previous studies, various materials (meat and meat products, insects, gull droppings, scrapings from butcher's blocks, effluents of sewage treatment plants, drains from butcher's shops and faeces of patients) were examined again at the same time for the presence of Salmonella in a relatively small are (Walcheren) over a period of three months. As was also the case in previous studies, S. typhi murium (27.5 per cent), S. panama (22.2 per cent) and S. brandenburg (9.2 per cent) were the three serotypes most frequently isolated. The three most frequently isolated phage types of S. typhi murium were II 505 (62.1 per cent), II 502 (5.3 per cent) and I 650 (4.2 per cent). The serotypes and phage types were present in nearly all the materials studied which again emphasizes the fact that there are contamination cycles of Salmonella. These studies showed that the route of contamination divides in the butcher's shop. Salmonella ogranisms carried with the meat frome the slaughter-house find their way into the drains on the one hand, and, by meat and meat products, to consumers on the other. Moreover, the high degree of contamination of effluents is not in accordance with the small number of cases of salmonellosis.

  10. Differential BPA levels in sewage wastewater effluents from metro Detroit communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Julia M; Putt, David A; Jurban, Michael; Joiakim, Aby; Friedrich, Klaus; Kim, Hyesook

    2016-10-01

    The endocrine disruptor Bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous in both aquatic and surface sediment environments because it is continuously released into sewage wastewater effluent. The measurement of BPA at wastewater treatment plants is rarely performed even though the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) states that current levels of environmental BPA could be a threat to aquatic organisms. Therefore, the aims of this study were to measure BPA levels in sewage wastewater at different collection points over a 1-year period and to compare the levels of BPA to 8-isoprostane, a human derived fatty acid, found in sewage wastewater. We analyzed pre-treated sewage samples collected from three source points located in different communities in the metropolitan Detroit area provided by the Detroit Water and Sewerage Department. Human urine samples were also used in the study. BPA and 8-isoprostane were measured using ELISA kits from Detroit R&D, Inc. BPA levels from the same collection point oscillated more than 10-fold over 1 year. Also, BPA levels fluctuated differentially at each collection point. Highly fluctuating BPA values were confirmed by LC/MS/MS. The concentration of BPA in sewage wastewater was ~100-fold higher than the concentration of 8-isoprostane, while urinary concentration was ~20-fold higher. Thus, BPA levels discharged into the sewage network vary among communities, and differences are also observed within communities over time. The difference in BPA and 8-isoprostane levels suggest that most of the BPA discharged to sewage wastewater might be derived from industries rather than from human urine. Therefore, the continuous monitoring of BPA could account for a better regulation of BPA release into a sewage network.

  11. Exploring the bioaccessibility of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Xiang, Nan; Yu, Lihong; Zhang, Jiying; Chen, Ling; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-12-01

    Environmental risks of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sewage sludge are assessed based on the concentration by exhaustive extraction, which is a likely overestimation of the pool available to exposed organisms. This study evaluated the bioaccessibility of PBDEs in sewage sludge from Shanghai using a 3-compartment model and a 6-d Tenax extraction. The very slowly fraction contributed 56-88% of total PBDEs in spiked sludge, whereas the rapidly desorbing fraction contributed only 1.1-10%. For the same PBDE congener, the rapidly desorbing fractions for sewage sludge measured in the present study were lower than those for sediment. The bioaccessible concentrations of PBDEs were 2.3-56 ng/g dry weight in sewage sludge from Shanghai, which represented 5.2% of the concentration determined by exhaustive (Soxhlet) extraction. BDE-209 was the predominant congener in sludge, contributing to 63% of the total. Moreover, the Ratio between 6-h Tenax and Soxhlet concentrations (T/S Ratio, indicating bioaccessibility) was lower in sludge generated from industrial wastewater treatment compared to sludge from facilities that treated mostly domestic wastewater. The T/S Ratio of PBDE congeners was related to KOW, specifically as KOW increases, the T/S Ratio decreased. These results will improve understanding of the fate and potential toxicity of PBDEs during land and/or landfill application of sewage sludge.

  12. Magnitude of Malaria and Factors among Febrile Cases in Low Transmission Areas of Hadiya Zone, Ethiopia: A Facility Based Cross Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romedan Kedir Delil

    Full Text Available Despite a remarkable decline in morbidity and mortality since the era of malaria roll back strategy, it still poses a huge challenge in Ethiopia in general and in Hadiya Zone in particular. Although, there are data from routine health management information on few indicators, there is scarcity of data showing magnitude of malaria and associated factors including knowledge and practice in the study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess magnitude and factors affecting malaria in low transmission areas among febrile cases attending public health facilities in Hadiya Zone, Ethiopia.A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in Hadiya Zone from May 15 to June 15, 2014. Simple random sampling was used to select the health facility while systematic random sampling technique was used to reach febrile patients attending public health facilities. Data were collected by a pre-tested structured questionnaire containing sections of socio demographic risk factors and knowledge and prevention practices of malaria. Data were entered to Epi-Info software version 3.5.4 and exported to SPSS version 16 for descriptive and logistic regression analysis.One hundred six (25.8% of participating febrile patients attending at sampled health facilities were found to have malaria by microscopy. Of which, P.vivax, P.falciparum and mixed infection accounted for 76(71. 7%, 27 (25.5% and 3 (2.8%, respectively. History of travel to malaria endemic area, [AOR: 2.59, 95% CI: (1.24, 5.38], not using bed net, [AOR: 4.67, 95%CI:, (2.11, 10.37], poor practice related to malaria prevention and control, [AOR: 2.28, (95%CI: (1.10, 4.74], poor knowledge about malaria, [AOR: 5.09,95%CI: (2.26,11.50] and estimated distance of stagnant water near to the residence, [AOR: 3.32, (95%CI: (1.13, 9.76] were significantly associated factors of malaria positivity in the study.The present study revealed that malaria is still a major source of morbidity in the study area among

  13. Sewage impact on shellfish microbial contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommepuy, M; Dumas, F; Caprais, M P; Camus, P; Le Mennec, C; Parnaudeau, S; Haugarreau, L; Sarrette, B; Vilagines, P; Pothier, P; Kholi, E; Le Guyader, F

    2004-01-01

    Coastal areas are frequently contaminated by microorganisms of human origin, due to high population density and low seawater renewal. To evaluate the impact of wastewater input on shellfish quality, a study was conducted in Brittany (France) over a period of 20 months. A hydrodynamic model was used to simulate wastewater impact on microbial water quality. To validate the model, wastewater from the three main sewage treatment plants and shellfish from three sites were sampled monthly. Bacterial indicators (E. coli), F-RNA phages were searched for by culture and noroviruses by RT-PCR and hybridisation. These microorganisms were detected in the three effluents and clams, with no marked seasonal variation. The microbial concentrations in the two oyster beds, distant from the effluent outfall, were low, and only three of the samples were positive for norovirus. For simulation, the winter wastewater inputs of E. coli and phages were calculated and an estimation for norovirus flux was made from the epidemic situation in the population. The microbial behaviour was included in the model by a decay-rate factor. Results from the model calculations were found to be very similar to E. coli and phage concentrations observed in shellfish. For noroviruses, the model indicated that shellfish distant from the wastewater input were under the detection limit of the RT-PCR method. This study demonstrated the use of modelisation to interpret norovirus contamination in various areas.

  14. PERFORMANCE OF SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF DOMESTIC SEWAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Negreiros Moura

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The inadequacy of basic sanitation is the leading cause of disease and environmental pollution in the world. This study aimed to analyze the performance of a system for treating domestic sewage aiming to use effluent in a rural environment. The tests were carried out in experimental area of University Federal Rural Semiarid (UFERSA in Mossoró-RN. The sewage treatment system consists of septic tank, inorganic filter and solar reactor. Physio-chemical and microbiological analysis were made on effluents collected in different points system. The results showed that the treatment provided significant removal of chemical and physical characteristics (turbidity, total coliform, fecal coliform, BOD, COD, suspended solids, phosphorus, grease and nitrate. The removals of BOD and COD values reached up to 88.33 and 81.40% respectively. With an exposure time of 12 hours were obtained removal up to 99.9999 and 99.99% in the population of total coliform and fecal coliform, respectively. To the safe use of treated effluent is necessary to increase the efficiency of removal of suspended solids from the sewage treatment system and time of exposure to sunlight in order to obtain a population level always less than 5 x 103 NMP 100 mL-1 when fertigation of crops.

  15. PERFORMANCE OF SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF DOMESTIC SEWAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Negreiros Moura

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The inadequacy of basic sanitation is the leading cause of disease and environmental pollution in the world. This study aimed to analyze the performance of a system for treating domestic sewage aiming to use effluent in a rural environment. The tests were carried out in experimental area of University Federal Rural Semiarid (UFERSA in Mossoró-RN. The sewage treatment system consists of septic tank, inorganic filter and solar reactor. Physio-chemical and microbiological analysis were made on effluents collected in different points system. The results showed that the treatment provided significant removal of chemical and physical characteristics (turbidity, total coliform, fecal coliform, BOD, COD, suspended solids, phosphorus, grease and nitrate. The removals of BOD and COD values reached up to 88.33 and 81.40% respectively. With an exposure time of 12 hours were obtained removal up to 99.9999 and 99.99% in the population of total coliform and fecal coliform, respectively. To the safe use of treated effluent is necessary to increase the efficiency of removal of suspended solids from the sewage treatment system and time of exposure to sunlight in order to obtain a population level always less than 5 x 103 NMP 100 mL-1 when fertigation of crops.

  16. The Ruhrverband sewage sludge disposal concept in the conflict between European and German standards and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, P; Schmitt, F; Albrecht, D R; Jardin, N

    2005-01-01

    The Ruhrverband, acting as a water association responsible for integrated water resources management within the entire natural river basin of the Ruhr, operates a network of 83 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and connected sludge disposal facilities. According to German regulations, the disposal of sewage sludge containing more than 5% of organic dry solids will be prohibited as of 1 June 2005. In Germany, the only future alternative to incineration will be the agricultural utilization of sludge. However, this way of sludge disposal is presently the subject of critical discussions in Germany because of the organic and inorganic toxic substances, which may be contained in sewage sludge, despite the fact that very stringent standards are to be met by agricultural uses. On the other hand, application of sewage sludge to agricultural land is explicitly supported by the European Sewage Sludge Directive 86/278/EEC. In the face of this controversial situation the Ruhrverband has initiated, in 2000, the development of a comprehensive and sustainable sludge and waste disposal concept for all wastewater facilities it operates in the entire Ruhr River Basin. The concept includes de-central sludge digestion and dewatering and subsequent transport to two central sludge incineration plants. It is expected that in future not more than 5% of all sludges produced in Ruhrverband's WWTPs will be used in agriculture. That means, the major part of 95% will have to be incinerated.

  17. [Technology of sewage sludge hygienization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, U

    1983-09-01

    That the use of modern technology against the laws of Nature must fail, has been clearly demonstrated again some years ago when sewage sludge postpasteurization was rashly introduced. Although many attempts were made to improve this procedure, it had to be abandoned because of unavoidable massive regrowth of pathogens which invaded the germ-free postpasteurized sludge. In contrast of postpasteurization, long-term large-scale tests with the pasteurization of fresh sludge (prepasteurization) have demonstrated that this procedure where methane digestion with its pathogen displacing effect constitutes the final stage, is basically able to function. With respect to the Swiss Sewage Sludge Decree which came into force in May 1981, and which imposes sludge hygienization for most applications throughout the year, various thermal prepasteurization methods have been offered on the market ready for application to meet the legally prescribed requirements. However, some of them still need selective improvements in order to ensure the desired hygienisation effect permanently. For some time now, attention has been focussed on a novel biological 2-stage procedure based on partial aerobic thermophilic fermentation followed by anaerobic sludge digestion which in addition to good hygienisation promises improved sludge thickening, reduced digestion time, more favourable energy consumption and added process stability etc. Although it has already been offered on the market, this interesting process is being thouroughly tested and optimized in parallel pilot tests plant at the WWTP Altenrhein. Finally, reference is made to further sludge treatment processes such as sludge drying and sludge composting which mostly comprise efficent sludge hygienisation although they may not entirely prevent pathogenic regrowth. Moreover, some unconventional and less popular processes such as liquid sludge irradiation and chemical methods are also mentioned.

  18. Flow characteristics of the raw sewage for the design of sewage-source heat pump systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems.

  19. Environmental Assessment for the Construction of Power and Fiber Optic Lines to Facilities in the Yukon Training Area, Alaska-Phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    feather moss. Closed canopy black spruce forest tends to return to its original composition after fire (Viereck et al., 1992). In the absence of fire...facility, the vegetation becomes a more open growth of mixed spruce and hardwoods, with it eventually getting to an alpine tundra vegetative community...area. Non migratory birds include ravens, jays, chickadees, songbirds, woodpeckers, grouse, and ptarmigan. Raptors include bald and golden eagles, hawks

  20. 3Q/4Q99 F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Corrective Action Report - Third and Fourth Quarter 1999, Volumes I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    2000-05-12

    Savannah River Site (SRS) monitors groundwater quality at the F-Area Hazardous Waste management Facility (HWMF) and provides results of this monitoring to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) semiannually as required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit. SRS also performs monthly sampling of the Wastewater Treatment Unit (WTU) effluent in accordance with Section C of the Underground Injection Control (UIC) application.

  1. Analysis of phthalate esters in soils near an electronics manufacturing facility and from a non-industrialized area by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wei [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Hu, Jia [Suzhou Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Jinqi; Chen, Xuerong; Yao, Na [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Tao, Jing, E-mail: jingtao1982@126.com [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Zhou, Yi-Kai, E-mail: zhouyk@mails.tjmu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2015-03-01

    Here, a novel technique is described for the extraction and quantitative determination of six phthalate esters (PAEs) from soils by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography. Recovery of PAEs ranged from 81.4% to 120.3%, and the relative standard deviation (n = 6) ranged from 5.3% to 10.5%. Soil samples were collected from roadsides, farmlands, residential areas, and non-cultivated areas in a non-industrialized region, and from the same land-use types within 1 km of an electronics manufacturing facility (n = 142). Total PAEs varied from 2.21 to 157.62 mg kg{sup −1} in non-industrialized areas and from 8.63 to 171.64 mg kg{sup −1} in the electronics manufacturing area. PAE concentrations in the non-industrialized area were highest in farmland, followed (in decreasing order) by roadsides, residential areas, and non-cultivated soil. In the electronics manufacturing area, PAE concentrations were highest in roadside soils, followed by residential areas, farmland, and non-cultivated soils. Concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) differed significantly (P < 0.01) between the industrial and non-industrialized areas. Principal component analysis indicated that the strongest explanatory factor was related to DMP and DnBP in non-industrialized soils and to butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and DMP in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility. Congener-specific analysis confirmed that diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) was a predictive indication both in the non-industrialized area (r{sup 2} = 0.944, P < 0.01) and the industrialized area (r{sup 2} = 0.860, P < 0.01). The higher PAE contents in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility are of concern, considering the large quantities of electronic wastes generated with ongoing industrialization. - Highlights: • A new method for determining phthalate esters in soil samples was developed. • Investigate six phthalates near an industry and a

  2. Oxidation Ditch Technology for Upgrading Army Sewage Treatment Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    Quality Effluents Using Carrousel and High Rate Filtration Processes," Colloque International, Traitement Com- bine Des Eaux Usees Domestiques et...Rate Filtration Processes," Colloque International, Traitement Combine Des Eaux Usees Domestiques et Industrielles (16-19, Mai, 1978). The Ash Vale...34 Colloque International, Traitement Combine Des Eaux Usees Domestiques et Industrielles [16-19, Mal, 1978].) maximum DO input. During the first 24 hours

  3. Toxic effects of domestic sewage on zooplankton

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; Nair, V.R.; Desai, B.N.

    The toxic effects of raw domestic sewage on different groups of zooplank-ton, was tested in the laboratory for evaluating acute toxicity. 24 hr., LC-50 values for larvae of stomatopods, gastropods and chaetognaths (2-7% concentration) indicated...

  4. Carbon dioxide adsorption in chemically activated carbon from sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrés, Juan Manuel; Orjales, Luis; Narros, Adolfo; de la Fuente, María del Mar; Encarnación Rodríguez, María

    2013-05-01

    In this work, sewage sludge was used as precursor in the production of activated carbon by means of chemical activation with KOH and NaOH. The sludge-based activated carbons were investigated for their gaseous adsorption characteristics using CO2 as adsorbate. Although both chemicals were effective in the development of the adsorption capacity, the best results were obtained with solid NaOH (SBA(T16)). Adsorption results were modeled according to the Langmuir and Freundlich models, with resulting CO2 adsorption capacities about 56 mg/g. The SBA(T16) was characterized for its surface and pore characteristics using continuous volumetric nitrogen gas adsorption and mercury porosimetry. The results informed about the mesoporous character of the SBA(T16) (average pore diameter of 56.5 angstroms). The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of the SBA(T16) was low (179 m2/g) in comparison with a commercial activated carbon (Airpel 10; 1020 m2/g) and was mainly composed of mesopores and macropores. On the other hand, the SBA(T16) adsorption capacity was higher than that of Airpel 10, which can be explained by the formation of basic surface sites in the SBA(T16) where CO2 experienced chemisorption. According to these results, it can be concluded that the use of sewage-sludge-based activated carbons is a promising option for the capture of CO2. Adsorption methods are one of the current ways to reduce CO2 emissions. Taking this into account, sewage-sludge-based activated carbons were produced to study their CO2 adsorption capacity. Specifically, chemical activation with KOH and NaOH of previously pyrolyzed sewage sludge was carried out. The results obtained show that even with a low BET surface area, the adsorption capacity of these materials was comparable to that of a commercial activated carbon. As a consequence, the use of sewage-sludge-based activated carbons is a promising option for the capture of CO2 and an interesting application for this waste.

  5. CHP unit and local heating system using sewage gas - optimised sewage gas use and power generation; BHKW mit Waermeverbund der IVF HARTMANN AG mit Klaergas aus der ARA Roeti/SH; optimierte Klaergasnutzung und Verstromung durch Kooperation von ARA und Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeck, P.M.

    2001-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a combined heat and power (CHP) installation in Neuhausen am Rheinfall, Switzerland. This refurbishment project, which uses sewage gas produced in a local sewage treatment plant to supply a 215 kW CHP unit running in a local factory is described. Heat produced by the unit is sold back to the sewage treatment plant to cover its demands. Electricity production is used in-house in the industrial facilities. The report reviews the origins and development of the project and gives figures on sewage gas, heat and electricity production. Initial experience gained in this co-operative project is discussed. Also, the measurement and monitoring system, which forms the basis of result-checking and billing of energy services between the sewage plant operator and the industrial company, is described.

  6. Inactivation of enteroviruses in sewage with ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, O.E.; Bogdanov, M.V.; Kazantseva, V.A.; Gabrilevskaia, L.N.; Kodkind, G.K.H.

    The study of ozone inactivation of enteroviruses in sewage showed the presence in sewage of suspensions of organic origin and bacterial flora to influence the rate of inactivation. The inactivation rate of poliomyelitis virus in sewage free from organic suspension and bacterial flora was significantly higher than that in sewage containing such suspension and bacterial flora. The inactivation rate of enteroviruses was found not to depend upon the protein and salt composition and pH of sewage or strain appurtenance of viruses. The inactivation rate of enteroviruses directly depended upon the dose of ozone and time of contact with it. Differences in the resistance of different types of poliomyelitis virus, ECHO and Coxsackie viruses to the effect of ozone are likely exist. These differences are manifested within the range of relatively small doses of ozone. E. coli is more resistant to ozone than entero-viruses. The results of laboratory studies were used to choose the regimen of sanitation of urban sewage to be used in technological cycles of industrial enterprises.

  7. The Effect of sewage sledge bio-char as mulch and top-soil incorporated on Soil Physical Characteristics and plant growth in a loss soil with high specific surface area in a temperate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Hamed; Movahedi Naeini, Seyed Alireza; Mirzanejad, Mojan

    2015-04-01

    Incorporation of biochar into agricultural soils has been proposed as a potential best management practice (BMP) to increase crop yield and sequester atmospheric carbon (C). Furthermore, the production of biochar, referred to as pyrolysis, yields biofuel that can offset fossil fuels. Current research involving biochar and soil is field scale experiments. Here, sewage sledge biochar was incorporated into a field-scale soybean (Glycine max) system for analysis of soil mechanical and hydrological properties correlated with crop yield. A randomized complete block design was implemented with two biochar application rates: 0 Mg ha-1 (TC), and 25 Mg ha-1 (MTB25 Mulch and ITB25 Incorporated). All plots were tilled using a tractor and rotovator in order to attain uniform incorporation of biochar. A small adjacent field was managed with no-till practices (NTC) to quantify the effects of tillage. Biochar is an effective soil conditioner, evident by MTB25 soil bulk density 9% and 18.5% less than that of TC and NTC, respectively. Analysis of soil pore size distribution resulted in MTB25 with significantly increased macro-pores (1500 μm) related to water transmission and micro-pores (0.5 μm) related to water retention. Furthermore, plant available water capacity (AWC) of MTB25 significantly increased by 9.6% and 29% over TC and NTC, respectively. Biochar amendment (MTB25) increased saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) by 33% and 78% over TC and NTC, respectively. Soybean above-ground biomass and grain yield of MTB25 resulted in respective 12.3% and 12.5% increases over TC. The results also showed that the ITB25 was less effective than MTB25. Correlation and linear regression analysis revealed significant positive trends with AWC, soil bulk density, total porosity, among other properties. Results suggest biochar is an effective soil amendment for temperate agricultural soils, yet long-term research will provide additional insight into the potential for biochar to improve soil

  8. GIF++: A new CERN Irradiation Facility to test large-area particle detectors for the High-Luminosity LHC program

    CERN Document Server

    Guida, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrade is setting a new challenge for particle detector technologies. The increase in luminosity will produce a higher particle background with respect to present conditions. To study performance and stability of detectors at LHC and future HL-LHC upgrades, a new dedicated facility has been built at CERN: the new Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++). The GIF++ is a unique place where high energy charged particle beams (mainly muons) are combined with gammas from a 14 TBq 137Cesium source which simulates the background radiation expected at the LHC experiments. Several centralized services and infrastructures are made available to the LHC detector community to facilitate the different R&D; programs.

  9. Mixed Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report, First quarter 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    During first quarter 1994, nine constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults, and the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride), copper, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, mercury, nonvolatile beta, or tetrachloroethylene also exceeded standards in one or more wells. Elevated constituents were found in numerous Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 1}, (Barnwell/McBean) wells and in one Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) well. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  10. Review of the geological and structural setting near the site of the proposed Transuranic Waste Facility (TRUWF) Technical Area 52 (TA-52), Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S.; Gardner, Jamie N.

    2007-10-01

    Because of Los Alamos National Laboratory’s proximal location to active geologic structures, assessment of seismic hazards, including the potential for seismic surface rupture, must occur before construction of any facilities housing nuclear or other hazardous materials. A transuranic waste facility (TRUWF) planned for construction at Technical Area 52 (TA-52) provides the impetus for this report. Although no single seismic hazards field investigation has focused specifically on TA-52, numerous studies at technical areas surrounding TA-52 have shown no significant, laterally continuous faults exhibiting activity in the last 10 ka within 3,000 ft of the proposed facility. A site-specific field study at the footprint of the proposed TRUWF would not yield further high-precision data on possible Holocene faulting at the site because post-Bandelier Tuff sediments are lacking and the shallowest subunit contacts of the Bandelier Tuff are gradational. Given the distal location of the proposed TRUWF to any mapped structures with demonstrable Holocene displacement, surface rupture potential appears minimal at TA-52.

  11. Assessment of groundwater pollution in Tokyo using PPCPs as sewage markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Keisuke; Murakami, Michio; Oguma, Kumiko; Muramatsu, Yuki; Takada, Hideshige; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2012-02-07

    While the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in groundwater has typically been reported in bank filtration sites, irrigated fields, septic tanks, and sewage disposal practices, fewer studies have been conducted in highly urbanized areas, where infiltration of treated or untreated sewage is not supposed to be a source of groundwater recharge. Furthermore, little is known about the occurrence of various kinds of PPCPs in relation to microbial indicators in groundwater from different types of aquifers. Thus, we examined the city-wide occurrence of selected PPCPs (diethyltoluamide, crotamiton, ethenzamide, propyphenazone, carbamazepine, and caffeine) and E. coli in 50 groundwaters from unconfined aquifers (groundwater contamination could take place due to decrepit sewer networks. PPCPs were detected in unconfined aquifers and springs (23/34 samples, 68%), and in confined aquifers (7/16 samples, 44%). Compared with published results for sewage influents, concentrations of PPCPs, excluding caffeine, were generally 1-2 orders of magnitude lower, while in some samples concentrations were quite comparable. The high occurrence rate of PPCPs, even in confined aquifers, indicated that such aquifers are not always protected from pollution by sewage near the land surface. Among the PPCPs analyzed, carbamazepine and crotamiton were most frequently detected, which would appear to be owing to their high persistence, combined with the high concentration of crotamiton in sewage. Crotamiton was detected in all four E. coli-positive groundwaters, and thus may potentially serve as a precautionary indicator of E. coli contamination. Using carbamazepine as a sewage marker, we estimated that 0.8%-1.7% of the dry-weather flow of sewage was leaking out into the unconfined aquifers.

  12. Diversity and population structure of sewage-derived microorganisms in wastewater treatment plant influent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, S L; Huse, S M; Mueller-Spitz, S R; Andreishcheva, E N; Sogin, M L

    2010-02-01

    The release of untreated sewage introduces non-indigenous microbial populations of uncertain composition into surface waters. We used massively parallel 454 pyrosequencing of hypervariable regions in rRNA genes to profile microbial communities from eight untreated sewage influent samples of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in metropolitan Milwaukee. The sewage profiles included a discernible human faecal signature made up of several taxonomic groups including multiple Bifidobacteriaceae, Coriobacteriaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae genera. The faecal signature made up a small fraction of the taxa present in sewage but the relative abundance of these sequence tags mirrored the population structures of human faecal samples. These genera were much more prevalent in the sewage influent than standard indicators species. High-abundance sequences from taxonomic groups within the Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria dominated the sewage samples but occurred at very low levels in faecal and surface water samples, suggesting that these organisms proliferate within the sewer system. Samples from Jones Island (JI--servicing residential plus a combined sewer system) and South Shore (SS--servicing a residential area) WWTPs had very consistent community profiles, with greater similarity between WWTPs on a given collection day than the same plant collected on different days. Rainfall increased influent flows at SS and JI WWTPs, and this corresponded to greater diversity in the community at both plants. Overall, the sewer system appears to be a defined environment with both infiltration of rainwater and stormwater inputs modulating community composition. Microbial sewage communities represent a combination of inputs from human faecal microbes and enrichment of specific microbes from the environment to form a unique population structure.

  13. Applicability of sewage heat pump air-conditioning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金华; 刘猛; 刘勇; 靳鸣; 陈洁

    2009-01-01

    A sewage heat pump system and its application based on a project in Chongqing,China,were discussed. Based on the sewage conditions,a feasibility analysis of the sewage heat pump air conditioning system was conducted. The theoretical and quantitative calculations indicate that sewage flux in the city sewage main pipe in the project can satisfy heat exchange requirements,and taking water from the pipes has relatively small influence on the pipe net in summer and winter. The sewage heat pump air-conditioning system can save 21.5% operating cost in one year,which is energy efficient and environmentally friendly.

  14. Nanocrystalline GaSbO{sub 4} with high surface area prepared via a facile hydrothermal method and its photocatalytic activity study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Yanghe; Xue Hun; Qin Meng; Liu Ping; Fu Xianzhi [Research Institute of Photocatalysis, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis - State Key Laboratory Breeding Base, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Li Zhaohui, E-mail: zhaohuili1969@yahoo.com [Research Institute of Photocatalysis, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis - State Key Laboratory Breeding Base, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China)

    2012-05-05

    Graphical abstract: Nanocrystalline GaSbO{sub 4} prepared via a facile hydrothermal method possesses large specific surface area and exhibits photocatalytic activity for the degradations of salicylic acid and acetone. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Facile hydrothermal method to nanocrystalline GaSbO{sub 4} with large surface area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GaSbO{sub 4} shows photocatalytic activity for the degradations of salicylic acid and acetone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalytic mechanism of GaSbO{sub 4} was proposed based on the ESR result. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline GaSbO{sub 4} with small particle size and large BET specific area was successfully prepared via a facile hydrothermal method from Sb{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The influence of the reaction pH on the formation of the final product was investigated. The obtained sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2}-sorption BET surface area, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The photocatalytic activity for the degradations of salicylic acid and acetone over nanocrystalline GaSbO{sub 4} under UV irradiations was for the first time revealed. Based on the electron spin resonance (ESR) result, the reactive species involved in the photocatalytic reaction over nanocrytalline GaSbO{sub 4} are determined to be HO{center_dot} and O{sub 2}{sup -}{center_dot}. The photocatalytic mechanism of GaSbO{sub 4} was proposed.

  15. RADIONUCLIDE DATA PACKAGE FOR PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT CALCULATIONS RELATED TO THE E-AREA LOW-LEVEL WASTE FACILITY AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J

    2007-03-20

    The Savannah River Site disposes of low-level radioactive waste within on-site engineered disposal facilities. The Savannah River Site must demonstrate that these disposals meet the requirements of DOE Order 435 . 1 through a process known as performance assessment (PA). The objective of this document is to provide the radionuclide -specific data needed for the PA calculations . This work is part of an on-going program to periodically review and update existing PA work as new data becomes available. Revision of the E -Area Low-Level Waste Facility PA is currently underway. The number of radionuclides selected to undergo detailed analysis in the PA is determined by a screening process. The basis of this process is described. Radionuclide-specific data for half-lives, decay modes, daughters, dose conversion factors and groundwater concentration limits are presented with source references and methodologies.

  16. 21 CFR 110.37 - Sanitary facilities and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKING, OR HOLDING HUMAN FOOD Buildings and Facilities § 110.37 Sanitary facilities and controls. Each plant shall be... water to required locations throughout the plant. (2) Properly convey sewage and liquid disposable waste...

