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Sample records for facilitating toxin-oligomer formation

  1. What Do They Understand? Using Technology to Facilitate Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitten, Carolyn; Jacobbe, Tim; Jacobbe, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Formative assessment is so important to inform teachers' planning. A discussion of the benefits of using technology to facilitate formative assessment explains how four primary school teachers adopted three different apps to make their formative assessment more meaningful and useful.

  2. Connected Classroom Technology Facilitates Multiple Components of Formative Assessment Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Melissa L.; Irving, Karen E.

    2015-02-01

    Formative assessment has been demonstrated to result in increased student achievement across a variety of educational contexts. When using formative assessment strategies, teachers engage students in instructional tasks that allow the teacher to uncover levels of student understanding so that the teacher may change instruction accordingly. Tools that support the implementation of formative assessment strategies are therefore likely to enhance student achievement. Connected classroom technologies (CCTs) include a family of devices that show promise in facilitating formative assessment. By promoting the use of interactive student tasks and providing both teachers and students with rapid and accurate data on student learning, CCT can provide teachers with necessary evidence for making instructional decisions about subsequent lessons. In this study, the experiences of four middle and high school science teachers in their first year of implementing the TI-Navigator™ system, a specific type of CCT, are used to characterize the ways in which CCT supports the goals of effective formative assessment. We present excerpts of participant interviews to demonstrate the alignment of CCT with several main phases of the formative assessment process. CCT was found to support implementation of a variety of instructional tasks that generate evidence of student learning for the teacher. The rapid aggregation and display of student learning evidence provided teachers with robust data on which to base subsequent instructional decisions.

  3. CLIP-170 facilitates the formation of kinetochore-microtubule attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Marvin E; Galjart, Niels; van Vugt, Marcel A T M; Medema, René H

    2006-01-11

    CLIP-170 is a microtubule 'plus end tracking' protein involved in several microtubule-dependent processes in interphase. At the onset of mitosis, CLIP-170 localizes to kinetochores, but at metaphase, it is no longer detectable at kinetochores. Although RNA interference (RNAi) experiments have suggested an essential role for CLIP-170 during mitosis, the molecular function of CLIP-170 in mitosis has not yet been revealed. Here, we used a combination of high-resolution microscopy and RNAi-mediated depletion to study the function of CLIP-170 in mitosis. We found that CLIP-170 dynamically localizes to the outer most part of unattached kinetochores and to the ends of growing microtubules. In addition, we provide evidence that a pool of CLIP-170 is transported along kinetochore-microtubules by the dynein/dynactin complex. Interference with CLIP-170 expression results in defective chromosome congression and diminished kinetochore-microtubule attachments, but does not detectibly affect microtubule dynamics or kinetochore-microtubule stability. Taken together, our results indicate that CLIP-170 facilitates the formation of kinetochore-microtubule attachments, possibly through direct capture of microtubules at the kinetochore.

  4. Connected Classroom Technology Facilitates Multiple Components of Formative Assessment Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Melissa L.; Irving, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    Formative assessment has been demonstrated to result in increased student achievement across a variety of educational contexts. When using formative assessment strategies, teachers engage students in instructional tasks that allow the teacher to uncover levels of student understanding so that the teacher may change instruction accordingly. Tools…

  5. Facilitating participation in formative evaluation supported by effect map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granlien, Maren Sander

    2009-01-01

    designed effect map. The purpose of the effect map is twofold: a) To encourage user participation in the early activities of formative evaluation b) The effects specified can be used as formative evaluation measures and guidance in the process of improving the system. The evaluation approach and the effect...

  6. Coexistence facilitates interspecific biofilm formation in complex microbial communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke; Røder, Henriette Lyng; Russel, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    , the underlying role of fundamental ecological factors, specifically coexistence and phylogenetic history, in biofilm formation remains unclear. This study examines how social interactions affect biofilm formation in multi-species co-cultures from five diverse environments. We found prevalence of increased......Social interactions in which bacteria respond to one another by modifying their phenotype are central determinants of microbial communities. It is known that interspecific interactions influence the biofilm phenotype of bacteria; a phenotype that is central to the fitness of bacteria. However...

  7. Sleep Spindles as Facilitators of Memory Formation and Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades important progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of sleep spindle generation. At the same time a physiological role of sleep spindles is starting to be revealed. Behavioural studies in humans and animals have found significant correlations between the recall performance in different learning tasks and the amount of sleep spindles in the intervening sleep. Concomitant neurophysiological experiments showed a close relationship between sleep spindles and other sleep related EEG rhythms as well as a relationship between sleep spindles and synaptic plasticity. Together, there is growing evidence from several disciplines in neuroscience for a participation of sleep spindles in memory formation and learning.

  8. HSPB1 facilitates the formation of non-centrosomal microtubules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Almeida-Souza

    Full Text Available The remodeling capacity of microtubules (MT is essential for their proper function. In mammals, MTs are predominantly formed at the centrosome, but can also originate from non-centrosomal sites, a process that is still poorly understood. We here show that the small heat shock protein HSPB1 plays a role in the control of non-centrosomal MT formation. The HSPB1 expression level regulates the balance between centrosomal and non-centrosomal MTs. The HSPB1 protein can be detected specifically at sites of de novo forming non-centrosomal MTs, while it is absent from the centrosomes. In addition, we show that HSPB1 binds preferentially to the lattice of newly formed MTs in vitro, suggesting that its function occurs by stabilizing MT seeds. Our findings open new avenues for the understanding of the role of HSPB1 in the development, maintenance and protection of cells with specialized non-centrosomal MT arrays.

  9. Fasting launches CRTC to facilitate long-term memory formation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yukinori; Masuda, Tomoko; Naganos, Shintaro; Matsuno, Motomi; Ueno, Kohei; Miyashita, Tomoyuki; Horiuchi, Junjiro; Saitoe, Minoru

    2013-01-25

    Canonical aversive long-term memory (LTM) formation in Drosophila requires multiple spaced trainings, whereas appetitive LTM can be formed after a single training. Appetitive LTM requires fasting prior to training, which increases motivation for food intake. However, we found that fasting facilitated LTM formation in general; aversive LTM formation also occurred after single-cycle training when mild fasting was applied before training. Both fasting-dependent LTM (fLTM) and spaced training-dependent LTM (spLTM) required protein synthesis and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) activity. However, spLTM required CREB activity in two neural populations--mushroom body and DAL neurons--whereas fLTM required CREB activity only in mushroom body neurons. fLTM uses the CREB coactivator CRTC, whereas spLTM uses the coactivator CBP. Thus, flies use distinct LTM machinery depending on their hunger state.

  10. X-Eye: A reference format for eye tracking data to facilitate analyses across databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Stefan; Savoy, Florian M.; Subramanian, Ramanathan

    2014-02-01

    Datasets of images annotated with eye tracking data constitute important ground truth for the development of saliency models, which have applications in many areas of electronic imaging. While comparisons and reviews of saliency models abound, similar comparisons among the eye tracking databases themselves are rare. In an earlier paper, we reviewed the content and purpose of over two dozen databases available in the public domain and discussed their commonalities and differences. A major issue is that the formats of the various datasets vary a lot owing to the nature of tools used for eye movement recordings, and often specialized code is required to use the data for further analysis. In this paper, we therefore propose a common reference format for eye tracking data, together with conversion routines for 16 existing image eye tracking databases to that format. Furthermore, we conduct a few analyses on these datasets as examples of what X-Eye facilitates.

  11. Chitosan facilitates structure formation of the salivary gland by regulating the basement membrane components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsung-Lin; Hsiao, Ya-Chuan

    2015-10-01

    Tissue structure is important for inherent physiological function and should be recapitulated during tissue engineering for regenerative purposes. The salivary gland is a branched organ that is responsible for saliva secretion and regulation. The salivary glands develop from epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, and depend on the support of the basement membrane (BM). Chitosan-based biomaterials have been demonstrated to be competent in facilitating the formation of salivary gland tissue structure. However, the underlying mechanisms have remained elusive. In the developing submandibular gland (SMG), the chitosan effect was found to diminish when collagen and laminin were removed from cultured SMG explants. Chitosan increased the expression of BM components including collagen, laminin, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan, and also facilitated BM components and the corresponding receptors to be expressed in tissue-specific patterns beneficial for SMG branching. The chitosan effect decreased when either laminin components or receptors were inhibited, as well when the downstream signaling was blocked. Our results revealed that chitosan promotes salivary glands branching through the BM. By regulating BM components and receptors, chitosan efficiently stimulated downstream signaling to facilitate salivary gland branching. The present study revealed the underlying mechanism of the chitosan effect in engineering SMG structure formation.

  12. HCF-1 self-association via an interdigitated Fn3 structure facilitates transcriptional regulatory complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jihye; Lammers, Fabienne; Herr, Winship; Song, Ji-Joon

    2012-10-23

    Host-cell factor 1 (HCF-1) is an unusual transcriptional regulator that undergoes a process of proteolytic maturation to generate N- (HCF-1(N)) and C- (HCF-1(C)) terminal subunits noncovalently associated via self-association sequence elements. Here, we present the crystal structure of the self-association sequence 1 (SAS1) including the adjacent C-terminal HCF-1 nuclear localization signal (NLS). SAS1 elements from each of the HCF-1(N) and HCF-1(C) subunits form an interdigitated fibronectin type 3 (Fn3) tandem repeat structure. We show that the C-terminal NLS recruited by the interdigitated SAS1 structure is required for effective formation of a transcriptional regulatory complex: the herpes simplex virus VP16-induced complex. Thus, HCF-1(N)-HCF-1(C) association via an integrated Fn3 structure permits an NLS to facilitate formation of a transcriptional regulatory complex.

  13. Transcription factor ABF-1 suppresses plasma cell differentiation but facilitates memory B cell formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yi-Kai; Lin, I-Ying; Su, Shin-Tang; Wang, Kuan-Hsiung; Yang, Shii-Yi; Tsai, Dong-Yan; Hsieh, Yi-Ting; Lin, Kuo-I

    2014-09-01

    Ag-primed B cells that result from an immune response can form either memory B cells or Ab-secreting plasma cells; however, the molecular machinery that controls this cellular fate is poorly understood. In this study, we show that activated B cell factor-1 (ABF-1), which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional repressor, participates in this regulation. ABF-1 was prevalently expressed in purified memory B cells and induced by T follicular helper cell-mediated signals. ABF-1 expression declined by the direct repression of B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 during differentiation. Ectopic expression of ABF-1 reduced the formation of Ab-secreting cells in an in vitro differentiation system of human memory B cells. Accordingly, knockdown of ABF-1 potentiates the formation of Ab-secreting cells. A transgenic mouse that expresses inducible ABF-1 in a B cell-specific manner was generated to demonstrate that the formation of germinal center and memory B cells was augmented by induced ABF-1 in an immune response, whereas the Ag-specific plasma cell response was dampened. This effect was associated with the ability of ABF-1 to limit cell proliferation. Together, our results demonstrate that ABF-1 facilitates formation of memory B cells but prevents plasma cell differentiation.

  14. DHX36 enhances RIG-I signaling by facilitating PKR-mediated antiviral stress granule formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Seung Yoo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available RIG-I is a DExD/H-box RNA helicase and functions as a critical cytoplasmic sensor for RNA viruses to initiate antiviral interferon (IFN responses. Here we demonstrate that another DExD/H-box RNA helicase DHX36 is a key molecule for RIG-I signaling by regulating double-stranded RNA (dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR activation, which has been shown to be essential for the formation of antiviral stress granule (avSG. We found that DHX36 and PKR form a complex in a dsRNA-dependent manner. By forming this complex, DHX36 facilitates dsRNA binding and phosphorylation of PKR through its ATPase/helicase activity. Using DHX36 KO-inducible MEF cells, we demonstrated that DHX36 deficient cells showed defect in IFN production and higher susceptibility in RNA virus infection, indicating the physiological importance of this complex in host defense. In summary, we identify a novel function of DHX36 as a critical regulator of PKR-dependent avSG to facilitate viral RNA recognition by RIG-I-like receptor (RLR.

  15. DHX36 enhances RIG-I signaling by facilitating PKR-mediated antiviral stress granule formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ji-Seung; Takahasi, Kiyohiro; Ng, Chen Seng; Ouda, Ryota; Onomoto, Koji; Yoneyama, Mitsutoshi; Lai, Janice Ching; Lattmann, Simon; Nagamine, Yoshikuni; Matsui, Tadashi; Iwabuchi, Kuniyoshi; Kato, Hiroki; Fujita, Takashi

    2014-03-01

    RIG-I is a DExD/H-box RNA helicase and functions as a critical cytoplasmic sensor for RNA viruses to initiate antiviral interferon (IFN) responses. Here we demonstrate that another DExD/H-box RNA helicase DHX36 is a key molecule for RIG-I signaling by regulating double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase (PKR) activation, which has been shown to be essential for the formation of antiviral stress granule (avSG). We found that DHX36 and PKR form a complex in a dsRNA-dependent manner. By forming this complex, DHX36 facilitates dsRNA binding and phosphorylation of PKR through its ATPase/helicase activity. Using DHX36 KO-inducible MEF cells, we demonstrated that DHX36 deficient cells showed defect in IFN production and higher susceptibility in RNA virus infection, indicating the physiological importance of this complex in host defense. In summary, we identify a novel function of DHX36 as a critical regulator of PKR-dependent avSG to facilitate viral RNA recognition by RIG-I-like receptor (RLR).

  16. Ostryopsis davidiana seedlings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi facilitate formation of mycorrhizae on Pinus tabulaeformis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shu-Lan; Li, Guo-Lei; Liu, Yong; Kasten Dumroese, R; Lv, Rui-Heng

    2009-08-01

    Reforestation in China is important for reversing anthropogenic activities that degrade the environment. Pinus tabulaeformis is desired for these activities, but survival and growth of seedlings can be hampered by lack of ectomycorrhizae. When outplanted in association with Ostryopsis davidiana plants on reforestation sites, P. tabulaeformis seedlings become mycorrhizal and survival and growth are enhanced; without O. davidiana, pines often remain without mycorrhizae and performance is poorer. To better understand this relationship, we initiated an experiment using rhizoboxes that restricted root and tested the hypothesis that O. davidiana seedlings facilitated ectomycorrhizae formation on P. tabulaeformis seedlings through hyphal contact. We found that without O. davidiana seedlings, inocula of five indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi were unable to grow and associate with P. tabulaeformis seedlings. Inocula placed alongside O. davidiana seedlings, however, resulted in enhanced growth and nutritional status of O. davidiana and P. tabulaeformis seedlings, and also altered rhizosphere pH and phosphatase activity. We speculate that these species form a common mycorrhizal network and this association enhances outplanting performance of P. tabulaeformis seedlings used for forest restoration.

  17. Interaction of DDP with bovine serum albumin facilitates formation of the protein dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaya, I.; Chikhirzhina, E.; Polyanichko, A.

    2017-07-01

    Interaction of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with cis- and trans- isomers of diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (DDP) was studied using electrophoretic analysis and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The application of FTIR spectroscopy allowed us to study the DDP/BSA complexes in D2O solutions using protein concentrations close to the physiological level (30 mg/ml) with platinum to BSA molar ratios in the range of 1:1 to 150:1. Under these conditions we have observed formation of relatively weak non-covalent intermolecular protein complexes, which dominated over the BSA-Pt-BSA crosslinks. Analysis of the IR spectra in the region of amide I‧ band revealed that the fraction of the α-helical regions in the protein decreases from ∼65% to approximately 55% and 48% in the complexes with cis- and trans-DDP respectively, while the amount of extended β-structures increases from ∼15 to 20% in BSA to 20-30% in its complexes with cis-DDP and up to 35-40% in trans-DDP/BSA complexes. Based on the data obtained we conclude that multiple intermolecular interactions take place in the solution facilitated by the changes in the BSA secondary structure, induced by DDP binding.

  18. Facilitation of peptide fibre formation by arginine-phosphate/carboxylate interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Krishna Prasad; Sandeep Verma

    2008-01-01

    This study describes peptide fibre formation in a hexapeptide, derived from the V3 loop of HIV-1, mediated by the interactions between arginine residues and phosphate/carboxylate anions. This charge neutralization approach was further confirmed when the deletion of arginine residue from the hexapeptide sequence resulted in fibre formation, which was studied by a combination of microscopic techniques.

  19. Extracellular DNA facilitates the formation of functional amyloids in Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Kelly; Ganesan, Mahesh; Payne, David E; Solomon, Michael J; Boles, Blaise R

    2016-01-01

    Persistent staphylococcal infections often involve surface-associated communities called biofilms. Staphylococcus aureus biofilm development is mediated by the co-ordinated production of the biofilm matrix, which can be composed of polysaccharides, extracellular DNA (eDNA) and proteins including amyloid fibers. The nature of the interactions between matrix components, and how these interactions contribute to the formation of matrix, remain unclear. Here we show that the presence of eDNA in S. aureus biofilms promotes the formation of amyloid fibers. Conditions or mutants that do not generate eDNA result in lack of amyloids during biofilm growth despite the amyloidogeneic subunits, phenol soluble modulin peptides, being produced. In vitro studies revealed that the presence of DNA promotes amyloid formation by PSM peptides. Thus, this work exposes a previously unacknowledged interaction between biofilm matrix components that furthers our understanding of functional amyloid formation and S. aureus biofilm biology.

  20. Antibodies mediate formation of neutrophil extracellular traps in the middle ear and facilitate secondary pneumococcal otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Kirsty R; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; Langereis, Jeroen D; Chew, Keng Yih; Job, Emma R; Armitage, Charles W; Hatcher, Brandon; Fujihashi, Kohtaro; Reading, Patrick C; Hermans, Peter W; Wijburg, Odilia L; Diavatopoulos, Dimitri A

    2014-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) (a middle ear infection) is a common childhood illness that can leave some children with permanent hearing loss. OM can arise following infection with a variety of different pathogens, including a coinfection with influenza A virus (IAV) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus). We and others have demonstrated that coinfection with IAV facilitates the replication of pneumococci in the middle ear. Specifically, we used a mouse model of OM to show that IAV facilitates the outgrowth of S. pneumoniae in the middle ear by inducing middle ear inflammation. Here, we seek to understand how the host inflammatory response facilitates bacterial outgrowth in the middle ear. Using B cell-deficient infant mice, we show that antibodies play a crucial role in facilitating pneumococcal replication. We subsequently show that this is due to antibody-dependent neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation in the middle ear, which, instead of clearing the infection, allows the bacteria to replicate. We further demonstrate the importance of these NETs as a potential therapeutic target through the transtympanic administration of a DNase, which effectively reduces the bacterial load in the middle ear. Taken together, these data provide novel insight into how pneumococci are able to replicate in the middle ear cavity and induce disease.

  1. Reactive microglia and macrophage facilitate the formation of Müller glia-derived retinal progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andy J; Zelinka, Christopher; Gallina, Donika; Scott, Melissa A; Todd, Levi

    2014-10-01

    In retinas where Müller glia have been stimulated to become progenitor cells, reactive microglia are always present. Thus, we investigated how the activation or ablation of microglia/macrophage influences the formation of Müller glia-derived progenitor cells (MGPCs) in the retina in vivo. Intraocular injections of the Interleukin-6 (IL6) stimulated the reactivity of microglia/macrophage, whereas other types of retinal glia appear largely unaffected. In acutely damaged retinas where all of the retinal microglia/macrophage were ablated, the formation of proliferating MGPCs was greatly diminished. With the microglia ablated in damaged retinas, levels of Notch and related genes were unchanged or increased, whereas levels of ascl1a, TNFα, IL1β, complement component 3 (C3) and C3a receptor were significantly reduced. In the absence of retinal damage, the combination of insulin and Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) failed to stimulate the formation of MGPCs when the microglia/macrophage were ablated. In addition, intraocular injections of IL6 and FGF2 stimulated the formation of MGPCs in the absence of retinal damage, and this generation of MGPCs was blocked when the microglia/macrophage were absent. We conclude that the activation of microglia and/or infiltrating macrophage contributes to the formation of proliferating MGPCs, and these effects may be mediated by components of the complement system and inflammatory cytokines.

  2. Model Building to Facilitate Understanding of Holliday Junction and Heteroduplex Formation, and Holliday Junction Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajah, Geeta; Selvarajah, Susila

    2016-01-01

    Students frequently expressed difficulty in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in chromosomal recombination. Therefore, we explored alternative methods for presenting the two concepts of the double-strand break model: Holliday junction and heteroduplex formation, and Holliday junction resolution. In addition to a lecture and…

  3. Bax Activation Initiates the Assembly of a Multimeric Catalyst that Facilitates Bax Pore Formation in Mitochondrial Outer Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnareva, Yulia; Andreyev, Alexander Y.; Kuwana, Tomomi; Newmeyer, Donald D.

    2012-01-01

    Bax/Bak-mediated mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) is essential for “intrinsic” apoptotic cell death. Published studies used synthetic liposomes to reveal an intrinsic pore-forming activity of Bax, but it is unclear how other mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) proteins might facilitate this function. We carefully analyzed the kinetics of Bax-mediated pore formation in isolated MOMs, with some unexpected results. Native MOMs were more sensitive than liposomes to added Bax, and MOMs displayed a lag phase not observed with liposomes. Heat-labile MOM proteins were required for this enhanced response. A two-tiered mathematical model closely fit the kinetic data: first, Bax activation promotes the assembly of a multimeric complex, which then catalyzes the second reaction, Bax-dependent pore formation. Bax insertion occurred immediately upon Bax addition, prior to the end of the lag phase. Permeabilization kinetics were affected in a reciprocal manner by [cBid] and [Bax], confirming the “hit-and-run” hypothesis of cBid-induced direct Bax activation. Surprisingly, MOMP rate constants were linearly related to [Bax], implying that Bax acts non-cooperatively. Thus, the oligomeric catalyst is distinct from Bax. Moreover, contrary to common assumption, pore formation kinetics depend on Bax monomers, not oligomers. Catalyst formation exhibited a sharp transition in activation energy at ∼28°C, suggesting a role for membrane lipid packing. Furthermore, catalyst formation was strongly inhibited by chemical antagonists of the yeast mitochondrial fission protein, Dnm1. However, the mammalian ortholog, Drp1, was undetectable in mitochondrial outer membranes. Moreover, ATP and GTP were dispensable for MOMP. Thus, the data argue that oligomerization of a catalyst protein, distinct from Bax and Drp1, facilitates MOMP, possibly through a membrane-remodeling event. PMID:23049480

  4. MstX and a putative potassium channel facilitate biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E Lundberg

    Full Text Available Biofilms constitute the predominant form of microbial life and a potent reservoir for innate antibiotic resistance in systemic infections. In the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis, the transition from a planktonic to sessile state is mediated by mutually exclusive regulatory pathways controlling the expression of genes required for flagellum or biofilm formation. Here, we identify mstX and yugO as novel regulators of biofilm formation in B. subtilis. We show that expression of mstX and the downstream putative K+ efflux channel, yugO, is necessary for biofilm development in B. subtilis, and that overexpression of mstX induces biofilm assembly. Transcription of the mstX-yugO operon is under the negative regulation of SinR, a transcription factor that governs the switch between planktonic and sessile states. Furthermore, mstX regulates the activity of Spo0A through a positive autoregulatory loop involving KinC, a histidine kinase that is activated by potassium leakage. The addition of potassium abrogated mstX-mediated biofilm formation. Our findings expand the role of Spo0A and potassium homeostasis in the regulation of bacterial development.

  5. Formation of Phobos and Deimos in a giant collision scenario facilitated by a large transient moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Pascal; Charnoz, Sébastien; Dunseath, Kevin; Terao-Dunseath, Mariko; Trinh, Antony; Hyodo, Ryuki; Genda, Hidenori; Toupin, Steven

    2016-10-01

    Mars has two natural satellites, Phobos and Deimos, similar to asteroids but whose current orbital parameters are not consistent with those of captured objects. We present an alternative scenario, backed by numerical simulations, in which Phobos and Deimos are formed in situ from a disc of debris resulting from a giant impact which gave Mars its spin and its north-south dichotomy. In this, a small number of large inner moons spawn at the Roche limit of the inner disc and then migrate outwards. Smaller debris in the outer, less dense part of the disc tend to accumulate at mean motion orbital resonances generated by these moons, hence facilitating their accretion. Our numerical simulations robustly reproduce the current Martian system of one more massive satellite lying just below the synchronous orbit and one less massive satellite above it. The large inner moons eventually fall back onto Mars as the inner disc itself empties, leaving the two small satellites to evolve under tidal dissipation to their current orbits. Our scenario offers an explanation for why Mars did not end up with one single large Moon like Earth, nor with numerous small moons like the giant planets. It also implies that Phobos and Deimos may be composed of material from both Mars and the impactor.

  6. Employing Computer Assisted Assessment (CAA to facilitate formative assessment in the State Secondary School: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effimia Karagianni

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on theories of assessment as well as on the pedagogical and administrative advantages Computer Assisted Assessment (CAA has to offer in foreign language learning, the study presented in this paper examines how computers can facilitate the formative assessment of EFL learners and enhance their feeling of responsibility towards monitoring their progress. The subjects of the study were twenty five 14-year-old students attending the third class of a State Gymnasium in Greece. The instruments utilized were questionnaires on motivation and learning styles, three quizzes designed with the software Hot Potatoes, a self–assessment questionnaire and an evaluation questionnaire showing the subjects’ attitudes towards the experience of using computers for assessing purposes. After reviewing formative assessment, CAA and how these two can be combined, the paper focuses on the description of the three class quizzes used in the study. Ιnformation from the questionnaires filled in by students combined with the results of the quizzes, shows how computers can be used to provide continuous ongoing measurement of students’ progress needed for formative assessment. The results are also used to show how students and teachers can benefit from formative CAA and the extent to which such kind of assessment could be applicable in the Greek state school reality.

  7. Teachers and the religious socialization of adolescents: facilitation of meaningful religious identity formation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Malayev, Maya; Schachter, Elli P; Rich, Yisrael

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of religious education on student religious identity over and above parent religiosity by examining student perceptions of two aspects of teacher functioning: teacher caring and teacher as role-model. We posited that effects of these variables on students' religious identity are mediated by student perceptions that the school provides a non-alienating religious atmosphere and meaningful religious studies. Participants were 2691 male and female students (grades 9-12) in 152 classes of 25 schools from the Jewish public-religious sector in Israel. Results indicate that in addition to their parents' religiosity, adolescents' perceptions of their teachers as role models and their religious studies as meaningful are important variables affecting their religious identity. Moreover, this research suggests that religious identity formation processes flourish in an educational environment which students perceive as accommodating religious exploration. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An Exploration of Teachers' Narratives: What Are the Facilitators and Constraints Which Promote or Inhibit "Good" Formative Assessment Practices in Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sach, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This paper set out to explore teachers' narratives in order to understand some of the facilitators and constraints which promote or inhibit good formative assessment practices in schools. A "responsive interview" approach was used to probe a small sample of lower and middle school teachers' perceptions of formative assessment.…

  9. Anodal tDCS over the Primary Motor Cortex Facilitates Long-Term Memory Formation Reflecting Use-Dependent Plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orjon Rroji

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over the primary motor cortex (M1 modulates NMDA receptor dependent processes that mediate synaptic plasticity. Here we test this proposal by applying anodal versus sham tDCS while subjects practiced to flex the thumb as fast as possible (ballistic movements. Repetitive practice of this task has been shown to result in performance improvements that reflect use-dependent plasticity resulting from NMDA receptor mediated, long-term potentiation (LTP-like processes. Using a double-blind within-subject cross-over design, subjects (n=14 participated either in an anodal or a sham tDCS session which were at least 3 months apart. Sham or anodal tDCS (1 mA was applied for 20 min during motor practice and retention was tested 30 min, 24 hours and one week later. All subjects improved performance during each of the two sessions (p < 0.001 and learning gains were similar. Our main result is that long term retention performance (i.e. 1 week after practice was significantly better when practice was performed with anodal tDCS than with sham tDCS (p < 0.001. This effect was large (Cohen's d=1.01 and all but one subject followed the group trend. Our data strongly suggest that anodal tDCS facilitates long-term memory formation reflecting use-dependent plasticity. Our results support the notion that anodal tDCS facilitates synaptic plasticity mediated by an LTP-like mechanism, which is in accordance with previous research.

  10. Detection of impaired IgG antibody formation facilitates the decision on early immunoglobulin replacement in hypogammaglobulinemic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Maximilian Wolf

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypogammaglobulinemia (serum IgG lower than 2SD below the age-matched mean and clinical symptoms such as increased susceptibility to infection, autoimmune manifestations, granulomatous disease, unexplained polyclonal lymphoproliferation are considered to be diagnostic hallmarks in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID, the most frequent clinically severe primary immunodeficiency syndrome. In the present study we investigated patients with hypogammaglobulinemia and no clinical or immunological signs of defective cell-mediated immunity and differentiated two groups on the basis of their IgG antibody formation capacity against a variety of different antigens (bacterial toxins, polysaccharide antigens, viral antigens. Patients with hypogammaglobulinemia and intact antibody production (HIAP displayed no or only mild susceptibility to infections, while CVID patients showed marked susceptibility to bacterial infections that normalized following initiation of IVIG or SCIG replacement therapy. There was a substantial overlap in IgG serum levels between the asymptomatic HIAP group and the CVID patients examined before immunoglobulin treatment. HIAP patients showed normal levels of switched B memory cells (CD19+CD27+IgD-, while both decreased and normal levels of switched B memory cells could be found in CVID patients. IgG antibody response to a primary antigen, tick borne encephalitis virus (TBEV, was defective in CVID patients, thus confirming their substantial defect in IgG antibody production. Defective IgG antibody production against multiple antigens could also be demonstrated in an adult patient with recurrent infections but normal IgG levels. To facilitate early treatment before recurrent infections may lead to organ damage the antibody formation capacity should be examined in hypogammaglobulinemic patients and the decision to treat should be based on the finding of impaired IgG antibody production.

  11. Vegetation pattern formation in semiarid systems induced by long-range competition in the absence of facilitation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Garcia, Ricardo; Calabrese, Justin M.; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio; Lopez, Cristobal

    2014-05-01

    and its range. When the finite range of the competitive interaction is considered used kernel functions with a finite range, whose Fourier transform may have negative values, patterns emerge in the system. This is a rather general condition if we consider the finite length of the roots responsible of long-range competition for water in plant ecosystems.Therefore, our findings support the notion that, under fairly broad conditions, only competition is required for patterns to occur and suggest that the role of short-range facilitation mechanisms may not be as fundamental to pattern formation as has previously been thought. REFERENCES: C.A. Klausmeier, Science, 284, 1826-1828 (1999). F. Borgogno, P. D'Odorico, F. Laio and L. Ridolfi, Reviews of Geophysics, 4, RG1005 (2009). R. Martinez-Garcia, J.M. Calabrese, and C. Lopez, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 333, 156-165 (2013). R. Martinez-Garcia, J. M. Calabrese, E. Hernandez-Garcia, and C. Lopez, Geophysical Research Letters, 40, 6143-6147,(2013).

  12. Rapid oriented fibril formation of fish scale collagen facilitates early osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Rena; Uemura, Toshimasa; Xu, Zhefeng; Yamaguchi, Isamu; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Junzo

    2015-08-01

    We studied the effect of fibril formation of fish scale collagen on the osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). We found that hMSCs adhered easily to tilapia scale collagen, which remarkably accelerated the early stage of osteoblastic differentiation in hMSCs during in vitro cell culture. Osteoblastic markers such as ALP activity, osteopontin, and bone morphogenetic protein 2 were markedly upregulated when the hMSCs were cultured on a tilapia collagen surface, especially in the early osteoblastic differentiation stage. We hypothesized that this phenomenon occurs due to specific fibril formation of tilapia collagen. Thus, we examined the time course of collagen fibril formation using high-speed atomic force microscopy. Moreover, to elucidate the effect of the orientation of fibril formation on the differentiation of hMSCs, we measured ALP activity of hMSCs cultured on two types of tilapia scale collagen membranes with different degrees of fibril formation. The ALP activity in hMSCs cultured on a fibrous collagen membrane was significantly higher than on a non-fibrous collagen membrane even before adding osteoblastic differentiation medium. These results showed that the degree of the fibril formation of tilapia collagen was essential for the osteoblastic differentiation of hMSCs.

  13. T-type Ca(2+) channels facilitate NO-formation, vasodilatation and NO-mediated modulation of blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Per; Andersen, Kenneth; Thuesen, Anne D

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels are involved in the vascular excitation-contraction mechanism and regulation of arterial blood pressure. It was hypothesized that T-type channels promote formation of nitric oxide from the endothelium. The present experiments determine the involvement of T-type chan......Voltage-gated calcium channels are involved in the vascular excitation-contraction mechanism and regulation of arterial blood pressure. It was hypothesized that T-type channels promote formation of nitric oxide from the endothelium. The present experiments determine the involvement of T......-type channels in depolarization-dependent dilatation of mesenteric arteries and blood pressure regulation in Cav3.1 knock-out mice. Nitric oxide-dependent vasodilatation following depolarization-mediated vasoconstriction was reduced significantly in mesenteric arteries from Cav3.1(-/-) compared to wild type...

  14. Negative Ion Photoelectron Spectroscopy Reveals Thermodynamic Advantage of Organic Acids in Facilitating Formation of Bisulfate Ion Clusters: Atmospheric Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Gao-Lei; Lin, Wei; Deng, Shihu; Zhang, Jian; Zheng, Weijun; Paesani, Francesco; Wang, Xue B.

    2013-03-07

    Recent lab and field measurements have indicated critical roles of organic acids in enhancing new atmospheric aerosol formation. Such findings have stimulated theoretical studies with the aim of understanding interaction of organic acids with common aerosol nucleation precursors like bisulfate (HSO4-). In this Letter, we report a combined negative ion photoelectron spectroscopic and theoretical investigation of molecular clusters formed by HSO4- with succinic acid (SUA, HO2C(CH2)2CO2H), HSO4-(SUA)n (n = 0-2), along with HSO4-(H2O)n and HSO4-(H2SO4)n. It is found that one SUA molecule can stabilize HSO4- by ca. 39 kcal/mol, triple the corresponding value that one water molecule is capable of (ca. 13 kcal/mol). Molecular dynamics simulations and quantum chemical calculations reveal the most plausible structures of these clusters and attribute the stability of these clusters due to formation of strong hydrogen bonds. This work provides direct experimental evidence showing significant thermodynamic advantage by involving organic acid molecules to promote formation and growth in bisulfate clusters and aerosols.

  15. Morphological facilitation for regular and irregular verb formations in native and non-native speakers: Little evidence for two distinct mechanisms*

    Science.gov (United States)

    FELDMAN, LAURIE BETH; KOSTIĆ, ALEKSANDAR; BASNIGHT-BROWN, DANA M.; ĐURĐEVIĆ, DUŠICA FILIPOVIĆ; PASTIZZO, MATTHEW JOHN

    2010-01-01

    The authors compared performance on two variants of the primed lexical decision task to investigate morphological processing in native and non-native speakers of English. They examined patterns of facilitation on present tense targets. Primes were regular (billed–bill) past tense formations and two types of irregular past tense forms that varied on preservation of target length (fell–fall; taught–teach). When a forward mask preceded the prime (Exp. 1), language and prime type interacted. Native speakers showed reliable regular and irregular length preserved facilitation relative to orthographic controls. Non-native speakers’ latencies after morphological and orthographic primes did not differ reliably except for regulars. Under cross-modal conditions (Exp. 2), language and prime type interacted. Native but not non-native speakers showed inhibition following orthographically similar primes. Collectively, reliable facilitation for regulars and patterns across verb type and task provided little support for a processing dichotomy (decomposition, non-combinatorial association) based on inflectional regularity in either native or non-native speakers of English. PMID:20526436

  16. FGFR3 promotes angiogenesis-dependent metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma via facilitating MCP-1-mediated vascular formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyu; Jing, Xiaoqian; Cheng, Xi; Ma, Ding; Jin, Zhijian; Yang, Weiping; Qiu, Weihua

    2016-05-01

    The biological role of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) in tumor angiogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been discussed before. Our previous work had indicated FGFR3 was overexpressed in HCC, and silencing FGFR3 in Hu7 cells could regulate tumorigenesis via down-regulating the phosphorylation level of key members of classic signaling pathways including ERK and AKT. In the present work, we explored the role of FGFR3 in angiogenesis-dependent metastasis by using SMMC-7721 and QGY-7703 stable cell lines. Our results indicated FGFR3 could regulate in vitro cell migration ability and in vivo lung metastasis ability of HCC, which was in accordance with increased angiogenesis ability in vitro and in vivo. Using the supernatant from SMMC-7721/FGFR3 cells, we conducted a human angiogenesis protein microarray including 43 angiogenesis factors and found that FGFR3 modulated angiogenesis and metastasis of HCC mainly by promoting the protein level of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1). Silencing FGFR3 by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) could reduce MCP-1 level in lysates and supernatant of QGY-7703 cells and SMMC-7721 cells. Silencing MCP-1 in QGY-7703 or SMMC-7721 cells could induce similar phenotypes compared with silencing FGFR3. Our results suggested FGFR3 promoted metastasis potential of HCC, at least partially if not all, via facilitating MCP-1-mediated angiogenesis, in addition to previously found cell growth and metastasis. MCP-1, a key medium between HCC cells and HUVECs, might be a novel anti-vascular target in HCC.

  17. Dopamine facilitates dendritic spine formation by cultured striatal medium spiny neurons through both D1 and D2 dopamine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Caroline; Bourque, Marie-Josée; Lapointe, Gabriel; Leo, Damiana; Thibault, Dominic; Haber, Michael; Kortleven, Christian; Desgroseillers, Luc; Murai, Keith K; Trudeau, Louis-Éric

    2013-04-01

    Variations of dopamine (DA) levels induced by drugs of abuse or in the context of Parkinson's disease modulate the number of dendritic spines in medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the striatum, showing that DA plays a major role in the structural plasticity of MSNs. However, little is presently known regarding early spine development in MSNs occurring before the arrival of cortical inputs and in particular about the role of DA and D1 (D1R) and D2 (D2R) DA receptors. A cell culture model reconstituting early cellular interactions between MSNs, intrinsic cholinergic interneurons and DA neurons was used to study the role of DA in spine formation. After 5 or 10 days in vitro, the presence of DA neurons increased the number of immature spine-like protrusions. In MSN monocultures, chronic activation of D1R or D2R also increased the number of spines and spinophilin expression in MSNs, suggesting a direct role for these receptors. In DA-MSN cocultures, chronic blockade of D1R or D2R reduced the number of dendritic spines. Interestingly, the combined activation or blockade of both D1R and D2R failed to elicit more extensive spine formation, suggesting that both receptors act through a mechanism that is not additive. Finally, we found increased ionotropic glutamate receptor responsiveness and miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) frequency in DA-MSN co-cultures, in parallel with a higher number of spines containing PSD-95, suggesting that the newly formed spines present functional post-synaptic machinery preparing the MSNs to receive additional glutamatergic contacts. These results represent a first step in the understanding of how dopamine neurons promote the structural plasticity of MSNs during the development of basal ganglia circuits.

  18. Polyaspartic acid facilitates oxolation within iron(iii) oxide pre-nucleation clusters and drives the formation of organic-inorganic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheck, J.; Drechsler, M.; Ma, X.; Stöckl, M. T.; Konsek, J.; Schwaderer, J. B.; Stadler, S. M.; De Yoreo, J. J.; Gebauer, D.

    2016-12-01

    The interplay between polymers and inorganic minerals during the formation of solids is crucial for biomineralization and bio-inspired materials, and advanced material properties can be achieved with organic-inorganic composites. By studying the reaction mechanisms, basic questions on organic-inorganic interactions and their role during material formation can be answered, enabling more target-oriented strategies in future synthetic approaches. Here, we present a comprehensive study on the hydrolysis of iron(iii) in the presence of polyaspartic acid. For the basic investigation of the formation mechanism, a titration assay was used, complemented by microscopic techniques. The polymer is shown to promote precipitation in partly hydrolyzed reaction solutions at the very early stages of the reaction by facilitating iron(iii) hydrolysis. In unhydrolyzed solutions, no significant interactions between the polymer and the inorganic solutes can be observed. We demonstrate that the hydrolysis promotion by the polymer can be understood by facilitating oxolation in olation iron(iii) pre-nucleation clusters. We propose that the adsorption of olation pre-nucleation clusters on the polymer chains and the resulting loss in dynamics and increased proximity of the reactants is the key to this effect. The resulting composite material obtained from the hydrolysis in the presence of the polymer was investigated with additional analytical techniques, namely, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, light microscopy, atomic force microscopy, zeta potential measurements, dynamic light scattering, and thermogravimetric analyses. It consists of elastic, polydisperse nanospheres, ca. 50-200 nm in diameter, and aggregates thereof, exhibiting a high polymer and water content.

  19. Enhancing Curiosity Using Interactive Simulations Combined with Real-Time Formative Assessment Facilitated by Open-Format Questions on Tablet Computers

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalski, F V

    2013-01-01

    Students' curiosity often seems nearly nonexistent in a lecture setting; we discuss a variety of possible reasons for this, but it is the instructor who typically poses questions while only a few students, usually the better ones, respond. As we have developed and implemented the use of InkSurvey to collect real-time formative assessment, we have discovered that it can serve in an unanticipated role: to promote curiosity in engineering physics undergraduates. Curiosity often motivates creative, innovative people. To encourage such curiosity, we solicit questions submitted real-time via InkSurvey and pen-enabled mobile devices (Tablet PCs) in response to interactive simulations (applets) run either before or in class. This provides students with practice in asking questions, increases metacognition, and serves as a rich springboard from which to introduce content and/or address misconceptions. We describe the procedure for measuring curiosity and results from applying this method in a junior level electromagne...

  20. In Situ Grown TiO2 Nanospindles Facilitate the Formation of Holey Reduced Graphene Oxide by Photodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guiming; Ellis, James E; Xu, Gang; Xu, Xueqing; Star, Alexander

    2016-03-23

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanostructures and TiO2/graphene nanocomposites are intensively studied materials for energy conversion, energy storage, and organic contaminant photodegradation. However, for TiO2/graphene composites, impermeability across the graphitic basal plane for electrolytes, metal ions, and gas molecules hinders their practical applications. Herein we report a simple, environmentally friendly synthetic route for mesoporous anatase TiO2 nanospindles, and successfully apply this method to obtain in situ grown TiO2 nanospindles/graphene oxide composite. After a thermal reduction at 400 °C, holes are created in the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets through a photocatalytic oxidation mechanism. The formation of holes in RGO is promoted by photogenerated hydroxyl radicals that oxidize and subsequently decarboxylate the graphitic surface of RGO. The proposed mechanism was supported by photocatalytic electrochemical properties of the nanomaterials. The resulting TiO2/holey RGO composites may overcome the original impermeability of graphene sheets and find applications in catalysis, energy conversion/storage devices, and sensors.

  1. Formation of Exotic Networks of Water Clusters in Helium Droplets Facilitated by the Presence of Neon Atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douberly, Gary E.; Miller, Roger E.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2017-03-08

    Water clusters are formed in helium droplets via the sequential capture of monomers. One or two neon atoms are added to each droplet prior to the addition of water. The infrared spectrum of the droplet ensemble reveals several signatures of polar, water tetramer clusters having dipole moments between 2D and 3D. Comparison with ab initio computations supports the assignment of the cluster networks to noncyclic “3+1” clusters, which are ~5.3 kcal/mol less stable than the global minimum nonpolar cyclic tetramer. The (H2O)3Ne + H2O ring insertion barrier is sufficiently large, such that evaporative helium cooling is capable of kinetically quenching the nonequilibrium tetramer system prior to its rearrangement to the lower energy cyclic species. To this end, the reported process results in the formation of exotic water cluster networks that are either higher in energy than the most stable gas-phase analogs or not even stable in the gas phase.

  2. Formation of Exotic Networks of Water Clusters in Helium Droplets Facilitated by the Presence of Neon Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douberly, Gary E; Miller, Roger E; Xantheas, Sotiris S

    2017-03-22

    Water clusters are formed in helium droplets via the sequential capture of monomers. One or two neon atoms are added to each droplet prior to the addition of water. The infrared spectrum of the droplet ensemble reveals several signatures of polar, water tetramer clusters having dipole moments between 2D and 3D. Comparison with ab initio computations supports the assignment of the cluster networks to noncyclic "3 + 1" clusters, which are ∼5.3 kcal/mol less stable than the global minimum nonpolar cyclic tetramer. The (H2O)3Ne + H2O ring insertion barrier is sufficiently large, such that evaporative helium cooling is capable of kinetically quenching the nonequilibrium tetramer system prior to its rearrangement to the lower energy cyclic species. To this end, the reported process results in the formation of exotic water cluster networks that are either higher in energy than the most stable gas-phase analogs or not even stable in the gas phase.

  3. Does animal-mediated seed dispersal facilitate the formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yu

    Full Text Available The Pinus armandii and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata mixed forest is one of the major forest types in the Qinling Mountains, China. P. armandii is considered to be a pioneer species during succession and it is usually invaded by late successional Q. aliena var. acuteserrata. However, the mechanism that underlies its invasion remains unclear. In the present study, we tracked seed dispersal of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata using coded plastic tags in the western, middle and eastern Qinling Mountains to elucidate the invasion process in the mixed forests. Our results indicated that the seeds of both P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were removed rapidly in the Qinling Mountains, and there were no differences in the seed removal rates between the two species. There were significant differences in rodent seed-eating and caching strategies between the two tree species. For P. armandii, seeds were more likely to be eaten in situ than those of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata in all plots. By contrast, the acorns of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were less frequently eaten in situ, but more likely to be removed and cached. Q. aliena var. acuteserrata acorns had significantly longer dispersal distances than P. armandii seeds in all plots. Although P. armandii seeds were less likely to be dispersed into the Q. aliena var. acuteserrata stands, over 30% of the released acorns were transported into the P. armandii stands where they established five seedlings. Based on the coupled recruitment patterns of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata, we suggest that the animal-mediated seed dispersal contributes to the formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests.

  4. Facilitating identity formation, group membership, and learning in science classrooms: What can be learned from out-of-field teaching in an urban school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olitsky, Stacy

    2007-03-01

    This paper explores both the obstacles and the possibilities for students developing identities associated with science by engaging in solidarity-building classroom interactions. Data come from ethnographic research conducted in a diverse eighth-grade urban magnet school classroom in which the teacher taught out of field for part of the year. Contrary to expectations, more students participated and reported enjoying science when the teacher was out of field. Analysis of classroom interactions indicated that while in field, the teacher primarily engaged in front stage performances that hid her struggles with the material and accentuated students' views of science as an elite status group. The types of solidarity that developed among students often did not involve science language and sometimes involved students rejecting peers' claims to membership. However, when out of field, the teacher allowed students into her backstage, where her struggles and learning processes were more explicit. These practices lessened the social distance between teacher and students, and reduced the risks of using science language, thereby encouraging solidarity and group membership. This study provides insights into some of the ways that teachers, particularly those in urban settings characterized by diversity, might be more successful at facilitating identity formation and learning in science.

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-mediated syncytium formation is compatible with adenovirus replication and facilitates efficient dispersion of viral gene products and de novo-synthesized virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Haviv, Y S; Derdeyn, C A; Lam, J; Coolidge, C; Hunter, E; Curiel, D T; Blackwell, J L

    2001-12-10

    Conditionally replicative adenovirus (CRAd) vectors are designed for specific oncolytic replication in tumor tissues with concomitant sparing of normal cells. As such, CRAds offer an unprecedented level of anticancer potential for malignancies that have been refractory to previous cancer gene therapy interventions. CRAd efficacy may, however, be compromised by inefficient dispersion of the replicating vector within the tumor tissue. To address this issue, we evaluated the utility of a fusogenic membrane glycoprotein (FMG), which induces the fusion of neighboring cellular membranes to form multinucleated syncytia. We hypothesized that the FMG-mediated syncytia would facilitate dispersion of the adenovirus (Ad) gene products and viral progeny. To test this, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins, which induce syncytia in the presence of CD4+ target cells, were expressed by an Ad (Ad5HIVenv) in permissive (CD4-positive) and nonpermissive (CD4-negative) cell lines. After validating this Ad-FMG model, the efficiency of Ad replication in the presence or absence of syncytia was evaluated. The results demonstrated that syncytium formation was compatible with Ad replication and dramatically increased the dispersion of virus gene products within the cytoplasm of the syncytia as well as viral particles in the nuclei of the syncytial mass. Moreover, progeny virions were released more efficiently from syncytia compared with nonsyncytial cells. These data demonstrate the utility of FMGs as a dispersion agent and suggest that FMGs can improve the efficacy of CRAd gene therapy.

