Iding, Marie K.
Examines the effectiveness of using questions to facilitate processing of diagrams in science texts. Investigates three different elements in experiments on college students. Finds that questions about illustrations do not facilitate learning. Discusses findings with reference to cognitive load theory, the dual coding perspective, and the…
Carlton Parsons, Eileen; Miles, Rhea; Petersen, Michael
Background: Research has primarily concentrated on adults' implicit theories about high quality science education for all students. Little work has considered the students' perspective. This study investigated high school students' implicit theories about what helped them learn science. Purpose: This study addressed (1) What characterizes high school students' implicit theories of what facilitates their learning of science?; (2) With respect to students' self-classifications as African American or European American and female or male, do differences exist in the students' implicit theories? Sample, design and methods: Students in an urban high school located in south-eastern United States were surveyed in 2006 about their thoughts on what helps them learn science. To confirm or disconfirm any differences, data from two different samples were analyzed. Responses of 112 African American and 118 European American students and responses from 297 European American students comprised the data for sample one and two, respectively. Results: Seven categories emerged from the deductive and inductive analyses of data: personal responsibility, learning arrangements, interest and knowledge, communication, student mastery, environmental responsiveness, and instructional strategies. Instructional strategies captured 82% and 80% of the data from sample one and two, respectively; consequently, this category was further subjected to Mann-Whitney statistical analysis at p ethnic differences. Significant differences did not exist for ethnicity but differences between females and males in sample one and sample two emerged. Conclusions: African American and European American students' implicit theories about instructional strategies that facilitated their science learning did not significantly differ but female and male students' implicit theories about instructional strategies that helped them learn science significantly differed. Because students attend and respond to what they think
Parsons, Eileen Carlton; Miles, Rhea; Petersen, Michael
Background: Research has primarily concentrated on adults' implicit theories about high quality science education for all students. Little work has considered the students' perspective. This study investigated high school students' implicit theories about what helped them learn science. Purpose: This study addressed (1) What characterizes high…
Iding, Marie K.
Examines the effectiveness of schema training in illustration types and text-illustration relations for learning from college level physiology texts and discusses findings that are consistent with prior research on learning from illustrated materials and with dual coding theory. Considers future directions for strategy training research and…
Workplace learning in continuing interprofessional education (CIPE) can be difficult to facilitate and evaluate, which can create a number of challenges for this type of learning. This article presents an innovative method to foster and investigate workplace learning in CIPE - citizen social science. Citizen social science involves clinicians as co-researchers in the systematic examination of social phenomena. When facilitated by an open-source online social networking platform, clinicians can participate via computer, smartphone, or tablet in ways that suit their needs and preferences. Furthermore, as co-researchers they can help to reveal the dynamic interplay that facilitates workplace learning in CIPE. Although yet to be tested, citizen social science offers four potential benefits: it recognises and accommodates the complexity of workplace learning in CIPE; it has the capacity to both foster and evaluate the phenomena; it can be used in situ, capturing and having direct relevance to the complexity of the workplace; and by advancing both theoretical and methodological debates on CIPE, it may reveal opportunities to improve and sustain workplace learning. By describing an example situated in the youth health sector, this article demonstrates how these benefits might be realised.
Hands, Catherine; Guzar, Katlyn; Rodrigue, Anne
A professional learning community (PLC) is one of the most promising strategies for effecting change in educational practices to improve academic achievement and wellbeing for all students. The PLC facilitator's role in developing and leading blended (online and face-to-face) PLCs with members from Ontario's school districts was examined through a…
Buchwitz, Brian J; Beyer, Catharine H; Peterson, Jon E; Pitre, Emile; Lalic, Nevena; Sampson, Paul D; Wakimoto, Barbara T
Undergraduates entering science curricula differ greatly in individual starting points and learning needs. The fast pace, high enrollment, and high stakes of introductory science courses, however, limit students' opportunities to self-assess and modify learning strategies. The University of Washington's Biology Fellows Program (BFP) intervenes through a 20-session, premajors course that introduces students to the rigor expected of bioscience majors and assists their development as science learners. This study uses quantitative and qualitative approaches to assess whether the 2007-2009 BFP achieved its desired short- and long-term impacts on student learning. Adjusting for differences in students' high school grade point average and Scholastic Aptitude Test scores, we found that participation in the BFP was associated with higher grades in two subsequent gateway biology courses, across multiple quarters and instructors. Two to 4 yr after participating in the program, students attributed changes in how they approached learning science to BFP participation. They reported having learned to "think like a scientist" and to value active-learning strategies and learning communities. In addition, they reported having developed a sense of belonging in bioscience communities. The achievement of long-term impacts for a short-term instructional investment suggests a practical means to prepare diverse students for the rigors of science curricula.
Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne
This paper explains how engineering students at a Danish university acquired the necessary skills to become emergent facilitators of organisational development. The implications of this approach are discussed and related to relevant viewpoints and findings in the literature. The methodology deplo....... By connecting the literature, the authors’ and engineering students’ reflections on facilitator skills, this paper adds value to existing academic and practical discussions on learning facilitating leadership....
Ravn, Ib; Elsborg, Steen
The typical conference consists of a series of PowerPoint presentations that tend to render participants passive. Students of learning have long abandoned the transfer model that underlies such one-way communication. We propose an al-ternative theory of conferences that sees them as a forum...... for learning, mutual inspiration and human flourishing. We offer five design principles that specify how conferences may engage participants more and hence increase their learning. In the research-and-development effort reported here, our team collaborated with conference organizers in Denmark to introduce...... and facilitate a variety of simple learning techniques at thirty one- and two-day conferences of up to 300 participants each. We present ten of these techniques and data evaluating them. We conclude that if conference organizers allocate a fraction of the total conference time to facilitated processes...
Ouyang, Long; Boroditsky, Lera; Frank, Michael C
Computational models have shown that purely statistical knowledge about words' linguistic contexts is sufficient to learn many properties of words, including syntactic and semantic category. For example, models can infer that "postman" and "mailman" are semantically similar because they have quantitatively similar patterns of association with other words (e.g., they both tend to occur with words like "deliver," "truck," "package"). In contrast to these computational results, artificial language learning experiments suggest that distributional statistics alone do not facilitate learning of linguistic categories. However, experiments in this paradigm expose participants to entirely novel words, whereas real language learners encounter input that contains some known words that are semantically organized. In three experiments, we show that (a) the presence of familiar semantic reference points facilitates distributional learning and (b) this effect crucially depends both on the presence of known words and the adherence of these known words to some semantic organization. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Spector, Barbara S.; Gibson, Charles W.
The purpose of this study was to explore middle school students' perceptions of what factors facilitated their learning of science. Florida's Educational Reform Act of 1983 funded programs providing the state's precollege students with summer learning opportunities in science. mathematics, and computers. The programs were intended to encourage the development of creative approaches to the teaching of these disciplines. Under this program, between 50 and 60 high-achieving middle school students were in residence on the University of South Florida campus for 12 consecutive days of study in the World of Water (WOW) program. There were two sessions per summer involving a total of 572 participants. Eighi specially trained teachers were in residence with the students. Between 50 and 70 experts from the university, government. business, and industry interacted with the students each year in an innovative science/technology/society (STS) program. An assignment toward the close of the program asked students to reflect on their experiences in residence at the university and write an essay comparing learning in the WOW program to learning in their schools. Those essays were the base for this study. This was a qualitative study using a discursive approach to emergent design to generate grounded theory. Document review, participant observation, and open-ended interviews were used to gather and triangulate data in five phases. Some of the factors that middle school students perceived as helpful to learning science were (a) experiencing the situations about which they were learning; (b) having live presentations by professional experts; (c) doing hands-on activities: (d) being active learners; (e) using inductive reasoning to generate new knowledge; (f) exploring transdisciplinary approaches to problem solving; (g) having adult mentors; (h) interacting with peers and adults; (i) establishing networks; (j) having close personal friends who shared their interest in learning; (k
Deng, M.; di, L.
Data integration and analysis are the foundation for the scientific investigation in Earth science. In the past several decades, huge amounts of Earth science data have been collected mainly through remote sensing. Those data have become the treasure for Earth science research. Training students how to discover and use the huge volume of Earth science data in research become one of the most important trainings for making a student a qualified scientist. Being developed by a NASA funded project, the GeoBrain system has adopted and implemented the latest Web services and knowledge management technologies for providing innovative methods in publishing, accessing, visualizing, and analyzing geospatial data and in building/sharing geoscience knowledge. It provides a data-rich online learning and research environment enabled by wealthy data and information available at NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS). Students, faculty members, and researchers from institutes worldwide can easily access, analyze, and model with the huge amount of NASA EOS data just like they possess such vast resources locally at their desktops. Although still in development, the GeoBrain system has been operational since 2005. A number of education materials have been developed for facilitating the use of GeoBrain as a powerful education tool for Earth science education at both undergraduate and graduate levels. Thousands of online higher-education users worldwide have used GeoBrain services. A number of faculty members in multiple universities have been funded as GeoBrain education partners to explore the use of GeoBrain in the classroom teaching and student research. By summarizing and analyzing the feedbacks from the online users and the education partners, this presentation presents the user experiences on using GeoBrain in Earth science teaching and research. The feedbacks on classroom use of GeoBrain have demonstrated that GeoBrain is very useful for
Shifrer, Dara; Callahan, Rebecca
Students identified with learning disabilities experience markedly lower levels of science and mathematics achievement than students who are not identified with a learning disability. Seemingly compounding their disadvantage, students with learning disabilities also complete more credits in non-core coursework-traditionally considered non-academic coursework-than students who are not identified with a learning disability. The Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, a large national dataset with both regular and special education high school students, is utilized to determine whether credit accumulation in certain types of non-core coursework, such as Technology and Communications courses, is associated with improved science and math course-taking outcomes for students with learning disabilities. Results show that credit accumulation in Technology and Communications coursework uniquely benefits the science course-taking, and comparably benefits the math course-taking, of students identified with learning disabilities in contrast to students who are not identified with a learning disability.
Full Text Available Real-life room-escape games are ludic activities in which participants enter a room in order to get out of it only after solving some riddles. In this paper, we explain a Room Escape teaching experience developed in the Engineering School at Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. The goal of this activity is to increase student’s motivation and to improve their learning on two courses of the second year in the Computer Engineering degree: Computer Networksand Information and Security.
Borrego, Carlos; Fernández, Cristina; Blanes, Ian; Robles, Sergi
Real-life room-escape games are ludic activities in which participants enter a room in order to get out of it only after solving some riddles. In this paper, we explain a Room Escape teaching experience developed in the Engineering School at Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. The goal of this activity is to increase student’s motivation and to improve their learning on two courses of the second year in the Computer Engineering degree: Computer Networksand Information and Security Peer Revi...
Warburton, Tyler; Trish, Houghton; Barry, Debbie
This article, the fourth in a series of 11, discusses the context for the facilitation of learning. It outlines the main principles and theories for understanding the process of learning, including examples which link these concepts to practice. The practical aspects of using these theories in a practice setting will be discussed in the fifth article of this series. Together, these two articles will provide mentors and practice teachers with knowledge of the learning process, which will enable them to meet the second domain of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice on facilitation of learning.
Baker, Dale R.; Lewis, Elizabeth B.; Uysal, Sibel; Purzer, Senay; Lang, Michael; Baker, Perry
This study describes the effect of embedding content in the Communication in Inquiry Science Project professional development model for science and language arts teachers. The model uses four components of successful professional development (content focus, active learning, extended duration, participation by teams of teachers from the same school…
Reimann, Peter; Bull, Susan; Vatrapu, Ravi
We describe an approach to teaching collaboration skills directly by building on competences for meeting facilitation. (Online) meetings provide a rich arena to practice collaboration since they can serve multiple purposes: learning, problem solving, decision making, idea generation and advancement...
Rosaen, Cheryl L.; Lundeberg, Mary; Terpstra, Marjorie; Cooper, Marjorie; Niu, Rui; Fu, Jing
Learning to conduct interactive classroom discussions is a high priority for becoming an effective teacher, and most teachers view conducting productive classroom discussions as a complex undertaking. Because the dynamics of facilitating classroom discussions are multifaceted and hard to analyze in real time, there is a growing interest in how…
Foster, Jacob G.
This dissertation inserts a new view into an old problem in teacher education. The study explores the theory-practice gap, the large distance between what preservice science teachers experience in schools, are able to enact, and are told they should hold themselves to in their practice. It does so by narrowing the focus of analysis to a secondary science study group and examining how the facilitator uses sociocultural constructivism to promote discussion. The analysis surfaces key communicative moves made by the facilitator and preservice teachers that yield fruitful discussion of theory-practice relationships. Additionally, the study's use of discourse analysis as a methodology and intertextuality as a conceptual framework opens new directions for applied sociolinguistic research and scholarship in science teacher education. Findings from the study focus on what was discussed and how explorations of theory-practice relationships were facilitated. Preservice teachers in the study group engaged in meaningful conversations about constructivist theory and its application to their students and teaching of science. They discussed many science education topics such as planning science lessons that actively engage students, assessment of content understanding, and management of content-based activities. Discussions of broader science education goals, including implementation of inquiry or development of collaborative communities, were not promoted. Examination of the facilitation illuminates a number of strategies found to be helpful in supporting these explorations. This study shows that facilitation can successfully support preservice teachers to construct understanding of social constructivist assumptions underlying the National Science Education Standards (NSES), as well as a few components of the Standards themselves. The focus on the underlying assumptions suggests that science teacher education should focus on these so that preservice teachers can build a strong
Marsick, Victoria J.; Watkins, Karen E.
This book offers advice to facilitators and change agents who wish to build systems-level learning to create knowledge that can be used to gain a competitive advantage. Chapter 1 describes forces driving companies to build, sustain, and effectively use systems-level learning and presents and links a working definition of the learning organization…
ABSTRACT. The doctoral thesis of Ilze Šūmane in pedagogy science, school pedagogy sub-discipline ”Learning environment facilitating educational achievements of teenagers” was worked out in the Department of Pedagogy, Faculty of Pedagogy, Psychology and Arts, University of Latvia, under the supervision of Dr.paed., professor Rudīte Andersone from2001 till 2011. The topicality of the research determined by the necessity to improve quality learning and education. During an effective study ...
Goto, Keiko; Schneider, Julie
Interteaching is a new pedagogical strategy for classroom instruction that demonstrates great effective student learning outcomes in the field of psychology. It is a 20 to 30 min student-to-student discussion addressing the main points in a specified body of reading materials. Interteaching includes elements such as reciprocal peer tutoring,…
Seddon, Jennifer M.; McDonald, Brenda; Schmidt, Adele L.
Problem and/or scenario-based learning is often deployed in preclinical education and training as a means of: (a) developing students' capacity to respond to authentic, real-world problems; (b) facilitating integration of knowledge across subject areas, and; (c) increasing motivation for learning. Six information and communication technology (ICT)…
Felipa Pacífico Ribeiro de Assis Silveira
Full Text Available The study tried to answer questions pertinent to the use of concept maps (CM as a teaching resource facilitator of meaningful learning of scientific concepts of Natural Sciences, in the classroom of elementary school. To answer the questions and insert the MC in the classroom every day, we adopted the interdependence between the process of learning, teaching and investigation. To ensure a triadic relationship, outline an intervention / investigation with theoretical and methodological support in quantitative and qualitative approach. The teaching and learning were secured from a teaching strategy, able to share and negotiate concepts relevant to the field of education, enabling students move beyond their existing knowledge, ensuring the data of research about the effects of MC in learning of the groups investigated. The MC was defined as a teaching resource potential for this level of education and principles of the Theory of Meaningful Learning that supports it. It was evident the recursive procedural character inherent in meaningful learning as using the MC as a teaching resource in the construction of scientific knowledge of Natural Sciences, the occurrence of learning of the groups using the MC and its validation in the presence of students of final grades of elementary school.
Smith, Michelle K.; Annis, Seanna L.; Kaplan, Jennifer J.; Drummond, Frank
Blueberry growers in Maine attend annual Cooperative Extension presentations given by university faculty members. These presentations cover topics, such as, how to prevent plant disease and monitor for insect pests. In 2012, in order to make the sessions more interactive and promote learning, clicker questions and peer discussion were incorporated into the presentations. Similar to what has been shown at the undergraduate level, after peer discussion, more blueberry growers gave correct answers to multiple-choice questions than when answering independently. Furthermore, because blueberry growers are characterized by diverse levels of education, experience in the field etc., we were able to determine whether demographic factors were associated with changes in performance after peer discussion. Taken together, our results suggest that clicker questions and peer discussion work equally well with adults from a variety of demographic backgrounds without disadvantaging a subset of the population and provide an important learning opportunity to the least formally educated members. Our results also indicate that clicker questions with peer discussion were viewed as a positive addition to university-related informal science education sessions. PMID:23077638
Michelle K Smith
Full Text Available Blueberry growers in Maine attend annual Cooperative Extension presentations given by university faculty members. These presentations cover topics, such as, how to prevent plant disease and monitor for insect pests. In 2012, in order to make the sessions more interactive and promote learning, clicker questions and peer discussion were incorporated into the presentations. Similar to what has been shown at the undergraduate level, after peer discussion, more blueberry growers gave correct answers to multiple-choice questions than when answering independently. Furthermore, because blueberry growers are characterized by diverse levels of education, experience in the field etc., we were able to determine whether demographic factors were associated with changes in performance after peer discussion. Taken together, our results suggest that clicker questions and peer discussion work equally well with adults from a variety of demographic backgrounds without disadvantaging a subset of the population and provide an important learning opportunity to the least formally educated members. Our results also indicate that clicker questions with peer discussion were viewed as a positive addition to university-related informal science education sessions.
Smith, Michelle K; Annis, Seanna L; Kaplan, Jennifer J; Drummond, Frank
Blueberry growers in Maine attend annual Cooperative Extension presentations given by university faculty members. These presentations cover topics, such as, how to prevent plant disease and monitor for insect pests. In 2012, in order to make the sessions more interactive and promote learning, clicker questions and peer discussion were incorporated into the presentations. Similar to what has been shown at the undergraduate level, after peer discussion, more blueberry growers gave correct answers to multiple-choice questions than when answering independently. Furthermore, because blueberry growers are characterized by diverse levels of education, experience in the field etc., we were able to determine whether demographic factors were associated with changes in performance after peer discussion. Taken together, our results suggest that clicker questions and peer discussion work equally well with adults from a variety of demographic backgrounds without disadvantaging a subset of the population and provide an important learning opportunity to the least formally educated members. Our results also indicate that clicker questions with peer discussion were viewed as a positive addition to university-related informal science education sessions.