  17. Changes in Nitrogen to Phosphorus ratio in the Inner Saronikos Gulf (West Aegean Sea) in relation to the operation of the Sewage Treatment Plant of Athens, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psyllidou-Giouranovits, Rosa

    2013-04-01

    In this work we provide an overview of nitrogen (N) to phosphorus (P) ratio in the inner Saronikos gulf as it has changed over the last twenty five (25) years in relation to the sewage discharges from the Sewage Treatment Plant of Athens in Psittalia Island. Saronikos gulf receives effluents from Athens Metropolitan area (population over 5 million). Until 1994, domestic and industrial sewage of Athens was discharged untreated into the surface water layer of Keratsini and Elefsis bay, whereas, after 1994, the sewage of the Athens Metropolitan area were primarily treated in Psitallia Sewage Treatment Plant and discharged in the inner Saronikos Gulf. Additionally, the secondary stage of the Psittalia Sewage Plant operated in the end of 2004 affecting the nitrogen to phosphorus (DIN:P) ratio (DIN stands for nitrate+nitrite+ammonium). The treated effluent plume frorm Psittalia Sewage Treatment Plant is trapped within the seasonal pycnocline developed during May-November, whereas, during the mixing period (December-April) it reaches the sea-surface. During the last 25 years, significant temporal variation of nutrient concentrations has been observed which has revealed an increase of the DIN:P ratio near the Psittalia Sewage Treatment Plant. In the vicinity of the sewage outfall in Psittalia, DIN:P ratio in the deep layer (30m-bottom) did not show significant variation between the two periods: before and after the operation of the Sewage Treatment Plant (12.9 before the operation of the sewage treatment and 13.3 after the operation of the sewage treatment) showing that inorganic nitrogen and phosphate changed almost with the same rate. However, the limiting factor for phytoplankton growth remains nitrogen. On the contrary, significant increase of DIN:P ratio was observed in the surface layer between the two periods, during summer (stratified period). DIN:P increased from 5.9 for the period 1987-1995 (before the Sewage Treatment Plant operation) to 19.6 for the period 1995

  18. Physicochemistry, morphology and leachability of selected metals from post-galvanized sewage sludge from screw factory in Łańcut, SE Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galas, Dagmara; Kalembkiewicz, Jan; Sitarz-Palczak, Elżbieta

    2016-12-01

    Morphology, physicochemical properties, chemical composition of post-galvanized sewage sludge from Screw Factory in Łańcut, leachability and mobility of metals has been analyzed. The analyses with the use of scanning electron microscope with an adapter to perform chemical analysis of microsites (EDS) showed that the material is characterized by a high fragmentation and a predominant number of irregularly shaped grains. The sewage sludge is alkaline with a large loss of ignition (34.6%) and small bulk density (< 1 g/cm3). The EDS analyses evidenced presence of oxygen, silicon, calcium, chromium, iron and zinc in all examined areas, and presence of manganese and copper in selected areas indicating a non-uniform distribution of metals in the sewage sludge. Within one-stage mineralization and FAAS technique a predominant share of calcium, zinc and iron in terms of dry matter was recorded in the sewage sludge. The contents of Co, Cr, Cu, K, Mn, Ni and Pb in sewage sludge are below 1%. Evaluation of mobility and leaching of metals in sewage sludge was carried out by means of two parameters: accumulation coefficient of mobile fractions and leaching level related to the mass solubility of sewage sludge. The results indicate that the short-term or long-term storage of not inactivated post-galvanized sewage sludge can result in release of metals.

  19. Physicochemistry, morphology and leachability of selected metals from post-galvanized sewage sludge from screw factory in Łańcut, SE Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galas Dagmara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphology, physicochemical properties, chemical composition of post-galvanized sewage sludge from Screw Factory in Łańcut, leachability and mobility of metals has been analyzed. The analyses with the use of scanning electron microscope with an adapter to perform chemical analysis of microsites (EDS showed that the material is characterized by a high fragmentation and a predominant number of irregularly shaped grains. The sewage sludge is alkaline with a large loss of ignition (34.6% and small bulk density (< 1 g/cm3. The EDS analyses evidenced presence of oxygen, silicon, calcium, chromium, iron and zinc in all examined areas, and presence of manganese and copper in selected areas indicating a non-uniform distribution of metals in the sewage sludge. Within one-stage mineralization and FAAS technique a predominant share of calcium, zinc and iron in terms of dry matter was recorded in the sewage sludge. The contents of Co, Cr, Cu, K, Mn, Ni and Pb in sewage sludge are below 1%. Evaluation of mobility and leaching of metals in sewage sludge was carried out by means of two parameters: accumulation coefficient of mobile fractions and leaching level related to the mass solubility of sewage sludge. The results indicate that the short-term or long-term storage of not inactivated post-galvanized sewage sludge can result in release of metals.

  20. Vermistabilization of primary sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hait, Subrata; Tare, Vinod

    2011-02-01

    An integrated composting-vermicomposting process has been developed for utilization of primary sewage sludge (PSS). Matured vermicompost was used as bulking material and a source of active microbial culture during aerobic activated composting (AAC). AAC resulted in sufficient enrichment of bulking material with organic matter after 20 cycles of recycling and mixing with PSS and produced materials acceptable for vermicomposting. Vermicomposting caused significant reduction in pH, volatile solids (VS), specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), total organic carbon (TOC), C/N ratio and pathogens and substantial increase in electrical conductivity (EC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) as compared to compost. Environmental conditions and stocking density have profound effects on vermicomposting. Temperature of 20°C with high humidity is favorable environmental condition for vermicomposting employing Eisenia fetida. Favorable stocking density range for vermiculture is 0.5-2.0 kg m(-2) (optimum: 0.5 kg m(-2)) and for vermicomposting is 2.0-4.0 kg m(-2) (optimum: 3.0 kg m(-2)), respectively.

  1. On the Protection of Sports Facilities in Western Nationalities Area%西部民族地区体育场地设施保护刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李可

    2012-01-01

      体育场地设施是体育运动得以顺利开展的基础保障。随着“十一五”规划的顺利谢幕,我国体育事业取得了突飞猛进的发展,体育场地设施的建设得到前瞻性的拓展。由于西部地区具有地域辽阔,资源丰富,民族众多,人口稀少等特征,铸就其体育场地设施建设与发展具有一定的特殊性。文章采用文献资料法、逻辑推理等研究方法对西部地区的学校场馆设备、城市社区体育场地设施及农村村寨体育场地设施的建设及法制化进程进行系统研究和深入剖析,并提出一系列具有可行性的对策,为西部地区体育场地设施更科学合理的建设及其法制化发展提供理论基础。%  Sports facilities are the basis for the successful sports conduction. With the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan"smoothly finishing, China's sports industry has made rapid development, the construction of sports facilities has been expanded for the future development. As the western region has a vast territory, rich resources, many nationalities, sparsely population and other features, all these form certain particularity for its construction and development of sports facilities. The paper, with the methods of literature, logical reasoning and other research methods, does a systematic study of legal processes and in-depth analysis of the western areas about its school stadium facilities, sports facilities and urban communities, rural villages and the construction of sports facilities, and proposes a series of feasibility strategies for the western region sports facilities construction with a more scientific and reasonable, and the development of legal theory.

  2. A study of high load biological sewage treatment in a pilot plant for the San Sebastian-Pasajes Bay area; Estudio en planta piloto del tratamiento biologico de alta carga (T.B.A.C.) para el saneamiento del area de San Sebastian-Bahia de Pasajes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman Goncalves, F.; Urriticoechea Ribate, A.

    1998-06-01

    High load biological treatment can replace the more commonly used physicochemical treatment of waste waters whose effluent is discharged into the sea by means of an underwater outlet. This obviates the need for chemical reagents and enhances organic matter elimination performance. This article presents the results obtained in an experiment comparing both processes carried out at a pilot plant in Spain by Confederacion Hidrografica del Norte to define the design of the future sewage plant in San Sebastian-Pasajes Bay, Guipuzcoa. (Author) 5 refs.

  3. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the K-Basins (see K-Basins link) in Hanford's 100 Area is a facility called the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF).Between 2000 and 2004, workers at the...

  4. Use of sewage sludge as secondary fuel in a cement plant: human health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Joaquim; Mari, Montse; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2011-01-01

    Since 2008, sewage sludge is being used as alternative fuel in a cement plant placed in Vallcarca (Catalonia, Spain). To evaluate the temporal trend of the environmental levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and a number of metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Tl, V, and Zn), as well as the potentially associated human health risks, samples of soil, herbage, and air were collected around the facility, after approximately one year of the permanent partial substitution of fuel. The temporal evolution of the pollutant levels was assessed by comparing the measured concentrations (2009) with those from samples collected in previous surveys (2003 and 2006) at the same sampling sites. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs in herbage and soil were 0.10 and 1.11 ng I-TEQ·kg⁻¹ dw, respectively, values very similar to those found in our previous surveys. For metals, although a clear tendency could not be observed, there were fluctuations through time. In this study, the levels of metals, which had not been analyzed in previous campaigns, were also determined in air, additionally to soil and vegetation. Airborne metal concentrations were similar to those found in other industrial areas worldwide. The human health risks for the population living around the cement plant were comparable to those obtained in previous studies, when petroleum coke was exclusively used as combustible, being in both cases tolerable according to the international standards.

  5. Research on rural sewage treatment using biological-ecological coupling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang SHI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing low-investment, low-energy consumption and low-maintenance sewage treatment process is important for sewage treatment in rural areas. An upflow anaerobic filter (UAF without energy consumption and a subsurface flow wetland (SFW are utilized as a biological-ecological coupling process to treat rural domestic sewage. The effect of the coupling process on treatment performance of domestic sewage under different hydraulic retention time (HRT is investigated. The removal of nitrogen and phosphorus in the SFW is improved by increasing plant density. The results show that the coupling process of UAF and SFW has no power consumption and is maintenance-free, suitable for rural sewage treatment; the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus mainly happens in the SFW phase; increasing the density of reed plants in the SFW can obviously enhance the capacity to remove nitrogen and phosphorus, and ensure that the efficient performance of the coupling process of UAF and SFW is stabilized in a high level. When the HRTs of UAF and SFW are 18 h and 3 d, respectively, the concentrations of COD, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the final effluent treated by UAF and SFW process are 44.07, 4.25, 13.36 and 0.44 mg/L, respectively, meeting the requirement of first grade class A in Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (GB 18918-2002.

  6. Guide to research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This Guide provides information on facilities at US Department of Energy (DOE) and other government laboratories that focus on research and development of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. These laboratories have opened these facilities to outside users within the scientific community to encourage cooperation between the laboratories and the private sector. The Guide features two types of facilities: designated user facilities and other research facilities. Designated user facilities are one-of-a-kind DOE facilities that are staffed by personnel with unparalleled expertise and that contain sophisticated equipment. Other research facilities are facilities at DOE and other government laboratories that provide sophisticated equipment, testing areas, or processes that may not be available at private facilities. Each facility listing includes the name and phone number of someone you can call for more information.

  7. Facility for Measuring the Spatial Uniformity of the Radiation Power of the Surface of the Large-Area Blackbody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, S. P.; Dunaev, A. Y.; Katysheva, A. A.; Sapritsky, V. I.; Parfentyev, N. A.; Ogarev, S. A.; Karpunin, D. N.

    2017-05-01

    The new stage of the development of space-borne information systems is the creation of the Global Earth Observation System. For the full functioning of such a system, it is necessary to provide the uniformity of measurements of all national systems as members of the global system, with high-quality measurement data. This requires the implementation of a high level of ground (prelaunch) calibration of Earth remote sensing instruments. To solve these problems, there were created calibration facilities on the basis of large vacuum chambers with vacuum reference radiation sources, including sources on the basis of black bodies with a wide aperture of 500 mm in the spectral range from 3 {μ}m to 14 {μ}m. Such a facility was created by FGUP "VNIIOFI" in cooperation with FGUP "TsNIIMash". The ground calibration of Earth remote sensing instruments is being carried out by using blackbody models as radiation sources with known spectral radiance. Facility for ground calibration of remote sensing devices on spectral radiance is based on the usage of a large-aperture blackbody (LABB) with 500 mm diameter and working temperature range from 213 K to 423 K, as a radiation source. This calibration setup comprises a set of reference blackbodies, such as a blackbody on the phase transition of Gallium, a variable-temperature blackbody with temperature range from 213 K to 423 K, a reference blackbody cooled with liquid nitrogen, and IR Fourier spectrometer utilized as a comparator to perform LABB calibration on spectral radiance. The second important characteristic of LABB is the uniformity of spectral radiance across the radiating aperture of this blackbody. The paper describes the device for measuring the spatial homogeneity of the radiation power of the LABB's radiating surface. This device is based on the use of two-color InSb-CdHgTe detector equipped with modulator and IR lens, which are mounted on a two-axis translation stage suitable for operation in vacuum and installed in the

  8. Microbial water quality and sedimentary faecal sterols as markers of sewage contamination in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, B P; Devlin, M J; Abdul Hamid, S A; Al-Otiabi, A F; Al-Enezi, M; Massoud, M S; Al-Zaidan, A S; Smith, A J; Morris, S; Bersuder, P; Barber, J L; Papachlimitzou, A; Al-Sarawi, H A

    2015-11-30

    Microbial water quality and concentrations of faecal sterols in sediment have been used to assess the degree of sewage contamination in Kuwait's marine environment. A review of microbial (faecal coliform, faecal streptococci and Escherichia coli) water quality data identified temporal and spatial sources of pollution around the coastline. Results indicated that bacterial counts regularly breach regional water quality guidelines. Sediments collected from a total of 29 sites contained detectable levels of coprostanol with values ranging from 29 to 2420 ng g(-1) (dry weight). Hot spots based on faecal sterol sediment contamination were identified in Doha Bay and Sulaibikhat Bay, which are both smaller embayments of Kuwait Bay. The ratio of epicoprostanol/coprostanol indicates that a proportion of the contamination was from raw or partially treated sewage. Sewage pollution in these areas are thought to result from illegal connections and discharges from storm drains, such as that sited at Al-Ghazali.

  9. Carriage of Clostridium perfringens by benthic crabs in a sewage-polluted estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sala, Luciano F; Redondo, Leandro M; Díaz Carrasco, Juan M; Pereyra, Ana María; Farber, Marisa; Jost, Helen; Fernández-Miyakawa, Mariano E

    2015-08-15

    The Estuary of Bahía Blanca (EBB), Argentina, is an important wetland under intense sewage pollution. We investigated the occurrence of Clostridium perfringens (CP) in populations of two benthic crabs (Neohelice granulata and Cyrtograpsus angulatus) and in sediment from the EBB. CP was found in 49.1% of the crabs and all of the isolates were identified as type A. The alpha (cpa) and enterotoxin (cpe) encoding genes were identified. Genetic analyses identified 13 novel sequence types, and found no clustering among isolates, suggesting that CP is not part of the crabs' commensal flora. CP carriage was 51 times more likely in crabs from the area nearest sewage outfalls compared with crabs from a reference site. Our in vitro experiments suggest that the carriage of CP in crabs is transient. The use of these benthic crabs as monitoring organisms of sewage pollution in coastal habitats is proposed.

  10. Biological and ecophysiological reactions of white wall rocket (Diplotaxis erucoides L.) grown on sewage sludge compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korboulewsky, Nathalie; Bonin, Gilles; Massiani, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effects of sewage sludge compost on white wall rocket (Diplotaxis erucoides L.) compared with mineral fertilization and control (without any fertilizer) in a greenhouse experiment. The plants grown on the compost-amended soil showed a different growth dynamic: a significant delay in flowering and a bigger root system. Both the compost and the fertilization treatments increased biomass and seed yield. Heavy metal (Cu, Cd, Zn, Ni) distribution within the plant was in the following order: roots > leaves > stems, except for zinc which was homogeneously distributed. The balance of mineral nutrition was not affected by treatments. Zinc was the trace element which was most taken up. Unlike many species of Brassicaceae, white wall rocket is not a hyperaccumulator. Although sewage sludge compost improved plant growth, delay in flowering shows that it is necessary to take precautions when spreading sewage sludge in natural areas.

  11. HEAVY METAL UPTAKE AND TRANSLOCATION BY DIPTEROCARPUS VERRUCOSUS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keeren Sundara Rajoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge or biosolids is the solid waste that has been left after wastewater is treated in a domestic wastewater treatment facility. The most common way of sludge disposal is to dispose it on the land, sea or air (incineration. However, these methods are not environment-friendly, costly and time consuming that requires expertise and knowledge. An ideal way to manage sewage sludge is to use it as a soil amendment in agricultural land due to it’s high organic matter and other base cations. Sewage sludge contains high levels of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium and zinc that can be harmful to both plants and the environment. Hence, these metals need to be removed before the sewage sludge is used as a soil amendment. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of Dipterocarpus verrucosus to uptake and translocate heavy metals from sewage sludge contaminated soil. The D.verrucosus seedlings were planted on six different planting media; Control (100% soil, T1 (80% soil and 20% sewage sludge, T2 (60% soil and 40% sewage sludge, T3 (40% soil and 60% sewage sludge, T4 (20% soil and 80% sewage sludge and T5 (100% sewage sludge for the duration of 16 weeks. The growth performance, of height of D.verrucosus was measured using diameter tape, while the basal diameter was measured using a venier caliper for every two weeks for a period of 16 weeks. The plant biomass was determined using a destructive sampling method. Plant samples were collected after harvest and soil samples were collected before and after planting. The Atomic Absorbtion Spectrophotometer (AAS was used to determine the concentration of heavy metals in the planting media and the plant parts (leaves, stem and roots. The highest plant biomass was recorded in the T1 growth media of 20% sewage sludge and 80% soil. D.verrucosus plant was able to remove heavy metals of Cd, Cu, Pb, Fe and Zn effectively. The highest concentration of heavy metal in the roots of the D

  12. F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Corrective Action Report, Third and Fourth Quarter 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    SRS monitors groundwater quality at the F-Area HWMF and provides results of this monitoring to the SCDHEC semiannually as required by the RCRA permit. SRS also performs monthly sampling in accordance with Section of the UIC application.

  13. H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Corrective Action Report, Third and Fourth Quarter 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    SRS monitors groundwater quality at the H-Area HWMF and provides results of this monitoring to the SCDHEC semiannually as required by the RCRA permit. SRS also performs monthly sampling in accordance with Section of the UIC application.

  14. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan For Test Area North Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, L. O.

    2007-06-12

    This remedial action work plan identifies the approach and requirements for implementing the medial zone remedial action for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory. This plan details the management approach for the construction and operation of the New Pump and Treat Facility (NPTF). As identified in the remediatial design/remedial action scope of work, a separate remedial design/remedial action work plan will be prepared for each remedial component of the Operable Unit 1-07B remedial action.

  15. Facile Synthesis of Defective TiO2−x Nanocrystals with High Surface Area and Tailoring Bandgap for Visible-light Photocatalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Wajid Shah; Yunqing Zhu; Xiaoyun Fan; Jie Zhao; Yingxuan Li; Sumreen Asim; Chuanyi Wang

    2015-01-01

    A facile hydrothermal approach has been developed to prepare defective TiO2−x nanocrystals using Ti(III)-salt as a precursor and L-ascorbic acid as reductant and structure direction agent. The prepared TiO2−x nanocrystals are composed of a highly crystallized TiO2 core and a disordered TiO2−x outer layer, possessing high surface area, controlled oxygen vacancy concentration and tunable bandgap via simply adjusting the amount of added L-ascorbic acid. The defective TiO2−x shows high photocatal...

  16. JPL Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) for sewage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    An Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) was developed for sewage treatment and is being applied to a one-million gallon per day sewage treatment pilot plant in Orange County California. Activities reported include pyrolysis and activation of carbon-sewage sludge, and activated carbon treatment of sewage to meet ocean discharge standards. The ACTS Sewage treatment operations include carbon-sewage treatment, primary and secondary clarifiers, gravity (multi-media) filter, filter press dewatering, flash drying of carbon-sewage filter cake, and sludge pyrolysis and activation. Tests were conducted on a laboratory scale, 10,000 gallon per day demonstration plant and pilot test equipment. Preliminary economic studies are favorable to the ACTS process relative to activated sludge treatment for a 175,000,000 gallon per day sewage treatment plant.

  17. Interim Status Groundwater Monitoring Plan for Low-Level Waste Management Areas 1 to 4, RCRA Facilities, Hanford,Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P Evan

    2004-10-25

    This document describes the monitoring plan to meet the requirements for interim status groundwater monitoring at Hanford Site low-level waste burial grounds as specified by 40 CFR 265, incorporated by reference in WAC 173-303-400. The monitoring will take place at four separate low-level waste management areas in the 200-West and 200-East Areas, in the central part of the site. This plan replaces the previous monitoring plan.

  18. Hand-hygiene practices and observed barriers in pediatric long-term care facilities in the New York metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løyland, Borghild; Wilmont, Sibyl; Cohen, Bevin; Larson, Elaine

    2016-02-01

    To describe hand-hygiene practices in pediatric long-term care (pLTC) facilities and to identify observed barriers to, and potential solutions for, improved infection prevention. Observational study using (i) the World Health Organization's '5 Moments for Hand Hygiene' validated observation tool to record indications for hand hygiene and adherence; and (ii) individual logs of subjective impressions of behavioral and/or systemic barriers witnessed during direct observation. Staff in three pLTC facilities (284 beds total) were observed by two trained nurses 1 day a week for 3 weeks in February and March 2015. Direct providers of health, therapeutic and rehabilitative care, and other staff responsible for social and academic activities for children with complex, chronic medical conditions. Hand-hygiene indications, adherence and barriers. Hand hygiene was performed for 40% of the 847 indications observed and recorded. Adherence increased at one site and decreased in the other two sites during the study period. Adherence appeared to be influenced by individuals' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and work setting. Poor hand-hygiene adherence was observed overall. Specific barriers were identified, which suggest a contextual approach to the interpretation of results indicated in this uniquely challenging setting. We offer some practical suggestions for overcoming those barriers or mitigating their effect. Ultimately, an adaptation of the '5 Moments for Hand Hygiene' may be necessary to improve infection prevention in pLTC. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  19. Physical-Chemical Characterization of Soils Treated with Sewage Sludge Compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milda Radžiūtė

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sewage dump is the main organic waste component accumulating in water treatment companies, and therefore the utilization of dump remains a burning issue. Fertilization is the most popular and cheapest way of using sewage dump a part of which is intended for agriculture in most European countries for composting purposes. Sewage dump or its compost are suitable for fertilizing the upper layers of the soil in cases the concentration of heavy metals is not greater than sanitarian standards can tolerate. The examinations were carried out using different waste dump rates from Vilnius water treatment facility in willow (Salix viminalis grown cultivated fields. The analysis of the soil was executed after one and two years following the fertilization process. The obtained results indicate that waste dump is a valuable organic fertilizer which contains small amounts of heavy metals. Separate heavy metals migrate from sewage sludge compost to plants differently. It was noted that the concentration of heavy metals in willows was greater (except for Pb and Cd than that in the soil.Article in Lithuanian

  20. Assessment of financial impact of implementation of operational programme on discharge and treatment of waste water for settlements which will not be equipped with public sewage system until 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Pregelj, Andrej

    2010-01-01

    Slovenia has with its accession to the European Union committed to construct public sewage system and wastewater treatment plant within deadlines that are written in the Operational programme on discharge and treatment of waste water. Due to scattered settlements in Slovenia the construction of public sewage system and waste water treatment plants for each settlement is not economically eligible. Residents of scattered areas which will not be equipped with public sewage systems will have to d...

  1. Ambient concentrations of total suspended particulate matter and its elemental constituents at the wider area of the mining facilities of TVX Hellas in Chalkidiki, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidajis, George

    2003-01-01

    To assess ambient air quality at the wider area of TVX Hellas mining facilities, the Total Suspended Particulate matter (TSP) and its content in characteristic elements, i.e., As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn are being monitored for more than thirty months as part of the established Environmental Monitoring Program. High Volume air samplers equipped with Tissue Quartz filters were employed for the collection of TSP. Analyses were effected after digestion of the suspended particulate with an HNO3-HCl solution and determination of elemental concentrations with an Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy equipped with graphite furnace. The sampling stations were selected to record representatively the existing ambient air quality in the vicinity of the facilities and at remote sites not affected from industrial activities. Monitoring data indicated that the background TSP concentrations ranged from 5-60 microg/m3. Recorded TSP concentrations at the residential sites close to the facilities ranged between 20-100 microg/m3, indicating only a minimal influence from the mining and milling activities. Similar spatial variation was observed for the TSP constituents and specifically for Pb and Zn. To validate the monitoring procedures, a parallel sampling campaign took place with different High Volume samplers at days where low TSP concentrations were expected. The satisfactory agreement (+/- 11%) at low concentrations (50-100 microg/m3) clearly supported the reproducibility of the techniques employed specifically at the critical range of lower concentrations.

  2. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan for Test Area North (TAN) Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Vandel

    2003-09-01

    This remedial action work plan identifies the approach and requirements for implementing the medical zone remedial action for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This plan details management approach for the construction and operation of the New Pump and Treat Facility. As identified in the remedial design/remedial action scope of work, a separate remedial design/remedial action work plan will be prepared for each remedial component of the Operable Unit 1-07B remedial action. This work plan was originally prepared as an early implementation of the final Phase C remediation. At that time, The Phase C implementation strategy was to use this document as the overall Phase C Work Plan and was to be revised to include the remedial actions for the other remedial zones (hotspot and distal zones). After the completion of Record of Decision Amendment: Technical Support Facility Injection Well (TSF-05) and Surrounding Groundwater Contamination (TSF-23) and Miscellaneous No Action Sites, Final Remedial Action, it was determined that each remedial zone would have it own stand-alone remedial action work plan. Revision 1 of this document converts this document to a stand-alone remedial action plan specific to the implementation of the New Pump and Treat Facility used for plume remediation within the medical zone of the OU 1-07B contaminated plume.

  3. Association between Gastrointestinal Illness and Precipitation in Areas Impacted by Combined Sewer Systems: Utilizing a Distributed Lag Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combined sewer systems collect rainwater runoff, sewage, and industrial wastewater for transit to treatment facilities. With heavy precipitation, volumes can exceed capacity of treatment facilities, and wastewater discharges directly to receiving waters. These combined sewer over...

  4. Evaluation of sewage sludge impact on pine and birch development

    OpenAIRE

    Vaitkutė, Dovilė

    2009-01-01

    Sewage sludge could be used in forestry as enrichment of soil properties. It is also expected that sewage sludge which is rich in phosphorus, nitrogen and organic material can enhance the growth of tree seedlings in poor soils. Our study was performed in Taruskos experimental forest site in Panevezys region. The experimental site amended with industrial sewage sludge ten years ago was afforestated with birch and pine seedlings. The aim of our thesis is to evaluate the influence of sewage ...

  5. SEWAGE SLUDGE COMBUSTION IN A SPOUTED BED CASCADE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mirko Barz

    2003-01-01

    @@ In modern society, sewage is disposed of in a two-step process: it is first made into granules and the sewage sludge granules are then burned in an appropriate combustor. The present paper describes a spouted bed cascade system for sewage sludge combustion developed at the Technical University of Berlin at the turn of the present century. Combustion results in the recovery of the combustible matters of the sewage in the form of thermal energy.

  6. Preliminary engineering report waste area grouping 5, Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks content removal project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requires a Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) for federal facilities placed on the National Priorities List. The Oak Ridge Reservation was placed on that list on December 21, 1989, and the agreement was signed in November 1991 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The effective date of the FFA is January 1, 1992. One objective of the FFA is to ensure that liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that are removed from service are evaluated and remediated through the CERCLA process. Five inactive LLLW tanks, designated T-1, T-2, T-3, T-4, and T-9, located at the Old Hydrofracture (OHF) Facility in the Melton Valley area of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been evaluated and are now entering the remediation phase. As a precursor to final remediation, this project will remove the current liquid and sludge contents of each of the five tanks (System Requirements Document, Appendix A). It was concluded in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis [EE/CA] for the Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks (DOE 1996) that sluicing and pumping the contaminated liquid and sludge from the five OHF tanks was the preferred removal action. Evaluation indicated that this alternative meets the removal action objective and can be effective, implementable, and cost-effective. Sluicing and removing the tank contents was selected because this action uses (1) applicable experience, (2) the latest information about technologies and techniques for removing the wastes from the tanks, and (3) activities that are currently acceptable for storage of transuranic (TRU) mixed waste.

  7. Wastes to Resources: Appropriate Technologies for Sewage Treatment and Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stephen P.

    Appropriate technology options for sewage management systems are explained in this four-chapter report. The use of appropriate technologies is advocated for its health, environmental, and economic benefits. Chapter 1 presents background information on sewage treatment in the United States and the key issues facing municipal sewage managers.…

  8. 3Q/4Q99 Annual M-Area and Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facilities Groundwater Monitoring and Corrective-Action Report - Third and Fourth Quarters 1999 - Volumes I, II, and III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    2000-04-19

    This report describes the groundwater monitoring and corrective-action program at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) and the Metallurgical Laboratory (Met Lab) HWMF at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during 1999.

  9. Enantioselective degradation of Bromocyclene in sewage plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bester, K. [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). FG Siedlungswasser- und Abfallwirtschaft/Inst. fuer Umweltanalytik

    2004-09-15

    Bromocyclene has been utilised as insecticide against ectoparasites, however the production in Germany was stopped around 1995. Until that time it was used in pet care as well as in sheep farming. Due to its high bioaccumulation it was detected not only in sewage systems and sewage treatment plants, but also in fresh water fish. Enatioselective determination at that time was used to obtain results on the biodegradation of Bromocyclene in fish. Considering the long time period since the phase out of Bromocyclene it was surprising it was easily identified in sludge samples from 2002.

  10. Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation: Tooele Army Depot, Utah. Volume 1. North Area and Facilities at Hill Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-12

    im- portant in the area from an archaeological perspective. The Freemonts were horticulturally oriented, augmenting their diet with hunting. Freemont...dieldrin, diazinon, warfarin , malathion, DDT, and chlordane 533 Spray painting, cleaning metals, Paint pigments, phosphoric acid, welding 𔃾 metal dust...railroad beds to improve visibility, and where plants are unsightly or present a fire hazard. Pesticides, such as lindane, warfarin , malathion, and

  11. Phase 1 RCRA Facility Investigation and Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for Single Shell Tank Waste Management Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROGERS, P.M.

    2000-06-01

    This document is the master work plan for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) for single-shell tank (SST) farms at the Hanford Site. Evidence indicates that releases at four of the seven SST waste management areas have impacted.

  12. Nitrogen compounds in drain sewage after constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paweska, K; Malczewska, B

    2009-01-01

    Constructed wetlands, commonly known as ground filters, are well suited mostly for wastewater treatment in areas with no central sewage system. The basic difficulty with exploitation of constructed wetlands is connected with irregular hydraulic overload of its surface. However, irregular wastewater inflow can be reduced by cyclical irrigation which increases efficiency. The unquestionable advantage of the constructed wetlands is inexpensive construction and exploitation as well as low energy consumption. The constructed wetlands also fit very well in surrounding area. The investigation concerned the analysis of two constructed wetlands which are composed of mechanical separation (septic tank) and a filter bed with subsurface flow. The research has been undertaken in a period from July to December 2008, with regard to concentration distribution of nitrogen compounds in municipal sewage after constructed wetlands. The preliminary investigation on constructed wetland which has been exploited for 10 years showed variable removal efficiency of nitrogen compounds. The continuation of the research can indicate the efficiency of wastewater treatment in summer and winter season.