  6. HDAC inhibitor sodium butyrate sensitizes E1A+Ras-transformed cells to DNA damaging agents by facilitating formation and persistence of γH2AX foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramova, Maria V; Svetlikova, Svetlana B; Kukushkin, Alexander N; Aksenov, Nikolai D; Pospelova, Tatiana V; Pospelov, Valery A

    2011-12-15

    HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) suppress the growth of tumor cells due to induction of cell cycle arrest, senescence or apoptosis. Recent data demonstrate that HDACi can interfere with DNA Damage Response (DDR) thereby sensitizing the cells to DNA damaging agents. Here, we show that HDACi sodium butyrate (NaBut) potentiates the formation of γH2AX foci predominantly in S-phase E1A+Ras cells. Accumulation of γH2AX foci sensitizes the cells toward such DNA damaging agents as irradiation (IR) and adriamycin. In fact, NaBut potentiates the persistence of γH2AX foci induced by genotoxic agents. The synergizing effects depend on DNA damaging factors and on the order of NaBut treatment. Indeed, NaBut treatment for 24 h leads to an accumulation of G 1-phase cells and a lack of S-phase cells, therefore, adriamycin, a powerful S-phase-specific inhibitor, when added to NaBut-treated cells, is unable to substantially add γH2AX foci. In contrast, IR produces both single- and double-strand DNA breaks at any stage of the cell cycle and was shown to increase γH2AX foci in NaBut-treated cells. Further, a lifetime of IR-induced γH2AX foci depends on the subsequent presence of HDACi. Correspondingly, NaBut withdrawal leads to the extinction of IR-induced γH2AX foci. This necessitates HDACi to hold the IR-induced γH2AX foci unrepaired. However, the IR-induced γH2AX foci persist after long-term NaBut treatment (72 h) even after washing the drug. Thus, although signaling pathways regulating H2AX phosphorylation in NaBut-treated cells remain to be investigated, the obtained results show that NaBut potentiates effects of DNA damaging agents by facilitating formation and persistence of γH2AX foci.

  7. Facilitation as a teaching strategy : experiences of facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Lekalakala-Mokgele

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in nursing education involve the move from traditional teaching approaches that are teacher-centred to facilitation, a student centred approach. The studentcentred approach is based on a philosophy of teaching and learning that puts the learner on centre-stage. The aim of this study was to identify the challenges of facilitators of learning using facilitation as a teaching method and recommend strategies for their (facilitators development and support. A qualitative, explorative and contextual design was used. Four (4 universities in South Africa which utilize facilitation as a teaching/ learning process were identified and the facilitators were selected to be the sample of the study. The main question posed during in-depth group interviews was: How do you experience facilitation as a teaching/learning method?. Facilitators indicated different experiences and emotions when they first had to facilitate learning. All of them indicated that it was difficult to facilitate at the beginning as they were trained to lecture and that no format for facilitation was available. They experienced frustrations and anxieties as a result. The lack of knowledge of facilitation instilled fear in them. However they indicated that facilitation had many benefits for them and for the students. Amongst the ones mentioned were personal and professional growth. Challenges mentioned were the fear that they waste time and that they do not cover the content. It is therefore important that facilitation be included in the training of nurse educators.

  8. Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehmann, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the following, a new conceptual framework for investigating nowadays’ “technical” phenomena shall be introduced, that of formats. The thesis is that processes of formatting account for our recent conditions of life, and will do so in the very next future. It are processes whose foundations have been laid in modernity and which will further unfold for the time being. These processes are embedded in the format of the value chain, a circumstance making them resilient to change. In addition, they are resilient in themselves since forming interconnected systems of reciprocal causal circuits.Which leads to an overall situation that our entire “Lebenswelt” became formatted to an extent we don’t fully realize, even influencing our very percep-tion of it.

  9. Using Formative Assessment to Facilitate Learner Self-Regulation: A Case Study of Assessment Practices and Student Perceptions in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing Jing, Ma

    2017-01-01

    One of the key aims of formative assessment in higher education is to enable students to become self-regulated learners (Nicol & Macfarlane-Dick, 2006). Based on Nicol and Macfarlane-Dick's (2006) framework, this exploratory study investigates which formative assessment practices proposed by them were used by one college EFL writing teacher to…

  10. Glycosaminoglycan-mediated coacervation of tropoelastin abolishes the critical concentration, accelerates coacervate formation, and facilitates spherule fusion: implications for tropoelastin microassembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yidong; Weiss, Anthony S

    2008-07-01

    Elastogenesis and elastin repair depend on the secretion of tropoelastin from the cell, yet cellular production is low in the many biological systems that have been studied. To address the apparent paradox of a paucity of tropoelastin for cell surface microassembly, we examined the effects of the glycosaminoglycans heparin, heparan sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate B, on tropoelastin aggregate formation through coacervation. We found a significant effect, particularly of heparin, on the minimum or critical concentration of tropoelastin, which was required for microassembly, lowering critical concentration to a point that it was no longer detectable. The assemblies resulted in protein droplet formation that was visually indistinguishable from the spherules that typify coacervation. The spherules readily coalesced in the presence of heparin and higher concentrations of tropoelastin, resulting in an almost continuous layer of coacervated tropoelastin. Four stages of droplet behavior were observed: early droplet formation, approximately 6 mum droplet formation, and fusion of droplets followed by the formation of a coalesced layer. We conclude that glycosaminoglycans in the extracellular matrix have the capacity to promote coacervation at low concentrations of tropoelastin.

  11. Domain architecture of protein-disulfide isomerase facilitates its dual role as an oxidase and an isomerase in Ero1p-mediated disulfide formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulp, M. S.; Frickel, E. M.; Ellgaard, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Native disulfide bond formation in eukaryotes is dependent on protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) and its homologs, which contain varying combinations of catalytically active and inactive thioredoxin domains. However, the specific contribution of PDI to the formation of new disulfides versus...... reduction/rearrangement of non-native disulfides is poorly understood. We analyzed the role of individual PDI domains in disulfide bond formation in a reaction driven by their natural oxidant, Ero1p. We found that Ero1p oxidizes the isolated PDI catalytic thioredoxin domains, A and A' at the same rate....... In contrast, we found that in the context of full-length PDI, there is an asymmetry in the rate of oxidation of the two active sites. This asymmetry is the result of a dual effect: an enhanced rate of oxidation of the second catalytic (A') domain and the substrate-mediated inhibition of oxidation of the first...

  12. Rac1 modulates the formation of primordial follicles by facilitating STAT3-directed Jagged1, GDF9 and BMP15 transcription in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lihua; Du, Xinhua; Huang, Kun; Zhang, Tuo; Teng, Zhen; Niu, Wanbao; Wang, Chao; Xia, Guoliang

    2016-04-06

    The size of the primordial follicle pool determines the reproductive potential of mammalian females, and establishment of the pool is highly dependent on specific genes expression. However, the molecular mechanisms by which the essential genes are regulated coordinately to ensure primordial follicle assembly remain a mystery. Here, we show that the small GTPase Rac1 plays an indispensable role in controlling the formation of primordial follicles in mouse ovary. Employing fetal mouse ovary organ culture system, we demonstrate that disruption of Rac1 retarded the breakdown of germline cell cysts while Rac1 overexpression accelerated the formation of primordial follicles. In addition, in vivo inhibitor injection resulted in the formation of multi-oocyte follicles. Subsequent investigation showed that Rac1 induced nuclear import of STAT3 by physical binding. In turn, nuclear STAT3 directly activated the transcription of essential oocyte-specific genes, including Jagged1, GDF9, BMP15 and Nobox. Further, GDF9 and BMP15 regulated the translation of Notch2 via mTORC1 activation in pregranulosa cells. Overexression or addition of Jagged1, GDF9 and BMP15 not only reversed the effect of Rac1 disruption, but also accelerated primordial follicle formation via Notch2 signaling activation. Collectively, these results indicate that Rac1 plays important roles as a key regulator in follicular assembly.

  13. Phage Anti-Immunocomplex Assay (PHAIA) for clomazone: Two-site recognition increases assay specificity and facilitates adaptation into a rapid on-site format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossotti, M.A.; Carlomagno, M.; González-Techera, A.; Hammock, B.D.; Last, J.; González-Sapienza, G.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the use of herbicides in agriculture can be minimized by compliance with good management practices that reduce the amount used and their release into the environment. Simple tests that provide real time on-site information about these chemicals are a major aid for these programs. In this work we show that PHAIA, a method that uses phage-borne peptides to detect the formation of antibody-analyte immunocomplexes, is an advantageous technology to produce such field tests. A monoclonal antibody to the herbicide clomazone was raised and used in the development of conventional competitive and noncompetitive PHAIA immunoassays. The sensitivity attained with the PHAIA format was over ten times higher than that of the competitive format. The cross-reactivity of the two methods was also compared by using structurally related compounds, and we observed that the two-site binding of PHAIA “double-checks” the recognition of the analyte, thereby increasing the assay specificity. The positive readout of the noncompetitive PHAIA method allowed adaptation of the assay into a rapid and simple format where as little as 0.4 ng/ml of clomazone (more than 10-fold lower than the proposed standard) in water samples from a rice field could be easily detected by simple visual inspection. PMID:20886819

  14. Phage anti-immunocomplex assay for clomazone: two-site recognition increasing assay specificity and facilitating adaptation into an on-site format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossotti, M A; Carlomagno, M; González-Techera, A; Hammock, B D; Last, J; González-Sapienza, G

    2010-11-01

    The impact of the use of herbicides in agriculture can be minimized by compliance with good management practices that reduce the amount used and their release into the environment. Simple tests that provide real time on-site information about these chemicals are a major aid for these programs. In this work, we show that phage anti-immunocomplex assay (PHAIA), a method that uses phage-borne peptides to detect the formation of antibody-analyte immunocomplexes, is an advantageous technology to produce such field tests. A monoclonal antibody to the herbicide clomazone was raised and used in the development of conventional competitive and noncompetitive PHAIA immunoassays. The sensitivity attained with the PHAIA format was over 10 times higher than that of the competitive format. The cross-reactivity of the two methods was also compared using structurally related compounds, and we observed that the two-site binding of PHAIA "double-checks" the recognition of the analyte, thereby increasing the assay specificity. The positive readout of the noncompetitive PHAIA method allowed adaptation of the assay into a rapid and simple format where as little as 0.4 ng/mL clomazone (more than 10-fold lower than the proposed standard) in water samples from a rice field could be easily detected by simple visual inspection.

  15. Wisp2/CCN5 up-regulated in the central nervous system of GM3-only mice facilitates neurite formation in Neuro2a cells via integrin-Akt signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkawa, Yuki, E-mail: tomilbio@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065 (Japan); Ohmi, Yuhsuke, E-mail: ooumi82@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065 (Japan); Tajima, Orie, E-mail: oriet@isc.chubu.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065 (Japan); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chubu University College of Life and Health Sciences, 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai 487-8501 (Japan); Yamauchi, Yoshio, E-mail: yyoshio@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065 (Japan); Furukawa, Keiko, E-mail: keikofu@isc.chubu.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065 (Japan); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chubu University College of Life and Health Sciences, 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai 487-8501 (Japan); Furukawa, Koichi, E-mail: koichi@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-0065 (Japan)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} Wisp2/CCN5 was up-regulated in nervous tissues of GM3-only mutant mice. {yields} Wisp2/CCN5 was found in neurons more strongly in the mutant mice. {yields} Wisp2/CCN5 induces Akt phosphorylation via integrins and facilitates neurite formation. {yields} Wisp2/CCN5 conferred resistance to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced apoptosis. {yields} Up-regulation of Wisp2/CCN5 in GM3-only mice seemed for protection of brains from neurodegeneration. -- Abstract: Wisp2/CCN5 belongs to CCN family proteins which are involved in cell proliferation, angiogenesis, tumorigenesis and wound healing. Although a number of studies on the roles of Wisp2/CCN5 in cancers have been reported, no study on the expression and function of Wisp2/CCN5 in the central nervous system has been reported. In this study, we focused on Wisp2/CCN5 that was up-regulated in nervous tissues in GM3-only mice. Over-expression of Wisp2/CCN5 enhanced neurite outgrowth potently after serum withdrawal with increased phosphorylation levels of Akt and ERKs. When cells were cultured with recombinant Wisp2/CCN5 proteins, more and longer neurites were formed than in the controls. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that Wisp2/CCN5 facilitates neurite formation in a mouse neuroblastoma cell line, Neuro2a. Akt phosphorylation induced by recombinant Wisp2/CCN5 was suppressed after knockdown of integrin {beta}1. Moreover, Wisp2/CCN5-over-expressing cells were resistant to apoptosis induced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. These results suggested that secreted Wisp2/CCN5 induces Akt and ERK phosphorylation via integrins, and consequently facilitates neurite formation and conferred resistance to apoptosis. Up-regulation of Wisp2/CCN5 in GM3-only mice should be, therefore, a reaction to protect nervous tissues from neurodegeneration caused by ganglioside deficiency.

  16. Neuronal filopodium formation induced by the membrane glycoprotein M6a (Gpm6a) is facilitated by coronin-1a, Rac1, and p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Juliá, Anabel; Frasch, Alberto C; Fuchsova, Beata

    2016-04-01

    Stress-responsive neuronal membrane glycoprotein M6a (Gpm6a) functions in neurite extension, filopodium and spine formation and synaptogenesis. The mechanisms of Gpm6a action in these processes are incompletely understood. Previously, we identified the actin regulator coronin-1a (Coro1a) as a putative Gpm6a interacting partner. Here, we used co-immunoprecipitation assays with the anti-Coro1a antibody to show that Coro1a associates with Gpm6a in rat hippocampal neurons. By immunofluorescence microscopy, we demonstrated that in hippocampal neurons Coro1a localizes in F-actin-enriched regions and some of Coro1a spots co-localize with Gpm6a labeling. Notably, the over-expression of a dominant-negative form of Coro1a as well as its down-regulation by siRNA interfered with Gpm6a-induced filopodium formation. Coro1a is known to regulate the plasma membrane translocation and activation of small GTPase Rac1. We show that Coro1a co-immunoprecipitates with Rac1 together with Gpm6a. Pharmacological inhibition of Rac1 resulted in a significant decrease in filopodium formation by Gpm6a. The same was observed upon the co-expression of Gpm6a with the inactive GDP-bound form of Rac1. In this case, the elevated membrane recruitment of GDP-bound Rac1 was detected as well. Moreover, the kinase activity of the p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1), a main downstream effector of Rac1 that acts downstream of Coro1a, was required for Gpm6a-induced filopodium formation. Taken together, our results provide evidence that a signaling pathway including Coro1a, Rac1, and Pak1 facilitates Gpm6a-induced filopodium formation. Formation of filopodia by membrane glycoprotein M6a (Gpm6a) requires actin regulator coronin-1a (Coro1a), known to regulate plasma membrane localization and activation of Rac1 and its downstream effector Pak1. Coro1a associates with Gpm6a. Blockage of Coro1a, Rac1, or Pak1 interferes with Gpm6a-induced filopodium formation. Moreover, Gpm6a facilitates Rac1 membrane recruitment

  17. DnaK and DnaJ facilitated the folding process and reduced inclusion body formation of magnesium transporter CorA overexpressed in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Song, Jinmei; Sui, Sen-fang; Wang, Da-Neng

    2003-12-01

    Overexpression of CorA, the major magnesium transporter from bacterial inner membrane, in Escherichia coli resulted in the synthesis of 60mg of protein per liter of culture, most of which however was in the form of inclusion bodies. The levels of inclusion body formation were reduced by lowering the cell culture temperature. To dissect CorA inclusion body formation and the folding process involved, we co-expressed the protein with various chaperones and other folding modulators. Expression of DnaK/DnaJ (Hsp70) prevented inclusion bodies from forming and resulted in the integration of more CorA into the membrane. GroEL/GroES (Hsp60/Hsp10) were less effective at reducing CorA inclusion body formation. Co-expression with either Ffh/4.5S-RNA, the signal recognition particle, or SecA, the ATPase that drives protein insertion into the membrane, had little effect on CorA folding. These results indicate: (1) that CorA inclusion bodies form immediately after synthesis at 37 degrees C, (2) that CorA solubility in the cytosol can be increased by co-expressing a chaperone system, (3) membrane targeting is probably not a rate-limiting factor, and (4) that membrane insertion becomes a limitation only when large amounts of soluble CorA are present in the cytosol. These co-expression systems can be used for producing other membrane proteins in large quantities.

  18. Bacterially facilitated rock-coating formation as a component of the geochemical budget in cold climates: An example from Kärkevagge, Swedish Lapland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marnocha, Cassandra L.; Dixon, John C.

    2014-08-01

    Environmental microbiology and advances in molecular techniques have been a driving force in advancing the understanding of microbial communities in previously understudied environments. Though it is widely accepted that biological and geological processes are closely linked, the importance of microbes in geomorphological processes has been understated. Microbes interact with the environment, playing a significant role in nutrient cycling, ion mobilization, and metal scavenging and concentration. Although in some of these areas understanding is expanding, the role of microbes in geochemical budgets in cold climates has been largely ignored. To investigate one such case of microbial influence, we focus on rock-coating development in the glacially eroded valley, Kärkevagge, in arctic-alpine Sweden. This bacterial diversity study shows evidence of a link between microbe-mineral interactions and key processes in the formation of diverse geochemical rock coatings. Here, we present a study of the bacterial role in metal scavenging and coating formation as a component of the geochemical budget of the valley.

  19. SDS-facilitated in vitro formation of a transmembrane B-type cytochrome is mediated by changes in local pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, M.; Schneider, D.; Prodöhl, A.

    2011-01-01

    dissociation. Surprisingly, absorption spectroscopy reveals that heme binding and cytochrome formation at pH 8.0 are optimal at intermediate SDS concentrations. Stopped-flow kinetics revealed that genuine conformational changes are involved in heme binding at these SDS concentrations. GPS (Global Protein...... potential of SDS lowers the local pH sufficiently to restore efficient heme binding, provided the amount of SDS needed for this does not denature the protein. Accordingly, the higher the pH value above 6-7, the more SDS is needed to improve heme binding, and this competes with the inherent tendency of SDS...... to dissociate cytochrome b(559)'. Our work highlights that, in addition to its denaturing properties, SDS can affect protein functions by lowering the local pH....

  20. Friends of Hot Jupiters. IV. Stellar companions beyond 50 AU might facilitate giant planet formation, but most are unlikely to cause Kozai-Lidov migration

    CERN Document Server

    Ngo, Henry; Hinkley, Sasha; Bryan, Marta; Crepp, Justin R; Batygin, Konstantin; Crossfield, Ian; Hansen, Brad; Howard, Andrew W; Johnson, John A; Mawet, Dimitri; Morton, Timothy D; Muirhead, Philip S; Wang, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Stellar companions can influence the formation and evolution of planetary systems, but there are currently few observational constraints on the properties of planet-hosting binary star systems. We search for stellar companions around 77 transiting hot Jupiter systems to explore the statistical properties of this population of companions as compared to field stars of similar spectral type. After correcting for survey incompleteness, we find that $47\\%\\pm7\\%$ of hot Jupiter systems have stellar companions with semi-major axes between 50-2000 AU. This is 2.9 times larger than the field star companion fraction in this separation range, with a significance of $4.4\\sigma$. In the 1-50AU range, only $3.9^{+4.5}_{-2.0}\\%$ of hot Jupiters host stellar companions compared to the field star value of $16.4\\%\\pm0.7\\%$, which is a $2.7\\sigma$ difference. We find that the distribution of mass ratios for stellar companions to hot Jupiter systems peaks at small values and therefore differs from that of field star binaries whi...

  1. Auxiliary proteins that facilitate formation of collagen-rich deposits in the posterior knee capsule in a rabbit-based joint contracture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steplewski, Andrzej; Fertala, Jolanta; Beredjiklian, Pedro K; Abboud, Joseph A; Wang, Mark L Y; Namdari, Surena; Barlow, Jonathan; Rivlin, Michael; Arnold, William V; Kostas, James; Hou, Cheryl; Fertala, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Post-traumatic joint contracture is a debilitating consequence of trauma or surgical procedures. It is associated with fibrosis that develops regardless of the nature of initial trauma and results from complex biological processes associated with inflammation and cell activation. These processes accelerate production of structural elements of the extracellular matrix, particularly collagen fibrils. Although the increased production of collagenous proteins has been demonstrated in tissues of contracted joints, researchers have not yet determined the complex protein machinery needed for the biosynthesis of collagen molecules and for their assembly into fibrils. Consequently, the purpose of our study was to investigate key enzymes and protein chaperones needed to produce collagen-rich deposits. Using a rabbit model of joint contracture, our biochemical and histological assays indicated changes in the expression patterns of heat shock protein 47 and the α-subunit of prolyl 4-hydroxylase, key proteins in processing nascent collagen chains. Moreover, our study shows that the abnormal organization of collagen fibrils in the posterior capsules of injured knees, rather than excessive formation of fibril-stabilizing cross-links, may be a key reason for observed changes in the mechanical characteristics of injured joints. This result sheds new light on pathomechanisms of joint contraction, and identifies potentially attractive anti-fibrotic targets. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. U2 snRNP binds intronless histone pre-mRNAs to facilitate U7-snRNP-dependent 3' end formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Kyle; Lovejoy, Alexander F; Steitz, Joan A

    2007-10-26

    In metazoa, pre-mRNA 3' end formation occurs via two pathways: cleavage/polyadenylation for the majority of RNA polymerase II transcripts and U7-snRNP-dependent cleavage for replication-dependent histone pre-mRNAs. An RNA element derived from a replication-dependent histone gene affects multiple steps of pre-mRNA processing. Here, we demonstrate that a portion of this RNA element, present in the majority of histone mRNAs, stimulates U7-snRNP-dependent cleavage. Surprisingly, this element binds U2 snRNP, although it is derived from an intronless mRNA. Specifically, SF3b, a U2 and U12-snRNP component, contacts the RNA element both in vitro and in vivo in conjunction with hPrp43, a DEAH-box helicase. Tethering either U2 or U12 snRNP to histone pre-mRNA substrates stimulates U7-snRNP-dependent cleavage in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we show that U2 snRNP associates with histone pre-mRNAs in vivo. We conclude that U2 snRNP plays a nonsplicing role in histone mRNA maturation.

  3. IGF-1/IGFBP-1 increases blastocyst formation and total blastocyst cell number in mouse embryo culture and facilitates the establishment of a stem-cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Teng-Tsao

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apoptosis occurs frequently for blastocysts cultured in vitro, where conditions are suboptimal to those found in the natural environment. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 plays an important role in preventing apoptosis in the early development of the embryo, as well as in the progressive regulation of organ development. We hypothesize that IGF-1 and its dephosphorylated binding protein (IGFBP-1 may be able to improve embryo culture with an associated reduced cell death, and that the resultant increase in the total cell number of the embryo could increase the chances of establishing an embryonic stem-cell line. Results In vivo fertilized zygotes were cultured in medium containing supplementary IGF-1, or IGFBP-1/IGF-1. The stages of the resultant embryos were evaluated at noon on day five post-hCG injection. The extent of apoptosis and necrosis was evaluated using Annexin V and propidium iodine staining under fluorescent microscopy. The establishment of embryonic stem-cell lines was performed using the hatching blastocysts that were cultured in the presence of IGF-1 or IGFBP-1/IGF-1. The results show that the rate of blastocyst formation in a tissue-culture system in the presence of IGF-1 was 88.7% and IGFBP-1/IGF-1 it was 94.6%, respectively, and that it was significantly greater than the figure for the control group (81.9%. IGFBP-1/IGF-1 also resulted in a higher hatching rate than was the case for the control group (68.8% vs. 48.6% respectively. IGF-1 also increased the number of Annexin V-free and propidium iodine-free blastocysts in culture (86.8% vs. 75.9% respectively. Total cell number of blastocyst in culture was increased by 18.9% for those examples cultured with dephosphorylated IGFBP-1/IGF-1. For subsequent stem-cell culture, the chances of the successful establishment of a stem-cell line was increased for the IGF-1 and IGFBP-1/IGF-1 groups (IGF-1 vs. IGFBP-1/IGF-1 vs. control: 45.8% vs. 59.6% vs. 27

  4. Facilitering som styringsredskab

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Karen Overgaard

    2006-01-01

    #This thesis surveys facilitation as a new tool of steering within the public sector in Denmark. It is explored how facilitation is articulated and practiced among facilitators from the public, private and voluntary sector. Furthermore, the facilitator’s challenges by using facilitation are examined. The thesis is based on the presumption that facilitation is articulated by rationalities, which influence how facilitation is practiced and performed. Also, a facilitator is seen as a performer a...

  5. GIS-facilitated spatial narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse; Jeppesen, Henrik; Kofie, Richard Y.

    2008-01-01

    -based' exploration of sites related to the narrative and as a tool that facilitates the design of spatial narratives before implementation within portable GIS devices. The Google Earth-based visualization of the spatial narrative is created by a Python script that outputs a web-accessible KML format file. The KML...

  6. Learning facilitating leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne

    2016-01-01

    in teaching facilitation and the literature. These types of skills are most effectively acquired by combining conceptual lectures, classroom exercises and the facilitation of groups in a real-life context. The paper also reflects certain ‘shadow sides’ related to facilitation observed by the students...

  7. Learning facilitating leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper explains how engineering students at a Danish university acquired the necessary skills to become emergent facilitators of organisational development. The implications of this approach are discussed and related to relevant viewpoints and findings in the literature. The methodology deplo....... By connecting the literature, the authors’ and engineering students’ reflections on facilitator skills, this paper adds value to existing academic and practical discussions on learning facilitating leadership....

  8. Visual explorer facilitator's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Palus, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    Grounded in research and practice, the Visual Explorer™ Facilitator's Guide provides a method for supporting collaborative, creative conversations about complex issues through the power of images. The guide is available as a component in the Visual Explorer Facilitator's Letter-sized Set, Visual Explorer Facilitator's Post card-sized Set, Visual Explorer Playing Card-sized Set, and is also available as a stand-alone title for purchase to assist multiple tool users in an organization.

  9. The challenges of facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika

    and at the same time make closures in order to secure progress in the process? The analysis draws upon theoretical perspectives on deliberative democracy and facilitation. Whereas, the scholarly literature on deliberative democracy is rich in describing potential outcomes and criteria for deliberative processes...... hours transcriptions of three table deliberations; questionnaires of 91 participants, 2 focus group interviews with participants and facilitators....

  10. Training facilitators and supervisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Louise Binow; O Connor, Maja; Krogh, Kristian;

    At the Master’s program in Medicine at Aarhus University, Denmark, we have developed a faculty development program for facilitators and supervisors in 4 progressing student modules in communication, cooperation, and leadership. 1) A course for module 1 and 3 facilitators inspired by the apprentic...

  11. GIS-facilitated spatial narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse; Jeppesen, Henrik; Kofie, Richard Y.

    2008-01-01

    -based' exploration of sites related to the narrative and as a tool that facilitates the design of spatial narratives before implementation within portable GIS devices. The Google Earth-based visualization of the spatial narrative is created by a Python script that outputs a web-accessible KML format file. The KML...... on the thematically and narrative linking of a set of locations within an area. A spatial narrative that describes the - largely unsuccessful - history of Danish plantations on the Gold Coast (1788-1850) is implemented through the Google Earth client. This client is seen both as a type of media in itself for ‘home...

  12. Facilitating Understandings of Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Christine C.; Bush, Sara

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates some learning encounters for facilitating first graders' understanding of geometry. Describes some of children's approaches using Cuisenaire rods and teacher's intervening. Presents six problems involving various combinations of Cuisenaire rods and cubes. (YP)

  13. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    Abstract This paper argues that knowledge sharing can be conceptualized as different situations of exchange in which individuals relate to each other in different ways, involving different rules, norms and traditions of reciprocity regulating the exchange. The main challenge for facilitating...... and the intermediaries regulating the exchange, and facilitating knowledge sharing should therefore be viewed as a continuum of practices under the influence of opportunistic behaviour, obedience or organizational citizenship behaviour. Keywords: Knowledge sharing, motivation, organizational settings, situations...

  14. Consistent wind Facilitates Vection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Ogawa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether a consistent haptic cue suggesting forward self-motion facilitated vection. We used a fan with no blades (Dyson, AM01 providing a wind of constant strength and direction (wind speed was 6.37 m/s to the subjects' faces with the visual stimuli visible through the fan. We used an optic flow of expansion or contraction created by positioning 16,000 dots at random inside a simulated cube (length 20 m, and moving the observer's viewpoint to simulate forward or backward self-motion of 16 m/s. we tested three conditions for fan operation, which were normal operation, normal operation with the fan reversed (ie, no wind, and no operation (no wind and no sound. Vection was facilitated by the wind (shorter latency, longer duration and larger magnitude values with the expansion stimuli. The fan noise did not facilitate vection. The wind neither facilitated nor inhibited vection with the contraction stimuli, perhaps because a headwind is not consistent with backward self-motion. We speculate that the consistency between multi modalities is a key factor in facilitating vection.

  15. Facilitation skills for trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cilliers

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop the facilitation skills of trainers. Facilitation is defined form the Person-Centered approach, as providing an opportunity for the trainee to experience personal growth and learning. A facilitation skills workshop was presented to 40 trainers, focussing on enhancing selfactualisation, its intra and inter personal characteristics, and attending and responding behaviour. Measurement with the Personal Orientation Inventory and Carkhuff scales, indicate enhanced cognitive, affective and conative sensitivity and interpersonal skills. A post-interview indicates the trainers experienced empowerment in dealing with the providing of opportunities for growth amongst trainees, in all kinds of training situations. Recommendations are made to enhance facilitation development amongst trainers. Opsomming Hierdie navorsing poog om die fasiliteringsvaardighede van opieiers te ontwikkel. Fasilitering word gedefinieer vanuit die Persoonsgesentreerde benadering as die beskikbaarstelling van 'n geleentheid om persoonlike groei en leer te ervaar. 'n Fasiliteringsvaardighede werkswinkel is aangebied vir 40 opieiers, met die fokus op die stimulering van selfaktualisering, die intra en interpersoonlike kenmerke daarvan, en aandagskenk- en responderings- gedrag. Meting met die Persoonlike Orientasievraelys en die Carkhuff skale, dui op n toename in kognitiewe, affektiewe en konatiewe sensitiwiteit en interpersoonlike vaardighede. n Post-onderhoud dui op die opleier se ervaarde bemagtiging in die beskikbaarstelling van groeigeleenthede vir opleidelinge, in all tipe opleidingsituasies. Aanbevelings word gemaak om die ontwikkeling van fasiliteringsvaardighede by opleiers te verhoog.

  16. From Teaching to Facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Graaff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    A shift from teaching to learning is characteristic of the introduction of Problem Based Learning (PBL) in an existing school. As a consequence the teaching staff has to be trained in skills like facilitating group work and writing cases. Most importantly a change in thinking about teaching...

  17. Facilitation of Adult Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Taking an autobiographical approach, I tell the story of my experiences facilitating adult development, in a polytechnic and as a management consultant. I relate these to a developmental framework of Modes of Being and Learning that I created and elaborated with colleagues. I connect this picture with a number of related models, theories,…

  18. Facilitation skills for nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Cilliers

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the pcrson-centered approach, facilitation in this study was conceptualised as providing opportunities for personal growth in the patient, and operationalised in a skills workshop for 40 nurses from different hospitals in Gauteng. The first objective was to evaluate the workshop and the second to ascertain its effect on the participant’s experienced performance. A combined quantitative and qualitative research design was used. The quantitative measurement (Personal Orientation Inventory, Carkhuff scales indicated that the workshop stimulated self-actualisation in terms of intrapersonal awareness, and the interpersonal skills of respect, realness, concreteness, empathy, as well as in terms of attending and responding behaviour. The qualitative measurement (a semi-structured interview indicated that the participants were able to empower patients to find their own answers to difficult personal questions. The alternative hypothesis was accepted, namely that this workshop in facilitations skills significantly enhanced the intra- and interpersonal characteristics associated with self-actualisation and the facilitation of growth in patients. The findings highlighted the difference between the two roles of instructor and facilitator, and recommendations to this effect were formulated.

  19. Facilitating leadership team communication

    OpenAIRE

    Hedman, Eerika

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand and describe how to facilitate competent communication in leadership teamwork. Grounded in the premises of social constructionism and informed by such theoretical frameworks as coordinated management of meaning theory (CMM), dialogic organization development (OD), systemic-constructionist leadership, communication competence, and reflexivity, this study seeks to produce further insights into understanding leadership team communicati...

  20. Mindfulness for group facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Krohn, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that mindfulness techniques can be used for enhancing the outcome of group performance. The word mindfulness has different connotations in the academic literature. Broadly speaking there is ‘mindfulness without meditation’ or ‘Western’ mindfulness which involves active...... thinking and ‘Eastern’ mindfulness which refers to an open, accepting state of mind, as intended with Buddhist-inspired techniques such as meditation. In this paper, we are interested in the latter type of mindfulness and demonstrate how Eastern mindfulness techniques can be used as a tool for facilitation....... A brief introduction to the physiology and philosophy of Eastern mindfulness constitutes the basis for the arguments of the effect of mindfulness techniques. The use of mindfulness techniques for group facilitation is novel as it changes the focus from individuals’ mindfulness practice...

  1. Facilitating Learning at Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib; Elsborg, Steen

    2011-01-01

    and facilitate a variety of simple learning techniques at thirty one- and two-day conferences of up to 300 participants each. We present ten of these techniques and data evaluating them. We conclude that if conference organizers allocate a fraction of the total conference time to facilitated processes......The typical conference consists of a series of PowerPoint presentations that tend to render participants passive. Students of learning have long abandoned the transfer model that underlies such one-way communication. We propose an al-ternative theory of conferences that sees them as a forum...... for learning, mutual inspiration and human flourishing. We offer five design principles that specify how conferences may engage participants more and hence increase their learning. In the research-and-development effort reported here, our team collaborated with conference organizers in Denmark to introduce...

  2. Program Facilitates Distributed Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    KNET computer program facilitates distribution of computing between UNIX-compatible local host computer and remote host computer, which may or may not be UNIX-compatible. Capable of automatic remote log-in. User communicates interactively with remote host computer. Data output from remote host computer directed to local screen, to local file, and/or to local process. Conversely, data input from keyboard, local file, or local process directed to remote host computer. Written in ANSI standard C language.

  3. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This paper argues that knowledge sharing can be conceptualized as different situations of exchange in which individuals relate to each other in different ways, involving different rules, norms and traditions of reciprocity regulating the exchange. The main challenge for facilitating knowledge sharing is to ensure that the exchange is seen as equitable for the parties involved, and by viewing the problems of knowledge sharing as motivational problems situated in different organization...

  4. Facilitative root interactions in intercrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Jensen, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    Facilitation takes place when plants ameliorate the environment of their neighbours, and increase their growth and survival. Facilitation occurs in natural ecosystems as well as in agroecosystems. We discuss examples of facilitative root interactions in intercropped agroecosystems; including...... intensified cropping systems using chemical and mechanical inputs also show that facilitative interactions definitely can be of significance. It is concluded that a better understanding of the mechanisms behind facilitative interactions may allow us to benefit more from these phenomena in agriculture...

  5. Essence: Facilitating Software Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2008-01-01

      This paper suggests ways to facilitate creativity and innovation in software development. The paper applies four perspectives – Product, Project, Process, and People –to identify an outlook for software innovation. The paper then describes a new facility–Software Innovation Research Lab (SIRL......) – and a new method concept for software innovation – Essence – based on views, modes, and team roles. Finally, the paper reports from an early experiment using SIRL and Essence and identifies further research....

  6. Expert and novice facilitated modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical study based on action research in which expert and novice facilitators in facilitated modelling workshops are compared. There is limited empirical research analysing the differences between expert and novice facilitators. Aiming to address this gap we study...

  7. Program Facilitates CMMI Appraisals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetser, Wesley

    2005-01-01

    A computer program has been written to facilitate appraisals according to the methodology of Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). [CMMI is a government/industry standard, maintained by the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, for objectively assessing the engineering capability and maturity of an organization (especially, an organization that produces software)]. The program assists in preparation for a CMMI appraisal by providing drop-down lists suggesting required artifacts or evidence. It identifies process areas for which similar evidence is required and includes a copy feature that reduces or eliminates repetitive data entry. It generates reports to show the entire framework for reference, the appraisal artifacts to determine readiness for an appraisal, and lists of interviewees and questions to ask them during the appraisal. During an appraisal, the program provides screens for entering observations and ratings, and reviewing evidence provided thus far. Findings concerning strengths and weaknesses can be exported for use in a report or a graphical presentation. The program generates a chart showing capability level ratings of the organization. A context-sensitive Windows help system enables a novice to use the program and learn about the CMMI appraisal process.

  8. Facilitating post traumatic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Helen

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst negative responses to traumatic injury have been well documented in the literature, there is a small but growing body of work that identifies posttraumatic growth as a salient feature of this experience. We contribute to this discourse by reporting on the experiences of 13 individuals who were traumatically injured, had undergone extensive rehabilitation and were discharged from formal care. All participants were injured through involvement in a motor vehicle accident, with the exception of one, who was injured through falling off the roof of a house. Methods In this qualitative study, we used an audio-taped in-depth interview with each participant as the means of data collection. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically to determine the participants' unique perspectives on the experience of recovery from traumatic injury. In reporting the findings, all participants' were given a pseudonym to assure their anonymity. Results Most participants indicated that their involvement in a traumatic occurrence was a springboard for growth that enabled them to develop new perspectives on life and living. Conclusion There are a number of contributions that health providers may make to the recovery of individuals who have been traumatically injured to assist them to develop new views of vulnerability and strength, make changes in relationships, and facilitate philosophical, physical and spiritual growth.

  9. Facilitating post traumatic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, de Sales; Cox, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Background Whilst negative responses to traumatic injury have been well documented in the literature, there is a small but growing body of work that identifies posttraumatic growth as a salient feature of this experience. We contribute to this discourse by reporting on the experiences of 13 individuals who were traumatically injured, had undergone extensive rehabilitation and were discharged from formal care. All participants were injured through involvement in a motor vehicle accident, with the exception of one, who was injured through falling off the roof of a house. Methods In this qualitative study, we used an audio-taped in-depth interview with each participant as the means of data collection. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically to determine the participants' unique perspectives on the experience of recovery from traumatic injury. In reporting the findings, all participants' were given a pseudonym to assure their anonymity. Results Most participants indicated that their involvement in a traumatic occurrence was a springboard for growth that enabled them to develop new perspectives on life and living. Conclusion There are a number of contributions that health providers may make to the recovery of individuals who have been traumatically injured to assist them to develop new views of vulnerability and strength, make changes in relationships, and facilitate philosophical, physical and spiritual growth. PMID:15248894

  10. The Conic Benchmark Format

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Henrik A.

    This document constitutes the technical reference manual of the Conic Benchmark Format with le extension: .cbf or .CBF. It unies linear, second-order cone (also known as conic quadratic) and semidenite optimization with mixed-integer variables. The format has been designed with benchmark libraries...... in mind, and therefore focuses on compact and easily parsable representations. The problem structure is separated from the problem data, and the format moreover facilitate benchmarking of hotstart capability through sequences of changes....

  11. Facilitated Communication in Mainstream Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington-Gurney, Jane; Crossley, Rosemary

    Facilitated communication is described as a method of training communication partners or facilitators to provide physical assistance to communication aid users, to help them overcome physical and emotional problems in using their aids. In Melbourne (Victoria, Australia), the DEAL (Dignity, Education and Language) Centre has identified 96 people…

  12. CLIP-170 facilitates the formation of kinetochore-microtubule attachments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanenbaum, ME; Galjart, N; van Vugt, MATM; Medema, RH

    2006-01-01

    CLIP-170 is a microtubule 'plus end tracking' protein involved in several microtubule-dependent processes in interphase. At the onset of mitosis, CLIP-170 localizes to kinetochores, but at metaphase, it is no longer detectable at kinetochores. Although RNA interference (RNAi) experiments have

  13. Learning to Facilitate (Online) Meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Peter; Bull, Susan; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    We describe an approach to teaching collaboration skills directly by building on competences for meeting facilitation. (Online) meetings provide a rich arena to practice collaboration since they can serve multiple purposes: learning, problem solving, decision making, idea generation and advancement......, etc.. We argue that facilitating meetings is a competence worth developing in students and describe the main knowledge and skill components that pertain to this competence. We then describe some implemented software tools that can be used in schools and colleges to provide opportunities for practicing...... and developing group facilitation skills....

  14. Den gode facilitator af refleksionsarbejde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Pia

    2009-01-01

    tværfaglig lektorgruppe fra social og sundhedssektoren.’Learning by doing’, selvevaluering og sparring følger herefter som bud på, hvordan man kan leve op til de tilsyneladende ret utopiske krav til en god facilitator. At kunne skabe det tillidsfulde refleksionsrum og at kunne stille gode...... præsenteres i det følgende afsnit, og forfatteren argumenterer for begrebet facilitator af refleksionsarbejde. Herefter udfoldes rollen som facilitator ifølge Ghay og Lillyman. De har fokus på positive praksisoplevelser og tillidsfulde relationer. Gillie Boltons teoretiske og praktiske referenceramme...... for facilitatorrollen beskrives herefter. Bolton beskriver refleksionsarbejde som en fysisk (ikke ren kognitiv), passioneret (ikke ren intellektuel) kontekstbunden kunstnerisk proces, som kræver flair, stil og intuition. I de følgende afsnit beskrives den gode facilitator af refleksionsarbejde detaljeret af en...

  15. Facilitating Value Co-Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veith, Anne; Assaf, Albert; Josiassen, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    ) introduced a new dominant logic in the marketing literature, the Service-Dominant Logic (S-D Logic), in which service, interactions, and enhanced experiences help create value, and this potential for value is what attracts consumers. Therefore organizations must be customer-centric in order to facilitate...... unique, positive experiences. As the name indicates, both organizations and consumers (should) obtain value when co-creating, which is why both parties are willing to increase their degree of involvement, e.g. spending more resources, sharing tacit knowledge, etc., because a high degree of involvement....... Through an exploratory qualitative study, 9 facilitators for B2C value co-creation were uncovered. The study was set in the creative industries. The 9 facilitators are a combination of the main facilitators found in the literature review and the ones found through the empirical research. The 9...

  16. Facilitation as a Governance Strategy: Unravelling Governments’ Facilitation Frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Grotenbreg (Sanne); M.W. van Buuren (Arwin)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractGovernments increasingly choose facilitation as a strategy to entice others to produce public goods and services, including in relation to the realisation of sustainable energy innovations. An important instrument to implement this governance strategy is discursive framing. To learn how

  17. Facilitation as a governance strategy: Unravelling governments' facilitation frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grotenbreg, S. (Sanne); M.W. van Buuren (Arwin)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractGovernments increasingly choose facilitation as a strategy to entice others to produce public goods and services, including in relation to the realisation of sustainable energy innovations. An important instrument to implement this governance strategy is discursive framing. To learn how

  18. Facilitation of learning: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Tyler; Trish, Houghton; Barry, Debbie

    2016-04-06

    This article, the fourth in a series of 11, discusses the context for the facilitation of learning. It outlines the main principles and theories for understanding the process of learning, including examples which link these concepts to practice. The practical aspects of using these theories in a practice setting will be discussed in the fifth article of this series. Together, these two articles will provide mentors and practice teachers with knowledge of the learning process, which will enable them to meet the second domain of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice on facilitation of learning.

  19. Corpus Linguistics Facilitates English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱思亲

    2014-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has been widely applied in English teaching. Corpus linguistics has changed the way to teach English. The essay discusses two approaches in English teaching based on corpus, corpus-driven approach and corpus-based approach. It finds out that both corpus-driven approach and corpus-based approach facilitate English teaching in their own ways.

  20. Brug af mindfulness til facilitering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Krohn, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Gennem de senere år er mindfulness gået fra udelukkende at være en eksistentiel praksis til også at være en behandlingsform og senest til også at blive brugt som et praktisk redskab i erhvervslivet. Denne artikel viser, at mindfulness også kan anvendes i forbindelse med facilitering. Facilitering...... er et værktøj, som bruges i arbejdslivet fx til møder og konferencer, hvor en gruppe mennesker er samlet for at lære eller udrette noget sammen. Det nye ved at kombinere mindfulness med facilitering er, at fokus hermed ændres fra individet, som er centrum for den eksistentielle fordybelse eller det...... terapeutiske forløb, til gruppen, som er udgangspunktet i facilitering. Artiklen viser, hvordan mindfulness konkret kan bruges på gruppeniveau og diskuterer samtidig hvilke problemer, der kan være forbundet hermed. Baseret på vores egne erfaringer, diskuterer vi, hvordan mindfulness kan påvirke en gruppes...

  1. Facilitating Creativity in Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kuan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Creativity in education research has received increasing attention, although the major focus of this research has been on children. Despite pleas by several adult educators for promoting creativity, very few studies have focused on adult learners, leaving to it to be explored what approaches are useful for adult educators to facilitate creativity…

  2. Learning to Facilitate (Online) Meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Peter; Bull, Susan; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    , etc.. We argue that facilitating meetings is a competence worth developing in students and describe the main knowledge and skill components that pertain to this competence. We then describe some implemented software tools that can be used in schools and colleges to provide opportunities for practicing...

  3. Facilitating Conditions for School Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; McInerney, Dennis M.

    Primary and high school students (277 in grades 5-6; 615 in grades 7-12) in the United States (47 percent boys) responded to 26 items of the Facilitating Conditions Questionnaire (FCQ). Results indicate 7 distinct FCQ factors: perceived value of schooling; affect toward schooling; peer positive academic climate (Peer Positive); encouragement from…

  4. Corticotomy facilitated orthodontics: Review of a technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGhamdi, Ali Saad Thafeed

    2009-01-01

    Corticotomy found to be effective in accelerating orthodontic treatment. The most important factors in the success of this technique is proper case selection and careful surgical and orthodontic treatment. Corticotomy facilitated orthodontics advocated for comprehensive fixed orthodontic appliances in conjunction with full thickness flaps and labial and lingual corticotomies around teeth to be moved. Bone graft should be applied directly over the bone cuts and the flap sutured in place. Tooth movement should be initiated two weeks after the surgery, and every two weeks thereafter by activation of the orthodontic appliance. Orthodontic treatment time with this technique will be reduced to one-third the time of conventional orthodontics. Alveolar augmentation of labial and lingual cortical plates were used in an effort to enhance and strengthen the periodontium, reasoning that the addition of bone to alveolar housing of the teeth, using modern bone grafting techniques, ensures root coverage as the dental arch expanded. Corticotomy facilitated orthodontics is promising procedure but only few cases were reported in the literature. Controlled clinical and histological studies are needed to understand the biology of tooth movement with this procedure, the effect on teeth and bone, post-retention stability, measuring the volume of mature bone formation, and determining the status of the periodontium and roots after treatment. PMID:23960473

  5. Shear stress facilitates tissue-engineered odontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, M J; Shinohara, Y; Sumita, Y; Tonomura, A; Kagami, H; Ueda, M

    2006-07-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the effect of shear stress on osteoblasts, but its effect on odontogenic cells has never been reported. In this study, we focused on the effect of shear stress on facilitating tissue-engineered odontogenesis by dissociated single cells. Cells were harvested from the porcine third molar tooth at the early stage of crown formation, and the isolated heterogeneous cells were seeded on a biodegradable polyglycolic acid fiber mesh. Then, cell-polymer constructs with and without exposure to shear stress were evaluated by in vitro and in vivo studies. In in vitro studies, the expression of both epithelial and mesenchymal odontogenic-related mRNAs was significantly enhanced by shear stress for 2 h. At 12 h after exposure to shear stress, the expression of amelogenin, bone sialoprotein and vimentin protein was significantly enhanced compared with that of control. Moreover, after 7 days, alkaline phosphatase activity exhibited a significant increase without any significant effect on cell proliferation in vitro. In vivo, enamel and dentin tissues formed after 15 weeks of in vivo implantation in constructs exposure to in vitro shear stress for 12 h. Such was not the case in controls. We concluded that shear stress facilitates odontogenic cell differentiation in vitro as well as the process of tooth tissue engineering in vivo.