Safar, Ammar H.; Jafer,Yaqoub J.; Alqadiri, Mohammad A.
This study explored the perceptions, attitudes, and willingness of pre-service science teachers in the College of Education at Kuwait University about using concept/mind maps and its related application software as facilitative tools, for teaching and learning, in science education. The first level (i.e., reaction) of Kirkpatrick's/Phillips'…
Varelas, Maria; Pieper, Lynne; Arsenault, Amy; Pappas, Christine C.; Keblawe-Shamah, Neveen
In this study, we examined opportunities for reasoning and meaning making that read-alouds of children's literature science information books and related hands-on explorations offered to young Latina/o students in an urban public school. Using a qualitative, interpretative framework, we analyzed classroom discourse and children's writing…
Genetic Science Learning Center Making science and health easy for everyone to understand Home News Our Team What We Do ... Collaboration Conferences Current Projects Publications Contact The Genetic Science Learning Center at The University of Utah is a ...
Ludke, Karen M; Ferreira, Fernanda; Overy, Katie
This study presents the first experimental evidence that singing can facilitate short-term paired-associate phrase learning in an unfamiliar language (Hungarian). Sixty adult participants were randomly assigned to one of three "listen-and-repeat" learning conditions: speaking, rhythmic speaking, or singing. Participants in the singing condition showed superior overall performance on a collection of Hungarian language tests after a 15-min learning period, as compared with participants in the speaking and rhythmic speaking conditions. This superior performance was statistically significant (p sing" learning method can facilitate verbatim memory for spoken foreign language phrases.
The study ascertained how teachers facilitate the creativity skills of the Pupils as an outcome of professional development. 450 primary school pupils and 50 Basic science teachers in the primary schools were sampled. The study adopted the Solomon four group design. The Torrance Test for Creative thinking (TTCT) and ...
Sheffert, Sonya M; Olson, Elizabeth
In this research, we investigated the effects of voice and face information on the perceptual learning of talkers and on long-term memory for spoken words. In the first phase, listeners were trained over several days to identify voices from words presented auditorily or audiovisually. The training data showed that visual information about speakers enhanced voice learning, revealing cross-modal connections in talker processing akin to those observed in speech processing. In the second phase, the listeners completed an auditory or audiovisual word recognition memory test in which equal numbers of words were spoken by familiar and unfamiliar talkers. The data showed that words presented by familiar talkers were more likely to be retrieved from episodic memory, regardless of modality. Together, these findings provide new information about the representational code underlying familiar talker recognition and the role of stimulus familiarity in episodic word recognition.
This paper develops a theoretical framework for employing learning analytics in online education to trace multiple learning variations of online students by considering their potential of being multiple intelligences based on Howard Gardner's 1983 theory of multiple intelligences. The study first emphasizes the need to facilitate students as…
Full Text Available This paper develops a theoretical framework for employing learning analytics in online education to trace multiple learning variations of online students by considering their potential of being multiple intelligences based on Howard Gardner’s 1983 theory of multiple intelligences. The study first emphasizes the need to facilitate students as multiple intelligences by online education systems and then suggests a framework of the advanced form of learning analytics i.e., multimodal learning analytics for tracing and facilitating multiple intelligences while they are engaged in online ubiquitous learning. As multimodal learning analytics is still an evolving area, it poses many challenges for technologists, educationists as well as organizational managers. Learning analytics make machines meet humans, therefore, the educationists with an expertise in learning theories can help technologists devise latest technological methods for multimodal learning analytics and organizational managers can implement them for the improvement of online education. Therefore, a careful instructional design based on a deep understanding of students’ learning abilities, is required to develop teaching plans and technological possibilities for monitoring students’ learning paths. This is how learning analytics can help design an adaptive instructional design based on a quick analysis of the data gathered. Based on that analysis, the academicians can critically reflect upon the quick or delayed implementation of the existing instructional design based on students’ cognitive abilities or even about the single or double loop learning design. The researcher concludes that the online education is multimodal in nature, has the capacity to endorse multiliteracies and, therefore, multiple intelligences can be tracked and facilitated through multimodal learning analytics in an online mode. However, online teachers’ training both in technological implementations and
Lawler, Alan; Sillitoe, James
The term "organisational learning" was popularised by Peter Senge in "The Fifth Discipline", his seminal book from 1990. Since then, the term has become widely accepted among those interested in organisational learning and change management. However, partly due to the somewhat ambiguous situation which arises in a university…
Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; O´Connor, Rory
"This paper describes an approach to facilitate interaction between students and industrial companies in a problem based learning environment. The approach is adapted from a methodology developed at the LEGO Company and relies on an improved ability to communicate complex problems when using...
Raes, Elisabeth; Decuyper, Stefan; Lismont, Bart; Van den Bossche, Piet; Kyndt, Eva; Demeyere, Sybille; Dochy, Filip
This article investigates when and how teams engage in team learning behaviours (TLB). More specifically, it looks into how different leadership styles facilitate TLB by influencing the social conditions that proceed them. 498 healthcare workers from 28 nursery teams filled out a questionnaire measuring the concepts leadership style, TLB, social…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which forum theatre interventions can support non-hierarchical approaches to learning, development and change management initiatives in organisations. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with theatre consultancies, actors/facilitators,…
Beer, Anton L; Vartak, Devavrat; Greenlee, Mark W
Perceptual learning is a special type of non-declarative learning that involves experience-dependent plasticity in sensory cortices. The cholinergic system is known to modulate declarative learning. In particular, reduced levels or efficacy of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine were found to facilitate declarative memory consolidation. However, little is known about the role of the cholinergic system in memory consolidation of non-declarative learning. Here we compared two groups of non-smoking men who learned a visual texture discrimination task (TDT). One group received chewing tobacco containing nicotine for 1 h directly following the TDT training. The other group received a similar tasting control substance without nicotine. Electroencephalographic recordings during substance consumption showed reduced alpha activity and P300 latencies in the nicotine group compared to the control group. When re-tested on the TDT the following day, both groups responded more accurately and more rapidly than during training. These improvements were specific to the retinal location and orientation of the texture elements of the TDT suggesting that learning involved early visual cortex. A group comparison showed that learning effects were more pronounced in the nicotine group than in the control group. These findings suggest that oral consumption of nicotine enhances the efficacy of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Our findings further suggest that enhanced efficacy of the cholinergic system facilitates memory consolidation in perceptual learning (and possibly other types of non-declarative learning). In that regard acetylcholine seems to affect consolidation processes in perceptual learning in a different manner than in declarative learning. Alternatively, our findings might reflect dose-dependent cholinergic modulation of memory consolidation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roberts, David H; Newman, Lori R; Schwartzstein, Richard M
The current, so-called "Millennial" generation of learners is frequently characterized as having deep understanding of, and appreciation for, technology and social connectedness. This generation of learners has also been molded by a unique set of cultural influences that are essential for medical educators to consider in all aspects of their teaching, including curriculum design, student assessment, and interactions between faculty and learners. The following tips outline an approach to facilitating learning of our current generation of medical trainees. The method is based on the available literature and the authors' experiences with Millennial Learners in medical training. The 12 tips provide detailed approaches and specific strategies for understanding and engaging Millennial Learners and enhancing their learning. With an increased understanding of the characteristics of the current generation of medical trainees, faculty will be better able to facilitate learning and optimize interactions with Millennial Learners.
Full Text Available Enhanced procedural learning has been evidenced in conditions where cognitive control is diminished, including hypnosis, disruption of prefrontal activity and non-optimal time of the day. Another condition depleting the availability of controlled resources is cognitive fatigue. We tested the hypothesis that cognitive fatigue, eventually leading to diminished cognitive control, facilitates procedural sequence learning. In a two-day experiment, twenty-three young healthy adults were administered a serial reaction time task (SRTT following the induction of high or low levels of cognitive fatigue, in a counterbalanced order. Cognitive fatigue was induced using the Time load Dual-back (TloadDback paradigm, a dual working memory task that allows tailoring cognitive load levels to the individual's optimal performance capacity. In line with our hypothesis, reaction times in the SRTT were faster in the high- than in the low-level fatigue condition, and performance improvement showed more of a benefit from the sequential components than from motor. Altogether, our results suggest a paradoxical, facilitating impact of cognitive fatigue on procedural motor sequence learning. We propose that facilitated learning in the high-level fatigue condition stems from a reduction in the cognitive resources devoted to cognitive control processes that normally oppose automatic procedural acquisition mechanisms.
Nielsen, Louise Møller
experiences and expertise to guide the students’ decisions in relation to the design project. This paper focuses on project supervision in the context of design education – and more specifically on how this supervision is unfolded in a Problem Based Learning culture. The paper explores the supervisor......’s balance between the roles: 1) Design Project Supervisor – and 2) Learning Facilitator – with the aim to understand when to apply the different roles, and what to be aware of when doing so. This paper represents the first pilot-study of a larger research effort. It is based on a Lego Serious Play workshop......In design there is a long tradition for apprenticeship, as well as tradition for learning through design projects. Today many design educations are positioned within the University context, and have to be aligned with the learning culture and structure, which they represent. This raises a specific...
Maeng, Jennifer L.
This qualitative investigation explored the beliefs and practices of one secondary science teacher, Diane, who differentiated instruction and studied how technology facilitated her differentiation. Diane was selected based on the results of a previous study, in which data indicated that Diane understood how to design and implement proactively planned, flexible, engaging instructional activities in response to students' learning needs better than the other study participants. Data for the present study included 3 h of semi-structured interview responses, 37.5 h of observations of science instruction, and other artifacts such as instructional materials. This variety of data allowed for triangulation of the evidence. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative approach. Results indicated that technology played an integral role in Diane's planning and implementation of differentiated science lessons. The technology-enhanced differentiated lessons employed by Diane typically attended to students' different learning profiles or interest through modification of process or product. This study provides practical strategies for science teachers beginning to differentiate instruction, and recommendations for science teacher educators and school and district administrators. Future research should explore student outcomes, supports for effective formative assessment, and technology-enhanced readiness differentiation among secondary science teachers.
ElShafie, S. J.; Bean, J. R.
Studies indicate that using a narrative structure for teaching and learning helps audiences to process and recall new information. Stories also help audiences retain specific information, such as character names or plot points, in the context of a broader narrative. Stories can therefore facilitate high-context systems learning in addition to low-context declarative learning. Here we incorporate a framework for science storytelling, which we use in communication workshops, with the Understanding Science framework developed by the UC Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) to explore the application of storytelling to systems thinking. We translate portions of the Understanding Science flowchart into narrative terms. Placed side by side, the two charts illustrate the parallels between the scientific process and the story development process. They offer a roadmap for developing stories about scientific studies and concepts. We also created a series of worksheets for use with the flowcharts. These new tools can generate stories from any perspective, including a scientist conducting a study; a character that plays a role in a larger system (e.g., foraminifera or a carbon atom); an entire system that interacts with other systems (e.g., the carbon cycle). We will discuss exemplar stories about climate change from each of these perspectives, which we are developing for workshops using content and storyboard models from the new UCMP website Understanding Global Change. This conceptual framework and toolkit will help instructors to develop stories about scientific concepts for use in a classroom setting. It will also help students to analyze stories presented in class, and to create their own stories about new concepts. This approach facilitates student metacognition of the learning process, and can also be used as a form of evaluation. We are testing this flowchart and its use in systems teaching with focus groups, in preparation for use in teacher professional development workshops.
Badea Elena Codruta
Full Text Available The classroom is the magic active scenery where many educational things take place simultaneously.Intellectual, emotional, socio-cultural, motivational and curricular factors corroborate their influence onclassroom environments, whether we deal with traditional models of teaching or with the constructivistapproaches. The growing demand for language teachers, English in particular, has determined a new vision oflanguage teaching strategies. The cutting-edge technology has created a fertile ground which successfullyfosters the teacher –student communication, emphasizing the teacher’s role to guide students and to generate achange in their learning approach and in eliciting useable knowledge. This way, the teacher has a larger abilityto convert knowledge into practical information that is of real help and value to students. Students are involvedin a continuous educational scheme and are tested on what they have learned. This ensures they can alwaysenjoy the benefits of active learning from expert teachers. The present paper deals with a brief analysis of therole of teacher as learning facilitator and its importance for student acquisition process, eliciting some strategiesin support of collaborative and student-centered learning.
Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Leukel, Christian; Nielsen, Jens Bo
by subconscious (subliminal) augmented visual feedback on motor performance. To test this, 45 subjects participated in the experiment, which involved learning of a ballistic task. The task was to execute simple ankle plantar flexion movements as quickly as possible within 200 ms and to continuously improve...... by the learner, indeed facilitated ballistic motor learning. This effect likely relates to multiple (conscious versus unconscious) processing of visual feedback and to the specific neural circuitries involved in optimization of ballistic motor performance.......). It is a well- described phenomenon that we may respond to features of our surroundings without being aware of them. It is also a well-known principle, that learning is reinforced by augmented feedback on motor performance. In the present experiment we hypothesized that motor learning may be facilitated...
Heddy, Benjamin C.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Seli, Helena; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Mukhopadhyay, Ananya
The Teaching for Transformative Experience in Science (TTES) model has shown to be a useful tool to generate learning and engagement in science. We investigated the effectiveness of TTES for facilitating transformative experience (TE), learning, the development of topic interest and transfer of course concepts to other courses employing a…
This opinion piece paper urges teachers and teacher educators to draw careful distinctions among four basic learning goals: learning science, learning about science, doing science and learning to address socio-scientific issues. In elaboration, the author urges that careful attention is paid to the selection of teaching/learning methods that…
Chan, Tak Cheung; Petrie, Garth
Examines how school design facilitates learning by complementing how the brain learns. How the brain learns is discussed and how an artistic environment, spaciousness in the learning areas, color and lighting, and optimal thermal and acoustical environments aid student learning. School design suggestions conclude the article. (GR)
Carmen Luz Trujillo Becerra
Full Text Available This paper reports on a mixed- method action research study carried out with participants from three public high schools in different regions in Colombia: Bogotá, Orito and Tocaima. The overall aim of this study was to analyze whether training in the use of metacognitive strategies (MS through learning journals could improve the participants’ vocabulary learning. The data, collected mainly through students’ learning journals, teachers’ field notes, questionnaires and mind maps, was analyzed following the principles of grounded theory. The results suggested that the training helped participants to develop metacognitive awareness of their vocabulary learning process and their lexical competence regarding daily routines. Participants also displayed some improvements in critical thinking and self-directed attitudes that could likewise benefit their vocabulary learning. Finally, the study proposes that training in metacognitive and vocabulary strategies should be implemented in language classrooms to promote a higher degree of student control over learning and to facilitate the transference of these strategies to other areas of knowledge.
Koch, Melissa; Gorges, Torie
Underrepresented populations such as women, African-Americans, and Latinos/as often come to STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) careers by less traditional paths than White and Asian males. To better understand how and why women might shift toward STEM, particularly computer science, careers, we investigated the education and career direction of afterschool facilitators, primarily women of color in their twenties and thirties, who taught Build IT, an afterschool computer science curriculum for middle school girls. Many of these women indicated that implementing Build IT had influenced their own interest in technology and computer science and in some cases had resulted in their intent to pursue technology and computer science education. We wanted to explore the role that teaching Build IT may have played in activating or reactivating interest in careers in computer science and to see whether in the years following implementation of Build IT, these women pursued STEM education and/or careers. We reached nine facilitators who implemented the program in 2011-12 or shortly after. Many indicated that while facilitating Build IT, they learned along with the participants, increasing their interest in and confidence with technology and computer science. Seven of the nine participants pursued further STEM or computer science learning or modified their career paths to include more of a STEM or computer science focus. Through interviews, we explored what aspects of Build IT influenced these facilitators' interest and confidence in STEM and when relevant their pursuit of technology and computer science education and careers.
Chaudhury, S. Raj
In the context of an introductory physical science course for non-science majors, I have been trying to understand how scientific visualizations of natural phenomena can constructively impact student learning. I have also necessarily been concerned with the instructional and assessment approaches that need to be considered when focusing on learning science through visually rich information sources. The overall project can be broken down into three distinct segments : (i) comparing students' abilities to demonstrate proportional reasoning competency on visual and verbal tasks (ii) decoding and deconstructing visualizations of an object falling under gravity (iii) the role of directed instruction to elicit alternate, valid scientific visualizations of the structure of the solar system. Evidence of student learning was collected in multiple forms for this project - quantitative analysis of student performance on written, graded assessments (tests and quizzes); qualitative analysis of videos of student 'think aloud' sessions. The results indicate that there are significant barriers for non-science majors to succeed in mastering the content of science courses, but with informed approaches to instruction and assessment, these barriers can be overcome.
R de la Sablonnière
Full Text Available In most scientific fields, significant improvements have been made in terms of data sharing among scientists and researchers. Although there are clear benefits to data sharing, there is at least one field where this norm has yet to be developed: the behavioural sciences. In this paper, we propose an innovative methodology as a means to change existing norms within the behavioural sciences and move towards increased data sharing. Based on recent advances in social psychology, we theorize that a Survey Research Instrument that takes into account basic psychological processes can be effective in promoting data sharing norms.
Examines a cross-section of craft knowledge and research-based literature of science learning beyond the classroom. Describes informal science education programs, and discusses implications for science teaching, focusing on the importance of informal science learning for children and in-service and preservice teachers. Proposes a model for…
Organizations need to put in practice the most favourable conditions to facilitate learning capability. The different ways of thinking about learning in organizations distinguish two kinds of learning facilitators: formal and informal facilitators. In this paper, we suggest that organizations undertake both types of learning facilitators, but considering that informal facilitators may act as potential moderators of the effects of formal ones. We have focused on one comprehensive informal faci...