  13. Benthic distribution of sewage sludge indicated by Clostridium perfringens at a deep-ocean dump site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, R.T.; Anikis, M.S.; Colwell, R.R. (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore (United States)); Knight, I.T. (James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Since 1986, sewage sludge from New York and northern New Jersey has been dumped 196 km off the coast of New Jersey at the Deep Water Municipal Sewage Sludge Disposal Site. This study determines the distribution of sludge contamination of the benthic environment in the area, by using Clostridium perfringens as an indicator. The counts of C. perfringens confirm a previous report that sewage sludge is reaching the ocean floor at the disposal site as a result of the sludge dumping. C. perfringes counts within the dump site and to the south and west of the dump site are considerably elevated compared to counts east of the site. The distribution pattern of C. perfringes is broadly consistent with the estimates of the sea floor area impacted in the most recent computer model. However, the area of maximum desposition of sludge may be slightly further north than predicted. Use of C. perfringens has proven to be an efficient and reliable method for tracing sewage contamination of deep ocean sediments. 18 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. The financial feasibility of hazelnut husk and sewage sludge based vermicompost production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat Ceyhan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recycling the waste such as hazelnut husk, sewage sludge etc. has been one of the issues into the agenda of many countries. Therefore the purpose of the study was to examine the economic feasibility of the vermicompost production. Technical data about composting hazelnut husk and sewage sludge were gathered from past research. The time series data such as production, export, import and price of vermicompost collected from TURKSTAT, FAO and related institutions. Autoregressive integrating moving average model (ARIMA and smoothing methods such as double exponential model and winter model were used in forecasting process. We followed net present value and internal rate of return procedures when evaluating the financial feasibility of the facility having one ton vermicompost production capacity per day. Research results showed that the profitability of vermicompost production facility was high, while the likelihood of loss was less. Vermicompost production facility with approximately 130 thousands of US dollars initial investment provided net present value of 1.28 million of US dollars during the economic life. The internal rate of vermicompost production facility was 23%. Research results also revealed that production cost of vermicompost was $0.2 per kilogram. Since vermicompost production facility investment with high profitability and low level of risk was good investment alternatives facing with low level of competitive in market, the study suggest to investors who has good back grounding about sector that they should pay attention to marketing system and market observation about organic input market.

  15. The 1993 baseline biological studies and proposed monitoring plan for the Device Assembly Facility at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, B.D.; Hunter, R.B.; Greger, P.D.; Saethre, M.B.

    1995-02-01

    This report contains baseline data and recommendations for future monitoring of plants and animals near the new Device Assembly Facility (DAF) on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The facility is a large structure designed for safely assembling nuclear weapons. Baseline data was collected in 1993, prior to the scheduled beginning of DAF operations in early 1995. Studies were not performed prior to construction and part of the task of monitoring operational effects will be to distinguish those effects from the extensive disturbance effects resulting from construction. Baseline information on species abundances and distributions was collected on ephemeral and perennial plants, mammals, reptiles, and birds in the desert ecosystems within three kilometers (km) of the DAF. Particular attention was paid to effects of selected disturbances, such as the paved road, sewage pond, and the flood-control dike, associated with the facility. Radiological monitoring of areas surrounding the DAF is not included in this report.

  16. Ecotoxicity Assessment of Stabilized Sewage Sludge from Municipal Sewage Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Próba, Marta; Wolny, Lidia

    2016-09-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the ecotoxicity of municipal sewage sludge conditioned with polyelectrolytes, taken from selected sewage treatment plant. Using the bioindication analysis overall toxicity was assessed, which allows to know the total toxicity of all the harmful substances contained in sewage sludge, in many cases acting synergistically. To prepare a sample of sludge for the basic test, all analyses were performed with a ratio of liquid to solid of 10:1 (water extract). Daphnia pulex biological screening test was used. A dilution series of an water extract of sludge were prepared to include within its scope the lowest concentration that causes 100% effect and the highest producing less than 10% of the effect within a specified range of the assay. The results of the test were read after 24 and 48 hours. Based on the research and analysis of test results it proved that the sewage sludge conditioned with polyelectrolytes exhibit the characteristics of eco-toxic.

  17. Characterization and lytic activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens phages from sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananthi Radhakrishnan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas fluorescens phages from sewage were tested against P. fluorescens isolates of soil and sewage. The phages were characterized as to host range, morphology, structural proteins and genome fingerprint. Of the seven phages isolated, one was found to be abundant in sewage (5.9×10(7 pfu/mL, having broad host range, and distinct protein and DNA profile when compared to the other six phages. DNA restriction and protein profiles of the phages and their morphology indicate the diversity in the sewage environment. None of the isolates from the rhizosphere regions of various cultivated soils were susceptible to phages isolated from sewage.

  18. Quantification of human-associated fecal indicators reveal sewage from urban watersheds as a source of pollution to Lake Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templar, Hayley A; Dila, Deborah K; Bootsma, Melinda J; Corsi, Steven R; McLellan, Sandra L

    2016-09-01

    Sewage contamination of urban waterways from sewer overflows and failing infrastructure is a major environmental and public health concern. Fecal coliforms (FC) are commonly employed as fecal indicator bacteria, but do not distinguish between human and non-human sources of fecal contamination. Human Bacteroides and human Lachnospiraceae, two genetic markers for human-associated indicator bacteria, were used to identify sewage signals in two urban rivers and the estuary that drains to Lake Michigan. Grab samples were collected from the rivers throughout 2012 and 2013 and hourly samples were collected in the estuary across the hydrograph during summer 2013. Human Bacteroides and human Lachnospiraceae were highly correlated with each other in river samples (Pearson's r = 0.86), with average concentrations at most sites elevated during wet weather. These human indicators were found during baseflow, indicating that sewage contamination is chronic in these waterways. FC are used for determining total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) in management plans; however, FC concentrations alone failed to prioritize river reaches with potential health risks. While 84% of samples with >1000 CFU/100 ml FC had sewage contamination, 52% of samples with moderate (200-1000 CFU/100 ml) and 46% of samples with low (urban areas have unrecognized sewage inputs that may not be adequately prioritized for remediation by the TMDL process. Further analysis using these approaches could determine relationships between land use, storm characteristics, and other factors that drive sewage contamination in urban waterways.

  19. Sewage treatment plant associated genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea and Swedish west coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönn, Mikael; Lind, Emma E.; Świeżak, Justyna; Smolarz, Katarzyna; Grahn, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Human-derived environmental pollutants and nutrients that reach the aquatic environment through sewage effluents, agricultural and industrial processes are constantly contributing to environmental changes that serve as drivers for adaptive responses and evolutionary changes in many taxa. In this study, we examined how two types of point sources of aquatic environmental pollution, harbors and sewage treatment plants, affect gene diversity and genetic differentiation in the blue mussel in the Baltic Sea area and off the Swedish west coast (Skagerrak). Reference sites (REF) were geographically paired with sites from sewage treatments plant (STP) and harbors (HAR) with a nested sampling scheme, and genetic differentiation was evaluated using a high-resolution marker amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). This study showed that genetic composition in the Baltic Sea blue mussel was associated with exposure to sewage treatment plant effluents. In addition, mussel populations from harbors were genetically divergent, in contrast to the sewage treatment plant populations, suggesting that there is an effect of pollution from harbors but that the direction is divergent and site specific, while the pollution effect from sewage treatment plants on the genetic composition of blue mussel populations acts in the same direction in the investigated sites.

  20. Sewage treatment plant associated genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea and Swedish west coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefine Larsson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human-derived environmental pollutants and nutrients that reach the aquatic environment through sewage effluents, agricultural and industrial processes are constantly contributing to environmental changes that serve as drivers for adaptive responses and evolutionary changes in many taxa. In this study, we examined how two types of point sources of aquatic environmental pollution, harbors and sewage treatment plants, affect gene diversity and genetic differentiation in the blue mussel in the Baltic Sea area and off the Swedish west coast (Skagerrak. Reference sites (REF were geographically paired with sites from sewage treatments plant (STP and harbors (HAR with a nested sampling scheme, and genetic differentiation was evaluated using a high-resolution marker amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP. This study showed that genetic composition in the Baltic Sea blue mussel was associated with exposure to sewage treatment plant effluents. In addition, mussel populations from harbors were genetically divergent, in contrast to the sewage treatment plant populations, suggesting that there is an effect of pollution from harbors but that the direction is divergent and site specific, while the pollution effect from sewage treatment plants on the genetic composition of blue mussel populations acts in the same direction in the investigated sites.

  1. Solubility of ion and trace metals from stabilized sewage sludge by fly ash and alkaline mine tailing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hongling; SUN Lina; SUN Tieheng

    2008-01-01

    Stabilized sewage sludge (SS) by fly ash (FA) and alkaline mine tailing as artificial soil,to be applied on the ecological rehabilitation at mining junkyards,offers a potentially viable utilization of the industrial by-product,as well as solves the shortage of soil resource in the mine area.An incubation experiment with different ratios of SS and FA was conducted to evaluate the solubility of ions and trace elements from stabilized sewage sludge.Results showed that fly ash offset a decrease in pH value of sewage sludge.The pH of (C) treatment (FA:SS=1:1) was stable and tended to neutrality.The SO42- and Cl- concentrations of the solution in the mixture were significantly decreased in the stabilized sewage sludge by alkaline fly ash and mine tailing,compared to the single SS treatment.Stabilized sewage sludge by FA weakened the nitrification of total nitrogen from SS when the proportion of FA in the mixture was more than 50%.The Cr,Ni,and Cu concentrations in the solution were gradually decreased and achieved a stable level after 22 days,for all treatments over the duration of the incubation.Moreover stabilized sewage sludge by fly ash and/or mine tailing notably decreased the trace metal solubility.The final Cr,Cu,and Ni concentrations in the solution for all mixtures of treatments were lower than 2.5,15,and 50 μg/L,respectively.

  2. The assessment of sewage sludge gasification by-products toxicity by ecotoxicologial test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz

    2015-08-01

    The process of gasification of sewage sludge generates by-products, which may be contaminated with toxic and hazardous substances, both organic and inorganic. It is therefore important to assess the environmental risk associated with this type of waste. The feasibility of using an ecotoxicological tests for this purpose was determined in the presented study. The applied tests contained indicator organisms belonging to various biological groups (bacteria, crustaceans, plants). The subject of the study were solid (ash, char) and liquid (tar) by-products generated during gasification (in a fixed bed reactor) of dried sewage sludge from various wastewater treatment systems. The tested samples were classified based on their toxic effect. The sensitivity of the indicator organisms to the tested material was determined. In-house procedures for the preparation for toxicity analysis of both sewage sludge and by-products generated during the gasification were presented. The scope of work also included the determination of the effect of selected process parameters (temperature, amount of gasifying agent) on the toxicity of gasification by-products depending on the sewage sludge source. It was shown that both the type of sewage sludge and the parameters of the gasification process affects the toxicity of the by-products of gasification. However, the results of toxicity studies also depend on the type of ecotoxicological test used, which is associated with a different sensitivity of the indicator organisms. Nevertheless, it may be concluded that the by-products formed during the gasification of the low toxicity sewage sludge can be regarded as non-toxic or low toxic. However, the results analysis of the gasification of the toxic sludge were not conclusive, which leads to further research needs in this area. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Byproducts Utilization Program: Sewage Sludge Irradiation Project. Progress report, July-December 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-12-01

    Engineering support for a demonstration-scale irradiator design included assisting the City of Albuquerque in preparing a comprehensive site plan for their proposed sludge handling and treatment facilities. The solar sludge dryer has been delivered to SNLA. A preliminary sludge drying experiment indicated the importance of optimizing stirring and air flow. Installation of instrumentation and mechanical equipment continued. The Sandia Irradiator for Dried Sewage Solids (SIDSS) was used to irradiate 23 tons of dried, digested sewage sludge for the New Mexico State University (NMSU) Department of Crop and Soil Sciences. Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) operations included irradiation of ground pork for Toxoplasma gondii inactivation experiments, irradiation of surgical supplies and soil samples. Beneficial Uses Shipping Systems (BUSS) cask activities included near completion of the two full-scale cask bodies. Work continued on the Cask Safety Analysis Report (SAR) including additional analyses to reconfigure the six strontium fluoride capsules and/or reduce the number of capsules accommodated. NMSU has indicated no regrowth of salmonellae occurred in the irradiated sludge stockpile, while salmonellae did regrow in the unirradiated stockpile. Analyses of raw and digested sewage sludge from the Albuquerque Waste Water Treatment Plant showed levels of Yersinia enterocolitica (a human pathogen of emerging significance) to be below detection limits.

  4. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge char ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atienza-Martinez, M.; Gea, G.; Arauzo, J.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Kootstra, A.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus was recovered from the ash obtained after combustion at different temperatures (600 °C, 750 °C and 900 °C) and after gasification (at 820 °C using a mixture of air and steam as fluidising agent) of char from sewage sludge fast pyrolysis carried out at 530 °C. Depending on the leaching con

  5. Heavy metals precipitation in sewage sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.

    2005-01-01

    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal-polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another

  6. Anaerobic Pre-treatment of Strong Sewage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halalsheh, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to assess the feasibility of applying low cost anaerobic technology for the treatment of relatively high strength sewage of Jordan using two-stage and one-stage UASB reactors operated at ambient temperatures. The wastewater produced in Jordan is characterised

  7. Potential priority pollutants in sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Christensen, Nina; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2008-01-01

    Sewage sludge has been used as fertilizer for agricultural land over a long time. This is part of a sustainable practice utilizing and recycling the macronutrients back to land. During the last decades, questions have been raised concerning the risks related to heavy metals and xenobiotic organic...

  8. Heavy metals precipitation in sewage sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.

    2005-01-01

    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal-polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another adv

  9. Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yunbo; Wang, Chang; Chen, Hongmei; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming; Pang, Daoxiong; Lu, Pei

    2013-04-01

    Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water was studied. Influences of main reaction parameters, including temperature (623-698 K), pressure (25-35 Mpa), residence time (10-15 min) and dry matter content (5-25 wt%), were investigated to optimize the gasification process. The main gas products were methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and traces of ethene, etc. Results showed that 10 wt% dry matter content digested sewage sludge at a temperature of 698 K and residence time of 50 min, with a pressure of 25 MPa, were the most favorable conditions for the sewage sludge gasification and carbon gasification efficiencies. In addition, potassium carbonate (K2CO3) was also employed as the catalyst to make a comparison between gasification with and without catalyst. When 2.6 g K2CO3 was added, a gasification efficiency of 25.26% and a carbon gasification efficiency of 20.02% were achieved, which were almost four times as much as the efficiencies without catalyst. K2CO3 has been proved to be effective in sewage sludge gasification.

  10. In-situ caustic generation from sewage: the impact of caustic strength and sewage composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikaar, Ilje; Rozendal, René A; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2013-10-01

    Periodic caustic dosage is a commonly used method by the water industry to elevate pH levels and deactivate sewer biofilms responsible for hydrogen sulfide generation. Caustic (NaOH) can be generated in-situ from sewage using a divided electrochemical cell, which avoids the need for transport, handling and storage of concentrated caustic solutions. In this study, we investigated the impact of caustic strength in the cathode compartment and the impact of sodium concentration in sewage on the Coulombic efficiency (CE) for caustic generation. The CE was found to be independent of the caustic strength produced in the range of up to ~3 wt%. Results showed that a caustic solution of ~3 wt% could be produced directly from sewage at a CE of up to 75 ± 0.5%. The sodium concentration in sewage had a significant impact on the CE for caustic generation as well as on the energy requirements of the system, with a higher sodium concentration leading to a higher CE and lower energy consumption. The proton, calcium, magnesium and ammonium concentrations in sewage affected the CE for caustic generation, especially at low sodium concentrations. Economical assessment based on the experimental results indicated that sulfide control in sewers using electrochemically-generated caustic from sewage is an economically attractive strategy.

  11. Utilization of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PETRIK, M

    1954-01-01

    The author reviews the agricultural use of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge from two points of view: the purely agricultural and the sanitary.Knowledge of the chemistry and bacteriology of human faecal matter is still rather scant, and much further work has to be done to find practical ways of digesting night-soil in a short time into an end-product of high fertilizing value and free of pathogens, parasites, and weeds.More is known about sewage and sewage sludge, but expert opinion is not unanimous as to the manner or the value of their use in agriculture. The author reviews a number of studies and experiments made in many countries of the world on the content, digestion, composting, agricultural value, and epidemiological importance of sewage and sewage sludge, but draws from these the conclusion that the chemistry, biology, and bacteriology of the various methods of treatment and use of waste matter need further investigation. He also considers that standards of quality might be set up for sludge and effluents used in agriculture and for water conservation.

  12. A facile approach for high surface area electrospun TiO2 nanostructures for photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, T A; Madhavan, Asha Anish; Chacko, Daya K; Anjusree, G S; Deepak, T G; Thomas, Sara; Nair, Shantikumar V; Nair, A Sreekumaran

    2014-03-28

    A rice-shaped TiO2-ZnO composite was prepared by electrospinning a mixture comprising the precursors of TiO2 and ZnO in polyvinyl acetate polymer dissolved in N,N-dimethyl acetamide. The electrospun nanofibers upon heat treatment in air resulted in collapse of the continuous fiber morphology and the formation of the rice-shaped TiO2-ZnO composite. The TiO2-ZnO composite was then treated with dilute acetic acid under hydrothermal conditions to etch ZnO from the TiO2-ZnO composite to get coral-shaped anisotropic TiO2. The structural anisotropy of TiO2 produced by the selective etching of ZnO resulted in a high surface area of 148 m(2) g(-1) for the TiO2. The initial and final materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman and XPS spectroscopies, powder X-ray diffraction and BET surface area measurements. The utility of the anisotropic TiO2 in photovoltaics and photocatalysis was explored. Dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated using the TiO2 showed a conversion efficiency of 6.54% as against 4.8% for a control experiment with the rice-shaped TiO2. The anisotropic TiO2 also showed good photocatalysis in the degradation of methyl orange dye and phenol.

  13. Metal pollution of groundwater in the vicinity of Valiathura Sewage Farm in Kerala, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, J; Jaya, D S

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to evaluate metal pollution of groundwater in the vicinity of Valiathura Sewage Farm in Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala using the Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI). Forty two groundwater samples were collected during the summer season (April 2010) and the concentration of metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were analyzed. Results showed that groundwater was contaminated mainly with Fe, Cu and Pb. Correlation analysis revealed that the sources of metals in groundwater in the study area are the same, and it may be due to the leachates from the nearby Sewage Farm, Parvathy Puthanar canal and solid wastes dumped in the residential area. Of the groundwater samples studied, 47.62 % were medium and 2.68 % were classified in HPI high category. HPI was highest (41.79) in DW29, which was adjacent to the polluted Parvathy Puthanar canal and Sewage Farm. The present study points out that the metal pollution causes the degradation of groundwater quality around the Sewage Farm during the study period.

  14. POTENTIAL OF GREENHOUSE GASES REDUCTION BY FUEL CROP CULTIVATION UTILIZING SEWAGE SLUDGE IN JAPAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Ryo; Fukushi, Kensuke

    Potential of greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction was estimated and compared in six scenarios of fuel crop cultivation by utilizing sewage sludge in Japan. Bioethanol from corn and biodiesel fuel from soybean was selected as biofuel produced. When all the sludge discharged from sewage treatment plants in 18 major cities was utilized for soybean cultivation and subsequent biodiesel fuel production, produced biofuel corresponded to 4.0% of GHG emitted from sewage treatment in Japan. On the other hand, cultivation area for fuel crop cultivation was found to be the regulating factor. When fuel crop was cultivated only in abandoned agricultural fields, produced biofuel corresponded to 0.60% and 0.62%, respectively, in the case that corn and soybean was cultivated. Production of biodiesel fuel from soybean was estimated to have more net reduction potential than bioehanol production from corn when sludge production is limited, because required sewage sludge compost was 2.5-times larger in corn although reduction potential per crop area was 2-times larger in bioethanol production from corn.

  15. Multi-function Waste Tank Facility path forward engineering analysis -- Technical Task 3.6, Estimate of operational risk in 200 West Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, G.A.

    1995-04-28

    Project W-0236A has been proposed to provide additional waste tank storage in the 200 East and 200 West Areas. This project would construct two new waste tanks in the 200 West Area and four new tanks in the 200 East Area, and a related project (Project W-058) would construct a new cross-site line. These projects are intended to ensure sufficient space and flexibility for continued tank farm operations, including tank waste remediation and management of unforeseen contingencies. The objective of this operational risk assessment is to support determination of the adequacy of the free-volume capacity provided by Projects W-036A and W-058 and to determine related impacts. The scope of the assessment is the 200 West Area only and covers the time period from the present to the year 2005. Two different time periods were analyzed because the new cross-site tie line will not be available until 1999. The following are key insights: success of 200 West Area tank farm operations is highly correlated to the success of the cross-site transfer line and the ability of the 200 East Area to receive waste from 200 West; there is a high likelihood of a leak on a complexed single-shell tank in the next 4 years (sampling pending); there is a strong likelihood, in the next 4 years, that some combination of tank leaks, facility upsets, and cross-site line failure will require more free tank space than is currently available in Tank 241-SY-102; in the next 4 to 10 years, there is a strong likelihood that a combination of a cross-site line failure and the need to accommodate some unscheduled waste volume will require more free tank space than is presently available in Tank 241-SY-102; the inherent uncertainty in volume projections is in the range of 3 million gallons; new million-gallon tanks increase the ability to manage contingencies and unplanned events.

  16. Application of IOT security and protection in area of nuclear facilities%物联网安防在核设施领域中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      介绍了几种先进的物联网技术在核设施安防中的典型应用,包括控制区域防护、周界防护、用RFID技术对核燃料存储和运输的管理、无线传感器网络数据采集、基于ZigBee技术的无线传输等。提出了基于物联网技术的核设施安防实现架构,包括前端实现、通信模式和后端实现等。最后通过分析,论证了物联网技术在核设施安防中的应用有效性和可靠性。%The typical applications of several advanced IOT technology in the security and protection of nuclear facilities are introduced, such as control area protection, perimeter protection, using RFID technology to manage the storage and transportation of the nuclear fuel, the data collection of wireless sensor network, wireless transmission based on ZigBee technology and so on. The implementation architecture of the security and protection of nuclear facilities based on IOT technology is proposed, including the front-end implementation, communication mode and back-end realization etc. Through the analysis, the validity and reliability of the IOT technology applied in the security and protection of nuclear facilities is demonstrated.

  17. Wide area scanning system and carbon microbeams at the external microbeam facility of the INFN LABEC laboratory in Florence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntini, L.; Massi, M.; Calusi, S.; Castelli, L.; Carraresi, L.; Fedi, M. E.; Gelli, N.; Liccioli, L.; Mandò, P. A.; Mazzinghi, A.; Palla, L.; Romano, F. P.; Ruberto, C.; Taccetti, F.

    2015-04-01

    Recently, developments have been made to the external scanning microbeam of INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence. A new system for mechanical sample scanning was implemented. This system allows us to acquire large maps (up to 20 × 20 cm2), of great interest in the Cultural Heritage field. In parallel, the possibility of using carbon microbeams for experiments, such as, for example, ion beam modification of materials and MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, has been investigated. As a test application, Particle Induced X-ray Emission with carbon microbeams has been performed on a lapis lazuli stone. First results for both wide area imaging and external carbon microbeams are briefly reported.

  18. Wide area scanning system and carbon microbeams at the external microbeam facility of the INFN LABEC laboratory in Florence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuntini, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Massi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Calusi, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Castelli, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Carraresi, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Fedi, M.E.; Gelli, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Liccioli, L.; Mandò, P.A.; Mazzinghi, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Palla, L. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa and Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Romano, F.P. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali (IBAM), Via Biblioteca, 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), LNS, Via S.Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); and others

    2015-04-01

    Recently, developments have been made to the external scanning microbeam of INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence. A new system for mechanical sample scanning was implemented. This system allows us to acquire large maps (up to 20 × 20 cm{sup 2}), of great interest in the Cultural Heritage field. In parallel, the possibility of using carbon microbeams for experiments, such as, for example, ion beam modification of materials and MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, has been investigated. As a test application, Particle Induced X-ray Emission with carbon microbeams has been performed on a lapis lazuli stone. First results for both wide area imaging and external carbon microbeams are briefly reported.

  19. Existing Facilities And Deficiencies In A Busy Intersection At Dhaka Based On The Condition Survey Of The Study Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmudul Hasan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Roundabouts have become increasingly popular in recent years as an innovative operational and safety solution at both low volume and high volume intersections. This paper contains capacity analysis of existing roads at a busy intersection in Dhaka named Polashi intersection, compare capacity and volume, AADT, velocity study, road user behavior, pedestrian flow analysis for proposed roundabout. Evaluations are made on a rational basis using qualitative analysis wherever possible and accepting that some matters determine by the exercise of judgments. Roundabouts have a number of advantages over traffic signals depending on the conditions. They reduce the severity of crashes since head-on and right-angle conflicts are nearly eliminated. They may consume less land area since turn pocket lanes are not needed. They have lower energy and maintenance costs

  20. Phase 1 RCRA Facility Investigation & Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for Single Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCCARTHY, M.M.

    1999-08-01

    This document is the master work plan for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) Corrective Action Program (RCAP) for single-shell tank (SST) farms at the US. Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Hanford Site. The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) initiated the RCAP to address the impacts of past and potential future tank waste releases to the environment. This work plan defines RCAP activities for the four SST waste management areas (WMAs) at which releases have contaminated groundwater. Recognizing the potential need for future RCAP activities beyond those specified in this master work plan, DOE has designated the currently planned activities as ''Phase 1.'' If a second phase of activities is needed for the WMAs addressed in Phase 1, or if releases are detected at other SST WMAs, this master work plan will be updated accordingly.

  1. Preparation of biochar from sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Aurora; María Méndez, Ana; Gascó, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Biomass waste materials appropriate for biochar production include crop residues (both field residues and processing residues such as nut shells, fruit pits, bagasse, etc), as well as yard, food and forestry wastes, and animal manures. Biochar can and should be made from biomass waste materials and must not contain unacceptable levels of toxins such as heavy metals which can be found in sewage sludge and industrial or landfill waste. Making biochar from biomass waste materials should create no competition for land with any other land use option—such as food production or leaving the land in its pristine state. Large amounts of agricultural, municipal and forestry biomass are currently burned or left to decompose and release CO2 and methane back into the atmosphere. They also can pollute local ground and surface waters—a large issue for livestock wastes. Using these materials to make biochar not only removes them from a pollution cycle, but biochar can be obtained as a by-product of producing energy from this biomass. Sewage sludge is a by-product from wastewater treatment plants, and contains significant amounts of heavy metals, organic toxins and pathogenic microorganisms, which are considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Agricultural use, land filling and incineration are commonly used as disposal methods. It was, however, reported that sewage sludge applications in agriculture gives rise to an accumulation of harmful components (heavy metals and organic compounds) in soil. For this reason, pyrolysis can be considered as a promising technique to treat the sewage sludge including the production of fuels. The objective of this work is to study the advantages of the biochar prepared from sewage sludge.

  2. How well equipped are healthcare facilities to manage childhood malaria? The situation in selected local government areas in South Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falade, C O; Oladoyinbo, S O; Elemile, T T; Ajayi, I O; Fawole, O I; Oladepo, O; Adeniyi, J D; Oduola, A M J

    2006-09-01

    Using a structured questionnaire, surveys were conducted in 55 of 123 primary and secondary healthcare facilities in 4 selected local government areas in Southwestern Nigeria. Heads of healthcare facilities (HCFs) surveyed include nurses (41.8%), medical officers (21.8%) and community extension workers (21.8%). Twenty five (45.5%) HCFs run special clinics for children. About one fifth (20.3%) of staff had received continuing education on management of malaria. Forty seven (85%) HCFs possessed and used national guidelines for management of malaria. Although 48.9% of HCFs had microscopes, fewer had microscope slides, lancets and Giemsa stain which are also required items for definitive diagnosis of malaria. Healthcare workers were not well informed on some aspects in the management of malaria. Selected healthcare workers from various categories attended a workshop where they were trained to correct inadequate knowledge, attitude and practice in the management of malaria. These workers were to train their colleagues on their return to their respective HCFs.

  3. Eucalyptus development in degraded soil fertilized with sewage sludge and mineral fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, R. A. F.; Santos, E. B.; Alves, M. C.; Arruda, O. G.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the development of eucalyptus in a degraded Oxisol with mineral fertilizer and sewage sludge. The study was conducted in Selviria, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. The culture of eucalyptus was planted in 2003 at 2.0 m x 1.5 m spacing, with application of 60 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (dry basis) and mineral fertilizer. After five years (2008) the area received biosolids and mineral fertilizer, and after five months, were evaluated for height and diameter at breast height of Eucalyptus. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments: T1 - control (without addition of inputs), T2 - Mineral fertilization (30 kg ha-1 N, 90 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and 60 kg ha-1 K2O), T3 - Reapplication of 4.64 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge, dry basis, T4 - Reapplication of 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge, dry basis. Before reapplication the biosolids plant height was higher in the eucalyptus with treatment 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (8.03 m) compared to control (5.75 m) and mineral fertilizer (5.91 m) and that treatment 4.64 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (6.34 m) did not differ from the previous three. For the diameter at breast height was the highest value for treatment with 9.28 Mg ha-1 (7.78 cm) compared to control (5.23 cm) and 4.64 Mg ha-1 (5.03 cm), and that of mineral fertilizer (5.96 cm) did not differ from all treatments. After reapplication of sludge plant height was higher in the eucalyptus treatment with 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (11.21 m) compared with control (7.51 m), mineral fertilizer (7.77 m) and 4 64 Mg ha-1 (8.07 m), which did not differ. The diameter at breast height had the same behavior before the application of biosolids in the highest value observed being 9.28 Mg ha-1 (8.46 cm) compared with control (5.75 cm) and 4.64 Mg ha-1 (5.03 cm) and that of mineral fertilizer (6.34 cm) did not differ from the others. Reapplication of the dose of 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge in degraded Oxisol provided greater height and diameter at

  4. Assessing Ecological Impacts of Shrimp and Sewage Effluent: Biological Indicators with Standard Water Quality Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. B.; O'Donohue, M. J.; Udy, J.; Dennison, W. C.