  6. Patient advocacy: barriers and facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikravesh Mansoure

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the two recent decades, advocacy has been a topic of much debate in the nursing profession. Although advocacy has embraced a crucial role for nurses, its extent is often limited in practice. While a variety of studies have been generated all over the world, barriers and facilitators in the patient advocacy have not been completely identified. This article presents the findings of a study exploring the barriers and facilitators influencing the role of advocacy among Iranian nurses. Method This study was conducted by grounded theory method. Participants were 24 Iranian registered nurses working in a large university hospital in Tehran, Iran. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and simultaneously Constant comparative analysis was used according to the Strauss and Corbin method. Results Through data analysis, several main themes emerged to describe the factors that hindered or facilitated patient advocacy. Nurses in this study identified powerlessness, lack of support, law, code of ethics and motivation, limited communication, physicians leading, risk of advocacy, royalty to peers, and insufficient time to interact with patients and families as barriers to advocacy. As for factors that facilitated nurses to act as a patient advocate, it was found that the nature of nurse-patient relationship, recognizing patients' needs, nurses' responsibility, physician as a colleague, and nurses' knowledge and skills could be influential in adopting the advocacy role. Conclusion Participants believed that in this context taking an advocacy role is difficult for nurses due to the barriers mentioned. Therefore, they make decisions and act as a patient's advocate in any situation concerning patient needs and status of barriers and facilitators. In most cases, they can not act at an optimal level; instead they accept only what they can do, which we called 'limited advocacy' in

  7. Facilitating Facilitators to Facilitate, in Problem or Enquiry Based Learning Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Problem based learning (PBL) has been used in dental education over the past 20 years and uses a patient case scenario to stimulate learning in a small group setting, where a trained facilitator does not teach but guides the group to bring about deep contextualized learning, to be empathetic to each other and to encourage fair and equitable…

  8. On novice facilitators doing research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Opportunities for novices to facilitate Problem Structuring Methods (PSMs) workshops are limited, especially because of a lack of access to real-world interventions and confidence in their capabilities. Novices are usually young academics building their careers through publishing. Publishing...... is challenging if facilitation and opportunities for data collection are limited. To address this challenge, this paper suggests autoethnography as a framework for addressing difficulties that novices face in conducting research and publishing on PSMs. This suggestion grows out of a literature study...... on autoethnography and PSMs combined with reflections on the author’s experience as a PSM novice and young academic. Autoethnography is presented as a means to enable access to real-world interventions, enhance novices’ confidence, and identify research and publishing opportunities. The author outlines strengths...

  9. Usage Record Format Recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsen, J.K.; Muller-Pfeerkorn, R

    2013-01-01

    For resources to be shared, sites must be able to exchange basic accounting and usage data in a common format. This document describes a common format which enables the exchange of basic accounting and usage data from different resources. This record format is intended to facilitate the sharing of usage information, particularly in the area of the accounting of jobs, computing, memory, storage and cloud usage but with a structure that allows an easy extension to other resources. This document describes the Usage Record components both in natural language form and annotated XML. This document does not address how these records should be used, nor does it attempt to dictate the format in which the accounting records are stored. Instead, it denes a common exchange format. Furthermore, nothing is said regarding the communication mechanisms employed to exchange the records, i.e. transport layer, framing, authentication, integrity, etc.

  10. Stochastic facilitation in the brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Lawrence M.; Greenwood, Priscilla E.

    2016-05-01

    We describe the context for three unsolved problems of noise in the brain as well as provide some new results relevant to one of them. The problems are: are neural oscillations better described as noisy limit cycles or as noise-driven quasicycles, does noise facilitate synchronization and information transmission in the brain, and do noise-driven spatial patterns (quasipatterns) coexist with noise-driven quasicycles in the brain? We provide a few new results indicating that, in models at least, spatial quasipatterns of quasicycles can occur, and resemble patterns observed in other areas, such as predator-prey systems and chemical reactions.

  11. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Campeanu

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  12. Facilitation of learning: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Tyler; Houghton, Trish; Barry, Debbie

    2016-04-27

    The previous article in this series of 11, Facilitation of learning: part 1, reviewed learning theories and how they relate to clinical practice. Developing an understanding of these theories is essential for mentors and practice teachers to enable them to deliver evidence-based learning support. This is important given that effective learning support is dependent on an educator who possesses knowledge of their specialist area as well as the relevent tools and methods to support learning. The second domain of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice relates to the facilitation of learning. To fulfil this domain, mentors and practice teachers are required to demonstrate their ability to recognise the needs of learners and provide appropriate support to meet those needs. This article expands on some of the discussions from part 1 of this article and considers these from a practical perspective, in addition to introducing some of the tools that can be used to support learning.

  13. Challenges facing PBL tutors: 12 tips for successful group facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A

    2005-12-01

    One of the main tasks of a problem-based learning (PBL) tutor is to facilitate group discussion. Group facilitation is about process rather than content. In this process, a tutor helps the group increase their skills and progress in their discussion. Several studies have highlighted strategies and training used in preparing PBL tutors. However, PBL tutors usually feel that it is not that easy to change their teaching style to the PBL format. They are sometimes unsure about their role or what strategy they might use to facilitate their students' discussion. This article in the '12 Tips' series is a detailed description of, and provides answers to, common challenges faced by PBL tutors. The tips provided in this manuscript should help tutors with practical answers. The article may be useful to PBL tutors, medical and health educators and those responsible for PBL training workshops.

  14. Facilitating facilitators to facilitate, in problem or enquiry based learning sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Coelho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Problem based learning (PBL has been used in dental education over the past 20 years and uses a patient case scenario to stimulate learning in a small group setting, where a trained facilitator does not teach but guides the group to bring about deep contextualized learning, to be empathetic to each other and to encourage fair and equitable contribution from individual learners. Learners are encouraged to appreciate that they individually perform better when they actively participate in the group and share resources, than when they learn in isolation (Bandura, 1977, Freire, 1972, Lave and Wenger, 1991, Kolb, 1984 and Vygotsky, 1978.

  15. Facilitating Value Co-Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veith, Anne; Assaf, Albert; Josiassen, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    ) introduced a new dominant logic in the marketing literature, the Service-Dominant Logic (S-D Logic), in which service, interactions, and enhanced experiences help create value, and this potential for value is what attracts consumers. Therefore organizations must be customer-centric in order to facilitate...... unique, positive experiences. As the name indicates, both organizations and consumers (should) obtain value when co-creating, which is why both parties are willing to increase their degree of involvement, e.g. spending more resources, sharing tacit knowledge, etc., because a high degree of involvement......). Therefore, for instance, being part of the process is a key incentive for consumers. Postmodern consumers' search for unique experiences calls for individualization, personalization, etc. Although Prahalad & Ramaswamy (2004), Karpen et al. (2008), and Karpen et al. (2011) have presented S-D Logic...

  16. Facilitating Collaboration through Design Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Eva; Messeter, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    In recent years both companies and research communities call for collaborative work practices and user-centered approaches in various design fields. There are several challenges and issues to take into consideration. For instance there is a need to find ways of collaborating across various...... in collaboration with industrial partners and potential users, and use of the games in three educational settings.The overall aim of the design games is to help facilitate a user-centered design process for cross-disciplinary design groups early in the design process. Framing collaborative design activities...... understanding of the development task. This paper presents a set of four design games, which offers solutions to the challenges mentioned. The design games have been developed in the Space Studio during several projects and years. Here experiences are discussed on the basis of two research projects carried out...

  17. Facilitating Conversations about Managerial Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mona Toft

    for identity work was introduced. The empirical starting point was progressive performativity and constructionistic process consultation with the intention to engage with a practical context, a company. The empirical study was based on a) individual interviews with three middle managers in a project......-based organization in the engineering consulting sector b) a reflection meeting, where the same three managers were gathered, and conversations were facilitated based on identity work in the context of earlier interviews. More specifically, three themes were discussed; flat organizational structure, tensions between...... project work and professional development, and the role of Department Heads. Theoretically, the study contributes to discussions on the need for legitimizing different mixtures of bureaucratic and post bureaucratic ideals. Methodological reflections are made in the discussion as well....

  18. Facilitating The Medical Response Into An Active Shooter Hot Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    diagram from Figure 5 from Snowden, this time (see Figure 18) in a more relaxed format. The response to an active shooter incident falls into the left...THE MEDICAL RESPONSE INTO AN ACTIVE SHOOTER HOT ZONE by Martin T. Tierney June 2016 Thesis Co-Advisors: Nadav Morag Patrick Miller...Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FACILITATING THE MEDICAL RESPONSE INTO AN ACTIVE SHOOTER HOT ZONE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Martin

  19. Facilitating submetering implementation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, M.A.

    1996-05-01

    Residential submetering is the measurement and billing of electric use in individual apartments in master-metered buildings. In master-metered building situations, residents do not bear electricity costs in proportion to consumption levels. As a result, studies have confirmed that residents in master-metered buildings tend to consume more electricity than residents with individual apartment metering, and have established electrical submetering as an effective energy conservation measure. The New York State Energy Research & Development Authority (NYSERDA) has commissioned a project called Facilitating Submetering Implementation to identify and analyze barriers to the implementation of residential electrical submetering in New York and to formulate recommendations that would facilitate the removal of these barriers, streamlining the process. Experienced professionals in the technical, legal, regulatory, analytical, financial, and other aspects of submetering were retained to interview key interested parties and conduct public forums. This and other data were then analyzed to ascertain the barriers to submetering and develop recommendations designed to reduce or eliminate these barriers. The key barriers to submetering implementation were found to be the Public Service Commission (PSC) requirement for a vote of a majority of shareholders (for coops and condos) and the high initial cost that cannot easily be recouped by owners of both rental and shareholder-owned buildings. The key recommendations are to repeal the voting requirement, maintain the utility incentives, adopt a uniform dispute resolution mechanism, and increase awareness through an Ad-hoc Submetering Committee and supporting educational materials. Other funding sources not fully available can also be made available with regulatory agency support.

  20. Facilitating Analysis of Multiple Partial Data Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimone, Mark W.; Liebersbach, Robert R.

    2008-01-01

    Robotic Operations Automation: Mechanisms, Imaging, Navigation report Generation (ROAMING) is a set of computer programs that facilitates and accelerates both tactical and strategic analysis of time-sampled data especially the disparate and often incomplete streams of Mars Explorer Rover (MER) telemetry data described in the immediately preceding article. As used here, tactical refers to the activities over a relatively short time (one Martian day in the original MER application) and strategic refers to a longer time (the entire multi-year MER missions in the original application). Prior to installation, ROAMING must be configured with the types of data of interest, and parsers must be modified to understand the format of the input data (many example parsers are provided, including for general CSV files). Thereafter, new data from multiple disparate sources are automatically resampled into a single common annotated spreadsheet stored in a readable space-separated format, and these data can be processed or plotted at any time scale. Such processing or plotting makes it possible to study not only the details of a particular activity spanning only a few seconds, but also longer-term trends. ROAMING makes it possible to generate mission-wide plots of multiple engineering quantities [e.g., vehicle tilt as in Figure 1(a), motor current, numbers of images] that, heretofore could be found only in thousands of separate files. ROAMING also supports automatic annotation of both images and graphs. In the MER application, labels given to terrain features by rover scientists and engineers are automatically plotted in all received images based on their associated camera models (see Figure 2), times measured in seconds are mapped to Mars local time, and command names or arbitrary time-labeled events can be used to label engineering plots, as in Figure 1(b).

  1. Evaluation of the Facilitated Communication Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Martin, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The Office of Special Education and Student Services asked the Office of Shared Accountability to evaluate the "Facilitated Communication Pilot." In facilitated communication (FC), people with communication impairments express themselves by typing with the aid of a communication partner, called a facilitator, who provides physical (and…

  2. Free radical facilitated damage of ungual keratin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khengar, Rajeshree H; Brown, Marc B; Turner, Rob B; Traynor, Matthew J; Holt, Katherine B; Jones, Stuart A

    2010-09-01

    Thioglycolic acid (TA) and urea hydrogen peroxide (urea H(2)O(2)) are thought to disrupt alpha-keratin disulfide links in the nail. However, optimal clinical use of these agents to improve the treatment of nail disorders is currently hindered by a lack of fundamental data to support their mechanism of action. The aim of this study was to investigate how the redox environment of ungual keratin, when manipulated by TA and urea H(2)O(2), influenced the properties of the nail barrier. Potentiometric and voltammetric measurements demonstrated that urea H(2)O(2) obeyed the Nernst equation for a proton coupled one-electron transfer redox process while TA underwent a series of redox reactions that was complicated by electrode adsorption and dimer formation. The functional studies demonstrated that nail permeability, measured through TBF penetration (38.51+/-10.94 microg/cm(2)/h) and nail swelling (244.10+/-14.99% weight increase), was greatest when relatively low concentrations of the thiolate ion were present in the applied solution. Limiting the thiolate ion to low levels in the solution retards thiolate dimerisation and generates thiyl free radicals. It appeared that this free radical generation was fundamental in facilitating the redox-mediated keratin disruption of the ungual membrane. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An enhanced archive facilitating climate impacts analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, E.P.; Brekke, L.; Pruitt, T.; Thrasher, B.; Long, J.; Duffy, P.; Dettinger, M.; Cayan, D.; Arnold, J.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the expansion of a publicly available archive of downscaled climate and hydrology projections for the United States. Those studying or planning to adapt to future climate impacts demand downscaled climate model output for local or regional use. The archive we describe attempts to fulfill this need by providing data in several formats, selectable to meet user needs. Our archive has served as a resource for climate impacts modelers, water managers, educators, and others. Over 1,400 individuals have transferred more than 50 TB of data from the archive. In response to user demands, the archive has expanded from monthly downscaled data to include daily data to facilitate investigations of phenomena sensitive to daily to monthly temperature and precipitation, including extremes in these quantities. New developments include downscaled output from the new Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) climate model simulations at both the monthly and daily time scales, as well as simulations of surface hydrologi- cal variables. The web interface allows the extraction of individual projections or ensemble statistics for user-defined regions, promoting the rapid assessment of model consensus and uncertainty for future projections of precipitation, temperature, and hydrology. The archive is accessible online (http://gdo-dcp.ucllnl.org/downscaled_ cmip_projections).

  4. Anthocyanins facilitate tungsten accumulation in Brassica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, K.L.

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation of molybdenum in Brassica was recently found to be correlated with anthocyanin content, involving the formation of a blue complex. Here the role of anthocyanins in tungsten sequestration was investigated using three species of Brassica: B. rapa (cv. Fast plants), B. juncea (Indian mustard) and B. oleracea (red cabbage). Seedlings of B. rapa and B. juncea turned blue when supplied with colourless tungstate. The blue compound co-localized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers, and the degree of blueness was correlated with anthocyanin content. The direct involvement of anthocyanins in the blue coloration was evident when purified anthocyanins showed a colour change from pink to blue in vitro upon addition of tungstate, over a wide pH range. Anthocyanin production was upregulated 3-fold by W in B. juncea, possibly reflecting a function for anthocyanins in W tolerance or sequestration. The presence of anthocyanins facilitated W accumulation in B. rapa: anthocyanin-containing seedlings accumulated 3-fold more W than an anthocyaninless mutant. There was no correlation between anthocyanin content and W tolerance under these conditions. The nature of the interaction between anthocyanins and tungstate was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed no change in the local chemical environment of Wupon uptake of tungstate by the plant; HPLC analysis of purified anthocyanin with or without tungstate showed no peak shift after metal treatment.

  5. Facilitating peer learning in study groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller

    2009-01-01

    the preliminary results from the facilitated study groups. After one term (February-May), student satisfaction with both the social and the disciplinary environment had increased. The project shows how academic and social integration can be achieved with minimum faculty member involvement. This is done by relying...... 'Facilitating study environment' at one of DPU's educations in spring 2009. The pilot project consisted of three elements: Facilitated study groups, a student bar with facilitated activities, and academic identity events. Subsequently, we have studied students' experiences with the project. This paper outlines...... on the students' own resources, using peer-learning and facilitating these activities....

  6. Social facilitation of wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detillion, Courtney E; Craft, Tara K S; Glasper, Erica R; Prendergast, Brian J; DeVries, A Courtney

    2004-09-01

    It is well documented that psychological stress impairs wound healing in humans and rodents. However, most research effort into influences on wound healing has focused on factors that compromise, rather than promote, healing. In the present study, we determined if positive social interaction, which influences hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in social rodents, promotes wound healing. Siberian hamsters received a cutaneous wound and then were exposed to immobilization stress. Stress increased cortisol concentrations and impaired wound healing in isolated, but not socially housed, hamsters. Removal of endogenous cortisol via adrenalectomy eliminated the effects of stress on wound healing in isolated hamsters. Treatment of isolated hamsters with oxytocin (OT), a hormone released during social contact and associated with social bonding, also blocked stress-induced increases in cortisol concentrations and facilitated wound healing. In contrast, treating socially housed hamsters with an OT antagonist delayed wound healing. Taken together, these data suggest that social interactions buffer against stress and promote wound healing through a mechanism that involves OT-induced suppression of the HPA axis. The data imply that social isolation impairs wound healing, whereas OT treatment may ameliorate some effects of social isolation on health.

  7. The spatial arrangement of chromosomes during prometaphase facilitates spindle assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magidson, Valentin; O'Connell, Christopher B; Lončarek, Jadranka; Paul, Raja; Mogilner, Alex; Khodjakov, Alexey

    2011-08-19

    Error-free chromosome segregation requires stable attachment of sister kinetochores to the opposite spindle poles (amphitelic attachment). Exactly how amphitelic attachments are achieved during spindle assembly remains elusive. We employed photoactivatable GFP and high-resolution live-cell confocal microscopy to visualize complete 3D movements of individual kinetochores throughout mitosis in nontransformed human cells. Combined with electron microscopy, molecular perturbations, and immunofluorescence analyses, this approach reveals unexpected details of chromosome behavior. Our data demonstrate that unstable lateral interactions between kinetochores and microtubules dominate during early prometaphase. These transient interactions lead to the reproducible arrangement of chromosomes in an equatorial ring on the surface of the nascent spindle. A computational model predicts that this toroidal distribution of chromosomes exposes kinetochores to a high density of microtubules which facilitates subsequent formation of amphitelic attachments. Thus, spindle formation involves a previously overlooked stage of chromosome prepositioning which promotes formation of amphitelic attachments.

  8. Galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Silk, Joseph; Dvorkin, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In Lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In Lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  9. Soil formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.; Buurman, P.

    1998-01-01

    Soil Formation deals with qualitative and quantitative aspects of soil formation (or pedogenesis) and the underlying chemical, biological, and physical processes. The starting point of the text is the process - and not soil classification. Effects of weathering and new formation of minerals, mobilis

  10. The social facilitation of eating. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C Peter

    2015-03-01

    The social facilitation of eating (i.e., people eating more in groups than when alone) has been studied for about three decades now. In this paper, we review the empirical research (diary studies, observational studies, and experimental studies) of social facilitation, attending to factors that increase or decrease socially facilitated eating. We also review the various explanations (e.g., "time extension") that have been offered for the effect and offer our own speculations as to the underlying mechanisms. Further, we discuss promising directions for future research on the social facilitation of eating. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ghana - Land Tenure Facilitation Impact Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The MCC-supported Land Title Facilitation Activity (LTF) in Ghana was designed to increase investment and productivity by strengthening property rights. In Ghana,...

  12. Facilitation of calcium-dependent potassium current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S H

    1994-12-01

    The activation of Ca-dependent K+ current, Ic, was studied in macropatches on the cell bodies of molluscan neurons. When a depolarizing voltage-clamp pulse was applied repeatedly, Ic facilitated in a manner that resembled the facilitation of synaptic transmitter release. Facilitation was characterized by an increase in Ic amplitude, a progressive increase in instantaneous outward current, and a decrease in utilization time. Experiments were done to investigate the mechanism responsible for Ic facilitation. Facilitation was reduced by microinjection of an exogenous Ca2+ buffer into the cytoplasm, indicating that facilitation is a Ca(2+)-dependent process. It was also reduced at elevated temperatures. Conversely, facilitation was greatly potentiated by blocking the Na/Ca exchange mechanism. It is concluded that the facilitation of Ca-dependent K+ current results from the accumulation of Ca2+ at the inner face of the membrane during the repeated activation of Ca2+ channels by depolarization. The Ca2+ indicator fluo-3 was used in fluorescence imaging experiments to measure changes in [Ca]i near the cell membrane during repeated depolarizing pulses and the interpretation of these results was aided by numerical simulations of Ca2+ accumulation, diffusion, and buffering in the peripheral cytoplasm. These experiments showed that the time course of Ic facilitation matches the time course of Ca2+ accumulation at the membrane. It was found that the strength of Ic facilitation varies among patches on the same neuron, suggesting that the accumulation of Ca2+ is not uniform along the inner surface of the membrane and that gradients in [Ca]i develop and are maintained during trains of depolarizing pulses. Potential mechanisms that may lead to local differences in Ca2+ accumulation and Ic facilitation are discussed.

  13. Modifiers for quality assurance in group facilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolfschoten, G.L.; Grünbacher, P.; Briggs, R.O.

    2011-01-01

    A key task of a professional facilitator is to assure the quality of the knowledge products created through collaborative effort. To manage the quality of the knowledge a group generates, facilitators attend to, judge, and question the quality of the contributions a group makes, the decisions it mak

  14. Teachers as Friendship Facilitators: Respeto and Personalismo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Ann P.; Pereira, Lourdes; Blue-Banning, Martha

    2000-01-01

    This article highlights three teachers who were actively involved as friendship facilitators by illuminating their use of a friendship-facilitator framework with three students with moderate/severe disabilities. The framework includes three strategies: finding opportunities to bring children and youth together, acknowledging individual strengths…

  15. Reconceptualizing the Pedagogical Value of Student Facilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztok, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Sustained discourse is critical to the learning potential of online courses. And, while research has surfaced many factors that mediate interaction, it further suggests that sustained interaction remains elusive. In this paper, I propose that student facilitation may have an impact on the quality of facilitators' interactions following a week of…

  16. "Stepping Up": A Focus on Facilitator Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostouros, Patricia; Warthe, D. Gaye; Carter-Snell, Catherine; Burnett, Che

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the impact on peer facilitators in "Stepping Up," a dating violence prevention program at a Canadian university. A focus group held eight months following the delivery of the program determined the personal impact of involvement in the program. Results indicate that peer facilitators experienced personal growth as…

  17. Interaction Patterns and Facilitation of Peer Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Marvin E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Data show that giving information to members of a group is more important in determining the perception by others that the person is facilitating group performance. Asking for information and opinions is more important in actual facilitation of group learning. Social-emotional support becomes important after initial phases of group interaction.…

  18. The Limited Facilitative Effect of Typographical Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Jonathan M.; Fowler, Susan B.

    1992-01-01

    Two experiments with 188 college students investigated the facilitative effect of typographical signals such as underlining, headings, or other devices to help readers identify specific points. Results do not support a general facilitative effect of typographical signals but suggest that use of signals depends on the reader's strategic processing.…

  19. The Role of Touch in Facilitated Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezuka, Emiko

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the role of touch in the use of facilitated communication with Japanese individuals with autism. Five experiments were conducted involving a "telepathy game" using a rod with an attached strain gauge. Results found the facilitator's contact controlled the motor responses of the subjects. (Author/CR)

  20. Using facilitative skills in project management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne; Jacobsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    managers are frequently finding themselves in situations where using facilitating skills is not an option, but a requirement. Facilitation is to be viewed as a process of ‘obstetric’ aid to meet the challenges of coping with the changing conditions for project management described briefly above...... facilitating skills are identified and discussed in relation to the changing circumstances for project management. The approach used to achieve this paper’s objective includes a literature review, model building and reflection on facilitation skills based on the author’s experiences from facilitating workshops......Project management can be seen as a profession, discipline and conceptual framework. It has been developed from different fields, including military engineering, mechanical engineering, social sciences and construction. During recent decades, there has been a number of challenges as to its efficacy...

  1. Practical-theological facilitation as skilled helping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmo Pienaar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article discussed the idea of skilled helping in relation to what has been put forward as practical theological facilitation. It has been argued that various helping relationships, amongst which the author refers to coaching, facilitation, and therapy has more in common than what differentiates them if epistemology is viewed as a unifying concept. As such the scope of practical theology in terms of the contexts and themes in which it might be involved is said to widen. The public dimension of the organisational context, more so than the congregational context, has been put forward as an important habitus of practical-theological facilitation. The organisational involvement of the practical-theological facilitator in terms of professional-vocational skilled helping takes on an actual role through facilitation and other helping modalities.

  2. Novice facilitators and the use of scripts for managing facilitated modelling workshops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    There is limited research on the use of scripts by novice facilitators (novices) in Facilitated Modelling (FM) workshops. To address this gap, this paper illustrates how novices—supported by scripts—switch between and combine facilitation skills and competencies to successfully manage FM workshops...

  3. Facilitating lifelong learning with OpenU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubens, Wilfred; Counotte, Anda

    2012-01-01

    Rubens, W., & Counotte, A. (2012). Facilitating lifelong learning with OpenU. In R. Jacobi, & N. van der Woert (Eds.), Trendreport Open Educational Resources 2012 (pp. 22-26). Utrecht: SURF Foundation - Special Interest Group Open Educational Resources SURF.

  4. Digital Cadastres Facilitating Land Information Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Digital Cadastres Facilitating Land Information Management. ... Journal Home > Vol 3, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register ... Raw materials required for the manufacturing industry which drives the economy are extracted from the land resource.

  5. Facilitating LOS Debriefings: A Training Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Lori K.; Jobe, Kimberly K.; Dismukes, R. Key

    1997-01-01

    This manual is a practical guide to help airline instructors effectively facilitate debriefings of Line Oriented Simulations (LOS). It is based on a recently completed study of Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) debriefings at several U.S. airlines. This manual presents specific facilitation tools instructors can use to achieve debriefing objectives. The approach of the manual is to be flexible so it can be tailored to the individual needs of each airline. Part One clarifies the purpose and objectives of facilitation in the LOS setting. Part Two provides recommendations for clarifying roles and expectations and presents a model for organizing discussion. Part Tree suggests techniques for eliciting active crew participation and in-depth analysis and evaluation. Finally, in Part Four, these techniques are organized according to the facilitation model. Examples of how to effectively use the techniques are provided throughout, including strategies to try when the debriefing objectives are not being fully achieved.

  6. Facilitating Creativity in Science Students' through Teacher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Facilitating Creativity in Science Students' through Teacher Professional Development. ... and the creativity checklist (CCh) was the instrument used to collect data. ... The research questions were answered using mean while the hypotheses ...

  7. Facilitated inter-firm collaboration in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2005-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, aid agencies have endorsed the need to support private enterprise development in developing countries as an instrument for overall economic development and poverty reduction. Facilitation of collaboration between developed and developing country firms has become one of the mo...... the mechanisms of third-party inter-firm facilitation and assesses how effective the catalyst institutions are in nurturing collaborations between companies in developed and developing countries. The discussions are illustrated with case examples drawn from Ghana....

  8. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof......-the-art cosmological simulation, Illustris, follow a tight relation between star formation rate and stellar mass. This relation agrees well with the observed relation at a redshift of z = 0 and z = 4, but at intermediate redshifts of z ' 2 the normalisation is lower than in real observations. This is highlighted...

  9. Facilitation as a ubiquitous driver of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Eliot J B; Fajardo, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Models describing the biotic drivers that create and maintain biological diversity within trophic levels have focused primarily on negative interactions (i.e. competition), leaving marginal room for positive interactions (i.e. facilitation). We show facilitation to be a ubiquitous driver of biodiversity by first noting that all species use resources and thus change the local biotic or abiotic conditions, altering the available multidimensional niches. This can cause a shift in local species composition, which can cause an increase in beta, and sometimes alpha, diversity. We show that these increases are ubiquitous across ecosystems. These positive effects on diversity occur via a broad host of disparate direct and indirect mechanisms. We identify and unify several of these facilitative mechanisms and discuss why it has been easy to underappreciate the importance of facilitation. We show that net positive effects have a long history of being considered ecologically or evolutionarily unstable, and we present recent evidence of its potential stability. Facilitation goes well beyond the common case of stress amelioration and it probably gains importance as community complexity increases. While biodiversity is, in part, created by species exploiting many niches, many niches are available to exploit only because species create them.

  10. Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal three-domain Cry toxins: mode of action, insect resistance and consequences for crop protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-López, Liliana; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria are insect pathogens that produce different Cry and Cyt toxins to kill their hosts. Here we review the group of three-domain Cry (3d-Cry) toxins. Expression of these 3d-Cry toxins in transgenic crops has contributed to efficient control of insect pests and a reduction in the use of chemical insecticides. The mode of action of 3d-Cry toxins involves sequential interactions with several insect midgut proteins that facilitate the formation of an oligomeric structure and induce its insertion into the membrane, forming a pore that kills midgut cells. We review recent progress in our understanding of the mechanism of action of these Cry toxins and focus our attention on the different mechanisms of resistance that insects have evolved to counter their action, such as mutations in cadherin, APN and ABC transporter genes. Activity of Cry1AMod toxins, which are able to form toxin oligomers in the absence of receptors, against different resistant populations, including those affected in the ABC transporter and the role of dominant negative mutants as antitoxins, supports the hypothesis that toxin oligomerization is a limiting step in the Cry insecticidal activity. Knowledge of the action of 3d-Cry toxin and the resistance mechanisms to these toxins will set the basis for a rational design of novel toxins to overcome insect resistance, extending the useful lifespan of Cry toxins in insect control programs.

  11. Facilitated inter-firm collaboration in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2005-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, aid agencies have endorsed the need to support private enterprise development in developing countries as an instrument for overall economic development and poverty reduction. Facilitation of collaboration between developed and developing country firms has become one of the most...... popular forms of assistance in this endeavour. Although such facilitative inter-firm collaborations vary in design, they all involve third-party organisations that identify partners and sponsor the first steps in the establishment of a business platform for the co-operation. This paper discusses...... the mechanisms of third-party inter-firm facilitation and assesses how effective the catalyst institutions are in nurturing collaborations between companies in developed and developing countries. The discussions are illustrated with case examples drawn from Ghana....

  12. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof......-the-art cosmological simulation, Illustris, follow a tight relation between star formation rate and stellar mass. This relation agrees well with the observed relation at a redshift of z = 0 and z = 4, but at intermediate redshifts of z ' 2 the normalisation is lower than in real observations. This is highlighted...... of GRB host galaxies is affected by the fact that GRBs appear mainly to happen in low-metallicity galaxies. Solving this problem will make it possible to derive the total cosmic star formation rate more reliably from number counts of GRBs....

  13. Singing can facilitate foreign language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludke, Karen M; Ferreira, Fernanda; Overy, Katie

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the first experimental evidence that singing can facilitate short-term paired-associate phrase learning in an unfamiliar language (Hungarian). Sixty adult participants were randomly assigned to one of three "listen-and-repeat" learning conditions: speaking, rhythmic speaking, or singing. Participants in the singing condition showed superior overall performance on a collection of Hungarian language tests after a 15-min learning period, as compared with participants in the speaking and rhythmic speaking conditions. This superior performance was statistically significant (p sing" learning method can facilitate verbatim memory for spoken foreign language phrases.

  14. Managerial intervention to facilitate organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, J R

    1983-07-01

    Facilitating change in the clinical laboratory is a constant managerial responsibility. Change is often met with resistance when staff members perceive it as threatening their convenience, interpersonal relationships, position, or economic security. This paper examines the application of the Concerns-Based Adoption Model to assess individual concerns regarding change. The model views change as a process rather than an event and examines the various motivations, perceptions, attitudes, and feelings of individuals regarding an innovation. After an individual's concerns have been identified, the manager is better able to target intervention strategies to facilitate organizational change.

  15. Hippocampal formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappaert, N.L.M.; van Strien, N.M.; Witter, M.P.; Paxinos, G.

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal formation and parahippocampal region are prominent components of the rat nervous system and play a crucial role in learning, memory, and spatial navigation. Many new details regarding the entorhinal cortex have been discovered since the previous edition, and the growing interest in t

  16. Facilitating Team Learning through Transformational Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Elisabeth; Decuyper, Stefan; Lismont, Bart; Van den Bossche, Piet; Kyndt, Eva; Demeyere, Sybille; Dochy, Filip

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates when and how teams engage in team learning behaviours (TLB). More specifically, it looks into how different leadership styles facilitate TLB by influencing the social conditions that proceed them. 498 healthcare workers from 28 nursery teams filled out a questionnaire measuring the concepts leadership style, TLB, social…

  17. Social facilitation effects of virtual humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung; Catrambone, Richard

    2007-12-01

    To investigate whether virtual humans produce social facilitation effects. When people do an easy task and another person is nearby, they tend to do that task better than when they are alone. Conversely, when people do a hard task and another person is nearby, they tend to do that task less well than when they are alone. This phenomenon is referred to in the social psychology literature as social facilitation. The present study investigated whether virtual humans can evoke a social facilitation response. Participants were given different tasks to do that varied in difficulty. The tasks involved anagrams, mazes, and modular arithmetic. They did the tasks alone, in the company of another person, or in the company of a virtual human on a computer screen. For easy tasks, performance in the virtual human condition was better than in the alone condition, and for difficult tasks, performance in the virtual human condition was worse than in the alone condition. As with a human, virtual humans can produce social facilitation. The results suggest that designers of virtual humans should be mindful about the social nature of virtual humans; a design decision as to when and how to present a virtual human should be a deliberate and informed decision. An ever-present virtual human might make learning and performance difficult for challenging tasks.

  18. Facilitating Team Learning through Transformational Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Elisabeth; Decuyper, Stefan; Lismont, Bart; Van den Bossche, Piet; Kyndt, Eva; Demeyere, Sybille; Dochy, Filip

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates when and how teams engage in team learning behaviours (TLB). More specifically, it looks into how different leadership styles facilitate TLB by influencing the social conditions that proceed them. 498 healthcare workers from 28 nursery teams filled out a questionnaire measuring the concepts leadership style, TLB, social…

  19. Professional nurses as reflective clinical learning facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chabell

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid changes taking place in the country, including the education system in general and nursing education in particular, the role of professional nurses as reflective clinical learning facilitators need to be re-visited in order to meet the changing health needs of the communtiy and to facilitate outcome- based nursing education and evidence-based quality nursing care. The purpose of this paper is to explore and describe the perceptions of professional nurses as reflective clinical learning facilitators in the clinical learning units, within the context of a specific health-care service in Gauteng. A phenomenological method using descriptive naïve sketches was used to collect data from twenty professional nurses complying with certain inclusion criteria. A content analysis was performed and eight categories (main concepts were identified in order of priority as follows: communication/collaboration; role-modelling; continuous assessment and evaluation; up-to-date knowledge; scientific approach; clinical teaching; management and professionalism. After a literature control was conducted, these main concepts were confirmed. It is recommended that a model to facilitate reflective thinking in clinical nursing education be developed, using these concepts as basis for the provisional conceptual framework.

  20. How Academic Teachers Perceive and Facilitate Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørner, Thomas; Kofoed, Lise Busk

    2013-01-01

    We will present a case study result from a cross-disciplinary education called Medialogy, which is taught in the Technical and Science Faculty at Aalborg University. The aim of Medialogy is to facilitate creativity within technical solutions. The intention of this paper is to answer the following: how do the Medialogy teachers perceive creativity…

  1. Dialogisk gruppecoaching – facilitering af ledelsesudvikling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrø, Helle; Dahl, Poul Nørgård; Kloster, Per

    læring i ledergrupperne, og at skabe viden om disse udviklings- og læreprocesser. Vi har således været optaget af, hvordan dialogisk gruppecoaching kan facilitere ledelsesudvikling, og hvordan dialogisk coaching kan udvikles som coachingkoncept ift. grupper. Dialogisk gruppecoaching – facilitering af...

  2. Policies facilitating firm adjustment to globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekman, Bernard; Javorcik, Beata Smarzynska

    2004-01-01

    The authors focus on policies facilitating firm adjustment to globalization. They briefly review the effects of trade and investment liberalization on firms, focusing on within-industry effects. They postulate that governments' role in supporting the process is to (1) ensure that firms face "right" incentives to adjust, and (2) intervene in areas where market failures are present. Their ma...

  3. Facilitated IEP Meetings. PHP-c90

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2004

    2004-01-01

    To help special education planning teams reach agreements, the Minnesota Department of Education and the Minnesota Special Education Mediation Service (MNSEMS) provide the option of facilitated IEP meetings. This option is available for IEP (Individualized Education Program), IIIP (Individual Interagency Intervention Plan), and IFSP (Individual…

  4. Effective tactile noise facilitates visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, J E; Doti, R; Faubert, J

    2012-01-01

    The fulcrum principle establishes that a subthreshold excitatory signal (entering in one sense) that is synchronous with a facilitation signal (entering in a different sense) can be increased (up to a resonant-like level) and then decreased by the energy and frequency content of the facilitating signal. As a result, the sensation of the signal changes according to the excitatory signal strength. In this context, the sensitivity transitions represent the change from subthreshold activity to a firing activity in multisensory neurons. Initially the energy of their activity (supplied by the weak signals) is not enough to be detected but when the facilitating signal enters the brain, it generates a general activation among multisensory neurons, modifying their original activity. In our opinion, the result is an integrated activation that promotes sensitivity transitions and the signals are then perceived. In other words, the activity created by the interaction of the excitatory signal (e.g., visual) and the facilitating signal (tactile noise) at some specific energy, produces the capability for a central detection of an otherwise weak signal. In this work we investigate the effect of an effective tactile noise on visual perception. Specifically we show that tactile noise is capable of decreasing luminance modulated thresholds.

  5. Facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin administration (fSCIg)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blau, Igor-Wolfgang; Conlon, Niall; Petermann, Robert

    2016-01-01

    and diverse medical needs that treatments for SID management should strive to meet. In this special report, we study the opportunities provided by facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin administration (fSCIg) to treat patients for whom the conventional routes (intravenous and subcutaneous) are sub...

  6. The Facilitator. Technical Note No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Patricio; And Others

    This paper describes the concept, training, and experiences of community facilitators as change agents in a nonformal education project in rural Ecuador. Presently, the social, economic, and political context of the rural Ecuadorian consists of poverty, racial prejudice, economic exploitation, and psychological dependency. The project attempted to…

  7. How academic teachers perceive and facilitate creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas; Kofoed, Lise B.

    2013-01-01

    : how do the Medialogy teachers perceive creativity and how do they facilitate it? Many of the answers point to the pedagogical approach used in problem-based learning, which are perceived as an important element for the creative process. In this paper we will also argue the importance of including...

  8. Innovation and learning facilitated by play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; O´Connor, Rory

    2008-01-01

    "This paper describes an approach to facilitate interaction between students and industrial companies in a problem based learning environment. The approach is adapted from a methodology developed at the LEGO Company and relies on an improved ability to communicate complex problems when using...

  9. Facilitating Second Language Learning with Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Su-Young

    2006-01-01

    The use of music in facilitating second language (as well as first language) learning is supported by evidence that points to the musical nature of even preverbal infants. Music and language have been found to develop similarly, and researchers have noted advantages to using song in learning. The author observed her Korean 21-month-old for …

  10. The Creative Music Workshop: Event, Facilitation, Gift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Lee

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the desires and tensions inherent within the act of facilitating creative music-making workshops. Following the introduction, the article is divided into three sections: (1) a discussion of the workshop event as a contingent structure through which creative music-making may take place; (2) an exploration…

  11. Sound Symbolism Facilitates Early Verb Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel…

  12. Facilitating Learning Spaces in Forum Theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which forum theatre interventions can support non-hierarchical approaches to learning, development and change management initiatives in organisations. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with theatre consultancies, actors/facilitators,…

  13. Facilitating value co-creation in networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette Apollo

    The dissertation investigates through two ethnographic case studies how value co-creation takes place in inter-organizational networks that have been facilitated by a municipality. The contribution of the study to business network research is the emphasis on development phases of networks and the...

  14. Facilitated IEP Meetings. PHP-c90

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2004

    2004-01-01

    To help special education planning teams reach agreements, the Minnesota Department of Education and the Minnesota Special Education Mediation Service (MNSEMS) provide the option of facilitated IEP meetings. This option is available for IEP (Individualized Education Program), IIIP (Individual Interagency Intervention Plan), and IFSP (Individual…

  15. Theme: The Role of the Teacher in Facilitation of Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Contains 13 articles on facilitation in agricultural education that address improving student learning, teaching methods, the teacher's role as a facilitator, preparing students for the workplace, and the facilitator's role in student-centered classrooms. (JOW)

  16. H4K44 Acetylation Facilitates Chromatin Accessibility during Meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jialei; Donahue, Greg; Dorsey, Jean; Govin, Jérôme; Yuan, Zuofei; Garcia, Benjamin A; Shah, Parisha P; Berger, Shelley L

    2015-12-01

    Meiotic recombination hotspots are associated with histone post-translational modifications and open chromatin. However, it remains unclear how histone modifications and chromatin structure regulate meiotic recombination. Here, we identify acetylation of histone H4 at Lys44 (H4K44ac) occurring on the nucleosomal lateral surface. We show that H4K44 is acetylated at pre-meiosis and meiosis and displays genome-wide enrichment at recombination hotspots in meiosis. Acetylation at H4K44 is required for normal meiotic recombination, normal levels of double-strand breaks (DSBs) during meiosis, and optimal sporulation. Non-modifiable H4K44R results in increased nucleosomal occupancy around DSB hotspots. Our results indicate that H4K44ac functions to facilitate chromatin accessibility favorable for normal DSB formation and meiotic recombination.

  17. Oxidative modification of caspase-9 facilitates its activation via disulfide-mediated interaction with Apaf-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Zuo; Binggang Xiang; Jie Yang; Xuxu Sun; Yumei Wang; Hui Cang; Jing Yi

    2009-01-01

    Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to regulate apoptosis. Activation of caspase-9, the initial caspase in the mitochondrial apoptotic cascade, is closely associated with ROS, but it is unclear whether ROS regulate caspase-9 via direct oxidative modification. The present study aims to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which ROS mediate caspase-9 activation. Our results show that the cellular oxidative state facilitates caspase-9 activation. Hydrogen peroxide treatment causes the activation of caspase-9 and apoptosis, and promotes an interaction between caspase-9 and apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 (Apaf-1) via disulfide formation. In addition, in an in vitro mitochondria-free system, the thiol-oxidant diamide promotes auto-cleavage of caspase-9 and the caspase-9/ Apaf-1 interaction by facilitating the formation of disulfide-linked complexes. Finally, a point mutation at C403 of caspase-9 impairs both H202-promoted caspase-9 activation and interaction with Apaf-1 through the abolition of disulfide formation. The association between cytochrome c and the C403S mutant is significantly weaker than that between cytochrome c and wild-type caspase-9, indicating that oxidative modification of caspase-9 contributes to apoptosome formation under oxidative stress. Taken together, oxidative modification of caspase-9 by ROS can mediate its interaction with Apaf-1, and can thus promote its auto-cleavage and activation. This mechanism may facilitate apoptosome formation and caspase-9 activation under oxidative stress.

  18. Galaxy formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, P J

    1998-01-01

    It is argued that within the standard Big Bang cosmological model the bulk of the mass of the luminous parts of the large galaxies likely had been assembled by redshift z approximately 10. Galaxy assembly this early would be difficult to fit in the widely discussed adiabatic cold dark matter model for structure formation, but it could agree with an isocurvature version in which the cold dark matter is the remnant of a massive scalar field frozen (or squeezed) from quantum fluctuations during inflation. The squeezed field fluctuations would be Gaussian with zero mean, and the distribution of the field mass therefore would be the square of a random Gaussian process. This offers a possibly interesting new direction for the numerical exploration of models for cosmic structure formation.

  19. Cloud Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Mark Talmage

    2004-05-01

    Cloud formation is crucial to the heritage of modern physics, and there is a rich literature on this important topic. In 1927, Charles T.R. Wilson was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for applications of the cloud chamber.2 Wilson was inspired to study cloud formation after working at a meteorological observatory on top of the highest mountain in Scotland, Ben Nevis, and testified near the end of his life, "The whole of my scientific work undoubtedly developed from the experiments I was led to make by what I saw during my fortnight on Ben Nevis in September 1894."3 To form clouds, Wilson used the sudden expansion of humid air.4 Any structure the cloud may have is spoiled by turbulence in the sudden expansion, but in 1912 Wilson got ion tracks to show up by using strobe photography of the chamber immediately upon expansion.5 In the interim, Millikan's study in 1909 of the formation of cloud droplets around individual ions was the first in which the electron charge was isolated. This study led to his famous oil drop experiment.6 To Millikan, as to Wilson, meteorology and physics were professionally indistinct. With his meteorological physics expertise, in WWI Millikan commanded perhaps the first meteorological observation and forecasting team essential to military operation in history.7 But even during peacetime meteorology is so much of a concern to everyone that a regular news segment is dedicated to it. Weather is the universal conversation topic, and life on land could not exist as we know it without clouds. One wonders then, why cloud formation is never covered in physics texts.

  20. How academic teachers perceive and facilitate creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas; Kofoed, Lise B.

    2013-01-01

    We will present a case study result from a cross-disciplinary education called Medialogy, which is taught in the Technical and Science Faculty at Aalborg University. The aim of Medialogy is to facilitate creativity within technical solutions. The intention of this paper is to answer the following......: how do the Medialogy teachers perceive creativity and how do they facilitate it? Many of the answers point to the pedagogical approach used in problem-based learning, which are perceived as an important element for the creative process. In this paper we will also argue the importance of including...... the social context (both at a macro and at a micro level) in the definition and use of creativity in engineering education....

  1. Facilitating phenomenological interviewing by means of reflexology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ross

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show how reflexology could facilitate phenomenological interviewing by probing the lifeworld of individual participants. It presents a hybrid study of phenomenological interviewing and reflexology as a holistic method of health care. In this sense, it is an interparadigmatic study, since it rests on the interface of Western and Oriental thought. This article reports on seven cases which were included in the qualitative, empirical investigation. During the sessions, reflexological readings served as impetus for inquiry into the experiences of the participants, as congestions on reflex points and along meridians were interpreted in terms of physical organs and functions. These readings were related to corresponding emotions as accepted within the reflexology paradigm. It was, however, up to the participants to inform the researcher of events and/or circumstances that caused the emotions. Thus, nonverbal data communicated information that facilitated verbal exchange concerning the life-world of each individual participant.

  2. Does supplementary reinforcement of stereotypy facilitate extinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, Claudia L; Iwata, Brian A; Wilson, David M; Thomason-Sassi, Jessica L; Roscoe, Eileen M

    2013-01-01

    Results of several studies suggest that delivery of supplemental (social) reinforcement for stereotypy might facilitate its subsequent extinction. We examined this possibility with 9 subjects who engaged in stereotypy by including methodological refinements to ensure that (a) subjects' stereotypy was maintained in the absence of social consequences, (b) supplementary reinforcers were highly preferred and were shown to be reinforcers for some behavior, and (c) subjects were exposed to lengthy reinforcement and extinction conditions. In spite of these modifications, only 4 subjects' stereotypy increased when supplementary reinforcement was delivered contingent on stereotypy, and no subject's stereotypy decreased below initial baseline levels when social reinforcement was subsequently withheld. Decreases in stereotypy occurred with the implementation of noncontingent reinforcement. Thus, delivery of supplementary reinforcers either did not increase stereotypy or did not facilitate extinction of stereotypy maintained by automatic reinforcement. We discuss the practical and conceptual bases of these results with respect to our current understanding of function-based interventions.

  3. Impact of Pharmacist Facilitated Discharge Medication Reconciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd M. Super

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Preventable adverse drug events occur frequently at transitions in care and are a problem for many patients following hospital discharge. Many of these problems can be attributed to poor medication reconciliation. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact that direct pharmacist involvement in the discharge medication reconciliation process had on medication discrepancies, patient outcomes, and satisfaction. A cohort study of 70 patients was designed to assess the impact of pharmacist facilitated discharge medication reconciliation at a 204-bed community hospital in Battle Creek, Michigan, USA. Discharge summaries were analyzed to compare patients who received standard discharge without pharmacist involvement to those having pharmacist involvement. The total number of discrepancies in the group without pharmacist involvement was significantly higher than that of the pharmacist facilitated group.