Berta, Whitney; Cranley, Lisa; Dearing, James W; Dogherty, Elizabeth J; Squires, Janet E; Estabrooks, Carole A
Facilitation is a guided interactional process that has been popularized in health care. Its popularity arises from its potential to support uptake and application of scientific knowledge that stands to improve clinical and managerial decision-making, practice, and ultimately patient outcomes and organizational performance. While this popular concept has garnered attention in health services research, we know that both the content of facilitation and its impact on knowledge implementation vary. The basis of this variation is poorly understood, and understanding is hampered by a lack of conceptual clarity. In this paper, we argue that our understanding of facilitation and its effects is limited in part by a lack of clear theoretical grounding. We propose a theoretical home for facilitation in organizational learning theory. Referring to extant literature on facilitation and drawing on theoretical literature, we discuss the features of facilitation that suggest its role in contributing to learning capacity. We describe how facilitation may contribute to generating knowledge about the application of new scientific knowledge in health-care organizations. Facilitation's promise, we suggest, lies in its potential to stimulate higher-order learning in organizations through experimenting with, generating learning about, and sustaining small-scale adaptations to organizational processes and work routines. The varied effectiveness of facilitation observed in the literature is associated with the presence or absence of factors known to influence organizational learning, since facilitation itself appears to act as a learning mechanism. We offer propositions regarding the relationships between facilitation processes and key organizational learning concepts that have the potential to guide future work to further our understanding of the role that facilitation plays in learning and knowledge generation.
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller
In 2008 University of Aarhus, Denmark, issued a report concerning student experience with the study environment. Among the university's eight faculties, the Danish School of Education (DPU) held the sad record of having the lowest student well-being. This led to an action research project...... 'Facilitating study environment' at one of DPU's educations in spring 2009. The pilot project consisted of three elements: Facilitated study groups, a student bar with facilitated activities, and academic identity events. Subsequently, we have studied students' experiences with the project. This paper outlines...... the preliminary results from the facilitated study groups. After one term (February-May), student satisfaction with both the social and the disciplinary environment had increased. The project shows how academic and social integration can be achieved with minimum faculty member involvement. This is done by relying...
We are encouraged to hand over the learning experience to the students who must do the learning. After the 1957 launch of Sputnik it seemed that learning by discovery would replace lectures and other forms of learning by rote. The innovative Physical Science Study Committee (PSSC), Chemical Education Materials Study (ChEMS), and Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) provided teachers with hands-on, activity-based curriculum materials emphasizing problem solving, process skills, and creativity. Our current reforms, based on the Next Generation Science Standards, stress that learner-centered strategies need to become commonplace throughout the classrooms of our formal education system. In this presentation, we share tips on how to double check your style of interactions for science outreach, to ensure the audience is working with a facilitator rather than simply enjoying an expert’s entertaining demonstration.
of the subject and the activities, whereas the students will adopt a more passive role. The traditional lecture model is based on a paradigm that views learning as the transmission of information from teacher to student. In addition, the web conference will amplify the role of the teacher in that he/she can....... Such a model must take into consideration that users must get to know and become familiar with the system and that the functions of the system should carefully be matched with social learning activities to enhance the learning of students. The presentation will include a demonstration of the web conference...
Harkness, John E.
A prose text in veterinary medicine can be arranged and supplemented to facilitate efficient and effective acquisition into short-term memory. Methods include: variation in textual format; relating new information to previous knowledge and future goals; providing specific, test-relevant objectives or introductions, describing mnemonic devices; and…
Educational Inequality and Academic Achievement in England and. France. ... the process of symbol learning for young children with disabilities. Introduction ... mains an important issue in facilitating integration and participation in society.
It is widely accepted that mathematical skills are critically important in our technologically sophisticated world. Educators' metacognition directs, plans, monitors, evaluates and reflects their instructional behaviour and this can promote learners ' learning with und ers tanding. The p urpos e of this study was to investigate the ...
van de Ven, Vincent; Kochs, Sarah; Smulders, Fren; De Weerd, Peter
The extent to which time is represented in memory remains underinvestigated. We designed a time paired associate task (TPAT) in which participants implicitly learned cue-time-target associations between cue-target pairs and specific cue-target intervals. During subsequent memory testing, participants showed increased accuracy of identifying…
Hanson, Alan L; Bruskiewitz, Ruth H; Demuth, James E
To reevaluate facilitators of and barriers to pharmacists' participation in lifelong learning previously examined in a 1990 study. A survey instrument was mailed to 274 pharmacists who volunteered to participate based on a prior random sample survey. Data based on perceptions of facilitators and barriers to lifelong learning, as well as self-perception as a lifelong learner, were analyzed and compared to a similar 1990 survey. The response rate for the survey was 88%. The top 3 facilitators and barriers to lifelong learning from the 2003 and the 1990 samples were: (1) personal desire to learn; (2) requirement to maintain professional licensure; and (3) enjoyment/relaxation provided by learning as change of pace from the "routine." The top 3 barriers were: (1) job constraints; (2) scheduling (location, distance, time) of group learning activities; and (3) family constraints (eg, spouse, children, personal). Respondents' broad self-perception as lifelong learners continued to be highly positive overall, but remained less positive relative to more specific lifelong learning skills such as the ability to identify learning objectives as well as to evaluate learning outcomes. Little has changed in the last decade relative to how pharmacists view themselves as lifelong learners, as well as what they perceive as facilitators and barriers to lifelong learning. To address factors identified as facilitators and barriers, continuing education (CE) providers should focus on pharmacists' time constraints, whether due to employment, family responsibilities, or time invested in the educational activity itself, and pharmacists' internal motivations to learn (personal desire, enjoyment), as well as external forces such as mandatory CE for relicensure.
Watson, Sunnie Lee
This case study examines the design and facilitation of a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) that focused on attitudinal learning about the topic of animal behaviour and welfare. Findings showed that a team of instructors worked together collaboratively towards realising learning goals and found the experience rewarding. While learners had mixed…
Svihla, Vanessa; Reeve, Richard
While problem solving is a relatively well understood process, problem framing is less well understood, particularly with regard to supporting students to learn as they frame problems. Project-based learning classrooms are an ideal setting to investigate how teachers facilitate this process. Using participant observation, this study investigated…
Lagerlöf, Johan N. M.; Schottmüller, Christoph
We model a monopoly insurance market where consumers can learn their accident risks at a cost c. We then ask: What are the welfare effects of a policy that reduces c? If c is sufficiently small (c consumer gathers information. For c ... and consumer benefit from a policy that reduces c further. For c > c*, marginally reducing c hurts the insurer and weakly benefits the consumer. Finally, a reduction in c that is “successful,” meaning that the consumer gathers information after the reduction but not before it, can hurt both parties....
Bybee, Rodger W., Ed.
This yearbook addresses critical issues in science learning and teaching. Contents are divided into four sections: (1) "How Do Students Learn Science?"; (2) "Designing Curriculum for Student Learning"; (3) "Teaching That Enhances Student Learning"; and (4) "Assessing Student Learning." Papers include: (1) "How Students Learn and How Teachers…
van de Mortel, Thea; Silberberg, Peter; Ahern, Christine
Capacity for teaching in general practice clinics is limited. Shared learning sessions are one form of vertically integrated teaching that may ameliorate capacity constraints. This study sought to understand the perceptions of general practitioner supervisors, learners and practice staff of the facilitators of shared learning in general practice clinics. Using a grounded theory approach, semistructured interviews were conducted and analysed to generate a theory about the topic. Thirty-five stakeholders from nine general practices participated. Facilitators of shared learning included enabling factors such as small group facilitation skills, space, administrative support and technological resources; reinforcing factors such as targeted funding, and predisposing factors such as participant attributes. Views from multiple stakeholders suggest that the implementation of shared learning in general practice clinics would be supported by an ecological approach that addresses all these factors.
Yates, Jennifer L
Radiologic science is a complex health profession, requiring the competent use of technology as well as the ability to function as part of a team, think critically, exercise independent judgment, solve problems creatively and communicate effectively. This article presents a review of literature in support of the relevance of collaborative learning to radiologic science education. In addition, strategies for effective design, facilitation and authentic assessment of activities are provided for educators wishing to incorporate collaborative techniques into their program curriculum. The connection between the benefits of collaborative learning and necessary workplace skills, particularly in the areas of critical thinking, creative problem solving and communication skills, suggests that collaborative learning techniques may be particularly useful in the education of future radiologic technologists. This article summarizes research identifying the benefits of collaborative learning for adult education and identifying the link between these benefits and the necessary characteristics of medical imaging technologists.
Matthews, P. S. C.
Theories of teaching and learning, including those associated with constructivism, often make no overt reference to an underlying assumption that they make; that is, human cognition depends on domain-free, general-purpose processing by the brain. This assumption is shown to be incompatible with evidence from studies of children's early learning. Rather, cognition is modular in nature, and often domain-specific. Recognition of modularity requires a re-evaluation of some aspects of current accounts of learning science. Especially, children's ideas in science are sometimes triggered rather than learned. It is in the nature of triggered conceptual structures that they are not necessarily expressible in language, and that they may not be susceptible to change by later learning.
Student Motivation for Science Learning questionnaire combined with items investigating family experiences. ... science achievement: inadequate school resources and weak household ..... informal interviews with the science teachers of the.
Bone, Daniel; Goodwin, Matthew S.; Black, Matthew P.; Lee, Chi-Chun; Audhkhasi, Kartik; Narayanan, Shrikanth
Machine learning has immense potential to enhance diagnostic and intervention research in the behavioral sciences, and may be especially useful in investigations involving the highly prevalent and heterogeneous syndrome of autism spectrum disorder. However, use of machine learning in the absence of clinical domain expertise can be tenuous and lead…
Qablan, Ahmad M.; DeBaz, Theodora
Preservice science teachers generally feel that the implementation of inquiry-based science teaching is very difficult to manage. This research project aimed at facilitating the implementation of inquiry-based science teaching through the use of several classroom strategies. The evaluation of 15 classroom strategies from 80 preservice elementary…
Many clinicians are involved in medical education, with small group teaching (SGT) forming a significant part of their work. Most facilitate these sessions by experience and common sense: less than one-third of them have received formal training in SGT. Evidence suggests small group productivity depends on good facilitation rather than on topic knowledge. Applying the fundamental concepts of SGT will lead to improvements in the quality of clinicians' teaching and in student learning. Good SGT creates the perfect environment for learning and discussion, without the need for didactic teaching. SGT emphasises the role of students in sharing and discussing their ideas in a safe learning environment, without domination by the tutor. This article provides clinicians with basic requirements for effective session design and planning, explains how to encourage student participation, how to manage students as a group, how to manage student learning, and how to recognise and deal with problems. Active facilitation and group management is the key to success in SGT, and consequently better learning outcomes. Improving the facilitation skills of clinical teachers makes teaching more effective, stimulating, and enjoyable for both tutors and students. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.
Harlow, Danielle Boyd
As educational researchers and teacher educators, we have the responsibility to help teachers gain the skills and knowledge necessary to provide meaningful learning activities for their students. For elementary school science, this means helping teachers create situations in which children can participate in the practices associated with scientific inquiry. Through the framework of transfer I investigated how a professional development course based on an inquiry-based physics curriculum influenced five elementary teachers teaching practices and identified the factors that led to or hindered this transfer. In this study, evidence of transfer consisted of episodes where the teachers used the ideas learned in the physics course to solve new problems such as transforming activities to be appropriate for their students and responding to unexpected students' ideas. The findings of this study highlight the many different ways that teachers use what they learn in content courses to teach science to elementary children. While some teachers transferred pedagogical practices along with the content, others transformed the content to be useful in already existing pedagogical frameworks, and still others show little or no evidence of transfer. What the teachers transferred depended upon their existing teaching context as well as their prior ideas about teaching science and physics content. Specifically, the findings of this study suggest that the teachers transferred only what they sought from the course. One implication of this study is that the sort of science training we provide teachers can affect far more than just the teachers' conceptual understanding of science and performance on written conceptual exams. Science courses have the potential to impact the sort of science education that K-5 children receive in elementary classrooms in terms of the topics taught but the way that science is represented. An additional implication is that teaching science to teachers in ways
Li, Julia X; James, Karin H
Recent research has demonstrated that handwriting practice facilitates letter categorization in young children. The present experiments investigated why handwriting practice facilitates visual categorization by comparing 2 hypotheses: that handwriting exerts its facilitative effect because of the visual-motor production of forms, resulting in a direct link between motor and perceptual systems, or because handwriting produces variable visual instances of a named category in the environment that then changes neural systems. We addressed these issues by measuring performance of 5-year-old children on a categorization task involving novel, Greek symbols across 6 different types of learning conditions: 3 involving visual-motor practice (copying typed symbols independently, tracing typed symbols, tracing handwritten symbols) and 3 involving visual-auditory practice (seeing and saying typed symbols of a single typed font, of variable typed fonts, and of handwritten examples). We could therefore compare visual-motor production with visual perception both of variable and similar forms. Comparisons across the 6 conditions (N = 72) demonstrated that all conditions that involved studying highly variable instances of a symbol facilitated symbol categorization relative to conditions where similar instances of a symbol were learned, regardless of visual-motor production. Therefore, learning perceptually variable instances of a category enhanced performance, suggesting that handwriting facilitates symbol understanding by virtue of its environmental output: supporting the notion of developmental change though brain-body-environment interactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Li, Julia X.; James, Karin H.
Recent research has demonstrated that handwriting practice facilitates letter categorization in young children. The present experiments investigated why handwriting practice facilitates visual categorization by comparing two hypotheses: That handwriting exerts its facilitative effect because of the visual-motor production of forms, resulting in a direct link between motor and perceptual systems, or because handwriting produces variable visual instances of a named category in the environment that then changes neural systems. We addressed these issues by measuring performance of 5 year-old children on a categorization task involving novel, Greek symbols across 6 different types of learning conditions: three involving visual-motor practice (copying typed symbols independently, tracing typed symbols, tracing handwritten symbols) and three involving visual-auditory practice (seeing and saying typed symbols of a single typed font, of variable typed fonts, and of handwritten examples). We could therefore compare visual-motor production with visual perception both of variable and similar forms. Comparisons across the six conditions (N=72) demonstrated that all conditions that involved studying highly variable instances of a symbol facilitated symbol categorization relative to conditions where similar instances of a symbol were learned, regardless of visual-motor production. Therefore, learning perceptually variable instances of a category enhanced performance, suggesting that handwriting facilitates symbol understanding by virtue of its environmental output: supporting the notion of developmental change though brain-body-environment interactions. PMID:26726913
Stark Education Partnership, 2015
This study, with funding from the Jennings Foundation, sought to answer the following broad research question: Do facilitated online dual credit courses result in deep learning? The answer to this question is key to addressing barriers many students face in bridging from high school to college. This report includes a descriptive case study that…
The study investigated the extent of counsellor's identification of the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the counselling strategies the counsellors use to facilitate learning for such learners. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The design of the study was survey. The area of the ...
Ronald Beckers; Theo van der Voordt
Literature shows that ‘new ways of learning’ cause a shift in learning settings with a growing attention to facilitating autonomy, interaction and knowledge exploration anytime, anywhere. These trends show evident similarities with developments in office environments known for as ‘new ways of
Beckers, R.; van der Voordt, D.J.M.
Literature shows that ‘new ways of learning’ cause a shift in learning settings with a growing attention to facilitating autonomy, interaction and knowledge exploration anytime, anywhere. These trends show evident similarities with developments in office environments known for as ‘new ways of
Potter, Christine E; Wang, Tianlin; Saffran, Jenny R
Recent research has begun to explore individual differences in statistical learning, and how those differences may be related to other cognitive abilities, particularly their effects on language learning. In this research, we explored a different type of relationship between language learning and statistical learning: the possibility that learning a new language may also influence statistical learning by changing the regularities to which learners are sensitive. We tested two groups of participants, Mandarin Learners and Naïve Controls, at two time points, 6 months apart. At each time point, participants performed two different statistical learning tasks: an artificial tonal language statistical learning task and a visual statistical learning task. Only the Mandarin-learning group showed significant improvement on the linguistic task, whereas both groups improved equally on the visual task. These results support the view that there are multiple influences on statistical learning. Domain-relevant experiences may affect the regularities that learners can discover when presented with novel stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Graves, Joseph L; Reiber, Chris; Thanukos, Anna; Hurtado, Magdalena; Wolpaw, Terry
Evolutionary science is indispensable for understanding biological processes. Effective medical treatment must be anchored in sound biology. However, currently the insights available from evolutionary science are not adequately incorporated in either pre-medical or medical school curricula. To illuminate how evolution may be helpful in these areas, examples in which the insights of evolutionary science are already improving medical treatment and ways in which evolutionary reasoning can be practiced in the context of medicine are provided. In order to facilitate the learning of evolutionary principles, concepts derived from evolutionary science that medical students and professionals should understand are outlined. These concepts are designed to be authoritative and at the same time easily accessible for anyone with the general biological knowledge of a first-year medical student. Thus we conclude that medical practice informed by evolutionary principles will be more effective and lead to better patient outcomes.Furthermore, it is argued that evolutionary medicine complements general medical training because it provides an additional means by which medical students can practice the critical thinking skills that will be important in their future practice. We argue that core concepts from evolutionary science have the potential to improve critical thinking and facilitate more effective learning in medical training. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.
A recent YouGov poll indicated that almost half of eight to 18-year-olds aspire to a career in science. The latest Association of Colleges enrolment survey indicates a large increase in uptake of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) at further education (FE) colleges. These reports, along with other findings that suggest an…
Samuels, Michael; Hurly, T Andrew; Healy, Susan D
Free-living hummingbirds can learn the refill schedules of individual experimental flowers but little is known about what information they use to do this. Colour cues, in particular, may be important to hummingbirds when learning about rewarded flower properties. We investigated, therefore, whether colour cues facilitated the learning of flower refill schedules in wild, free-living rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus). In the Cued condition, we presented birds with an array of six flowers, three of one colour, each of which were refilled 10min after being emptied by the bird and three of a different colour, which were refilled 20min after being emptied. In the Uncued condition we presented birds with six flowers of the same colour, three of which were refilled after 10min and three of which were refilled after 20min as for the birds in the Cued condition. In the second part of the experiment, we moved the array 2m and changed the shape of the array. Across both phases, birds in the Cued condition learned to discriminate between 10 and 20-min flowers more quickly than did the birds in the Uncued condition. The Cued birds were also better at discriminating between the two distinct refill intervals. Colour cues can, therefore, facilitate learning the refill schedules of experimental flowers in these birds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Young, M B; Andero, R; Ressler, K J; Howell, L L
Acutely administered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ?ecstasy') has been proposed to have long-term positive effects on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms when combined with psychotherapy. No preclinical data support a mechanistic basis for these claims. Given the persistent nature of psychotherapeutic gains facilitated by MDMA, we hypothesized that MDMA improves fear extinction learning, a key process in exposure-based therapies for PTSD. In these experiments, mice were ...