    2001-01-01

    Despite evidence linking shrimp farming to several cases of environmental degradation, there remains a lack of ecologically meaningful information about the impacts of effluent on receiving waters. The aim of this study was to determine the biological impact of shrimp farm effluent, and to compare and distinguish its impacts from treated sewage effluent. Analyses included standard water quality/sediment parameters, as well as biological indicators including tissue nitrogen (N) content, stable isotope ratio of nitrogen (δ 15N), and amino acid composition of inhabitant seagrasses, mangroves and macroalgae. The study area consisted of two tidal creeks, one receiving effluent from a sewage treatment plant and the other from an intensive shrimp farm. The creeks discharged into the western side of Moreton Bay, a sub-tropical coastal embayment on the east coast of Australia. Characterization of water quality revealed significant differences between the creeks, and with unimpacted eastern Moreton Bay. The sewage creek had higher concentrations of dissolved nutrients (predominantly NO-3/NO-2 and PO3-4, compared to NH+4 in the shrimp creek). In contrast, the shrimp creek was more turbid and had higher phytoplankton productivity. Beyond 750 m from the creek mouths, water quality parameters were indistinguishable from eastern Moreton Bay values. Biological indicators detected significant impacts up to 4 km beyond the creek mouths (reference site). Elevated plant δ 15N values ranged from 10·4-19·6‰ at the site of sewage discharge to 2·9-4·5‰ at the reference site. The free amino acid concentration and composition of seagrass and macroalgae was used to distinguish between the uptake of sewage and shrimp derived N. Proline (seagrass) and serine (macroalgae) were high in sewage impacted plants and glutamine (seagrass) and alanine (macroalgae) were high in plants impacted by shrimp effluent. The δ 15N isotopic signatures and free amino acid composition of inhabitant

  5. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 118: Area 27 Super Kukla Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burmeister

    2007-09-01

    This CR provides documentation and justification for the closure of CAU 118 without further corrective action. This justification is based on process knowledge and the results of the investigative and closure activities conducted in accordance with the CAU 118 SAFER Plan: Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for CAU 118: Area 27 Super Kukla Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (NNSA/NSO, 2006). The SAFER Plan provides information relating to site history as well as the scope and planning of the investigation. This CR also provides the analytical and radiological survey data to confirm that the remediation goals were met as specified in the CAU 118 SAFER Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2006). The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) approved the CAU 118 SAFER Plan (Murphy, 2006), which recommends closure in place with use restrictions (URs).

  6. Preliminary design of a biological treatment facility for trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosten, R.; Malkumus, D. [Pacific Nuclear, Inc. (United States); Sonntag, T. [New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, NY (United States); Sundquist, J. [Ecology and Environment, Inc. (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) owns and manages a State-Licensed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA) at West Valley, New York. Water has migrated into the burial trenches at the SDA and collected there, becoming contaminated with radionuclides and organic compounds. The US Environmental Protection Agency issued an order to NYSERDA to reduce the levels of water in the trenches. A treatability study of the contaminated trench water (leachate) was performed and determined the best available technology to treat the leachate and discharge the effluent. This paper describes the preliminary design of the treatment facility that incorporates the bases developed in the leachate treatability study.

  7. Facile Synthesis of Defective TiO2-x Nanocrystals with High Surface Area and Tailoring Bandgap for Visible-light Photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajid Shah, Muhammad; Zhu, Yunqing; Fan, Xiaoyun; Zhao, Jie; Li, Yingxuan; Asim, Sumreen; Wang, Chuanyi

    2015-10-30

    A facile hydrothermal approach has been developed to prepare defective TiO2-x nanocrystals using Ti(III)-salt as a precursor and L-ascorbic acid as reductant and structure direction agent. The prepared TiO2-x nanocrystals are composed of a highly crystallized TiO2 core and a disordered TiO2-x outer layer, possessing high surface area, controlled oxygen vacancy concentration and tunable bandgap via simply adjusting the amount of added L-ascorbic acid. The defective TiO2-x shows high photocatalytic efficiency in methylene blue and phenol degradation as well as in hydrogen evolution under visible light, underlining the significance of the present strategy for structural and bandgap manipulation in TiO2-based photocatalysis.

  8. Influence of releases of (129)I and (137)Cs from European reprocessing facilities in Fucus vesiculosus and seawater from the Kattegat and Skagerrak areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Guzmán, J M; Holm, E; Niagolova, N; López-Gutiérrez, J M; Pinto-Gómez, A R; Abril, J A; García-León, M

    2014-08-01

    (129)I is a very long-lived radionuclide (T1/2=15.7×10(6) years) that is present in the environment because of natural and anthropogenic sources. Compared to the pre-nuclear era, large amounts of (129)I have been released to the marine environment, especially as liquid and gaseous discharges from two European reprocessing facilities located at Sellafield (England) and La Hague (France). The marine environment, i.e., the oceans, is the major source of iodine. Brown seaweed accumulates iodine at high levels up to 1.0% of dry weigh, and therefore they are ideal bioindicators for studying levels of (129)I. In this work, (129)I concentrations have been determined in seaweed Fucus vesiculosus and seawater collected in the Kattegat and Skagerrak areas in July 2007. The resulting data were evaluated in terms of (129)I concentrations and (129)I/(137)Cs ratios. (129)I concentrations were found to be in the order of (44-575)×10(9) atoms g(-1) in seaweed and (5.4-51)×10(9) atoms g(-1) in seawater, with an enhancement in the Skagerrak area in comparison to the Kattegat area. Iodine-129 concentrations in both seaweed and seawater were used to determine the concentration factor of iodine in brown seaweed F. vesiculosus. The high levels of (129)I and (129)I/(137)Cs ratios in the Skagerrak area and their gradually decreasing trend to the Kattegat indicates that the most important contribution to the (129)I inventory in those areas comes from Sellafield and La Hague reprocessing plants.

  9. Area-Selective Lift-Off Mechanism Based on Dual-Triggered Interfacial Adhesion Switching: Highly Facile Fabrication of Flexible Nano-Mesh Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seunghee; Han, Hyeuk Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Yim, Soonmin; Sim, Dong Min; Lim, Hunhee; Lee, Jung Hye; Park, Woon Ik; Park, Jae Hong; Kim, Kwang Ho; Jung, Yeon Sik

    2017-02-28

    With the recent emergence of flexible and wearable optoelectronic devices, the achievement of sufficient bendability and stretchability of transparent and conducting electrodes (TCEs) has become an important requirement. Although metal-mesh-based structures have been investigated for TCEs because of their excellent performances, the fabrication of mesh or grid structures with a sub-micron line width is still complex due to the requirements of laborious lithography and pattern transfer steps. Here, we introduce an extremely facile fabrication technique for metal patterns embedded in a flexible substrate based on sub-micron replication and an area-selective delamination (ASD) patterning. The high-yield, area-specific lift-off process is based on the principle of solvent-assisted delamination of deposited metal thin films and a mechanical triggering effect by soft wiping or ultrasonication. Our fabrication process is highly simple, convenient, and cost-effective in that it does not require any lithography/etching steps or sophisticated facilities. Moreover, their outstanding optical and electrical properties (e.g. sheet resistances of 0.43 Ω sq(-1) at 94% transmittance), which are markedly superior to those of other flexible TCEs, are demonstrated. Furthermore, there is no significant change of resistance during over 1,000 repeated bending cycles with a bending radius of 5 mm and for immersing in various solvents such as salt water and organic solvents. Finally, we demonstrate high-performance transparent heaters and flexible touch panels using the fabricated nanomesh electrode, confirming the long-range electrical conduction and reliability of the electrode.

  10. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 118: Area 27 Super Kukla Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Strand

    2006-09-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan addresses closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 118, Area 27 Super Kukla Facility, identified in the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order''. Corrective Action Unit 118 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), 27-41-01, located in Area 27 of the Nevada Test Site. Corrective Action Site 27-41-01 consists of the following four structures: (1) Building 5400A, Reactor High Bay; (2) Building 5400, Reactor Building and access tunnel; (3) Building 5410, Mechanical Building; and (4) Wooden Shed, a.k.a. ''Brock House''. This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing the CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and site confirmation data collected in 2005 and 2006 to recommend closure of CAU 118 using the SAFER process. The Data Quality Objective process developed for this CAU identified the following expected closure option: closure in place with use restrictions. This expected closure option was selected based on available information including contaminants of potential concern, future land use, and assumed risks. There are two decisions that need to be answered for closure. Decision I is to determine the nature of contaminants of concern in environmental media or potential source material that could impact human health or the environment. Decision II is to determine whether or not sufficient information has been obtained to confirm that closure objectives were met. This decision includes determining whether the extent of any contamination remaining on site has been defined, and whether actions have been taken to eliminate exposure pathways.

  11. Prevalence and pattern of birth defects in a tertiary health facility in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Mkpe; Oloyede, Olufemi A; Bassey, Goddy; Kejeh, Benjamin M; Otaigbe, Barbara E; Opara, Peace I; Eneh, Austa U; Akani, Chris I

    2017-01-01

    Objective To ascertain the prevalence and pattern of congenital abnormalities that are peculiar to the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. Methods This is a descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study. It involved data from the labor ward and neonatal birth registers of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital on the total number of births and the babies that were delivered with major birth defects between August 2011 and December 2014. We also conducted a statistical comparison of the prevalence of congenital abnormalities in the Niger Delta with that in other regions of Nigeria and the developed world of Europe. Results Out of the 7,670 deliveries that occurred, 159 maternities had babies with major birth defects giving a prevalence of 20.73 cases per 1,000 live births. This figure is far more than that which was obtained in other regions of Nigeria −4.15:cases per 1,000 live births in the South East (P51:1,000 in the North East (P<0.001). Eighty-five (53.46%) of the defects occurred in 1,681 unbooked patients, while 74 (46.54%) happened in 5,989 booked maternities (P<0.001). The predominant abnormalities were those of the central nervous system at 27.0%, gastrointestinal system 11.95%, cardiovascular system 10.69%, anterior abdominal wall 8.18%, skeleton 6.29%, and chromosomal abnormalities at 5.66%. Conclusion The prevalence of major birth defects at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital was 20.73 cases per 1,000 live births and it was more in the unbooked than the booked maternities. All body systems were affected with those of the central nervous system predominating at 27.0% of the total diagnosed defects.

  12. Wanaket Wildlife Area Management Plan : Five-Year Plan for Protecting, Enhancing, and Mitigating Wildlife Habitat Losses for the McNary Hydroelectric Facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation Wildlife Program

    2001-09-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) propose to continue to protect, enhance, and mitigate wildlife and wildlife habitat at the Wanaket Wildlife Area. The Wanaket Wildlife Area was approved as a Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) in 1993. This management plan will provide an update of the original management plan approved by BPA in 1995. Wanaket will contribute towards meeting BPA's obligation to compensate for wildlife habitat losses resulting from the construction of the McNary Hydroelectric facility on the Columbia River. By funding the enhancement and operation and maintenance of the Wanaket Wildlife Area, BPA will receive credit towards their mitigation debt. The purpose of the Wanaket Wildlife Area management plan update is to provide programmatic and site-specific standards and guidelines on how the Wanaket Wildlife Area will be managed over the next five years. This plan provides overall guidance on both short and long term activities that will move the area towards the goals, objectives, and desired future conditions for the planning area. The plan will incorporate managed and protected wildlife and wildlife habitat, including operations and maintenance, enhancements, and access and travel management. Specific project objectives are related to protection and enhancement of wildlife habitats and are expressed in terms of habitat units (HU's). Habitat units were developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP), and are designed to track habitat gains and/or losses associated with mitigation and/or development projects. Habitat Units for a given species are a product of habitat quantity (expressed in acres) and habitat quality estimates. Habitat quality estimates are developed using Habitat Suitability Indices (HSI). These indices are based on quantifiable habitat features such

  13. Authorized Limits for the Release of a 25 Ton Locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeremy Gwin and Douglas Frenette

    2010-04-08

    This document contains process knowledge and radiological data and analysis to support approval for release of the 25-ton locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD) Facility, located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 25-ton locomotive is a small, one-of-a-kind locomotive used to move railcars in support of the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application project. This locomotive was identified as having significant historical value by the Nevada State Railroad Museum in Boulder City, Nevada, where it will be used as a display piece. A substantial effort to characterize the radiological conditions of the locomotive was undertaken by the NTS Management and Operations Contractor, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). During this characterization process, seven small areas on the locomotive had contamination levels that exceeded the NTS release criteria (limits consistent with U.S. Department of Energy [DOE] Order DOE O 5400.5, “Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment”). The decision was made to perform radiological decontamination of these known accessible impacted areas to further the release process. On February 9, 2010, NSTec personnel completed decontamination of these seven areas to within the NTS release criteria. Although all accessible areas of the locomotive had been successfully decontaminated to within NTS release criteria, it was plausible that inaccessible areas of the locomotive (i.e., those areas on the locomotive where it was not possible to perform radiological surveys) could potentially have contamination above unrestricted release limits. To access the majority of these inaccessible areas, the locomotive would have to be disassembled. A complete disassembly for a full radiological survey could have permanently destroyed parts and would have ruined the historical value of the locomotive. Complete disassembly would also add an unreasonable financial burden for the

  14. Use of beach galleries as an intake for future seawater desalination facilities in Florida and globally similar areas

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2013-06-17

    the shoreline. A comprehensive study of the grain size characteristics of Florida beaches has allowed an assessment to be made of the hydraulic conductivities of the Florida beach sands. Hydraulic conductivity values generally range from 1.8 to 24 m/day, which is more than sufficient to allow the design and construction of high-capacity galleries at a reasonable cost. This type of intake is particularly relevant to the northeast Florida shoreline adjacent to an area being considered for development of a large-capacity seawater desalination system. © 2013 © 2013 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  15. Research and application of high-efficiency eco-engineering rural sewage treatment system%农村生活污水生态处理工艺研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓璐; 牛宏斌; 闫海; 丁湛; 卢凤兰; 马晓毅; 杨柳青; 刘永智

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid economic and social development in China, rural per capita daily water consumption and sewage emissions have surged, resulting in a large amount of domestic sewage. However, the rural population is a dispersed population, and there are no sewage collection and treatment facilities. Domestic pollution in rural areas is an important factor affecting the water environment, particularly in the water source, and reservoir water quality cannot be ignored. Poor water quality directly harm the health of peasants, and can easily lead to the outbreak and spread of epidemic diseases. Therefore, research and development of both cost savings and operating costs, while maintaining the stability of the phosphorus and nitrogen removal effect of rural domestic sewage treatment process is very necessary. For rural scattered distribution, coupled with a long-standing way of living, habits, and economic status differences, the actual project was the basis to study the establishment of the “rings.” The formula (ACGMP, Anaerobic, Constructed wetlands, Genetic engineering of Rice, Microorganism, Pond) was for an eco-efficient rural domestic sewage treatment works system, with the system performing villages sewage treatment for households connected, construction of a sewage anaerobic reactor, constructed wetlands, planting high adsorption pollution factors aquatic plants, efficient investment in the decomposition of sewage dedicated micro-organisms, the use of a natural pond five links, and an entire engineering system power, to achieve complete self-liquidity. The rural domestic sewage treatment works application site is located in the Three Gorges reservoir area in Chunqiu Village, Chongqing. The process design and operating parameters were: a design population of 300, according to the volume of sewage 100 L per person, and sewage treatment capacity of 30-50 m3/d;design flow rate of 30-50 m3/d, design effluent standard GB8987-1996. The process used anaerobic

  16. Is it More Sustainable to Treat Sewage or Dump it in the Ocean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öberg, G.

    2015-12-01

    It is commonly argued that sustainable sewage management requires a shift from the conventional linear, end-of-pipe approach to more adaptive, iterative sanitation solutions, but that the inertia in the existing system hinders such a shift. This case-study analyzes reasons as to why jurisdictions may chose to discharge untreated sewage to the ocean rather than to follow the resource-recovery trend argued for in the academic literature. Our study is based on an analysis of the reasoning behind "Plan Director 2006-2020" in Buenos Aires, Argentina, which includes extending the central sewer system to over five million people living in underserviced areas and conveying the sewage to a central discharge station. Our study suggests that the decision to discharge untreated sewage into the ocean via Rio de la Plata rests on four firmly rooted perceptions: 1. Centralized sewer systems are better than distributed systems, irrespective of scale, 2. Sewage treatment generates sludge and sludge management incurs considerable risks and costs, not least in densely populated areas where access to land is limited, 3. The benefits of resource recovery are overrated and the costs are underestimated and last but not least, 4. The ocean has an enormous self-purifying capacity. Each of these four perceptions is discussed in light of the literature, with a focus on the scientific knowledge that is used to frame risks and benefits related to the two policy options (discharging at sea vis-à-vis resource recovery) in particular inferred causal links, and how uncertainty is handled.

  17. Microbial sewage contamination associated with Superstorm Sandy flooding in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mullan, G.; Dueker, M.; Sahajpal, R.; Juhl, A. R.

    2013-05-01

    The lower Hudson River Estuary commonly experiences degraded water quality following precipitation events due to the influence of combined sewer overflows. During Super-storm Sandy large scale flooding occurred in many waterfront areas of New York City, including neighborhoods bordering the Gowanus Canal and Newtown Creek Superfund sites known to frequently contain high levels of sewage associated bacteria. Water, sediment, and surface swab samples were collected from Newtown Creek and Gowanus Canal flood impacted streets and basements in the days following the storm, along with samples from the local waterways. Samples were enumerated for the sewage indicating bacterium, Enterococcus, and DNA was extracted and amplified for 16S ribosomal rRNA gene sequence analysis. Waterways were found to have relatively low levels of sewage contamination in the days following the storm. In contrast, much higher levels of Enterococci were detected in basement and storm debris samples and these bacteria were found to persist for many weeks in laboratory incubations. These data suggest that substantial sewage contamination occurred in some flood impacted New York City neighborhoods and that the environmental persistence of flood water associated microbes requires additional study and management attention.

  18. Analyzing hydrocarbons in sewer to help in PAH source apportionment in sewage sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuy-Huault, Laurence; Regier, Annette; Faure, Pierre

    2009-05-01

    A multi-molecular approach for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) source apportionment in sewage sludge was tested. Three simple catchment areas with corresponding wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) were chosen. Sewage sludges of these WWTPs chronically exceeded the French guide values for PAHs. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were quantified in sediments or wastewater suspended particulate matter sampled in different locations of the sewer as well as in sewage sludge. Various molecular indices including PAH ratios were calculated. The results showed that the ratios calculated from sewage sludge analyses provided a rather unspecific hydrocarbon fingerprint where combustion input appear as the main PAH sources. The complexity of the inputs as well as degradation occurring during wastewater treatment prevent any detailed diagnosis. Coupled to the analyses of samples collected in the sewer, the multi-molecular approach becomes more efficient especially for the identification of specific petroleum inputs such as fuel or used lubricating oils which can be important PAH sources. Indeed, the sampling in the sewer allows a spatial screening of the hydrocarbon inputs and facilitates the PAH source apportionment by avoiding the dilution of specific inputs with the whole wastewater inputs and by limiting the degradation of the molecular fingerprint that could occur during transfer and treatment in the WWTP. Then, the combination of PAH ratios and aliphatic distribution analyses is a very valuable approach that can help in sewer and WWTP management.

  19. Bioremediation of hydrocarbons contaminating sewage effluent using man-made biofilms: effects of some variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mailem, D M; Kansour, M K; Radwan, S S

    2014-11-01

    Biofilm samples were established on glass slides by submerging them in oil-free and oil-containing sewage effluent for a month. In batch cultures, such biofilms were effective in removing crude oil, pure n-hexadecane, and pure phenanthrene contaminating sewage effluent. The amounts of the removed hydrocarbons increased with increasing biofilm surface area exposed to the effluent. On the other hand, addition of the reducing agent thioglycollate dramatically inhibited the hydrocarbon bioremediation potential of the biofilms. The same biofilm samples removed contaminating hydrocarbons effectively in three successive batch bioremediation cycles but started to become less effective in the cycles thereafter, apparently due to mechanical biofilm loss during successive transfers. As major hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria, the biofilms harbored species belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Microvirga, Zavarzinia, Mycobacterium, Microbacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Gordonia, Bosea, Sphingobium, Brachybacterium, and others. The nitrogen fixer Azospirillum brasilense and the microalga Ochromonas distigma were also present; they seemed to enrich the biofilms, with nitrogenous compounds and molecular oxygen, respectively, which are known to enhance microbiological hydrocarbon degradation. It was concluded that man-made biofilms based upon sewage microflora are promising tools for bioremediation of hydrocarbons contaminating sewage effluent.

  20. Pupal productivity & nutrient reserves of Aedes mosquitoes breeding in sewage drains & other habitats of Kolkata, India: Implications for habitat expansion & vector management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumyajit Banerjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The quality of breeding sites is reflected through the pupal productivity and the life history traits of Aedes mosquitoes. Using nutrient reserves and pupal productivity of Aedes as indicators, the larval habitats including sewage drains were characterized to highlight the habitat expansion and vector management. Methods: The pupae and adults collected from the containers and sewage drains were characterized in terms of biomass and nutrient reserves and the data were subjected to three way factorial ANOVA. Discriminant function analyses were performed to highlight the differences among the habitats for sustenance of Aedes mosquitoes. Results: Survey of larval habitats from the study area revealed significant differences (P<0.05 in the pupal productivity of Aedes among the habitats and months. Despite sewage drains being comparatively less utilized for breeding, the pupae were of higher biomass with corresponding adults having longer wings in contrast to other habitats. The nutrient reserve of the adults emerging from pupae of sewage drains was significantly higher (P<0.05, compared to other habitats, as reflected through the discriminant function analysis. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results showed that for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, sewage drains were equally congenial habitat as were plastic, porcelain and earthen habitats. Availability of Aedes immature in sewage drains poses increased risk of dengue, and thus vector control programme should consider inclusion of sewage drains as breeding habitat of dengue vector mosquitoes.

  1. Pupal productivity & nutrient reserves of Aedes mosquitoes breeding in sewage drains & other habitats of Kolkata, India: Implications for habitat expansion & vector management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumyajit; Mohan, Sushree; Saha, Nabaneeta; Mohanty, Siba Prasad; Saha, Goutam K; Aditya, Gautam

    2015-12-01

    The quality of breeding sites is reflected through the pupal productivity and the life history traits of Aedes mosquitoes. Using nutrient reserves and pupal productivity of Aedes as indicators, the larval habitats including sewage drains were characterized to highlight the habitat expansion and vector management. The pupae and adults collected from the containers and sewage drains were characterized in terms of biomass and nutrient reserves and the data were subjected to three way factorial ANOVA. Discriminant function analyses were performed to highlight the differences among the habitats for sustenance of Aedes mosquitoes. Survey of larval habitats from the study area revealed significant differences (PAedes among the habitats and months. Despite sewage drains being comparatively less utilized for breeding, the pupae were of higher biomass with corresponding adults having longer wings in contrast to other habitats. The nutrient reserve of the adults emerging from pupae of sewage drains was significantly higher (Paegypti and Ae. albopictus, sewage drains were equally congenial habitat as were plastic, porcelain and earthen habitats. Availability of Aedes immature in sewage drains poses increased risk of dengue, and thus vector control programme should consider inclusion of sewage drains as breeding habitat of dengue vector mosquitoes.

  2. Diagnosis and treatment of malaria in peripheral health facilities in Uganda: findings from an area of low transmission in south-western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke Siân

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early recognition of symptoms and signs perceived as malaria are important for effective case management, as few laboratories are available at peripheral health facilities. The validity and reliability of clinical signs and symptoms used by health workers to diagnose malaria were assessed in an area of low transmission in south-western Uganda. Methods The study had two components: 1 passive case detection where all patients attending the out patient clininc with a febrile illness were included and 2 a longitudinal active malaria case detection survey was conducted in selected villages. A malaria case was defined as any slide-confirmed parasitaemia in a person with an axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C or a history of fever within the last 24 hrs and no signs suggestive of other diseases. Results Cases of malaria were significantly more likely to report joint pains, headache, vomiting and abdominal pains. However, due to the low prevalence of malaria, the predictive values of these individual signs alone, or in combination, were poor. Only 24.8% of 1627 patients had malaria according to case definition and > 75% of patients were unnecessarily treated for malaria and few slide negative cases received alternative treatment. Conclusion In low-transmission areas, more attention needs to be paid to differential diagnosis of febrile illnesses In view of suggested changes in anti-malarial drug policy, introducing costly artemisinin combination therapy accurate, rapid diagnostic tools are necessary to target treatment to people in need.

  3. Synthesis of Macro-Mesostructuredγ-Al2O3 with Large Pore Volume and High Surface Area by a Facile Secondary Reforming Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Xiuhong; Duan Linhai; Xie Xiaohua; Wang Qiang; Wang Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    Through improving the aging process during synthesis of the support,γ-Al2O3 with large pore volume and high surface area was synthesized by a facile secondary reforming method. The synthesis parameters, such as the reaction tem-perature, the ifrst aging temperature and the second aging temperature, were investigated. The textural properties ofγ-Al2O3 were characterized by means of N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetry (TG). The experimental results indicated that AACH and amorphous AlOOH were the precursors of alumina, which were formed via precipitation from solutions after reaction of aluminum sulphate with ammonium hydrogen carbonate. The precursor nanocrystallites grew and re-assembled during the secondary reforming process, which resulted in an increased pore size and pore volume and a decreased bulk density. The as-synthesizedγ-Al2O3 materials featured meso/macroporosity, large pore volume (2.175 cm3/g), high surface area (237.8 m2/g), and low bulk density (0.284 g/mL).

  4. Sewage sludge disposal strategies for sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacprzak, Małgorzata; Neczaj, Ewa; Fijałkowski, Krzysztof; Grobelak, Anna; Grosser, Anna; Worwag, Małgorzata; Rorat, Agnieszka; Brattebo, Helge; Almås, Åsgeir; Singh, Bal Ram

    2017-03-14

    The main objective of the present review is to compare the existing sewage sludge management solutions in terms of their environmental sustainability. The most commonly used strategies, that include treatment and disposal has been favored within the present state-of-art, considering existing legislation (at European and national level), characterization, ecotoxicology, waste management and actual routs used currently in particular European countries. Selected decision making tools, namely End-of-waste criteria and Life Cycle Assessment has been proposed in order to appropriately assess the possible environmental, economic and technical evaluation of different systems. Therefore, some basic criteria for the best suitable option selection has been described, in the circular economy "from waste to resources" sense. The importance of sewage sludge as a valuable source of matter and energy has been appreciated, as well as a potential risk related to the application of those strategies.

  5. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 114: Area 25 EMAD Facility Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burmeister

    2009-08-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 114, Area 25 EMAD Facility, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 114 comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs) located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site: • 25-41-03, EMAD Facility • 25-99-20, EMAD Facility Exterior Releases This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 114 using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. It is anticipated that the results of the field investigation and implementation of a corrective action of clean closure will support a defensible recommendation that no further corrective action is necessary. If it is determined that complete clean closure cannot be accomplished during the SAFER, then a hold point will have been reached and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) will be consulted to determine whether the remaining contamination will be closed under the alternative corrective action of closure in place. This will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to NDEP for review and approval. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on April 30, 2009, by representatives of NDEP; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data

  6. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures indicate recovery of marine biota from sewage pollution at Moa Point, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Karyne M

    2003-07-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been used to assess sewage contamination of a sewage outfall, discharging milli-screened effluent into Moa Point Bay, New Zealand, and monitor the recovery of flora and fauna after the outfall's closure. An initial study characterising the extent of the discharge and the effects on seaweed (Ulva lactuca L.), blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and limpets (Cellana denticulata) from the area, showed effects of the sewage discharge on flora and fauna were localised within in the bay. The immediate area surrounding the discharge area was found to contain limited biodiversity, with an abundance of Ulva lactuca, a bright green lettuce-like seaweed, typically found in areas with high nutrient input, limpets and small blue mussels. The nitrogen isotopic signature ({delta}{sup 15}N) is shown to be a good tracer of sewage pollution in seaweed and associated grazers (i.e. limpets) as a result of the increased contribution of urea and ammonia to seawater nitrogen derived from the effluent. The carbon isotopic signature ({delta}{sup 13}C) is suggested as a more appropriate sewage tracer for mussels, which filter feed the effluent's particulate organic matter from the water. Lower carbon:nitrogen ratios were found in Ulva lactuca sampled from around the outfall region compared to uncontaminated control sites. However carbon:nitrogen ratios do not vary significantly amongst shellfish species. After closure, monitoring continued for 9 months and showed that the carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures of algae (Ulva lactuca L.) returned to similar control site levels within 3 months. Limpet and blue mussels (Cellana denticulata and Mytilus galloprovincialis) showed slower recovery times than the Ulva lactuca, with detectable levels of the sewage-derived carbon and nitrogen remaining in the animal's tissue for up to 9 months.

  7. RCRA Facility Investigation Plan K-1004 Area Lab Drain and the K-1007-B Pond - Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant - Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ORGDP, Martin Marietta Energy Systems Inc.

    1988-12-01

    Within the confines of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) are hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities; some are in operation while others are no longer in use. these solid waste management units (SWMUs) are subject to assessment by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI) Plans are scheduled to be submitted for all units during calendar years 1987 and 1988. The RFI Plan - General Document (K/HS-132) includes information applicable to all the ORGDP SMWUs and serves as a reference document for the site-specific RFI plans. This document is the site-specific RFI Plan for the K-1004 Area Lab Drain (ALD) and the K-1007-B Pond. This plan is based upon requirements described in the draft document, RFI Guidance, Vols. I-IV, December 1987 (EPA 530/SW-87-001). This unit is regulated by Section 3004(u) of the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA). Contained within this document are geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological data specific to the K-1004 ALD and the K-1007-B Pond. The potential for release of contamination through the various media to receptors is addressed. A sampling plan is proposed to further determine the extent (if any) of release of contamination to the surrounding environment. Included are health and safety procedures to be followed when implementing the sampling plan. Quality control (QC) procedures for remedial action occurring on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are presented in 'The Environmental Surveillance Procedures Quality Control Program, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (ESH/Sub/87-21706/1), and quality assurance (QA) guidelines for ORGDP investigations are contained in The K-25 Remedial Actions Program Quality Assurance Plan, K/HS-231.

  8. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 117: Area 26 Pluto Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada With Errata Sheets, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pat Matthews

    2007-09-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 117, Pluto Disassembly Facility, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 117 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), CAS 26-41-01, located in Area 26 of the Nevada Test Site. This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing CAS 26-41-01. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 117 using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before finalizing the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible recommendation that no further corrective action is necessary following SAFER activities. This will be presented in a Closure Report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval. The site will be investigated to meet the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on June 27, 2007, by representatives of NDEP; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine and implement appropriate corrective actions for CAS 26-41-01 in CAU 117.

  9. Phosphorus Recovery from Ashes of Sewage Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornel, Peter; Schaum, Peter

    2003-07-01

    About 90% of the incoming phosphorus load of waste water is eliminated by waste water treatment and transferred into the sewage sludge. Considerable amounts of sewage sludge can not be used agriculturally but are incinerated. Thus the ash from mono sludge incineration plants contains significant amounts of phosphorus (up to 25% P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) and could be used as raw material in fertilizer industry. The ash is hygienically harmless and free of organic substances. The ratio of phosphorus to heavy metals is basically the same as in the sewage sludge. The first step in separating phosphorus from heavy metals is to dissolve phosphorus by extraction. The most promising way seems to be the release of phosphorus with acids or bases. With 1 m sulphuric acid it is possible to release phosphorus completely. By use of acid most of the heavy metals dissolve, too. With caustic soda as solvent, only 30-40% of the phosphorus can be dissolved but the eluate is almost free of heavy metals. The amount of phosphorus which can be released with caustic soda, depends on the applied precipitant (Al or Fe salts) for phosphorus elimination at the waste water treatment. (author)

  10. Sewage sludge as a biomass energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kolat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The major part of the dry matter content of sewage sludge consists of nontoxic organic compounds, in general a combination of primary sludge and secondary microbiological sludge. The sludge also contains a substantive amount of inorganic material and a small amount of toxic components. There are many sludge-management options in which production of energy is one of the key treatment steps. The most important options are anaerobic digestion, co-digestion, incineration in combination with energy recovery and co-incineration in coal-fired power plants. The goal of our applied research is to verify, if the sludge from waste water treatment plants may be used as a biomass energy source in respect of the EU legislation, which would comply with emission limits or the proposal of energy process optimizing the preparation of coal/sludge mixture for combustion in the existing fluid bed boilers in the Czech Republic. The paper discusses the questions of thermal usage of mechanically drained stabilized sewage sludge from the waste water treatment plants in the boiler with circulated fluid layer. The paper describes methods of thermal analysis of coal, sewage sludge and its mixtures, mud transport to the circulating fluidised bed boiler, effects on efficiency, operational reliability of the combustion equipment, emissions and solid combustion residues.