  4. Architectural space characteristics facilitating teaching and apprenticeship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo de Lima Bezerra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the relevance of the architectural space as a facilitator of teaching and learning processes. It adopts an analytical methodology based on the architecture and pedagogy literature to know the view of these areas on the subject, and identifies relevant spatial attributes to facilitate education. Research has shown that there are recurrences pointing disciplinary fields of environmental comfort, ergonomics and environmental psychology, which were the subject of this conceptual research about the positive and negative impacts on the school design facility by each attribute of these disciplines. As result, it presents a framework of attributes, characteristics and relevance to teaching and learning to be used as support to the space needs assessment, ie: during the first stage of an architectural design process.

  5. How academic teachers perceive and facilitate creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørner, Thomas; Busk Kofoed, Lise

    2013-10-01

    We will present a case study result from a cross-disciplinary education called Medialogy, which is taught in the Technical and Science Faculty at Aalborg University. The aim of Medialogy is to facilitate creativity within technical solutions. The intention of this paper is to answer the following: how do the Medialogy teachers perceive creativity and how do they facilitate it? Many of the answers point to the pedagogical approach used in problem-based learning, which are perceived as an important element for the creative process. In this paper we will also argue the importance of including the social context (both at a macro and at a micro level) in the definition and use of creativity in engineering education.

  6. Twelve tips for facilitating Millennials' learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David H; Newman, Lori R; Schwartzstein, Richard M

    2012-01-01

    The current, so-called "Millennial" generation of learners is frequently characterized as having deep understanding of, and appreciation for, technology and social connectedness. This generation of learners has also been molded by a unique set of cultural influences that are essential for medical educators to consider in all aspects of their teaching, including curriculum design, student assessment, and interactions between faculty and learners.  The following tips outline an approach to facilitating learning of our current generation of medical trainees.  The method is based on the available literature and the authors' experiences with Millennial Learners in medical training.  The 12 tips provide detailed approaches and specific strategies for understanding and engaging Millennial Learners and enhancing their learning.  With an increased understanding of the characteristics of the current generation of medical trainees, faculty will be better able to facilitate learning and optimize interactions with Millennial Learners.

  7. SME creation facilitation process at Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Carl-Henric; Johnsson, Charlotta; Jin, Jun; Yang, Qinmin; Luo, Shijian

    2012-01-01

    Much research on SMEs is aimed at researching SMEs after the fact that they have become SMEs. However all SMEs as well as larger companies start as an idea in the head or heads of one or many persons - the prospective entrepreneurs. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how SMEs can be created by transforming ideas into real companies. More specifically we will investigate if and how Universities can facilitate this process by running international cross-functional courses. Our hypot...

  8. Writing reports to facilitate patent applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libman, George H.; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2004-06-01

    Brief disclosures may often be sufficient for the filing of a Technical Advance with Sandia's Intellectual Property Center, but still be inadequate to facilitate an optimum patent application where more detail and explanation are required. Consequently, the crafting of a patent application may require considerably more additional interaction between the application preparer and the inventors. This inefficiency can be considerably mitigated if the inventors address some critical aspects of a patent application when they write a technical report.

  9. Right timing in formative program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jori; Freeman, Melissa; Roulston, Kathy

    2014-08-01

    Since many educational researchers and program developers have limited knowledge of formative evaluation, formative data may be underutilized during the development and implementation of an educational program. The purpose of this article is to explain how participatory, responsive, educative, and qualitative approaches to formative evaluation can facilitate a partnership between evaluators and educational researchers and program managers to generate data useful to inform program implementation and improvement. This partnership is critical, we argue, because it enables an awareness of when to take appropriate action to ensure successful educational programs or "kairos". To illustrate, we use examples from our own evaluation work to highlight how formative evaluation may facilitate opportune moments to (1) define the substance and purpose of a program, (2) develop understanding and awareness of the cultural interpretations of program participants, and (3) show the relevance of stakeholder experiences to program goals.

  10. COGNITIVE FATIGUE FACILITATES PROCEDURAL SEQUENCE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo eBorragán

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced procedural learning has been evidenced in conditions where cognitive control is diminished, including hypnosis, disruption of prefrontal activity and non-optimal time of the day. Another condition depleting the availability of controlled resources is cognitive fatigue. We tested the hypothesis that cognitive fatigue, eventually leading to diminished cognitive control, facilitates procedural sequence learning. In a two-day experiment, twenty-three young healthy adults were administered a serial reaction time task (SRTT following the induction of high or low levels of cognitive fatigue, in a counterbalanced order. Cognitive fatigue was induced using the Time load Dual-back (TloadDback paradigm, a dual working memory task that allows tailoring cognitive load levels to the individual's optimal performance capacity. In line with our hypothesis, reaction times in the SRTT were faster in the high- than in the low-level fatigue condition, and performance improvement showed more of a benefit from the sequential components than from motor. Altogether, our results suggest a paradoxical, facilitating impact of cognitive fatigue on procedural motor sequence learning. We propose that facilitated learning in the high-level fatigue condition stems from a reduction in the cognitive resources devoted to cognitive control processes that normally oppose automatic procedural acquisition mechanisms.

  11. Spatial part-set cuing facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Matthew R; Parasiuk, Yuri; Salgado-Benz, Jennifer; Crocco, Megan

    2016-07-01

    Cole, Reysen, and Kelley [2013. Part-set cuing facilitation for spatial information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 39, 1615-1620] reported robust part-set cuing facilitation for spatial information using snap circuits (a colour-coded electronics kit designed for children to create rudimentary circuit boards). In contrast, Drinkwater, Dagnall, and Parker [2006. Effects of part-set cuing on experienced and novice chess players' reconstruction of a typical chess midgame position. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 102(3), 645-653] and Watkins, Schwartz, and Lane [1984. Does part-set cuing test for memory organization? Evidence from reconstructions of chess positions. Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie, 38(3), 498-503] showed no influence of part-set cuing for spatial information when using chess boards. One key difference between the two procedures was that the snap circuit stimuli were explicitly connected to one another, whereas chess pieces were not. Two experiments examined the effects of connection type (connected vs. unconnected) and cue type (cued vs. uncued) on memory for spatial information. Using chess boards (Experiment 1) and snap circuits (Experiment 2), part-set cuing facilitation only occurred when the stimuli were explicitly connected; there was no influence of cuing with unconnected stimuli. These results are potentially consistent with the retrieval strategy disruption hypothesis, as well as the two- and three-mechanism accounts of part-set cuing.

  12. Fluoxetine Facilitates Fear Extinction Through Amygdala Endocannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz-Cinar, Ozge; Flynn, Shaun; Brockway, Emma; Kaugars, Katherine; Baldi, Rita; Ramikie, Teniel S; Cinar, Resat; Kunos, George; Patel, Sachin; Holmes, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Pharmacologically elevating brain endocannabinoids (eCBs) share anxiolytic and fear extinction-facilitating properties with classical therapeutics, including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. There are also known functional interactions between the eCB and serotonin systems and preliminary evidence that antidepressants cause alterations in brain eCBs. However, the potential role of eCBs in mediating the facilitatory effects of fluoxetine on fear extinction has not been established. Here, to test for a possible mechanistic contribution of eCBs to fluoxetine's proextinction effects, we integrated biochemical, electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral techniques, using the extinction-impaired 129S1/Sv1mJ mouse strain. Chronic fluoxetine treatment produced a significant and selective increase in levels of anandamide in the BLA, and an associated decrease in activity of the anandamide-catabolizing enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase. Slice electrophysiological recordings showed that fluoxetine-induced increases in anandamide were associated with the amplification of eCB-mediated tonic constraint of inhibitory, but not excitatory, transmission in the BLA. Behaviorally, chronic fluoxetine facilitated extinction retrieval in a manner that was prevented by systemic or BLA-specific blockade of CB1 receptors. In contrast to fluoxetine, citalopram treatment did not increase BLA eCBs or facilitate extinction. Taken together, these findings reveal a novel, obligatory role for amygdala eCBs in the proextinction effects of a major pharmacotherapy for trauma- and stressor-related disorders and anxiety disorders.

  13. The skilled facilitator: a comprehensive resource for consultants, facilitators, managers, trainers, and coaches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwarz, Roger

    2002-01-01

    ... Meetings 233 12 Dealing with Emotions 246 PART FOUR: AGREEING TO WORK TOGETHER 13 Contracting: Deciding Whether and How to Work Together 271 14 Working with Another Facilitator 296 PART FIVE: USIN...

  14. Cement Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Theisen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Cement production has been subject to several technological changes, each of which requires detailed knowledge about the high multiplicity of processes, especially the high temperature process involved in the rotary kiln. This article gives an introduction to the topic of cement, including...... an overview of cement production, selected cement properties, and clinker phase relations. An extended summary of laboratory-scale investigations on clinkerization reactions, the most important reactions in cement production, is provided. Clinker formations by solid state reactions, solid−liquid and liquid...

  15. Role enactment of facilitation in primary care - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Tina Drud; Thorsen, Thorkil; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2017-01-01

    organisations. The complexity of the facilitation field and diversity of potential facilitator roles fosters a need to investigate in detail how facilitation is enacted. Hence, the purpose of this study was to explore the enactment of external peer facilitation in general practice in order to create a stronger...

  16. Osteogenic Matrix Cell Sheets Facilitate Osteogenesis in Irradiated Rat Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinobu Uchihara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of large bone defects after resection of malignant musculoskeletal tumors is a significant challenge in orthopedic surgery. Extracorporeal autogenous irradiated bone grafting is a treatment option for bone reconstruction. However, nonunion often occurs because the osteogenic capacity is lost by irradiation. In the present study, we established an autogenous irradiated bone graft model in the rat femur to assess whether osteogenic matrix cell sheets improve osteogenesis of the irradiated bone. Osteogenic matrix cell sheets were prepared from bone marrow-derived stromal cells and co-transplanted with irradiated bone. X-ray images at 4 weeks after transplantation showed bridging callus formation around the irradiated bone. Micro-computed tomography images at 12 weeks postoperatively showed abundant callus formation in the whole circumference of the irradiated bone. Histology showed bone union between the irradiated bone and host femur. Mechanical testing showed that the failure force at the irradiated bone site was significantly higher than in the control group. Our study indicates that osteogenic matrix cell sheet transplantation might be a powerful method to facilitate osteogenesis in irradiated bones, which may become a treatment option for reconstruction of bone defects after resection of malignant musculoskeletal tumors.

  17. How we capitalised on casual PBL facilitators' expertise and experience to add value to our medical programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Michelle; Arrigoni, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    While problem-based learning (PBL) has been widely implemented in medical education, it has been acknowledged to be resource-intensive, particularly in terms of academics' time. In some institutions, such as Bond University (Australia), casual facilitators have been employed (paid hourly) to oversee the PBL tutorials. Apart from considerable experience as PBL facilitators, they also have expertise as allied health professionals or biomedical scientists. Several facilitators have educational qualifications. Recognising that their roles have expanded beyond the PBL tutorial room, we canvassed PBL facilitators in terms of their contributions to Bond University's medical programme. We can report that our facilitators have contributed to the renewal of Bond's medical programme, from design (e.g. curriculum structure, case-writing) to PBL case reviews. They are also involved in formative and summative assessment. Facilitators identified that, because of their prolonged involvement with the students in small groups, they consider themselves more than facilitators of student learning. They are role models and personal guides. Recognising the value these casually employed facilitators have added to our medical programme, we will continue to develop their skills in, for example, reviewing cases and assessment. We recommend that if institutions do employ casual facilitators, their expertise and experience can add value to the curriculum and to students' experience.

  18. Facilitating functional annotation of chicken microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gresham Cathy R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modeling results from chicken microarray studies is challenging for researchers due to little functional annotation associated with these arrays. The Affymetrix GenChip chicken genome array, one of the biggest arrays that serve as a key research tool for the study of chicken functional genomics, is among the few arrays that link gene products to Gene Ontology (GO. However the GO annotation data presented by Affymetrix is incomplete, for example, they do not show references linked to manually annotated functions. In addition, there is no tool that facilitates microarray researchers to directly retrieve functional annotations for their datasets from the annotated arrays. This costs researchers amount of time in searching multiple GO databases for functional information. Results We have improved the breadth of functional annotations of the gene products associated with probesets on the Affymetrix chicken genome array by 45% and the quality of annotation by 14%. We have also identified the most significant diseases and disorders, different types of genes, and known drug targets represented on Affymetrix chicken genome array. To facilitate functional annotation of other arrays and microarray experimental datasets we developed an Array GO Mapper (AGOM tool to help researchers to quickly retrieve corresponding functional information for their dataset. Conclusion Results from this study will directly facilitate annotation of other chicken arrays and microarray experimental datasets. Researchers will be able to quickly model their microarray dataset into more reliable biological functional information by using AGOM tool. The disease, disorders, gene types and drug targets revealed in the study will allow researchers to learn more about how genes function in complex biological systems and may lead to new drug discovery and development of therapies. The GO annotation data generated will be available for public use via AgBase website and

  19. Hyaluronidase facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin in primary immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolles S

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Jolles Department of Immunology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, UK Abstract: Immunoglobulin (Ig-replacement therapy represents the mainstay of treatment for patients with primary antibody deficiency and is administered either intravenously (IVIg or subcutaneously (SCIg. While hyaluronidase has been used in clinical practice for over 50 years, the development of a high-purity recombinant form of this enzyme (recombinant human hyaluronidase PH20 has recently enabled the study of repeated and more prolonged use of hyaluronidase in facilitating the delivery of SC medicines. It has been used in a wide range of clinical settings to give antibiotics, local anesthetics, insulin, morphine, fluid replacement, and larger molecules, such as antibodies. Hyaluronidase has been used to help overcome the limitations on the maximum volume that can be delivered into the SC space by enabling dispersion of SCIg and its absorption into lymphatics. The rate of facilitated SCIg (fSCIg infusion is equivalent to that of IVIg, and the volume administered at a single site can be greater than 700 mL, a huge increase over conventional SCIg, at 20–40 mL. The use of fSCIg avoids the higher incidence of systemic side effects of IVIg, and it has higher bioavailability than SCIg. Data on the long-term safety of this approach are currently lacking, as fSCIg has only recently become available. fSCIg may help several areas of patient management in primary antibody deficiency, and the extent to which it may be used in future will depend on long-term safety data and cost–benefit analysis. Keywords: enzyme facilitated IgG infusion, recombinant human hyaluronidase PH20, subcutaneous immunoglobulin, intravenous immunoglobulin, primary immunodeficiency disease

  20. Facilitating Cluster Evolution in Peripheral Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Lindgaard; Stoerring, Dagmara

    2012-01-01

    of clusterpreneurs can make this initiative more legitimised and embedded in the regional context, although dilemmas and challenges in the policy making still prevail. We furthermore find the mental and social proximity and agreements on common objectives among clusterpreneurs facilitated the support......This paper discusses the feasibility and dilemmas in stimulating high-tech clusters in peripheral regions. In recent years innovation and cluster policy to a large extend has been focused upon stimulating collective learning processes and building social capital. This has in turn accentuated a need...

  1. Unique Structural Features Facilitate Lizard Tail Autotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanggaard, Kristian Wejse; Danielsen, C. C.; Wogensen, L.

    2012-01-01

    Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed...... that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM) rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail...

  2. Intracellular facilitated diffusion: searchers, crowders and blockers

    CERN Document Server

    Brackley, C A; Marenduzzo, D

    2013-01-01

    In bacteria, regulatory proteins search for a specific DNA binding target via "facilitated diffusion": a series of rounds of 3D diffusion in the cytoplasm, and 1D linear diffusion along the DNA contour. Using large scale Brownian dynamics simulations we find that each of these steps is affected differently by crowding proteins, which can either be bound to the DNA acting as a road block to the 1D diffusion, or freely diffusing in the cytoplasm. Macromolecular crowding can strongly affect mechanistic features such as the balance between 3D and 1D diffusion, but leads to surprising robustness of the total search time.

  3. Orienting attention during phonetic training facilitates learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Eric; Guion-Anderson, Susan

    2010-02-01

    The role of consciously directed attention toward speech input in learning has not yet been determined. Previous phonetic learning studies have manipulated acoustic signals and response feedback, but not conscious control over attentional orienting. This study tests whether directed attention facilitates learning of phonetic information. Two monolingual English-speaking groups were trained with feedback on the same auditory stimuli: Hindi words. One group was instructed to attend to the consonants and the other to the vowels. The consonant-oriented group, but not the vowel-oriented group, demonstrated post-training improvement in consonant perception, confirming a role for consciously directed attentional mechanisms during phonetic learning.

  4. Reality based scenarios facilitate knowledge network development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, J; Broughton, V; McConnell, E A

    1995-03-01

    The challenge in nursing education is to create a learning environment that enables students to learn new knowledge, access previously acquired information from a variety of disciplines, and apply this newly constructed knowledge to the complex and constantly changing world of practice. Faculty at the University of South Australia, School of Nursing, City Campus describe the use of reality based scenarios to acquire domain-specific knowledge and develop well connected associative knowledge networks, both of which facilitate theory based practice and the student's transition to the role of registered nurse.

  5. Framework conditions facilitating paediatric clinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfarez Deborah

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of unlicensed and "off-label" medicines in children is widespread. Between 50-80% of the medicines currently administered to children have neither been tested nor authorized for their use in the paediatric population which represents approximately 25% of the whole European population. On 26 January 2007, entered into force the European Regulation of Paediatric Medicines. It aims at the quality of research into medicines for children but without subjecting the paediatric population to unnecessary clinical trial. This article addresses ethical and legal issues arising from the regulation and makes recommendations for the framework conditions facilitating the development of clinical research with children.

  6. Tonoplast aquaporins facilitate lateral root emergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Hagen; Hachez, Charles; Bienert, Manuela Désirée

    2016-01-01

    that, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the highly abundant tonoplast AQP isoforms AtTIP1;1, AtTIP1;2, and AtTIP2;1 facilitate the emergence of new lateral root primordia (LRPs). The number of lateral roots was strongly reduced in the triple tip mutant, whereas the single, double, and triple tip...... could be fully rescued by expressing AtTIP2;1 under its native promoter. We conclude that TIP isoforms allow the spatial and temporal fine-tuning of cellular water transport, which is critically required during the highly regulated process of LRP morphogenesis and emergence....

  7. Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Longair, Malcolm S

    2008-01-01

    This second edition of Galaxy Formation is an up-to-date text on astrophysical cosmology, expounding the structure of the classical cosmological models from a contemporary viewpoint. This forms the background to a detailed study of the origin of structure and galaxies in the Universe. The derivations of many of the most important results are derived by simple physical arguments which illuminate the results of more advanced treatments. A very wide range of observational data is brought to bear upon these problems, including the most recent results from WMAP, the Hubble Space Telescope, galaxy surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, studies of Type 1a supernovae, and many other observations.

  8. Dissociation of the neural substrates of foraging effort and its social facilitation in the domestic chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Yukiko; Izumi, Takeshi; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro; Matsushima, Toshiya

    2015-11-01

    The frequency or intensity of behavior is often facilitated by the presence of others. This social facilitation has been reported in a variety of animals, including birds and humans. Based on Zajonc's "drive theory," we hypothesized that facilitation and drive have shared neural mechanisms, and that dopaminergic projections from the midbrain to striatum are involved. As the ascending dopaminergic projections include the mesolimbic and nigrostriatal pathways, we targeted our lesions at the medial striatum (MSt) and substantia nigra (SN). We found that a bilateral electrolytic lesion of the MSt suppressed baseline foraging effort, but social facilitation was intact. Conversely, an electrolytic lesion targeted at the unilateral SN (on the right side) partially suppressed social facilitation, while baseline foraging effort remained unaffected. However, selective depletion of catecholaminergic (thyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive) terminals by micro-infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to bilateral MSt had no significant effects on foraging behavior, whereas it impaired formation of the association memory reinforced by water reward. Neurochemical assay by high-perfromance liquid chromatography also revealed a significant decrease in the dopamine and noradrenaline contents in MSt after 6-OHDA micro-infusion compared with intact control chicks. Thus, we conclude that the neural substrate of social facilitation can be dissociated from that responsible for reward-based foraging effort, and that ascending dopaminergic pathways do not appear to contribute to social facilitation. Based on our detailed analysis of the lesion areas, we discuss fiber tracts or neural components of the midbrain tegmental area that may be responsible for social facilitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Facilitating Group Decision-Making: Facilitator's Subjective Theories on Group Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Kolbe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A key feature of group facilitation is motivating and coordinating people to perform their joint work. This paper focuses on group coordination which is a prerequisite to group effectiveness, especially in complex tasks. Decision-making in groups is a complex task that consequently needs to be coordinated by explicit rather than implicit coordination mechanisms. Based on the embedded definition that explicit coordination does not just happen but is purposely executed by individuals, we argue that individual coordination intentions and mechanisms should be taken into account. Thus far, the subjective perspective of coordination has been neglected in coordination theory, which is understandable given the difficulties in defining and measuring subjective aspects of group facilitation. We therefore conducted focused interviews with eight experts who either worked as senior managers or as experienced group facilitators and analysed their approaches to group coordination using methods of content analysis. Results show that these experts possess sophisticated mental representations of their coordination behaviour. These subjective coordination theories can be organised in terms of coordination schemes in which coordination-releasing situations are facilitated by special coordination mechanisms that, in turn, lead to the perception of specific consequences. We discuss the importance of these subjective coordination theories for effectively facilitating group decision-making and minimising process losses. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901287

  10. Human neutrophils facilitate tumor cell transendothelial migration.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wu, Q D

    2012-02-03

    Tumor cell extravasation plays a key role in tumor metastasis. However, the precise mechanisms by which tumor cells migrate through normal vascular endothelium remain unclear. In this study, using an in vitro transendothelial migration model, we show that human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) assist the human breast tumor cell line MDA-MB-231 to cross the endothelial barrier. We found that tumor-conditioned medium (TCM) downregulated PMN cytocidal function, delayed PMN apoptosis, and concomitantly upregulated PMN adhesion molecule expression. These PMN treated with TCM attached to tumor cells and facilitated tumor cell migration through different endothelial monolayers. In contrast, MDA-MB-231 cells alone did not transmigrate. FACScan analysis revealed that these tumor cells expressed high levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) but did not express CD11a, CD11b, or CD18. Blockage of CD11b and CD18 on PMN and of ICAM-1 on MDA-MB-231 cells significantly attenuated TCM-treated, PMN-mediated tumor cell migration. These tumor cells still possessed the ability to proliferate after PMN-assisted transmigration. These results indicate that TCM-treated PMN may serve as a carrier to assist tumor cell transendothelial migration and suggest that tumor cells can exploit PMN and alter their function to facilitate their extravasation.

  11. FACILITATION AND EVALUATION OF STUDENTS LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekar K

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Various methods of teaching are lectures, seminars, tutorials, group discussions and demonstrations. Most of these methods involve only passive learning. Increased emphasis is being laid on students centred and integrated teaching. Both vertical and horizontal integrated teaching has been recommended by the medical council of India. The superiority of such novel methods over other existing methods in facilitating students learning has not been adequately assessed and hence the present study was undertaken. A 3 year study was performed in MBBS Phase -II students of 3 batches. Integrated teaching (seminar on various segments of a topic was carried out in 3 different ways to each batch of students. Batch 1: Subject experts (faculty delivered talk on segments of topic allotted. Batch 2: Randomly selected 7-10 students presented the topic (it was guided by faculty Batch 3: similar to batch 2 but here a pre-session test (validated MCQs was conducted. About 10 topics were covered in a year (same for all the batches and were announced 15days prior to the seminar for the students to prepare. The seminar was for 2 hrs and a post -session test was conducted using pre- validated MCQs to assess the learning outcome. Post-sessions score (mean ± SD of all batches was calculated and analyzed by ANOVA. There was a significant improvement in the performance of batch 3 as compared to other batches. Pre-session tests promote students participation in teaching learning activities and also facilitates the learning process and the outcome.

  12. Prior expectations facilitate metacognition for perceptual decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, M T; Seth, A K; Barrett, A B; Kanai, R

    2015-09-01

    The influential framework of 'predictive processing' suggests that prior probabilistic expectations influence, or even constitute, perceptual contents. This notion is evidenced by the facilitation of low-level perceptual processing by expectations. However, whether expectations can facilitate high-level components of perception remains unclear. We addressed this question by considering the influence of expectations on perceptual metacognition. To isolate the effects of expectation from those of attention we used a novel factorial design: expectation was manipulated by changing the probability that a Gabor target would be presented; attention was manipulated by instructing participants to perform or ignore a concurrent visual search task. We found that, independently of attention, metacognition improved when yes/no responses were congruent with expectations of target presence/absence. Results were modeled under a novel Bayesian signal detection theoretic framework which integrates bottom-up signal propagation with top-down influences, to provide a unified description of the mechanisms underlying perceptual decision and metacognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Facilitating practical knowledge by using ECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Jentoft

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Practical skills constitute essential knowledge in occupational therapy. The knowledge is situation- and experience-based, generated from within the situation. In a particular program for educating Palestinian Occupational Therapists in Gaza, facilitating such knowledge proved to be difficult. Due to travel restrictions and an unstable political situation, teachers and students were separated. Educational communication technology (ECT like videoconferences, internet and videos became new and necessary tools. This article is based on results from an action research project which followed the process of using flexible forms of learning and developing an internet based learning programme named Ergonet. The learning process of the students using it was examined with the aim of answering the following research question: How can flexible forms of learning be developed and used to facilitate practical knowledge in Occupational Therapy education? The development and implementation of Ergonet as a supporting device in students’ learning of practical skills is described through the experience of the teachers involved. The results indicate how rote-learning and lack of reflective and critical thinking, firmly established among Palestinian students, have been challenged and changed by the didactic use of Ergonet.

  14. Electronic health records to facilitate clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Martin R; Blomster, Juuso I; Curtis, Lesley H; Duclaux, Sylvie; Ford, Ian; Fritz, Fleur; Goldman, Samantha; Janmohamed, Salim; Kreuzer, Jörg; Leenay, Mark; Michel, Alexander; Ong, Seleen; Pell, Jill P; Southworth, Mary Ross; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Thoenes, Martin; Zannad, Faiez; Zalewski, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) provide opportunities to enhance patient care, embed performance measures in clinical practice, and facilitate clinical research. Concerns have been raised about the increasing recruitment challenges in trials, burdensome and obtrusive data collection, and uncertain generalizability of the results. Leveraging electronic health records to counterbalance these trends is an area of intense interest. The initial applications of electronic health records, as the primary data source is envisioned for observational studies, embedded pragmatic or post-marketing registry-based randomized studies, or comparative effectiveness studies. Advancing this approach to randomized clinical trials, electronic health records may potentially be used to assess study feasibility, to facilitate patient recruitment, and streamline data collection at baseline and follow-up. Ensuring data security and privacy, overcoming the challenges associated with linking diverse systems and maintaining infrastructure for repeat use of high quality data, are some of the challenges associated with using electronic health records in clinical research. Collaboration between academia, industry, regulatory bodies, policy makers, patients, and electronic health record vendors is critical for the greater use of electronic health records in clinical research. This manuscript identifies the key steps required to advance the role of electronic health records in cardiovascular clinical research.

  15. Best practice in clinical facilitation of undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Judith; McMurray, Anne; Shaban, Ramon Z

    2016-09-01

    Clinical facilitation is critical to successful student clinical experience. The research reported in this paper used an interpretive case study to explore perspectives of clinical facilitators on what constitutes best practice in clinical facilitation of undergraduate nursing students. Eleven clinical facilitators from South East Queensland, Australia, participated in focus groups, interviews and a concept mapping exercise to gather their perspectives on best practice. The data gathered information regarding their prior and current experiences as registered nurses and facilitators, considering reasons they became clinical facilitators, their educational background and self-perceived adequacy of their knowledge for clinical facilitation. Analysis was through constant comparison. Findings of the study provided in-depth insight into the role of clinical facilitators, with best practice conceptualised via three main themes; 'assessing', 'learning to facilitate' and 'facilitating effectively'. While they felt there was some autonomy in the role, the clinical facilitators sought a closer liaison with academic staff and feedback about their performance, in particular their assessment of the students. Key strategies identified for improving best practice included educational support for the clinical facilitators, networking, and mentoring from more experienced clinical facilitators. When implemented, these strategies will help develop the clinical facilitators' skills and ensure quality clinical experiences for undergraduate nursing students.

  16. [Facilitating team development for nursing staff--prospects, effects and benefits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittich, Andrea; Dieterle, Wilfried E; Schüpbach, Heinz; Wirsching, Michael

    2006-11-01

    Facilitating team development is a frequent intervention in hospitals and seen as a probate mean to support the staff. As the method spreads, a need for scientific evidence is articulated. At Freiburg University Hospital, facilitating team development for nursing teams has been empirically evaluated on a broad data basis. The studies focussed on how nurses in a university centre of high tech medicine experience their work situation, what (psychological) stress they feel exposed to and how they appraise the contribution of facilitating team development to prevent and come to terms with that stress. Results prove the effects and benefits of the intervention, particularly with regard to communicational difficulties within the nursing staff and to problems of interdisciplinary cooperation. The sine qua non of successful intervention, as notifying future participants about this particular method or the adequate formation of the group is highlighted.

  17. Pattern Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Rebecca

    2006-03-01

    From the stripes of a zebra and the spots on a leopard's back to the ripples on a sandy beach or desert dune, regular patterns arise everywhere in nature. The appearance and evolution of these phenomena has been a focus of recent research activity across several disciplines. This book provides an introduction to the range of mathematical theory and methods used to analyse and explain these often intricate and beautiful patterns. Bringing together several different approaches, from group theoretic methods to envelope equations and theory of patterns in large-aspect ratio-systems, the book also provides insight behind the selection of one pattern over another. Suitable as an upper-undergraduate textbook for mathematics students or as a fascinating, engaging, and fully illustrated resource for readers in physics and biology, Rebecca Hoyle's book, using a non-partisan approach, unifies a range of techniques used by active researchers in this growing field. Accessible description of the mathematical theory behind fascinating pattern formation in areas such as biology, physics and materials science Collects recent research for the first time in an upper level textbook Features a number of exercises - with solutions online - and worked examples

  18. Using Parametrics to Facilitate Collaborative Urban Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai; Benbih, Karima; Obeling, Esben

    2013-01-01

    Collaborative urban design faces three inherent dilemmas of limitations to time and resources, of barriers to language and communication between professionals and stakeholders, and of the reciprocal nature of the relation between influence and understanding. Parametric design tools may address all...... of these dilemmas, as they provide a fast way to test different design scenarios and make it possible keep designs open while at the same time allowing for a level of detailing which is high enough to facilitate an understanding of the generic qualities of proposed designs. This is particularly relevant...... in the context of the urban South which is characterized by high urban growth rates, weak planning systems and modest means. The current state of planning and urban development in Morocco is introduced as a context for discussing collaborative urban design and parametric urban design, and some tentative...

  19. Facilitating consumer access to health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, Anne; Schnarr, Karin; Alessi, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The lead paper from Zelmer and Hagens details the substantive evolution occurring in health information technologies that has the potential to transform the relationship between consumers, health practitioners and health systems. In this commentary, the authors suggest that Canada is experiencing a shift in consumer behaviour toward a desire to actively manage one's health and wellness that is being facilitated through the advent of health applications on mobile and online technologies platforms. The result is that Canadians are now able to create personalized health solutions based on their individual health values and goals. However, before Canadians are able to derive a personal health benefit from these rapid changes in information technology, they require and are increasingly demanding greater real-time access to their own health information to better inform decision-making, as well as interoperability between their personal health tracking systems and those of their health practitioner team.

  20. Balancing Design Project Supervision and Learning Facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Møller

    2012-01-01

    set of demands to the design lecturer. On one hand she is the facilitator of the learning process, where the students are in charge of their own projects, and where learning happens through the students’ own experiences, successes and mistakes and on the other hand she is a supervisor, who uses her...... experiences and expertise to guide the students’ decisions in relation to the design project. This paper focuses on project supervision in the context of design education – and more specifically on how this supervision is unfolded in a Problem Based Learning culture. The paper explores the supervisor......In design there is a long tradition for apprenticeship, as well as tradition for learning through design projects. Today many design educations are positioned within the University context, and have to be aligned with the learning culture and structure, which they represent. This raises a specific...

  1. Facilitating scholarly writing in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pololi, Linda; Knight, Sharon; Dunn, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scholarly writing is a critical skill for faculty in academic medicine; however, few faculty receive instruction in the process. We describe the experience of 18 assistant professors who participated in a writing and faculty development program which consisted of 7 monthly 75-minute sessions embedded in a Collaborative Mentoring Program (CMP). Participants identified barriers to writing, developed personal writing strategies, had time to write, and completed monthly writing contracts. Participants provided written responses to open-ended questions about the learning experience, and at the end of the program, participants identified manuscripts submitted for publication, and completed an audiotaped interview. Analysis of qualitative data using data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing/verification showed that this writing program facilitated the knowledge, skills, and support needed to foster writing productivity. All participants completed at least 1 scholarly manuscript by the end of the CMP. The impact on participants' future academic productivity requires long-term follow-up.

  2. BTFS: The Border Trade Facilitation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, L.R.

    1999-03-18

    The author demonstrates the Border Trade Facilitation System (BTFS), an agent-based bilingual e-commerce system built to expedite the regulation, control, and execution of commercial trans-border shipments during the delivery phase. The system was built to serve maquila industries at the US/Mexican border. The BTFS uses foundation technology developed here at Sandia Laboratories' Advanced Information Systems Lab (AISL), including a distributed object substrate, a general-purpose agent development framework, dynamically generated agent-human interaction via the World-Wide Web, and a collaborative agent architecture. This technology is also the substrate for the Multi-Agent Simulation Management System (MASMAS) proposed for demonstration at this conference. The BTFS executes authenticated transactions among agents performing open trading over the Internet. With the BTFS in place, one could conduct secure international transactions from any site with an Internet connection and a web browser. The BTFS is currently being evaluated for commercialization.

  3. Brief fear preexposure facilitates subsequent fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Satoshi; Sakaguchi, Tetsuya; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2015-06-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that occurs following an unexpected exposure to a severe psychological event. A history of a brief trauma is reported to affect a risk for future PTSD development; however, little is known about the mechanisms by which a previous trauma exposure drives the sensitivity to a late-coming trauma. Using a mouse PTSD model, we found that a prior foot shock enhances contextual fear conditioning. This shock-induced facilitation of fear conditioning (i.e., priming effect) persisted for 7 days and was prevented by MK801, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist. Other types of trauma, such as forced swimming or tail pinch, did not induce a priming effect on fear conditioning. Thus, a trauma is unlikely generalized to modify the sensitivity to other traumatic experiences. The behavioral procedure employed in this study may be a useful tool to elucidate the etiology of PTSD.

  4. Balancing Design Project Supervision and Learning Facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Møller

    2012-01-01

    experiences and expertise to guide the students’ decisions in relation to the design project. This paper focuses on project supervision in the context of design education – and more specifically on how this supervision is unfolded in a Problem Based Learning culture. The paper explores the supervisor......’s balance between the roles: 1) Design Project Supervisor – and 2) Learning Facilitator – with the aim to understand when to apply the different roles, and what to be aware of when doing so. This paper represents the first pilot-study of a larger research effort. It is based on a Lego Serious Play workshop......In design there is a long tradition for apprenticeship, as well as tradition for learning through design projects. Today many design educations are positioned within the University context, and have to be aligned with the learning culture and structure, which they represent. This raises a specific...

  5. NIRPS - Solutions Facilitator Team Overview and Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas M., III; Childress, Rhonda

    2013-01-01

    National Institute for Rocket Propulsion Systems (NIRPS) purpose is to help preserve and align government and private rocket propulsion capabilities to meet present and future US commercial, civil, and defense needs, while providing authoritative insight and recommendations to National decisional authorities. Stewardship: Monitor and analyze the state of the industry in order to formulate and recommend National Policy options and strategies that promote a healthy industrial base and ensure best-value for the American taxpayer. Technology: Identify technology needs and recommend technology insertions by leading roadmap assessments and actively participating in program formulation activities. Solutions Facilitator/Provider: Maintain relationships and awareness across the Government, industry and academia, to align available capacity with emerging demand.

  6. Drug facilitated sexual assault with lethal outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehling, Lena-Maria; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    A very serious case of DFSA (drug facilitated sexual assault) is presented, in which a six-year-old girl died following sedation with γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). She had been sexually abused by a relative. Samples of cardiac blood, bile, vitreous humour, liver, kidney, brain tissues and hair were...... segments of hair - up to 12 cm distant from the hair scalp - GHB concentrations were higher than the overall found endogenous range of 2-3 ng/mg. Police investigations revealed that the uncle had also administered GHB to the older half-sister. Therefore, a sample of her hair was analysed accordingly......, but unremarkable results were obtained. Comparing our toxicological results with police investigations and the offender's statements it can be assumed that the 6-year-old girl had ingested GHB. By exclusion of other causes of death a lethal intoxication with GHB could be confirmed....

  7. Facilitating disaster preparedness through local radio broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Murphy, Eila; James, Ross; Adams, Mike

    2011-10-01

    The 2008 Disaster Mitigation Preparedness (DMP) study took place in Aceh province, Indonesia. It sought to help develop radio programmes and messages to increase resilience to disasters. The role of radio was evaluated during and after the 2004 Asian tsunami disaster. The study team interviewed 984 tsunami survivors from nine sub-districts of Banda Aceh, and local nongovernmental organisations convened eight focus groups around the area of Aceh Besar. Six key informant interviews were held with government disaster management agencies. The DMP survey is the first of its kind to interview a representative random sample of Banda Aceh residents. It reveals the importance of community and social networks, during disaster situations, when essential communications are down. A disaster warning information system based on a multi-media approach needs to be developed. The wider community should be involved in the planning, education and training of Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar residents to facilitate appropriate personal and community survival strategies.

  8. The helical structure of DNA facilitates binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Otto G.; Mahmutovic, Anel; Marklund, Emil; Elf, Johan

    2016-09-01

    The helical structure of DNA imposes constraints on the rate of diffusion-limited protein binding. Here we solve the reaction-diffusion equations for DNA-like geometries and extend with simulations when necessary. We find that the helical structure can make binding to the DNA more than twice as fast compared to a case where DNA would be reactive only along one side. We also find that this rate advantage remains when the contributions from steric constraints and rotational diffusion of the DNA-binding protein are included. Furthermore, we find that the association rate is insensitive to changes in the steric constraints on the DNA in the helix geometry, while it is much more dependent on the steric constraints on the DNA-binding protein. We conclude that the helical structure of DNA facilitates the nonspecific binding of transcription factors and structural DNA-binding proteins in general.

  9. Nicotine facilitates memory consolidation in perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Anton L; Vartak, Devavrat; Greenlee, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    Perceptual learning is a special type of non-declarative learning that involves experience-dependent plasticity in sensory cortices. The cholinergic system is known to modulate declarative learning. In particular, reduced levels or efficacy of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine were found to facilitate declarative memory consolidation. However, little is known about the role of the cholinergic system in memory consolidation of non-declarative learning. Here we compared two groups of non-smoking men who learned a visual texture discrimination task (TDT). One group received chewing tobacco containing nicotine for 1 h directly following the TDT training. The other group received a similar tasting control substance without nicotine. Electroencephalographic recordings during substance consumption showed reduced alpha activity and P300 latencies in the nicotine group compared to the control group. When re-tested on the TDT the following day, both groups responded more accurately and more rapidly than during training. These improvements were specific to the retinal location and orientation of the texture elements of the TDT suggesting that learning involved early visual cortex. A group comparison showed that learning effects were more pronounced in the nicotine group than in the control group. These findings suggest that oral consumption of nicotine enhances the efficacy of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Our findings further suggest that enhanced efficacy of the cholinergic system facilitates memory consolidation in perceptual learning (and possibly other types of non-declarative learning). In that regard acetylcholine seems to affect consolidation processes in perceptual learning in a different manner than in declarative learning. Alternatively, our findings might reflect dose-dependent cholinergic modulation of memory consolidation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'.

  10. Facilitating PSS workshops: a conceptual framework and findings from interviews with facilitators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelzer, P.; Goodspeed, R.; te Brommelstroet, M.; Geertman, S.; Ferreira, J.; Goodspeed, R.; Stillwell, J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has emphasized the importance of workshops as a venue where planning support systems (PSS) are used in planning processes. Empirical studies of these workshops have previously largely overlooked facilitation, in particular the role of a moderator (steering the discussion) and/or a

  11. Demystifying facilitation of multi-actor learning processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis aims to demystify the facilitation of participatory processes in order to improve the performance of the facilitation professional. As our society is increasingly recognised as pluralistic, characterised by

  12. Virtual Research Environments: The role of the facilitator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bowers, N

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This conference presentation discusses the authors' duties as the facilitators of the POL-SABINA Natural Products Virtual Research Environment. In summary, they facilitated the use and content population of the Natural Products Virtual Research...

  13. ABCA12 maintains the epidermal lipid permeability barrier by facilitating formation of ceramide linoleic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Ying; Zhuang, Debbie Z; Han, Rong; Isaac, Giorgis; Tobin, Jennifer J; McKee, Mary; Welti, Ruth; Brissette, Janice L; Fitzgerald, Michael L; Freeman, Mason W

    2008-12-26

    Harlequin ichthyosis is a congenital scaling syndrome of the skin in which affected infants have epidermal hyperkeratosis and a defective permeability barrier. Mutations in the gene encoding a member of the ABCA transporter family, ABCA12, have been linked to harlequin ichthyosis, but the molecular function of the protein is unknown. To investigate the activity of ABCA12, we generated Abca12 null mice and analyzed the impact on skin function and lipid content. Abca12-/- mice are born with a thickened epidermis and die shortly after birth, as water rapidly evaporates from their skin. In vivo skin proliferation measurements suggest a lack of desquamation of the skin cells, rather than enhanced proliferation of basal layer keratinocytes, accounts for the 5-fold thickening of the Abca12-/- stratum corneum. Electron microscopy revealed a loss of the lamellar permeability barrier in Abca12-/- skin. This was associated with a profound reduction in skin linoleic esters of long-chain omega-hydroxyceramides and a corresponding increase in their glucosyl ceramide precursors. Because omega-hydroxyceramides are required for the barrier function of the skin, these results establish that ABCA12 activity is required for the generation of long-chain ceramide esters that are essential for the development of normal skin structure and function.

  14. Decarboxylation Facilitated by Carbocation Formation and Rearrangement during Steam Distillation of Vetiver Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedler, Henry B; Newman, T; Tantillo, Dean J

    2016-10-28

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are used to probe the validity of mechanistic proposals for the conversion of isozizanoic acid to 12-norisoziza-5-ene, a reaction that occurs during steam distillation of vetiver oil. While this conversion corresponds overall to a simple decarboxylation, a multistep mechanism involving carbocation intermediates is supported by the computational results.

  15. 6-hydroxy-L-nicotine from Arthrobacter nicotinovorans facilitate spatial memory formation in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian Hritcu; Marius Stefan; Marius Mihasan; Roderich Brandsch

    2010-01-01

    Effects of 6-hydroxy-L-nicotine derived from nicotine catabolism in Arthrobacter nicotinovorans on learning and memory processes were examined in adult male Wistar rats. 6-hydroxy-L-nicotine (0.3 mg/kg, i.p., 7 consecutive days chronic administration) significantly increased spontaneous alternation in Y-maze task and working memory in radial arm-maze task, suggesting effects on short-term memory, without affecting long-term memory, explored by reference memory in radial arm-maze t...

  16. Effectiveness of Making Alcoholics Anonymous Easier: a group format 12-step facilitation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Subbaraman, Meenakshi S; Witbrodt, Jane; Zemore, Sarah E

    2009-10-01

    Most treatment programs recommend clients attend 12-step groups, but many drop out posttreatment. The effectiveness of Making Alcoholics Anonymous [AA] Easier (MAAEZ ), a manual-guided intervention designed to help clients connect with individuals encountered in AA, was tested using an "OFF/ON" design (n = 508). MAAEZ effectiveness was determined by comparing abstinence rates of participants recruited during ON and OFF conditions and by studying the effect of the number of MAAEZ sessions attended. At 12 months, more clients in the ON condition (vs. OFF) reported past 30-day abstinence from alcohol (p = .012), drugs (p = .009), and both alcohol and drugs (p = .045). In multivariate analyses, ON condition participants had significantly increased odds of abstinence from alcohol (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85) and from drugs (OR = 2.21); abstinence odds also increased significantly for each additional MAAEZ session received. MAAEZ appeared especially effective for those with more prior AA exposure, severe psychiatric problems, and atheists/agnostics. MAAEZ represents an evidence-based intervention that is easily implemented in existing treatment programs.

  17. An Adaptable Seismic Data Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischer, Lion; Smith, James; Lei, Wenjie; Lefebvre, Matthieu; Ruan, Youyi; de Andrade, Elliott Sales; Podhorszki, Norbert; Bozdağ, Ebru; Tromp, Jeroen

    2016-11-01

    We present ASDF, the Adaptable Seismic Data Format, a modern and practical data format for all branches of seismology and beyond. The growing volume of freely available data coupled with ever expanding computational power opens avenues to tackle larger and more complex problems. Current bottlenecks include inefficient resource usage and insufficient data organization. Properly scaling a problem requires the resolution of both these challenges, and existing data formats are no longer up to the task. ASDF stores any number of synthetic, processed or unaltered waveforms in a single file. A key improvement compared to existing formats is the inclusion of comprehensive meta information, such as event or station information, in the same file. Additionally, it is also usable for any non-waveform data, for example, cross-correlations, adjoint sources or receiver functions. Last but not least, full provenance information can be stored alongside each item of data, thereby enhancing reproducibility and accountability. Any data set in our proposed format is self-describing and can be readily exchanged with others, facilitating collaboration. The utilization of the HDF5 container format grants efficient and parallel I/O operations, integrated compression algorithms and check sums to guard against data corruption. To not reinvent the wheel and to build upon past developments, we use existing standards like QuakeML, StationXML, W3C PROV and HDF5 wherever feasible. Usability and tool support are crucial for any new format to gain acceptance. We developed mature C/Fortran and Python based APIs coupling ASDF to the widely used SPECFEM3D_GLOBE and ObsPy toolkits.

  18. Issues in the design of facilitated collaboration processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolfschoten, G.L.; Hengst, den; Bruggeling, M.; Vreede, G.J. de

    2007-01-01

    Groups often rely on the expertise of facilitators to support them in their collaboration processes. The design and preparation of a collaboration process is an important facilitation task. Although there is a significant body of knowledge about the effects of facilitation, there is a dearth of know

  19. The Dynamics of Syntax Acquisition: Facilitation between Syntactic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren-Portnoy, Tamar; Keren, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper sets out to show how facilitation between different clause structures operates over time in syntax acquisition. The phenomenon of facilitation within given structures has been widely documented, yet inter-structure facilitation has rarely been reported so far. Our findings are based on the naturalistic production corpora of six toddlers…

  20. A Gestalt Point of View on Facilitating Growth in Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Robert L.

    1975-01-01

    If counselors are to be facilitators of client growth, it would seem essentail that they become familiar with the concept of growth and ways to facilitate it. The author defines growth from a gestalt therapy point of view and provides techniques and examples of ways to facilitate client growth. (Author)

  1. Facilitating the Design of a Campus Leadership Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Renee A.; Johnson, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This essay describes how we facilitated the design of a campus leadership team. What is particularly interesting about this consultative project is that both authors participated--one as facilitator and the other as participant. The facilitation included a needs assessment prior to the event, the use of structured controversy techniques,…

  2. Assessing Facilitator Performance as an Influence on Student Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Scotty; May, David

    2011-01-01

    Growth in class size within the online environment has resulted in a facilitator model in which an instructor teaches the class with the assistance of facilitators who interact with students in smaller groups. This research sought to determine the effectiveness of a structured performance evaluation for facilitators and the correlation to student…

  3. Positive experiences with a specialist as facilitator in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm; Thorsen, Thorkil

    2012-01-01

    The use of facilitators for quality improvement in general practice has accelerated during the past decade. As general practitioners (GPs) or pharmacists have typically been used as facilitators, there is a lack of knowledge of how other professionals function as facilitators. This article explor...