Ateh, Comfort M.; Charpentier, Alicia
Many students perceive science to be a difficult subject and are minimally engaged in learning it. This article describes a lesson that embedded an activity to engage students in learning science. It also identifies features of a science lesson that are likely to enhance students' engagement and learning of science and possibly reverse students'…
Family experiences, the motivation for science learning and science achievement of ... active learning and achievement goals); boys perceived family experiences ... Recommendations were made as to how schools can support families in ...
Kordahl, Hilde Lund; Fougner, Marit
Professional health science education includes a common theoretical basis concerning the theory of science, ethics and communication. Former evaluations by first-year students of the bachelor physiotherapy program at Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences (HiOA) show that they find it hard to understand the relation between these particular topics and future professional practice. This challenge is the starting point for a pedagogical development project that aims to develop learning contexts that highlight the relevance of these theoretical concepts. The aim of the study is to explore and present findings on the value of using Sykegrep manual skills classes as an arena in which students can be encouraged to think about, reflect on and appreciate the role and value of the philosophical perspectives that inform their practice and contributes to practise knowledge. A qualitative study with data collection through focus groups was performed and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Eighteen first-year undergraduate students, who had completed the manual skills course, participated in the study. Analysis of the data yielded three categories of findings that can be associated with aspects of philosophy of science, ethics and communication. These are as follows: 1) preconceived understanding of physiotherapy; 2) body knowledge perspectives; and 3) relational aspects of interactions. Undergraduate students' understanding and experience of philosophy of science, ethics and communication may be facilitated by peer collaboration, reflection on intimacy and touch and the ethical aspects of interaction during manual skills training. Practical classes in Sykegrep provide a basis for students' discussions about the body as well as their experiences with the body in the collaborative learning context. The students' reflections on their expectations of manual skills in physiotherapy and experiences of touch and being touched can facilitate an awareness of
Lorenzino, Martina; Caudek, Corrado
We understand poorly how the ability to discriminate faces from one another is shaped by visual experience. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether face discrimination learning can be facilitated by facial emotions. To answer this question, we used a task-irrelevant perceptual learning paradigm because it closely mimics the learning processes that, in daily life, occur without a conscious intention to learn and without an attentional focus on specific facial features. We measured face discrimination thresholds before and after training. During the training phase (4 days), participants performed a contrast discrimination task on face images. They were not informed that we introduced (task-irrelevant) subtle variations in the face images from trial to trial. For the Identity group, the task-irrelevant features were variations along a morphing continuum of facial identity. For the Emotion group, the task-irrelevant features were variations along an emotional expression morphing continuum. The Control group did not undergo contrast discrimination learning and only performed the pre-training and post-training tests, with the same temporal gap between them as the other two groups. Results indicate that face discrimination improved, but only for the Emotion group. Participants in the Emotion group, moreover, showed face discrimination improvements also for stimulus variations along the facial identity dimension, even if these (task-irrelevant) stimulus features had not been presented during training. The present results highlight the importance of emotions for face discrimination learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pear, Joseph J.
For over a century and a quarter, the science of learning has expanded at an increasing rate and has achieved the status of a mature science. It has developed powerful methodologies and applications. The rise of this science has been so swift that other learning texts often overlook the fact that, like other mature sciences, the science of…
In this article I examine three examples of philosophical theories of scientific representation with the aim of assessing which of these is a good candidate for a philosophical theory of scientific representation in science learning. The three candidate theories are Giere's intentional approach, Suárez's inferential approach and Lynch and…
Kontra, Carly; Lyons, Daniel J; Fischer, Susan M; Beilock, Sian L
Three laboratory experiments involving students' behavior and brain imaging and one randomized field experiment in a college physics class explored the importance of physical experience in science learning. We reasoned that students' understanding of science concepts such as torque and angular momentum is aided by activation of sensorimotor brain systems that add kinetic detail and meaning to students' thinking. We tested whether physical experience with angular momentum increases involvement of sensorimotor brain systems during students' subsequent reasoning and whether this involvement aids their understanding. The physical experience, a brief exposure to forces associated with angular momentum, significantly improved quiz scores. Moreover, improved performance was explained by activation of sensorimotor brain regions when students later reasoned about angular momentum. This finding specifies a mechanism underlying the value of physical experience in science education and leads the way for classroom practices in which experience with the physical world is an integral part of learning. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate how literature courses, involved in the curriculum of the department of English Language Teaching from the second year to the fourth year, help students to acquire the target culture in EFL classes. Since learning a language does not mean only learning the lexical structures of any language, culture holds an important place in internalizing the way of thinking and appropriate use of target language. This study has been designed in a naturalistic environment, thus interview and observation were used as the main data collection techniques. The study was designed as a descriptive qualitative research. Participants were chosen by the help of an experienced colleague working in the above mentioned department for three years, and most of the participants were under her supervision, thus this case facilitated the process of interviewing participants. The findings showed that the literature courses contribute much to gain the target culture due the very nature of literature reflecting the society and traditions of society in which it was written. In addition, leaarners may have the chance of comparing thier own culture with target culture and this facilitates their learning. However, some missing points and misapplications were reported by students in providing a more appropriate environment for reflecting the target culture.
This article examines the merits of WebQuests in facilitating students' in-depth understanding of science concepts using the four principles of learning gathered from the National Research Council reports "How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School" (1999) and the "How Students Learn: Science in the Classroom" (2005) as an analytic…
Reese, D. D.; Wood, C. A.
Selene is a videogame to promote and assess learning of lunar science concepts. As players build and modify a Moon, Selene measures learning as it occurs. Selene is a model for 21st century learning and embedded assessment.
Full Text Available Current research demonstrates increased learning rates in differencial learning (DL compared to repetitive training. To date, little is known on the underlying neurophysiological processes in DL that contribute to superior performance over repetitive practice. In the present study, we measured electroencephalographic (EEG brain activation patterns after DL and repetitive badminton serve training. Twenty-four semi-professional badminton players performed badminton serves in a DL and repetitive training schedule in a within-subjects design. EEG activity was recorded from nineteen electrodes according to the 10-20 system before and immediately after each 20-minute exercise. Increased theta activity was obtained in contralateral parieto-occipital regions after DL. Further, increased posterior alpha activity was obtained in DL compared to repetitive training. Results indicate different underlying neuronal processes in DL and repetitive training with a higher involvement of parieto-occipital areas in DL. We argue that DL facilitates early consolidation in motor learning indicated by post-training increases in theta and alpha activity. Further, brain activation patterns indicate somatosensory working memory processes where attentional resources are allocated in processing of somatosensory information in DL. Reinforcing a somatosensory memory trace might explain increased motor learning rates in DL. Finally, this memory trace is more stable against interference from internal and external disturbances that afford executively controlled processing such as attentional processes.
Weinstein, Yana; Madan, Christopher R; Sumeracki, Megan A
The science of learning has made a considerable contribution to our understanding of effective teaching and learning strategies. However, few instructors outside of the field are privy to this research. In this tutorial review, we focus on six specific cognitive strategies that have received robust support from decades of research: spaced practice, interleaving, retrieval practice, elaboration, concrete examples, and dual coding. We describe the basic research behind each strategy and relevant applied research, present examples of existing and suggested implementation, and make recommendations for further research that would broaden the reach of these strategies.
Boithias, Helene; Benchetrit, Thierry
In addition to Airbus legacy activities, where Airbus satellites usually enable challenging science missions such as Venus Express, Mars Express, Rosetta with an historic landing on a comet, Bepi Colombo mission to Mercury and JUICE to orbit around Jupiter moon Ganymede, Swarm studying the Earth magnetic field, Goce to measure the Earth gravitational field and Cryosat to monitor the Earth polar ice, Airbus is now developing a new approach to facilitate next generation missions.After more than 25 years of collaboration with the scientists on space missions, Airbus has demonstrated its capacity to implement highly demanding missions implying a deep understanding of the science mission requirements and their intrinsic constraints such as- a very fierce competition between the scientific communities,- the pursuit of high maturity for the science instrument in order to be selected,- the very strict institutional budget limiting the number of operational missions.As a matter of fact, the combination of these constraints may lead to the cancellation of valuable missions.Based on that and inspired by the New Space trend, Airbus is developing an highly accessible concept called HYPE.The objective of HYPE is to make access to Space much more simple, affordable and efficient.With a standardized approach, the scientist books only the capacities he needs among the resources available on-board, as the HYPE satellites can host a large range of payloads from 1kg up to 60kg.At prices significantly more affordable than those of comparable dedicated satellite, HYPE is by far a very cost-efficient way of bringing science missions to life.After the launch, the scientist enjoys a plug-and-play access to two-way communications with his instrument through a secure high-speed portal available online 24/7.Everything else is taken care of by Airbus: launch services and the associated risk, reliable power supply, setting up and operating the communication channels, respect of space law
Purtzer, Mary Anne; Overstreet, Lindsey
To use transformative learning to investigate what experiences serve as catalysts for mammography screening, the cognitive and affective responses that result from the catalyst, and how screening behavior is impacted. A descriptive qualitative study. Southeastern Wyoming. 25 low-income, rural women aged 40 years and older. Four focus group interviews. Cancer experiences triggered universal responses of fear by screeners and nonscreeners. The manner in which that fear response was interpreted was a critical factor in the facilitation of, or impedance to, screening. Dichotomous interpretations of fear responses provided the context for screening behavior. Immobilizing and isolating experiences were associated with nonscreening behavior, whereas motivation and self-efficacy were associated with screening behavior. Transformative learning theory is a useful framework from which to explain differences in mammography screening behavior. Creating opportunities that facilitate dialogue and critical reflection hold the potential to change immobilizing and isolating frames of reference in nonscreening women. To help women transcend their fear and become self-efficacious, nurses can assess how cancer and the screening experience is viewed and, if indicated, move beyond standard education and offer opportunities for dialogue and critical reflection.
In response to Meyer and Crawford's article on how nature of science and authentic science inquiry strategies can be used to support the learning of science for underrepresented students, I explore the possibly of reconciliation between the cultures of school, science, school science as well as home. Such reconciliation is only possible when…
Andersen, Thomas Dyreborg; Foss, Kristian Kildemoes; Nissen, Stine Karen
During the last decade, massive investment in ICT has been made in Danish schools. There seems, however, to be a need to rethink how to better integrate ICT in education (Bundgaard et al. 2014 p. 216) Flipped learning might be a didactical approach that could contribute to finding a method to use...... research questions are “To what extent can teachers using the FL-teaching method improve Danish pupils' learning outcomes in science subject’s physics / chemistry, biology and geography in terms of the results of national tests?” And “What factors influence on whether FL-teaching improves pupils' learning...... will be addressed. Hereafter an array of different scaffolding activities will be conducted, among these are individual supervision, sharing of materials used in lessons and involving local school leaders in the program. During this 3-year period we will follow the progress of the students involved in the program...
Full Text Available As strategic and systems approaches are becoming more relevant in design education when it concerns collaborative projects with the industry, an explicit systems design methodology is needed to structure collaboration and learning among students, educators, and the Norwegian industry. This article describes three alternative studio projects for teaching strategic and systems design with the involvement of Norwegian companies. Besides this, the approaches and fundamental theories of design thinking and reasoning, which are characteristic of these projects, were reflected against each other. In the undergraduate (year 2 systems thinking design studio, the challenge was to train students to understand how system elements are rationally interconnected with their suprasystems and subsystems based on usability and man-machine interactions. In addition to the challenges pertaining to systems thinking, collaborative learning and designing based on a mentorship learning concept were introduced in the Vertical Design Studio, which involved second- and third-year students. Concerning the postgraduate fourth-year strategic design projects with the industry, the challenge was to involve Norwegian companies in product planning and goal finding as well as in innovation and design activities and to assess how supportive and receptive these companies were towards radical innovation/diversification. The analysis of completed projects shows that the Norwegian industry is supportive of strategic design but is rather conservative and risk averse when it concerns accepting and implementing radical innovation initiatives. Referring to user-centred and context-based innovation, this article also supports the implementation of a systems approach to facilitate social and hierarchical learning across the second-year systems design studio, second- and third-year vertical studios, and fourth-year strategic design studio.
Guimond, Pamela S.
In the past thirty years there has been a significant increase in the number of women pursuing careers in the biological sciences, yet similar increases have not been seen in the physical sciences or engineering. Research suggests that societal, educational, and personal factors may be the cause. This study was designed to validate factors previously identified as being influential on the learning of science by women, as well as to discover factors not previously identified and to gain an understanding of the degree to which each of these factors is perceived to relate to their academic success. Quantitative and qualitative methodologies were used to identify factors that facilitated the success of or presented obstacles to women as they pursued doctoral degrees in physical science and engineering. Sixty-four women scientists completed surveys. Of these, twelve participated in telephone interviews. The data collected from these methodologies, when taken together, allowed for both a generalizability of results and in-depth understanding of the factors identified. Three major themes were identified. First was the importance of people in these women's lives. Second was each woman's expression of personality traits including passion, determination, and resilience. Third was the importance of support from a variety of sources. All of the scientists considered support necessary for their success. Implications for practice include: providing girls with a wide variety of experiences in mathematics and science, including both in-school and out-of-school activities; providing girls with role models and mentors; utilizing a variety of teaching strategies aimed at girls' preferred learning styles; providing a variety of kinds of support girls need to feel welcome and valued; developing in girls personal characteristics associated with the culture of science; minimizing the use of high-stakes exams; and maximizing schedule flexibility so women can combine scientific careers and
Thomassen, Anja Overgaard
Ph.d.-afhandlingen behandler, med afsæt i John Deweys (1859-1952) pragmatisme, Facilitated Work Based Learning (FWBL) der er en tilgang til efter/videreuddannelse. På baggrund af konkrete uddannelsesforløb gennemført ud fra FWBL analyseres de udfordringer der opstår omkring gennemførelse af...... mødes for at samarbejde. Afhandlingen bidrager med et nyt begreb kaldet "den tredje kontekst" der tydeliggør, hvordan uddannelse, der gennemføres i en virksomhed, kan forstås. Ligeledes udvikles der, med afsæt i Deweys pragmatisme, en model der tydeliggør, hvorledes kompetenceudvikling kan understøttes...
Student Motivation for Science Learning questionnaire combined with items investigating family experiences. The findings .... decisions and formulate behavioural goals for their ..... science achievement, making interpretation diffi- cult and ...
Baker, Peter J.; Loe, Tom; Telling, Mark; Cottrell, Stephen P.; Hillier, Adrian D.
As part of the EU-funded project SINE2020 we are developing an online learning environment to introduce people to muon spectroscopy and how it can be applied in a variety of science areas. Currently there are short interactive courses using cosmic ray muons to teach what muons are and how their decays are measured and a guide to analyzing muon data using the Mantid software package, as well as videos from the lectures at the ISIS Muon Spectroscopy Training School 2016. Here we describe the courses that have been developed and how they have already been used.
Margalef, Leonor; Pareja Roblin, Natalie
Facilitators are central for the success of professional learning communities (PLCs). Yet, their specific roles in supporting teacher learning remain still largely underexplored. To address this gap, the current multiple case study examines the roles of 4 university PLC facilitators, the strategies they used to support teacher learning, and the…
Heller, Monica L.; Marchant, Gregory J.
Whether out of financial concerns for student retention or altruistic goals involving facilitating successful learning, efforts are being made to ensure college student success beyond chance independent study skills. Students often lack effective self-regulatory skills and study strategies necessary for success in college. With guidance through…
Derbyshire, Julie A; Machin, Alison I; Crozier, Suzanne
The provision of inter professional learning (IPL) within undergraduate programmes is now well established within many Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). IPL aims to better equip nurses and other health professionals with effective collaborative working skills and knowledge to improve the quality of patient care. Although there is still ambiguity in relation to the optimum timing and method for delivering IPL, effective facilitation is seen as essential. This paper reports on a grounded theory study of university educators' perceptions of the knowledge and skills needed for their role adequacy as IPL facilitators. Data was collected using semi structured interviews with nine participants who were theoretically sampled from a range of professional backgrounds, with varied experiences of education and involvement in facilitating IPL. Constant comparative analysis was used to generate four data categories: creating and sustaining an IPL group culture through transformational IPL leadership (core category), readiness for IPL facilitation, drawing on past interprofessional learning and working experiences and role modelling an interprofessional approach. The grounded theory generated from this study, although propositional, suggests that role adequacy for IPL facilitation is dependent on facilitator engagement in a process of 'transformational interprofessional learning leadership' to create and sustain a group culture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Somerville, R. C.
Communicating climate science is a form of education. A scientist giving a television interview or testifying before Congress is engaged in an educational activity, though one not identical to teaching graduate students. Knowledge, including knowledge about climate science, should never be communicated as a mere catalogue of facts. Science is a process, a way of regarding the natural world, and a fascinating human activity. A great deal is already known about how to do a better job of science communication, but implementing change is not easy. I am confident that improving climate science communication will involve the paradigm of constructivist learning theory, which traces its roots to the 20th-century Swiss epistemologist Jean Piaget, among others. This theory emphasizes the role of the teacher as supportive facilitator rather than didactic lecturer, "a guide on the side, not a sage on the stage." It also stresses the importance of the teacher making a serious effort to understand and appreciate the prior knowledge and viewpoint of the student, recognizing that students' minds are not empty vessels to be filled or blank slates to be written on. Instead, students come to class with a background of life experiences and a body of existing knowledge, of varying degrees of correctness or accuracy, about almost any topic. Effective communication is also usually a conversation rather than a monologue. We know too that for many audiences, the most trusted messengers are those who share the worldview and cultural values of those with whom they are communicating. Constructivist teaching methods stress making use of the parallels between learning and scientific research, such as the analogies between assessing prior knowledge of the audience and surveying scientific literature for a research project. Meanwhile, a well-funded and effective professional disinformation campaign has been successful in sowing confusion, and as a result, many people mistakenly think climate
King, Sharla; Greidanus, Elaine; Carbonaro, Michael; Drummond, Jane; Patterson, Steven
This study describes the redesign of an interprofessional team development course for health science students. A theoretical model is hypothesized as a framework for the redesign process, consisting of two themes: 1) the increasing trend among post-secondary students to participate in social networking (e.g., Facebook, Second Life) and 2) the need for healthcare educators to provide interprofessional training that results in effective communities of practice and better patient care. The redesign focused on increasing the relevance of the course through the integration of custom-designed technology to facilitate social networking during their interprofessional education. Results suggest that students in an educationally structured social networking environment can be guided to join learning communities quickly and access course materials. More research and implementation work is required to effectively develop interprofessional health sciences communities in a combined face-to-face and on-line social networking context.