  11. Heavy metal cumulation in crops after the sewage sludge application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gondová Andrea

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available During 1995 - 1996 the crops samples after the sewage sludge application were collected. The heavy metals cumulation in investigated crops from Bardejov increased in order: Zn > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cr > Cd and Banská Bystrica : Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd. Heavy metals contents after the sewage sludge application were increased in comparison with the highest admissible concentration in eatable part of crops. The sewage sludge application were not recommended in soils for the growth of vegetables

  12. 26 CFR 1.142(a)(5)-1 - Exempt facility bonds: Sewage facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... treatment that removes material that floats or will settle, usually by screens or settling tanks. (vi) Priority pollutants are those pollutants listed in appendix A to 40 CFR part 423. (vii) Secondary treatment... provided in paragraphs (b)(2) and (d) of this section, used for the secondary treatment of...

  13. Harbor Facility Areas - USACE IENC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  14. Mooring Facility Areas - USACE IENC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  15. HEDL FACILITIES CATALOG 400 AREA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAYANCSIK BA

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide a sodium-cooled fast flux test reactor designed specifically for irradiation testing of fuels and materials and for long-term testing and evaluation of plant components and systems for the Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) Program. The FFTF includes the reactor, heat removal equipment and structures, containment, core component handling and examination, instrumentation and control, and utilities and other essential services. The complex array of buildings and equipment are arranged around the Reactor Containment Building.

  16. A study protocol for facility assessment and follow-up evaluations of the barriers to access, availability, utilization and readiness of contraception, abortion and postabortion services in Zika affected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Moazzam; Folz, Rachel; Miller, Kelsey; Johnson, Brooke Ronald; Kiarie, James

    2017-02-02

    The Zika virus epidemic in Latin America has elicited official recommendations for women to delay or avoid pregnancy in affected countries, which has increased demand for family planning services. It is likely, however, that health facilities in areas where the population is most vulnerable to the disease lack the capacity to respond to the increased demand for family planning services. Our objectives are to perform facilities assessment and understand client perceptions in areas affected by Zika virus, and to track changes in these parameters over time. We will collaborate with local health authorities to map facilities that have the capacity to provide services in contraception and safe abortion, including induced abortion to the full extent of the law and post-abortion care for treatment of complications from unsafe abortion and post-abortion contraception. We then will carry out a survey of facilities to assess the availability of services and their readiness to provide contraception and safe abortion care. All facilities will be assessed for baseline readiness and availability of services, and a random subsample of surveyed facilities will be reassessed in second and third rounds of surveys. Focus group interviews with clients will be conducted as part of the facilities surveys in order to gain an understanding of the community's knowledge, needs and perceived barriers to healthcare in the context of the Zika virus epidemic. The findings of this study will aid the response to Zika virus ranging from the identification of healthcare facilities that can be potentially strengthened, to the formulation of interventions to reduce barriers and improve readiness of facilities to provide contraception and safe abortion services. Lessons learned from this study will help to build and strengthen health systems that are more prepared to consistently providing reproductive healthcare services in the context of health emergencies.

  17. Sewage pollution: mitigation is key for coral reef stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, Stephanie L; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2015-10-01

    Coral reefs are in decline worldwide, and land-derived sources of pollution, including sewage, are a major force driving that deterioration. This review presents evidence that sewage discharge occurs in waters surrounding at least 104 of 112 reef geographies. Studies often refer to sewage as a single stressor. However, we show that it is more accurately characterized as a multiple stressor. Many of the individual agents found within sewage, specifically freshwater, inorganic nutrients, pathogens, endocrine disrupters, suspended solids, sediments, and heavy metals, can severely impair coral growth and/or reproduction. These components of sewage may interact with each other to create as-yet poorly understood synergisms (e.g., nutrients facilitate pathogen growth), and escalate impacts of other, non-sewage-based stressors. Surprisingly few published studies have examined impacts of sewage in the field, but those that have suggest negative effects on coral reefs. Because sewage discharge proximal to sensitive coral reefs is widespread across the tropics, it is imperative for coral reef-focused institutions to increase investment in threat-abatement strategies for mitigating sewage pollution. © 2015 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. An evaluation of free water surface wetlands as tertiary sewage water treatment of micro-pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitholtz, Magnus; Näslund, Maria; Stråe, Daniel; Borg, Hans; Grabic, Roman; Fick, Jerker

    2012-04-01

    Increased attention is currently directed towards potential negative effects of pharmaceuticals and other micro-pollutants discharged into the aquatic environment via municipal sewage water. A number of additional treatment technologies, such as ozonation, have therefore been suggested as promising tools for improving the removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals in existing Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs). Constructed wetlands are also capable of removing a variety of micro-pollutants, including some pharmaceuticals, and could hence be a resource efficient complement to more advanced treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was therefore to increase the knowledge base concerning the potential use of constructed wetlands as a treatment step to reduce emissions of organic micro-pollutants from municipal sewage effluents. Under cold winter conditions, incoming and outgoing waters from four Swedish free water surface wetlands, operated as final treatment steps of sewage effluent from municipal STPs, were sampled and analyzed for levels of a set of 92 pharmaceuticals and 22 inorganic components as well as assessed using subchronic ecotoxicity tests with a macro-alga and a crustacean. Sixty-five pharmaceuticals were detected in the range from 1 ng L(-1) to 7.6 μg L(-1) in incoming and outgoing waters from the four investigated wetlands. Although the sampling design used in the present study lacks the robustness of volume proportional to 24h composite samples, the average estimated removal rates ranged from 42% to 52%, which correlates to previous published values. The effects observed in the ecotoxicity tests with the macro-alga (EC(50)s in the range of 7.5-46%) and the crustacean (LOECs in the range of 11.25-90%) could not be assigned to either pharmaceutical residues or metals, but in general showed that these treatment facilities release water with a relatively low toxic potential, comparable to water that has been treated with advanced tertiary

  19. Sewage biogas conversion into electricity; Conversao do biogas de tratamento de esgoto em eletricidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez; Martins, Osvaldo Stella; Abreu, Fernando Castro de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/IEE/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa], e-mails: suani@iee.usp.br, sgvelaz@iee.usp.br, omartins@iee.usp.br, fcabreu@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This article intend to present some considerations directed to electricity generation with small systems (micro turbine and conventional engines ), using biogas generated by sewage treatment process in SABESP (Basic Sanitation Company of Sao Paulo State), located at Barueri, Brazil. This project, pioneer in Latin America, is being accomplished together with BUN - Biomass Users Network of Brazil (proponent), in association with CENBIO - Biomass Reference National Center (executer), with patronage of FINEP / CT-ENERG (financial backer), by means of Convention no: 23.01.0653.00, regarding to ENERG BIOG Project - 'Installation and Tests of an Electric Energy Generation Demonstration Unit from Biogas Sewage Treatment'. The study is being done at Barueri Sewage Treatment Plant. This plant operate with anaerobic digestion process, which has as mainly products biogas (composed mainly by methane) and sludge. Part of the methane produced at the anaerobic process is burnt in a boiler being used to increase digesters temperature. The rest of the methane is burnt in flare to reduce the impacts caused by gases emissions. This article presents some technical, financial and environmental project results, related to the exploitation of sewer biogas for power generation, as well as bigger details about generation systems (biogas micro turbine), used in the facility. (author)

  20. Characteristics of sewage sludge and distribution of heavy metal in plants with amendment of sewage sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Jia-yin; CHEN Ling; ZHAO Jian-fu; MA Na

    2006-01-01

    In order to better understand land application of sewage sludge, the characterization of heavy metals and organic pollutants were investigated in three different sewage sludges in Shanghai City, China. It was found that the total concentrations of Cd in all of sewage sludge and total concentrations of Zn in Jinshan sewage sludge, as well as those ofZn, Cu, and Ni in Taopu sludge are higher than Chinese regulation limit of pollutants for sludge to be used in agriculture. Leachability of Hg in all of studied samples and that of Cd in Taopu sewage sludge exceed the limit values of waste solid extraction standard in China legislation. Based on the characteristics for three kinds of sewage sludge, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of soil amended with Quyang sewage sludge on the accumulation of heavy metal by Begonia semperflorens-hybr; Ophiopogon japonicus (L.F.) Ker-Gaw; Loropetalum chindense-var. rubrum; Dendranthema morifolium; Viola tricolor; Antirrhinum majus; Buxus radicans Sieb; Viburnum macrocephalum;Osmanthus fragrans Lour; Cinnamomum camphora siebold and Ligustrum lucidum ait. Results showed that 8 species of plant survived in the amended soil, and moreover they flourished as well as those cultivated in the control soil. The heavy metal concentration in plants varied with species, As, Pb, Cd and Cr concentration being the highest in the four herbaceous species studied, particularly in the roots of D. morifolium. These plants, however, did not show accumulator of As, Pb, Cd and Cr. The highest concentration of Ni and Hg was found in the roots of D. morifolium, followed by the leaves orB. semperflorens-hybr. Levels of Zn and Cu were much higher in D. morifolium than in the other plant species. D. morifolium accumulated Ni, Hg, Cu and Zn, which may contribute to the decrease of heavy metal contents in the amended soil. Treatment with sewage sludge did not significantly affect the uptake of heavy metals by the L. chindense-var. rubrum

  1. Report on the Oak Ridge sewage sludge land-farming experience. Part 1. Data presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakes, T.W.; Braunstein, H.M.; Daniels, K.L.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Kitchings, J.T.; Alexander, W.A.

    1984-08-01

    Disposal of sludge from the City of Oak Ridge's sewage treatment facility on a 65-acre site on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation was initiated in November 1983. On March 22, 1984, DOE and the City determined that the sludge contained radioactive materials. Application of sludge on the Reservation was suspended on March 25 and a comprehensive survey and sampling plan was instituted to radiologically characterize the disposal site. By April 1, a radiation walkover survey had been completed on the site and samples of air, water, and soil had been collected to be analyzed for the presence of radionuclides. The mean air dose rate, one meter above the ground surface, was found to be 13 ..mu..R/h with a range from about 8 ..mu..R/h, which is the usual background level in the area, to 21 ..mu..R/h. Concentrations of Cs-137 and Co-60, the principle contaminants in the soil, were essentially below the analytical detection limits in the air and water. About 350 soil samples were collected by extracting cores to a depth of 12 to 15 inches according to a systematic random sampling design. Each core was separated into three sections; the top 3 inches, a middle section, and the bottom 3 inches to represent layers on the site. The majority of the radioactivity was determined to be in the upper 3 inches of soil. A statistical treatment of the analytical results provided an estimate of the total activity at the site, the vertical distribution of the gamma activity, and the areal distribution of the primary radionuclides. A total of 170 mCi of activity was estimated as present in the top 3-inch layer of the 65-acre site, 69% of which was contributed by Co-60 and Cs-137, 23% by U-234 and Sr-90, and 8% by other minor radionuclides. 4 references, 12 figures, 43 tables.

  2. Sewage pollution in Negril, Jamaica: effects on nutrition and ecology of coral reef macroalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, B. E.; Thacker, K.; Hanson, C.; Getten, L.

    2011-07-01

    Coral reefs in the Negril Marine Park (NMP), Jamaica, have been increasingly impacted by nutrient pollution and macroalgal blooms following decades of intensive development as a major tourist destination. A baseline survey of DIN and SRP concentrations, C:N:P and stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of abundant reef macroalgae on shallow and deep reefs of the NMP in 1998 showed strong P-limitation and evidence of increasing sewage pollution. In 1999, a sewage collection and treatment project began diverting wastewater from the resort and urban areas to a pond system that discharged partially-treated effluent into the South Negril River (SNR). These sewage discharges significantly increased concentrations of NH{4/+} and SRP (N:P ˜13) in the SNR, which flows into Long Bay and around Negril's "West End". Concentrations of SRP, the primary limiting nutrient, were higher on shallow reefs of the West End in 2001 compared to 1998. Stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of abundant reef macroalgae on both shallow and deep reefs of the West End in 2002 were significantly higher than baseline values in 1998, indicating an escalating impact of sewage nitrogen pollution over this timeframe. The increased nutrient concentrations and δ15N enrichment of reef macroalgae correlated with blooms of the chlorophyte Chaetomorpha linum in shallow waters of Long Bay and Codium isthmocladum and Caulerpa cupressoides on deep reefs of the West End. Sewage treatment systems adjacent to coral reefs must include nutrient removal to ensure that DIN and SRP concentrations, after dilution, are below the low thresholds noted for these oligotrophic ecosystems.

  3. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 116: Area 25 Test Cell C Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-12-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan identifies the activities required for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 116, Area 25 Test Cell C Facility. The Test Cell C (TCC) Facility is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) approximately 25 miles northwest of Mercury, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 116 is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (as amended February 2008) and consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) CAS 25-23-20, Nuclear Furnace Piping; and (2) CAS 25-41-05, Test Cell C Facility. CAS 25-41-05 is described in the FFACO as the TCC Facility but actually includes Building 3210 and attached concrete shield wall only. CAU 116 will be closed by demolishing Building 3210, the attached concrete shield wall, and the nuclear furnace piping. In addition, as a best management practice (BMP), Building 3211 (moveable shed) will be demolished due to its close proximity to Building 3210. This will aid in demolition and disposal operations. Radiological surveys will be performed on the demolition debris to determine the proper disposal pathway. As much of the demolition debris as space allows will be placed into the Building 3210 basement structure. After filling to capacity with demolition debris, the basement structure will be mounded or capped and closed with administrative controls. Prior to beginning demolition activities and according to an approved Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP), representative sampling of surface areas that are known, suspected, or have the potential to contain hazardous constituents such as lead or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) will be performed throughout all buildings and structures. Sections 2.3.2, 4.2.2.2, 4.2.2.3, 4.3, and 6.2.6.1 address the methodologies employed that assure the solid debris placed in the basement structure will not contain contaminants of concern (COCs) above hazardous waste levels. The anticipated post

  4. 乡镇污水处理方案探讨%Probe into Sewage Treatment Program in Villages and Towns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏天华; 陈刚; 雷斌

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the status of sewage treatment in rural areas at the present time in our country, the construction mode of sewage treatment establishments, the advantages and disadvantages of traditional technologies of the rural domestic sewage treatment currently and the advantage and application foreground of sewage regenerators on late-model decentralization, an organic whole aptitude and membrane process, so as to provide the use for reference for the rural domestic sewage treatment in our country.%论述了我国当前农村污水处理的现状、污水处理设施的建设模式、当前农村生活污水处理传统工艺的优缺点,以及新型的分散式一体化智能膜法污水再生器的优势和应用前景,为我国农村生活污水处理相关研究提供借鉴。

  5. Facilities & Leadership

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The facilities web service provides VA facility information. The VA facilities locator is a feature that is available across the enterprise, on any webpage, for the...

  6. Malaria Parasitemia Among Febrile Patients Seeking Clinical Care at an Outpatient Health Facility in an Urban Informal Settlement Area in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njuguna, Henry N; Montgomery, Joel M; Cosmas, Leonard; Wamola, Newton; Oundo, Joseph O; Desai, Meghna; Buff, Ann M; Breiman, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    Nairobi is considered a low-risk area for malaria transmission, but travel can influence transmission of malaria. We investigated the demographic characteristics and travel history of patients with documented fever and malaria in a study clinic in a population-based surveillance system over a 5-year period, January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. During the study period, 11,480 (68%) febrile patients had a microscopy test performed for malaria, of which 2,553 (22%) were positive. Malaria was detected year-round with peaks in January, May, and September. Children aged 5-14 years had the highest proportion (28%) of positive results followed by children aged 1-4 years (23%). Almost two-thirds of patients with malaria reported traveling outside Nairobi; 79% of these traveled to three counties in western Kenya. History of recent travel (i.e., in past month) was associated with malaria parasitemia (odds ratio: 10.0, 95% confidence interval: 9.0-11.0). Malaria parasitemia was frequently observed among febrile patients at a health facility in the urban slum of Kibera, Nairobi. The majority of patients had traveled to western Kenya. However, 34% reported no travel history, which raises the possibility of local malaria transmission in this densely populated, urban setting. These findings have important implications for malaria control in large Nairobi settlements. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  7. Turbines and terrestrial vertebrates: variation in tortoise survivorship between a wind energy facility and an adjacent undisturbed wildland area in the desert southwest (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Augustine, Benjamin J.; Arundel, Terry; Murphy, Mason O.; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Delaney, David F.; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Madrak, Sheila V.; Price, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    With the recent increase in utility-scale wind energy development, researchers have become increasingly concerned how this activity will affect wildlife and their habitat. To understand the potential impacts of wind energy facilities (WEF) post-construction (i.e., operation and maintenance) on wildlife, we compared differences in activity centers and survivorship of Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) inside or near a WEF to neighboring tortoises living near a wilderness area (NWA) and farther from the WEF. We found that the size of tortoise activity centers varied, but not significantly so, between the WEF (6.25 ± 2.13 ha) and adjacent NWA (4.13 ± 1.23 ha). However, apparent survival did differ significantly between the habitat types: over the 18 year study period apparent annual survival estimates were 0.96 ± 0.01 for WEF tortoises and 0.92 ± 0.02 for tortoises in the NWA. High annual survival suggests that operation and maintenance of the WEF has not caused considerable declines in the adult population over the past two decades. Low traffic volume, enhanced resource availability and decreased predator populations may influence annual survivorship at this WEF. Further research on these proximate mechanisms and population recruitment would be useful for mitigating and managing post-development impacts of utility scale wind energy on long-lived terrestrial vertebrates.

  8. Turbines and Terrestrial Vertebrates: Variation in Tortoise Survivorship Between a Wind Energy Facility and an Adjacent Undisturbed Wildland Area in the Desert Southwest (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E; Ennen, Joshua R; Augustine, Benjamin; Arundel, Terence R; Murphy, Mason O; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Delaney, David; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Madrak, Sheila V; Price, Steven J

    2015-08-01

    With the recent increase in utility-scale wind energy development, researchers have become increasingly concerned how this activity will affect wildlife and their habitat. To understand the potential impacts of wind energy facilities (WEF) post-construction (i.e., operation and maintenance) on wildlife, we compared differences in activity centers and survivorship of Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) inside or near a WEF to neighboring tortoises living near a wilderness area (NWA) and farther from the WEF. We found that the size of tortoise activity centers varied, but not significantly so, between the WEF (6.25 ± 2.13 ha) and adjacent NWA (4.13 ± 1.23 ha). However, apparent survival did differ significantly between the habitat types: over the 18-year study period apparent annual survival estimates were 0.96 ± 0.01 for WEF tortoises and 0.92 ± 0.02 for tortoises in the NWA. High annual survival suggests that operation and maintenance of the WEF has not caused considerable declines in the adult population over the past two decades. Low traffic volume, enhanced resource availability, and decreased predator populations may influence annual survivorship at this WEF. Further research on these proximate mechanisms and population recruitment would be useful for mitigating and managing post-development impacts of utility-scale wind energy on long-lived terrestrial vertebrates.

  9. Turbines and Terrestrial Vertebrates: Variation in Tortoise Survivorship Between a Wind Energy Facility and an Adjacent Undisturbed Wildland Area in the Desert Southwest (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Augustine, Benjamin; Arundel, Terence R.; Murphy, Mason O.; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Delaney, David; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Madrak, Sheila V.; Price, Steven J.

    2015-08-01

    With the recent increase in utility-scale wind energy development, researchers have become increasingly concerned how this activity will affect wildlife and their habitat. To understand the potential impacts of wind energy facilities (WEF) post-construction (i.e., operation and maintenance) on wildlife, we compared differences in activity centers and survivorship of Agassiz's desert tortoises ( Gopherus agassizii) inside or near a WEF to neighboring tortoises living near a wilderness area (NWA) and farther from the WEF. We found that the size of tortoise activity centers varied, but not significantly so, between the WEF (6.25 ± 2.13 ha) and adjacent NWA (4.13 ± 1.23 ha). However, apparent survival did differ significantly between the habitat types: over the 18-year study period apparent annual survival estimates were 0.96 ± 0.01 for WEF tortoises and 0.92 ± 0.02 for tortoises in the NWA. High annual survival suggests that operation and maintenance of the WEF has not caused considerable declines in the adult population over the past two decades. Low traffic volume, enhanced resource availability, and decreased predator populations may influence annual survivorship at this WEF. Further research on these proximate mechanisms and population recruitment would be useful for mitigating and managing post-development impacts of utility-scale wind energy on long-lived terrestrial vertebrates.

  10. Solving a mathematical model integrating unequal-area facilities layout and part scheduling in a cellular manufacturing system by a genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Ahmad; Kia, Reza; Komijan, Alireza Rashidi

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a novel integrated mixed-integer nonlinear programming model is presented for designing a cellular manufacturing system (CMS) considering machine layout and part scheduling problems simultaneously as interrelated decisions. The integrated CMS model is formulated to incorporate several design features including part due date, material handling time, operation sequence, processing time, an intra-cell layout of unequal-area facilities, and part scheduling. The objective function is to minimize makespan, tardiness penalties, and material handling costs of inter-cell and intra-cell movements. Two numerical examples are solved by the Lingo software to illustrate the results obtained by the incorporated features. In order to assess the effects and importance of integration of machine layout and part scheduling in designing a CMS, two approaches, sequentially and concurrent are investigated and the improvement resulted from a concurrent approach is revealed. Also, due to the NP-hardness of the integrated model, an efficient genetic algorithm is designed. As a consequence, computational results of this study indicate that the best solutions found by GA are better than the solutions found by B&B in much less time for both sequential and concurrent approaches. Moreover, the comparisons between the objective function values (OFVs) obtained by sequential and concurrent approaches demonstrate that the OFV improvement is averagely around 17 % by GA and 14 % by B&B.

  11. Transition from Consultation to Monitoring-NRC's Increasingly Focused Review of Factors Important to F-Area Tank Farm Facility Performance - 13153

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, Cynthia; Grossman, Christopher; Alexander, George; Parks, Leah; Fuhrmann, Mark; Shaffner, James; McKenney, Christepher [U.S. NRC, Rockville, MD (United States); Pabalan, Roberto; Pickett, David [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Dinwiddie, Cynthia [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In consultation with the NRC, DOE issued a waste determination for the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) facility in March 2012. The FTF consists of 22 underground tanks, each 2.8 to 4.9 million liters in capacity, used to store liquid high-level waste generated as a result of spent fuel reprocessing. The waste determination concluded stabilized waste residuals and associated tanks and auxiliary components at the time of closure are not high-level and can be disposed of as LLW. Prior to issuance of the final waste determination, during the consultation phase, NRC staff reviewed and provided comments on DOE's revision 0 and revision 1 FTF PAs that supported the waste determination and produced a technical evaluation report documenting the results of its multi-year review in October 2011. Following issuance of the waste determination, NRC began to monitor DOE disposal actions to assess compliance with the performance objectives in 10 CFR Part 61, Subpart C. To facilitate its monitoring responsibilities, NRC developed a plan to monitor DOE disposal actions. NRC staff was challenged in developing a focused monitoring plan to ensure limited resources are spent in the most cost-effective manner practical. To address this challenge, NRC prioritized monitoring areas and factors in terms of risk significance and timing. This prioritization was informed by NRC staff's review of DOE's PA documentation, independent probabilistic modeling conducted by NRC staff, and NRC-sponsored research conducted by the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses in San Antonio, TX. (authors)

  12. Faecal sterols as indicators of sewage contamination in estuarine sediments of the Tay Estuary, Scotland: an extended baseline survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, A. D.; Patton, D.

    2005-06-01

    Sterol ratios are used to identify sources, occurrence and partitioning of faecal matter in sediments of the Tay Estuary, Scotland. The 5β/(5α+5β) ratio is used to discriminate between sewage and biogenic sterol sources by comparing the concentrations of coprostanols to cholesterol plus coprostanols. This index shows unambiguous sewage pollution in the Invergowrie Bay area (values >0.7). The coprostanol/epicoprostanol index is used to differentiate between human and non-human faecal inputs. Ratios confirmed the primary source as human-derived faecal material. The coprostanol/cholesterol ratio was calculated in order to elucidate the contribution of different biogenic sources to the sedimentary sterol budget. Ratios of >1 clearly indicate faecal sterol sources. Invergowrie Bay displayed no sterol signature other than sewage. A biogenic source of cholesterol influenced total sterol concentrations upstream of the City of Dundee. Attention is directed to the potential role of density fronts in compartmentalization of faecal material in bottom sediments.

  13. Influence of long-term sewage irrigation on the distribution of organochlorine pesticides in soil-groundwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caixiang; Liao, Xiaoping; Li, Jiale; Xu, Liang; Liu, Ming; Du, Bin; Wang, Yanxin

    2013-07-01

    Serious shortage of water resources is one of the major factors restricting the sustainable development of cropland and pasture land in northern and northwestern China. Although the reuse of wastewater for agricultural irrigation becomes a well established practice in these regions, many contaminants have been also introduced into the soil-groundwater systems such as persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). To study the influence of long-term sewage irrigation on the distribution of OCPs in soil-groundwater systems, the groundwater flow field was investigated and 31 topsoil samples, 9 boreholes, 11 sewage effluents and 34 groundwater samples were collected in Xiaodian, Taiyuan city, one of the largest sewage irrigation districts, China. During sampling, three representative types of regions were considered including effluent-irrigated area, groundwater-irrigated area served as the control field and no-irrigated area as reference "background". The results showed over-exploitation of groundwater had changed the flow field of groundwater and wherever in soil or in groundwater, the concentration of OCPs in effluent-irrigation area presented the highest value, which indicated that the sewage irrigation had a strong influence on the distribution of OCPs in soil-groundwater systems. Principal component analysis for OCPs content in groundwater showed that the major influence factors on the occurrence and distribution of OCPs in groundwater systems attribute to the flow field of groundwater and to the current pesticide use.

  14. Biochemistry Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Biochemistry Facility provides expert services and consultation in biochemical enzyme assays and protein purification. The facility currently features 1) Liquid...

  15. Performance and Process Analysis of Duckweed-Covered Sewage Lagoons for High Strength Sewage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Nozaily, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    Duckweed (L g/fofoaj-covered sewage lagoons (DSLs) are low cost treatment systems, especially In warm climates (or seasons). This study attempts to assess DSL system as a new technology, contributing to the understanding of the different mechanisms in the system. DSLs could either replace complete

  16. Performance and Process Analysis of Duckweed-Covered Sewage Lagoons for High Strength Sewage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Nozaily, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    Duckweed (L g/fofoaj-covered sewage lagoons (DSLs) are low cost treatment systems, especially In warm climates (or seasons). This study attempts to assess DSL system as a new technology, contributing to the understanding of the different mechanisms in the system. DSLs could either replace complete w

  17. Ecotoxicity Assessment of Stabilized Sewage Sludge from Municipal Sewage Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarczyk Elżbieta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to evaluate the ecotoxicity of municipal sewage sludge conditioned with polyelectrolytes, taken from selected sewage treatment plant. Using the bioindication analysis overall toxicity was assessed, which allows to know the total toxicity of all the harmful substances contained in sewage sludge, in many cases acting synergistically. To prepare a sample of sludge for the basic test, all analyses were performed with a ratio of liquid to solid of 10:1 (water extract. Daphnia pulex biological screening test was used. A dilution series of an water extract of sludge were prepared to include within its scope the lowest concentration that causes 100% effect and the highest producing less than 10% of the effect within a specified range of the assay. The results of the test were read after 24 and 48 hours. Based on the research and analysis of test results it proved that the sewage sludge conditioned with polyelectrolytes exhibit the characteristics of eco-toxic.

  18. Synchrotron radiation facilities

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Particularly in the past few years, interest in using the synchrotron radiation emanating from high energy, circular electron machines has grown considerably. In our February issue we included an article on the synchrotron radiation facility at Frascati. This month we are spreading the net wider — saying something about the properties of the radiation, listing the centres where synchrotron radiation facilities exist, adding a brief description of three of them and mentioning areas of physics in which the facilities are used.

  19. The effect of sewage effluent on the physico-chemical and biological characteristics of the Sand River, Limpopo, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seanego, K. G.; Moyo, N. A. G.

    Population growth in urban areas is putting pressure on sewage treatment plants. The improper treatment of sewage entering the aquatic ecosystems causes deterioration of the water quality of the receiving water body. The effect of sewage effluent on the Sand River was assessed. Eight sampling sites were selected, site 1 and 2 were upstream of the sewage treatment plant along the urbanised area of Polokwane, whilst sites 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 were downstream. The physico-chemical parameters and coliform counts in the water samples were determined. The suitability of the water for irrigation was also determined. Hierarchical average linkage cluster analysis produced two clusters, grouping two sites above the sewage treatment works and six sites downstream of the sewage effluent discharge point. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified total nitrogen, total phosphorus, conductivity and salinity as the major factors contributing to the variability of the Sand River water quality. These factors are strongly associated with the downstream sites. Canonial correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated the macroinvertebrates, Chironomidae, Belastomatidae, Chaoborus and Hirudinea being strongly associated with nitrogen, phosphorus, conductivity and temperature. Escherichia coli levels in the Polokwane wastewater treatment works maturation ponds, could potentially lead to contamination of the Polokwane aquifer. The Sodium Adsorption Ratio was between 1.5 and 3.0 and residual sodium carbonate was below 1.24 Meq/l, indicating that the Sand River water is still suitable for irrigation. The total phosphorus concentrations fluctuated across the different site. Total nitrogen concentrations showed a gradual decrease downstream from the point of discharge. This shows that the river still has a good self-purification capacity.