  4. Characterization of the mechanism of action of the genetically modified Cry1AbMod toxin that is active against Cry1Ab-resistant insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñóz-Garay, Carlos; Portugal, Leivi; Pardo-López, Liliana; Jiménez-Juárez, Nuria; Arenas, Ivan; Gómez, Isabel; Sánchez-López, Rosana; Arroyo, Raquel; Holzenburg, Andreas; Savva, Christos G; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2009-10-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are used in the control of insect pests. They are pore-forming toxins with a complex mechanism that involves the sequential interaction with receptors. They are produced as protoxins, which are activated by midgut proteases. Activated toxin binds to cadherin receptor, inducing an extra cleavage including helix alpha-1, facilitating the formation of a pre-pore oligomer. The toxin oligomer binds to secondary receptors such as aminopeptidase and inserts into lipid rafts forming pores and causing larval death. The primary threat to efficacy of Bt-toxins is the evolution of insect resistance. Engineered Cry1AMod toxins, devoid of helix alpha-1, could be used for the control of resistance in lepidopterans by bypassing the altered cadherin receptor, killing resistant insects affected in this receptor. Here we analyzed the mechanism of action of Cry1AbMod. We found that alkaline pH and the presence of membrane lipids facilitates the oligomerization of Cry1AbMod. In addition, tryptophan fluorescence emission spectra, ELISA binding to pure aminopeptidase receptor, calcein release assay and analysis of ionic-conductance in planar lipid bilayers, indicated that the secondary steps in mode of action that take place after interaction with cadherin receptor such as oligomerization, receptor binding and pore formation are similar in the Cry1AbMod and in the wild type Cry1Ab. Finally, the membrane-associated structure of Cry1AbMod oligomer was analyzed by electron crystallography showing that it forms a complex with a trimeric organization.

  5. 3D Printing Facilitated Scaffold-free Tissue Unit Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yu; Richards, Dylan J.; Trusk, Thomas C.; Visconti, Richard P.; Yost, Michael J.; Kindy, Mark S.; Drake, Christopher J.; Argraves, William Scott; Markwald, Roger R.; Mei, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Tissue spheroids hold great potential in tissue engineering as building blocks to assemble into functional tissues. To date, agarose molds have been extensively used to facilitate fusion process of tissue spheroids. As a molding material, agarose typically requires low temperature plates for gelation and/or heated dispenser units. Here, we proposed and developed an alginate-based, direct 3D mold-printing technology: 3D printing micro-droplets of alginate solution into biocompatible, bio-inert alginate hydrogel molds for the fabrication of scaffold-free tissue engineering constructs. Specifically, we developed a 3D printing technology to deposit micro-droplets of alginate solution on calcium containing substrates in a layer-by-layer fashion to prepare ring-shaped 3D hydrogel molds. Tissue spheroids composed of 50% endothelial cells and 50% smooth muscle cells were robotically placed into the 3D printed alginate molds using a 3D printer, and were found to rapidly fuse into toroid-shaped tissue units. Histological and immunofluorescence analysis indicated that the cells secreted collagen type I playing a critical role in promoting cell-cell adhesion, tissue formation and maturation. PMID:24717646

  6. Managing Climate Policy Information Facilitating Knowledge Transfer to Policy Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charikleia Karakosta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the challenging context of intense negotiations and radical developments in the field of climate policy, informing stakeholders about opportunities and pathways and about scientific insights and warnings is important to help create positive dynamics. Policy makers need digestible information to design good policies, and understand their options and the possible impacts of these options. They need access to well-structured knowledge, as well as appropriate techniques to manage information and data. However, available information is often difficult to access, not in the right format and of limited use to stakeholders. The range of knowledge needs identified has to be effectively addressed by providing interested parties with suitable, to-the-point information, covering the identified gaps. This is the main aim of this article that proposes the design and development of a climate policy database, which contains all the resources that can cover the identified knowledge gaps. The resources are derived from a broad range of existing reports, research and climate policy decisions at different levels. The goal is to render climate policy associated stakeholders able to extract key policy conclusions. The added value of this database was verified by users and stakeholders that generally argued that the climate policy database facilitates solid understanding of climate policy implications and fosters collaborative knowledge exchange in the field.

  7. Colloid-Facilitated Plutonium Transport in Fractured Tuffaceous Rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberg, Andrew; Dai, Zhenxue; Zhu, Lin; Reimus, Paul; Xiao, Ting; Ware, Doug

    2017-05-16

    Colloids have the potential to enhance the mobility of strongly sorbing radionuclide contaminants in groundwater at underground nuclear test sites. This study presents an experimental and numerical investigation of colloid-facilitated plutonium transport in fractured porous media to identify plutonium reactive transport processes. The transport parameters for dispersion, diffusion, sorption, and filtration are estimated with inverse modeling by minimizing the least-squares objective function of multicomponent concentration data from multiple transport experiments with the shuffled complex evolution metropolis algorithm. Capitalizing on an unplanned experimental artifact that led to colloid formation, we adopt a stepwise strategy to first interpret the data from each experiment separately and then to incorporate multiple experiments simultaneously to identify a suite of plutonium-colloid transport processes. Nonequilibrium or kinetic attachment and detachment of plutonium-colloid in fractures were clearly demonstrated and captured in the inverted modeling parameters along with estimates of the source plutonium fraction that formed plutonium-colloids. The results from this study provide valuable insights for understanding the transport mechanisms and environmental impacts of plutonium in groundwater aquifers.

  8. Langerhans Cells Facilitate UVB-induced Epidermal Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Julia M.; Bürgler, Christina D.; Freudzon, Marianna; Golubets, Kseniya; Gibson, Juliet F.; Filler, Renata B.; Girardi, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) light is considered the major environmental inducer of human keratinocyte DNA mutations, including within the tumor-suppressor gene p53, and chronic exposure is associated with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) formation. Langerhans cells (LC) comprise a dendritic network within the suprabasilar epidermis, yet the role of LC in UVB-induced carcinogenesis is largely unknown. Herein, we show that LC-intact epidermis develops UVB-induced tumors more readily than LC-deficient epidermis. While levels of epidermal cyclopyrimidine dimers (CPD) following acute UVB exposure are equivalent in the presence or absence of LC, chronic UVB-induced p53 mutant clonal islands expand more readily in association with LC which remain largely intact and are preferentially found in proximity to the expanding mutant keratinocyte populations. The observed LC facilitation of mutant p53 clonal expansion is completely αβ and γδ T-cell independent, and is associated with increased intraepidermal expression of interleukin (IL)-22 and the presence of group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3). These data demonstrate that LC play a key role in UVB-induced cutaneous carcinogenesis, and suggest that LC locally stimulate keratinocyte proliferation and innate immune cells that provoke tumor outgrowth. PMID:26053049

  9. Using Technology to Facilitate Differentiated High School Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Jennifer L.

    2017-10-01

    This qualitative investigation explored the beliefs and practices of one secondary science teacher, Diane, who differentiated instruction and studied how technology facilitated her differentiation. Diane was selected based on the results of a previous study, in which data indicated that Diane understood how to design and implement proactively planned, flexible, engaging instructional activities in response to students' learning needs better than the other study participants. Data for the present study included 3 h of semi-structured interview responses, 37.5 h of observations of science instruction, and other artifacts such as instructional materials. This variety of data allowed for triangulation of the evidence. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative approach. Results indicated that technology played an integral role in Diane's planning and implementation of differentiated science lessons. The technology-enhanced differentiated lessons employed by Diane typically attended to students' different learning profiles or interest through modification of process or product. This study provides practical strategies for science teachers beginning to differentiate instruction, and recommendations for science teacher educators and school and district administrators. Future research should explore student outcomes, supports for effective formative assessment, and technology-enhanced readiness differentiation among secondary science teachers.

  10. Audiovisual integration facilitates monkeys' short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, James; Poremba, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Many human behaviors are known to benefit from audiovisual integration, including language and communication, recognizing individuals, social decision making, and memory. Exceptionally little is known about the contributions of audiovisual integration to behavior in other primates. The current experiment investigated whether short-term memory in nonhuman primates is facilitated by the audiovisual presentation format. Three macaque monkeys that had previously learned an auditory delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task were trained to perform a similar visual task, after which they were tested with a concurrent audiovisual DMS task with equal proportions of auditory, visual, and audiovisual trials. Parallel to outcomes in human studies, accuracy was higher and response times were faster on audiovisual trials than either unisensory trial type. Unexpectedly, two subjects exhibited superior unimodal performance on auditory trials, a finding that contrasts with previous studies, but likely reflects their training history. Our results provide the first demonstration of a bimodal memory advantage in nonhuman primates, lending further validation to their use as a model for understanding audiovisual integration and memory processing in humans.

  11. Using Technology to Facilitate Differentiated High School Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Jennifer L.

    2016-09-01

    This qualitative investigation explored the beliefs and practices of one secondary science teacher, Diane, who differentiated instruction and studied how technology facilitated her differentiation. Diane was selected based on the results of a previous study, in which data indicated that Diane understood how to design and implement proactively planned, flexible, engaging instructional activities in response to students' learning needs better than the other study participants. Data for the present study included 3 h of semi-structured interview responses, 37.5 h of observations of science instruction, and other artifacts such as instructional materials. This variety of data allowed for triangulation of the evidence. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative approach. Results indicated that technology played an integral role in Diane's planning and implementation of differentiated science lessons. The technology-enhanced differentiated lessons employed by Diane typically attended to students' different learning profiles or interest through modification of process or product. This study provides practical strategies for science teachers beginning to differentiate instruction, and recommendations for science teacher educators and school and district administrators. Future research should explore student outcomes, supports for effective formative assessment, and technology-enhanced readiness differentiation among secondary science teachers.

  12. Anomalous excitation facilitation in inhomogeneously broadened Rydberg gases

    CERN Document Server

    Letscher, Fabian; Niederprüm, Thomas; Ott, Herwig; Fleischhauer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    When atomic gases are laser driven to Rydberg states in an off resonant way, a single Rydberg atom may enhance the excitation rate of surrounding atoms. This leads to a facilitated excitation referred to as Rydberg anti-blockade. In the usual facilitation scenario, the detuning of the laser from resonance compensates the interaction shift. Here, we discuss a different excitation mechanism, which we call anomalous facilitation. This occurs on the "wrong side" of the resonance and originates from inhomogeneous broadening. The anomalous facilitation may be seen in experiments of attractively interacting atoms on the blue detuned side, where facilitation is not expected to appear.

  13. Transducer model produces facilitation from opposite-sign flanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, J. A.; Watson, A. B.; Morgan, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Small spots, lines and Gabor patterns can be easier to detect when they are superimposed upon similar spots, lines and Gabor patterns. Traditionally, such facilitation has been understood to be a consequence of nonlinear contrast transduction. Facilitation has also been reported to arise from non-overlapping patterns with opposite sign. We point out that this result does not preclude the traditional explanation for superimposed targets. Moreover, we find that facilitation from opposite-sign flanks is weaker than facilitation from same-sign flanks. Simulations with a transducer model produce opposite-sign facilitation.

  14. Interspecific competition/facilitation among insect parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusumano, Antonino; Peri, Ezio; Colazza, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Competition for limited resources is a widespread ecological interaction in animals. In the case of insect parasitoids, species can compete for host resources both at the adult stage as well as at the larval stage. Interspecific competition can play a role in sizing and shaping community structures. In addition of being relevant for basic ecological studies, understanding how interspecific competition between parasitoids affects pest suppression is important for biological control. In this opinion paper we review recent advances in the field of interspecific competition among parasitoids in a biological control perspective. We first discuss adult competition, highlighting which factors are likely to play a role in the outcome of competition when adults interact either directly or indirectly. Then we focus on the interactions occurring between competing larvae that develop within the same host taking also into account the fitness consequences of competition for the larva surviving interspecific competition. We also explore the possibility of interspecific facilitation among parasitoids in those situations in which a given species may benefit from interspecific competition.

  15. Teacher as Learning Facilitator in ELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badea Elena Codruta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The classroom is the magic active scenery where many educational things take place simultaneously.Intellectual, emotional, socio-cultural, motivational and curricular factors corroborate their influence onclassroom environments, whether we deal with traditional models of teaching or with the constructivistapproaches. The growing demand for language teachers, English in particular, has determined a new vision oflanguage teaching strategies. The cutting-edge technology has created a fertile ground which successfullyfosters the teacher –student communication, emphasizing the teacher’s role to guide students and to generate achange in their learning approach and in eliciting useable knowledge. This way, the teacher has a larger abilityto convert knowledge into practical information that is of real help and value to students. Students are involvedin a continuous educational scheme and are tested on what they have learned. This ensures they can alwaysenjoy the benefits of active learning from expert teachers. The present paper deals with a brief analysis of therole of teacher as learning facilitator and its importance for student acquisition process, eliciting some strategiesin support of collaborative and student-centered learning.

  16. Aquaporin-8-facilitated mitochondrial ammonia transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Leandro R; Fanelli, Elena; Altamura, Nicola; Svelto, Maria; Marinelli, Raúl A; Calamita, Giuseppe

    2010-03-05

    Aquaporin-8 (AQP8) is a membrane channel permeable to water and ammonia. As AQP8 is expressed in the inner mitochondrial membrane of several mammalian tissues, we studied the effect of the AQP8 expression on the mitochondrial transport of ammonia. Recombinant rat AQP8 was expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The presence of AQP8 in the inner membrane of yeast mitochondria was demonstrated by subcellular fractionation and immunoblotting analysis. The ammonia transport was determined in isolated mitochondria by stopped flow light scattering using formamide as ammonia analog. We found that the presence of AQP8 increased by threefold mitochondrial formamide transport. AQP8-facilitated mitochondrial formamide transport in rat native tissue was confirmed in liver (a mitochondrial AQP8-expressing tissue) vs. brain (a mitochondrial AQP8 non-expressing tissue). Comparative studies indicated that the AQP8-mediated mitochondrial movement of formamide was markedly higher than that of water. Together, our data suggest that ammonia diffusional transport is a major function for mitochondrial AQP8. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Facilitated auditory detection for speech sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signoret, Carine; Gaudrain, Etienne; Tillmann, Barbara; Grimault, Nicolas; Perrin, Fabien

    2011-01-01

    If it is well known that knowledge facilitates higher cognitive functions, such as visual and auditory word recognition, little is known about the influence of knowledge on detection, particularly in the auditory modality. Our study tested the influence of phonological and lexical knowledge on auditory detection. Words, pseudo-words, and complex non-phonological sounds, energetically matched as closely as possible, were presented at a range of presentation levels from sub-threshold to clearly audible. The participants performed a detection task (Experiments 1 and 2) that was followed by a two alternative forced-choice recognition task in Experiment 2. The results of this second task in Experiment 2 suggest a correct recognition of words in the absence of detection with a subjective threshold approach. In the detection task of both experiments, phonological stimuli (words and pseudo-words) were better detected than non-phonological stimuli (complex sounds), presented close to the auditory threshold. This finding suggests an advantage of speech for signal detection. An additional advantage of words over pseudo-words was observed in Experiment 2, suggesting that lexical knowledge could also improve auditory detection when listeners had to recognize the stimulus in a subsequent task. Two simulations of detection performance performed on the sound signals confirmed that the advantage of speech over non-speech processing could not be attributed to energetic differences in the stimuli.

  18. Facilitated auditory detection for speech sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine eSignoret

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available If it is well known that knowledge facilitates higher cognitive functions, such as visual and auditory word recognition, little is known about the influence of knowledge on detection, particularly in the auditory modality. Our study tested the influence of phonological and lexical knowledge on auditory detection. Words, pseudo words and complex non phonological sounds, energetically matched as closely as possible, were presented at a range of presentation levels from sub threshold to clearly audible. The participants performed a detection task (Experiments 1 and 2 that was followed by a two alternative forced choice recognition task in Experiment 2. The results of this second task in Experiment 2 suggest a correct recognition of words in the absence of detection with a subjective threshold approach. In the detection task of both experiments, phonological stimuli (words and pseudo words were better detected than non phonological stimuli (complex sounds, presented close to the auditory threshold. This finding suggests an advantage of speech for signal detection. An additional advantage of words over pseudo words was observed in Experiment 2, suggesting that lexical knowledge could also improve auditory detection when listeners had to recognize the stimulus in a subsequent task. Two simulations of detection performance performed on the sound signals confirmed that the advantage of speech over non speech processing could not be attributed to energetic differences in the stimuli.

  19. Semantic facilitation in bilingual first language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilson, Samuel; Yoshida, Hanako; Tran, Crystal D; Woods, Elizabeth A; Hills, Thomas T

    2015-07-01

    Bilingual first language learners face unique challenges that may influence the rate and order of early word learning relative to monolinguals. A comparison of the productive vocabularies of 435 children between the ages of 6 months and 7 years-181 of which were bilingual English learners-found that monolinguals learned both English words and all-language concepts faster than bilinguals. However, bilinguals showed an enhancement of an effect previously found in monolinguals-the preference for learning words with more associative cues. Though both monolinguals and bilinguals were best fit by a similar model of word learning, semantic network structure and growth indicated that the two groups were learning English words in a different order. Further, in comparison with a model of two-monolinguals-in-one-mind, bilinguals overproduced translational equivalents. Our results support an emergent account of bilingual first language acquisition, where learning a word in one language facilitates its acquisition in a second language. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cognate facilitation effects in trilingual word recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Szubko-Sitarek

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on bilingual word recognition suggests that lexical access is nonselective with respect to language, i.e., that word representations of both languages become active during recognition. One piece of evidence supporting nonselective access is that bilinguals recognize cognates (words that are identical or similar in form and meaning in two or more languages faster than noncognates. In fact, any difference between how cognates and ‘monolingual’ words are processed by multilinguals would indicate that the other, currently irrelevant language must have played a role as well, at least as long as the two groups of words are comparable with respect to all dimensions other than language membership. The aim of the present paper is to report on two visual perceptual experiments conducted within the lexical decision task paradigm whose aim was to test the assumptions concerning the special position of cognates (the cognate facilitation effect, cf. Dijkstra, 2005 within a trilingual mind and to answer the question whether trilinguals rely upon their second language lexical knowledge when recognizing L3 words. The results of the experiments attest to simultaneous activation and parallel processing as well as interaction among all the three languages. At the same time, they point to the fact that cross-linguistic lexical access and the source and strength of transfer may be constrained by variables such task demands.

  1. Facilitating nurturant fathering behavior in the NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, J C

    1990-09-01

    Many of the roles required of the father of a NICU infant are new and unfamiliar, difficult to carry out, unrehearsed, and yet called for in an unexpected crisis. At a time when they too need nurturing, fathers of high-risk infants are expected to adapt readily and be models of self-control. It is apparent from this investigation that the primary nurse is in a strategic position to assist the new father in his acquaintance with and early adjustment to his infant. Although some of the fathers will become actively involved with their children, others prefer less involvement in infant care taking and display minimal nurturant behaviors. A nurse must be able to recognize these differences and support a father's (and mother's) choice. A couple's sociocultural ideology and perceptions of the father's role, as well as the family dynamics and values, need to be given primary consideration in planning nursing care. In order for the nurse to fulfill an important teaching role for the fathers (parents) of NICU infants, the nurse must meet the needs of each individual father in relation to the family system. This requires systematic and nonjudgmental assessment and caring facilitation of paternal role development and early father-infant and father-mother-infant interactions.

  2. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition.

  3. Facilitating Service Discovery with Semantic Overlay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Jin; Hao Wu; Xiao-Min Ning

    2006-01-01

    Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Peer-to-Peer (P2P) computing share many common characteristics.It is believed that the combination of the two emerging techniques is a very promising method in promoting the web services (WS). Because the service discovery plays a key role in the integration, here a P2P-based framework to manage the knowledge of service and locating services is proposed. In this paper, the details of the principle, constructing and maintaining of service semantic overlay architecture have been described, and the way how the semantic overlay facilitates discovery of service resources is illustrated. To enable the semantic web service superiority, Service Ontology, which is considered as the service semantic model, is employed to depict service. The service discovery includes two phases: searching on the service semantic overlay; and local discovery in peer's service repository. Various solutions have been proposed to realize those two phases.Furthermore, tests are carried out to evaluate service discovery on the architecture.

  4. Audiovisual integration facilitates unconscious visual scene processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jye-Sheng; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2015-10-01

    Meanings of masked complex scenes can be extracted without awareness; however, it remains unknown whether audiovisual integration occurs with an invisible complex visual scene. The authors examine whether a scenery soundtrack can facilitate unconscious processing of a subliminal visual scene. The continuous flash suppression paradigm was used to render a complex scene picture invisible, and the picture was paired with a semantically congruent or incongruent scenery soundtrack. Participants were asked to respond as quickly as possible if they detected any part of the scene. Release-from-suppression time was used as an index of unconscious processing of the complex scene, which was shorter in the audiovisual congruent condition than in the incongruent condition (Experiment 1). The possibility that participants adopted different detection criteria for the 2 conditions was excluded (Experiment 2). The audiovisual congruency effect did not occur for objects-only (Experiment 3) and background-only (Experiment 4) pictures, and it did not result from consciously mediated conceptual priming (Experiment 5). The congruency effect was replicated when catch trials without scene pictures were added to exclude participants with high false-alarm rates (Experiment 6). This is the first study demonstrating unconscious audiovisual integration with subliminal scene pictures, and it suggests expansions of scene-perception theories to include unconscious audiovisual integration.

  5. The social facilitation of eating or the facilitation of social eating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C Peter

    2017-01-01

    People eat more when they eat in groups. Various explanations have been offered for this "social facilitation" of eating. We consider these explanations and find most of them wanting, especially insofar as they do not take into account the increased per capita provision of food when people eat together. We suggest that people often prefer to eat in groups precisely because it offers them an opportunity to overindulge.

  6. Assessing and Improving Student Organizations: Resources for Facilitators CD-ROM. The Assessing and Improving Student Organization (AISO) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolfi, Tricia; Ruben, Brent D.

    2010-01-01

    This companion to the "Guide for Students" and "Student Workbook" includes the complete set of PowerPoint slides, a PDF of the Facilitator's Guide in PPT (PowerPoint) slide show format, and PDFs of all scoring sheets, handouts and project planning guides needed for the AISO (Assessing and Improving Student Organization) process. The Assessing and…

  7. Tonoplast Aquaporins Facilitate Lateral Root Emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Hagen; Hachez, Charles; Bienert, Manuela Désirée; Beebo, Azeez; Swarup, Kamal; Voß, Ute; Bouhidel, Karim; Frigerio, Lorenzo; Schjoerring, Jan K; Bennett, Malcolm J; Chaumont, Francois

    2016-03-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are water channels allowing fast and passive diffusion of water across cell membranes. It was hypothesized that AQPs contribute to cell elongation processes by allowing water influx across the plasma membrane and the tonoplast to maintain adequate turgor pressure. Here, we report that, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the highly abundant tonoplast AQP isoforms AtTIP1;1, AtTIP1;2, and AtTIP2;1 facilitate the emergence of new lateral root primordia (LRPs). The number of lateral roots was strongly reduced in the triple tip mutant, whereas the single, double, and triple tip mutants showed no or minor reduction in growth of the main root. This phenotype was due to the retardation of LRP emergence. Live cell imaging revealed that tight spatiotemporal control of TIP abundance in the tonoplast of the different LRP cells is pivotal to mediating this developmental process. While lateral root emergence is correlated to a reduction of AtTIP1;1 and AtTIP1;2 protein levels in LRPs, expression of AtTIP2;1 is specifically needed in a restricted cell population at the base, then later at the flanks, of developing LRPs. Interestingly, the LRP emergence phenotype of the triple tip mutants could be fully rescued by expressing AtTIP2;1 under its native promoter. We conclude that TIP isoforms allow the spatial and temporal fine-tuning of cellular water transport, which is critically required during the highly regulated process of LRP morphogenesis and emergence.

  8. Imperfect information facilitates the evolution of reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun

    2016-06-01

    The existence of cooperation demands explanation since cooperation is costly to the actor. Reciprocity has long been regarded as a potential explanatory mechanism for the existence of cooperation. Reciprocity is a mechanism wherein a cooperator responds to an opponent's behavior by switching his/her own behavior. Hence, a possible problematic case relevant to the theory of reciprocity evolution arises when the mechanism is such that the information regarding an opponent's behavior is imperfect. Although it has been confirmed also by previous theoretical studies that imperfect information interferes with the evolution of reciprocity, this argument is based on the assumption that there are no mistakes in behavior. And, a previous study presumed that it might be expected that when such mistakes occur, reciprocity can more readily evolve in the case of imperfect information than in the case of perfect information. The reason why the previous study considers so is that in the former case, reciprocators can miss defections incurred by other reciprocators' mistakes due to imperfect information, allowing cooperation to persist when such reciprocators meet. However, contrary to this expectation, the previous study has shown that even when mistakes occur, imperfect information interferes with the evolution of reciprocity. Nevertheless, the previous study assumed that payoffs are linear (i.e., that the effect of behavior is additive and there are no synergetic effects). In this study, we revisited the same problem but removed the assumption that payoffs are linear. We used evolutionarily stable strategy analysis to compare the condition for reciprocity to evolve when mistakes occur and information is imperfect with the condition for reciprocity to evolve when mistakes occur and information is perfect. Our study revealed that when payoffs are not linear, imperfect information can facilitate the evolution of reciprocity when mistakes occur; while when payoffs are linear

  9. Sleep facilitates learning a new linguistic rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterink, Laura J; Oudiette, Delphine; Reber, Paul J; Paller, Ken A

    2014-12-01

    Natural languages contain countless regularities. Extraction of these patterns is an essential component of language acquisition. Here we examined the hypothesis that memory processing during sleep contributes to this learning. We exposed participants to a hidden linguistic rule by presenting a large number of two-word phrases, each including a noun preceded by one of four novel words that functioned as an article (e.g., gi rhino). These novel words (ul, gi, ro and ne) were presented as obeying an explicit rule: two words signified that the noun referent was relatively near, and two that it was relatively far. Undisclosed to participants was the fact that the novel articles also predicted noun animacy, with two of the articles preceding animate referents and the other two preceding inanimate referents. Rule acquisition was tested implicitly using a task in which participants responded to each phrase according to whether the noun was animate or inanimate. Learning of the hidden rule was evident in slower responses to phrases that violated the rule. Responses were delayed regardless of whether rule-knowledge was consciously accessible. Brain potentials provided additional confirmation of implicit and explicit rule-knowledge. An afternoon nap was interposed between two 20-min learning sessions. Participants who obtained greater amounts of both slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep showed increased sensitivity to the hidden linguistic rule in the second session. We conclude that during sleep, reactivation of linguistic information linked with the rule was instrumental for stabilizing learning. The combination of slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep may synergistically facilitate the abstraction of complex patterns in linguistic input.

  10. Metadherin facilitates podocyte apoptosis in diabetic nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Ting; Peng, Fen-Fen; Li, Hong-Yu; Chen, Xiao-Wen; Gong, Wang-Qiu; Chen, Wen-Jing; Chen, Yi-Hua; Li, Pei-Lin; Li, Shu-Ting; Xu, Zhao-Zhong; Long, Hai-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis, one of the major causes of podocyte loss, has been reported to have a vital role in diabetic nephropathy (DN) pathogenesis, and understanding the mechanisms underlying the regulation of podocyte apoptosis is crucial. Metadherin (MTDH) is an important oncogene, which is overexpressed in most cancers and responsible for apoptosis, metastasis, and poor patient survival. Here we show that the expression levels of Mtdh and phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) are significantly increased, whereas those of the microRNA-30 family members (miR-30s) are considerably reduced in the glomeruli of DN rat model and in high glucose (HG)-induced conditionally immortalized mouse podocytes (MPC5). These levels are positively correlated with podocyte apoptosis rate. The inhibition of Mtdh expression, using small interfering RNA, but not Mtdh overexpression, was shown to inhibit HG-induced MPC5 apoptosis and p38 MAPK pathway, and Bax and cleaved caspase 3 expression. This was shown to be similar to the effects of p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580). Furthermore, luciferase assay results demonstrated that Mtdh represents the target of miR-30s. Transient transfection experiments, using miR-30 microRNA (miRNA) inhibitors, led to the increase in Mtdh expression and induced the apoptosis of MPC5, whereas the treatment with miR-30 miRNA mimics led to the reduction in Mtdh expression and apoptosis of HG-induced MPC5 cells in comparison with their respective controls. Our results demonstrate that Mtdh is a potent modulator of podocyte apoptosis, and that it represents the target of miR-30 miRNAs, facilitating podocyte apoptosis through the activation of HG-induced p38 MAPK-dependent pathway. PMID:27882943

  11. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyama Issei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet. Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+ and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4- necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-], indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body.

  12. Facilitating Discourse Analysis with Interactive Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Chevalier, F; Collins, C; Balakrishnan, R

    2012-12-01

    A discourse parser is a natural language processing system which can represent the organization of a document based on a rhetorical structure tree-one of the key data structures enabling applications such as text summarization, question answering and dialogue generation. Computational linguistics researchers currently rely on manually exploring and comparing the discourse structures to get intuitions for improving parsing algorithms. In this paper, we present DAViewer, an interactive visualization system for assisting computational linguistics researchers to explore, compare, evaluate and annotate the results of discourse parsers. An iterative user-centered design process with domain experts was conducted in the development of DAViewer. We report the results of an informal formative study of the system to better understand how the proposed visualization and interaction techniques are used in the real research environment.

  13. A grid to facilitate physics staffing justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Eric E

    2009-12-03

    Justification of clinical physics staffing levels is difficult due to the lack of direction as how to equate clinical needs with the staffing levels and competency required. When a physicist negotiates staffing requests to administration, she/he often refers to American College of Radiology staffing level suggestions, and resources such as the Abt studies. This approach is often met with questions as to how to fairly derive the time it takes to perform tasks. The result is often insufficient and/or inexperienced staff handling complex and cumbersome tasks. We undertook development of a staffing justification grid to equate the clinical needs to the quantity and quality of staffing required. The first step is using the Abt study, customized to the clinical setting, to derive time per task multiplied by the anticipated number of such tasks. Inclusion of vacation, meeting, and developmental time may be incorporated along with allocated time for education and administration. This is followed by mapping the tasks to the level of competency/experience needed. For example, in an academic setting the faculty appointment levels correlate with experience. Non-staff personnel, such as IMRT QA technicians or clerical staff, should also be part of the equation. By using the staffing justification grid, we derived strong documentation to justify a substantial budget increase. The grid also proved useful when our clinical demands changed. Justification for physics staffing can be significantly strengthened with a properly developed data-based time and work analysis. A staffing grid is presented, along with a development methodology that facilitated our justification. Though our grid is for a large academic facility, the methodology can be extended to a non-academic setting, and to a smaller scale. This grid method not only equates the clinical needs with the quantity of staffing, but can also help generate the personnel budget, based on the type of staff and personnel required

  14. [Facilitators and barriers to implementation of intercultural health policy in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Camila; Nazar, Gabriela; Cova, Félix

    2016-02-01

    Objective To identify elements that either facilitate or hinder implementation of Chile's intercultural health policy. Methods A descriptive study was conducted with the participation of health services users from the Mapuche ethnic group, biomedical health professionals, intercultural facilitators, and key informants in two health facilities serving towns with a high density of Mapuche population. The information was obtained through semi-structured interviews that were analyzed thematically. Results Factors identified as facilitating the implementation of this policy include laws and regulations pertaining to the rights of indigenous peoples, the empowerment of users around their rights, the formation of implementation teams, the presence of professionals of Mapuche origin in health facilities, and the existence of processes for systematization of the work carried out. The asymmetric relationship between the Mapuche people and the state, and between the Mapuche health system and the biomedical model, constitutes a fundamental barrier. Other obstacles include the lack of theoretical and practical clarity around the concept of intercultural health and a lack of resources. Conclusions Despite the facilitators identified and the achievements to date, meaningful progress in implementation of an intercultural health policy is limited by barriers that are hard to change. These include the usual forms of government planning and the hegemony of the biomedical model.

  15. Post-attack aposematic display in prey facilitates predator avoidance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changku eKang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Warning signals protect unpalatable prey from predation because predators who learn the association between the warning signal and prey unprofitability decrease attacks on the prey. Most of the research have focused on visual aposematic signals that are constantly presented and visible to the predators. But a variety of chemically defended insects are rather cryptic when resting, and only in response to predator attacks (post-attack they perform displays of conspicuous abdomens or hindwings normally hidden under forewings. The function of those displays in unpalatable insects is not well understood. We examined two adaptive hypotheses on this facultative aposematic display using wild-caught oriental tits (Parus minor as predators. First, we tested whether the display increases the rejection of the prey by predators upon seeing the display (i.e. at the moment of attack through learning trials (aposematic signaling hypothesis. Second, we tested whether the display facilitates the memory formation between cryptic visible form of the prey and prey defense so that it prevents the predators initiate an attack upon seeing the cryptic form (facilitation hypothesis. We found that predators learned to avoid attacking the prey which supports the facilitation hypothesis. However, the support for the aposematic signaling hypothesis was equivocal. Our results open new directions of research by highlighting the possibility that similar facilitation effects may contribute to the evolution of various forms of post-attack visual displays in chemically, or otherwise, defended animals.

  16. Pattern formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parsek, Matthew R.; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Bacteria are capable of forming elaborate multicellular communities called biofilms. Pattern formation in biofilms depends on cell proliferation and cellular migration in response to the available nutrients and other external cues, as well as on self-generated intercellular signal molecules...... and the production of an extracellular matrix that serves as a structural 'scaffolding' for the biofilm cells. Pattern formation in biofilms allows cells to position themselves favorably within nutrient gradients and enables buildup and maintenance of physiologically distinct subpopulations, which facilitates...... survival of one or more subpopulations upon environmental insult, and therefore plays an important role in the innate tolerance displayed by biofilms toward adverse conditions....

  17. Fringe formation in dual-hologram interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burner, A. W.

    1990-01-01

    Reference-fringe formation in nondiffuse dual-hologram interferometry is described by combining a first-order geometrical hologram treatment with interference fringes generated by two point sources. The first-order imaging relationships can be used to describe reference-fringe patterns for the geometry of the dual-hologram interferometry. The process can be completed without adjusting the two holograms when the reconstructing wavelength is less than the exposing wavelength, and the process is found to facilitate basic intereferometer adjustments.

  18. Facilitation as a management discipline to support organizational development processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Laura; Goduscheit, René Chester

    2015-01-01

    Private and public organisations conduct an ever increasing number of Development workshops, and the focus on effective meetings and structured development processes is significant. On the basis of a literature review, this article elucidates the concept of facilitation and demonstrates how...... for facilitation and ensuring backing for the work required. Preparation of the processes is a main focus of the literature in the field, and several studies stress the advantages of using a model to structure the preparation and execution of the process. Facilitation per se and serving as a facilitator both...

  19. Facilitation as a management discipline to support organizational development processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Laura; Goduscheit, René Chester

    2015-01-01

    Private and public organisations conduct an ever increasing number of Development workshops, and the focus on effective meetings and structured development processes is significant. On the basis of a literature review, this article elucidates the concept of facilitation and demonstrates how...... for facilitation and ensuring backing for the work required. Preparation of the processes is a main focus of the literature in the field, and several studies stress the advantages of using a model to structure the preparation and execution of the process. Facilitation per se and serving as a facilitator both...

  20. An exploration of teaching presence in online interprofessional education facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sherryn Maree; Ward, Catherine; Reeves, Scott

    2017-07-01

    Although the prevalence of online asynchronous interprofessional education (IPE) has increased in the last decade, little is known about the processes of facilitation in this environment. The teaching presence element of the Community of Inquiry Framework offers an approach to analyze the contributions of online facilitators, however, to date it has only been used on a limited basis in health professions education literature. Using an exploratory case study design, we explored the types of contributions made by IPE facilitators to asynchronous interprofessional team discussions by applying the notion of teaching presence. Using a purposeful sampling approach, we analyzed 14 facilitators' contributions to asynchronous team discussion boards in an online IPE course. We analyzed data using directed content analysis based on the key indicators of teaching presence. The online IPE facilitators undertook the three critical pedagogical functions identified in teaching presence: facilitating discourse, direct instruction, and instructional design and organization. While our data fitted well with a number of key activities embedded in these three functions, further modification of the teaching presence concept was needed to describe our facilitators' teaching presence. This study provides an initial insight into the key elements of online asynchronous IPE facilitation. Further research is required to continue to illuminate the complexity of online asynchronous IPE facilitation.

  1. Restoring Tropical Grassland Productivity with Facilitated Biofertilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wendy; Büdel, Burkhard

    2015-04-01

    Grazing is the major economic activity in northern Australia's subtropical grasslands, savannah and shrublands that cover >1.9 million km2 however; there has been significant decline in soil fertility that has led to the need to consider ways to improve management. Terrestrial cyanobacteria primarily inhabit complex soil microbial communities that drive physical and biological processes in the topsoil. These microbes facilitate resilience to drought and maintain soil function. They transform their environment through the secretion of mucilaginous organic compounds that improve aggregate stability, porosity, rainfall infiltration rates and water storage, reduce evaporation and soil erosion and, improve seedling emergence. In the northern Australian savannah cyanobacterial communities dominate soil surfaces of the perennial tussock grasslands. The core focus of this research has been to better understand the function of cyanobacteria within the climate-soil-plant ecosystem. The recent discovery that cyanobacteria are programmed to detect and respond only to wet season rains, and remain inactive and unproductive during the dry season even if it rains, has rewritten our understanding of soil nutrient cycles in the northern Australian savannah. In this project we have established: 1. For the wet season trials (Dec 2009-May 2010) the mean values of cyanobacterial crust (0-1 cm depth; n=100) plant-available N fluctuated, yet significantly increased incrementally from Dec to Feb (2.74 ± 0.37SE-5.62 ± 0.82 mg NH4+ kg-1 soil; p = 0.003) and peaked from Mar-May (9.59 ± 1.5SE-16.04 ± 3.2SE mg NH4+ kg-1 soil; p = 0.127) that represented the concluding stages of the wet season. 2. Cyanobacterial rates of N-fixation (determined by Acetylene Reduction assays, n=6 per month), increased significantly from the commencement to the height of the wet season (13.2 ± 2.9SE-30.2 ± 1.9SE kg N ha-1; p = 0.001) and decreased towards the end of the wet season (10.4 ± 1.8SE kg N ha-1; p

  2. Hypothesis Formation, Paradigms, and Openness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad P. Pritscher

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A part of hypothesis formation, while necessary for scientific investigation, is beyond direct observation. Powerful hypothesis formation is more than logical and is facilitated by mind­opening. As Percy Bridgeman, Nobel laureate, said, science is: “Nothing more than doing one's damnedest with one's mind, no holds barred.” This paper suggests more open schooling helps generate more open hypothesizing which helps one do one's damnedest with one's mind. It is hypothesized that a more open process of hypothesis formation may help schools and society forge new ways of living and learning so that more people more often can do their damnedest with their mind. This writing does not offer a new paradigm but rather attempts to elaborate on the notion that new paradigms are difficult to form without openness to what was previously quasi­unthinkable. More on these topics and issues is included in the author's Reopening Einstein's Thought: About What Can't Be Learned From Textbooks ­­to be published by Sense Publishers in June 2008.

  3. Exploring Formative Assessment in Primary School Classrooms: Developing a Framework of Actions and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Panayiotis; James, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The importance of formative assessment in facilitating student learning has been well established in the literature. However, defining and implementing formative assessment in classroom settings is a rather complicated task. The aim of this study is to explore formative assessment, as implemented in primary classrooms in Cyprus, and develop a…

  4. How Workflow Documentation Facilitates Curation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickett, K.; Thomer, A. K.; Baker, K. S.; DiLauro, T.; Asangba, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    The description of the specific processes and artifacts that led to the creation of a data product provide a detailed picture of data provenance in the form of a workflow. The Site-Based Data Curation project, hosted by the Center for Informatics Research in Science and Scholarship at the University of Illinois, has been investigating how workflows can be used in developing curation processes and policies that move curation "upstream" in the research process. The team has documented an individual workflow for geobiology data collected during a single field trip to Yellowstone National Park. This specific workflow suggests a generalized three-part process for field data collection that comprises three distinct elements: a Planning Stage, a Fieldwork Stage, and a Processing and Analysis Stage. Beyond supplying an account of data provenance, the workflow has allowed the team to identify 1) points of intervention for curation processes and 2) data products that are likely candidates for sharing or deposit. Although these objects may be viewed by individual researchers as 'intermediate' data products, discussions with geobiology researchers have suggested that with appropriate packaging and description they may serve as valuable observational data for other researchers. Curation interventions may include the introduction of regularized data formats during the planning process, data description procedures, the identification and use of established controlled vocabularies, and data quality and validation procedures. We propose a poster that shows the individual workflow and our generalization into a three-stage process. We plan to discuss with attendees how well the three-stage view applies to other types of field-based research, likely points of intervention, and what kinds of interventions are appropriate and feasible in the example workflow.

  5. Cell contractility facilitates alignment of cells and tissues to static uniaxial stretch

    CERN Document Server

    Rens, Elisabeth G

    2016-01-01

    During animal development and homeostasis, the structure of tissues, including muscles, blood vessels and connective tissues adapts to mechanical strains in the extracellular matrix (ECM). These strains originate from the differential growth of tissues or forces due to muscle contraction or gravity. Here we show using a computational model that by amplifying local strain cues, active cell contractility can facilitate and accelerate the reorientation of single cells to static strains. At the collective cell level, the model simulations show that active cell contractility can facilitate the formation of strings along the orientation of stretch. The computational model is based on a hybrid cellular Potts and finite-element simulation framework describing a mechanical cell-substrate feedback, where: 1) cells apply forces on the ECM, such that 2) local strains are generated in the ECM, and 3) cells preferentially extend protrusions along the strain orientation. In accordance with experimental observations, simulat...

  6. Primary care quality improvement from a practice facilitator's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddy, Clare E; Blazhko, Valeriya; Dingwall, Molly; Singh, Jatinderpreet; Hogg, William E

    2014-02-03

    Practice facilitation has proven to be effective at improving care delivery. Practice facilitators are healthcare professionals who work with and support other healthcare providers. To the best of our knowledge, very few studies have explored the perspective of facilitators. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the barriers that facilitators face during the facilitation process and to identify approaches used to overcome these barriers to help practices move towards positive change. We conducted semi-structured interviews with four practice facilitators who worked with 84 primary care practices in Eastern Ontario, Canada over a period of five years (2007-2012). The transcripts were analyzed independently by three members of the research team using an open coding technique. A qualitative data analysis using immersion/crystallization technique was applied to interpret the interview transcripts. Common barriers identified by the facilitators included accessibility to the practice (e.g., difficulty scheduling meetings, short meetings), organizational behaviour (team organization, team conflicts, etc.), challenges with practice engagement (e.g., lack of interest, lack of trust), resistance to change, and competing priorities. To help practices move towards positive change the facilitators had to tailor their approach, integrate themselves, be persistent with practices, and exhibit flexibility. The consensus on redesigning and transforming primary care in North America and around the world is rapidly growing. Practice facilitation has been pivotal in materializing the transformation in the way primary care practices deliver care. This study provides an exclusive insight into facilitator approaches which will assist the design and implementation of small- and large-scale facilitation interventions.

  7. Connectivity of Learning in MOOCs: Facilitators' Experiences in Team Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado-Varela, Martin Alonso; Beltran, Jesus; Perez, Marisol Villegas; Vazquez, Nohemi Rivera; Ramirez-Montoya, Maria-Soledad

    2017-01-01

    The role of facilitators in distance learning environments is of substantial importance in supporting the learning process. This article specifically discusses the role of the facilitator in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC), which are characterized by their stimulation of learning connections. The study analyzes the experiences of 135…

  8. Barriers to and Facilitators of Health for Latina Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Latina undergraduate students' barriers and facilitators of health are examined: Barriers to psychological health--separating from family, pressure to succeed, and racism; Barriers to physical health--lacking health insurance, and discomfort using campus sports facilities; and Facilitators of psychological health--membership in Latina student…

  9. The calcium sensor synaptotagmin 7 is required for synaptic facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Skyler L; Turecek, Josef; Belinsky, Justine E; Regehr, Wade G

    2016-01-01

    It has been known for more than 70 years that synaptic strength is dynamically regulated in a use-dependent manner. At synapses with a low initial release probability, closely spaced presynaptic action potentials can result in facilitation, a short-term form of enhancement in which each subsequent action potential evokes greater neurotransmitter release. Facilitation can enhance neurotransmitter release considerably and can profoundly influence information transfer across synapses, but the underlying mechanism remains a mystery. One proposed mechanism is that a specialized calcium sensor for facilitation transiently increases the probability of release, and this sensor is distinct from the fast sensors that mediate rapid neurotransmitter release. Yet such a sensor has never been identified, and its very existence has been disputed. Here we show that synaptotagmin 7 (Syt7) is a calcium sensor that is required for facilitation at several central synapses. In Syt7-knockout mice, facilitation is eliminated even though the initial probability of release and the presynaptic residual calcium signals are unaltered. Expression of wild-type Syt7 in presynaptic neurons restored facilitation, whereas expression of a mutated Syt7 with a calcium-insensitive C2A domain did not. By revealing the role of Syt7 in synaptic facilitation, these results resolve a longstanding debate about a widespread form of short-term plasticity, and will enable future studies that may lead to a deeper understanding of the functional importance of facilitation.

  10. Demystifying Facilitation of Multi-Actor Learning Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, A.E.

    2002-01-01

     This thesis aims to demystify the facilitation of participatory processes in order to improve the performance of the facilitation professional. As our society is increasingly recognised as pluralistic, characterised by multiple actors with different interests, values and perception

  11. Competition between synaptic depression and facilitation in attractor neural networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres, J.J.; Cortes, J.M.; Marro, J.; Kappen, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    We study the effect of competition between short-term synaptic depression and facilitation on the dynamic properties of attractor neural networks, using Monte Carlo simulation and a mean-field analysis. Depending on the balance of depression, facilitation, and the underlying noise, the network displ

  12. When and why mimicry is facilitated and attenuated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, M.; Van Dijk, Eric; Van Baaren, Rick B.

    2016-01-01

    Although people tend to mimic others automatically, mimicry is facilitated or attenuated depending on the specific context. In the current paper, the authors discuss when mimicry is facilitated and attenuated depending on characteristics of situations, targets, and observers. On the basis of the

  13. When and Why Mimicry is Facilitated and Attenuated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, Mariëlle; van Dijk, Eric; van Baaren, Rick B.

    2016-01-01

    Although people tend to mimic others automatically, mimicry is facilitated or attenuated depending on the specific context. In the current paper, the authors discuss when mimicry is facilitated and attenuated depending on characteristics of situations, targets, and observers. On the basis of the

  14. Evidence for rotational contribution to protein-facilitated proton transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, G; Lavalette, D; Moll, W; Gros, H; Amand, B; Pochon, F

    1984-01-01

    Two modes of molecular motion of carrier molecules can, in principle, lead to a facilitated transport of a substrate: translational and rotational diffusion. In the present study, which deals with the mechanism of the facilitated diffusion of H+ and O2 in solutions of earthworm hemoglobin, examples for both types of facilitation are presented. Only translational, not rotational, diffusion of earthworm hemoglobin appears to lead to a facilitated O2 flux. In contrast, substantial facilitated H+ fluxes of comparable size arise from rotational diffusion as well as from translational diffusion of this large protein. This is derived from measurements of facilitated H+ and O2 fluxes in earthworm hemoglobin solutions and determinations of the rotational and translational diffusion coefficients of earthworm hemoglobin with the help of a theoretical treatment of facilitated diffusion by rotational carrier diffusion. H+ transport by rotational protein diffusion appears to be a case where the often-postulated mechanism of facilitated transport by rotation of a carrier lends itself to experimental verification. Images PMID:6324213

  15. Applications of Motivational Interviewing in Career Counseling: Facilitating Career Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltz, Kevin B.; Young, Tabitha L.

    2013-01-01

    The Protean and Boundaryless career paradigms are calling for new ways to provide career counseling to clients. Career counselors need methods for facilitating client's career transition across all stages of career development. This facilitation requires career counselors to be armed with methods for promoting client's autonomy,…

  16. How to differentiate facilitation and environmentally driven coexistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinbauer, Manuel; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Arfin Khan, Mohammed A.S.;

    2016-01-01

    . This is relevant as both the effect of spatial environmental heterogeneity and of facilitation (stress-gradient hypothesis) are expected to increase with environmental harshness. Nevertheless, 58% of facilitation studies neither undertook measures to minimize potential biases in their sampling approaches nor did...