Young, M B; Andero, R; Ressler, K J; Howell, L L
Acutely administered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') has been proposed to have long-term positive effects on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms when combined with psychotherapy. No preclinical data support a mechanistic basis for these claims. Given the persistent nature of psychotherapeutic gains facilitated by MDMA, we hypothesized that MDMA improves fear extinction learning, a key process in exposure-based therapies for PTSD. In these experiments, mice were first exposed to cued fear conditioning and treated with drug vehicle or MDMA before extinction training 2 days later. MDMA was administered systemically and also directly targeted to brain structures known to contribute to extinction. In addition to behavioral measures of extinction, changes in mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and Fos were measured after MDMA treatment and extinction. MDMA (7.8 mg kg(-1)) persistently and robustly enhanced long-term extinction when administered before extinction training. MDMA increased the expression of Fos in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas increases in Bdnf expression were observed only in the amygdala after extinction training. Extinction enhancements were recapitulated when MDMA (1 μg) was infused directly into the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), and enhancement was abolished when BDNF signaling was inhibited before extinction. These findings suggest that MDMA enhances fear memory extinction through a BDNF-dependent mechanism, and that MDMA may be a useful adjunct to exposure-based therapies for PTSD and other anxiety disorders characterized by altered fear learning.
Tammeorg, Priit; Mykkänen, Anna; Rantamäki, Tomi; Lakkala, Minna; Muukkonen, Hanni
Trialogical learning, a collaborative and iterative knowledge creation process using real-life artefacts or problems, familiarizes students with working life environments and aims to teach skills required in the professional world. We target one of the major limitation factors for optimal trialogical learning in university settings, inefficient group work. We propose a course design combining effective group working practices with trialogical learning principles in life sciences. We assess the usability of our design in (a) a case study on crop science education and (b) a questionnaire for university teachers in life science fields. Our approach was considered useful and supportive of the learning process by all the participants in the case study: the students, the stakeholders and the facilitator. Correspondingly, a group of university teachers expressed that the trialogical approach and the involvement of stakeholders could promote efficient learning. In our case in life sciences, we identified the key issues in facilitating effective group work to be the design of meaningful tasks and the allowance of sufficient time to take action based on formative feedback. Even though trialogical courses can be time consuming, the experience of applying knowledge in real-life cases justifies using the approach, particularly for students just about to enter their professional careers.
Reviewed by Yasin OZARSLAN
Full Text Available EFFECTIVE BLENDED LEARNING PRACTICES:Evidence-based Perspectives in ICT-facilitated EducationEdited by Elizabeth Stacey and Philippa Gerbic, Information ScienceReference; 1 edition (March 30, 2009, ISBN-10: 1605662968, 358 pp.Reviewed by Yasin OZARSLANFaculty of Education,Eskisehir Osmangazi University,Eskisehir-TURKEYBlended learning refers to the integration of faceto-face and online learning activities with the goal of maximizing the value of students' experiences in both settings. This book collects new international research into many aspects of blended learningfrom the perspectives of learners, teachers, designers, and professional and academic developers in various disciplines, learningcommunities and universities from around the world. This book addresses the relative newness of online learning within blended environments. The book's broader audience is anyone who isinterested in areas such as blended learning, communities of learning, virtual education, professional learning and community development, instructional technology, flexible learning, distance education and collaborative learning.Blended approaches in teacher education, blending collaborative online learning,blended learning and teaching philosophies, campus-based student learning environments, ICT-enhanced blended learning, learning communities for K-12 teachers, professional development for blended learning, reciprocal mentoring,redesigning initial teacher education, responses to blended environments, strategiesfor blended teaching and learning, virtual learning and real communities are the topics covered in this book.It reviews literature about blended learning in relation to the three sections of the book and discusses strategies for teaching and learning and establishing communities in its different contexts. The chapters of this book provide research perspectives on a range of blended learning issues and contexts and discuss implications for teaching and learning. The
This thesis aims to demystify the facilitation of participatory processes in order to improve the performance of the facilitation professional. As our society is increasingly recognised as pluralistic, characterised by
Research on learning science in informal settings and the formal (sometimes experimental) study of learning in classrooms or psychological laboratories tend to be separate domains, even drawing on different theories and methods. These differences make it difficult to compare knowing and learning observed in one paradigm/context with those observed in the other. Even more interestingly, the scientists studying science learning rarely consider their own learning in relation to the phenomena they study. A dialectical, reflexive approach to learning, however, would theorize the movement of an educational science (its learning and development) as a special and general case—subject matter and method—of the phenomenon of learning (in/of) science. In the dialectical approach to the study of science learning, therefore, subject matter, method, and theory fall together. This allows for a perspective in which not only disparate fields of study—school science learning and learning in everyday life—are integrated but also where the progress in the science of science learning coincides with its topic. Following the articulation of a contradictory situation on comparing learning in different settings, I describe the dialectical approach. As a way of providing a concrete example, I then trace the historical movement of my own research group as it simultaneously and alternately studied science learning in formal and informal settings. I conclude by recommending cultural-historical, dialectical approaches to learning and interaction analysis as a context for fruitful interdisciplinary research on science learning within and across different settings.
Full Text Available Visualization of data has recently gained great importance in education and use of infographics is regarded as an important tool in teaching mathematics since it presents information in a clear and abstract way. Therefore, use of infographics for helping individuals with mathematical learning difficulties has become an important research question. This study aims to provide an overview on the use of infographics in teaching mathematics to individuals with mathematical learning difficulties. This is a qualitative study in which document analysis was used the collect the data. Results provided information about the definition of infographics, effectiveness of using infographics in education and facilitative role of infographics in enhancing learning of individuals with mathematical learning difficulties, namely dyscalculia. Results were discussed with relevant literature and recommendations for further research and practices were also presented.
Miguel Ángel Montero
Full Text Available The experience which we count with in the university education, the development of the ICT (Information and Communications Technology, the integration in the ESSE, the new qualifications (or Grades and mainly the desire to improve push us to innovate and to put into practice new methodologies in the teaching and learning of the subjects of Mathematics and Statistic assigned to our department. These methods totally renovate the lecturer’s roll and the traditional teaching, introducing multimedia tools, support platforms and new resources that provide students an autonomy which before they did not have, modifying the organization of time and space, increasing modalities and strategies of teaching-learning-tutorization and therefore developing more flexible models. It is tried to facilitate the learning of these subjects, providing a model b-learning, a comple- ment or alternative to the attendance classes, reinforcing the student’s active self-training.
The integration of agricultural and science curricular content that capitalizes on natural and inherent connections represents a challenge for secondary agricultural educators. The purpose of this case study was to create information about the employment of Cooperative Learning Groups (CLG) to enhance the science integrating learning objectives…
Harris, David M; Ryan, Kathleen; Rabuck, Cynthia
Students are relying on technology for learning more than ever, and educators need to adapt to facilitate student learning. High-fidelity patient simulators (HFPS) are usually reserved for the clinical years of medical education and are geared to improve clinical decision skills, teamwork, and patient safety. Finding ways to incorporate HFPS into preclinical medical education represents more of a challenge, and there is limited literature regarding its implementation. The main objective of this study was to implement a HFPS activity into a problem-based curriculum to enhance the learning of basic sciences. More specifically, the focus was to aid in student learning of cardiovascular function curves and help students develop heart failure treatment strategies based on basic cardiovascular physiology concepts. Pretests and posttests, along with student surveys, were used to determine student knowledge and perception of learning in two first-year medical school classes. There was an increase of 21% and 22% in the percentage of students achieving correct answers on a posttest compared with their pretest score. The median number of correct questions increased from pretest scores of 2 and 2.5 to posttest scores of 4 and 5 of a possible total of 6 in each respective year. Student survey data showed agreement that the activity aided in learning. This study suggests that a HFPS activity can be implemented during the preclinical years of medical education to address basic science concepts. Additionally, it suggests that student learning of cardiovascular function curves and heart failure strategies are facilitated.
Following Hurricane Sandy's impact on the mid-Atlantic region, President Obama established a Task Force to '...ensure that the Federal Government continues to provide appropriate resources to support affected State, local, and tribal communities to improve the region's resilience, health, and prosperity by building for the future.' The author was detailed from NOAA to the Task Force between January and June 2013. As the Task Force and others began to take stock of the region's needs and develop plans to address them, many diverse approaches emerged from different areas of expertise including: infrastructure, management and construction, housing, public health, and others. Decision making in this environment was complex with many interests and variables to consider and balance. Although often relevant, science and technical expertise was not always at the forefront of this process. This talk describes the author's experience with the Sandy Task Force focusing on organizing scientific expertise to support the work of the Task Force. This includes a description of federal activity supporting Sandy recovery efforts, the role of the Task Force, and lessons learned from developing a science support function within the Task Force.
Stacey, G; Oxley, R; Aubeeluck, A
What is known on the subject The values underpinning recovery-orientated practice are recited in the literature and influential in the content of mental health nurse education internationally. However, scepticism exists regarding the degree to which students' assimilate the principles of recovery into their practice due to the troublesome and challenging nature of learning at a transformational level, also known as threshold concept learning. Evaluation suggests that this combination of educational approaches positively influences students' prior understandings, beliefs and values in relation to the prospect for people with significant mental health problems to recover. The components of threshold concepts are useful as a deductive framework for the evaluation of educational initiatives which attempt to initiate transformative learning. While this forum clearly holds significant potential for student development, support and preparation is needed for both the student and the facilitator in order to enable the possibility of learning which influences attitudes, beliefs and practice. The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential for combining lived experience of mental distress with the facilitation of enquiry-based learning (EBL) to act as a trigger for transformative learning in the context of promoting the understanding of mental health 'recovery' in nurse education.The values underpinning recovery-orientated practice are recited in the literature and influential in mental health nurse education internationally. However, scepticism exists regarding the degree to which students assimilate into their practice. An open-ended was distributed to a cohort of pre-registration nursing students receiving the co-facilitated EBL (n = 112). Data demonstrated how the specific attributes of this educational approach were identified by students as impacting positively on ill-informed preconceptions, understanding of complex theory and their future practice. Results were
Veermans, Koen; van Joolingen, Wouter; de Jong, Ton
This article describes a study into the role of heuristic support in facilitating discovery learning through simulation-based learning. The study compares the use of two such learning environments in the physics domain of collisions. In one learning environment (implicit heuristics) heuristics are only used to provide the learner with guidance…
Melville, Wayne; Campbell, Todd; Jones, Doug
In this article, we have considered the role of the chair in leading the learning necessary for a department to become effective in the teaching and learning of science from a reformed perspective. We conceptualize the phrase "leading learning" to mean the chair's constitution of influence, power, and authority to intentionally impact…
Convergence of the life sciences with fields including physical, chemical, mathematical, computational, engineering, and social sciences is a key strategy to tackle complex challenges and achieve new and innovative solutions. However, institutions face a lack of guidance on how to establish effective programs, what challenges they are likely to encounter, and what strategies other organizations have used to address the issues that arise. This advice is needed to harness the excitement generated by the concept of convergence and channel it into the policies, structures, and networks that will enable it to realize its goals. Convergence investigates examples of organizations that have established mechanisms to support convergent research. This report discusses details of current programs, how organizations have chosen to measure success, and what has worked and not worked in varied settings. The report summarizes the lessons learned and provides organizations with strategies to tackle practical needs and imple...
Prior knowledge, in the form of a mental schema or framework, is viewed to facilitate the learning of new information in a range of experimental and everyday scenarios. Despite rising interest in the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying schema-driven facilitation of new learning, few paradigms have been developed to examine this issue in…
This account relates my experiences as facilitator of an action learning set on a DBA cohort comprising international students and myself. It outlines the reasons for my selection as facilitator and describes my initial expectations and assumptions of action learning. I chart the difficulty in separating the 'what' of my own research from the…
Birmingham, Daniel J.
School science continues to fail to engage youth from non-dominant communities (Carlone, Huan-Frank & Webb, 2011). However, recent research demonstrates that informal science learning settings support both knowledge gains and increased participation in science among youth from non-dominant communities (Dierking, 2007; Falk et al., 2007; HFRP,…
The purpose of this study is to report on the nature of student learning resulting from an open facilitation approach to solo activities. Three key moments of facilitator intervention were identified at which the facilitator was encouraged to take a step back from directing the experience. They are the pre-activity brief, the mid-activity visit…
Informal Science Learning (ISL) is a policy narrative of interest in the United Kingdom and abroad. This paper explores how a group of English secondary school science teachers, enacted ISL science clubs through employing the Periodic Table of Videos. It examines how these teachers "battled" to enact ISL policy in performative conditions…
Pirhonen, Juhani; Rasi, Päivi
The central focus of this study is a learning method in which university students produce instructional videos about the content matter as part of their learning process, combined with other learning assignments. The rationale for this is to promote a more multimodal pedagogy, and to provide students opportunities for a more learner-centred, motivating, active, engaging and productive role in their learning process. As such we designed a ‘video course’ where the students needed to produce an ...
Pirhonen, Juhani; Rasi, Päivi
The central focus of this study is a learning method in which university students produce instructional videos about the content matter as part of their learning process, combined with other learning assignments. The rationale for this is to promote a more multimodal pedagogy, and to provide students opportunities for a more learner-centred,…
Drawing from the author's experience teaching online technical communication courses with an embedded service-learning component, this essay opens the discussion to the potential problems involved in designing online service-learning courses and provides practical approaches to integrating service learning into online coursework. The essay…
Gardner, Brenda S.; Korth, Sharon J.
Describes a master's program in human resource development that uses experiential learning, transfer of learning, and team learning theories to maximize students' transfer of their formal training to the workplace. Activities include individual and group analysis papers and a team project. Students have found the group and experiential practice…
Gill, Katherine; Glazier, Jocelyn; Towns, Betsy
Immersion in well-designed outdoor environments can foster the habits of mind that enable critical and authentic scientific questions to take root in students' minds. Here we share two design cases in which careful, collaborative, and intentional design of outdoor learning environments for informal inquiry provide people of all ages with embodied opportunities to learn about the natural world, developing the capacity for understanding ecology and the ability to empathize, problem-solve and reflect. Embodied learning, as facilitated by and in well-designed outdoor learning environments, leads students to develop new ways of seeing, new scientific questions, new ways to connect with ideas, with others and new ways of thinking about the natural world. Using examples from our collaborative practices as experiential learning designers, we illustrate how creating the habits of mind critical to creating scientists, science-interested, and science-aware individuals benefits from providing students spaces to engage in embodied learning in nature. We show how public landscapes designed in creative partnerships between educators, scientists, designers and the public have potential to amplify science learning for all.
Glick, Marilyn Petty
This research examines the impact of classroom anchoring activities on elementary school students' science learning from a school field trip. Although there is prior research demonstrating that students can learn science from school field trips, most of this research is descriptive in nature and does not examine the conditions that enhance or facilitate such learning. The current study draws upon research in psychology and education to create an intervention that is designed to enhance what students learn from school science field trips. The intervention comprises of a set of "anchoring" activities that include: (1) Orientation to context, (2) Discussion to activate prior knowledge and generate questions, (3) Use of field notebooks during the field trip to record observations and answer questions generated prior to field trip, (4) Post-visit discussion of what was learned. The effects of the intervention are examined by comparing two groups of students: an intervention group which receives anchoring classroom activities related to their field trip and an equivalent control group which visits the same field trip site for the same duration but does not receive any anchoring classroom activities. Learning of target concepts in both groups was compared using objective pre and posttests. Additionally, a subset of students in each group were interviewed to obtain more detailed descriptive data on what children learned through their field trip.
This paper is the second of two parts exploring a study that was undertaken to investigate the role of the tutor in facilitating problem-based learning (PBL). The first part focussed on the methodological underpinnings of the study. This paper aims to focus on the findings of the study and their implications for the facilitation of PBL. Six essential themes emerged from the findings that described the facilitation role. The tutors believed that their facilitation role was essentially structured around the decision of when to intervene and how to intervene in the PBL process. Modelling and non-verbal communication were seen as essential strategies for the facilitator. Underpinning these decisions was the need to trust in the philosophy of PBL. However, within many of the themes, there was a divergence of opinion as to how the role should actually be undertaken. Despite this, these findings have implications for the future role of PBL facilitators in Health Professional Education.
Jukema, Jan S; Harps-Timmerman, Annelies; Stoopendaal, Annemiek; Smits, Carolien H M
Change management is an important area of training in undergraduate nursing education. Successful change management in healthcare aimed at improving practices requires facilitation skills that support teams in attaining the desired change. Developing facilitation skills in nursing students requires formal educational support. A Dutch Regional Care Improvement Program based on a nationwide format of change management in healthcare was designed to act as a Powerful Learning Environment for nursing students developing competencies in facilitating change. This article has two aims: to provide comprehensive insight into the program components and to describe students' learning experiences in developing their facilitation skills. This Dutch Regional Care Improvement Program considers three aspects of a Powerful Learning Environment: self-regulated learning; problem-based learning; and complex, realistic and challenging learning tasks. These three aspects were operationalised in five distinct areas of facilitation: increasing awareness of the need for change; leadership and project management; relationship building and communication; importance of the local context; and ongoing monitoring and evaluation. Over a period of 18 months, 42 nursing students, supported by trained lecturer-coaches, took part in nine improvement teams in our Regional Care Improvement Program, executing activities in all five areas of facilitation. Based on the students' experiences, we propose refinements to various components of this program, aimed at strengthenin the learning environment. There is a need for further detailed empirical research to study the impact this kind of learning environment has on students developing facilitation competencies in healthcare improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fenichel, Marilyn; Schweingruber, Heidi A.