  20. Hazard screening of chemical releases and environmental equity analysis of populations proximate to toxic release inventory facilities in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, C M; Forman, D L; Rothlein, J E

    1998-04-01

    A comprehensive approach using hazard screening, demographic analysis, and a geographic information system (GIS) for mapping is employed to address environmental equity issues in Oregon. A media-specific chronic toxicity index [or chronic index (CI)] was used to compare environmental chemical releases reported in the EPA's Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) database. In 1992, 254 facilities reportedly released more than 40 million pounds of toxic chemicals directly into the environment on-site or transferred them to sewage treatment plants or other off-site facilities for disposal and recycling. For each reported on-site TRI chemical release, a CI based on oral toxicity factors and total mass was calculated. CIs were aggregated on a media-, facility-, and chemical-specific basis. Glycol ethers, nickel, trichloroethylene, chloroform, and manganese were ranked as the top five chemicals released statewide based on total CI. In contrast, based on total mass, methanol, nickel, ammonia, acetone, and toluene were identified as the top five TRI chemicals released in Oregon. TRI facility rankings were related to the demographics and household income of surrounding neighborhoods using bivariate GIS mapping and statistical analysis. TRI facilities were disproportionately located in racial and ethnic minority neighborhoods. They were also located in areas with lower incomes compared to those in the surrounding county. No relationship was observed between the hazard ranking of the TRI facilities overall and socioeconomic characteristics of the community in which they were located.

  1. Fast increases in urban sewage inputs to rivers of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwarno, D.; Löhr, A.; Kroeze, C.; Widianarko, B.

    2014-01-01

    We present estimates for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) sewage inputs to 19 Indonesian rivers for 1970–2050. Future trends are based on the four scenarios of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Our results indicate a rapid increase in N and P pollution from sewage over time. In 1970, N and P input

  2. [Assessing environmental and economical benefits of integrated sewage treatment systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-rong; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Hang-bin; Pan, Heng-yu; Liu, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    Sewage treatment, treated water treatment and sludge treatment are three basic units of an integrated sewage treatment system. This work assessed the influence of reusing or discharge of treated water and sludge landfill or compost on the sustainability of an integrated sewage treatment system using emergy analysis and newly proposed emergy indicators. This system's value included its environmental benefits and the products. Environmental benefits were the differences of the environmental service values before and after sewage treatment. Due to unavailability of data of the exchanged substance and energy in the internal system, products' values were attained by newly proposed substitution values. The results showed that the combination of sewage treatment, treated water reuse and sludge landfill had the strongest competitiveness, while the combination of sewage treatment, treated water reuse and earthworm compost was the most sustainable. Moreover, treated water reuse and earthworm compost were helpful for improving the sustainability of the integrated sewage treatment system. The quality of treated water and local conditions should be also considered when implementing the treated water reuse or discharge. The resources efficiency of earthworm compost unit needed to be further improved. Improved emergy indices were more suitable for integrated sewage treatment systems.

  3. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit

    2010-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treatment of sewage sludge and simultaneous generate electricity. Stable power generation (145±5 mW/m2) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The corresponding total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency...

  4. Adapting UASB technology for sewage treatment in Palestine and Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoud, N.A.; Zeeman, G.; Lier, van J.B.

    2008-01-01

    High rate anaerobic technologies offer cost-effective solutions for "sewage" treatment in the temperate climate of Palestine and Jordan. However, local sewage characteristics demand amendments to the conventional UASB reactor design. A solution is found in a parallel operating digester unit that sta

  5. Urban Sewage Sludge, Sustainability, and Transition for Eco-City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Liang, Hanwei; Chan, Felix T. S.

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of urban sewage sludge is of vital importance for mitigating the risks of environmental contaminations, and the negative effects on human health. However, there are usually various different technologies for the treatment of urban sewage sludge; thus, it is difficult for decision-ma...

  6. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit;

    2011-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously generate electricity. Stable power generation (145± 5 mW/m2, 470 Ω) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The maximum power density reached 190±5 mW/m2. The corresponding total...

  7. Development of Submersible Corrugated Pipe Sewage Heat Exchanger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Li; SHI Yan; TAN Yu-fei

    2009-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of heat transfer for corrugated pipe,a method of calculating and de-sign on the submersible corrugated pipe sewage heat exchanger was put forward theoretically and experimental-ly.The actual movement parameters of air-conditioning system used in this heat exchanger were measured.The experimental result shows that the quantity of heat transfer of the corrugated pipe sewage heat exchanger can satisfy the building's load with the average coefficient of performance 4.55.At the same time.the quantity ot heat transfer of the corrugated pipe sewage heat exchanger was compared with that of the other nonmetallic sewage heat exchangers(i.e.,the plastic-Al pipe sewage heat exchanger and PP-R pipe sewage heat exchanger)experimentally.It is found out that the effect of heat transfer for submersible corrugated pipe sewage heat ex-changer is superior to those of the plastic-Al pipe and the PP-R pipe.The quantity of heat transfer per mile of corrugated pipe sewage heat exchanger is 5.2 times as much as that of the plastic-Al pipe,and it is 8.1 times as much as that of PP-R pipe.

  8. Disinfection of sewage sludge with gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melmed, L.N.; Comninos, D.K.

    1979-10-01

    Disinfection of sewage sludge by ionizing radiation, thermoradiation, and radiation combined with oxygenation was investigated in experimentation in Johannesburg, South Africa. Inactivation of Ascaris lumbricoides ova was used as the criterion of disinfection. Experimentation and methodology are explained. Complete inactivation could be obtained when 0.5 kGy radiation was applied at 50..cap alpha..C to a sludge containing 3% solids and when 0.4 kGy radiation was applied at 55..cap alpha..C to a sludge with 20% solids. (1 drawing, 5 graphs, 4 photos, 4 tables)

  9. 1Q/2Q00 M-Area and Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facilities Groundwater Monitoring and Corrective-Action Report - First and Second Quarters 2000 - Volumes I, II, and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    2000-10-24

    This report describes the groundwater monitoring and corrective-action program at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) and the Metallurgical Laboratory (Met Lab) HWMF at the Savannah River site (SRS) during first and second quarters of 2000.

  10. OPERATION OF THE HOUSEHOLD SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelina Pryszcz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In many rural communities the building of sewage collection and treatment system is still current and important problem of water and wastewater management. Besides the collection of sewage in the septic tank, the solution for wastewater treatment from individual buildings without access to sewerage system is the construction of household sewage treatment plants. Construction of household sewage treatment plant poses a number of challenges for municipalities and potential investors. The existing plants should be analyzed, so that in the future the selected systems would be characterized by high performance, simple operation and reliable exploitation. In the paper, the assessment of selection criteria of adopted technical solution and the functioning of household sewage treatment plants is carried out.

  11. Combustion of Sewage Sludge as Alternative Fuel for Cement Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fuzhou; ZHANG Wei

    2011-01-01

    The combustion of sewage sludge and coal was studied by thermogravimetric analysis.Both differential scanning calorimetric analysis and derivative thermogravimetric profiles showed differences between combustion of sewage sludge and coal, and non-isothermal kinetics analysis method was applied to evaluate the combustion process. Based on Coats-Redfem integral method, some reaction models were tested,the mechanism and kinetics of the combustion reaction were discussed. The results show that the combustion of sewage sludge is mainly in the Iow temperature stage, meanwhile the ignition temperature and Arrhenius activation energy are lower than that of coal. The combustion of sewage sludge has the advantage over coal in some aspects, thus sewage sludge can partly replace coal used as cement industry fuel.

  12. Water Hyacinths for Upgrading Sewage Lagoons to Meet Advanced Wastewater Treatment Standards, Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms, have demonstrated the ability to function as an efficient and inexpensive final filtration system in a secondary domestic sewage lagoon during a three month test period. These plants reduced the suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demanding substances, and other chemical parameters to levels below the standards set by the state pollution control agency. The water hyacinth-covered secondary lagoon utilized in this experiment had a surface area of 0.28 hectare (0.70 acre) with a total capacity of 6.8 million liters (1.5 million gallons), receiving an inflow of 522,100 liters (115,000 gallons) per day from a 1.1 hectare (3.8 acre) aerated primary sewage lagoon. These conditions allowed a retention time of 14 to 21 days depending on the water hyacinth evapotranspiration rates. The desired purity of final sewage effluent can be controlled by the water hyacinth surface area, harvest rate, and the retention time.

  13. Effect of domestic sewage and industrial effluents on biomass and species diversity of seaweeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari, A.; Joshi, H.V.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of two chlor-alkali industry effluents and domestic sewage has been studied, in situ, on tropical seaweeds of the Okhamandal coast. Maximum biomass was observed at a distance of 400 and 5000 m away from the discharge points of the two chlor-alkali industries. Ulva lactuca and Rhizoclonium kochianum were most resistant while Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Halimeda tuna and Codium dwarkense were most sensitive. Species of Sargassum, Cystoseira and Gelidiella were completely eradicated due to the long-term effect of the effluent from one chlor-alkali industry. Gracilaria corticata, G. foliifera and species of Hypnea produced good biomass under mildly polluted conditions and they may be cultivated in such areas. Algal species diversity (ASD) was not recorded up to 400 and 4000 m away from chlor-alkali industries outfalls as intensity of pollution was high in this region. The ASD increased as the distance from the outfall increased: In general, brown seaweeds were most sensitive to this type of pollution. Domestic sewage was much less inhibitory to seaweeds. Species of Ulva and Enteromorpha were maximum biomass producers while brown seaweeds were least productive in the near vicinity of the discharge. Species diversity was also high, in this area, as compared to the chlor-alkali industry effluents. Vertical distribution of seaweeds was not evident up to 400-4000 m away from chlor-alkali effluents outfall and up to 10 m away from domestic sewage discharge points. Seaweeds showed characteristic vertical distribution after these distances. (orig.).

  14. Electrical conductivity measurements in sewage sludge pellets: innovative techniques for environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilla, S; Jordan, M M

    2009-09-15

    This paper presents research on the behaviour of electrical conductivity of sludge pellets resulting from the treatment of urban wastewater at the drying grounds of the El Trebal wastewater processing plant, located in the Mapocho river basin of the Metropolitana Region, Santiago, Chile. In the methodology used samples were taken that correspond to three horizons of the sewage sludge pile. The first horizon made up the upper portion of the pile (the surface), the second the central portion (mesophilous), and the third the lower one (thermophilous). Electrical conductivity measurements were taken in sewage sludge pellets under pressures on the order of 15-50 MPa with currents of 10(-15)A. Electrical conductivity measurements were also taken for different horizons, and innovative techniques and methodologies for sludge samples presented in the form of pellets are used for this purpose. Such pellets are easily reproduced with sufficient precision, and at the same time allow modifying other variables like mass, sample dimensions and compaction levels. The trends of the conductivity curves are similar for the sludge from the isolation surface horizon (H1) as well as for the mesophilous area horizon (H2). In the case of the thermophilous area horizon (H3), the electrical conductivity shows extremely high values when compared to horizons H1 and H2. This paper could be useful in establishing a general rule for taking electrical conductivity measurements in sewage sludge samples. Such a rule could bring accurate reproducible values, and be used for other types of dry wastes.

  15. An Assessment of Public Transport Facility in Johor Bahru: a case study in Taman Ungku Tun Aminah Area, Majlis Perbandaran Johor Bahru Tengah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musarrat Zaman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Provision of public transport infrastructure is important to increase the ridership and at the same time decrease the use of private transport. Like the other Malaysian cities, Johor Bahru is mostly dependent on private vehicles such as motor cars and motor cycles. The ridership on public transport especially public bus is getting lower over the years. In this situation the sustainability in transportation and land use cannot be ensured. This paper aims to assess the public transport facility in Taman Ungku Tun Aminah in Johor Bahru which is very old and traditional residential area with some major extent of commercial and educational land uses. The actual scenario of public transport service and underlying problems that impeded the residents to use public bus service is observed in this paper. The possible options for the improvement of the bus service and turning it into an effective short and medium length inter town travel media are also discussed as well. Both the primary and secondary information are collected for the purpose of study. Various descriptive statistical data analysis are done in order to get the expected outcome from the collected data. According to this study only 26.7% of the respondents use public bus for their daily travel. The opinion of the respondents is taken for the underlying causes of their reluctance on using public bus service and also the effective measures for the enhancement of this service to the users like them. Finally some recommendations and strategic actions and policy frameworks are also suggested in this paper.

  16. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan for Test Area North (TAN) Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. O. Nelson

    2003-09-01

    This operations and maintenance plan supports the New Pump and Treat Facility (NPTF) remedial action work plan and identifies the approach and requirements for the operations and maintenance activities specific to the final medical zone treatment remedy. The NPTF provides the treatment system necessary to remediate the medical zone portion of the OU 1-07B contaminated groundwater plume. Design and construction of the New Pump and Treat Facility is addressed in the NPTF remedial action work plan. The scope of this operation and maintenance plan includes facility operations and maintenance, remedy five-year reviews, and the final operations and maintenance report for the NPTF.

  17. Microwave oxidation treatment of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Kwang V; Srinivasan, Asha; Liao, Ping H; Bailey, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Microwave-oxidation treatment of sewage sludge using various oxidants was studied. Two treatment schemes with a combination of hydrogen peroxide and ozone were examined: hydrogen peroxide and ozone were introduced into the sludge simultaneously, followed by microwave heating. The other involved the ozonation first, and then the resulting solution was subjected to microwave and hydrogen peroxide treatment. The set with ozonation followed by hydrogen peroxide plus microwave heating yielded higher soluble materials than those of the set with hydrogen peroxide plus ozone first and then microwave treatment. No settling was observed for all treatments in the batch operation, except ozone/microwave plus hydrogen peroxide set at 120°C. The pilot-scale continuous-flow 915 MHz microwave study has demonstrated that microwave-oxidation process is feasible for real-time industrial application. It would help in providing key data for the design of a full-scale system for treating sewage sludge and the formulation of operational protocols.

  18. SANITARY SEWAGE REUSE IN AGRICULTURAL CROP IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Bittencourt Barroso

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The water availability was exceeded by demand, becoming a limiting factor in irrigated agriculture. This study aimed to provide a general theoretical framework on the issue of water reuse for agricultural purposes. This is due to the fact that we need a prior knowledge of the state of the art concerning the matter. To that end, we performed a review of irrigated agriculture, the effects on cultivated land and the development of agricultural crops as well as aspects of security to protect groups at risk. The amount of macro and micronutrients in the effluent may reduce or eliminate the use of commercial fertilizers. And this addition of organic matter acts as a soil conditioner, increasing its capacity to retain water. Depending on the characteristics of sewage, the practice of irrigation for long periods may lead to accumulation of toxic compounds and the significant increase of salinity. The inhibition of plant growth by salinity may be due to osmotic effect, causing drought and / or specific effects of ions, which can cause toxicity or nutritional imbalance. The minimization of human exposure to the practice of agricultural reuse is based on a set of mitigation measures that must be implemented by the authorities responsible for operating and monitoring systems for water recycling. It is concluded that the use of sewage depends on management of irrigation, monitoring of soil characteristics and culture.

  19. Treatment of sewage sludge using electrokinetic geosynthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendinning, Stephanie; Lamont-Black, John; Jones, Colin J F P

    2007-01-31

    The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge is one of the most problematical issues affecting wastewater treatment in the developed world. The traditional outlets for sewage sludge are to spread it on agricultural land, or to form a cake for deposit to landfill or incineration. In order to create a sludge cake, water must be removed. Existing dewatering technology based on pressure can only remove a very limited amount of this water because of the way in which water is bound to the sludge particles or flocs. Several researchers have shown that electrokinetic dewatering of sludge is more efficient than conventional hydraulically driven methods. This involves the application of a dc voltage across the sludge, driving water under an electrical gradient from positive (anode) electrode to negative (cathode) electrode. However, there have been several reasons why this technique has not been adopted in practice, not least because the, normally metallic, anode rapidly dissolves due to the acidic environment created by the electrolysis of water. This paper will describe experimentation using electrokinetic geosynthetics (EKG): polymer-based materials containing conducting elements. These have been used to minimise the problem of electrode corrosion and create a sludge treatment system that can produce dry solids contents in excess of 30%. It will suggest different options for the treatment of sludges both in situ in sludge lagoons and windrows, and ex situ as a treatment process.

  20. Airborne & Field Sensors Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — RTTC facilities include an 800' x 60' paved UAV operational area, clearapproach/departure zone, concrete pads furnished with 208VAC, 3 phase,200 amp power, 20,000 sq...

  1. Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) biomass production in a calcareous soil amended with sewage sludge compost and irrigated with sewage water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lag, A.; Gomez, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.; Melendez, I.; Perez Gimeno, A.; Soriano-Disla, J. M.

    2010-05-01

    Energy use is one of the most important current global issues. Traditional energetic resources are limited and its use generates environmental problems, i.e. Global Warming, thus it is necessary to find alternative ways to produce energy. Energy crops represent one step towards sustainability but it must be coupled with appropriate land use and management adapted to local conditions. Moreover, positive effects like soil conservation; economical improvement of rural areas and CO2 storage could be achieved. Treated sewage water and sewage sludge compost were used as low-cost inputs for nutrition and irrigation, to cultivate cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) a perennial Mediterranean crop. The aim of the present field experiment was to ascertain the optimum dose of compost application to obtain maximum biomass production. Four compost treatments were applied by triplicate (D1=0; D2=30; D3=50; D4=70 ton/ha) and forty eight cardoon plants were placed in each plot, 12 per treatment, in a calcareous soil (CLfv; WRB, 2006) plot, located in the South East of Spain, in semi-arid conditions. The experiment was developed for one cardoon productive cycle (one year); soil was sampled three times (October, April and July). Soil, compost and treated sewage irrigation water were analyzed (physical and chemical properties). Stalk, capitula and leave weight as well as height and total biomass production were the parameters determined for cardoon samples. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) at p=0,05 significance level were performed to detect differences among treatments for each sampling/plot and to study soil parameters evolution and biomass production for each plot/dose. Several statistical differences in soil were found between treatments for extractable zinc, magnesium and phosphorus; as well as Kjeldahl nitrogen and organic carbon due to compost application, showing a gradual increase of nutrients from D1 to D4. However, considering the evolution of soil parameters along time, pH was

  2. 城市污水资源化的现状及对策%Status and countermeasures of municipal sewage recycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈宏

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces status waste water recycling at home and abroad,describes the necessity of launching municipal sewage recycling,explores developing countermeasures of domestic and Shanxi provincial sewage recycling,and puts forward some measures,such as strengthening municipal sewage recycling plan,attaching great importance to sewage processing facilities construction,and enhancing propaganda and education of sewage recycling,which has certain guiding meaning.%介绍了国内外污水资源化的现状,阐述了开展城市污水资源化的必要性,探讨了目前我国和我省污水资源化发展对策,提出应加强城市污水资源化规划,注重污水处理设施建设,加强污水再生利用宣传教育等措施,具有一定指导意义。

  3. Rate determination of supercritical water gasification of primary sewage sludge as a replacement for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Nikolas; Wickramathilaka, Malithi; Hendry, Doug; Miller, Andrew; Espanani, Reza; Jacoby, William

    2012-11-01

    Supercritical water gasification of primary sewage sludge sampled from a local facility was undertaken at different solids content. The performance of the process was compared with the anaerobic digestion system in use at the facility where the samples were taken. The mass and composition of the vapor products documented showed that the process generates more energy per gram of feed while rapidly destroying more volatile solids relative to the anaerobic digestion process. However, the energy input requirements are greater for supercritical water gasification. This study defines parameters for a model of the gasification reaction using the power law and Arrhenius equation. The activation energy was estimated to be 15 kJ/mol, and the reaction order was estimated to be 0.586. This model allows estimation of the size of a supercritical water reactor needed to replace the anaerobic digesters that are currently used at the wastewater treatment plant.

  4. Extracting phosphorous from incinerated sewage sludge ash rich in iron or aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Kirkelund, Gunvor M.; Jensen, Pernille E.

    2013-01-01

    Ashes from mono-incineration of sewage sludge (ISSA) generally contain high concentrations of phosphorous (P) and can be regarded as secondary P resources. ISSA has no direct value as fertilizer as P is not plant available. The present paper experimentally compares P extraction in acid from two...... different ISSAs; one rich in Al (67g/kg) and the other in Fe (58g/kg). The difference related to P precipitation at the waste water treatment facilities. Another major difference between the ashes was that flue gas purification products were mixed into the first ash and it contained about 5% activated...... carbon. The Al rich ash had a significantly higher buffering capacity and required more acid for extraction of P. When acid extraction of P from ISSA is the method for recovery, it is thus beneficial to go back to the waste water treatment facility and e.g. choose Fe for P precipitation rather than Al...

  5. Presence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in sewage treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathy, Raj

    2017-09-01

    The presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes in rural sewage treatment plants are not well reported in the literature. The aim of the present study was to study the frequency occurrence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a rural sewage treatment plant. This study was conducted using raw sewage as well as treated sewage from a small town sewage treatment plant in rural southeast Louisiana of USA. Results showed the presence of MRSA consistently in both raw and treated sewage. The presence of mecA gene responsible for methicillin resistance was confirmed in the raw and treated sewage water samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sewage sludge as substrate for Tectona grandis L. seedlings production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Rodrigues Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The sewage sludge is a waste from sewage treatment plants, which can be used in formulations of substrates for seedling production. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different proportions of sewage sludge, soil and commercial substrate on the growth characteristics of Tectona grandis seedlings in tubes of 120 cm³ volume capacity. The sewage sludge used came from the STP's Cachoeiro de Itapemirim / ES. The seedlings were grown in the forest nursery / CCA / UFES. The statistical design used in the experiment was completely randomized design (CRD with six treatments and five replications. The treatments constituted of sewage sludge : commercial substrate: soil (v: v: v, which corresponded to 20:70:10 (T1, 40:50:10 (T2, 60:30:10 (T3, 80 : 10:10 (T4, 90:0:10 (T5 and the control treatment with 0:90:10 (T6. All variables assessed were significant at the 5% level of probability. The control (T6 showed results statistically equal to or lower than the treatments T3 with 60% of sewage sludge concentration (T3. It follows then that the use of sewage sludge in seedling production is feasible and promising, however, used in a proper proportion.

  7. Identification of Comamonas testosteroni as an androgen degrader in sewage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lung; Wang, Chia-Hsiang; Yang, Fu-Chun; Ismail, Wael; Wang, Po-Hsiang; Shih, Chao-Jen; Wu, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Yin-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported the masculinization of freshwater wildlife exposed to androgens in polluted rivers. Microbial degradation is a crucial mechanism for eliminating steroid hormones from contaminated ecosystems. The aerobic degradation of testosterone was observed in various bacterial isolates. However, the ecophysiological relevance of androgen-degrading microorganisms in the environment is unclear. Here, we investigated the biochemical mechanisms and corresponding microorganisms of androgen degradation in aerobic sewage. Sewage samples collected from the Dihua Sewage Treatment Plant (Taipei, Taiwan) were aerobically incubated with testosterone (1 mM). Androgen metabolite analysis revealed that bacteria adopt the 9, 10-seco pathway to degrade testosterone. A metagenomic analysis indicated the apparent enrichment of Comamonas spp. (mainly C. testosteroni) and Pseudomonas spp. in sewage incubated with testosterone. We used the degenerate primers derived from the meta-cleavage dioxygenase gene (tesB) of various proteobacteria to track this essential catabolic gene in the sewage. The amplified sequences showed the highest similarity (87–96%) to tesB of C. testosteroni. Using quantitative PCR, we detected a remarkable increase of the 16S rRNA and catabolic genes of C. testosteroni in the testosterone-treated sewage. Together, our data suggest that C. testosteroni, the model microorganism for aerobic testosterone degradation, plays a role in androgen biodegradation in aerobic sewage. PMID:27734937

  8. 1994 Washington State directory of Biomass Energy Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    This is the fourth edition of the Washington Directory of Biomass Energy Facilities, the first edition was published in 1987. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of and basic information about known biomass producers and users within the state to help demonstrate the importance of biomass energy in fueling our state`s energy needs. In 1992 (latest statistical year), estimates show that the industrial sector in Washington consumed nearly 128 trillion Btu of electricity, nearly 49.5 trillion Btu of petroleum, over 82.2 trillion Btu of natural gas, and over 4.2 trillion Btu of coal. Facilities listed in this directory generated approximately 114 trillion Btu of biomass energy - 93 trillion were consumed from waste wood and spent chemicals. In the total industrial energy picture, wood residues and chemical cooking liquors placed second only to electricity. This directory is divided into four main sections biogas production, biomass combustion, ethanol production, and solid fuel processing facilities. Each section contains maps and tables summarizing the information for each type of biomass. Provided in the back of the directory for reference are a conversion table, a table of abbreviations, a glossary, and an index. Chapter 1 deals with biogas production from both landfills and sewage treatment plants in the state. Biogas produced from garbage and sewage can be scrubbed and used to generate electricity. At the present time, biogas collected at landfills is being flared on-site, however four landfills are investigating the feasibility of gas recovery for energy. Landfill biogas accounted for approximately 6 percent of the total biomass reported. Sewage treatment biogas accounted for 0.6 percent. Biogas generated from sewage treatment plants is primarily used for space and process heat, only one facility presently scrubs and sells methane. Together, landfill and sewage treatment plant biogas represented over 6.6 percent of the total biomass reported.

  9. Properties of cement made from sewage sludge a raw materials; Gesui osen wo genryo toshita semento no tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaumi, Junji; Kamiaka, Hideto [Taiheiyo Cement Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Yamazaki, Yukinori [Asano Slate Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Central Research Laboratory

    1999-07-01

    In this paper, some properties of cement made by trial manufactural method using a large amount of sewage sludge was discussed. The discussion included change of f-CaO contents in the cement, effect of HM and specific surface area on compressive strength of mortar, effect of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} contents on the rate of heat liberation of hydration, effect of reacting P{sub 2}O{sub 5} contents and stability of C{sub 2}S phase. 1) It was recognized that f-CaO increased in accordance with the increase of sewage sludge. 2) At the age of 28 days, the compressive strength of mortar using sewage sludge was lower than that of ordinary cement. But the strength was improved to a certain extent by the increase of HM and specific surface area by more than 3,500 cm{sup 2}{center_dot}g{sup -1}. 3) The rate of heat liberation on the secondary peak measured by using conduction calorimeter decreased with increase of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} contents in cement. 4) It was found that P{sup 5+} ion in P{sub 2}O{sub 5} in sewage sludge did not react with interstitual phases but react with alite and belite substitutionally. 5) {alpha}-C{sub 2}S in clinker was stabilized by the reaction of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} with C{sub 2}S phase. (author)

  10. Comparison of phosphorus recovery from incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and pyrolysed sewage sludge char (PSSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemann, Rosanna; Chenoweth, Jonathan; Clift, Roland; Morse, Stephen; Pearce, Pete; Saroj, Devendra

    2017-02-01

    This research compares and contrasts the physical and chemical characteristics of incinerator sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and pyrolysis sewage sludge char (PSSC) for the purposes of recovering phosphorus as a P-rich fertiliser. Interest in P recovery from PSSC is likely to increase as pyrolysis is becoming viewed as a more economical method of sewage sludge thermal treatment compared to incineration. The P contents of ISSA and PSSC are 7.2-7.5% and 5.6%, respectively. Relative to the sludge, P concentrations are increased about 8-fold in ISSA, compared to roughly 3-fold in PSSC. Both PSSC and ISSA contain whitlockite, an unusual form of calcium phosphate, with PSSC containing more whitlockite than ISSA. Acid leaching experiments indicate that a liquid/solid ratio of 10 with 30min contact time is optimal to release PO4-P into leachate for both ISSA and PSSC. The proportion of P extracted from PSSC is higher due to its higher whitlockite content. Heavy metals are less soluble from PSSC because they are more strongly incorporated in the particles. The results suggest there is potential for the development of a process to recover P from PSSC.

  11. Effects of ultrasonic disintegration of excess sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielewicz, Ewa

    2016-10-01

    Breaking down sludge floc (sonodyspergation effect) and destruction of the cell membranes of microorganisms forming floc is a direct effect of ultrasonic disintegration of sludge excess. This results in release of organic material by liquid sludge (the sonolysis effect). Desired technological effects of the disintegration are: to shorten the hydrolytic phase of fermentation, to increase the production of biogas (source of renewable energy) and an increased mineralization (stability) of fermented sludge. The presented study demonstrates research covering thickened excess sludge of various physicochemical properties, collected from nine municipal sewage treatment plants. The sludge was subjected to ultrasonic disintegration using three differently constructed disintegrators and different proportions of sonification area. Direct effects of disintegration were monitored and recorded using selected indicators describing changes in the properties of sludge and increase of substance dispersed and dissolved in the supernatant liquid to be filtered. Studies have demonstrated that those (direct) effects of ultrasonic disintegration depend on the physicochemical properties of the sludge (foremost the concentration of dry solids) that determine their variable susceptibility to the disintegration methods. The direct effects also depend on optimal process conditions (which consist of the construction of the ultrasonic disintegrator), the geometric proportions of the sonication area and the operating parameters of disintegration (which could be appropriately matched to the characteristics of sludge). The most preferable results were obtained for ultrasonic disintegration of sludge with a dry matter concentration C 0 dry matter (C 0 = 2.0 %), which was sonicated in a reactor with a short transducer of the largest radiating surface area, as well as the lowest ratio between this area and area of reactor. The best effects of disagglomeration of flocks have corresponded with the

  12. Analysis of Organic and Inorganic Contaminants in Dried Sewage Sludge and By-Products of Dried Sewage Sludge Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic and inorganic contaminants in sewage sludge may cause their presence also in the by-products formed during gasification processes. Thus, this paper presents multidirectional chemical instrumental activation analyses of dried sewage sludge as well as both solid (ash, char coal and liquid (tar by-products formed during sewage gasification in a fixed bed reactor which was carried out to assess the extent of that phenomenon. Significant differences were observed in the type of contaminants present in the solid and liquid by-products from the dried sewage sludge gasification. Except for heavy metals, the characteristics of the contaminants in the by-products, irrespective of their form (solid and liquid, were different from those initially determined in the sewage sludge. It has been found that gasification promotes the migration of certain valuable inorganic compounds from sewage sludge into solid by-products which might be recovered. On the other hand, the liquid by-products resulting from sewage sludge gasification require a separate process for their treatment or disposal due to their considerable loading with toxic and hazardous organic compounds (phenols and their derivatives.

  13. N2O and NO Emissions from CFBC Cofiring Dried Sewage Sludge, Wet Sewage Sludge with Coal and PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on cofiring dried sewage sludge, wet sewage sludge with coal and polyethylene (PE were carried out on a pilot scale 0.15MWt circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC plant, and the influence of furnace temperatures, cofiring rates on N2O and NO emissions was investigated. Temperature is an effective parameter influencing N2O emission, and higher temperature leads to significant N2O reduction and decrease of conversion ratio of fuel-N to N2O. Increasing in cofiring rates leads to higher nitrogen content in the mixed fuel, which could result in higher NO and N2O emissions from combustion. With more sewage sludge addition, higher NO but lower N2O emissions are observed. N2O emission from cofiring wet sewage sludge with coal is higher than that from cofiring dried sewage sludge with coal and PE, and fuel-N conversion ratio to N2O and NO is much higher in cofiring wet sewage sludge with coal than that in cofiring dried sewage sludge with coal and PE.