  17. Barriers to and Facilitators of Health for Latina Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Latina undergraduate students' barriers and facilitators of health are examined: Barriers to psychological health--separating from family, pressure to succeed, and racism; Barriers to physical health--lacking health insurance, and discomfort using campus sports facilities; and Facilitators of psychological health--membership in Latina student…

  18. 50 CFR 600.752 - Use of conveners and facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... issues of concern, and to ascertain whether the establishment of an FNP regarding such matter is feasible... an impartial, neutral facilitator for the negotiations of the FNP, subject to the approval of the FNP... section. If the FNP does not approve the nominee of the Council or NMFS for facilitator, the FNP...

  19. "Just Add Facilitators and Stir": Stimulating Policy Uptake in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rebecca; Macdonald, Doune; Hay, Peter; McCuaig, Louise

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the evaluation findings of an education policy initiative that involved the employment of facilitators to broker the policy and its implementation. An Australian state's education authority piloted the employment of physical activity facilitators to expedite the implementation of "Smart Moves" in schools, a…

  20. Implementation framework for e-solutions for trade facilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijn, E. van; Phuaphanthong, T.; Keretho, S.; Pikart, M.; Hofman, W.J.; Tan, Y.-H.

    2011-01-01

    To offer practical guidelines for the implementation of e-Solutions for Trade Facilitation (e-ST), such as e-Customs and Single Window, we provide the Implementation Framework for e-Solutions for Trade facilitation (e-STIF). The e-STIF is meant for policy managers, who are responsible for overseeing

  1. An Analysis of Instructional Facilitators' Relationships with Teachers and Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range, Bret G.; Pijanowski, John C.; Duncan, Heather; Scherz, Susan; Hvidston, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the perspectives of Wyoming instructional facilitators, concerning three coaching constructs--namely, their instructional leadership roles, teachers' instructional practices, and the support that they receive from principals and teachers. Findings suggest that instructional facilitators were positive about their instructional…

  2. Competition between synaptic depression and facilitation in attractor neural networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres, J.J.; Cortes, J.M.; Marro, J.; Kappen, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    We study the effect of competition between short-term synaptic depression and facilitation on the dynamic properties of attractor neural networks, using Monte Carlo simulation and a mean-field analysis. Depending on the balance of depression, facilitation, and the underlying noise, the network displ

  3. Facilitating North-South Partnerships for Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termeer, C. J. A. M.; Hilhorst, T.; Oorthuizen, J.

    2010-01-01

    The increased number of development cooperation and sustainable agriculture partnerships brings with it new challenges for professionals who are asked to facilitate these partnering processes. In this article we shed more light on the world of development cooperation and we explore questions that facilitators working with North-South partnerships…

  4. Using Text Mining to Characterize Online Discussion Facilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Norma; Baumer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Facilitating class discussions effectively is a critical yet challenging component of instruction, particularly in online environments where student and faculty interaction is limited. Our goals in this research were to identify facilitation strategies that encourage productive discussion, and to explore text mining techniques that can help…

  5. Team Building. Baldor Electric Company. [Facilitator Guide and Participant Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Louis Community Coll., MO. Workplace Literacy Services Center.

    This document contains the facilitator and participant guides for a course in team building that was developed by a community college for a St. Louis (Missouri) electric company. The facilitator's guide contains the transparency masters, outlines, learning activities, questionnaires, and other handouts required for two course sessions. The first…

  6. Common File Formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Lauren

    2014-03-21

    An overview of the many file formats commonly used in bioinformatics and genome sequence analysis is presented, including various data file formats, alignment file formats, and annotation file formats. Example workflows illustrate how some of the different file types are typically used.

  7. Facilitating memory with hypnosis, focused meditation, and eye closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Graham F; Brunas-Wagstaff, Jo; Cole, Jon; Knapton, Luke; Winterbottom, James; Crean, Vicki; Wheatcroft, Jacqueline

    2004-10-01

    Three experiments examined some features of hypnotic induction that might be useful in the development of brief memory-facilitation procedures. The first involved a hypnosis procedure designed to facilitate face identification; the second employed a brief, focused-meditation (FM) procedure, with and without eye closure, designed to facilitate memory for an emotional event. The third experiment was a check for simple motivation and expectancy effects. Limited facilitation effects were found for hypnosis, but these were accompanied by increased confidence in incorrect responses. However, eye closure and FM were effective in facilitating free recall of an event without an increase in errors. FM reduced phonemic fluency, suggesting that the effectiveness of FM was not due to simple changes in expectancy or motivation.

  8. Medical students' and facilitators' experiences of an Early Professional Contact course: Active and motivated students, strained facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsson Ronny

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today, medical students are introduced to patient contact, communication skills, and clinical examination in the preclinical years of the curriculum with the purpose of gaining clinical experience. These courses are often evaluated from the student perspective. Reports with an additional emphasis on the facilitator perspective are scarce. According to constructive alignment, an influential concept from research in higher education, the learning climate between students and teachers is also of great importance. In this paper, we approach the learning climate by studying both students' and facilitators' course experiences. In 2001, a new "Early Professional Contact" longitudinal strand through term 1–4, was introduced at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. General practitioners and hospital specialists were facilitators. The aim of this study was to assess and analyse students' and clinical facilitators' experiences of the Early Professional Contact course and to illuminate facilitators' working conditions. Methods Inspired by a Swedish adaptation of the Course Experience Questionnaire, an Early Professional Contact Questionnaire was constructed. In 2003, on the completion of the first longitudinal strand, a student and facilitator version was distributed to 86 students and 21 facilitators. In the analysis, both Chi-square and the Mann-Whitney tests were used. Results Sixty students (70% and 15 facilitators (71% completed the questionnaire. Both students and facilitators were satisfied with the course. Students reported gaining iiration for their future work as doctors along with increased confidence in meeting patients. They also reported increased motivation for biomedical studies. Differences in attitudes between facilitators and students were found. Facilitators experienced a greater workload, less reasonable demands and less support, than students. Conclusion In this project, a new Early

  9. Whitebark pine facilitation at treeline: potential interactions for disruption by an invasive pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomback, Diana F; Blakeslee, Sarah C; Wagner, Aaron C; Wunder, Michael B; Resler, Lynn M; Pyatt, Jill C; Diaz, Soledad

    2016-08-01

    In stressful environments, facilitation often aids plant establishment, but invasive plant pathogens may potentially disrupt these interactions. In many treeline communities in the northern Rocky Mountains of the U.S. and Canada, Pinus albicaulis, a stress-tolerant pine, initiates tree islands at higher frequencies than other conifers - that is, leads to leeward tree establishment more frequently. The facilitation provided by a solitary (isolated) P. albicaulis leading to tree island initiation may be important for different life-history stages for leeward conifers, but it is not known which life-history stages are influenced and protection provided. However, P. albicaulis mortality from the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola potentially disrupts these facilitative interactions, reducing tree island initiation. In two Rocky Mountain eastern slope study areas, we experimentally examined fundamental plant-plant interactions which might facilitate tree island formation: the protection offered by P. albicaulis to leeward seed and seedling life-history stages, and to leeward krummholz conifers. In the latter case, we simulated mortality from C. ribicola for windward P. albicaulis to determine whether loss of P. albicaulis from C. ribicola impacts leeward conifers. Relative to other common solitary conifers at treeline, solitary P. albicaulis had higher abundance. More seeds germinated in leeward rock microsites than in conifer or exposed microsites, but the odds of cotyledon seedling survival during the growing season were highest in P. albicaulis microsites. Planted seedling survival was low among all microsites examined. Simulating death of windward P. albicaulis by C. ribicola reduced shoot growth of leeward trees. Loss of P. albicaulis to exotic disease may limit facilitation interactions and conifer community development at treeline and potentially impede upward movement as climate warms.

  10. The impact of mind-body medicine facilitation on affirming and enhancing professional identity in health care professions faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talisman, Nicholas; Harazduk, Nancy; Rush, Christina; Graves, Kristi; Haramati, Aviad

    2015-06-01

    Georgetown University School of Medicine (GUSOM) offers medical students a course in mind-body medicine (MBM) that introduces them to tools that reduce stress and foster self-awareness. Previous studies reported decreases in students' perceived stress and increases in mindfulness-changes that were associated with increased empathic concern and other elements of professional identity formation. However, no reports have described the impact of an MBM course on the facilitators themselves. To explore whether MBM facilitation is associated with changes in professional identity, self-awareness, and/or perceived stress, 62 facilitators, trained by the GUSOM MBM program, were invited to complete two validated surveys: the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Forty-two participants also completed a six-item open-ended questionnaire addressing their experience in the context of their professional identity. Facilitators' scores were significantly lower on PSS and higher on FMI compared with normative controls (P < .05), and the two parameters were inversely correlated (-0.46, P < .01). Qualitative analysis revealed three main themes: (1) aspects of professional identity (with subthemes of communication; connections and community; empathy and active listening; and self-confidence); (2) self-care; and (3) mindful awareness. Preliminary findings will be extended with larger studies that examine longitudinal quantitative assessment of communication, connection, and self-confidence outcomes in MBM facilitators, and the impact of MBM facilitation on burnout and resilience.

  11. The neural correlates of picture naming facilitated by auditory repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath Shiree

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overt repetition of auditorily presented words can facilitate picture naming performance in both unimpaired speakers and individuals with word retrieval difficulties, but the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms and longevity of such effects remain unclear. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether different neurological mechanisms underlie short-term (within minutes and long-term (within days facilitation effects from an auditory repetition task in healthy older adults. Results The behavioral results showed that both short- and long-term facilitated items were named significantly faster than unfacilitated items, with short-term items significantly faster than long-term items. Neuroimaging analyses identified a repetition suppression effect for long-term facilitated items, relative to short-term facilitated and unfacilitated items, in regions known to be associated with both semantic and phonological processing. A repetition suppression effect was also observed for short-term facilitated items when compared to unfacilitated items in a region of the inferior temporal lobe linked to semantic processing and object recognition, and a repetition enhancement effect when compared to long-term facilitated items in a posterior superior temporal region associated with phonological processing. Conclusions These findings suggest that different neurocognitive mechanisms underlie short- and long-term facilitation of picture naming by an auditory repetition task, reflecting both phonological and semantic processing. More specifically, the brain areas engaged were consistent with the view that long-term facilitation may be driven by a strengthening of semantic-phonological connections. Short-term facilitation, however, appears to result in more efficient semantic processing and/or object recognition, possibly in conjunction with active recognition of the phonological form.

  12. The Format Registry Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary McGath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available File format identification is an important issue in digital preservation. Several noteworthy attempts, including PRONOM, GDFR, and UDFR, have been made at creating a comprehensive repository of format information. The sheer amount of information to cover and the constant introduction of new formats and format versions has limited their success. Alternative approaches, such as Linked Data and offering limited per-format information with identifiers that can be used elsewhere, may lead to greater success.

  13. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Crable

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the methanogenic breakdown of complex organic material and serves as an important precursor for biological fuels production in the form of methane, hydrogen, and potentially methanol. Formate is produced by either CoA-dependent cleavage of pyruvate or enzymatic reduction of CO2 in an NADH- or ferredoxin-dependent manner. Formate is consumed through oxidation to CO2 and H2 or can be further reduced via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for carbon fixation or industrially for the production of methanol. Here, we review the enzymes involved in the interconversion of formate and discuss potential applications for biofuels production.

  14. Implementation of the Clinical Facilitation Model within an Australian rural setting: the role of the Clinical Facilitator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Helena; Lea, Jacqueline

    2012-11-01

    Education providers globally use various models for undergraduate nurse clinical education. This paper presents the major findings of a research project conducted by a rural university in Australia that aimed to explore the Clinical Facilitation Model of undergraduate nursing education from a rural perspective. In particular how the Clinical Facilitators enacted their role within the rural environment and to identify any barriers to the provision of effective clinical learning during facilitated clinical experience within this context. This qualitative study used a phenomenological approach to explore the experiences of Clinical Facilitators. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with eight Clinical Facilitators. Data was analysed using thematic analysis and several themes emerged from the study. This paper will report two of the major findings which are based on how Clinical Facilitators enacted their role within the rural environment. Whilst this study has a rural focus the findings will add to the limited body of knowledge internationally regarding the Clinical Facilitation model used as a result of balancing educational needs of the student with the care needs of the patients in the current health policy climate. The findings will be useful for informing undergraduate curricula, and will assist faculty and health services in planning and implementation of models of clinical education that meet the needs of the student and that are specific to the rural environment. In addition, the findings will provide insight into strategies that the rural Clinical Facilitator can utilise to assist in fulfilling their teaching role.

  15. Formatting Design Dialogues – Games and Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Eva; Messeter, Jörn; Binder, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    . Next we look more closely at what constitutes game and play, we discuss other authors’ use of games in collaborative settings and finally we examine the board game as a particularly interesting game format. In the second part of the article we present and discuss two board games: the User Game......This article discusses design games as a particular genre for formatting design dialogues. In the first part of the article we review the participatory design literature for game-oriented framings of co-design, and discuss why literal game formats are attractive for facilitating design dialogues...... and the Landscape Game. We show how these games respond to particular challenges, and how they have interesting characteristics in being both ‘as-if’ worlds to explore and shared representations of what the players accomplish. In the last section of the article we discuss how new games may be designed and played...

  16. Fear conditioning selectively disrupts noradrenergic facilitation of GABAergic inhibition in the basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelly, M J; Ariwodola, O J; Weiner, J L

    2017-02-01

    Inappropriate fear memory formation is symptomatic of many psychopathologies, and delineating the neurobiology of non-pathological fear learning may provide critical insight into treating these disorders. Fear memory formation is associated with decreased inhibitory signaling in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), and disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to this decrease. BLA noradrenergic neurotransmission has been implicated in fear memory formation, and distinct adrenoreceptor (AR) subtypes modulate excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in this region. For example, α1-ARs promote GABA release from local inhibitory interneurons, while β3-ARs potentiate neurotransmission at lateral paracapsular (LPC) GABAergic synapses. Conversely, β1/2-ARs amplify excitatory signaling at glutamatergic synapses in the BLA. As increased BLA excitability promotes fear memory formation, we hypothesized that fear learning shifts the balanced regional effects of noradrenergic signaling toward excitation. To test this hypothesis, we used the fear-potentiated startle paradigm in combination with whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology to examine the effects of AR activation on BLA synaptic transmission following fear conditioning in male Long-Evans rats. We first demonstrated that inhibitory neurotransmission is decreased at both local and LPC synapses following fear conditioning. We next measured noradrenergic facilitation of BLA inhibitory signaling at local and LPC synapses using α1-and β3-AR agonists (1 μM A61603 and 10 μM BRL37344), and found that the ability of these agents to facilitate inhibitory neurotransmission is disrupted following fear conditioning. Conversely, we found that fear learning does not disrupt noradrenergic modulation of glutamatergic signaling via a β1/2-AR agonist (1 μM isoproterenol). Taken together, these studies suggest that fear learning increases BLA excitability by selectively disrupting the inhibitory effects of noradrenaline

  17. Listeriolysin O Membrane Damaging Activity Involves Arc Formation and Lineaction -- Implication for Listeria monocytogenes Escape from Phagocytic Vacuole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ruan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Listeriolysin-O (LLO plays a crucial role during infection by Listeria monocytogenes. It enables escape of bacteria from phagocytic vacuole, which is the basis for its spread to other cells and tissues. It is not clear how LLO acts at phagosomal membranes to allow bacterial escape. The mechanism of action of LLO remains poorly understood, probably due to unavailability of suitable experimental tools that could monitor LLO membrane disruptive activity in real time. Here, we used high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM featuring high spatio-temporal resolution on model membranes and optical microscopy on giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs to investigate LLO activity. We analyze the assembly kinetics of toxin oligomers, the prepore-to-pore transition dynamics and the membrane disruption in real time. We reveal that LLO toxin efficiency and mode of action as a membrane-disrupting agent varies strongly depending on the membrane cholesterol concentration and the environmental pH. We discovered that LLO is able to form arc pores as well as damage lipid membranes as a lineactant, and this leads to large-scale membrane defects. These results altogether provide a mechanistic basis of how large-scale membrane disruption leads to release of Listeria from the phagocytic vacuole in the cellular context.

  18. Eccentric exercise facilitates mesenchymal stem cell appearance in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Carmen Valero

    Full Text Available Eccentric, or lengthening, contractions result in injury and subsequently stimulate the activation and proliferation of satellite stem cells which are important for skeletal muscle regeneration. The discovery of alternative myogenic progenitors in skeletal muscle raises the question as to whether stem cells other than satellite cells accumulate in muscle in response to exercise and contribute to post-exercise repair and/or growth. In this study, stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1 positive, non-hematopoetic (CD45⁻ cells were evaluated in wild type (WT and α7 integrin transgenic (α7Tg mouse muscle, which is resistant to injury yet liable to strain, 24 hr following a single bout of eccentric exercise. Sca-1⁺CD45⁻ stem cells were increased 2-fold in WT muscle post-exercise. The α7 integrin regulated the presence of Sca-1⁺ cells, with expansion occurring in α7Tg muscle and minimal cells present in muscle lacking the α7 integrin. Sca-1⁺CD45⁻ cells isolated from α7Tg muscle following exercise were characterized as mesenchymal-like stem cells (mMSCs, predominantly pericytes. In vitro multiaxial strain upregulated mMSC stem cells markers in the presence of laminin, but not gelatin, identifying a potential mechanistic basis for the accumulation of these cells in muscle following exercise. Transplantation of DiI-labeled mMSCs into WT muscle increased Pax7⁺ cells and facilitated formation of eMHC⁺DiI⁻ fibers. This study provides the first demonstration that mMSCs rapidly appear in skeletal muscle in an α7 integrin dependent manner post-exercise, revealing an early event that may be necessary for effective repair and/or growth following exercise. The results from this study also support a role for the α7 integrin and/or mMSCs in molecular- and cellular-based therapeutic strategies that can effectively combat disuse muscle atrophy.

  19. ncISO Facilitating Metadata and Scientific Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, D.; Habermann, T.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing the usability and availability climate and oceanographic datasets for environmental research requires improved metadata and tools to rapidly locate and access relevant information for an area of interest. Because of the distributed nature of most environmental geospatial data, a common approach is to use catalog services that support queries on metadata harvested from remote map and data services. A key component to effectively using these catalog services is the availability of high quality metadata associated with the underlying data sets. In this presentation, we examine the use of ncISO, and Geoportal as open source tools that can be used to document and facilitate access to ocean and climate data available from Thematic Realtime Environmental Distributed Data Services (THREDDS) data services. Many atmospheric and oceanographic spatial data sets are stored in the Network Common Data Format (netCDF) and served through the Unidata THREDDS Data Server (TDS). NetCDF and THREDDS are becoming increasingly accepted in both the scientific and geographic research communities as demonstrated by the recent adoption of netCDF as an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard. One important source for ocean and atmospheric based data sets is NOAA's Unified Access Framework (UAF) which serves over 3000 gridded data sets from across NOAA and NOAA-affiliated partners. Due to the large number of datasets, browsing the data holdings to locate data is impractical. Working with Unidata, we have created a new service for the TDS called "ncISO", which allows automatic generation of ISO 19115-2 metadata from attributes and variables in TDS datasets. The ncISO metadata records can be harvested by catalog services such as ESSI-labs GI-Cat catalog service, and ESRI's Geoportal which supports query through a number of services, including OpenSearch and Catalog Services for the Web (CSW). ESRI's Geoportal Server provides a number of user friendly search capabilities for end users

  20. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Stm1p facilitates ribosome preservation during quiescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dyke, Natalya; Chanchorn, Ekkawit [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Western Carolina University, 111 Memorial Drive, Cullowhee, NC 28723 (United States); Van Dyke, Michael W., E-mail: mvandyke@email.wcu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Western Carolina University, 111 Memorial Drive, Cullowhee, NC 28723 (United States)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stm1p confers increased resistance to the macrolide starvation-mimic rapamycin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stm1p maintains 80S ribosome integrity during stationary phase-induced quiescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stm1p facilitates polysome formation following quiescence exit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stm1p facilitates protein synthesis following quiescence exit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stm1p is a ribosome preservation factor under conditions of nutrient deprivation. -- Abstract: Once cells exhaust nutrients from their environment, they enter an alternative resting state known as quiescence, whereby proliferation ceases and essential nutrients are obtained through internal stores and through the catabolism of existing macromolecules and organelles. One example of this is ribophagy, the degradation of ribosomes through the process of autophagy. However, some ribosomes need to be preserved for an anticipated recovery from nutrient deprivation. We found that the ribosome-associated protein Stm1p greatly increases the quantity of 80S ribosomes present in quiescent yeast cells and that these ribosomes facilitate increased protein synthesis rates once nutrients are restored. These findings suggest that Stm1p can act as a ribosome preservation factor under conditions of nutrient deprivation and restoration.

  1. Benefits of testing for nontested information: retrieval-induced facilitation of episodically bound material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Christopher A; DeLosh, Edward L

    2014-12-01

    Testing is a powerful means to boost the retention of information. The extent to which the benefits of testing generalize to nontested information, however, is not clear. In three experiments, we found that completing cued-recall tests for a subset of studied materials enhanced retention for the specific information tested, as well as for associated, nontested information during later free-recall testing. In Experiment 1, this generalized benefit was revealed for lists of category-exemplar pairs. Experiment 2 extended the effect to unrelated words, suggesting that retrieval can enhance later free recall of nontested information that is bound solely through episodic context. In Experiment 3, we manipulated the format of the final test and found facilitation in free-recall, but not in cued-recall, testing. The results suggest that testing may facilitate later free recall in part by enhancing access to information that is present during a prior temporal or list context. More generally, these findings suggest that retrieval-induced facilitation extends to a broader range of conditions than has previously been suggested, and they further motivate the adoption of testing as a practical and effective learning tool.

  2. Evidence for social facilitation of preening in the common tern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palestis; Burger

    1998-11-01

    Social facilitation of reproductive behaviour has been studied extensively in gulls and terns, but social facilitation of preening has been reported only anecdotally, and has not been previously quantified. We studied a common tern, Sterna hirundo, colony during the summers of 1996 and 1997 to test for socially facilitated preening. Scan sampling provided evidence of spatial and temporal synchrony of preening behaviour. Preening occurred more often than expected in groups of three or more neighbours. Breeding pairs also preened simultaneously more often than expected. In loafing (resting) areas, the proportion of preeners present increased with tern density. Behavioural observations suggest that preening spread from neighbour to neighbour. The observed clumping in preening behaviour could not be explained by differences in date, time of day or weather. Social facilitation of preening and other maintenance behaviour may be an important aspect of group living that is often overlooked. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  3. How Coursebook Teaching Materials Facilitate English Classroom Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卉

    2013-01-01

    As classroom interaction forms the basis of any interactive language classroom, it is thus very important and valuable for language teacher to investigate. And This article attempts to account for how the teaching materials facilitate classroom interac-tion.

  4. Nurses' perceptions of facilitating genuineness in a nurseepatient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... relationship, but nurses often act on instinct or rely on learned knowledge and skills. Despite ... It is recommended that nurses' awareness of genuineness and its facilitation should involve learning through socialisation and self-awareness.

  5. Social Facilitation: the Kaliningrad Region and Russian Mainland Regions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toropov Pavel; Samsonova Nadezhda

    2015-01-01

    .... The article focuses on the results of an empirical study of the levels and characteristics of competence in social facilitation, which is here understood as the ability to apply certain knowledge...

  6. Social Media to Facilitate Public Participation in IA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, A.C.; Enserink, B.

    2012-01-01

    Social media are web-based and mobile technologies that facilitate interaction between organizations, communities and individuals. Important characteristics are that the technologies are ubiquitous, communication instantaneous and that they enable the creation and exchange of user-generated content.

  7. Facilitating Learning in Multidisciplinary Groups with Transactive CSCL Scripts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noroozi, O.; Teasley, S.D.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Weinberger, A.; Mulder, M.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge sharing and transfer are essential for learning in groups, especially when group members have different disciplinary expertise and collaborate online. Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) environments have been designed to facilitate transactive knowledge sharing and transfer i

  8. The Motivation-Facilitation Theory of Prenatal Care Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillippi, Julia C; Roman, Marian W

    2013-01-01

    Despite the availability of services, accessing health care remains a problem in the United States and other developed countries. Prenatal care has the potential to improve perinatal outcomes and decrease health disparities, yet many women struggle with access to care. Current theories addressing access to prenatal care focus on barriers, although such knowledge is minimally useful for clinicians. We propose a middle-range theory, the motivation-facilitation theory of prenatal care access, which condenses the prenatal care access process into 2 interacting components: motivation and facilitation. Maternal motivation is the mother's desire to begin and maintain care. Facilitation represents the goal of the clinic to create easy, open access to person-centered beneficial care. This simple model directs the focus of research and change to the interface of the woman and the clinic and encourages practice-level interventions that facilitate women entering and maintaining prenatal care. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse‐Midwives.

  9. Group Essay Writing: Facilitating Team Learning Using ICT for Life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Group Essay Writing: Facilitating Team Learning Using ICT for Life Long ... Teacher Training Programme (TTTP) of Yaba College of Technology, Yaba, Lagos. ... the group without ICT used the traditional method of writing individual essays.

  10. FDA Facilitates Research on Earlier Stages of Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Updates FDA Facilitates Research on Earlier Stages of Alzheimer's Disease Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... disease.” back to top New Paths for New Alzheimer’s Drugs FDA’s draft guidance aims to encourage research ...

  11. Verifying Visual Properties in Sentence Verification Facilitates Picture Recognition Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Pecher (Diane); K. Zanolie (Kiki); R. Zeelenberg (René)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAccording to the perceptual symbols theory (Barsalou, 1999), sensorimotor simulations underlie the representation of concepts. We investigated whether recognition memory for pictures of concepts was facilitated by earlier representation of visual properties of those concepts. During stud

  12. Encountering Carl Rogers: His Views on Facilitating Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landreth, Garry L.

    1984-01-01

    Presents Carl Rogers' views on facilitating groups, as expressed in a telephone dialogue seminar with graduate students in counselor education at North Texas State University. Discusses extended group marathons, cocounseling, nonverbal group exercises and the future of group work. (JAC)

  13. Designing museum exhibits that facilitate visitor reflection and discussion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skydsgaard, Morten Arnika; Andersen, Hanne Møller; King, Heather

    2016-01-01

    personal reflection but also prompted discussion. Participation, defined as including both physical interaction with exhibits, and dialogic interaction between visitors, facilitated the sharing of ideas and feelings between visitors. Exhibits with elements of curiosity and challenge were found to attract...

  14. Facilitating Online Learning Conversations : Exploring tool affordances in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, J. van der

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation aims to facilitate students’ online learning conversations in higher education, using asynchronous online forum discussion. Despite offering a great learning potential, online discussions also present several obstacles for conducting effective learning conversations. Therefore, thi

  15. Social Media to Facilitate Public Participation in IA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, A.C.; Enserink, B.

    2012-01-01

    Social media are web-based and mobile technologies that facilitate interaction between organizations, communities and individuals. Important characteristics are that the technologies are ubiquitous, communication instantaneous and that they enable the creation and exchange of user-generated content.

  16. Biohydrogen facilitated denitrification at biocathode in bioelectrochemical system (BES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Yan, Qun; Shen, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Reductive removal of nitrate in bioelectrochemical system (BES) at abiotic cathode, biocathode and biohydrogen facilitated biocathode were investigated. It was found that nitrate removal efficiency reached 95% and 59% at the biohydrogen facilitated biocathode and biocathode respectively, while which was only 13% at the abiotic cathode. Meanwhile, activity of nitrate reductase reached 0.701 g-N/Lh for the biohydrogen facilitated group, which was about 9.3 times of the biocathode group. Moreover, electrochemical performances as power density, ohmic resistance, and polarization resistance of the biohydrogen facilitated group reached 76.96 mW/m(3), 8.63 ohm and 383 ohm, respectively, which were better than two other groups. Finally, an obvious shift of bacterial community responsible for the enhanced nitrate reduction between the two biocathode groups was observed. Therefore, nitrate reduction in BES could be enhanced at the biocathode than that of the abiotic cathode, and then be further boosted with the combination of biohydrogen.

  17. Synergisms of cadherin fragments to Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis%钙粘蛋白片段与苏云金杆菌晶体毒素协同作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔金杰; 李国清

    2011-01-01

    从钙粘蛋白介导苏云金杆菌晶体(Bt Cry)毒素对害虫的毒杀过程、钙粘蛋白重复区和近膜区与Bt Cry毒素的分子间作用涉及的结合位点及可能的互作机制等方面,综述了钙粘蛋白片段与Bt Cry毒素协同作用的最新研究进展.昆虫钙粘蛋白某些片段在非折叠状态时,可与Bt Cry毒素形成寡聚体,从而增加Bt Cry毒素对靶标害虫的毒杀活性.相关研究成果有助于提高Bt Cry毒素毒杀害虫的能力,克服害虫抗药性,具有一定的应用前景.%The recent advances in synergism of cadherin fragments to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxins were reviewed. Cadherin receptors mediated virulence of the Cry toxins to insect pests. The molecular interaction between cadherin extracellular repeats or membrane proximal domain and Cry toxins involved in several active sites. Some unfolding fragments of cadherins could facilitate the formation of Bt Cry toxin oligomers, and consequently exhibited synergistic effects on Bt Cry toxins to target pests. This discovery provides novel strategies to enhance the insecticidal activity of Bt Cry toxins, and to overcome the resistance of insects to Bt toxin-based bio-pesticides or transgenic crops.

  18. Converting Taxonomic Descriptions to New Digital Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Cui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.--The majority of taxonomic descriptions is currently in print format. The majority of digital descriptions are in formats such as DOC, HTML, or PDF and for human readers. These formats do not convey rich semantics in taxonomic descriptions for computer-aided process. Newer digital formats such as XML and RDF accommodate semantic annotations that allow computers to process the rich semantics on human's behalf, thus open up opportunities for a wide range of innovative usages of taxonomic descriptions, such as searching in more precise and flexible ways, integrating with gnomic and geographic information, generating taxonomic keys automatically, and text data mining and information visualization etc. This paper discusses the challenges in automated conversion of multiple collections of descriptions to XML format and reports an automated system, MARTT. MARTT is a machine-learning system that makes use of training examples to tag new descriptions into XML format. A number of utilities are implemented as solutions to the challenges. The utilities are used to reduce the effort for training example preparation, to facilitate the creation of a comprehensive schema, and to predict system performance on a new collection of descriptions. The system has been tested with several plant and alga taxonomic publications including Flora of China and Flora of North America.

  19. Role of "external facilitation" in implementation of research findings: a qualitative evaluation of facilitation experiences in the Veterans Health Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagedorn Hildi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facilitation has been identified in the literature as a potentially key component of successful implementation. It has not, however, either been well-defined or well-studied. Significant questions remain about the operational definition of facilitation and about the relationship of facilitation to other interventions, especially to other change agent roles when used in multi-faceted implementation projects. Researchers who are part of the Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI are actively exploring various approaches and processes, including facilitation, to enable implementation of best practices in the Veterans Health Administration health care system – the largest integrated healthcare system in the United States. This paper describes a systematic, retrospective evaluation of implementation-related facilitation experiences within QUERI, a quality improvement program developed by the US Department of Veterans Affairs. Methods A post-hoc evaluation was conducted through a series of semi-structured interviews to examine the concept of facilitation across several multi-site QUERI implementation studies. The interview process is based on a technique developed in the field of education, which systematically enhances learning through experience by stimulating recall and reflection regarding past complex activities. An iterative content analysis approach relative to a set of conceptually-based interview questions was used for data analysis. Findings Findings suggest that facilitation, within an implementation study initiated by a central change agency, is a deliberate and valued process of interactive problem solving and support that occurs in the context of a recognized need for improvement and a supportive interpersonal relationship. Facilitation was described primarily as a distinct role with a number of potentially crucial behaviors and activities. Data further suggest that external facilitators were likely to use

  20. Managing Innovation Contests: Challenges of Attraction and Facilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Adamczyk, Sabrina

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation is to better understand how to manage IT-based innovation contests by taking into account challenges associated with the attraction and facilitation of participants. Attraction aims for drawing on people to the innovation contest so that they join the competition and later on hand in capable solutions. Facilitation strives for supporting participants during the course of the innovation contest so that they feel comfortable with the contest and come up with qualit...

  1. Integrating Process Planning and Scheduling with an Intelligent Facilitator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Jiao; ZHANG; Y; F; NEE; A; Y; C

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces a dynamic facilitating mechan is m for the integration of process planning and scheduling in a batch-manufacturi ng environment. This integration is essential for the optimum use of production resources and generation of realistic process plans that can be readily executed with little or no modification. In this paper, integration is modeled in two le vels, viz., process planning and scheduling, which are linked by an intelligent facilitator. The process planning module employs an o...

  2. Four Data Visualization Heuristics to Facilitate Reflection in Personal Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuttone, Andrea; Petersen, Michael Kai; Larsen, Jakob Eg

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how to facilitate the process of reflection in Personal Informatics and Quantified Self systems through interactive data visualizations. Four heuristics for the design and evaluation of such systems have been identified through analysis of self-tracking devices and apps...... in financial analytics, it is discussed how the heuristics could guide designs that would further facilitate reflection in self-tracking personal informatics systems....

  3. Facilitators for Empowering Women in Breastfeeding: a Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shahnaz Kohan; Zeinab Heidari; Mahrokh Keshvari

    2016-01-01

    Background  Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months and continued breastfeeding up to 2 years or more is a desirable approach for infant’s nutrition. A mother's breastfeeding empowerment is considered an important factor in promoting breastfeeding and identifying its facilitating factors can contribute to the development of effective policies and intervention. This study with a qualitative approach carried out aiming to exploring the facilitators for women’s empowerment in breastfeed...

  4. Concept of Learning Organization: Facilitators and Flow of Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Shruti Sachan; Sonakshi Aroura

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to ascertain that various facilitators of learning such as learning culture, climate, semantic web technology, information communication technology and knowledge management hold importance to facilitate the flow of learning, which begins at individual-group-and ultimately at organizational level in an organization. Design/methodology/approach – This review paper is based on the research papers written by other authors, who have studied the...

  5. Relevance of trade facilitation in emerging countries exports

    OpenAIRE

    Martí Selva, María Luisa; Puertas Medina, Rosa María; García Menéndez, Leandro

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyse trade flows in emerging nations with a maritime boundary, where trade facilitation plays a decisive role in their international development. In order to detect possible patterns in performance, we apply the economic approach of gravity models using the World Bank Logistic Performance Index (LPI) as a good proxy of trade facilitation. The results of the estimation lead to the conclusion that the more complex the transportation of goods is, the more i...

  6. KCTCCA, a peptide-based facilitator for bioelectrochemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Mukhopadhyay

    2004-06-01

    Electrochemical and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) studies have been carried out to investigate the suitability of the hexapeptide KCTCCA as a facilitator for bioelectrochemistry. The stable, quasi-reversible electrochemical response of cytochrome 562 on a KCTCCA modified gold electrode and the high degree of surface coverage of KCTCCA on gold (111), as observed by STM, indicate applicability of the molecule as an electrochemical facilitator.

  7. Simple Ontology Format (SOFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Simple Ontology Format (SOFT) library and file format specification provides a set of simple tools for developing and maintaining ontologies. The library, implemented as a perl module, supports parsing and verification of the files in SOFt format, operations with ontologies (adding, removing, or filtering of entities), and converting of ontologies into other formats. SOFT allows users to quickly create ontologies using only a basic text editor, verify it, and portray it in a graph layout system using customized styles.

  8. [Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release facilitation in strontium solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhamed'iarov, M A; Kochunova, Iu O; Telina, E N; Zefirov, A L

    2008-02-01

    Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release facilitation were studied using electrophysiological recording of end-plate currents (EPC) and nerve ending (NE) responses after substitution of extracellular Ca ions with Sr ions at the frog neuromuscular junction. The solutions with 0.5 mM concentration of Ca ions (calcium solution) or 1 mM concentration of Sr ions (strontium solution) were used where baseline neurotransmitter release (at low-frequency stimulation) is equal. Decay of paired-pulse facilitation of EPC at calcium solutions with increase of interpulse interval from 5 to 500 ms was well described by three-exponential function consisting of early, first and second components. Facilitation at strontium solutions was significantly diminished due mainly to decrease of early and first components. At the same time, EPC facilitation with rhythmic stimulation (10 or 50 imp/s) at strontium solutions was significantly increased. Also more pronounced decrease of NE response 3rd phase, reflecting potassium currents was detected under rhythmic stimulation of 50 imp/s at strontium solutions comparing to calcium solutions. It was concluded that facilitation sites underlying first and early components had lower affinity to Sr ions than to Ca ions. The enhancement of frequency facilitation at strontium solutions is mediated by two mechanisms: more pronounced broadening of NE action potential and increase of bivalent cation influx due to feebly marked activation of Ca(2+)-dependent potassium current by Sr ions, and slower dynamics of Sr(2+) removal from NE axoplasm comparing to Ca(2+).

  9. Disruption of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex facilitates the consolidation of procedural skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Joseph M; Albert, Neil B; Ditye, Thomas; Miall, R Chris

    2010-06-01

    In explicit sequence learning tasks, an improvement in performance (skill) typically occurs after sleep-leading to the recent literature on sleep-dependent motor consolidation. Consolidation can also be facilitated during wakefulness if declarative knowledge for the sequence is reduced through a secondary cognitive task. Accordingly, declarative and procedural consolidation processes appear to mutually interact. Here we used TMS to test the hypothesis that functions in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) that support declarative memory formation indirectly reduce the formation of procedural representations. We hypothesize that disrupting the DLPFC immediately after sequence learning would degrade the retention or the consolidation of the sequence within the declarative memory system and thus facilitate consolidation within procedural memory systems, evident as wakeful off-line skill improvement. Inhibitory theta-burst TMS was applied to the left DLPFC (n = 10), to the right DLPFC (n = 10), or to an occipital cortical control site (n = 10) immediately after training on the serial reaction time task (SRTT). All groups were retested after eight daytime hours without sleep. TMS of either left or right DLPFC lead to skill improvements on the SRTT. Increase in skill was greater following right DLPFC stimulation than left DLPFC stimulation; there was no improvement in skill for the control group. Across all participants, free recall of the sequence was inversely related to the improvements in performance on the SRTT. These results support the hypothesis of interference between declarative and procedural consolidation processes and are discussed in the framework of the interactions between memory systems.

  10. Tubular structure induced by a plant virus facilitates viral spread in its vector insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Chen

    Full Text Available Rice dwarf virus (RDV replicates in and is transmitted by a leafhopper vector in a persistent-propagative manner. Previous cytopathologic and genetic data revealed that tubular structures, constructed by the nonstructural viral protein Pns10, contain viral particles and are directly involved in the intercellular spread of RDV among cultured leafhopper cells. Here, we demonstrated that RDV exploited these virus-containing tubules to move along actin-based microvilli of the epithelial cells and muscle fibers of visceral muscle tissues in the alimentary canal, facilitating the spread of virus in the body of its insect vector leafhoppers. In cultured leafhopper cells, the knockdown of Pns10 expression due to RNA interference (RNAi induced by synthesized dsRNA from Pns10 gene strongly inhibited tubule formation and prevented the spread of virus among insect vector cells. RNAi induced after ingestion of dsRNA from Pns10 gene strongly inhibited formation of tubules, preventing intercellular spread and transmission of the virus by the leafhopper. All these results, for the first time, show that a persistent-propagative virus exploits virus-containing tubules composed of a nonstructural viral protein to traffic along actin-based cellular protrusions, facilitating the intercellular spread of the virus in the vector insect. The RNAi strategy and the insect vector cell culture provide useful tools to investigate the molecular mechanisms enabling efficient transmission of persistent-propagative plant viruses by vector insects.

  11. High salinity facilitates dolomite precipitation mediated by Haloferax volcanii DS52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xuan; Wang, Hongmei; Yao, Yanchen; Duan, Yong

    2017-08-01

    Although most modern dolomites occur in hypersaline environments, the effects of elevated salinity on the microbial mediation of dolomite precipitation have not been fully evaluated. Here we report results of dolomite precipitation in association with a batch culture of Haloferax volcanii DS52, a halophilic archaeon, under various salinities (from 120‰ to 360‰) and the impact of salinity on microbe-mediated dolomite formation. The mineral phases, morphology and atomic arrangement of the precipitates were analyzed by XRD, SEM and TEM, respectively. The amount of amino acids on the archaeal cell surface was quantified by HPLC/MS. The XRD analysis indicated that disordered dolomite formed successfully with the facilitation of cells harvested from cultures with relatively high salinities (200‰ and 280‰) but was not observed in association with cells harvested from cultures with lower salinity (120‰) or the lysates of cells harvested from extremely high salinity (360‰). The TEM analysis demonstrated that the crystals from cultures with a salinity of 200‰ closely matched that of dolomite. Importantly, we found that more carboxyl groups were presented on the cell surface under high salinity conditions to resist the high osmotic pressure, which may result in the subsequent promotion of dolomite formation. Our finding suggests a link between variations in the hydro-chemical conditions and the formation of dolomite via microbial metabolic activity and enhances our understanding about the mechanism of microbially mediated dolomite formation under high salinity conditions.

  12. Negative electron-transfer dissociation nLC-MS/MS facilitates the analysis of thousands of acidic peptides

    OpenAIRE

    McAlister, Graeme C.; Russell, Jason D.; Rumachik, Neil G.; Hebert, Alexander S.; Syka, John E. P.; Geer, Lewis Y.; Westphall, Michael S.; Pagliarini, David J; Coon, Joshua J.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the first implementation of negative electron-transfer dissociation (NETD) on a hybrid ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometer and its application to high-throughput sequencing of peptide anions. NETD – coupled with high pH separations, negative electrospray ionization (ESI), and an NETD compatible version of OMSSA – is part of a complete workflow that includes the formation, interrogation and sequencing of peptide anions. Together these interlocking pieces facilitated the identificat...

  13. Exploring Formative Assessment Using Cultural Historical Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Mandy

    2013-01-01

    Formative assessment is a pedagogic practice that has been the subject of much research and debate, as to how it can be used most effectively to deliver enhanced student learning in the higher education setting. Often described as a complex concept it embraces activities that range from facilitating students understanding of assessment standards,…

  14. Learning is in the facilitation: faculty perspectives with facilitated teaching and learning-recommendations from informal discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Prospero, Lisa; Bhimji-Hewitt, Sheena

    2011-01-01

    Small group learning is an interactive activity that requires a skilled teacher with the ability to facilitate and debrief. Approximately 250 students from seven health professions were enrolled in a first year interprofessional education course that focused on the importance of communication and collaboration. Weekly faculty debrief sessions were conducted and were utilized to share the teachers perspectives with facilitative teaching as well as for feedback and improvement strategies. Recommendations included linking the learning within the small group sessions back to clinical and professional practice in order to validate the course content and thereby increase student engagement; creation of facilitator guides with specific debrief instructions for the given objectives in order to encourage effective learning dialogue among all participants; and providing faculty with formalized facilitator training as well as debrief strategies in order to attain the skills to better guide student learning.

  15. Learning-facilitated synaptic plasticity occurs in the intermediate hippocampus in association with spatial learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Jana; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2013-01-01

    The dorsoventral axis of the hippocampus is differentiated into dorsal, intermediate, and ventral parts. Whereas the dorsal part is believed to specialize in processing spatial information, the ventral may be equipped to process non-spatial information. The precise role of the intermediate hippocampus is unclear, although recent data suggests it is functionally distinct, at least from the dorsal hippocampus. Learning-facilitated synaptic plasticity describes the ability of hippocampal synapses to respond with robust synaptic plasticity (>24 h) when a spatial learning event is coupled with afferent stimulation that would normally not lead to a lasting plasticity response: in the dorsal hippocampus novel space facilitates robust expression of long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas novel spatial content facilitates long-term depression (LTD). We explored whether the intermediate hippocampus engages in this kind of synaptic plasticity in response to novel spatial experience. In freely moving rats, high-frequency stimulation at 200 Hz (3 bursts of 15 stimuli) elicited synaptic potentiation that lasted for at least 4 h. Coupling of this stimulation with the exploration of a novel holeboard resulted in LTP that lasted for over 24 h. Low frequency afferent stimulation (1 Hz, 900 pulses) resulted in short-term depression (STD) that was significantly enhanced and prolonged by exposure to a novel large orientational (landmark) cues, however LTD was not enabled. Exposure to a holeboard that included novel objects in the holeboard holes elicited a transient enhancement of STD of the population spike (PS) but not field EPSP, and also failed to facilitate the expression of LTD. Our data suggest that the intermediate dentate gyrus engages in processing of spatial information, but is functionally distinct to the dorsal dentate gyrus. This may in turn reflect their assumed different roles in synaptic information processing and memory formation. PMID:24194716

  16. Learning-facilitated synaptic plasticity occurs in the intermediate hippocampus in association with spatial learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana eKenney

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The dorsoventral axis of the hippocampus is differentiated into dorsal, intermediate and ventral parts. Whereas the dorsal part is believed to specialize in processing spatial information, the ventral may be equipped to process non-spatial information. The precise role of the intermediate hippocampus is unclear, although recent data suggests it is functionally distinct, at least from the dorsal hippocampus. Learning-facilitated synaptic plasticity describes the ability of hippocampal synapses to respond with robust synaptic plasticity (>24h when a spatial learning event is coupled with afferent stimulation that would normally not lead to a lasting plasticity response: In the dorsal hippocampus novel space facilitates robust expression of LTP, whereas novel spatial content facilitates LTD. We explored whether the intermediate hippocampus engages in this kind of synaptic plasticity in response to novel spatial experience.In freely moving rats, high-frequency stimulation at 200Hz (3 bursts of 15 stimuli elicited synaptic potentiation that lasted for at least 4h. Coupling of this stimulation with the exploration of a novel holeboard resulted in long-term potentiation (LTP that lasted for over 24h. Low frequency afferent stimulation (1Hz, 900 pulses resulted in short-term depression (STD that was significantly enhanced and prolonged by exposure to a novel large orientational (landmark cues, however LTD was not enabled. Exposure to a holeboard that included novel objects in the holeboard holes elicited a transient enhancement of STD of the population spike but not field EPSP, and also failed to facilitate the expression of LTD. Our data suggest that the intermediate dentate gyrus engages in processing of spatial information, but is functionally distinct to the dorsal dentate gyrus. This may in turn reflect their assumed different roles in synaptic information processing and memory formation.

  17. Requirements and standards facilitating quality improvement for reporting systems in gastrointestinal endoscopy: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Position Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretthauer, Michael; Aabakken, Lars; Dekker, Evelien; Kaminski, Michal F; Rösch, Thomas; Hultcrantz, Rolf; Suchanek, Stepan; Jover, Rodrigo; Kuipers, Ernst J; Bisschops, Raf; Spada, Cristiano; Valori, Roland; Domagk, Dirk; Rees, Colin; Rutter, Matthew D

    2016-03-01

    To develop standards for high quality in gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) has established the ESGE Quality Improvement Committee. A prerequisite for quality assurance and improvement for all GI endoscopy procedures is state-of-the-art integrated digital reporting systems for standardized documentation of the procedures. The current paper describes the ESGE's viewpoints on the requirements for high-quality endoscopy reporting systems in GI endoscopy. Recommendations 1 Endoscopy reporting systems must be electronic. 2 Endoscopy reporting systems should be integrated into hospitals' patient record systems. 3 Endoscopy reporting systems should include patient identifiers to facilitate data linkage to other data sources. 4 Endoscopy reporting systems shall restrict the use of free-text entry to a minimum, and be based mainly on structured data entry. 5 Separate entry of data for quality or research purposes is discouraged. Automatic data transfer for quality and research purposes must be facilitated. 6 Double entry of data by the endoscopist or associate personnel is discouraged. Available data from outside sources (administrative or medical) must be made available automatically. 7 Endoscopy reporting systems shall facilitate the inclusion of information on histopathology of detected lesions, patient satisfaction, adverse events, and surveillance recommendations. 8 Endoscopy reporting systems must facilitate easy data retrieval at any time in a universally compatible format. 9 Endoscopy reporting systems must include data fields for key performance indicators as defined by quality improvement committees. 10 Endoscopy reporting systems must facilitate changes in indicators and data entry fields as required by professional organizations.