Practitioners in informal science settings--museums, after-school programs, science and technology centers, media enterprises, libraries, aquariums, zoos, and botanical gardens--are interested in finding out what learning looks like, how to measure it, and what they can do to ensure that people of all ages, from different backgrounds and cultures,…
Corin, Elysa N.; Jones, M. Gail; Andre, Thomas; Childers, Gina M.; Stevens, Vanessa
Science hobbyists engage in self-directed, free-choice science learning and many have considerable expertise in their hobby area. This study focused on astronomy and birding hobbyists and examined how they used organizations to support their hobby engagement. Interviews were conducted with 58 amateur astronomers and 49 birders from the midwestern…
This thesis aims to demystify the facilitation of participatory processes in order to improve the performance of the facilitation professional. As our society is increasingly recognised as pluralistic, characterised by multiple actors with different interests, values and perceptions, participation has become a popular means of bringing about social and technical change. Across the globe, whether in agricultural devel...
Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Rongbutsri, Nikorn; Buus, Lillian
and project based learning. In the area of problem and project based learning, facilitation is the core term and the teacher often has the role as facilitator or moderator instead of a teacher teaching. Technology adoption for learning activities needs facilitation, which is mostly absent. Sustainable......This paper builds on research directions from ‘activity theory’ and ‘learning design’ to provide ‘facilitation’ for students standing within decision making related to selection of web 2.0 tools and university provided web-based applications for supporting students activities within problem...... adoption might be facilitated based on tool appropriation with activities associated with courses and projects. Our mapping of different tools in a framework is reported based on interviews, observations, narratives and survey. A direction towards facilitation process for adoption is discussed as part...
Rodriguez, Eva L.
The popularity of using online instruction (both in blended and complete distance learning) in higher education settings is increasing (Appana, 2008; Newton, 2006; Oh, 2006). Occupational therapy educators are using blended learning methods under the assumption that this learning platform will facilitate in their students the required level of…
Chen, A.; Pham, L.; Kempler, S.; Theobald, M.; Esfandiari, A.; Campino, J.; Vollmer, B.; Lynnes, C.
Cloud Computing technology has been used to offer high-performance and low-cost computing and storage resources for both scientific problems and business services. Several cloud computing services have been implemented in the commercial arena, e.g. Amazon's EC2 & S3, Microsoft's Azure, and Google App Engine. There are also some research and application programs being launched in academia and governments to utilize Cloud Computing. NASA launched the Nebula Cloud Computing platform in 2008, which is an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) to deliver on-demand distributed virtual computers. Nebula users can receive required computing resources as a fully outsourced service. NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Service Center (GES DISC) migrated several GES DISC's applications to the Nebula as a proof of concept, including: a) The Simple, Scalable, Script-based Science Processor for Measurements (S4PM) for processing scientific data; b) the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data process workflow for processing AIRS raw data; and c) the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (GIOVANNI) for online access to, analysis, and visualization of Earth science data. This work aims to evaluate the practicability and adaptability of the Nebula. The initial work focused on the AIRS data process workflow to evaluate the Nebula. The AIRS data process workflow consists of a series of algorithms being used to process raw AIRS level 0 data and output AIRS level 2 geophysical retrievals. Migrating the entire workflow to the Nebula platform is challenging, but practicable. After installing several supporting libraries and the processing code itself, the workflow is able to process AIRS data in a similar fashion to its current (non-cloud) configuration. We compared the performance of processing 2 days of AIRS level 0 data through level 2 using a Nebula virtual computer and a local Linux computer. The result shows that Nebula has significantly
Meltzoff, Andrew N; Kuhl, Patricia K; Movellan, Javier; Sejnowski, Terrence J
Human learning is distinguished by the range and complexity of skills that can be learned and the degree of abstraction that can be achieved compared with those of other species. Homo sapiens is also the only species that has developed formal ways to enhance learning: teachers, schools, and curricula. Human infants have an intense interest in people and their behavior and possess powerful implicit learning mechanisms that are affected by social interaction. Neuroscientists are beginning to understand the brain mechanisms underlying learning and how shared brain systems for perception and action support social learning. Machine learning algorithms are being developed that allow robots and computers to learn autonomously. New insights from many different fields are converging to create a new science of learning that may transform educational practices.
Eidsvåg, Sunniva Sørhus; Austad, Margit; Plante, Elena; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.
Purpose: This experiment investigated whether input variability would affect initial learning of noun gender subcategories in an unfamiliar, natural language (Russian), as it is known to assist learning of other grammatical forms. Method: Forty adults (20 men, 20 women) were familiarized with examples of masculine and feminine Russian words. Half…
Puspitasari, Cita; Subiyanto
This paper proposes a new android application for early childhood learning reading. The description includes a design, development, and an evaluation experiment of an educational game for learning reading on android. Before developing the game, Unified Modeling Language (UML) diagrams, interfaces, animation, narrative or audio were designed.…
Scholz, G.; Dewulf, A.; Pahl-Wostl, C.
Social learning among different stakeholders is often a goal in problem solving contexts such as environmental management. Participatory methods (e.g., group model-building and role playing games) are frequently assumed to stimulate social learning. Yet understanding if and why this assumption is
Molodchik, Mariia; Jardon, Carlos
Purpose: The paper aims to identify particular traits of the Russian context which condition two key enablers of organizational learning--organizational culture and transformational leadership. Design/methodology/approach: Drawing on a literature review, the study determines management challenges by implementation of organizational learning in the…
Nijholt, Antinus; Petrushin, V.; Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Kinshuk, X.; Galeev, I.
This is a short survey of tools and ideas that are helpful for community building for E-learning. The underlying assumption in the survey is that community building for students and teachers in a joint learning and teaching situation is useful. Especially student-student interaction in student life
Halversen, C.; Simms, E.; McDonnell, J. D.; Strang, C.
As the relationship between science and society evolves, the need for scientists to engage and effectively communicate with the public about scientific issues has become increasingly urgent. Leaders in the scientific community argue that research training programs need to also give future scientists the knowledge and skills to communicate. To address this, the Communicating Ocean Sciences (COS) series was developed to teach postsecondary science students how to communicate their scientific knowledge more effectively, and to build the capacity of science faculty to apply education research to their teaching and communicate more effectively with the public. Courses are co-facilitated by a faculty scientist and either a K-12 or informal science educator. Scientists contribute their science content knowledge and their teaching experience, and educators bring their knowledge of learning theory regarding how students and the public make meaning from, and understand, science. The series comprises two university courses for science undergraduate and graduate students that are taught by ocean and climate scientists at approximately 25 universities. One course, COS K-12, is team-taught by a scientist and a formal educator, and provides college students with experience communicating science in K-12 classrooms. In the other course, COSIA (Communicating Ocean Sciences to Informal Audiences), a scientist and informal educator team-teach, and the practicum takes place in a science center or aquarium. The courses incorporate current learning theory and provide an opportunity for future scientists to apply that theory through a practicum. COS addresses the following goals: 1) introduce postsecondary students-future scientists-to the importance of education, outreach, and broader impacts; 2) improve the ability of scientists to communicate science concepts and research to their students; 3) create a culture recognizing the importance of communicating science; 4) provide students and
Full Text Available The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS emphasize conceptual science instruction that draws on students’ ability to make observations, explain natural phenomena, and examine concept relationships. This paper explores integrating the arts, in the form of felting, in elementary science classrooms as a way for students to model and demonstrate understanding of the complex scientific processes that cause the polar auroras. The steps for creating felting, and using the felting artwork students create for assessing science learning, are described.
Mazzarella, Joseph M.; NED Team
I will review recent developments, work in progress, and major challenges that lie ahead as we enhance the capabilities of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) to facilitate and accelerate multi-wavelength research on objects beyond our Milky Way galaxy. The recent fusion of data for over 470 million sources from the 2MASS Point Source Catalog and approximately 750 million sources from the AllWISE Source Catalog (next up) with redshifts from the SDSS and other data in NED is increasing the holdings to over a billion distinct objects with cross-identifications, providing a rich resource for multi-wavelength research. Combining data across such large surveys, as well as integrating data from over 110,000 smaller but scientifically important catalogs and journal articles, presents many challanges including the need to update the computing infrastructure and re-tool production and operations on a regular basis. Integration of the Firefly toolkit into the new user interface is ushering in a new phase of interative data visualization in NED, with features and capabilities familiar to users of IRSA and the emerging LSST science user interface. Graphical characterizations of NED content and estimates of completeness in different sky and spectral regions are also being developed. A newly implemented service that follows the Table Access Protocol (TAP) enables astronomers to issue queries to the NED object directory using Astronomical Data Language (ADQL), a standard shared in common with the NASA mission archives and other virtual observatories around the world. A brief review will be given of new science capabilities under development and planned for 2019-2020, as well as initiatives underway involving deployment of a parallel database, cloud technologies, machine learning, and first steps in bringing analysis capabilities close to the database in collaboration with IRSA. I will close with some questions for the community to consider in helping us plan future science
Alberida, H.; Lufri; Festiyed; Barlian, E.
This research aims to develop problem solving model for science learning in junior high school. The learning model was developed using the ADDIE model. An analysis phase includes curriculum analysis, analysis of students of SMP Kota Padang, analysis of SMP science teachers, learning analysis, as well as the literature review. The design phase includes product planning a science-learning problem-solving model, which consists of syntax, reaction principle, social system, support system, instructional impact and support. Implementation of problem-solving model in science learning to improve students' science process skills. The development stage consists of three steps: a) designing a prototype, b) performing a formative evaluation and c) a prototype revision. Implementation stage is done through a limited trial. A limited trial was conducted on 24 and 26 August 2015 in Class VII 2 SMPN 12 Padang. The evaluation phase was conducted in the form of experiments at SMPN 1 Padang, SMPN 12 Padang and SMP National Padang. Based on the development research done, the syntax model problem solving for science learning at junior high school consists of the introduction, observation, initial problems, data collection, data organization, data analysis/generalization, and communicating.
Walsh, Lori; Straits, William
In this article the authors share advice from the viewpoints of both a formal and informal educator that will help teachers identify the right Informal Science Institutions (ISIs)--institutions that specialize in learning that occurs outside of the school setting--to maximize their students' learning and use informal education to their…
Rowe, Elizabeth; Baker, Ryan S.; Asbell-Clarke, Jodi
Educational games have the potential to be innovative forms of learning assessment, by allowing us to not just study their knowledge but the process that takes students to that knowledge. This paper examines the mediating role of players' moves in digital games on changes in their pre-post classroom measures of implicit science learning. We…
Full Text Available There are many reasons for students of Sport Science to use English. Yet, knowing the importance of learning English is sometimes not enough to encourage them to learn English well. Based on the experience in teaching them, erroneous belief seems to be held by many of them. It arouses curiosity about the beliefs which might be revealed to help the students to be successful in language learning. By investigating sport science students‘ beliefs about language learning, it is expected that types of the beliefs which they hold can be revealed. Understanding students‘ beliefs about language learning is essential because these beliefs can have possible consequences for second language learning and instruction. This study is expected to provide empirical evidence. The subjects of this study were 1st semester students majoring in Sport Science of Sport Science Faculty. There were 4 classes with 38 students in each class. There were approximately 152 students as the population of the study. The sample was taken by using random sampling. All members of the population received the questionnaire. The questionnaire which was later handed back to the researcher is considered as the sample. The instrument in this study is the newest version of Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory (BALLI, version 2.0, developed by Horwitz to asses the beliefs about learning a foreign language.
Kaufman, Barry A
Describes five aspects of learning as applied to science instruction. Learning readiness, meaningfulness of material, activity and passivity, motivation, and transfer of training are presented in relation to psychological views stated by Ausubel, Bruner, Gagne, Hendrix, Karplus, Piaget, and Suchman. Views given by Gagne and Karplus are considered…
Rogers, Robert R.
his fraud risk had been reduced to virtually zero. In highly sensitive security applications, such a system would be imperative -and when combined, if necessary, with other biometric identifiers such as signature and/or voice recognition for simultaneous verification, one would have a nearly foolproof system. These are the tools of what we call Transaction Facilitation, and this is the realm of Comparator Systems Corp. Our technological developments over the last ten years have moved our Company forward into a position of potential leadership in what is fast becoming a worldwide market, and it is toward this end that we have applied all of our efforts.
Robyn S Kim
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of perceptual learning have largely focused on unisensory stimuli. However, multisensory interactions are ubiquitous in perception, even at early processing stages, and thus can potentially play a role in learning. Here, we examine the effect of auditory-visual congruency on visual learning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Subjects were trained over five days on a visual motion coherence detection task with either congruent audiovisual, or incongruent audiovisual stimuli. Comparing performance on visual-only trials, we find that training with congruent audiovisual stimuli produces significantly better learning than training with incongruent audiovisual stimuli or with only visual stimuli. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This advantage from stimulus congruency during training suggests that the benefits of multisensory training may result from audiovisual interactions at a perceptual rather than cognitive level.
Schmitz, Birgit; Czauderna, André; Klemke, Roland; Specht, Marcus
Schmitz, B., Czauderna, A., Klemke, R., & Specht, M. (2011). Game based learning for computer science education. In G. van der Veer, P. B. Sloep, & M. van Eekelen (Eds.), Computer Science Education Research Conference (CSERC '11) (pp. 81-86). Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open Universiteit.
This article features recent research in science teaching and learning. It presents three current articles of interest in life sciences education, as well as more general and noteworthy publications in education research. URLs are provided for the abstracts or full text of articles. For articles listed as "Abstract available," full text may be…
Singer, Susan Rundell
This special issue of "Journal of Research in Science Teaching" reflects conclusions and recommendations in the "Discipline-Based Education Research" (DBER) report and makes a substantial contribution to advancing the field. Research on undergraduate science learning is currently a loose affiliation of related fields. The…
Terrazas-Arellanes, Fatima E.; Knox, Carolyn; Walden, Emily
The 2006 National Science Board called for new strategies and instructional materials for teachers to better serve English Learners' (EL) needs. Bilingual Collaborative Online Projects in science were created to assist ELs' construction of science knowledge, facilitate academic English acquisition, and improve science learning. Two bilingual…
Bugbee, Kaylin; Ramachandran, Rahul; Maskey, Manil; Gatlin, Patrick; Weigel, Amanda
STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) learning is most effective when students are encouraged to see the connections between science, technology and real world problems. Helping to make these connections has become an increasingly important aspect of Earth Science data research. The Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC), one of NASA's 12 EOSDIS (Earth Observing System Data Information System) data centers, has developed a new type of documentation called the micro article to facilitate making connections between data and Earth science research problems.
Full Text Available Background: The clinical learning environment is a complex social entity that influences student learning outcomes in the clinical setting. Students can experience the clinical learning environment as being both facilitative and obstructive to their learning. The clinical environment may be a source of stress, creating feelings of fear and anxiety which in turn affect the students’ responses to learning. Equally, the environment can enhance learning if experienced positively. Objectives: This study described pupil enrolled nurses’ experiences of facilitative and obstructive factors in military and public health clinical learning settings. Method: Using a qualitative, contextual, exploratory descriptive design, three focus group interviews were conducted until data saturation was reached amongst pupil enrolled nurses in a military School of Nursing. Results: Data analysed provided evidence that acceptance by clinical staff and affordance of self-directed learning facilitated learning. Students felt safe to practise when they were supported by the clinical staff. They felt a sense of belonging when the staff showed an interest in and welcomed them. Learning was obstructed when students were met with condescending comments. Wearing of a military uniform in the public hospital and horizontal violence obstructed learning in the clinical learning environment. Conclusion: Students cannot have effective clinical preparation if the environment is not conducive to and supportive of clinical learning, The study shows that military nursing students experience unique challenges as they are trained in two professions that are hierarchical in nature. The students experienced both facilitating and obstructing factors to their learning during their clinical practice. Clinical staff should be made aware of factors which can impact on students’ learning. Policies need to be developed for supporting students in the clinical learning
Lekalakala-Mokgele, Eucebious; Caka, Ernestine M
The clinical learning environment is a complex social entity that influences student learning outcomes in the clinical setting. Students can experience the clinical learning environment as being both facilitative and obstructive to their learning. The clinical environment may be a source of stress, creating feelings of fear and anxiety which in turn affect the students' responses to learning. Equally, the environment can enhance learning if experienced positively. This study described pupil enrolled nurses' experiences of facilitative and obstructive factors in military and public health clinical learning settings. Using a qualitative, contextual, exploratory descriptive design, three focus group interviews were conducted until data saturation was reached amongst pupil enrolled nurses in a military School of Nursing. Data analysed provided evidence that acceptance by clinical staff and affordance of self-directed learning facilitated learning. Students felt safe to practise when they were supported by the clinical staff. They felt a sense of belonging when the staff showed an interest in and welcomed them. Learning was obstructed when students were met with condescending comments. Wearing of a military uniform in the public hospital and horizontal violence obstructed learning in the clinical learning environment. Students cannot have effective clinical preparation if the environment is not conducive to and supportive of clinical learning, The study shows that military nursing students experience unique challenges as they are trained in two professions that are hierarchical in nature. The students experienced both facilitating and obstructing factors to their learning during their clinical practice. Clinical staff should be made aware of factors which can impact on students' learning. Policies need to be developed for supporting students in the clinical learning environment.
Maddux, William W; Adam, Hajo; Galinsky, Adam D
Research suggests that living in and adapting to foreign cultures facilitates creativity. The current research investigated whether one aspect of the adaptation process-multicultural learning-is a critical component of increased creativity. Experiments 1-3 found that recalling a multicultural learning experience: (a) facilitates idea flexibility (e.g., the ability to solve problems in multiple ways), (b) increases awareness of underlying connections and associations, and (c) helps overcome functional fixedness. Importantly, Experiments 2 and 3 specifically demonstrated that functional learning in a multicultural context (i.e., learning about the underlying meaning or function of behaviors in that context) is particularly important for facilitating creativity. Results showed that creativity was enhanced only when participants recalled a functional multicultural learning experience and only when participants had previously lived abroad. Overall, multicultural learning appears to be an important mechanism by which foreign living experiences lead to creative enhancement.