  14. Water hyacinths for upgrading sewage lagoons to meet advanced wastewater treatment standards, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    Field tests using water hyacinths as biological filtration agents were conducted in the Mississippi gulf coast region. The plants were installed in one single cell and one multiple cell sewage lagoon systems. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to maintain BOD5 and total suspended solid (TSS) levels within the Environmental Protection Agency's prescribed limits of 30 mg/lBOD5 and 30 mg/l TSS. A multiple cell sewage lagoon system consisting of two aerated and one water hyacinth covered cell connected in series demonstrated the ability to maintain BOD5 and TSS levels below 30 mg/l year-round. A water hyacinth covered lagoon with a surface area of 0.28 hectare containing a total volume of 6.8 million liters demonstrated the capacity to treat 437,000 to 1,893,000 liters of sewage influent from 2.65 hectares of aerated lagoons daily and produce an effluent that met or exceeded standards year-round.

  15. Response of meiofaunal and nematode communities to sewage pollution abatement: a field transplantation experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaoshou; CHEUNG Siu Gin; SHIN Paul K.S

    2011-01-01

    To assess the recovery rate of meiofaunal and nematode communities upon abatement of sewage pollution,a field transplantation experiment was conducted in Tai Tam,which is a non-polluted,shallow subtidal habitat on the southern portion of Hong Kong Island.The sediments used were from one site located in Victoria Harbour that was heavily influenced by sewage pollution,and one site in the outside-harbor area,which was relatively clean.In addition,sediments from Tai Tam were used as a control.Fresh sediments with meiofauna were collected from the aforementioned sites,placed in plastic trays and transplanted to Tai Tam.Sediments were retrieved at the beginning of the experiment and at 1-,3-,and 8-weeks after transplantation for analysis of the meiofaunal and nematode communities as well as the sediment characteristics.The results showed that the meiofaunal and nematode communities in the control sediments were consistent at the four sampling periods,while it took three and eight weeks,respectively,for the nematode communities from the outside-harbor and inside-harbor sites to become similar to the control.These findings indicated that the relatively poor habitat quality and the nematode community composition in the sewage polluted inside-harbor sediments required a longer time for recovery than samples from the better habitat quality and the nematode community composition in the outside-harbor sediments.

  16. Fishes as indicators of untreated sewage contamination in a Mexican coastal lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Betancourt, Consuelo M; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Kidd, Karen A; Munkittrick, Kelly R; Curry, R Allen; Kosonoy-Aceves, Daniel; Lucano-Ramírez, Gabriela; Ruiz-Ramírez, Salvador; Flores-Ortega, Juan R

    2016-12-15

    Lagoons are important nursery habitats for fishes but are often sites of intense human activity including wastewater discharges. The goal of this research was to compare stable nitrogen (δ(15)N) and carbon (δ(13)C) isotopes, total mercury (THg) and other metal levels in four selected fish species among sites with different levels of untreated sewage discharge inside Barra de Navidad coastal lagoon in the Mexican Pacific. Three species from sites heavily impacted by sewage showed higher δ(15)N and δ(13)C compared to those from non-impacted sites. In addition, the highest concentrations of THg were present in fish of two species (Sciades guatemalensis and Diapterus brevirostris) collected at the two most impacted sites, and exceeded the 0.2μg/g ww threshold believed to be protective of adult and juvenile fish. No individuals of Achirus mazatlanus and Mugil curema exceeded this threshold, and liver somatic index and condition did not distinguish high from low impacted sites for all species. In general, the metal levels differed among species but not sites, and were lower than what has been measured in fishes elsewhere. The study also provides the first information on several fish species for coastal areas of Mexico, suggests that THg and isotopes can distinguish sewage-impacted sites, and can serve as a baseline for future studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A snapshot of illicit drug use in Sweden acquired through sewage water analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostman, Marcus; Fick, Jerker; Näsström, Elin; Lindberg, Richard H

    2014-02-15

    Analytical measurements of sewage water have been used many times to estimate the consumption of specific drugs in an area. This study measured a large number of illicit drugs and metabolites (>30) at a large number of sewage treatment plants (STPs) distributed across Sweden. Twenty-four illicit and prescription drugs, classified as narcotic substances in Sweden, and seven selected metabolites were included in the study. A 24 hour composite sample of incoming sewage water was collected from 33 different municipalities at various geographic locations across Sweden. Species were analyzed using an on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method. The method proved to be rapid with minimum need for sample work up and was able to detect 13 compounds above their respective limits of quantification. The results for all compounds were presented as per capita loads. Multivariate data analysis was used to relate drug consumption to geographical location and/or population of cities. The results showed that geographical differences in drug consumption were apparent across the country. For the narcotic pharmaceuticals, the geographical differences suggested by the multivariate model were supported by prescription statistics.

  18. Experimental study of hydrodynamic and operation start of a baffled anaerobic reactor treating sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Silveira Perico

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to provide individual sanitation systems for sewage peri-urban communities or rural areas to minimize impacts on the environment and human health caused by sewage discharge in natura into water resources. In this context, the anaerobic digestion of effluent has been one of the main considered technologies due to easy implementation, material minimization and reduction in waste production. The objective of this work was to study a Baffled Anaerobic Reactor (BAR including its hydrodynamic characteristics, percentile of inoculum to be applied and reactor operation start. It was concluded that the flow is dispersed with 3.84% of dead spaces and that 20% of the cow manure provided best results; however, due to the high fiber content of the manure, its use is not recommended as inoculum. The BAR system, composed of four chambers, presented good performance for sewage treatment of a rural community in terms of organic substance removal (COD, turbidity and solids meeting effluent disposal standards of these parameters considering the Federal and Minas Gerais State legislation, in Brazil, even in a transient phase of operation, at temperatures below 20°C. However, the effluents from the BAR can’t be released into water bodies without other parameters such as nitrogen, phosphorus, fecal coliforms, and others are investigated to be conforming to those standards.

  19. Potential health implications of water resources depletion and sewage discharges in the Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristovski, Kiril D; Pacemska-Atanasova, Tatjana; Olson, Larry W; Markovski, Jasmina; Mitev, Trajce

    2016-08-01

    Potential health implications of deficient sanitation infrastructure and reduced surface water flows due to climate change are examined in the case study of the Republic of Macedonia. Changes in surface water flows and wastewater discharges over the period 1955-2013 were analyzed to assess potential future surface water contamination trends. Simple model predictions indicated a decline in surface water hydrology over the last half century, which caused the surface waters in Macedonia to be frequently dominated by >50% of untreated sewage discharges. The surface water quality deterioration is further supported by an increasing trend in modeled biochemical oxygen demand trends, which correspond well with the scarce and intermittent water quality data that are available. Facilitated by the climate change trends, the increasing number of severe weather events is already triggering flooding of the sewage-dominated rivers into urban and non-urban areas. If efforts to develop a comprehensive sewage collection and treatment infrastructure are not implemented, such events have the potential to increase public health risks and cause epidemics, as in the 2015 case of a tularemia outbreak.

  20. Fabrication Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fabrication Facilities are a direct result of years of testing support. Through years of experience, the three fabrication facilities (Fort Hood, Fort Lewis, and...

  1. Land reclamation recovery with the sewage sludge use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rincon Tamanini

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, investigations were carried out with five treatments [control, three doses of lime stabilized sludge (60, 120, 240 Mg ha-1 dry base and soil corrective plus mineral fertilizer] to evaluate the immediate recuperation of a borrowed area. The application of stabilized alkaline sewage sludge acted as an acidity corrective, allowed the increase in the organic matter contents (21 to 43.5g dm-3 and available P (44 to 156 mg dm-3. Even with the use of the highest dose, no increase in the concentration of 32 analyzed metals was observed, due to the low concentration of metals in the sludge. The experiment showed that short term restoration of degraded area was possible by using high rates of sewage sludge without metal contamination.Obras de infra-estrutura próximas aos grandes centros levam ao surgimento de áreas degradadas por decapamento que podem ser reintegradas a paisagem através dos processos de recuperação com o uso do lodo de esgoto. Estabeleceu-se um experimento com cinco tratamentos [testemunha, três doses de lodo alcalinizado (60, 120, 240Mgha-1 em base seca e corretivo mais adubo mineral], para avaliar a recuperação imediata de uma área de empréstimo. A aplicação de lodo de esgoto alcalinizado atuou como corretivo da acidez, proporcionou aumento no teor de matéria orgânica (21 para 43,5g dm-3 e P disponível (4,4 para 156mg dm-3 e total, se mostrando superior ao mineral mais calagem. Mesmo com uso da maior dose, não foi observado acréscimos nos teores de 32 metais analisados, dado à baixa concentração de metais no lodo. Os resultados obtidos indicam que é possível o uso de doses elevadas de lodo de esgoto na recuperação de áreas degradadas.

  2. Radiation Fusion Technology for Sewage Sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M. J.; Kim, T. H.; Ryu, S. H.; Jung, I. H.; Lee, O. M.; Kim, T. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Environmental regulation for effluent of sewage and wastewater treatment plant is going to be reinforced in terms of ecology toxicity and number of E.coli from 2011. Besides, it has been known that UV technology is not enough to be a sterilization tool due to regrowth of E.coli even after treatment with UV. Therefore it needs a novel technology for both restriction of E.coli regrowth and treatment of toxic materials in order to meet the environmental regulation being enforced. Electron beam has unique capabilities on destruction of chemicals and sterilization of microbial. In this study, field study on destruction of antibiotics and endocrine disruptors, reduction ecological toxicity and E.Coli regrowth was carried out using by mobile electron beam accelerator. Experimental results showed that irradiation on effluent could effectively reduce not only ecology toxicity but regrowth of E.coli by destruction of chemicals and complete sterilization

  3. Insight into biological phosphate recovery from sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yuanyao; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liu, Yiwen; Zhang, Xinbo; Guo, Jianbo; Ni, Bing-Jie; Chang, Soon Woong; Nguyen, Dinh Duc

    2016-10-01

    The world's increasing population means that more food production is required. A more sustainable supply of fertilizers mainly consisting of phosphate is needed. Due to the rising consumption of scarce resources and limited natural supply of phosphate, the recovery of phosphate and their re-use has potentially high market value. Sewage has high potential to recover a large amount of phosphate in a circular economy approach. This paper focuses on utilization of biological process integrated with various subsequent processes to concentrate and recycle phosphate which are derived from liquid and sludge phases. The phosphate accumulation and recovery are discussed in terms of mechanism and governing parameters, recovery efficiency, application at plant-scale and economy.

  4. Facility Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Z.; Walling, R.; Miller, N.; Du, P.; Nelson, K.

    2005-05-01

    Microgrids are receiving a considerable interest from the power industry, partly because their business and technical structure shows promise as a means of taking full advantage of distributed generation. This report investigates three issues associated with facility microgrids: (1) Multiple-distributed generation facility microgrids' unintentional islanding protection, (2) Facility microgrids' response to bulk grid disturbances, and (3) Facility microgrids' intentional islanding.

  5. Addition of biochar to sewage sludge decreases freely dissolved PAHs content and toxicity of sewage sludge-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniuk, Magdalena; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-11-01

    Due to an increased content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) frequently found in sewage sludges, it is necessary to find solutions that will reduce the environmental hazard associated with their presence. The aim of this study was to determine changes of total and freely dissolved concentration of PAHs in sewage sludge-biochar-amended soil. Two different sewage sludges and biochars with varying properties were tested. Biochars (BC) were produced from biogas residues at 400 °C or 600 °C and from willow at 600 °C. The freely dissolved PAH concentration was determined by means of passive sampling using polyoxymethylene (POM). Total and freely dissolved PAH concentration was monitored at the beginning of the experiment and after 90 days of aging of the sewage sludge with the biochar and soil. Apart from chemical evaluation, the effect of biochar addition on the toxicity of the tested materials on bacteria - Vibrio fischeri (Microtox(®)), plants - Lepidium sativum (Phytotestkit F, Phytotoxkit F), and Collembola - Folsomia candida (Collembolan test) was evaluated. The addition of biochar to the sewage sludges decreased the content of Cfree PAHs. A reduction from 11 to 43% of sewage sludge toxicity or positive effects on plants expressed by root growth stimulation from 6 to 25% to the control was also found. The range of reduction of Cfree PAHs and toxicity was dependent on the type of biochar. After 90 days of incubation of the biochars with the sewage sludge in the soil, Cfree PAHs and toxicity were found to further decrease compared to the soil with sewage sludge alone. The obtained results show that the addition of biochar to sewage sludges may significantly reduce the risk associated with their environmental use both in terms of PAH content and toxicity of the materials tested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Supercritical water pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenchao; Du, Guiyue; Li, Jian; Fang, Yuanhao; Hou, Li'an; Chen, Guanyi; Ma, Degang

    2017-01-01

    Municipal sewage sludge (SS) from wastewater treatment plant containing high water content (>85wt.%), lead to the difficulty of co-combustion with MSW or coal due to the high cost of drying. This study explores an alternative method by supercritical water (SCW) pyrolysis of sewage sludge (SS) in a high pressure reaction vessel. The effects of temperature and moisture content of SS on yield and composition of the products (bio-oil, bio char and non-condensable gas) were studied. A temperature of 385°C and moisture content of 85wt.% were found to be the optimum conditions for the maximum bio-oil production of 37.23wt.%, with a higher heating value of 31.08MJ/kg. In the optimum condition, the yields of aliphatic hydrocarbon and phenols were about 29.23wt.% and 12.51wt.%, respectively. The physical and chemical properties of bio-char were analyzed by using XRF and BET. Results of GC analyses of NCG showed that it has the maximum HHV of 13.39MJ/m(3) at 445°C and moisture content of 85wt.%. The reaction path from SS to bio-oil through SCW pyrolysis was given. Moreover, carbon balance was calculated for the optimal condition, and finding out that 64.27wt.% of the carbon content was transferred from SS to bio-oil. Finally, this work demonstrates that the SCW pyrolysis is a promising disposal method for SS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Study on the hydrothermal drying technology of sewage sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kunio; Yoshikawa

    2010-01-01

    Drying of sewage sludge is an effective way for treatment and utilization of sewage sludge,where reduction of energy consumption is one of the major technical challenges.So we experimentally investigated the possibility of the hydrothermal treatment.We have found that treatment of sewage sludge by saturated steam with the temperature of 190°C and pressure of 20 bar can dramatically improve the dehydration performance of the slurry like product.And the water content can be reduced down to about 55% by a mechanical dehydration.After natural drying 24 h it can be reduced down to about 20%.The final product is almost odorless and can easily be used for the refuse derived fuel(RDF).The sewage sludge product may be used as land-fill,or burned in a boiler or incinerator.

  8. Effect of treated sewage on growth of marine algae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    Eight algal species belonging to Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta were used to assess the effect of different concentrations of secondary treated sewage on their growth. Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta members. Ulva fasciata and Gracilaria...

  9. Sandis irradiator for dried sewage solids. Final safety analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, M.

    1980-07-01

    Analyses of the hazards associated with the operation of the Sandia irradiator for dried sewage solids, as well as methods and design considerations to minimize these hazards, are presented in accordance with DOE directives.

  10. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celary, Piotr, E-mail: pcelary@is.pcz.czest.pl; Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta, E-mail: jszoltysek@is.pcz.czest.pl

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The possibility of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge was investigated. • Glass cullet was substituted with different wastes of mineral character. • Component ratio in the processed mixtures was optimized. • Environmental safety of the acquired vitrificates was verified. • An alternative management approach of usually landfilled waste was presented. - Abstract: Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with

  11. 3Q/4Q00 Annual M-Area and Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facilities Groundwater Monitoring and Corrective-Action Report - Third and Fourth Quarters 2000 - Volumes I, II, and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, C.M. Sr.

    2001-04-17

    This report describes the groundwater monitoring and corrective-action program at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) and the Metallurgical Laboratory (Met Lab) HWMF at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during 2000. This program is required by South Carolina Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Hazardous Waste Permit SC1890008989 and Section 264.100(g) of the South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations.

  12. Electrodialytic recovery of phosphorus from chemically precipitated sewage sludge ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.;

    Phosphorus scarcity requires improved recover and reuse of urban sources; the recycling of this nutrient from sewage sludge has become increasingly important in the last years. Using an innovative electrodialytic process, the present study shows the potential for P separation from Fe and Al preci...... precipitated sewage sludge ash using this technique, with a recovery rate of around 70%. Furthermore, heavy metals were removed from the phosphorous fraction, producing a pure and safe phosphorus source in the end....

  13. Electrodialytic recovery of phosphorus from chemically precipitated sewage sludge ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viader, Raimon Parés; Erland Jensen, Pernille; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    Phosphorus scarcity requires improved recover and reuse of urban sources; the recycling of this nutrient from sewage sludge has become increasingly important in the last years. Using an innovative electrodialytic process, the present study shows the potential for P separation from Fe and Al preci...... precipitated sewage sludge ash using this technique, with a recovery rate of around 70%. Furthermore, heavy metals were removed from the phosphorous fraction, producing a pure and safe phosphorus source in the end...

  14. Electrodialytic recovery of phosphorus from chemically precipitated sewage sludge ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    Phosphorus scarcity requires improved recover and reuse of urban sources; the recycling of this nutrient from sewage sludge has become increasingly important in the last years. Using an innovative electrodialytic process, the present study shows the potential for P separation from Fe and Al preci...... precipitated sewage sludge ash using this technique, with a recovery rate of around 70%. Furthermore, heavy metals were removed from the phosphorous fraction, producing a pure and safe phosphorus source in the end....

  15. History and environmental setting of LASL near-surface land disposal facilities for radioactive wastes (Areas A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and T). A source document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, M.A.

    1977-06-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has been disposing of radioactive wastes since 1944. The LASL Materials Disposal Areas examined in this report, Areas A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and T, are solid radioactive disposal areas with the exception of Area T which is a part of the liquid radioactive waste disposal operation. Areas A, G, and T are currently active. Environmental studies of and monitoring for radioactive contamination have been done at LASL since 1944.

  16. 滨海新区公共设施系统化设计研究%Research on the Systematic Image Design of Public Facilities in Binhai New Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟蕾; 张妍

    2011-01-01

    通过对滨海新区公共设施现状的分析,在探析系统设计方法的基础上,对滨海新区公共设施进行要素分类,并结合其特色地域、文化条件,从宏、微观角度分析其设计理念。研究滨海新区公共设施设计系统要素之间的关系,并指导应用。通过公共设施的系统化设计,为滨海新区提升城市区域形象,完善基础设施建设,提供公众便利。%Firstly, it analyzed the status of public facilities in the Binhai New Area. Based on exploring the systematic design, the public facilities in the Binhai New Area were classified. Combined with geographical features and cultural conditions, it analyzed the design ideas on the macro and micro point. Secondly, it explored the relationship between system elements and guides the application. At last, the systematic design of public facilities can enhance the image of urban areas, improve infrastructure, and provide people convenience.

  17. 西宁市部分医院污水处理效果调查%INVESTIGATION OF HOSPITAL SEWAGE TREATMENT EFFECT IN XINNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封永建; 高文征

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解西宁市医院污水消毒处理及其效果情况.方法 通过现场填写调查表和采样检测方法,对西宁市不同级别医院污水处理设施情况和消毒效果进行了调查和检测.结果 所调查的30所医院中,有28所建有消毒设施,占93.33%;有26所医院的污水消毒设施能正常运转,占86.67%.医院污水采用二氧化氯消毒法占78.57%,少部分医院采用臭氧消毒法、次氯酸钠消毒法和紫外线消毒法.凡经消毒处理后的污水中均未检出沙门菌,96.43%污水样未检出志贺菌.未建消毒设施的2所医院污水中均检出沙门菌.结论 西宁市多数医院建设污水消毒设施,且运行状况良好,消毒后污水合格率较高,但存在管理死角.%Objective To investigate the hospital sewage disinfection treatment and the results in Xining.Methods Questionnaire and on - site sampling and testing methods were used to investigate the sewage treatment facilities and disinfection efficacy at different levels of hospital in Xining.Results There are disinfection facilities in 28 those of 30 hospitals investigated, accounting for 93.33%.The disinfection facilities of 26 hospitals run well, accounting for 86.67%.The rate of hospital wastewater disinfection by using chlorine dioxide is 78.57%.A small part of hospitals use ozone, sodium hypochlorite and UV disinfection.Salmonella was not detected out in all the disinfected sewage.Shigella was not detected out in 96.43% sewage sample.Salmonella was both detected out in sewage of the two hospitals which did not have disinfection facilities.Conclusions The majority of hospitals in Xining have water disinfection facilities, and running well.The eligible rate sewage after disinfection is high, but there still exist unsatisfied management.

  18. Anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge: French inventory and state of the art; La methanisation des boues d'epuration urbaines. Etat des lieux en France et etat de l'art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reverdy, A.L.; Dieude-Fauvel, E.; Baudez, J.C. [Institut national de recherche en sciences et technologies pour l' environnement et l' agriculture - Irstea, Centre de Clermont-Ferrand, Unite de recherches TSCF, Les Palaquins, 03150 Montoldre (France); Ferstler, V. [MEEDDM - DEB, Grande Arche, Paroi Sud, 92055 La Defense Cedex (France)

    2012-07-01

    Following the Kyoto Protocol and the 'Grenelle de l'environnement', France committed itself to develop renewable energies. Methanization is a process which falls within this objective. Anaerobic digestion of organic material generates biogas made of methane (CH{sub 4}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and water (H{sub 2}O). In 2009, electricity generation from biogas represented only 0, 93% of the renewable electricity production in France. An inventory of facilities and a state of the art of the methanization of sewage sludge on wastewater treatment plants with the inhabitant equivalent of more than 30.000 were realized. They were done with bibliography and surveys. In France, 68 installations of sewage sludge methanization were counted. The primary technology used is a mix reactor in which sewage sludge, heated at deg. C 37, are introduced. Biogas is mainly valued to warm those sludges. Electrical valorization is poor, especially on old installations. Anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge is generally accepted by managers, mainly because of its capacity to reduce sewage sludge quantity and odors. Methanization as listed in France is quite basic. It is performed with digestion series modification, with pretreatments or with co-digestion. Given the quantity of sewage sludge which could be digested, France could increase renewable energies via biogas. However this technology is perfectible in many units because biogas is burned in flares. (authors)

  19. Use of leaching chambers for on-site sewage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Marseille, J G; Anderson, B C

    2002-03-01

    An innovative chamber system was installed for on-site sewage treatment beneath an active parking lot at a restaurant near Cornwall, Ontario. The configuration of this prototype system used polyethylene leaching chambers over which wastewater was allowed to trickle. The chambers were vented to the surface to provide direct, passive air transfer. This demonstration project was examined as a cost-effective wastewater treatment alternative for a very constrained site. The leaching chambers were installed over a geotextile-covered sand filter bed. Chamber sidewall contact contributed an additional 50% to the total soil contact area hence justification for a footprint reduction. A labile carbon source (sawdust) was added into one half of the bed to encourage dissimilatory denitrification. Average hydraulic loading was 50 l m(-1) day(-1) (5 cm day(-1)). Treatment rates exceeded more than 4 orders of magnitude removal for E. coli; 90% biochemical oxygen demand; ammonium; and 99% total phosphorus. Nitrate-N on the carbon-amended side averaged 0.6 mg l(-1) compared with 8.6 mg l(-1) on the (non-carbon) control side. This project has demonstrated that effective on-site treatment can be accomplished. Flow and load equalization, pulse dosing, chamber venting, phosphorus precipitation, and denitrification were keys to treatment success. Applications include domestic and commercial sites.

  20. Region 7 Title V facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web map shows the Region 7 Title V facilities (Clean Air Act major sources), any Class I areas within 300 km of R7 States, and any Tribal areas within 50 miles...

  1. The effect of purified sewage discharge from a sewage treatment plant on the physicochemical state of water in the receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanownik Włodzimierz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents changes in the contents of physicochemical indices of the Sudół stream water caused by a discharge of purified municipal sewage from a small mechanical-biological treatment plant with throughput of 300 m3·d−1 and a population equivalent (p.e. – 1,250 people. The discharge of purified sewage caused a worsening of the stream water quality. Most of the studied indices values increased in water below the treatment plant. Almost a 100-fold increase in ammonium nitrogen, 17-fold increase in phosphate concentrations and 12-fold raise in BOD5 concentrations were registered. Due to high values of these indices, the water physicochemical state was below good. Statistical analysis revealed a considerable effect of the purified sewage discharge on the stream water physicochemical state. A statistically significant increase in 10 indices values (BOD5, COD-Mn, EC, TDS, Cl−, Na+, K+, PO43−, N-NH4+ and N-NO2 as well as significant decline in the degree of water saturation with oxygen were noted below the sewage treatment plant. On the other hand, no statistically significant differences between the water indices values were registered between the measurement points localised 150 and 1,000 m below the purified sewage discharge. It evidences a slow process of the stream water self-purification caused by an excessive loading with pollutants originating from the purified sewage discharge.

  2. INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY REPORT FOR THE REACTOR BUILDING, HOT LABORATORY, PRIMARY PUMP HOUSE, AND LAND AREAS AT THE PLUM BROOK REACTOR FACILITY, SANDUSKY, OHIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erika N. Bailey

    2011-10-10

    In 1941, the War Department acquired approximately 9,000 acres of land near Sandusky, Ohio and constructed a munitions plant. The Plum Brook Ordnance Works Plant produced munitions, such as TNT, until the end of World War II. Following the war, the land remained idle until the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics later called the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) obtained 500 acres to construct a nuclear research reactor designed to study the effects of radiation on materials used in space flight. The research reactor was put into operation in 1961 and was the first of fifteen test facilities eventually built by NASA at the Plum Brook Station. By 1963, NASA had acquired the remaining land at Plum Brook for these additional test facilities

  3. Improvement of the management of residual waste in areas without thermal treatment facilities: A life cycle analysis of an Italian management district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maria, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.dimaria@unipg.it [LAR Laboratory, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Via G. Duranti 93, Perugia (Italy); Micale, Caterina; Morettini, Emanuela [LAR Laboratory, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Via G. Duranti 93, Perugia (Italy); Sisani, Luciano [TSA spa, Via Case Sparse 107, Magione (Italy); Damiano, Roberto [GESENU spa, Via della Molinella 7, Perugia (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • LCA analysis of two option for residual waste management. • Exploitation of mechanical physical sorting facility for extracting recyclable from RMSW. • Processing the mechanically sorted organic fraction in bioreactor landfill. • Sensitivity analysis demonstrate high influence for impact assessment of substitution ratio for recycle materials. - Abstract: Starting from an existing waste management district without thermal treatment facilities, two different management scenarios for residual waste were compared by life cycle assessment (LCA). The adoption of a bioreactor landfill for managing the mechanically sorted organic fraction instead of bio-stabilization led to reduction of global warming and fresh water eutrophication by 50% and 10%, respectively. Extraction of recyclables from residual waste led to avoided emissions for particulate matter, acidification and resource depletion impact categories. Marginal energy and the amount of energy recovered from landfill gas marginally affected the LCA results. On the contrary the quality of the recyclables extracted can significantly modify the eco profile of the management schemes.

  4. Defense Waste Processing Facility: Report of task force on options to mitigate the effect of nitrite on DWPF operations. Savannah River Site 200-S Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, D. [ed.; Marek, J.C.

    1992-03-01

    The possibility of accumulating ammonium nitrate (an explosive) as well as organic compounds in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell Vent System was recently discovered. A task force was therefore organized to examine ways to avoid this potential hazard. Of thirty-two processing/engineering options screened, the task force recommended five options, deemed to have the highest technical certainty, for detailed development and evaluation: Radiolysis of nitrite in the tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry feed in a new corrosion-resistant facility. Construction of a Late Washing Facility for precipitate washing before transfer to the DWPF; ``Just-in-Time`` precipitation; Startup Workaround by radiolysis of nitrite in the existing corrosion-resistant Pump Pit tanks; Ammonia venting and organics separation in the DWPF; and, Estimated costs and schedules are included in this report.

  5. Defense Waste Processing Facility: Report of task force on options to mitigate the effect of nitrite on DWPF operations. Savannah River Site 200-S Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, D. [ed.; Marek, J.C.

    1992-03-01

    The possibility of accumulating ammonium nitrate (an explosive) as well as organic compounds in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell Vent System was recently discovered. A task force was therefore organized to examine ways to avoid this potential hazard. Of thirty-two processing/engineering options screened, the task force recommended five options, deemed to have the highest technical certainty, for detailed development and evaluation: Radiolysis of nitrite in the tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry feed in a new corrosion-resistant facility. Construction of a Late Washing Facility for precipitate washing before transfer to the DWPF; ``Just-in-Time`` precipitation; Startup Workaround by radiolysis of nitrite in the existing corrosion-resistant Pump Pit tanks; Ammonia venting and organics separation in the DWPF; and, Estimated costs and schedules are included in this report.

  6. Auditing radiation sterilization facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jeffrey A.

    The diversity of radiation sterilization systems available today places renewed emphasis on the need for thorough Quality Assurance audits of these facilities. Evaluating compliance with Good Manufacturing Practices is an obvious requirement, but an effective audit must also evaluate installation and performance qualification programs (validation_, and process control and monitoring procedures in detail. The present paper describes general standards that radiation sterilization operations should meet in each of these key areas, and provides basic guidance for conducting QA audits of these facilities.

  7. Research and Application Progress of Sewage Source Heat Pump System%污水源热泵系统的研究与应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静; 陈洪斌; 戴晓虎; 何群彪

    2013-01-01

    Sewage heat recovery has got more and more attention.The development of sewage source heat pump technology is important for building energy-saving and consumption reduction.The working principle,characteristics and classification of sewage source heat pump technology as well as the system design were introduced.The development of new heat exchangers,latest progress in technologies of anti-clogging,scale control and anticorrosion were reviewed.The bottleneck for the widespread application of sewage water source heat pump technology was pointed out.The source separation of domestic sewage in residential areas,recovery and reuse of waste heat from grey water (bath and washing sewage) are a prospective developing trend of sewage source heat pump system in future.%污水的能源回收越来越受到关注和重视,开发污水源热泵技术对建筑节能降耗具有重要意义.就污水源热泵技术的工作原理、特点、分类以及系统设计、新型换热器开发、防堵、防垢、防腐蚀技术研究进展等方面进行了介绍,分析了该技术大量推广应用面临的问题,指出居住区生活污水源分离并就近回收利用灰水(洗浴和盥洗废水等)的余热,是污水源热泵系统发展的重要方向.

  8. Oxisol decapitated recovery with green manure and sewage sludge: Effect on growth of Astronium fraxinifolium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto Filho, S. N.; Marchini, D. C.; de Arruda, O. G.; Giácomo, R. G.; Alves, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    Incorrect use of land and large buildings in rural areas are causing changes to it, making them less productive and thus increasing the degraded areas. Techniques aimed at ecological restoration of degraded soils have been investigated. In recovery planning a degraded area, the great challenge to be achieved is the establishment of a A horizon, so that from then on, the process is catalyzed by the biosphere, and there may be other horizons, as the natural conditioning. In this sense the positive changes were investigated in an environment of decapitated Savannah Oxisol, which was removed a layer 8.5 m thick to build a hydroelectric power plant. For recovery, we used a native tree species, green manure, sewage sludge and grass. The studied soil is under human intervention techniques for recovery for seven years. The experimental design was randomized blocks with five treatments and five replications. The treatments were: 1-Control- bare soil (without management), 2-Astronium fraxinifolium Schott; 3-A. fraxinifolium + Canavalia ensiformis; 4- A. fraxinifolium + Raphanus sativus by 2005 was replaced in 2006 by Crotalaria juncea; 5- A. fraxinifolium + Brachiaria decumbens + sewage sludge (60 t ha-1, dry basis). We studied in 2010 and 2011 the development of tree species (stem diameter and plant height), the fresh and dry matter of green manures and B. decumbens. The results were analyzed by performing the variance analysis and Tukey test at 5% probability to compare averages. The rate of plant growth during the periods studied in the treatment with sewage sludge was higher than other treatments, so this is the most appropriate management for the recovery of degraded soil under study.