  18. Facilitating classroom based interprofessional learning: a grounded theory study of university educators' perceptions of their role adequacy as facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, Julie A; Machin, Alison I; Crozier, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    The provision of inter professional learning (IPL) within undergraduate programmes is now well established within many Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). IPL aims to better equip nurses and other health professionals with effective collaborative working skills and knowledge to improve the quality of patient care. Although there is still ambiguity in relation to the optimum timing and method for delivering IPL, effective facilitation is seen as essential. This paper reports on a grounded theory study of university educators' perceptions of the knowledge and skills needed for their role adequacy as IPL facilitators. Data was collected using semi structured interviews with nine participants who were theoretically sampled from a range of professional backgrounds, with varied experiences of education and involvement in facilitating IPL. Constant comparative analysis was used to generate four data categories: creating and sustaining an IPL group culture through transformational IPL leadership (core category), readiness for IPL facilitation, drawing on past interprofessional learning and working experiences and role modelling an interprofessional approach. The grounded theory generated from this study, although propositional, suggests that role adequacy for IPL facilitation is dependent on facilitator engagement in a process of 'transformational interprofessional learning leadership' to create and sustain a group culture.

  19. Neophyte facilitator experiences of interprofessional education: implications for faculty development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan-Lee, Eileen; Baker, Lindsay; Tobin, Stasey; Hollenberg, Elisa; Dematteo, Dale; Reeves, Scott

    2011-09-01

    The facilitation of learners from different professional groups requires a range of interprofessional knowledge and skills (e.g. an understanding of possible sources of tension between professions) in addition to those that are more generic, such as how to manage a small group of learners. The development and delivery of interprofessional education (IPE) programs tends to rely on a small cohort of facilitators who have typically gained expertise through 'hands-on' involvement in facilitating IPE and through mentorship from more experienced colleagues. To avoid burn-out and to meet a growing demand for IPE, a larger number of facilitators are needed. However, empirical evidence regarding effective approaches to prepare for this type of work is limited. This article draws on data from a multiple case study of four IPE programs based in an urban setting in North America with a sample of neophyte facilitators and provides insight into their perceptions and experiences in preparing for and delivering IPE. Forty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted before (n = 20) and after (n = 21) program delivery with 21 facilitators. Findings indicated that despite participating in a three-fold faculty development strategy designed to support them in their IPE facilitation work, many felt unprepared and continued to have a poor conceptual understanding of core IPE and interprofessional collaboration principles, resulting in problematic implications (e.g. 'missed teachable moments') within their IPE programs. Findings from this study are discussed in relation to the IPE, faculty development and wider educational literature before implications are offered for the future delivery of interprofessional faculty development activities.

  20. Star Formation for Predictive Primordial Galaxy Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljević, Miloš; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence

    The elegance of inflationary cosmology and cosmological perturbation theory ends with the formation of the first stars and galaxies, the initial sources of light that launched the phenomenologically rich process of cosmic reionization. Here we review the current understanding of early star formation, emphasizing unsolved problems and technical challenges. We begin with the first generation of stars to form after the Big Bang and trace how they influenced subsequent star formation. The onset of chemical enrichment coincided with a sharp increase in the overall physical complexity of star forming systems. Ab-initio computational treatments are just now entering the domain of the predictive and are establishing contact with local observations of the relics of this ancient epoch.

  1. From Sermon Formation to Preacher Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaarden, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Recent empirical research projects in sermon reception/interaction highlight the congregation’s request for the preacher’s personal authenticity arising from the dialogical way listeners interact with the sermon and create meaning. Similarly, empirical studies in the US emphasize that ministry...... preachers. This involves a learning strategy to ministry where theological skills, pastoral competences, and own personality are interwoven. Teaching here means facilitating a room of learning where teacher’s power and control is reduced, allowing the preacher to reflect upon own practice without being...

  2. Stochastic dynamics of the prisoner's dilemma with cooperation facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobilia, Mauro

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the paradigmatic prisoner's dilemma game, we investigate the evolutionary dynamics of social dilemmas in the presence of "cooperation facilitators." In our model, cooperators and defectors interact as in the classical prisoner's dilemma, where selection favors defection. However, here the presence of a small number of cooperation facilitators enhances the fitness (reproductive potential) of cooperators, while it does not alter that of defectors. In a finite population of size N, the dynamics of the prisoner's dilemma with facilitators is characterized by the probability that cooperation takes over (fixation probability) by the mean times to reach the absorbing states. These quantities are computed exactly using Fokker-Planck equations. Our findings, corroborated by stochastic simulations, demonstrate that the influence of facilitators crucially depends on the difference between their density z and the game's cost-to-benefit ratio r. When z > r, the fixation of cooperators is likely in a large population and, under weak selection pressure, invasion and replacement of defection by cooperation is favored by selection if b(z - r)(1 - z) > N(-1), where 0facilitators but defection is the dominating strategy.

  3. How experienced tutors facilitate tutorial dynamics in PBL groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gin-Hong; Lin, Chaou-Shune; Lin, Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) tutorial are conducted in small groups, and successful learning in such groups requires good group facilitating skills. There is a lack of research on actual skills employed by tutors in facilitating the group dynamics. To explore the process of PBL tutorial small groups, focusing on the tutors' actual behavior in facilitating group dynamics. Eight experienced tutors from various departments in medical colleges participated in this research. Forty tutorial group sessions were videotaped. Among the 636 tutorial intervention episodes, 142 of them were associated with facilitating group dynamics. Tutors interventions as well as their recalls were transcribed verbatim. Qualitative research methods were utilized to analyze the data. There were 10 tutorial group dynamic situations and 48 tutorial skills. Analysis of the tutors' intentions employing these skills in the 10 situations showed that tutors were trying to achieve the following aims: (1) iteration of PBL principles, (2) delegation of responsibility to the students, (3) creation of a good discussion forum, and (4) the generation of a good learning atmosphere. Results from this study provide PBL tutors with a practical frame of reference on group dynamic facilitating skills and stimulate further research on this topic.

  4. On Facilitation in English teaching (Abstract and Introduction)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈民

    2009-01-01

    This article is about how to be a facilitator in teaching English in senior high school. It may bring students great changes during three years in senior high school, including physiology and psychology. The development of the stu-dents during this period will have an important impact on their future. Therefore, the teachers are not only respon-sible for teaching students knowledge, but also for helping them to develop abilities on many aspects. It is indispensable for a teacher to facilitating teaching and learning. In this article, the first chapter analyzes the difference and rela-tionship among a lecturer, teacher, and facilitator. The second chapter discusses some facilitating approaches on how to design writing on the blackboard and introductory procedure, how to manage class, also how to take advan-tage of the multimedia technology in class. The third chapter talks about cooperation with parents and remarks on homework to encourage students to learn more happily and effectively. The development of modem technology will assist the teachers in playing a perfect role in facilitating teaching and learning in senior high school.

  5. Recruitment facilitation can drive alternative states on temperate reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskett, Marissa L; Salomon, Anne K

    2010-06-01

    How the combination of positive and negative species interactions acts to drive community dynamics is a fundamental question in ecology. Here we explore one aspect of this question by expanding the theory of predator-mediated coexistence to include the potential role of facilitation between the predator and inferior competitor. To motivate and illustrate our simple model, we focus on sea-urchin-algae interactions in temperate rocky reef systems and incorporate recruitment facilitation, a common characteristic of marine systems. Specifically, the model represents sea urchin grazing on macroalgae, macroalgal competition with crustose coralline algae (CCA), and facilitation of sea urchin recruitment to CCA. These interactions generate alternative stable states, one dominated by macroalgae and the other by urchins, which do not occur when recruitment facilitation of urchins to CCA is ignored. Therefore, recruitment facilitation provides a possible mechanism for alternative kelp forest and urchin barren states in temperate marine systems, where storm events or harvesting of urchins or their predators can drive switches between states that are difficult to reverse. In systems with such dynamics, spatial management such as no-take marine reserves may play a crucial role in protecting community structure by increasing the resilience to shifts between states.

  6. Modifying Formative Evaluation Techniques For Distance Education Class Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott L. WALKER

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Modifying Formative Evaluation Techniques For Distance Education Class Evaluation Assistant Professor Scott L. WALKERDepartment of GeographyTexas State UniversitySan Marcos, USA ABSTRACTPost-secondary classes are usually followed by mandatory summative evaluations, yet changes in teaching and course structure cannot be made with summative evaluations. Formative evaluations in online education can result in candid responses from students if a third-party facilitator is involved in the process. This paper presents a method for conducting formative evaluation in an online class by utilizing the assistance of a colleague. Results of one such evaluation are presented, as are its advantages and disadvantages.

  7. Formation Flying Concept Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Palkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “formation flying” implies coordinated movement of at least two satellites on coplanar and non-coplanar orbits with a maximum distance between them being much less than the length of the orbit. Peculiarities of formation flying concept also include:- automatic coordination of satellites;- sub-group specialization of formation flying satellites;- equipment and data exchange technology unification in each specialized group or subgroup.Formation flying satellites can be classified according to the configuration stability level (order (array, cluster («swarm», intergroup specialization rules («central satellite», «leader», «slave», manoeuvrability («active» and «passive» satellites.Tasks of formation flying include:- experiments with payload, distributed in formation flying satellites;- various near-earth space and earth-surface research;- super-sized aperture antenna development;- land-based telescope calibration;- «space advertisement» (earth-surface observable satellite compositions of a logotype, word, etc.;- orbital satellite maintenance, etc.Main issues of formation flying satellite system design are:- development of an autonomous satellite group manoeuvring technology;- providing a sufficient characteristic velocity of formation flying satellites;- ballistic and navigation maintenance for satellite formation flying;- technical and economic assessment of formation flying orbital delivery and deployment;- standardization, unification, miniaturization and integration of equipment;- intergroup and intersatellite function redistribution.

  8. Formation Mechanism of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Nan; Cao, Zexian

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jet can protrude some 5.0 cm into air. It holds promise for multivarious innovative applications, but its formation mechanism remains unsettled. We show that the plasma jet is essentially a streamer corona totally independent of, but obscured by, dielectric barrier discharge. Consequently, the jets can be equally successfully generated even with one single bare metal electrode attached to the tube orifice, both downstream and upstream simultaneously, and at a significantly reduced voltage. These results will help understand the underlying physics and facilitate a safer and more flexible implementation of this marvelous plasma source.

  9. Dynamics of group knowledge production in facilitated modelling workshops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Franco, L. Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The term ‘facilitated modelling’ is used in the literature to characterise an approach to structuring problems, developing options and evaluating decisions by groups working in a model-supported workshop environment, and assisted by a facilitator. The approach involves an interactive process...... by which models are jointly developed with group members interacting face-to-face, with or without computer support. The models produced are used to inform negotiations about the nature of the issues faced by the group, and how to address them. While the facilitated modelling literature is impressive...... the form of three distinct group knowledge production patterns: generative, collaborative and assertive. Further, each pattern is characterised by a particular mix of communicative behaviours and model-supported interactions that has implications for the creation of new knowledge within the workshop. Our...

  10. Enabling occupation through facilitating the diagnosis of developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missiuna, Cheryl; Pollock, Nancy; Egan, Mary; DeLaat, Denise; Gaines, Robin; Soucie, Helen

    2008-02-01

    The largest proportion of children seen within school-based occupational therapy is referred for handwriting difficulties. Many of these children have Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), a disorder that often goes undiagnosed, making if difficult for children, parents, and teachers to access resources. The purpose of this article is to outline the important role of occupational therapists in recognizing and facilitating the diagnosis of DCD. In this paper, a case is made for an expansion of the role of school-based occupational therapists in facilitating diagnosis for children with DCD. Through a review of the literature, we establish the importance of a diagnosis for children and families and critically reflect on issues that may make therapists reluctant to become involved in facilitating this diagnosis. Occupational therapists working in schools are able to recognize children with DCD, an important first step in accessing key resources useful to improve occupational performance and quality of life.

  11. If a Student Takes Control: Facilitator's Tasks and Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väljataga, Terje

    This paper presents initial research results of an intervention into higher educational teaching and studying practices from facilitators‘ point of view. The intervention was implemented into an international Master’s level online course mediated by landscapes of social media tools and services. In this course more emphasis was put on a shift of control from a facilitator to a student or a group of students in the following aspects: setting up one’s study goals, choosing activities, selecting appropriate resources, including technology and defining one’s evaluation criteria. The initial analysis showed that the facilitators gained a lot in terms of understanding the benefits of exploiting social media tools and services for their teaching practices, perceiving a need of having a different role as well as the shortages and problems while being a facilitator in such a course.

  12. Short-term facilitation may stabilize parametric working memory trace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir eItskov

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Networks with continuous set of attractors are considered to be a paradigmatic model for parametric working memory, but require fine-tuning of connections and are thus structurally unstable. Here we analyzed the network with ring attractor, where connections are not perfectly tuned and the activity state therefore drifts in the absence of the stabilizing stimulus. We derive an analytical expression for the drift dynamics and conclude that the network cannot function as working memory for a period of several seconds, a typical delay time in monkey memory experiments. We propose that short-term synaptic facilitation in recurrent connections significantly improves the robustness of the model by slowing down the drift of activity bump. Extending the calculation of the drift velocity to network with synaptic facilitation, we conclude that facilitation can slow down the drift by a large factor, rendering the network suitable as a model of working memory.

  13. Formation design and nonlinear control of spacecraft formation flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hong

    The fundamental control challenges associated with Spacecraft Formation Flying (SFF) can be classified into two categories: (i) trajectory design and (ii) trajectory tracking. In this research, we address these challenges for several different operating environments. The first part of this research focuses on providing a trajectory generation and an adaptive control design methodology to facilitate SFF missions near the Sun-Earth L2 Lagrange point. Specifically, we create a spacecraft formation by placing a leader spacecraft on a desired Halo orbit and a follower spacecraft on a desired quasi-periodic orbit surrounding the Halo orbit. We develop the nonlinear dynamics of the leader spacecraft and the follower spacecraft relative to the leader spacecraft, wherein the leader spacecraft is assumed to be on a desired Halo orbit trajectory. Finally, we design formation maintenance controllers such that the leader and follower spacecraft track desired trajectories. In particular, we design a set of adaptive position tracking controllers for the leader and follower spacecraft in the presence of unknown spacecraft mass. The proposed control laws are simulated for the case of the leader and follower spacecraft pair and are shown to yield asymptotic convergence of the position tracking errors. The second part of this research focuses on providing nonlinear trajectory tracking control designs for SFF missions near Earth. First, we address output feedback tracking control problems for the coupled translation and attitude motion of a leader and a follower spacecraft. It is assumed that the translation and angular velocity measurements of the two spacecraft are not available for feedback. Second, we address a periodic trajectory tracking problem arising in spacecraft formation flying. In particular, the nonlinear position dynamics of a follower spacecraft relative to a leader spacecraft are utilized to develop a learning controller which learns a periodic, unknown model

  14. A limited contribution of Ca2+ current facilitation to paired-pulse facilitation of transmitter release at the rat calyx of Held

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Martin; Felmy, Felix; Schneggenburger, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that transmitter release facilitation at synapses is largely mediated by presynaptic Ca2+ current facilitation, but the exact contribution of Ca2+ current facilitation has not been determined quantitatively. Here, we determine the contribution of Ca2+ current facilitation, and of an increase in the residual free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+](i)) in the nerve terminal, to paired-pulse facilitation of transmitter release at the calyx of Held. Under conditions of low r...

  15. An epistemology of facilitation: A Julian M�ller story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Elmo Pienaar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article furthered an epistemology of facilitation. It was created through bringing into focus broad movements in Julian M�ller�s theoretical academic development. Rather than explaining at length the epistemological concepts characterising M�ller�s theoretical development � rightly because of the importance of narrative in Julian M�ller�s work � the article sought to link a social psychological dimension of both M�ller and the author to these concepts. Resulting from M�ller�s work, the author regarded a narrative approach, social constructionism and postfoundationalism as important epistemological conversational partners in practical theological facilitation.

  16. A theoretical and practical critique of Social Facilitation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loriente Zamora, Cristóbal

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Social facilitation theory is one of the most paradigmatic examples of social psychology, understood as an experimental science. However, in this paper we intend to demonstrate that the research that allegedly supports it suffers from a number of defects. It uses biased population samples, and the tasks it sets its experimental subjects are limited to the practical or productive, ignoring the broader range of everyday activities such as conversing or, indeed, urinating. Social facilitation theory, far from being objective, is a microcosm of American social psychology ideology insofar as it ignores basic human functions, and fails to include stigmatized communities such as stutterers and people with bladder problems.

  17. OHS consultants as facilitators of learning processes in client enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2004-01-01

    . In a traditional conflict-oriented brewery organization the consultant had a major role in facilitating a cross functional work group of workers and managers that were able to set up and implement an action plan for the implementation of new technology and new work organization in the logistic department focussing...... on reduc-ing the work loads of delivery and warehouse personnel. In facilitating learning processes, deliberately or by incidence, the OHS consultants used different boundary objects. An example: In order to involve users in the design process it was better making a walk-through in a new catering centre...

  18. The Mechanism of Hydrogen-facilitating Initiation of Voids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚武扬; 蒋兴钢; 肖纪美

    1994-01-01

    By combining the hydrogen-induced local plastic deformation theory with the decohesive theory and the hydrogen pressure theory, a new mechanism of hydrogen-facilitating initiation of voids has been proposed. Through facilitating the local plastic deformation and reducing the cohesive strength, hydrogen promotes both initiating a nanocrack and blunting the nanocrack into a void, resulting in hydrogen-promoting initiation of the void. On the other hand, hydrogen can enhance the stability of the void through reducing the cohesive strength and forming a hydrogen pressure in the void.

  19. Facilitating Industrial Placement in the Construction Engineering Curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandahl, Søren; Ussing, Lene Faber

    2016-01-01

    student learning from construction practice whereby students can reflect on their learning experience at the university. The interplay between traditional engineering curriculum and the context-based learning is important for securing the right skills and competencies among the graduates. This paper takes...... for the program to facilitate the industrial placement effectively. How to do so is investigated through a large survey among student that has finalized an internship scheme. The sample size consists of entries. Guidance on how to facilitate internship most effectively pre, per and post scheme is outlined...

  20. Facilitating Industrial Placement in the Construction Engineering Curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandahl, Søren; Faber, Lene

    2016-01-01

    student learning from construction practice whereby students can reflect on their learning experience at the university. The interplay between traditional engineering curriculum and the context based learning is important for securing the right skills and competencies among the graduates. This paper takes...... for the program to facilitate the industrial placement effectively. How to do so is investigated through a large survey among student that has finalized an internship scheme. The sample size consists of entries. Guidance on how to facilitate internship most effectively pre, per and post scheme is outlined...

  1. Facilitating Participant Success: Teachers Experiencing Antarctica and the Arctic Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, S. S.; Bruccoli, A.; Porter, M.; Meese, D.

    2003-12-01

    Through the NSF-funded Teachers Experiencing Antarctica and the Arctic (TEA) Program K-12 science teachers participate as members of polar field projects. Objectives of the program include: immersing the science teacher in the experience of research; 2) leveraging the research experience of the teacher to better inform teaching practices; and 3) sharing the experience with the broader educational and general community. The polar field experience is an exciting opportunity accompanied by a daunting number of responsibilities. In addition to preparing for field research, TEA teachers bring their experience to colleagues, classrooms, and communities. Before going into the field, they give presentations, help plan how students can connect to the polar regions, and share the expedition with the public. In the field, the TEA teacher is a team member and educational liaison, responding to questions by e-mail, and posting e-journals describing the research experience. Upon return, the TEA again shares the experience broadly with the community. In addition, they work closely with 3 colleagues for 140 hours to bring the experience of research into classrooms. Formative evaluation of the TEA Program underscores the need to support teachers in accomplishing their responsibilities; this support is necessary to achieve program objectives. TEA teachers are responsible for sharing the science content of their research. While many broadcast the excitement of the experience, they may not have the scientific background to convey the content. This is due, in part, to many teachers having to be generalists in their classrooms. Shifting into the role of specialist can be challenging. In the year of preparation before the field experience, TEA teachers attend orientation, meet with their research teams for several days, and are encouraged to learn more about their science topic. Understanding builds through the field experience. It may take two or more years after the field work for the

  2. Diagenetic Quartz Morphologies and Zeolite formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazerouni, Afsoon Moatari; Hansen, Rikke Weibel; Friis, Henrik

    ; the core of the zeolite crystals appears to have been more unstable than the rim and dissolved first.  Later the entire crystal dissolved and left an impression of the euhedral zeolite crystal in the microquartz coating.  Such openings in the microquartz coating are nucleation points for macroquartz.  Thus......, the precipitation of zeolite may later facilitate further quartz cementation, which might otherwise be retarded by the presence of disordered microquartz. The silica activity of pore fluids can influence zeolite precipitation.  Although zeolite formation is clearly related to volcanic ash, zeolite has also formed...... are abundant in some of associated shales; and 2) volcanic ash. The dissolution of biogenic silica may result in a rapid release of silica thereby promoting the formation of diagenetic opal/microquartz, but there may be a limited release of Al. A limited release of Al may result in precipitation of Si...

  3. A Facilitation of Dyslexia through a Remediation of Shakespeare's Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Petronilla

    2016-01-01

    This article shares the author's research focusing on the facilitation of acting students with dyslexia in actor-training. For some individuals with dyslexia the translation of the written text into image-based symbols using technological modalities can play a crucial role to access and make concrete the meaning of the words; in this case…

  4. Insulin facilitates transport of macromolecules and nutrients to muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N J; Hilsted, J

    1993-01-01

    , systolic blood pressure and plasma noradrenaline. These changes were absent or attenuated in diabetic patients (without neuropathy) after an oral glucose load. These responses were normalized by insulin infusion. Our results suggest that insulin facilitates the transfer of macromolecules and nutrients from...

  5. Teacher’s action zone in facilitating group dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Gałajda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As believed by many researchers (Dörnyei & Murphey 2003, Hadfield 1992, classroom climate is strongly determined by the dynamics of the learning group and its development over time. For this reason, the role of the teacher in facilitating group processes seems to be of primary importance since it is the teacher who has long been regarded as the group leader in both teacher-centred and learner-centred classrooms.The presentation focuses not only on positive but also on negative forms of classroom dynamics together with management techniques for dealing with conflicts, educational alienation and psychological defensiveness. This, in turn, leads to the concept of facilitator style based on Heron’s (2006 model of facilitation, which consists of six dimensions and three modes. In the paper particular emphasis is placed on the presentation and comparison of various theories of leadership, namely Heron’s system of facilitation, Hersey and Blanchard’s situational-leadership theory (1982 and Bass and Avolio’s transactional versus transformational leadership theory (1984.

  6. Eating and Emotions in Obese Toddlers: Facilitating Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatoor, Irene

    2007-01-01

    Infants and young children have the ability to regulate their food intake according to their energy needs, and parents play an important role in facilitating their children's self-regulation. When overweight children learn to eat in accordance with feelings of hunger and fullness and learn to soothe themselves without eating, they will reduce…

  7. Facilitating Employees' and Students' Process towards Nascent Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietanen, Lenita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate a model for facilitating employees' and full-time, non-business students' entrepreneurial capabilities during their optional entrepreneurship studies at one Finnish Open University. Design/methodology/approach: The case study investigates the course in which transitions from employees or…

  8. Microfinance as a method of facilitating research in emergency medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Peter; Brabrand, Mikkel; Folkestad, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Microgrants are a novel concept where small grants are used to facilitate research. The concept might have a place in developing emergency medicine research, especially in countries where emergency medicine is not established or in new areas of research. Two examples of the beneficial effects of ...

  9. Facilitating safe care: a qualitative study of Iranian nurse leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Bondas, Terese; Salsali, Mahvash; Jasper, Melanie; Turunen, Hannele

    2014-01-01

    Aim  The purpose of this study was to explore and describe how nurse leaders facilitate safe care from the perspectives of both nurses and nurse leaders. Background  The health-care system's success in improving patient safety pivots on nursing leadership. However, there is a lack of knowledge in the international literature about how nurse leaders facilitate provision of safe care and reaching the goal of a safe health-care system. Method  A qualitative design using a content analysis approach was applied for data gathering and analysis. In this study, 20 nurses (16 nurses and four head nurses) working in a referral teaching hospital in Tehran, Iran, were recruited through purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews and 10 hours of structured observations were conducted to collect data. Results  The data analysis resulted in three main themes: 'providing environmental prerequisites for safe nursing practice', 'uniting and integrating health-care providers', and 'creating an atmosphere of safe care'. Conclusion  The results indicate that to facilitate providing safe care, nurse leaders should improve nurses' working conditions, develop the nurses' practical competencies, assign duties to nurses according to their skills and capabilities, administer appropriate supervision, improve health-care providers' professional relationships and encourage their collaboration, empower nurses and reward their safe practice. Implications for nursing management  Approaching the challenge of patient safety requires the health-care system to combine its efforts and strategies with nursing leadership in its vital role of facilitating safe care and improving patient safety. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Facilitating the Job Search for Special Needs Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Carolyn C.

    It is the work of the job search counselor/facilitator to educate, mentor, and guide the special needs client in identifying and tackling anything that would encumber the job hunter. The purpose of this paper is to provide information to the job search counselor that will enable him/her to fully and skillfully assist the special needs client in…

  11. Designing an Electronic Educational Game to Facilitate Immersion and Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuxin; Williams, Doug; Prejean, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Advocates of electronic educational games often cite the work on motivation to support the use of games in education. However, motivation alone is inadequate to facilitate learning. Many of the educational games that focused their game design solely on the motivational effect failed to be either educational or entertaining. Theory and research is…

  12. A Constructivist Model of Mentoring, Coaching, and Facilitating Online Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Karen L.; Mahoney, Sue E.; Chen, Chun-Ying; Mendoza-Diaz, Noemi V.; Yang, Xiaobing

    2005-01-01

    This case study of an online graduate course determines the message characteristics of the instructor, volunteer teaching assistants, and students in online discussions, and proposes a mentoring, coaching, and facilitating model for online discussions. The researchers developed a coding system based on the literature of mentoring, coaching, and…

  13. Facilitating Trust in Privacy-Preserving E-Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, M.; Greer, J.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores a new model for facilitating trust in online e-learning activities. We begin by protecting the privacy of learners through identity management (IM), where personal information can be protected through some degree of participant anonymity or pseudonymity. In order to expect learners to trust other pseudonymous participants,…

  14. Facilitating Digital Video Production in the Language Arts Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Susan; Voogt, Joke

    2011-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to facilitate the development of feasible support for the process of integrating digital video making activities in the primary school language arts curriculum. The first study explored which teaching supports would be necessary to enable primary school children to create digital video as a means of fostering…

  15. Facilitating digital video production in the language arts curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney-Jensh, Susan E.; Voogt, Joke

    2011-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to facilitate the development of feasible support for the process of integrating digital video making activities in the primary school language arts curriculum. The first study explored which teaching supports would be necessary to enable primary school children to create

  16. Determining the Impact of Online Practicum Facilitation for Inservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a project-based graduate practicum experience that was facilitated online. The study investigated the effects of the online practicum experience by: (a) using quantitative data to assess the learning and professional growth of the practicum participants in comparison to a group of teachers that did not…

  17. Facilitating organisational change in an organic dairy corporation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe; Sriskandarajah, Nadarajah

    2005-01-01

    The paper sets focus on the notion of sustainable development as the challenge of creating self-referential systems that are continually learning how to persist in a complex and ever-changing environment. For this learning to be accomplished, facilitating it with a systemic perspective may...... be an option available to an organisation....

  18. FACILITATION AS A TOOL FOR INCLUSIVE PROCESSES IN CLASSROOMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis Jensen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    and teachers influence on inclusive processes in the classrooms. Furthermore, my study focuses on strategies, methods and approaches that are used by the supervisors to support teachers in order to develop inclusive education. I have studied four different facilitation settings with teachers and supervisors...

  19. Social facilitation of long-lasting memory retrieval in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabaud, Marie-Ange; Isabel, Guillaume; Kaiser, Laure; Preat, Thomas

    2009-10-13

    Recent studies demonstrate that social interactions can have a profound influence on Drosophila melanogaster behavior and cuticular pheromone patterns. Olfactory memory performance has mostly been investigated in groups, and previous studies have reported that grouped flies do not interact with each other and behave in the same way as individual flies during short-term memory retrieval. However, the influence of social effects on the two known forms of Drosophila long-lasting associative memory, anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) and long-term memory (LTM), has never been reported. We show here that ARM is displayed by individual flies but is socially facilitated; flies trained for ARM interact within a group to improve their conditioned performance. In contrast, testing shows LTM improvement in individual flies rather than in a group. We show that the social facilitation of ARM during group testing is independent of the social context of training and does not involve nonspecific aggregation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that social interactions facilitate ARM retrieval. We also show that social interactions necessary for this facilitation are specifically generated by trained flies: when single flies trained for ARM are mixed with groups of naive flies, they display poor retrieval, whereas mixing with groups trained either for ARM or LTM enhances performance.

  20. Institutional Facilitation in Sustained Volunteering among Older Adult Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fengyan; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Hong, Songiee

    2009-01-01

    As more nonprofit organizations rely on older adult volunteers to provide services, it is important to retain volunteers for an extended period of time to ensure service quality and the beneficial outcomes of volunteering. Nonprofit organizations are positioned to facilitate older adult volunteers' role performance. Based on an institutional…

  1. Process Memos: Facilitating Dialogues about Writing between Students and Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Heather Macpherson; Cherry, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    We have created a new teaching tool--process memos--to improve student writing. Process memos are guided reflections submitted with scaffolded assignments that facilitate a written dialogue between students and instructors about the process of writing. Within these memos, students critically assess available teaching tools, discuss their writing…

  2. Bibliotherapy: A Resource to Facilitate Emotional Healing and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Melissa Allen; Sheen, Dawn; Leavy, Deon; Young, Ellie; Money, Kristy

    2005-01-01

    Children's literature is a therapeutic tool for facilitating emotional growth and healing. Stories provide a catalyst for change, providing children with other perspectives and options for thoughts, feelings and behaviours. Appropriately shared stories provide opportunities for children to gain insight and learn healthier ways to face…

  3. Developing Critical Reflection in Professional Focused Doctorates: A Facilitator's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambrook, Sally; Stewart, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the challenges and opportunities for expediting critical reflection in management education and development to highlight particularly how critical reflection has been facilitated within the context of a professionally focused doctoral programme. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on empirical research…

  4. Facilitating Participation: Teacher Roles in a Multiuser Virtual Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Airong

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a task-based language teaching course in Second Life. The data set consists of transcribed recordings and a teacher interview. Focusing on how the teacher facilitated student participation, this paper aims to explore the discourse functions in the teacher language output and then to address the teacher roles in three…

  5. Facilitating Trust in Privacy-Preserving E-Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, M.; Greer, J.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores a new model for facilitating trust in online e-learning activities. We begin by protecting the privacy of learners through identity management (IM), where personal information can be protected through some degree of participant anonymity or pseudonymity. In order to expect learners to trust other pseudonymous participants,…

  6. Facilitating Problem Framing in Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svihla, Vanessa; Reeve, Richard

    2016-01-01

    While problem solving is a relatively well understood process, problem framing is less well understood, particularly with regard to supporting students to learn as they frame problems. Project-based learning classrooms are an ideal setting to investigate how teachers facilitate this process. Using participant observation, this study investigated…

  7. A Facilitation of Dyslexia through a Remediation of Shakespeare's Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Petronilla

    2016-01-01

    This article shares the author's research focusing on the facilitation of acting students with dyslexia in actor-training. For some individuals with dyslexia the translation of the written text into image-based symbols using technological modalities can play a crucial role to access and make concrete the meaning of the words; in this case…

  8. Facilitation: A Novel Way to Improve Students' Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine Olesen; Madsen, Lene Møller

    2013-01-01

    In this article we analyze a project that used facilitation techniques, which are known from training in industry, to improve the study environment at a public research university in Denmark. In 2009, the project was initiated in one graduate program; and it has subsequently been modified and ins...

  9. Facilitating Employees' and Students' Process towards Nascent Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietanen, Lenita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate a model for facilitating employees' and full-time, non-business students' entrepreneurial capabilities during their optional entrepreneurship studies at one Finnish Open University. Design/methodology/approach: The case study investigates the course in which transitions from employees or…

  10. Introducing Action Learning in Local Government: A New Facilitator's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Kirsty

    2010-01-01

    This account of practice will explore how action learning has supported local authorities by providing an opportunity to share learning and experiences across organisational boundaries. It will look at the experiences of a new action learning facilitator working with local government scrutiny officers from different organisations.

  11. Facilitating Participation: Teacher Roles in a Multiuser Virtual Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Airong

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a task-based language teaching course in Second Life. The data set consists of transcribed recordings and a teacher interview. Focusing on how the teacher facilitated student participation, this paper aims to explore the discourse functions in the teacher language output and then to address the teacher roles in three…

  12. Do Facilitated Online Dual Credit Classes Result in Deep Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark Education Partnership, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This study, with funding from the Jennings Foundation, sought to answer the following broad research question: Do facilitated online dual credit courses result in deep learning? The answer to this question is key to addressing barriers many students face in bridging from high school to college. This report includes a descriptive case study that…

  13. Systems design and engineering : facilitating multidisciplinary development projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten; Veenvliet, Karel; Broenink, Johannes F.

    2016-01-01

    As its name implies, the aim of Systems Design and Engineering: Facilitating Multidisciplinary Development Projects is to help systems engineers develop the skills and thought processes needed to successfully develop and implement engineered systems. Such expertise typically does not come through

  14. The Global Career Development Facilitator Credential: An International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furbish, Dale; Neault, Roberta A.; Pickerell, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    The Global Career Development Facilitator (GCDF) credential was established to provide professional training and standards for individuals working in the career field. GCDF programs are now available in the United States and 10 other countries. The authors highlight the first international GCDF program in New Zealand, new online GCDF training in…

  15. Facilitating Meaningful Discussion Groups in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Lindsey; Ogden, Meridith; Kelly, Laura Beth

    2015-01-01

    This Teaching Tips describes a yearlong process of facilitating meaningful discussion groups about literature with first-grade students in an urban Title I school. At the beginning of the year, the teacher provided explicit instruction in speaking and listening skills to support students with the social skills needed for thoughtful discussion. She…

  16. Happy creativity: Listening to happy music facilitates divergent thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritter, S.M.; Ferguson, S.

    2017-01-01

    Creativity can be considered one of the key competencies for the twenty-first century. It provides us with the capacity to deal with the opportunities and challenges that are part of our complex and fast-changing world. The question as to what facilitates creative cognition - the ability to come up

  17. Using Signs to Facilitate Vocabulary in Children with Language Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Susan Hendler; Battaglia, Dana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore recommended practices in choosing and using key word signs (i.e., simple single-word gestures for communication) to facilitate first spoken words in hearing children with language delays. Developmental, theoretical, and empirical supports for this practice are discussed. Practical recommendations for…

  18. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Students' Understanding of Electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    2002-01-01

    Constructs a teaching strategy to facilitate conceptual change in freshman students' understanding of electrochemistry. Provides students with the correct response along with alternative responses (teaching experiments), producing a conflicting situation that is conducive to an equilibration of their cognitive structures. Concludes that the…

  19. Picture this! Using photovoice to facilitate cultural competence in students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Shelby

    2013-01-01

    The use of digital images is a prevalent practice in today's society, especially in social media. Photovoice is a qualitative research methodology used to express the experiences of participants from a variety of populations. Photovoice can be utilized as a teaching and learning tool to facilitate cultural competence among undergraduate nursing students.

  20. Cardiac luxation to facilitate off-pump bilateral lung transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Hester T.; Erasmus, Michiel E.; Ebels, Tjark

    To facilitate access to the left hilum during off-pump bilateral lung transplantation we used the Xpose 4 (TM) apical suction device (Guidant Corp., Indianapolis, IN), an off-pump coronary bypass device to luxate the heart out of the pericardium. The effects on circulation and possible myocardial

  1. Facilitating Critical Thinking in an Introduction to Business Freshman Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Cynthia M.

    2012-01-01

    The current article presents an example of the development, implementation, and evaluation of a teaching intervention intended to facilitate student critical thinking through the integration of knowledge in an introductory business course. The intervention is grounded in the scholarship of teaching and learning literature. A discussion of the…

  2. FACILITATING RADICAL FRONT-END INNOVATION THROUGH TARGETED HR PRACTICES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Annabeth

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how radical front end innovation can be actively facilitated through selected and targeted HR practices and bundles of HR practices. The empirical field is an explorative case study of front end innovation and HR practices in the pharmaceutical industry, with an in-depth case ...

  3. Facilitated oxygen transport in liquid membranes: review and new concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figoli, A.; Sager, W.F.C.; Mulder, M.H.V.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, an overview is given on membranes with oxygen facilitated transport properties to enrich the oxygen content in air. Special emphasis is paid to recent developments of oxygen carrier systems and carrier containing membranes. Concepts leading to a structural evolution of supported liqui

  4. Facilitating new ways of learning in Dutch higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, R.; Van der Voordt, D.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Literature shows that ‘new ways of learning’ cause a shift in learning settings with a growing attention to facilitating autonomy, interaction and knowledge exploration anytime, anywhere. These trends show evident similarities with developments in office environments known for as ‘new ways of workin

  5. One-to-One Encounters: Facilitators, Participants, and Friendship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Lee

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I explore the claim that one-to-one encounters between community music facilitators and music participants can be described as friendships. By exploring the relational structure through the call and the welcome, I make some general comments on friendship before finally tackling the question lying at the heart of this article: How…

  6. Teacher participation in facilitating beliefs and values in life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    This article presents an analysis of a research project entitled Facilitating strategies of belief and value ... 1993 (Roux & Steenkamp, 1995) in South African schools on the ... Participation action research, as a research procedure was chosen for ... related to programmes conducted by the researchers amongst student.

  7. Collaboration around Facilitating Emergent Literacy: Role of Occupational Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Asha; Nichols, Joy D.

    2016-01-01

    The article uses a case study to illustrate transdisciplinary perspectives on facilitating emergent literacy skills of Elsa, a primary grade student with autism. The study demonstrates how a professional learning community implemented motor, sensory, and speech/language components to generate a classroom model supporting emergent literacy skills.…

  8. Facilitator's Guide to The Moral Imperative of School Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullan, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The author provides staff developers and educational leaders with tools needed to facilitate a workshop or study group, designed around his book. It gives chapter-by chapter activities focused on moral purpose and why it plays such a critical role in changing the context of school leadership. This guide explores in depth: (1) "Changing the…

  9. Facilitating Conditions for School Motivation: Construct Validity and Applicability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Dennis M.; Dowson, Martin; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

    2005-01-01

    Elementary students (n = 277, in Grades 5-6) and high school students (n = 615, in Grades 7-12) responded to 26 items of McInerneys Facilitating Conditions Questionnaire (FCQ). Confirmatory factor analyses of the FCQ found seven distinct factors underlying these items. These were perceived value of schooling (Value), affect toward schooling…

  10. Facilitating conditions for boundary-spanning behaviour in governance networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.F. van Meerkerk (Ingmar); J. Edelenbos (Jurian)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines the impact of two facilitating conditions for boundary-spanning behaviour in urban governance networks. While research on boundary spanning is growing, there is little attention for antecedents. Combining governance network literature on project management and

  11. Facilitating conditions for boundary-spanning behavior in governance networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.F. van Meerkerk (Ingmar); J. Edelenbos (Jurian)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines the impact of two facilitating conditions for boundary-spanning behaviour in urban governance networks. While research on boundary spanning is growing, there is little attention for antecedents. Combining governance network literature on project management and

  12. Designing an Electronic Educational Game to Facilitate Immersion and Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuxin; Williams, Doug; Prejean, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Advocates of electronic educational games often cite the work on motivation to support the use of games in education. However, motivation alone is inadequate to facilitate learning. Many of the educational games that focused their game design solely on the motivational effect failed to be either educational or entertaining. Theory and research is…

  13. Polystyrene cryostat facilitates testing tensile specimens under liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogan, R. P.; Skalka, R. J.

    1967-01-01

    Lightweight cryostat made of expanded polystyrene reduces eccentricity in a tensile system being tested under liquid nitrogen. The cryostat is attached directly to the tensile system by a special seal, reducing misalignment effects due to cryostat weight, and facilitates viewing and loading of the specimens.

  14. Mind Maps as Facilitative Tools in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, Ammar H.; Jafer,Yaqoub J.; Alqadiri, Mohammad A.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions, attitudes, and willingness of pre-service science teachers in the College of Education at Kuwait University about using concept/mind maps and its related application software as facilitative tools, for teaching and learning, in science education. The first level (i.e., reaction) of Kirkpatrick's/Phillips'…

  15. Technology Alone Won't Transform Teacher to Facilitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Monica; McGrath, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Technology alone won't be enough to improve teaching and learning to where it needs to be for 21st century skills. Where it is being done successfully, teachers collectively share a vision of promoting deeper learning in all their students, and have collaboratively redesigned the role of the teacher to that of facilitator who uses technology…

  16. The Facilitator's Role in Elementary Mathematics Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Sandra M.

    2011-01-01

    This study identified qualities of influential facilitators of elementary mathematics professional development. Extensive research relating to elementary mathematics professional development has emerged over the past three decades. Embedded in this body of research are recommendations for effective practices in professional development and…

  17. Facilitator, Teacher, or Leader? Managing Conflicting Roles in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Glyn

    2010-01-01

    A facilitator is commonly defined as a substantively neutral person who manages the group process in order to help groups achieve identified goals or purposes. However, outdoor educators rarely experience the luxury of only managing the group process, because they are typically responsible for the provision of leadership, skill instruction, and…

  18. The Role of Facilitators in Project Action Learning Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rui; Chuah, Kong Bieng; Chao, Yiu Chung; Kwong, Kar Fai; Law, Mo Yin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper addresses the importance of a more proactive role of organizational learning (OL) facilitators, learning motivation reinforcer, through a two-part longitudinal study in a case company. The first part of this study aims to investigate and analyze some unexpected challenges in the project action learning-driven (PAL) OL…

  19. Mentoring clinical ladder advancement with a facilitated prep class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Susan A; Blankenship, Jean

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe a strategy for encouraging participation and overcoming reluctance of staff to participate in an optional professional advancement career ladder program. A facilitated prep class in a computer skills laboratory provides nurses with the framework for completing application requirements in a casual, supportive atmosphere.

  20. Facilitating Problem Framing in Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svihla, Vanessa; Reeve, Richard

    2016-01-01

    While problem solving is a relatively well understood process, problem framing is less well understood, particularly with regard to supporting students to learn as they frame problems. Project-based learning classrooms are an ideal setting to investigate how teachers facilitate this process. Using participant observation, this study investigated…

  1. Transcription and the IELTS Speaking Test: Facilitating Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stones, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a transcription task cycle that was designed to facilitate the development of skills for the IELTS (International English Language Testing System) speaking test at a language school in Japan. The cycle involved practice test, transcription, student correction, teacher correction, and retrial of the original test and…

  2. Academic Professional Development Strategies to Facilitate Educational Changes in Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Alonso, Gloria Amparo

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative within-case study explored how planned educational change in universities can be facilitated through academic professional development strategies. Thus this study attempted to shed some light on the dynamics of educational planned change in universities and their implications for academic professional development of faculty. The…

  3. Using a Hybrid Approach to Facilitate Learning Introductory Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiroglu, Unal

    2013-01-01

    In order to facilitate students' understanding in introductory programming courses, different types of teaching approaches were conducted. In this study, a hybrid approach including comment first coding (CFC), analogy and template approaches were used. The goal was to investigate the effect of such a hybrid approach on students' understanding in…

  4. Facilitating new ways of learning in Dutch higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, R.; Van der Voordt, D.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Literature shows that ‘new ways of learning’ cause a shift in learning settings with a growing attention to facilitating autonomy, interaction and knowledge exploration anytime, anywhere. These trends show evident similarities with developments in office environments known for as ‘new ways of workin

  5. Facilitation: a novel way to improve students' well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller

    2013-01-01

    In this article we analyze a project that used facilitation techniques, which are known from training in industry, to improve the study environment at a public research university in Denmark. In 2009, the project was initiated in one graduate program; and it has subsequently been modified and ins...

  6. Facilitating Attuned Interactions: Using the FAN Approach to Family Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkerson, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Erikson Institute's Fussy Baby Network® (FBN) is a national model prevention program known for its approach to family engagement called the FAN (Gilkerson & Gray, 2014; Gilkerson et al., 2012). The FAN is both a conceptual framework and a practical tool to facilitate attunement in helping relationships and promote reflective practice. This…

  7. Medical Students as Facilitators for Laparoscopic Simulator Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Cathrine; Bjerrum, Flemming; Mahmood, Badar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Teaching basic clinical skills to student peers and residents by medical students has previously been shown effective. This study examines if medical students can facilitate laparoscopic procedural tasks to residents using a virtual reality simulator. METHODS: This was a retrospective...... practicing on a laparoscopic virtual reality simulator....

  8. Analytical solution for facilitated transport across a membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marzouqi, Mohamed Hassan Al-; Hogendoorn, Kees J.A.; Versteeg, Geert F.

    2002-01-01

    An analytical expression for the facilitation factor of component A across a liquid membrane is derived in case of an instantaneous reaction A(g) + B(l) ⇔ AB(l) inside the liquid membrane. The present expression has been derived based on earlier analytical results obtained for the enhancement factor

  9. Analytical Solution for facilitated transport across a membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-marzouqi, M.; Hogendoorn, Kees; Versteeg, Geert

    2002-01-01

    An analytical expression for the facilitation factor of component A across a liquid membrane is derived in case of an instantaneous reaction A(g)+B(l)AB(l) inside the liquid membrane. The present expression has been derived based on the analytical results of Olander (A.I.Ch.E. J. 6(2) (1960) 233)

  10. Concept of Learning Organization: Facilitators and Flow of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Sachan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this study is to ascertain that various facilitators of learning such as learning culture, climate, semantic web technology, information communication technology and knowledge management hold importance to facilitate the flow of learning, which begins at individual-group-and ultimately at organizational level in an organization. Design/methodology/approach – This review paper is based on the research papers written by other authors, who have studied the concept of learning organization, importance of conducive learning culture and climate, impact of facilitators on the flow of learning in an enterprise. A model is developed to illustrate the impact of the facilitators of learning on the flow of learning in an organization. Findings – The study expresses that a conducive and harmonious learning culture and climate, web technology, knowledge management leads to smooth flow of learning at individual-group- and organizational level. Such a culture and climate contributes to an ethical organization, has a direct relationship with the performance of an enterprise, learning capability and competitive advantage. Limitations –This study is based on secondary research which has been published by reputed authors in this field. Acronyms – LO (Learning Organization, OL (Organization Learning, KM (Knowledge Management, SWT (Semantic Web Technology, ICT (Information and Communication technology.

  11. MODELLING OF FACILITATIVE EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT FOR STUDENTS WITH AUDITORY IMPERCEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. EFIMOVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the theoretical basis and practical recommendations for modelling the facilitative educationalenvironment for elementary school pupils with learning difficulties. It is shown that 80% of elementary school pupils with learning difficulties have problems related to auditory imperceptions. At the same time, the peripheral hearing of these students is usually normal. Auditory imperception has a negative impact on all types of educational activities, as educational material is mainly based on aural reception. The practical recommendations are aimed at changing the objective environment and the communicative strategies of all adults involved in educational activities of pupils in order to create conditions facilitating the aural reception of information by pupils. To create a facilitative environment, the following measures are proposed: improvement of the acoustic characteristics of the learning premises, the use of visual cues, change of the communicative strategies of adults, the use of special equipment in the classroom. The author suggests measures for creating the facilitating environment at home for children with aural imperceptions when they do their homework.

  12. Formative Assessment in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenford-O'Brian, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation responds to critical gaps in current research on formative assessment practice which could limit successful implementation of this practice within the K-12 classroom context. The study applies a socio cultural perspective of learning to interpret a cross-case analysis of formative assessment practice occurring during one…

  13. Formation of multiple networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    we introduce the first network formation model for multiple networks. Network formation models are among the most popular tools in traditional network studies, because of both their practical and theoretical impact. However, existing models are not sufficient to describe the generation of multiple...

  14. Isothermal Martensite Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Matteo

    Isothermal (i.e. time dependent) martensite formation in steel was first observed in the 40ies of the XXth century and is still treated as an anomaly in the description of martensite formation which is considered as a-thermal (i.e. independent of time). Recently, the clarification of the mechanis...