Full Text Available Background: At the South Eastern Sydney Local Health District Nursing and Midwifery Practice and Workforce Unit, we use the framework of CARE (a compound acronym of Capacity, cApability, collaboRation and culturE to inform all aspects of work. The principles of practice development (Manley et al., 2008 also inform our work, a major focus of which is the use of coaching, action learning sets and active learning techniques. The use of questions and questioning is key to these. These techniques are part of our person-centred approach to professional development and learning. This article describes my reflections, using Gibbs’ model (1988, on the development of a questioning tool aimed at enhancing learning through play. The tool is an origami ‘chatterbox’, which was originally developed as part of a ‘poster’ presentation at the 2014 International Practice Development Conference in Toronto. Aims and objectives: This article aims to share a critical reflection on developing and using the chatterbox and to describe how this experience led to deeper reflections on the role of play in adult learning. Conclusions and implications for practice: The chatterbox has provided a simple and effective tool for introducing, practising and reinforcing the use of enabling questions. Its development allowed the categorisation of enabling questions. Personal reflections undertaken as part of the development of the tool inspired me to explore the literature about the role of play in adult learning. It has implications for supporting the learning of people who are interested in using enabling questions, by increasing their skill and confidence.
Reading and response as facilitation to the teaching and learning of ... and strategies that can be used in the classroom towards teaching student's reading skills. ... The population comprises all forth year English teaching methods class.
Daugherty, Jamie B.
A grant from a regional nonprofit organization for the 2012-2013 academic year facilitated the revision of an existing course learning objective in a Culinary Nutrition lab course--performing effective culinary demonstrations--to include a service-learning experience. This course is a graduation requirement in a research- and science-based…
emphasis on initiating learning processes in the client enter-prise in a way that will develop the OHS management capabilities of that enterprise. This presentation is based on a research program focussing on how OHS consultants go about when they are involved in consultancy on technological change...... processes in client enter-prises. Specifically the learning perspective will be touched upon. The research programme included four cases in different client enterprises: 1) New tech-nology in a logistic department of a brewery, 2) new pharmaceutical process facility, 3) design of a new catering centre...... in another institution than pre-sent the users to blueprints and then ask them to put forward technical suggestions to im-prove the workplace design. In conclusion, the study pointed out that the OHS consultants had different work practices on learning aspects of their consultancy. Several constraining...
The framework that characterizes this work is that of elementary teachers' learning and development. Specifically, the ways in which prospective and beginning teachers' develop pedagogical content knowledge for teaching science in light of current recommendations for reform emphasizing teaching and learning science as inquiry are explored. Within this theme, the focus is on three core areas: (a) the use of technology tools (i.e., web-based portfolios) in support of learning to teach science at the elementary level; (b) beginning teachers' specialized knowledge for giving priority to evidence in science teaching; and (c) the applications of perspectives associated with elementary teachers' learning to teach science in Cyprus, where I was born and raised. The first manuscript describes a study aimed at exploring the influence of web-based portfolios and a specific task in support of learning to teach science within the context of a Professional Development School program. The task required prospective teachers to articulate their personal philosophies about teaching and learning science in the form of claims, evidence and justifications in a web-based forum. The findings of this qualitative case study revealed the participants' developing understandings about learning and teaching science, which included emphasizing a student-centered approach, connecting physical engagement of children with conceptual aspects of learning, becoming attentive to what teachers can do to support children's learning, and focusing on teaching science as inquiry. The way the task was organized and the fact that the web-based forum provided the ability to keep multiple versions of their philosophies gave prospective teachers the advantage of examining how their philosophies were changing over time, which supported a continuous engagement in metacognition, self-reflection and self-evaluation. The purpose of the study reported in the second manuscript was to examine the nature of a first
Hunziker, Stefan; Giesche, Alena; Jacques-Coper, Martín; Brönnimann, Stefan
Over the past three years, members of the Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR) and the Climatology group at the Institute of Geography at the University of Bern, have developed a new climate science e-learning course as part of the CLIMANDES project. This project is a collaboration between Peruvian and Swiss government, research, and education institutions. The aim of this e-learning material is to strengthen education in climate sciences at the higher education and professional level. The course was recently published in 2015 by Geographica Bernensia, and is hosted online by the Peruvian Servicio Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología (SENAMHI): http://surmx.com/chamilo/climandes/e-learning/. The course is furthermore available for offline use through USB sticks, and a number of these are currently being distributed to regional training centers around the world by the WMO (World Meteorological Organization). There are eight individual modules of the course that each offer approximately 2 hours of individual learning material, featuring several additional learning activities, such as the online game "The Great Climate Poker" (http://www.climatepoker.unibe.ch/). Overall, over 50 hours of learning material are provided by this course. The modules can be integrated into university lectures, used as single units in workshops, or be combined to serve as a full course. This e-learning course presents a broad spectrum of topics in climate science, including an introduction to climatology, atmospheric and ocean circulation, climate forcings, climate observations and data, working with data products, and climate models. This e-learning course offers a novel approach to teaching climate science to students around the world, particularly through three important features. Firstly, the course is unique in its diverse range of learning strategies, which include individual reading material, video lectures, interactive graphics, responsive quizzes, as well as group
Valt, Christian; Klein, Christoph; Boehm, Stephan G
Repetition priming is a prominent example of non-declarative memory, and it increases the accuracy and speed of responses to repeatedly processed stimuli. Major long-hold memory theories posit that repetition priming results from facilitation within perceptual and conceptual networks for stimulus recognition and categorization. Stimuli can also be bound to particular responses, and it has recently been suggested that this rapid response learning, not network facilitation, provides a sound theory of priming of object recognition. Here, we addressed the relevance of network facilitation and rapid response learning for priming of person recognition with a view to advance general theories of priming. In four experiments, participants performed conceptual decisions like occupation or nationality judgments for famous faces. The magnitude of rapid response learning varied across experiments, and rapid response learning co-occurred and interacted with facilitation in perceptual and conceptual networks. These findings indicate that rapid response learning and facilitation in perceptual and conceptual networks are complementary rather than competing theories of priming. Thus, future memory theories need to incorporate both rapid response learning and network facilitation as individual facets of priming. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available The main objective of the present work is the selection and integration of objectives and methods of education for gender equity within the Life and Earth Sciences’ learning environments in the current portuguese frameworks of middle and high school. My proposal combines inquiry learning-teaching methods with the aim of promoting gender equity, mainly focusing in relevant 20th century women-scientists with a huge contribute to the History of Science. The hands-on and minds-on activities proposed for high scholl students of Life and Earth Sciences onstitute a learnig environment enriched in features of science by focusing on the work of two scientists: Lynn Margulis (1938-2011 and her endosymbiosis theory of the origin of life on Earth and Inge Leehman (1888-1993 responsible for a breakthrough regarding the internal structure of Earth, by caracterizing a discontinuity within the nucleus, contributing to the current geophysical model. For middle scholl students the learning environment includes Inge Leehman and Mary Tharp (1920-2006 and her first world map of the ocean floor. My strategy includes features of science, such as: theory-laden nature of scientific knowledge, models, values and socio-scientific issues, technology contributes to science and feminism. In conclusion, I consider that this study may constitute an example to facilitate the implementation, by other teachers, of active inquiry strategies focused on features of science within a framework of social responsibility of science, as well as the basis for future research.
Christensen, Inger-Marie F.; Dam Laursen, Mette; Bøggild, Jacob
This article accounts for the design of the massive open online course (MOOC) Hans Christian Andersen’s Fairy tales on FutureLearn and reports on the effectiveness of this design in terms of engaging learners in social learning and encouraging a deep approach to learning. A learning pathway...... and increased educator feedback. Course data show that that some learners use the space provided for social interaction and mutual support. A learning pathway that engages learners in discussion and progression from week to week facilitates a deep approach to learning. However, this requires more support from...
Liu, Hong P.; Klein, Jerry E.
With the increasing complexity of technology and large quantities of data in our digital age, learning and training has become a major cost of employers. Employee competence depends more and more on how quickly one can acquire new knowledge and solve problems to meet pressing deadlines. This paper presents a practical method to use REU (Research…
Mason-Mason, Susan Dale; Tessmer, Martin A.
This exploratory study investigated whether the process of constructing an expert system model promotes the formation of expert-like mental models. Discusses expert systems as mindtools, expert systems as learning tools, the assessment of mental models, results of pretests and posttests, and future research. (Contains 56 references.) (Author/LRW)
Kingston, Lindsey N.; MacCartney, Danielle; Miller, Andrea
Human rights education is advanced as a method for promoting social responsibility, with an emphasis on promoting ideals of "global citizenship" among undergraduate students. At the same time, the practice of learning communities is widespread on college campuses for retaining freshmen and promoting student success. However, there is…
Canal Bruland, R.; van der Meer, Y.; Moerman, J.
Recently it has been reported that practicing putting with visual illusions that make the hole appear larger than it actually is leads to longer-lasting performance improvements. Interestingly, from a motor control and learning perspective, it may be possible to actually predict the opposite to
Quality research supervision leading to timely completion and student satisfaction involves explicit pedagogy and effective communication. This article describes the development within an action research cycle of an online learning space designed to achieve these goals. The research 'spirals' involved interventions in the ...
Anderson, Lorin W.; Jones, Beau Fly
The "state of the craft" of instruction within the context of the mastery learning model is discussed. Little has been said in the past about specific instructional strategies that are applicable to particular instructional units or objectives, or to the daily classroom life of teachers. This paper is organized into six major sections. The first…
Robelen, Erik W.; Sparks, Sarah D.; Cavanagh, Sean; Ash, Katie; Deily, Mary-Ellen Phelps; Adams, Caralee
As concern mounts that U.S. students lack sufficient understanding of science and related fields, it has become increasingly clear that schools can't tackle the challenge alone. This special report explores the field often called "informal science education," which is gaining broader recognition for its role in helping young people…
Scruggs, Thomas E.; Brigham, Frederick J.; Mastropieri, Margo A.
The Common Core Science Standards represent a new effort to increase science learning for all students. These standards include a focus on English and language arts aspects of science learning, and three dimensions of science standards, including practices of science, crosscutting concepts of science, and disciplinary core ideas in the various…
This paper explores the practice of action learning (AL) facilitation in supporting AL set members to address their 'messy' problems through a self-reflexive approach using the concept of 'living theory' [Whitehead, J., and J. McNiff. 2006. "Action Research Living Theory." London: Sage]. The facilitation practice is investigated through…
Full Text Available It has been critical to find a way for teachers to motivate their young children to learn science and improve science achievement. Since music has been used as a tool for educating young students, this study introduces the science song project to teacher candidates that contains science facts, concepts, laws and theories, and combines them with music for motivating their young children to learn science and improve science achievement. The purpose of the study is to determine the effect of the science song project on teacher candidates’ understanding of science processing skills and their attitudes toward science. The participants were 45 science teacher candidates who were enrolled in an EC-6 (Early Childhood through Grade 6 program in the teacher certification program at a racially diverse Texas public research university. To collect data, this study used two instruments: pre-and post-self efficacy tests before and after the science teacher candidates experienced the science song project and final reflective essay at the end of the semester. The results show that while developing their songs, the participating teacher candidates experienced a process for science practice, understood science concepts and facts, and positively improved attitudes toward science. This study suggests that the science song project is a science instruction offering rich experiences of process-based learning and positive attitudes toward science.
Gillette, Shana Cecile
In communications, a new approach to the study of online interaction has been suggested by social network analysts. Garton, Haythornthwaite, and Wellman (1997) have outlined the importance of using network analysis to study how media are interconnected with other social aspects of a media user's world. As applied here, this approach to communication when combined with recent network studies from the fields of education and rural development, provides a method for looking at the role of Internet-facilitated ties in the development of resource networks in the learning communities of young women from seven rural schools across the state of Washington. Twenty-six young women (ages 14-16) from diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds (approximately half of the participants are Hispanic or Native American, the other half are White) participated in the research. Participants were selected because they shared a common educational orientation through Rural Girls in Science, a NSF-funded program at the Northwest Center for Research on Women at the University of Washington. As part of the school-based component of the Rural Girls in Science program, all 26 participants designed and conducted year-long, community-based research projects in science. Each school in the program was provided an Internet workstation for communication and research. Through the Internet, students could conceivably maintain distant ties with mentors and research scientists whom they met at summer camp as well as seek additional information resources. Toward the conclusion of the long-term research projects, each student participant was interviewed using a participatory form of network analysis that included a combined qualitative and quantitative approach. Given the small number of participants and schools in the sample, the results from the analysis can not be generalized to a larger population. However the study of the structure and composition of networks among individuals and school groups provided
Poulsen, Søren Bolvig; Rustrup, Louise Lønborg; Mortensen, Helle
the learning of students. Student involvement in research projects appears to be an increasing trend, which is affecting both the practice of research and education. The Danish research project ‘Innodoors’ investigates, through various initiatives, how User-driven innovation can contribute to innovation...... and affect the culture of innovation in the building sector. One of the research initiatives was originally probing hypothesizes through student projects, where the students not only play a practical and performing role, but also engage in a rather equal partnership with the academic. This was also the case...... for the involved industrial design students, but they found it necessary to redefine the initial, given hypothesis, which surprisingly uncovered knowledge deficiencies for both students and academic; yet, it contributed to a mutual learning situation. Educators are facing new challenges with the responsibility...
Full Text Available In the field of word recognition and reading, it is commonly assumed that frequently repeated words create more accessible memory traces than infrequently repeated words, thus capturing the word-frequency effect. Nevertheless, recent research has shown that a seemingly related factor, contextual diversity (defined as the number of different contexts [e.g., films] in which a word appears, is a better predictor than word-frequency in word recognition and sentence reading experiments. Recent research has shown that contextual diversity plays an important role when learning new words in a laboratory setting with adult readers. In the current experiment, we directly manipulated contextual diversity in a very ecological scenario: at school, when Grade 3 children were learning words in the classroom. The new words appeared in different contexts/topics (high-contextual diversity or only in one of them (low-contextual diversity. Results showed that words encountered in different contexts were learned and remembered more effectively than those presented in redundant contexts. We discuss the practical (educational [e.g., curriculum design] and theoretical (models of word recognition implications of these findings.
The paper examines the role of leadership in facilitating collective learning and capacity building by utilising ideas from the fields of evolutionary learning, operations strategy, quality, project and risk management. Two contrasting cases are chosen to show how success and failure can depend upon collective capacity building through…
van Dellen, Theo
Conscious Thought is for facilitating the work places as learning spaces Theo van Dellen In the workplace learning and development of work identity can be assumed in at least three ways. First, the processes are managed by the organizational context, which promotes a particular model of workers as
Smith, Julian; Groves, Mark; Bowd, Belinda; Barber, Alison
This study examined the effectiveness of a Blended Learning (BL) environment designed to facilitate the learning of study skills with a large (over 200) and diverse undergraduate student cohort in a Higher Education (HE) institution in the UK. A BL environment was designed using the model provided by Kerres & De Witt (2003), and was also…
Jamniczky, Heather A.; Cotton, Darrel; Paget, Michael; Ramji, Qahir; Lenz, Ryan; McLaughlin, Kevin; Coderre, Sylvain; Ma, Irene W. Y.
Ultrasonography is increasingly used in medical education, but its impact on learning outcomes is unclear. Adding ultrasound may facilitate learning, but may also potentially overwhelm novice learners. Based upon the framework of cognitive load theory, this study seeks to evaluate the relationship between cognitive load associated with using…
Ching, Yu-Hui; Hsu, Yu-Chang
There has been limited research examining the pedagogical benefits of peer feedback for facilitating project-based learning in an online environment. Using a mixed method approach, this paper examines graduate students' participation and perceptions of peer feedback activity that supports project-based learning in an online instructional design…
Miao, Yongwu; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob
Miao, Y., Sloep, P. B., & Koper, R. (2009). Facilitating Work Based Learning Projects: A Business Process Oriented Knowledge Management Approach. Presented at the 'Open workshop of TENCompetence - Rethinking Learning and Employment at a Time of Economic Uncertainty-event'. November, 19, 2009,
Miao, Yongwu; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob
Miao, Y., Sloep, P. B., & Koper, R. (2010). Facilitating Work Based Learning Projects: A Business Process Oriented Knowledge Management Approach. In D. Griffiths & R. Koper (Eds.), Rethinking Learning and Employment at a Time of Economic Uncertainty. Proceedings of the 6th TENCompetence Open
Muneja, Mussa S.
The aim of this paper is to synthesize a theoretical basis for adult learning facilitation in order to provide a valuable systematic resource in the field of adult education. The paper has reviewed 6 journal articles with topics ranging from theory of andragogy; the effect of globalization on adult learning; the contribution of Malcolm Knowles;…
The study deals with the development of an analogy-integrated e-learning module on Cellular Respiration, which is intended to facilitate conceptual understanding of students with different brain hemisphere dominance and learning styles. The module includes eight analogies originally conceptualized following the specific steps used to prepare…
with social, religious, philosophical, ethical, and political ... they may even feel disconnected from the science carried out in their own ... “networking” is an effective tool in fostering communication for .... less-developed places. And mentors ...
Sulisworo, Dwi; Sutadi, Novitasari
There have been many studies related to the implementation of cooperative learning. However, there are still many problems in school related to the learning outcomes on science lesson, especially in physics. The aim of this study is to observe the application of science learning cycle (SLC) model on improving scientific literacy for secondary…
McGreevy, P D; Della Torre, P K; Evans, D L
Interactive software has been developed on CD-ROM to facilitate learning of problem formulation, diagnostic methodology, and therapeutic options in dog and cat behavior problems. Students working in small groups are presented with a signalment, a case history, and brief description of the problem behavior as perceived by the client. Students then navigate through the case history by asking the client questions from an icon-driven question pad. Animated video responses to the questions are provided. Students are then required to rate the significance of the questions and answers with respect to the development of the unwelcome behavior. Links to online self-assessments and to resource materials about causation and treatment options are provided to assist students in their decision-making process. The activity concludes with a software-generated e-mail submission that includes the recorded history, diagnosis, and recommended treatment for assessment purposes.
Sung, Han-Yu; Hwang, Gwo-Jen
Researchers have recognized the potential of educational computer games in improving students' learning engagement and outcomes; however, facilitating effective learning behaviors during the gaming process remains an important and challenging issue. In this paper, a collaborative knowledge construction strategy was incorporated into an educational…
The paper examines the role of leadership in facilitating collective learning and capacity building by utilising ideas from the fields of evolutionary learning, operations strategy, quality, project and risk management. Two contrasting cases are chosen to show how success and failure can depend upon collective capacity building through participative leadership and Organisational Learning (OL). The bulk of the literature surveyed concerns evolutionary OL in particular those that involve leader...