  9. Auto heated Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion of sewage sludge; Digestion aerobia termofila autosostenida de lodos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia de las Heras, J. L.; Gutierrez, I.

    2002-07-01

    Auto heated Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) is one of the most promising technologies for applying the digested sludge to soil amendment. The system was studied in the 60's and developed mostly in Europe since the 70's. The full-scale facilities improvement ran in parallel to the scientific and legislative worry about the presence of pathogenic organisms both in the raw and the digested sewage sludge. ATAD is usually a two stage aerobic process working in the thermophilic temperature range (40 to 80 degree centigree) without any external heat source; the heat produced by the biochemical exergonic reactions during the aerobic degradation of the organic sludge holds the desired temperature values. A comparison of this system with the existing anaerobic stabilisation processes shows as main advantages a high hygienization capacity, small reactor volume for the same organic loading, is resistant to overloading and temperature shocks, is easily manageable, and is economically feasible for small.medium size populations. This process is specially suitable to fulfill the law requirements imposed by the most demanding countries regarding the application of treated sewage sludge to soil improvement. (Author) 19 refs.

  10. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in raw and treated sewage sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorós, Inmaculada; Moreno, Yolanda; Reyes, Mariela; Moreno-Mesonero, Laura; Alonso, Jose L

    2016-11-01

    Treated sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is commonly used in agriculture as fertilizers and to amend soils. The most significant health hazard for sewage sludge relates to the wide range of pathogenic microorganisms such as protozoa parasites.The objective of this study was to collect quantitative data on Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in the treated sludge in wastewater treatment facilities in Spain. Sludge from five WWTPs with different stabilization processes has been analysed for the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the raw sludge and after the sludge treatment. A composting plant (CP) has also been assessed. After a sedimentation step, sludge samples were processed and (oo)cysts were isolated by immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and detected by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Results obtained in this study showed that Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were present in 26 of the 30 samples (86.6%) of raw sludge samples. In treated sludge samples, (oo)cysts have been observed in all WWTP's analysed (25 samples) with different stabilization treatment (83.3%). Only in samples from the CP no (oo)cysts were detected. This study provides evidence that (oo)cysts are present in sewage sludge-end products from wastewater treatment processes with the negative consequences for public health.

  11. Ashes from oily sewage sludge combustion: chemistry, mineralogy and leaching properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Polc

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current paper the chemical and mineralogical properties of bottom ash and fly ash from oily sewage sludge combustion are investigated. The mineralogical composition and the morphology of ashes were determined by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD in combination with scanning electron microscopy with quantitative energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDX. In addition, a leaching test results are presented to shed light on the potential toxicity of studied materials and their impact on the environment is discussed. Both of the studied materials are final products of thermal oxidation at industrial sludge incinerator. This facility aims to sanitary disposal of mechanical and biological sludge from industrial wastewater treatment plant. Bottom ash and fly ash are relatively stable solid products with slightly different chemical and mineralogical composition that reflects their different origin – burning condition in furnace vs. flues gas cleaning technology. Leaching tests of both mentioned materials were implemented under laboratory conditions. The aim of the laboratory tests was to determine the possibility of the pollutants release into the environment. The data presented herein support the importance of detailed mineralogical and geochemical study for the better understanding of the leaching tests. The obtained results showed that both of the sewage sludge ash samples exceed the criteria for accepting waste in landfilles established for Slovakia.

  12. Ambient air temperature effects on the temperature of sewage sludge composting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qi-fei; CHEN Tong-bin; GAO Ding; HUANG Ze-chun

    2005-01-01

    Using data obtained with a full-scale sewage sludge composting facility, this paper studied the effects of ambient air temperature on the composting temperature with varying volume ratios of sewage sludge and recycled compost to bulking agent. Two volume ratios were examined experimentally, 1: 0: 1 and 3: 1: 2. The results show that composting temperature was influenced by ambient air temperature and the influence was more significant when composting was in the temperature rising process: composting temperature changed 2.4-6.5℃ when ambient air temperature changed 13℃. On the other hand, the influence was not significant when composting was in the high-temperature and/or temperature falling process: composting temperature changed 0.75-1.3℃ when ambient air temperature changed 8-15 ℃. Hysteresis effect was observed in composting temperature's responses to ambient air temperature. When the ventilation capability of pile was excellent(at a volume ratio of 1:0:1), the hysteresis time was short and ranging 1.1-1.2 h. On the contrary, when the proportion of added bulking agent was low, therefore less porosity in the substrate(at a volume ratio of 3:1:2), the hysteresis time was long and ranging 1.9-3.1 h.

  13. Estrogen content and relative performance of Japanese and British sewage treatment plants and their potential impact on endocrine disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Okayasu, Yuji; Suzuki, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    Both the UK and Japan are densely populated islands with relatively short rivers. Therefore, both countries are likely to be highly exposed to contaminants emanating from their human populations. This review considered how effective the different sewage treatment facilities of the two countries are at removing steroid estrogens from the effluent. The methods of estrogen analysis in sewage effluent, the number and importance of different sewage treatment types, and their apparent effectiveness at removing estrogens were all considered. In both countries, the activated sludge treatment was dominant in terms of people served and water discharged. The analytical techniques used by those studying estrogen concentrations in effluents in both countries were broadly similar. Activated sludge plant (ASP) effluent in the UK typically contained around 2 ng/L estradiol (E2) and 8 ng/L estrone (E1), while Japanese ASPs typically reported E2 as below detection, and 10 ng/L E1 in their effluents. When estrogenic bioassays were used in Japan, they typically record an estrogenic potency of 10 ng/L E2 equivalents. Even taking into account ethinylestradiol (EE2) (not found in Japanese effluents), the overall estrogenicity of British sewage effluents would appear to be the same as that of Japanese sewage effluents (around 10 ng/L E2 equivalents). This suggests that the ASPs serving the large urban communities in Japan and the UK would have effluent of similar estrogenic potencies. Less information is available about the more numerous biological (trickling) filter plants (BFP) in the UK and oxygen ditches (OD) in Japan which tend to serve smaller, more rural communities. The available data would suggest that the BFPs are significantly less efficient than the ODs at removing E1. This would suggest that in similar circumstances, British headwaters (where this sewage treatment plant (STP) type is often found) might be more at risk from endocrine disruption than their Japanese counterparts

  14. THE INFLUENCE THE EXTENSIVE GREEN ROOFS ON THE OUTFLOW RAINWATER TO THE SEWAGE SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Maciej Mrowiec; Małgorzata Sobczyk

    2015-01-01

    In times of rapid urbanization and climate change has drawn more attention to stormwater runoff to sewer systems. The phenomenon of flooding in urban areas have become increasingly common as a result of heavy rains. Sewage systems in such a short time are not able to accept such a large amount of rainwater flowing on the site, which we experience the phenomenon of rainfall flowing down the street in excessive amounts. The problem of such phenomena can be solved by the development of green roo...

  15. Newly described human polyomaviruses Merkel Cell, KI and WU are present in urban sewage and may represent potential environmental contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carratala Anna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recently, three new polyomaviruses (KI, WU and Merkel cell polyomavirus have been reported to infect humans. It has also been suggested that lymphotropic polyomavirus, a virus of simian origin, infects humans. KI and WU polyomaviruses have been detected mainly in specimens from the respiratory tract while Merkel cell polyomavirus has been described in a very high percentage of Merkel cell carcinomas. The distribution, excretion level and transmission routes of these viruses remain unknown. Here we analyzed the presence and characteristics of newly described human polyomaviruses in urban sewage and river water in order to assess the excretion level and the potential role of water as a route of transmission of these viruses. Nested-PCR assays were designed for the sensitive detection of the viruses studied and the amplicons obtained were confirmed by sequencing analysis. The viruses were concentrated following a methodology previously developed for the detection of JC and BK human polyomaviruses in environmental samples. JC polyomavirus and human adenoviruses were used as markers of human contamination in the samples. Merkel cell polyomavirus was detected in 7/8 urban sewage samples collected and in 2/7 river water samples. Also one urine sample from a pregnant woman, out of 4 samples analyzed, was positive for this virus. KI and WU polyomaviruses were identified in 1/8 and 2/8 sewage samples respectively. The viral strains detected were highly homologous with other strains reported from several other geographical areas. Lymphotropic polyomavirus was not detected in any of the 13 sewage neither in 9 biosolid/sludge samples analyzed. This is the first description of a virus isolated from sewage and river water with a strong association with cancer. Our data indicate that the Merkel cell polyomavirus is prevalent in the population and that it may be disseminated through the fecal/urine contamination of water. The procedure developed may

  16. On the rheological characteristics of sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vítěz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is focused on characterization of rheological behavior of sewage sludges sampled at different stages of waste water treatment. The main attention was focused on dynamic viscosity dependence on temperature, and shear rate. The sludge samples were examined under temperature ranging from 1 °C to 25 °C and under shear rate ranging from 0.34 s−1 to 68 s−1. Rotary digital viscometer (concentric cylinders geometry was used to perform the reological measurements. The solids content of the sludge samples ranged from 0.43 % to 21.45 % (A and C samples, respectively and ash free dry mass from 56.21 % to 67.80 % (A and B samples, respectively. The tested materials were found to be of non–Newtoninan nature and temperature dependent. Measured data were successfully cha­ra­cte­ri­zed by several mathematical models (Arrhenius, Bingham Plastic, Casson Law, Exponential, Gaussian, and IPC Paste in MATLAB® software with satisfying correlations between experimental and computed results. The best match (R2 = 0.999 was received with use of Gaussian model, in both cases, shear rate and temperature dependence. The results are quite useful e.g. for the purpose of technological equipment design.

  17. 城市河流截污与人工湿地净化实例%Case Study of Urban River Sewage Interception and Constructed Wetland Purification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永森

    2015-01-01

    The methods of sewage interception and constructed-wetland purification were combined and applied to enhance the water quality in the urban river under study which was contaminated by point ∕non-point sources from up-stream villages, towns and farmlands .In the sewage interception section , the interception zoning was applied and auxiliary facilities designed , based on the topographical condition and development sequences .In the wetland purification section , the multi-level subsurface flow wetland and cascade surface flow wetland were applied according to the topographical condition .Proper plants were chosen to ensure normal function and metabolism of the constructed wetland .The designed sewage interception capacity was 1.02 ×104 m3∕d, wetland purification capacity was 3.5 ×104 m3∕d and the surface area of the wetland is 45 hm2 .With the comprehensive effect of interception facilities and constructed wetland , the goal of water quality purification can be reached , meeting the standard requirement of urban river landscape .Also, it can build good water landscape in urban area and improve the eco-environment by giving full play of ecological service functions of the river and wetland .%针对受上游村庄、城镇、农田等点源、面源污染的城市河道,采用截污与人工湿地净化协同的处理方法改善水质。其中,截污环节根据地形与开发时序,合理设置截污区域,设计了配套所需的截污设施;人工湿地净化环节合理利用自然地形,采用多级潜流人工湿地与阶梯多级表面流人工湿地复合的湿地水净化系统,并选取合适的湿地植物,保障人工湿地正常代谢。设计截污能力为1.02×104 m3∕d,人工湿地处理能力为3.5×104 m3∕d,人工湿地面积为45 hm2。经过截污与人工湿地净化协同作用,可基本实现水质净化目标,使其水质达到GB 3838—2002的Ⅳ类标准,不仅有效保障处理水质,更可营造

  18. Geochemistry and magnetic measurements of suspended sediment in urban sewage water vis-à-vis quantification of heavy metal pollution in Ganga and Yamuna Rivers, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakarvorty, Munmun; Dwivedi, Akhil Kumar; Shukla, Anil Dutt; Kumar, Sujeet; Niyogi, Ambalika; Usmani, Mavera; Pati, Jayanta Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Sewage water is becoming a key source of heavy metal toxicity in large river systems worldwide and the two major Himalayan Rivers in India (Ganga and Yamuna) are severely affected. The high population density in the river banks combined with increased anthropogenic and industrial activities is contributing to the heavy metal pollution in these rivers. Geochemical data shows a significant increase in the concentration of all heavy metals (Pb, 48-86 ppm; Zn, 360-834 ppm; V, 45-101 ppm; Ni, 20-143 ppm; Cr, 79-266 ppm; Co, 8.62-22.12 ppm and Mn, 313-603 ppm) in sewage and mixed water (sewage and river water confluence site) samples due to increased effluent discharge from the catchment area. The ΣREE content of sewage water (129 ppm) is lower than the average mixed water samples (142 ppm). However, all the samples show similar REE pattern. The mass magnetic susceptibility (Xlf) values of suspended sediments (28 to 1000 × 10(-8) m(3) kg(-1)) indicate variable concentration of heavy metals. The Xlf values show faint positive correlation with their respective bulk heavy metal contents in a limited sample population. The present study comprising geochemical analysis and first magnetic measurement data of suspended sediments in water samples shows a strongly polluted nature of Ganga and Yamuna Rivers at Allahabad contrary to the previous report mainly caused by overtly polluted city sewage water.

  19. The effect of sewage sludge application on soil properties and willow (Salix sp.) cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniak, Magdalena; Wyrwicka, Anna; Tołoczko, Wojciech; Serwecińska, Liliana; Zieliński, Marek

    2017-05-15

    The aim of the study was to determine the impact of sewage sludge from three wastewater treatment plants of different sizes (small, medium and large) applied in two doses (3 and 9 tons per hectare) on soil properties, determined as the content of organic carbon and humus fractions, bacterial abundance, phytotoxicity and PCDD/PCDF TEQ concentrations. The study also evaluated the impact of this sewage sludge on the biometric and physiological parameters and detoxification reaction of willow (Salix sp.) as a typical crop used for the remediation of soil following sludge application. The cultivation of willow on soil treated with sludge was found to result in a gradual increase of humus fractions, total organic carbon content and bacterial abundance as well as soil properties measured using Lepidium sativum. However, it also produced an initial increase of soil phytotoxicity, indicated by Sinapis alba and Sorghum sacharatum, and PCDD/PCDF Toxic Equivalent (TEQ) concentrations, which then fell during the course of the experiment, particularly in areas planted by willow. Although the soil phytotoxicity and PCDD/PCDF TEQ content of the sewage sludge-amended soil initially increased, sludge application was found to have a positive influence on willow, probably due to its high nutrient and carbon content. The obtained results reveal increases in willow biomass, average leaf surface area and leaf length as well as chlorophyll a+b content. Moreover, a strong decline was found in the activity of the detoxifying enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GSTs), a multifunctional enzyme involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in plants, again demonstrating the used sludge had a positive influence on willow performance.

  20. 44 CFR 331.5 - Production facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Production facilities. 331.5... AND FACILITIES IN LABOR SURPLUS AREAS § 331.5 Production facilities. All Federal departments and... production facilities, including expansion, to the extent that such selection is consistent with existing law...

  1. GIS based water quality indexing of Malad creek, Mumbai (India): an impact of sewage discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Bhattacharyya, Tapas; Joshi, Rucha R; Dhage, S S; Sohony, R A

    2011-04-01

    Malad creek is one of the most heavily polluted water bodies in Mumbai, India. Presently, creek receives wastewater and sewage from open drains and nallahs as well as partially treated wastewater from treatment facilities. The objective of the present study was to assess and classify the water quality zones spatially and temporally based on physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis. For this, GIS based methodology was integrated with water quality indexing, according to National Sanitation Foundation. Nine water quality parameters were considered to generate the indices that represent the overall status of creek water quality. Based on field observations and spatial distribution of water quality, various options were suggested for improvement in water quality of the creek.

  2. Cell-phone based assistance for waterworks/sewage plant maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, T; Nakamichi, K; Hisano, N; Kitamura, M; Miyahara, K

    2006-01-01

    Cell-phones are now incorporating the functions necessary for them to be used as mobile IT devices. In this paper, we present our results of the evaluation of cell-phones as the mobile IT device to assist workers in industrial plants. We use waterworks and sewage plants as examples. By employing techniques to squeeze the SCADA screen on CRT into a small cell-phone LCD, we have made it easier for a plant's field workers to access the information needed for effective maintenance, regardless of location. An idea to link SCADA information and the plant facility information on the cell-phone is also presented. Should an accident or emergency situation arise, these cell-phone-based IT systems can efficiently deliver the latest plant information, thus the worker out in the field can respond to and resolve the emergency.

  3. ZEOLITIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE ASH WITH A FUSION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Latosińska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study shows the results of zeolitization of municipal sewage sludge ash with the indirect fusion method followed by a hydrothermal method. The zeolitization of sewage sludge ash was conducted at the melting temperature of 550°C and the melting time of 60 minutes, crystallization temperatures of 60°C and 90°C, crystallization time of 6 hours and the SSA:NaOH ratio of 1:1.8; 1:1.4. The research of modified sewage sludge ashes included the observation of changes of ash particles surface and the identification of crystalized phases. The zeolitization of sewage sludge ash at the ratio of SSA:NaOH 1.0:1.4 did not cause the formation of zeolite phases. On the other hand, the zeolitization at the ratio of SSA:NaOH 1.0:1.8 resulted in the formation of desired zeolite phases such as zeolite Y (faujasite and hydroxysodalite. The presented method of sewage sludge ash zeolitization allows to obtain highly usable material. Synthesized zeolites may be used as adsorbents and ion exchangers. They can be potentially used to remove heavy metals as well as ammonia from water and wastewater.

  4. Effects of discharges from the Starkville Sewage Treatment Plant on the Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted this study in response to concerns that releases of raw sewage from the Starkville sewage treatment plant were adversely...

  5. Metal partitioning and toxicity in sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson-Ekvall, C.E.A.; Morrison, G.M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Sanitary Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Over 20 years of research has failed to provide an unequivocal correlation between chemically extracted metals in sewage sludge applied to agricultural soil and either metal toxicity to soil organisms or crop uptake. Partitioning of metals between phases and species can provide a better estimation of mobility and potential bioavailability. Partition coefficients, K{sub D} for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in a sludge/water solution were determined considering the sludge/water solution as a three-phase system (particulate, colloidal and electrochemically available) over a range of pH values, ionic strengths, contact times and sludge/water ratios and compared with the KD values for sludge/water solution as a two-phase system (aqueous phase and particulate phase). Partitioning results were interpreted in terms of metal mobility from sludge to colloids and in terms of potential bioavailability from colloids to electrochemically available. The results show that both mobility and potential bioavailability are high for Zn, while Cu partitions into the mobile colloidal phase which is relatively non-bioavailable. Lead is almost completely bound to the solid phase, and is neither mobile nor bioavailable. A comparison between K, values and toxicity shows that Zn in sludge is more toxic than can be accounted for in the aqueous phase, which can be due to synergistic effects between sludge organics and Zn. Copper demonstrates clear synergism which can be attributed to the formation of lipid-soluble Cu complexes with known sludge components such as LAS, caffeine, myristic acid and nonylphenol.

  6. Growth, physiology and yield of durum wheat (Triticum durum) treated with sewage sludge under water stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjabi, Sonia; Kribaa, Mohammed; Chenchouni, Haroun

    2015-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid areas, low soil fertility and water deficit considerably limit crop production. The use of sewage sludge as an organic amendment could contribute to the improvement of soil fertility and hence the agronomic production. The study aims to highlight the behaviour of durum wheat to the application of sewage sludge associated with water stress. The assessment focused on morphophysiological parameters of the wheat plant and yield. Under greenhouse conditions, the variety Mohamed Ben Bachir was treated by four water stress levels (100 %, 80 %, 50 % and 30 %). Each stress level comprised five fertilizer treatments: 20, 50 and 100 t/ha of dry sludge, 35 kg/ha of urea, and a control with no fertilization. Results revealed a significant loss in water content and chlorophyll a in leaves. Water stress negatively affected the development of wheat plants by reducing significantly seed yield, leaf area and biomass produced. Plant's responses to water stress manifested by an accumulation of proline and a decrease in total phosphorus. However, the increasing doses of sewage sludge limited the effect of water stress. Our findings showed an increase in the amount of chlorophyll pigments, leaf area, total phosphorus, biomass and yield. In addition, excessive accumulation of proline (1.11 ± 1.03 µg/g DM) was recorded as a result of the high concentration of sludge (100 t/ha DM). The application of sewage sludge is beneficial for the wheat crop, but the high accumulation of proline in plants treated with high dose of sludge suggests to properly consider this fact. The application of sludge should be used with caution in soils where water is limited. Because the combined effect of these two factors could result in a fatal osmotic stress to crop development.

  7. Recreational Areas, Heard County, Georgia Recreational Facilities Map, Published in 2003, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Chattahoochee-Flint Regional Development.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Recreational Areas dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2003. It is described as...

  8. Recreational Areas, Recreational facilities in Tift County, GA, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Recreational Areas dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2006. It is described as...

  9. Thermal Mode of Tanks for Storage Fuel of Thermal Power Plants and Boiler with the Influence of Engineering Facilities in the Area of their Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polovnikov, V. Yu.; Makhsutbek, F. T.; Ozhikenova, Zh. F.

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes the numerical modeling of heat transfer in the area placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler with the influence of engineering construction. We have established that the presence of engineering structures in the area of placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler have little effect on the change of heat loss.

  10. Recycling of sewage in Swedish municipalities - Policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederberg, H.

    1997-12-31

    The construction of sewage treatment plants, which increased dramatically during the sixties in Sweden, was based on the idea that sewage is a waste, despite the fact that it contains considerable amounts of nourishment. Environmental research today, focuses more and more on recycling and on the potential resource inherent in sewage. This chapter deals with how to manage a change from problem elimination to recycling of resources, and discuss such from an institutional perspective. A shift towards recycling implies a shift of techniques, decision-makers and process strategies. Implementation of recycling will need strategic principles, and thereby results from research focusing common property resource management can be used in the policy process 32 refs, 5 figs

  11. Bioleaching of heavy metals from sewage sludge using Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ye-Ming; Lin, Hong-Yan; Wang, Qing-Ping; Chen, Zu-Liang

    2010-11-01

    Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans was isolated from sewage sludge using the incubation in the Waksman liquor medium and the inoculation in Waksman solid plate. It was found that the optimum conditions of the bioleaching included solid concentration 2%, sulfur concentration 5 gṡL-1 and cell concentration 10%. The removal efficiency of Cr, Cu, Pb and Zh in sewage sludge, which was obtained from waste treatment plant, Jinshan, Fuzhou, was 43.65%, 96.24%, 41.61% and 96.50% in the period of 4˜10 days under the optimum conditions, respectively. After processing using the proposed techniques, the heavy metals in sewage sludge did meet the requirement the standards of nation.

  12. Experimental-based Modelling and Simulation of Water Hydraulic Mechatronics Test Facilities for Motion Control and Operation in Environmental Sensitive Applications` Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Pobedza, J.; Sobczyk, A.

    2003-01-01

    proportional valves and servo actuators for motion control and power transmission undertaken in co-operation by Technical University, DTU and Cracow University of Technology, CUT. The results of this research co-operation include engineering design and test of simulation models compared with two mechatronic......The paper presents experimental-based modelling, simulation, analysis and design of water hydraulic actuators for motion control of machines, lifts, cranes and robots. The contributions includes results from on-going research projects on fluid power and mechatronics based on tap water hydraulic...... test rig facilities powered by environmental friendly water hydraulic servo actuator system. Test rigs with measurement and data acquisition system were designed and build up with tap water hydraulic components of the Danfoss Nessie® product family. This paper presents selected experimental...

  13. 城市污泥好氧堆肥肥料对绿化土壤特性和香樟树生长的影响%Effects on Properties of Green Areas Soil and Growth of Cinnamomum Hupehanum after Application of Aerobic Compost Fertilizer with Sewage Sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海星; 沈伟

    2011-01-01

    采用温室盆栽试验的方法,研究了城市污泥好氧堆肥对绿化土壤化学特性、香樟树生长、重金属含量的影响.试验共设6个处理过程,CK代表对照处理(供试土壤),施用10%、15%、20%、25%、30%的污泥.结果表明:随着污泥比例的增加,土壤有机质、全氮、全磷明显增加,pH值明显降低.空白处理中含有的铜、锌、铬、铅随着污泥添加量的增加而逐步升高,锌和铜的含量增加最为明显.香樟在污泥25%、30%比例时,叶绿素含量、株高达最大值.香樟树对锌元素有较强的富集作用,对铜的吸收仅低于锌.总体而言,污泥施用后,可明显提高绿化土壤有机质及全氮全磷含量.%An experiment using pots in greenhouse was conducted to study the effects of sewage sludge (MSS) on soil chemical properties, growth of cinnamomum hupehanum and heavy metal contents in cinnamomum hupehanum. The experiment made six treatments:Control (no application of MSS), percentage of MSS as follows: 10 %, 15 %, 20 %, 25 %, 30 %, respectively. Results showed that with the increase of MSS, soil organic carbon, TN and TP were significantly increased, while pH was significantly decreased. Cu, Zn, Cr and Rb increased with the increasing of MSS dosage, in which Zn and Cu increased significantly. Chlorophyll contents in leaves and growth height of cinnamomum hupehanum reaches the maximum at 25 % and 30% sewage sludge content. The enrichment of heavy metals in cinnarnomum hupehanum first is Zn,then Cu. In a word, the results indicats that the application of MSS can obviously increase soil organic carbon and the contents of TN and TP.

  14. Biological Composition of Sewage Sludge in the Aspect of Threats to the Natural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bień January

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the prerequisites for sustainable development is integrated waste management, including sewage sludge. Besides its good fertilization properties, sewage sludge, which is an inevitable by-product of sewage treatment, accumulates toxic chemical substances and dangerous pathogenic and toxicogenic organisms. Uncontrolled introduction of sewage sludge into soil might pose a serious threat to food chain and natural soil microflora. This in effect might disturb the ecological balance in a particular ecosystem. This study presents author’s own investigations of the sanitary conditions of sewage sludge and the conditions after the processes of aerobic and anaerobic stabilization. The investigated sewage sludge originated from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The sewage sludge samples were transferred onto proliferation and diagnostic media. The results of the analysis obtained in this study confirmed that sewage sludge is a material which is rich in microorganisms, including pathogenic bacterial species such as: Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Mycological tests demonstrated that sewage sludge is a material which is conducive to proliferation of yeast-like and mould-like fungi, among which both pathogenic and toxinogenic species can be present. Quantitative analysis of the investigated sewage sludge demonstrated that the processes of stabilization reduce the content of microorganisms but they do not guarantee product safety in sanitary terms. A huge variability and variety of biological composition points to the need for further research in the field of sanitary characteristics of sewage sludge and survival rate in microorganisms from different types of sewage sludge.

  15. Ash transformation and deposition behavior during co-firing biomass with sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Liang; Wu, Hao; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    to sewage sludge addition. However, the ash deposition propensity decreased significantly. In addition, the content of water soluble K and Cl in the deposits reduced as a result of sewage sludge addition. The results from present work suggest co-firing of sewage sludge could alleviate deposit formation...

  16. Vivianite as an important iron phosphate precipitate in sewage treatment plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilfert, P.; Mandalidis, A.; Dugulan, A.I.; Goubitz, K.; Korving, L.; Temmink, H.; Witkamp, G.J.; Loosdrecht, Van M.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an important element for modern sewage treatment, inter alia to remove phosphorus from sewage. However, phosphorus recovery from iron phosphorus containing sewage sludge, without incineration, is not yet economical. We believe, increasing the knowledge about iron-phosphorus speciation in

  17. Efficient sewage pre-concentration with combined coagulation microfiltration for organic matter recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Zhengyu; Gong, Hui; Temmink, Hardy; Nie, Haifeng; Wu, Jing; Zuo, Jiane; Wang, Kaijun

    2016-01-01

    This study proposed an efficient way of direct sewage pre-concentration by a combined coagulation microfiltration (CCM) system and an optimal operational strategy of aeration. Compared to two typical technologies for sewage pre-concentration, i.e. direct sewage microfiltration (DSM) and continuou

  18. Detection and distribution of rotavirus in raw sewage and creeks in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehnert, D.U.; Stewien, K.E. (Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil))

    1993-01-01

    Rotavirus invection is an important cause of hospitalization and mortality of infants and children in developing countries, especially where the water supply and sewage disposal systems are in precarious conditions. This report describes the detection, quantitation, and distribution of rotaviruses in domestic sewage and sewage polluted creeks in the city of San Paulo. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. Vivianite as an important iron phosphate precipitate in sewage treatment plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilfert, P.; Mandalidis, A.; Dugulan, A.I.; Goubitz, K.; Korving, L.; Temmink, H.; Witkamp, G.J.; Loosdrecht, Van M.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an important element for modern sewage treatment, inter alia to remove phosphorus from sewage. However, phosphorus recovery from iron phosphorus containing sewage sludge, without incineration, is not yet economical. We believe, increasing the knowledge about iron-phosphorus speciation in

  20. Presence and destruction of tubercle bacilli in sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JENSEN, K E

    1954-01-01

    The author examined the sewage from 5 towns with tuberculosis sanatoria and from one institution for the care of the feeble-minded, which had a tuberculosis ward, for the presence of tubercle bacilli. The 6 effluents were treated in biological-purification plants and average samples taken. These were centrifuged, and the sediment treated for 1 hour at 37 degrees C with 4% NaOH before inoculation into guinea-pigs. Tubercle bacilli were demonstrated in the influent to all the plants and in the digested sludge of all those operating on sewage where the ratio of infective patients to all persons connected with the plant was up to 1:600. Experiments with cultivated tubercle bacilli showed that centrifuging of sewage resulted in only an insignificant loss of bacilli, but that NaOH treatment caused a loss of over 99%.After consideration of the risk of infection to both man and cattle from the sewage of tuberculosis institutions, the author reports on his own studies on the killing of tubercle bacilli in sewage. It took about 11(1/2)-15 months before tubercle bacilli could no longer be demonstrated in sludge that had been kept on the drying beds. The addition of 10 mg of chlorine per litre of biologically purified effluent from an activated-sludge plant was found effectively to destroy tubercle bacilli. Disinfection of sludge was also carried out with 0.5% lysol and 0.1%-0.2% formol; 3.1% copper sulfate proved ineffective.The author concludes that the disinfection of sewage from tuberculosis institutions presents no special difficulties, but that work on this subject in different countries should be co-ordinated in an effort to improve plant and reduce costs.