  15. Using creative writing to explore facilitation skills in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Price

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Facilitation skills are key to the effective use of practice development strategies. Students on a masters degree in practice development and innovation undertake a module on facilitation skills that incorporates the use of a creative writing piece to explore facilitation. The aim of this article is to critically reflect on the use of creative writing within an assignment from the lecturer’s perspective. Critical reflection: The Rolfe et al. (2001 model of reflection will be used to structure the reflections, considering the questions ‘What?’, ‘So what?’ and ‘Now what?’. This will form the basis of a discussion of concerns about the assessment method, students’ thoughts, relationship to practice development and evidence of effectiveness of the strategy. Examples of creative writing from the students will be used to demonstrate the diversity of the approach. Ethics: All students have given permission for their work to be included. Discussion: Using creative writing can be freeing for students as they can use their voice to explore a topic. For the lecturer, courage is needed to facilitate this expression but it is rewarding as it links to the principles of practice development to embed new ways of working. Important within the process is the need to give students ‘permission’ to use a non-traditional style of writing; lecturers may benefit from practising the technique themselves to feel comfortable with the creative writing strategy. Conclusion: Creative writing offered an opportunity to explore facilitation in different ways and relate it to different aspects of real and imagined life. This paper shows that creative writing can be used successfully by students to engage in novel ways of thinking. However, future actions identify the importance of guidance regarding relevance to academia and ensuring the lecturer is familiar with the aim and techniques of the process when using it for masters-level assessment

  16. Galaxy Formation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, Andrew J

    2010-01-01

    We review the current theory of how galaxies form within the cosmological framework provided by the cold dark matter paradigm for structure formation. Beginning with the pre-galactic evolution of baryonic material we describe the analytical and numerical understanding of how baryons condense into galaxies, what determines the structure of those galaxies and how internal and external processes (including star formation, merging, active galactic nuclei etc.) determine their gross properties and evolution. Throughout, we highlight successes and failings of current galaxy formation theory. We include a review of computational implementations of galaxy formation theory and assess their ability to provide reliable modeling of this complex phenomenon. We finish with a discussion of several "hot topics" in contemporary galaxy formation theory and assess future directions for this field.

  17. When efficient star formation drives cluster formation

    CERN Document Server

    Parmentier, G

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the impact of the star formation efficiency in cluster forming cores on the evolution of the mass in star clusters over the age range 1-100Myr, when star clusters undergo their infant weight-loss/mortality phase. Assuming a constant formation rate of gas-embedded clusters and a weak tidal field, we show that the ratio between the total mass in stars bound to the clusters over that age range and the total mass in stars initially formed in gas-embedded clusters is a strongly increasing function of the averaged local SFE, with little influence from any assumed core mass-radius relation. Our results suggest that, for young starbursts with estimated tidal field strength and known recent star formation history, observed cluster-to-star mass ratios, once corrected for the undetected clusters, constitute promising probes of the local SFE, without the need of resorting to gas mass estimates. Similarly, the mass ratio of stars which remain in bound clusters at the end of the infant mortality/weight-loss ...

  18. What can we learn from facilitator and student perceptions of facilitation skills and roles in the first year of a problem-based learning curriculum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLean Michelle

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The small group tutorial is a cornerstone of problem-based learning. By implication, the role of the facilitator is of pivotal importance. The present investigation canvassed perceptions of facilitators with differing levels of experience regarding their roles and duties in the tutorial. Methods In January 2002, one year after problem-based learning implementation at the Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, facilitators with the following experience were canvassed: trained and about to facilitate, facilitated once only and facilitated more than one six-week theme. Student comments regarding facilitator skills were obtained from a 2001 course survey. Results While facilitators generally agreed that the three-day training workshop provided sufficient insight into the facilitation process, they become more comfortable with increasing experience. Many facilitators experienced difficulty not providing content expertise. Again, this improved with increasing experience. Most facilitators saw students as colleagues. They agreed that they should be role models, but were less enthusiastic about being mentors. Students were critical of facilitators who were not up to date with curriculum implementation or who appeared disinterested. While facilitator responses suggest that there was considerable intrinsic motivation, this might in fact not be the case. Conclusions Even if they had facilitated on all six themes, facilitators could still be considered as novices. Faculty support is therefore critical for the first few years of problem-based learning, particularly for those who had facilitated once only. Since student and facilitator expectations in the small group tutorial may differ, roles and duties of facilitators must be explicit for both parties from the outset.

  19. Preparation of Fe3O4Spherical Nanoporous Particles Facilitated by Polyethylene Glycol 4000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li-Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Much interest has been attracted to the magnetic materials with porous structure because of their unique properties and potential applications. In this report, Fe3O4nanoporous particles assembled from small Fe3O4nanoparticles have been prepared by thermal decomposition of iron acetylacetonate in the presence of polyethylene glycol 4000. The size of the spherical nanoporous particles is 100–200 nm. Surface area measurement shows that these Fe3O4nanoporous particles have a high surface area of 87.5 m2/g. Magnetization measurement and Mössbauer spectrum indicate that these particles are nearly superparamagnetic at room temperature. It is found that the morphology of the products is greatly influenced by polyethylene glycol concentration and the polymerization degree of polyethylene glycol. Polyethylene glycol molecules are believed to facilitate the formation of the spherical assembly.

  20. Three-dimensional architecture of the IgH locus facilitates class switch recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenter, Amy L; Feldman, Scott; Wuerffel, Robert; Achour, Ikbel; Wang, Lili; Kumar, Satyendra

    2012-09-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch recombination (CSR) is responsible for diversification of antibody effector function during an immune response. This region-specific recombination event, between repetitive switch (S) DNA elements, is unique to B lymphocytes and is induced by activationinduced deaminase (AID). CSR is critically dependent on transcription of noncoding RNAs across S regions. However, mechanistic insight regarding this process has remained unclear. New studies indicate that long-range intrachromosomal interactions among IgH transcriptional elements organize the formation of the S/S synaptosome, as a prerequisite for CSR. This three-dimensional chromatin architecture simultaneously brings promoters and enhancers into close proximity to facilitate transcription. Here, we recount how transcription across S DNA promotes accumulation of RNA polymerase II, leading to the introduction of activating chromatin modifications and hyperaccessible chromatin that is amenable to AID activity.

  1. Unrepaired DNA damage facilitates elimination of uniparental chromosomes in interspecific hybrid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Yin, Hao; Lv, Lei; Feng, Yingying; Chen, Shaopeng; Liang, Junting; Huang, Yun; Jiang, Xiaohua; Jiang, Hanwei; Bukhari, Ihtisham; Wu, Lijun; Cooke, Howard J; Shi, Qinghua

    2014-01-01

    Elimination of uniparental chromosomes occurs frequently in interspecific hybrid cells. For example, human chromosomes are always eliminated during clone formation when human cells are fused with mouse cells. However, the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. Here, we show that the elimination of human chromosomes in human-mouse hybrid cells is accompanied by continued cell division at the presence of DNA damage on human chromosomes. Deficiency in DNA damage repair on human chromosomes occurs after cell fusion. Furthermore, increasing the level of DNA damage on human chromosomes by irradiation accelerates human chromosome loss in hybrid cells. Our results indicate that the elimination of human chromosomes in human-mouse hybrid cells results from unrepaired DNA damage on human chromosomes. We therefore provide a novel mechanism underlying chromosome instability which may facilitate the understanding of carcinogenesis.

  2. Herpesvirus telomeric repeats facilitate genomic integration into host telomeres and mobilization of viral DNA during reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufer, Benedikt B; Jarosinski, Keith W; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2011-03-14

    Some herpesviruses, particularly lymphotropic viruses such as Marek's disease virus (MDV) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), integrate their DNA into host chromosomes. MDV and HHV-6, among other herpesviruses, harbor telomeric repeats (TMRs) identical to host telomeres at either end of their linear genomes. Using MDV as a natural virus-host model, we show that herpesvirus TMRs facilitate viral genome integration into host telomeres and that integration is important for establishment of latency and lymphoma formation. Integration into host telomeres also aids in reactivation from the quiescent state of infection. Our results and the presence of TMRs in many herpesviruses suggest that integration mediated by viral TMRs is a conserved mechanism, which ensures faithful virus genome maintenance in host cells during cell division and allows efficient mobilization of dormant viral genomes. This finding is of particular importance as reactivation is critical for virus spread between susceptible individuals and is necessary for continued herpesvirus evolution and survival.

  3. NeuroDebian Virtual Machine Deployment Facilitates Trainee-Driven Bedside Neuroimaging Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alexander; Kenney-Jung, Daniel; Botha, Hugo; Tillema, Jan-Mendelt

    2016-09-21

    Freely available software, derived from the past 2 decades of neuroimaging research, is significantly more flexible for research purposes than presently available clinical tools. Here, we describe and demonstrate the utility of rapidly deployable analysis software to facilitate trainee-driven translational neuroimaging research. A recipe and video tutorial were created to guide the creation of a NeuroDebian-based virtual computer that conforms to current neuroimaging research standards and can exist within a HIPAA-compliant system. This allows for retrieval of clinical imaging data, conversion to standard file formats, and rapid visualization and quantification of individual patients' cortical and subcortical anatomy. As an example, we apply this pipeline to a pediatric patient's data to illustrate the advantages of research-derived neuroimaging tools in asking quantitative questions "at the bedside." Our goal is to provide a path of entry for trainees to become familiar with common neuroimaging tools and foster an increased interest in translational research.

  4. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy—theoretic premises and practical strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient’s everyday speech. The SLP’s plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit...... are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3...... change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy...

  5. Barriers and facilitators to Veterans Administration collaboration with community providers: the Lodge Project for homeless veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretzmeyer, Margaret; Moeckli, Jane; Liu, William Ming

    2014-01-01

    Since 2009, the U.S. Veterans Administration has made concentrated efforts to end homelessness among veterans. As part of these efforts, the Iowa City, Iowa, VA Health Care System in collaboration with local community providers deployed a supportive housing program aimed at homeless veterans. Called the Lodge program, it is intended to serve a Mid-Western mid-size city and its surrounding rural communities. This article presents qualitative findings from a mixed-method, two-year formative evaluation of the Lodge's implementation. Primary barriers to the effectiveness of the Lodge program were regulations hindering cooperation between service programs, followed by problems regarding information sharing and client substance abuse. Facilitators included personal communication and cooperation between individuals within and among service groups. The feasibility of implementing a Lodge program in a more rural community than Iowa City was also discussed.

  6. Self-assembled monolayer facilitates epithelial-mesenchymal interactions mimicking odontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muni, Tanvi; Mrksich, Milan; George, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Cell-cell interactions are vital for embryonic organ development and normal function of differentiated cells and tissues. In this study we have developed a self-assembled monolayer-based co-culture system to study tooth morphogenesis. Specifically, we designed a 2-D microenvironment present in the dental tissue by creating a well-structured, laterally organized epithelial and mesenchymal cell co-culture system by patterning the cell-attachment substrate. Chemical modifications were used to develop tunable surface patterns to facilitate epithelial-mesenchymal interactions mimicking the developing tooth. Such a design promoted interactions between monolayer's of the 2 cell types and provided signaling cues that resulted in cellular differentiation and mineralized matrix formation. Gene expression analysis showed that these co-cultures mimicked in-vivo conditions than monolayer cultures of a single cell type.

  7. Allowing time to consolidate knowledge gained through random practice facilitates later novel motor sequence acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taewon; Rhee, Joohyun; Wright, David L

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the efficacy of random (RP) and blocked practice (BP) for enhancing later motor learning. Each experiment involved practicing three unique seven key serial reaction time (SRT) tasks in either a blocked or random format followed by practice of a novel SRT task either 2-min (Experiment 1) or 24-h (Experiment 2) later. While the expected benefit of RP for retention was present in both experiments, in Experiment 1 there was no advantage from prior RP for new learning. Experiment 2 explored the possibility that increasing the interval, from 2-min to 24-h, between BP or RP and practice of the novel motor task might allow consolidation of sequence knowledge acquired during BP or RP which in turn might facilitate new learning. As a result of the additional time between training bouts RP facilitated the rate at which the novel motor task was acquired. Interestingly, when this additional time was provided, both BP and RP supported (a) a performance saving for the first trial with the novel task, and (b) an offline improvement in performance across a 24-h interval not present when only the novel motor task was practiced. The latter benefits for new learning may have resulted from exposure to prior physical practice per se. or practice variability. These data are discussed with respect to (a) future learning benefits from prior experience training with greater CI, and (b) the importance of memory consolidation for motor learning. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. DockingApp: a user friendly interface for facilitated docking simulations with AutoDock Vina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Muzio, Elena; Toti, Daniele; Polticelli, Fabio

    2017-02-01

    Molecular docking is a powerful technique that helps uncover the structural and energetic bases of the interaction between macromolecules and substrates, endogenous and exogenous ligands, and inhibitors. Moreover, this technique plays a pivotal role in accelerating the screening of large libraries of compounds for drug development purposes. The need to promote community-driven drug development efforts, especially as far as neglected diseases are concerned, calls for user-friendly tools to allow non-expert users to exploit the full potential of molecular docking. Along this path, here is described the implementation of DockingApp, a freely available, extremely user-friendly, platform-independent application for performing docking simulations and virtual screening tasks using AutoDock Vina. DockingApp sports an intuitive graphical user interface which greatly facilitates both the input phase and the analysis of the results, which can be visualized in graphical form using the embedded JMol applet. The application comes with the DrugBank set of more than 1400 ready-to-dock, FDA-approved drugs, to facilitate virtual screening and drug repurposing initiatives. Furthermore, other databases of compounds such as ZINC, available also in AutoDock format, can be readily and easily plugged in.

  9. DockingApp: a user friendly interface for facilitated docking simulations with AutoDock Vina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Muzio, Elena; Toti, Daniele; Polticelli, Fabio

    2017-02-01

    Molecular docking is a powerful technique that helps uncover the structural and energetic bases of the interaction between macromolecules and substrates, endogenous and exogenous ligands, and inhibitors. Moreover, this technique plays a pivotal role in accelerating the screening of large libraries of compounds for drug development purposes. The need to promote community-driven drug development efforts, especially as far as neglected diseases are concerned, calls for user-friendly tools to allow non-expert users to exploit the full potential of molecular docking. Along this path, here is described the implementation of DockingApp, a freely available, extremely user-friendly, platform-independent application for performing docking simulations and virtual screening tasks using AutoDock Vina. DockingApp sports an intuitive graphical user interface which greatly facilitates both the input phase and the analysis of the results, which can be visualized in graphical form using the embedded JMol applet. The application comes with the DrugBank set of more than 1400 ready-to-dock, FDA-approved drugs, to facilitate virtual screening and drug repurposing initiatives. Furthermore, other databases of compounds such as ZINC, available also in AutoDock format, can be readily and easily plugged in.

  10. GeneLink: a database to facilitate genetic studies of complex traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfsberg Tyra G

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contrast to gene-mapping studies of simple Mendelian disorders, genetic analyses of complex traits are far more challenging, and high quality data management systems are often critical to the success of these projects. To minimize the difficulties inherent in complex trait studies, we have developed GeneLink, a Web-accessible, password-protected Sybase database. Results GeneLink is a powerful tool for complex trait mapping, enabling genotypic data to be easily merged with pedigree and extensive phenotypic data. Specifically designed to facilitate large-scale (multi-center genetic linkage or association studies, GeneLink securely and efficiently handles large amounts of data and provides additional features to facilitate data analysis by existing software packages and quality control. These include the ability to download chromosome-specific data files containing marker data in map order in various formats appropriate for downstream analyses (e.g., GAS and LINKAGE. Furthermore, an unlimited number of phenotypes (either qualitative or quantitative can be stored and analyzed. Finally, GeneLink generates several quality assurance reports, including genotyping success rates of specified DNA samples or success and heterozygosity rates for specified markers. Conclusions GeneLink has already proven an invaluable tool for complex trait mapping studies and is discussed primarily in the context of our large, multi-center study of hereditary prostate cancer (HPC. GeneLink is freely available at http://research.nhgri.nih.gov/genelink.

  11. DockingApp: a user friendly interface for facilitated docking simulations with AutoDock Vina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Muzio, Elena; Toti, Daniele; Polticelli, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Molecular docking is a powerful technique that helps uncover the structural and energetic bases of the interaction between macromolecules and substrates, endogenous and exogenous ligands, and inhibitors. Moreover, this technique plays a pivotal role in accelerating the screening of large libraries of compounds for drug development purposes. The need to promote community-driven drug development efforts, especially as far as neglected diseases are concerned, calls for user-friendly tools to allow non-expert users to exploit the full potential of molecular docking. Along this path, here is described the implementation of DockingApp, a freely available, extremely user-friendly, platform-independent application for performing docking simulations and virtual screening tasks using AutoDock Vina. DockingApp sports an intuitive graphical user interface which greatly facilitates both the input phase and the analysis of the results, which can be visualized in graphical form using the embedded JMol applet. The application comes with the DrugBank set of more than 1400 ready-to-dock, FDA-approved drugs, to facilitate virtual screening and drug repurposing initiatives. Furthermore, other databases of compounds such as ZINC, available also in AutoDock format, can be readily and easily plugged in.

  12. Integrin-linked kinase regulates cellular mechanics facilitating the motility in 3D extracellular matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunschmann, Tom; Puder, Stefanie; Fischer, Tony; Perez, Jeremy; Wilharm, Nils; Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2017-03-01

    The motility of cells plays an important role for many processes such as wound healing and malignant progression of cancer. The efficiency of cell motility is affected by the microenvironment. The connection between the cell and its microenvironment is facilitated by cell-matrix adhesion receptors and upon their activation focal adhesion proteins such as integrin-linked kinase (ILK) are recruited to sites of focal adhesion formation. In particular, ILK connects cell-matrix receptors to the actomyosin cytoskeleton. However, ILK's role in cell mechanics regulating cellular motility in 3D collagen matrices is still not well understood. We suggest that ILK facilitates 3D motility by regulating cellular mechanical properties such as stiffness and force transmission. Thus, ILK wild-type and knock-out cells are analyzed for their ability to migrate on 2D substrates serving as control and in dense 3D extracellular matrices. Indeed, ILK wild-type cells migrated faster on 2D substrates and migrated more numerous and deeper in 3D matrices. Hence, we analyzed cellular deformability, Young's modulus (stiffness) and adhesion forces. We found that ILK wild-type cells are less deformable (stiffer) and produce higher cell-matrix adhesion forces compared to ILK knock-out cells. Finally, ILK is essential for providing cellular mechanical stiffness regulating 3D motility.

  13. Reporting systems in gastrointestinal endoscopy: Requirements and standards facilitating quality improvement: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy position statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretthauer, Michael; Aabakken, Lars; Dekker, Evelien; Kaminski, Michal F; Rösch, Thomas; Hultcrantz, Rolf; Suchanek, Stepan; Jover, Rodrigo; Kuipers, Ernst J; Bisschops, Raf; Spada, Cristiano; Valori, Roland; Domagk, Dirk; Rees, Colin; Rutter, Matthew D

    2016-04-01

    To develop standards for high quality of gastrointestinal endoscopy, the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) has established the ESGE Quality Improvement Committee. A prerequisite for quality assurance and improvement for all gastrointestinal endoscopy procedures is state-of-the-art integrated digital reporting systems for standardized documentation of the procedures. The current paper describes the ESGE's viewpoints on requirements for high-quality endoscopy reporting systems. The following recommendations are issued: Endoscopy reporting systems must be electronic.Endoscopy reporting systems should be integrated into hospital patient record systems.Endoscopy reporting systems should include patient identifiers to facilitate data linkage to other data sources.Endoscopy reporting systems shall restrict the use of free text entry to a minimum, and be based mainly on structured data entry.Separate entry of data for quality or research purposes is discouraged. Automatic data transfer for quality and research purposes must be facilitated.Double entry of data by the endoscopist or associate personnel is discouraged. Available data from outside sources (administrative or medical) must be made available automatically.Endoscopy reporting systems shall enable the inclusion of information on histopathology of detected lesions; patient's satisfaction; adverse events; surveillance recommendations.Endoscopy reporting systems must facilitate easy data retrieval at any time in a universally compatible format.Endoscopy reporting systems must include data fields for key performance indicators as defined by quality improvement committees.Endoscopy reporting systems must facilitate changes in indicators and data entry fields as required by professional organizations.

  14. Cu(II) promotes amyloid pore formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hangyu, E-mail: hangyuz@uw.edu [Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Rochet, Jean-Christophe [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Stanciu, Lia A. [Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-08-14

    The aggregation of α-synuclein is associated with dopamine neuron death in Parkinson's disease. There is controversy in the field over the question of which species of the aggregates, fibrils or protofibrils, are toxic. Moreover, compelling evidence suggested the exposure to heavy metals to be a risk of PD. Nevertheless, the mechanism of metal ions in promoting PD remains unclear. In this research, we investigated the structural basis of Cu(II) induced aggregation of α-synuclein. Using transmission electron microscopy experiments, Cu(II) was found to promote in vitro aggregation of α-synuclein by facilitating annular protofibril formation rather than fibril formation. Furthermore, neuroprotective baicalein disaggregated annular protofibrils accompanied by considerable decrease of β-sheet content. These results strongly support the hypothesis that annular protofibrils are the toxic species, rather than fibrils, thereby inspiring us to search novel therapeutic strategies for the suppression of the toxic annular protofibril formation. - Highlights: • Cu(II) promoted the annular protofibril formation of α-synuclein in vitro. • Cu(II) postponed the in vitro fibrillization of α-synuclein. • Neuroprotective baicalein disaggregated annular protofibrils.

  15. Does gallbladder angle affect gallstone formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanal, Bekir; Korkmaz, Mehmet; Zeren, Sezgin; Can, Fatma; Elmali, Ferhan; Bayhan, Zulfu

    2016-01-01

    Morphology of gallbladder varies considerably from person to person. We believe that one of the morphological variations of gallbladder is the "gallbladder angle". Gallbladder varies also in "angle", which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been investigated before. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of gallbladder angle on gallstone formation. in this study, 1075 abdominal computed tomography (CT) images were retrospectively examined. Patients with completely normal gallbladders were selected. Among these patients, those with both abdominal ultrasound and blood tests were identified in the hospital records and included in the study. Based on the findings of the ultrasound scans, patients were divided into two groups as patients with gallstones and patients without gallstones. Following the measurement of gallbladder angles on the CT images, the groups were statistically evaluated. The gallbladder angle was smaller in patients with gallstones (49 ± 21 degrees and 53 ± 19 degrees) and the gallbladder with larger angle was 1.015 (1/0.985) times lower the risk of gallstone formation. However, these were not statistically significant (p>0,05). A more vertically positioned gallbladder does not affect gallstone formation. However, a smaller gallbladder angle may facilitate gallstone formation in patients with the risk factors. Gallstones perhaps more easily and earlier develop in gallbladders with a smaller angle.

  16. The dynamics of group formation among leeches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo eBisson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Leeches exploring a new environment continuously meet each other and merge in temporary groups. After 2-3 hours, leeches become attracted to each other eventually forming a large and stable group. When their number is reduced, leeches remain solitary, behaving independently. Group formation is facilitated by body injection of serotonin (5-HT and the level of endogenous 5-HT is elevated in leeches forming a large group. In contrast, intravenous injection of 5-HT antagonists prevented injected leeches from joining a large group of conspecifics. When sensilla near the head were ablated or the supraesophageal ganglion disconnected, leeches remained solitary, but explored the environment swimming and crawling. These results suggest that group formation is initiated by a release of 5-HT triggered by sensilla stimulation and its dynamics can be explained by the establishment of a reinforcement dynamics, as observed during human group formation. As 5-HT affects social interactions also in humans, group formation in leeches and humans share a similar dynamics and hormonal control.

  17. Activation of PAD4 in NET formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eRohrbach

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Peptidyl arginine deiminases, or PADs, convert arginine residues to the non-ribosomally encoded amino acid citrulline in a variety of protein substrates. PAD4 is expressed in granulocytes and is essential for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs via PAD4-mediated histone citrullination. Citrullination of histones is thought to promote NET formation by inducing chromatin decondensation and facilitating the expulsion of chromosomal DNA that is coated with antimicrobial molecules. Numerous stimuli have been reported to lead to PAD4 activation and NET formation. However, how this signaling process proceeds and how PAD4 becomes activated in cells is largely unknown. Herein, we describe the various stimuli and signaling pathways that have been implicated in PAD4 activation and NET formation, including the role of reactive oxygen species generation. To provide a foundation for the above discussion, we first describe PAD4 structure and function, and how these studies led to the development of PAD-specific inhibitors. A comprehensive survey of the receptors and signaling pathways that regulate PAD4 activation will be important for our understanding of innate immunity, and the identification of signaling intermediates in PAD4 activation may also lead to the generation of pharmaceuticals to target NET-related pathogenesis.

  18. Osteoclastogenesis in Local Alveolar Bone in Early Decortication-Facilitated Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Jiang, Yu-Xi; Qu, Hong; Li, Cui-Ying; Jiang, Jiu-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Objective In the current study, we aimed to investigate the effects of alveolar decortication on local bone remodeling, and to explore the possible mechanism by which decortication facilitates tooth movement. Materials and Methods Forty rabbits were included in the experiment. The left mandible was subjected to decortication-facilitated orthodontics, and the right mandible underwent traditional orthodontics as a control. The animals were sacrificed on the days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14, after undergoing orthodontic procedures. Tooth movement was measured by Micro-CT, and the local periodontal tissues were investigated using H&E, Masson's trichrome and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. The mRNA levels of genes related to bone remodeling in the alveolar bone were analyzed using real-time PCR. Result On days 3, 5, 7 and 14, tooth movement was statistically accelerated by decortication (P < 0.05) and was accompanied by increased hyperemia. Despite the lack of new bone formation in both groups, more osteoclasts were noted in the decorticated group, with two peak counts (P < 0.05). The first peak count was consistent with the maximum values of ctsk and TRAP expression, and the second peak counts accompanied the maximum nfatc1 and jdp2 expression. The increased fra2 expression and the ratio of rankl/opg also accompanied the second peak counts. Conclusions Following alveolar decortication, osteoclastogenesis was initially induced to a greater degree than the new bone formation which was thought to have caused a regional acceleratory phenomenon (RAP). The amount of steoclastogenesis in the decorticated alveolar bone was found to have two peaks, perhaps due to attenuated local resistance. The first peak count in osteoclasts may have been due to previously existing osteoclast precursors, whereas the second may represent the differentiation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells which came from circulation as the result of hyperemia. PMID:27096621

  19. Rad59-facilitated acquisition of Y' elements by short telomeres delays the onset of senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri Churikov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase-negative yeasts survive via one of the two Rad52-dependent recombination pathways, which have distinct genetic requirements. Although the telomere pattern of type I and type II survivors is well characterized, the mechanistic details of short telomere rearrangement into highly evolved pattern observed in survivors are still missing. Here, we analyze immediate events taking place at the abruptly shortened VII-L and native telomeres. We show that short telomeres engage in pairing with internal Rap1-bound TG1-3-like tracts present between subtelomeric X and Y' elements, which is followed by BIR-mediated non-reciprocal translocation of Y' element and terminal TG1-3 repeats from the donor end onto the shortened telomere. We found that choice of the Y' donor was not random, since both engineered telomere VII-L and native VI-R acquired Y' elements from partially overlapping sets of specific chromosome ends. Although short telomere repair was associated with transient delay in cell divisions, Y' translocation on native telomeres did not require Mec1-dependent checkpoint. Furthermore, the homeologous pairing between the terminal TG1-3 repeats at VII-L and internal repeats on other chromosome ends was largely independent of Rad51, but instead it was facilitated by Rad59 that stimulates Rad52 strand annealing activity. Therefore, Y' translocation events taking place during presenescence are genetically separable from Rad51-dependent Y' amplification process that occurs later during type I survivor formation. We show that Rad59-facilitated Y' translocations on X-only telomeres delay the onset of senescence while preparing ground for type I survivor formation.

  20. Improving the teaching skills of residents as tutors/facilitators and addressing the shortage of faculty facilitators for PBL modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, Wasim; Mumtaz, Khalid; Burdick, William P; Morahan, Page S; Freeman, Rosslynne; Zehra, Tabassum

    2007-10-08

    Residents play an important role in teaching of medical undergraduate students. Despite their importance in teaching undergraduates they are not involved in any formal training in teaching and leadership skills. We aimed to compare the teaching skills of residents with faculty in facilitating small group Problem Based Learning (PBL) sessions. This quasi experimental descriptive comparative research involved 5 postgraduate year 4 residents and five senior faculty members. The study was conducted with all phase III (Final year) students rotating in Gastroenterology. The residents and faculty members received brief training of one month in facilitation and core principles of adult education. Different aspects of teaching skills of residents and faculty were evaluated by students on a questionnaire (graded on Likert Scale from 1 to 10) assessing i) Knowledge Base-content Learning (KBL), ii) PBL, iii) Student Centered Learning (SCL) and iv) Group Skills (GS). There were 33 PBL teaching sessions in which 120 evaluation forms were filled; out of these 53% forms were filled for residents and 47% for faculty group. The faculty showed a statistically greater rating in "KBL" (faculty 8.37 Vs resident 7.94; p-value 0.02), "GS" (faculty 8.06 vs. residents 7.68; p-value 0.04). Differences in faculty and resident scores in "the PBL" and "SCL" were not significant. The overall score of faculty facilitators, however, was statistically significant for resident facilitators. (p = .05). 1) Residents are an effective supplement to faculty members for PBL; 2) Additional facilitators for PBL sessions can be identified in an institution by involvement of residents in teacher training workshops.

  1. Improving the teaching skills of residents as tutors/facilitators and addressing the shortage of faculty facilitators for PBL modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morahan Page S

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Residents play an important role in teaching of medical undergraduate students. Despite their importance in teaching undergraduates they are not involved in any formal training in teaching and leadership skills. We aimed to compare the teaching skills of residents with faculty in facilitating small group Problem Based Learning (PBL sessions. Methods This quasi experimental descriptive comparative research involved 5 postgraduate year 4 residents and five senior faculty members. The study was conducted with all phase III (Final year students rotating in Gastroenterology. The residents and faculty members received brief training of one month in facilitation and core principles of adult education. Different aspects of teaching skills of residents and faculty were evaluated by students on a questionnaire (graded on Likert Scale from 1 to 10 assessing i Knowledge Base-content Learning (KBL, ii PBL, iii Student Centered Learning (SCL and iv Group Skills (GS. Results There were 33 PBL teaching sessions in which 120 evaluation forms were filled; out of these 53% forms were filled for residents and 47% for faculty group. The faculty showed a statistically greater rating in "KBL" (faculty 8.37 Vs resident 7.94; p-value 0.02, "GS" (faculty 8.06 vs. residents 7.68; p-value 0.04. Differences in faculty and resident scores in "the PBL" and "SCL" were not significant. The overall score of faculty facilitators, however, was statistically significant for resident facilitators. (p = .05. Conclusion 1 Residents are an effective supplement to faculty members for PBL; 2 Additional facilitators for PBL sessions can be identified in an institution by involvement of residents in teacher training workshops.

  2. FIRE (facilitating implementation of research evidence: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seers Kate

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research evidence underpins best practice, but is not always used in healthcare. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS framework suggests that the nature of evidence, the context in which it is used, and whether those trying to use evidence are helped (or facilitated affect the use of evidence. Urinary incontinence has a major effect on quality of life of older people, has a high prevalence, and is a key priority within European health and social care policy. Improving continence care has the potential to improve the quality of life for older people and reduce the costs associated with providing incontinence aids. Objectives This study aims to advance understanding about the contribution facilitation can make to implementing research findings into practice via: extending current knowledge of facilitation as a process for translating research evidence into practice; evaluating the feasibility, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of two different models of facilitation in promoting the uptake of research evidence on continence management; assessing the impact of contextual factors on the processes and outcomes of implementation; and implementing a pro-active knowledge transfer and dissemination strategy to diffuse study findings to a wide policy and practice community. Setting and sample Four European countries, each with six long-term nursing care sites (total 24 sites for people aged 60 years and over with documented urinary incontinence Methods and design Pragmatic randomised controlled trial with three arms (standard dissemination and two different programmes of facilitation, with embedded process and economic evaluation. The primary outcome is compliance with the continence recommendations. Secondary outcomes include proportion of residents with incontinence, incidence of incontinence-related dermatitis, urinary tract infections, and quality of life. Outcomes are assessed at baseline

  3. Methemoglobin formation by paraquat.

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    Watanabe,Shinsaku

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat is a broad spectrum herbicide known to be highly lethal to man and animals. Its toxicity is characterized by acute lung injury. Paraquat produces such toxic effects through the generation of the superoxide anion according to one proposed mechanism. The present experiment, methemoglobin formation was demonstrated after incubation of oxyhemoglobin with paraquat. The generation of the superoxide anion through the interaction of oxyhemoglobin with paraquat was suggested by chemiluminescence of luminol. Superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalare inhibited methemoglobin formation. The generation of the superoxide anion is discussed in regard to methemoglobin formation by paraquat.

  4. Challenges in Planet Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, large strides have been made in the field of planet formation. Yet fundamental questions remain. Here we review our state of understanding of five fundamental bottlenecks in planet formation. These are: 1) the structure and evolution of protoplanetary disks; 2) the growth of the first planetesimals; 3) orbital migration driven by interactions between proto-planets and gaseous disk; 4) the origin of the Solar System's orbital architecture; and 5) the relationship between observed super-Earths and our own terrestrial planets. Given our lack of understanding of these issues, even the most successful formation models remain on shaky ground.

  5. Manuel UNIMARC format bibliographique

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    This manual is the French translation of the second edition of UNIMARC Manual: bibliographic format published in English in 1994 and completed by 5 updates published from 1996 to 2005. This 5th French edition is composite. It reproduces identically a part of the 4th edition published in 2002 and, for the fields of the format modified in the Update 5, it offers a new more structured presentation. This is a handbook dedicated to French-speaking users of the UNIMARC format for bibliographic descriptions.

  6. A limited contribution of Ca2+ current facilitation to paired-pulse facilitation of transmitter release at the rat calyx of Held.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Martin; Felmy, Felix; Schneggenburger, Ralf

    2008-11-15

    Recent studies have suggested that transmitter release facilitation at synapses is largely mediated by presynaptic Ca(2+) current facilitation, but the exact contribution of Ca(2+) current facilitation has not been determined quantitatively. Here, we determine the contribution of Ca(2+) current facilitation, and of an increase in the residual free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in the nerve terminal, to paired-pulse facilitation of transmitter release at the calyx of Held. Under conditions of low release probability imposed by brief presynaptic voltage-clamp steps, transmitter release facilitation at short interstimulus intervals (4 ms) was 227 +/- 31% of control, Ca(2+) current facilitation was 113 +/- 4% of control, and the peak residual [Ca(2+)](i) was 252 +/- 18 nm over baseline. By inferring the 'local' [Ca(2+)](i) transients that drive transmitter release during these voltage-clamp stimuli with the help of a kinetic release model, we estimate that Ca(2+) current facilitation contributes to approximately 40% to paired-pulse facilitation of transmitter release. The remaining component of facilitation strongly depends on the build-up, and on the decay of the residual free [Ca(2+)](i), but cannot be explained by linear summation of the residual free [Ca(2+)](i), and the back-calculated 'local' [Ca(2+)](i) signal, which only accounts for approximately 10% of the total release facilitation. Further voltage-clamp experiments designed to compensate for Ca(2+) current facilitation demonstrated that about half of the observed transmitter release facilitation remains in the absence of Ca(2+) current facilitation. Our results indicate that paired-pulse facilitation of transmitter release at the calyx of Held is driven by at least two distinct mechanisms: Ca(2+) current facilitation, and a mechanism independent of Ca(2+) current facilitation that closely tracks the time course of residual free [Ca(2+)](i).

  7. Academic staff perspectives of formative assessment in nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Lai Chan

    2010-07-01

    High quality formative assessment has been linked to positive benefits on learning while good feedback can make a considerable difference to the quality of learning. It is proposed that formative assessment and feedback is intricately linked to enhancement of learning and has to be interactive. Underlying this proposition is the recognition of the importance of staff perspectives of formative assessment and their influence on assessment practice. However, there appears to be a paucity of literature exploring this area relevant to nurse education. The aim of the research was to explore the perspectives of twenty teachers of nurse education on formative assessment and feedback of theoretical assessment. A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews was adopted. The interview data were analysed and the following themes identified: purposes of formative assessment, involvement of peers in the assessment process, ambivalence of timing of assessment, types of formative assessment and quality of good feedback. The findings offer suggestions which may be of value to teachers facilitating formative assessment. The conclusion is that teachers require changes to the practice of formative assessment and feedback by believing that learning is central to the purposes of formative assessment and regarding students as partners in this process.

  8. Pictorial Formats. Volume 1. Format Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    the pilot to help him evaluate when to change course to avoid objects in TF/TA modes. In addition to the projected flight path, there are commanded...TYPESFigMASTER5 Wepo Saus clr ase 00I 16I AI 󈧋TRA- X PI prI MEN p~ll It 62 AIR-TO-GROUND _ - PRGRAM ýRELEASE SELECTIONS _ZY - Figure 58 71T ý Weapon...development should always be done within the context oF a baseline aircraft weapon system. Further studies are needed to simulate and evaluate these formats

  9. Feedback in formative OSCEs: comparison between direct observation and video-based formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noëlle Junod Perron

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical students at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Switzerland, have the opportunity to practice clinical skills with simulated patients during formative sessions in preparation for clerkships. These sessions are given in two formats: 1 direct observation of an encounter followed by verbal feedback (direct feedback and 2 subsequent review of the videotaped encounter by both student and supervisor (video-based feedback. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether content and process of feedback differed between both formats. Methods: In 2013, all second- and third-year medical students and clinical supervisors involved in formative sessions were asked to take part in the study. A sample of audiotaped feedback sessions involving supervisors who gave feedback in both formats were analyzed (content and process of the feedback using a 21-item feedback scale. Results: Forty-eight audiotaped feedback sessions involving 12 supervisors were analyzed (2 direct and 2 video-based sessions per supervisor. When adjusted for the length of feedback, there were significant differences in terms of content and process between both formats; the number of communication skills and clinical reasoning items addressed were higher in the video-based format (11.29 vs. 7.71, p=0.002 and 3.71 vs. 2.04, p=0.010, respectively. Supervisors engaged students more actively during the video-based sessions than during direct feedback sessions (self-assessment: 4.00 vs. 3.17, p=0.007; active problem-solving: 3.92 vs. 3.42, p=0.009. Students made similar observations and tended to consider that the video feedback was more useful for improving some clinical skills. Conclusion: Video-based feedback facilitates discussion of clinical reasoning, communication, and professionalism issues while at the same time actively engaging students. Different time and conceptual frameworks may explain observed differences. The choice of feedback format should depend on

  10. Feedback in formative OSCEs: comparison between direct observation and video-based formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod Perron, Noëlle; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Cerutti, Bernard; Pfarrwaller, Eva; Sommer, Johanna; Nendaz, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Medical students at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Switzerland, have the opportunity to practice clinical skills with simulated patients during formative sessions in preparation for clerkships. These sessions are given in two formats: 1) direct observation of an encounter followed by verbal feedback (direct feedback) and 2) subsequent review of the videotaped encounter by both student and supervisor (video-based feedback). The aim of the study was to evaluate whether content and process of feedback differed between both formats. Methods In 2013, all second- and third-year medical students and clinical supervisors involved in formative sessions were asked to take part in the study. A sample of audiotaped feedback sessions involving supervisors who gave feedback in both formats were analyzed (content and process of the feedback) using a 21-item feedback scale. Results Forty-eight audiotaped feedback sessions involving 12 supervisors were analyzed (2 direct and 2 video-based sessions per supervisor). When adjusted for the length of feedback, there were significant differences in terms of content and process between both formats; the number of communication skills and clinical reasoning items addressed were higher in the video-based format (11.29 vs. 7.71, p=0.002 and 3.71 vs. 2.04, p=0.010, respectively). Supervisors engaged students more actively during the video-based sessions than during direct feedback sessions (self-assessment: 4.00 vs. 3.17, p=0.007; active problem-solving: 3.92 vs. 3.42, p=0.009). Students made similar observations and tended to consider that the video feedback was more useful for improving some clinical skills. Conclusion Video-based feedback facilitates discussion of clinical reasoning, communication, and professionalism issues while at the same time actively engaging students. Different time and conceptual frameworks may explain observed differences. The choice of feedback format should depend on the educational

  11. Facilitative governance: transforming global health through complexity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffeld, Just

    2012-01-01

    Any initiative to coordinate actions, plans, or initiatives to improve the interaction between global health stakeholders finds itself feeding into a vastly complex global system. By utilising complexity theory as part of a new scientific paradigm, complex adaptive behaviour can emerge to create coherence. A suggested global health convention facilitating incremental regime development could be a way to create good governance processes. Minimum specifications could provide wide space for innovation and encourage shared action. Such specifications would be both a product of, and a facilitator for, future generative relationships. The potential empowerment of individuals as a result of this has the potential to transform global health by creating an arena for continual cooperation, interaction and mutual dependence among global stakeholders.

  12. Compassion fatigue resiliency training: the experience of facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Patricia; Pion, Sarah; Gentry, J Eric

    2015-02-01

    This qualitative evaluation examined compassion fatigue facilitators' perceptions of the effects of a compassion fatigue resiliency training program in an urban medical center in the midwestern United States. Nine months after completing a compassion fatigue resiliency facilitator training program, 15 participants wrote short narratives describing how the program affected them. Participants described how the training program benefited them both personally and professionally. Two main themes were identified from the narrative analysis: self-improvement and application of resiliency. All of the participants described one or more self-improvements as a result of the program, particularly in regard to emotional health. All of the participants also described how they regularly applied one or more of the resiliency skills taught in the class to improve their ability to manage stress and prevent compassion fatigue. This program shows promise in ameliorating compassion fatigue and burnout in health care providers.

  13. Facilitating tolerance of delayed reinforcement during functional communication training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, W W; Thompson, R H; Hagopian, L P; Bowman, L G; Krug, A

    2000-01-01

    Few clinical investigations have addressed the problem of delayed reinforcement. In this investigation, three individuals whose destructive behavior was maintained by positive reinforcement were treated using functional communication training (FCT) with extinction (EXT). Next, procedures used in the basic literature on delayed reinforcement and self-control (reinforcer delay fading, punishment of impulsive responding, and provision of an alternative activity during reinforcer delay) were used to teach participants to tolerate delayed reinforcement. With the first case, reinforcer delay fading alone was effective at maintaining low rates of destructive behavior while introducing delayed reinforcement. In the second case, the addition of a punishment component reduced destructive behavior to near-zero levels and facilitated reinforcer delay fading. With the third case, reinforcer delay fading was associated with increases in masturbation and head rolling, but prompting and praising the individual for completing work during the delay interval reduced all problem behaviors and facilitated reinforcer delay fading.

  14. Facilitated diffusion on mobile DNA: configurational traps and sequence heterogeneity

    CERN Document Server

    Brackley, C A; Marenduzzo, D; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.168103

    2012-01-01

    We present Brownian dynamics simulations of the facilitated diffusion of a protein, modelled as a sphere with a binding site on its surface, along DNA, modelled as a semi-flexible polymer. We consider both the effect of DNA organisation in 3D, and of sequence heterogeneity. We find that in a network of DNA loops, as are thought to be present in bacterial DNA, the search process is very sensitive to the spatial location of the target within such loops. Therefore, specific genes might be repressed or promoted by changing the local topology of the genome. On the other hand, sequence heterogeneity creates traps which normally slow down facilitated diffusion. When suitably positioned, though, these traps can, surprisingly, render the search process much more efficient.

  15. Developmental trends in the facilitation of multisensory objects with distractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet eDowning

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensory integration and the ability to discriminate target objects from distractors are critical to survival, yet the developmental trajectories of these abilities are unknown. This study investigated developmental changes in 9- (n=18 and 11-year-old (n=20 children, adolescents (n=19 and adults (n=22 using an audiovisual object discrimination task with uni- and multisensory distractors. Reaction times (RTs were slower with visual/audiovisual distractors, and although all groups demonstrated facilitation of multisensory RTs in these conditions, children’s and adolescents’ responses corresponded to fewer race model violations than adults’, suggesting protracted maturation of multisensory processes. Multisensory facilitation could not be explained by changes in RT variability, suggesting that tests of race model violations may still have theoretical value at least for familiar multisensory stimuli.

  16. Facilitation at single synapses probed with optical quantal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertner, Thomas G; Sabatini, Bernardo L; Nimchinsky, Esther A; Svoboda, Karel

    2002-07-01

    Many synapses can change their strength rapidly in a use-dependent manner, but the mechanisms of such short-term plasticity remain unknown. To understand these mechanisms, measurements of neurotransmitter release at single synapses are required. We probed transmitter release by imaging transient increases in [Ca(2+)] mediated by synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in individual dendritic spines of CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat brain slices, enabling quantal analysis at single synapses. We found that changes in release probability, produced by paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) or by manipulation of presynaptic adenosine receptors, were associated with changes in glutamate concentration in the synaptic cleft, indicating that single synapses can release a variable amount of glutamate per action potential. The relationship between release probability and response size is consistent with a binomial model of vesicle release with several (>5) independent release sites per active zone, suggesting that multivesicular release contributes to facilitation at these synapses.

  17. Darkness facilitates the acoustic startle reflex in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillon, C; Pellowski, M; Merikangas, K R; Davis, M

    1997-09-15

    The effects of darkness on startle reactivity and prepulse inhibition were investigated in two studies with 25 subjects participating in each study. Acoustic startle stimuli that were or were not preceded by an acoustic prepulse were delivered in alternating periods of complete darkness or light. In both studies, darkness significantly increased the magnitude of startle but did not affect prepulse inhibition (PPI). The PPI results suggest that darkness did not increase attention to the auditory modality, so that the startle facilitation in the dark probably did not result from an attentional process. The increased startle in the dark was significantly correlated with the intensity of subjects' fear of the dark as children based on retrospective rating scales. It is hypothesized that the startle facilitation in the dark results from a change in affect rather than from a change in attention.

  18. Lateral facilitation--no effect on the target noise level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkov, Mikhail; Sagi, Dov

    2010-11-23

    The detection threshold of a centrally placed Gabor target is reduced in the presence of aligned high-contrast Gabor patches that are optimally spaced from the target (Polat & Sagi, 1993). Here we determined whether threshold reduction is due to signal enhancement or to decreased signal response variability (internal noise), using a recently developed analysis for a Signal Detection Theory (SDT)-based contrast-identification paradigm (Katkov, Tsodyks, & Sagi, 2007a). We found that flankers did not affect internal noise, but instead caused increased target response when collinear with it, in agreement with the lateral facilitation effect. Based on these results, we concluded that lateral facilitation can be explained by signal enhancement only, and that uncertainty-based models do not provide a satisfactory description of the data.

  19. Gut microbes of mammalian herbivores facilitate intake of plant toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Kevin D; Weiss, Robert B; Cox, James; Dale, Colin; Dearing, M Denise

    2014-10-01

    The foraging ecology of mammalian herbivores is strongly shaped by plant secondary compounds (PSCs) that defend plants against herbivory. Conventional wisdom holds that gut microbes facilitate the ingestion of toxic plants; however, this notion lacks empirical evidence. We investigated the gut microbiota of desert woodrats (Neotoma lepida), some populations of which specialise on highly toxic creosote bush (Larrea tridentata). Here, we demonstrate that gut microbes are crucial in allowing herbivores to consume toxic plants. Creosote toxins altered the population structure of the gut microbiome to facilitate an increase in abundance of genes that metabolise toxic compounds. In addition, woodrats were unable to consume creosote toxins after the microbiota was disrupted with antibiotics. Last, ingestion of toxins by naïve hosts was increased through microbial transplants from experienced donors. These results demonstrate that microbes can enhance the ability of hosts to consume PSCs and therefore expand the dietary niche breadth of mammalian herbivores.

  20. The practical theologian as decentred but influential facilitator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Elmo Pienaar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s along with the resurgence in practical philosophy new possibilities opened up in our understanding of the place for and purpose of practical theology. The repositioning of practical theology as a fully worthy discipline was important to find its voice amongst theological peer disciplines. Against this background, it was argued that the full measure of what the discipline can contribute, especially outside of the ministry context, has not yet been fully developed or practiced. Towards this end the presentation’s main contention was put forward, in that it is vital for the practical theologian to take up a role of an inscribed facilitator. It signifies a shift from practical theology to practical theologian and is exemplified by the practice of a facilitative approach in, and to practical theology.