Caixinha, Miguel; Nunes, Sandrina
This review presents and discusses the contribution of machine learning techniques for diagnosis and disease monitoring in the context of clinical vision science. Many ocular diseases leading to blindness can be halted or delayed when detected and treated at its earliest stages. With the recent developments in diagnostic devices, imaging and genomics, new sources of data for early disease detection and patients' management are now available. Machine learning techniques emerged in the biomedical sciences as clinical decision-support techniques to improve sensitivity and specificity of disease detection and monitoring, increasing objectively the clinical decision-making process. This manuscript presents a review in multimodal ocular disease diagnosis and monitoring based on machine learning approaches. In the first section, the technical issues related to the different machine learning approaches will be present. Machine learning techniques are used to automatically recognize complex patterns in a given dataset. These techniques allows creating homogeneous groups (unsupervised learning), or creating a classifier predicting group membership of new cases (supervised learning), when a group label is available for each case. To ensure a good performance of the machine learning techniques in a given dataset, all possible sources of bias should be removed or minimized. For that, the representativeness of the input dataset for the true population should be confirmed, the noise should be removed, the missing data should be treated and the data dimensionally (i.e., the number of parameters/features and the number of cases in the dataset) should be adjusted. The application of machine learning techniques in ocular disease diagnosis and monitoring will be presented and discussed in the second section of this manuscript. To show the clinical benefits of machine learning in clinical vision sciences, several examples will be presented in glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration
Koomen, Michele Hollingsworth
This case study reports on a student with special education needs in an inclusive seventh grade life science classroom using a framework of disability studies in education. Classroom data collected over 13 weeks consisted of qualitative (student and classroom observations, interviews, student work samples and video-taped classroom teaching and learning record using CETP-COP) methods. Three key findings emerged in the analysis and synthesis of the data: (1) The learning experiences in science for Wizard are marked by a dichotomy straddled between autonomy ["Sometimes I do" (get it)] and dependence ["Sometimes I don't (get it)], (2) the process of learning is fragmented for Wizard because it is underscored by an emerging disciplinary literacy, (3) the nature of the inclusion is fragile and functional. Implications for classroom practices that support students with learning disabilities include focusing on student strengths, intentional use of disciplinary literacy strategies, and opportunities for eliciting student voice in decision making.
Monteiro, Anna Karina
Research acknowledges that if students are to be successful science, they must learn to navigate and cross cultural borders that exist between their own cultures and the subculture of science. This dissertation utilized a mixed methods approach to explore how inservice science teachers working in urban schools construct their ideas of and apply the concepts about the culture of science and cultural border crossing as relevant to the teaching and learning of science. The study used the lenses of cultural capital, social constructivism, and cultural congruency in the design and analysis of each of the three phases of data collection. Phase I identified the perspectives of six inservice science teachers on science culture, cultural border crossing, and which border crossing methods, if any, they used during science teaching. Phase II took a dialectical approach as the teachers read about science culture and cultural border crossing during three informal professional learning community meetings. This phase explored how teachers constructed their understanding of cultural border crossing and how the concept applied to the teaching and learning of science. Phase III evaluated how teachers' perspectives changed from Phase I. In addition, classroom observations were used to determine whether teachers' practices in their science classrooms changed from Phase I to Phase III. All three phases collected data through qualitative (i.e., interviews, classroom observations, and surveys) and quantitative (Likert items) means. The findings indicated that teachers found great value in learning about the culture of science and cultural border crossing as it pertained to their teaching methods. This was not only evidenced by their interviews and surveys, but also in the methods they used in their classrooms. Final conclusions included how the use of student capital resources (prior experiences, understandings and knowledge, ideas an interests, and personal beliefs), if supported by
Project-organised and problem-based learning (POPBL) is becoming increasingly popular across universities all over the world, and hence this, it is also gaining currency in some university-based design educations. At Aalborg University, the curriculum in Industrial Design engineering is no except......Project-organised and problem-based learning (POPBL) is becoming increasingly popular across universities all over the world, and hence this, it is also gaining currency in some university-based design educations. At Aalborg University, the curriculum in Industrial Design engineering...... is no exception: Each semester, students are divided into groups and work with various problems or issues partly defined by themselves within the frame of the semester theme. During the first year at Aalborg University, students are taught how to manage and plan projects independently with the use of common...... planning tools like Gantt charts, schedules and simple resource management practices – tools, which are used throughout the education. However, this paper argues that these common project planning and management practices – typically representing rigid “plan-your-work, then work-your-plan” approaches – do...
Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; van der Meer, Yor; Moerman, Jelle
Recently it has been reported that practicing putting with visual illusions that make the hole appear larger than it actually is leads to longer-lasting performance improvements. Interestingly, from a motor control and learning perspective, it may be possible to actually predict the opposite to occur, as facing a smaller appearing target should enforce performers to be more precise. To test this idea the authors invited participants to practice an aiming task (i.e., a marble-shooting task) with either a visual illusion that made the target appear larger or a visual illusion that made the target appear smaller. They applied a pre-post test design, included a control group training without any illusory effects and increased the amount of practice to 450 trials. In contrast to earlier reports, the results revealed that the group that trained with the visual illusion that made the target look smaller improved performance from pre- to posttest, whereas the group practicing with visual illusions that made the target appear larger did not show any improvements. Notably, also the control group improved from pre- to posttest. The authors conclude that more research is needed to improve our understanding of whether and how visual illusions may be useful training tools for sport skill learning.
Horváth, Klára; Myers, Kyle; Foster, Russell; Plunkett, Kim
Little is known about the role that night-time sleep and daytime naps play in early cognitive development. Our aim was to investigate how napping affects word learning in 16-month-olds. Thirty-four typically developing infants were assigned randomly to nap and wake groups. After teaching two novel object-word pairs to infants, we tested their initial performance with an intermodal preferential looking task in which infants are expected to increase their target looking time compared to a distracter after hearing its auditory label. A second test session followed after approximately a 2-h delay. The delay contained sleep for the nap group or no sleep for the wake group. Looking behaviour was measured with an automatic eye-tracker. Vocabulary size was assessed using the Oxford Communicative Development Inventory. A significant interaction between group and session was found in preferential looking towards the target picture. The performance of the nap group increased after the nap, whereas that of the wake group did not change. The gain in performance correlated positively with the expressive vocabulary size in the nap group. These results indicate that daytime napping helps consolidate word learning in infancy. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.
Burden, Kevin; Kearney, Matthew
This paper adopts scenario planning as a methodological approach and tool to help science educators reconceptualise their use of mobile technologies across various different futures. These `futures' are set out neither as predictions nor prognoses but rather as stimuli to encourage greater discussion and reflection around the use of mobile technologies in science education. Informed by the literature and our empirical data, we consider four alternative futures for science education in a mobile world, with a particular focus on networked collaboration and student agency. We conclude that `seamless learning', whereby students are empowered to use their mobile technologies to negotiate across physical and virtual boundaries (e.g. between school and out-of-school activities), may be the most significant factor in encouraging educators to rethink their existing pedagogical patterns, thereby realizing some of the promises of contextualised participatory science learning.
There are fundamental differences between an on-line course and a traditional face to face classroom course offering. On-line courses are front-loaded, that is, students taking on-line courses first have to navigate an unfamiliar website as they become familiar with the organization of the course. In addition, students in an on-line course in many cases have the stress of having to relate with an instructor and collaborate with colleagues that they may never meet. Many may be unfamiliar with the use of telecommunications technology. These forces can combine to produce students that become disillusioned with the on-line learning process, and consequently drop the course. The stress associated with an on-line course can be significantly reduced by the methods used by the facilitator of the course. Therefore, facilitation of an on-line course can be a key to student retention in on-line courses, and strengthen learning experiences for all students. The Earth System Science Education Alliance on-line course for practicing middle school teachers begins with a three week non-graded module designed to permit the facilitator and students to introduce themselves, provides opportunities to participants to explore the website, and allows participants to practice working with each other to develop Earth systems interactions. These group products are evaluated by the facilitator, and returned with detailed comments to the participants. Once graded work begins during the fourth week of the on-line course, it is guided by rubrics that assign higher value to products that contain multiple examples of supporting evidence of scientific assertions, are accurate, and express depth of reasoning. The facilitator guides participant learning through group threaded discussions, providing feedback for individual journal entries, and on-line comments and suggestions regarding classroom activities developed by the participants. Post-course evaluations suggest that K-12 teacher participants in
TODORUȚ AMALIA VENERA
Full Text Available In this paper I have analysed a series of facilitators that determine creativity and innovation in teaching learning processes, emphasising the role of assessment, organizational culture and information technologies as relevant and essential elements within this challenging approach to create the conditions for an intelligent development of the educational processes. Also I approached issues related to creative learning and innovative teaching in a society in which knowledge takes more and more intense forms and, they require changes and deep transformations in all educational environments. The fundamental objective was to underline the need to learn creatively and to teach innovatively, given the conditions of the development of information technologies and a deeper and deeper immersion in this information environment, with effects on involving more effectively the students in their own learning approach. Based on scientific researches, observation and comparative analyzes, I identified the facilitators which, along with the technologies, support the creative learning and innovative teaching.
Bai, Xue; He, Yiqin; Kohlbacher, Florian
This research investigates the facilitators and barriers for older people to adopt e-learning services using qualitative data of older people in a Chinese city. A qualitative approach was applied to explore the perceived facilitators and obstacles toward e-learning adoption with 10 older Chinese aged over 50. The results indicate the following: (1a) Age-related changes and cohort effects were found to be the internal barriers for the adoption of e-learning. (1b) Equipment problems, lack of time, and the availability of alternatives were found to have negative effects on the acceptance of e-learning services. It is notable that alternatives including the University of the Third Age (U3A) were found to be more attractive for older Chinese. (2a) Work requirements and flexibility of e-learning services were found to have direct effects on the acceptance of services. (2b) User-friendly design and stimulation from family would facilitate older people to adopt. Practical implications of this research include that policymakers should consider investing more in education in later life and introducing e-learning services in public lectures and tutorials and that the age-related barrier should be taken into consideration in the design phase of e-learning services. U3As should consider integrating e-learning approaches and cooperating with the community.
Research on learning science in informal settings and the formal (sometimes experimental) study of learning in classrooms or psychological laboratories tend to be separate domains, even drawing on different theories and methods. These differences make it difficult to compare knowing and learning observed in one paradigm/context with those observed…
Zheng, Binbin; Warschauer, Mark; Hwang, Jin Kyoung; Collins, Penelope
This year-long, quasi-experimental study investigated the impact of the use of netbook computers and interactive science software on fifth-grade students' science learning processes, academic achievement, and interest in further science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) study within a linguistically diverse school district in California. Analysis of students' state standardized science test scores indicated that the program helped close gaps in scientific achievement between at-risk learners (i.e., English learners, Hispanics, and free/reduced-lunch recipients) and their counterparts. Teacher and student interviews and classroom observations suggested that computer-supported visual representations and interactions supported diverse learners' scientific understanding and inquiry and enabled more individualized and differentiated instruction. Finally, interviews revealed that the program had a positive impact on students' motivation in science and on their interest in pursuing science-related careers. This study suggests that technology-facilitated science instruction is beneficial for improving at-risk students' science achievement, scaffolding students' scientific understanding, and strengthening students' motivation to pursue STEM-related careers.
Freuder, R.; Ledley, T. S.; Dahlman, L.
The Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP Federation, http://www.esipfed.org) formed seven years ago and now with 77 member organizations is working to "increase the quality and value of Earth science products and services .for the benefit of the ESIP Federation's stakeholder communities." Education (both formal and informal) is a huge audience that we serve. Partnerships formed by members within the ESIP Federation have created bridges that close the gap between Earth science data collection and research and the effective use of that Earth science data to explore concepts in Earth system science by the educational community. The Earth Exploration Toolbook is one of those successful collaborations. The Earth Exploration Toolbook (EET, http://serc.carleton.edu/eet) grew out of a need of the educational community (articulated by the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE) community) to have better access to Earth science data and data analysis tools and help in effectively using them with students. It is a collection of web-accessible chapters, each featuring step-by-step instructions on how to use an Earth science dataset and data analysis tool to investigate an issue or concept in Earth system science. Each chapter also provides the teacher information on the outcome of the activity, grade level, standards addressed, learning goals, time required, and ideas for exploring further. The individual ESIP Federation partners alone could not create the EET. However, the ESIP Federation facilitated the partnering of members, drawing from data providers, researchers and education tool developers, to create the EET. Interest in the EET has grown since it went live with five chapters in July 2003. There are currently seven chapters with another six soon to be released. Monthly online seminars in which over a hundred educators have participated have given very positive feedback. Post workshop surveys from our telecon-online workshops indicate that
This article makes the case for a new framing of liberal education based on several decades of research emerging from the learning and developmental sciences. This work suggests that general knowledge stems from acquiring both the habits of mind and repertoires of practice that develop from participation in knowledge-building communities. Such…
Bower, Paula Rogovin
Article presents suggestions for motivating elementary students to learn by combining science and writing. The strategies include planning the right environment; teaching the scientific method; establishing a link to literature; and making time for students to observe, experiment, and write. (SM)
Reuter, Jamie M.
The recent decades have seen an increased focus on improving early science education. Goals include helping young children learn about pertinent concepts in science, and fostering early scientific reasoning and inquiry skills (e.g., NRC 2007, 2012, 2015). However, there is still much to learn about what constitutes appropriate frameworks that blend science education with developmentally appropriate learning environments. An important goal for the construction of early science is a better understanding of appropriate learning experiences and expectations for preschool children. This dissertation examines some of these concerns by focusing on three dimensions of science learning in the preschool classroom: (1) the learner; (2) instructional tools and pedagogy; and (3) the social context of learning with peers. In terms of the learner, the dissertation examines some dimensions of preschool children's scientific reasoning skills in the context of potentially relevant, developing general reasoning abilities. As young children undergo rapid cognitive changes during the preschool years, it is important to explore how these may influence scientific thinking. Two features of cognitive functioning have been carefully studied: (1) the demonstration of an epistemic awareness through an emerging theory of mind, and (2) the rapid improvement in executive functioning capacity. Both continue to develop through childhood and adolescence, but changes in early childhood are especially striking and have been neglected as regards their potential role in scientific thinking. The question is whether such skills relate to young children's capacity for scientific thinking. Another goal was to determine whether simple physics diagrams serve as effective instructional tools in supporting preschool children's scientific thinking. Specifically, in activities involving predicting and checking in scientific contexts, the question is whether such diagrams facilitate children's ability to
Aron, David C
The purpose of medical education is to produce competent and capable professional practitioners who can combine the art and science of medicine. Moreover, this process must prepare individuals to practise in a field in which knowledge is increasing and the contexts in which that knowledge is applied are changing in unpredictable ways. The 'basic sciences' are important in the training of a physician. The goal of basic science training is to learn it in a way that the material can be applied in practice. Much effort has been expended to integrate basic science and clinical training, while adding many other topics to the medical curriculum. This effort has been challenging. The aims of the paper are (1) to propose a unifying conceptual framework that facilitates knowledge integration among all levels of living systems from cell to society and (2) illustrate the organizing principles with two examples of the framework in action - cybernetic systems (with feedback) and distributed robustness. Literature related to hierarchical and holarchical frameworks was reviewed. An organizing framework derived from living systems theory and spanning the range from molecular biology to health systems management was developed. The application of cybernetic systems to three levels (regulation of pancreatic beta cell production of insulin, physician adjustment of medication for glycaemic control and development and action of performance measures for diabetes care) was illustrated. Similarly distributed robustness was illustrated by the DNA damage response system and principles underlying patient safety. Each of the illustrated organizing principles offers a means to facilitate the weaving of basic science and clinical medicine throughout the course of study. The use of such an approach may promote systems thinking, which is a core competency for effective and capable medical practice. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Most scientists today recognise that science communication is an important part of the scientific process. Despite this recognition, science writing and communication are generally taught outside the normal academic schedule. If universities offer such courses, they are generally short-term and intensive. On the positive side, such courses rarely fail to motivate. At no fault of their own, the problem with such courses lies in their ephemeral nature. The participants rarely complete a science communication course with an immediate and pressing need to apply these skills. And so the skills fade. We believe that this stalls real progress in the improvement of science communication across the board. Continuity is one of the keys to success! Whilst we wait for the academic system to truly integrate science communication, we can test and develop other approaches. We suggest a new approach that aims to motivate scientists to continue nurturing their communication skills. This approach adopts a collaborative learning framework where scientists form writing groups that meet regularly at different institutes around the world. The members of the groups learn, discuss and improve together. The participants produce short posts, which are published online. In this way, the participants learn and cement basic writing skills. These skills are transferrable, and can be applied to scientific articles as well as other science communication media. In this presentation we reflect on an ongoing project, which applies a collaborative learning framework to help young and early career scientists improve their writing skills. We see that this type of project could be extended to other media such as podcasts, or video shorts.
Sharon Kabes, EdD
Full Text Available Quantitative and qualitative data collected from students who have completed a Master of Science in Education Learning Community Program support the effectiveness of the learning community model in facilitating professional growth and transformation. Instructors model constructivist theory. Peer review, collaboration, and reflective analysis of theory and practice are essential components of the model. The program facilitates growth as educators build their understanding about teaching and learning, transfer their ideas and processes into the classroom, and take an active leadership role in promoting change in classrooms, school, and larger community.
This essential publication is for all research and academic libraries, especially those institutions with online and distance education courses available in their science education programs. This book will also benefit audiences within the science education community of practice and others interested in STEM education, virtual schools, e-learning, m-learning, natural sciences, physical sciences, biological sciences, geosciences, online learning models, virtual laboratories, virtual field trip...
DeWitt, Jennifer; Archer, Louise
Informal science learning (ISL) experiences have been found to provide valuable opportunities to engage with and learn about science and, as such, form a key part of the STEM learning ecosystem. However, concerns remain around issues of equity and access. The Enterprising Science study builds upon previous research in this area and uses the…
Gronemann, Sigurd Trolle
Despite the increasing use of portable tablets in learning, their impact has received little attention in research. In five different projects, this media-ethnographic and design-based analysis of the use of portable tablets as a learning resource in science museums investigates how young people...... is identified. It is argued that, paradoxically, museums’ decisions to innovate by introducing new technologies, such as portable tablets, and new pedagogies to support them conflict with many young people’s traditional ideas of museums and learning. The assessment of the implications of museums’ integration...... of portable tablets indicates that in making pedagogical transformations to accommodate new technologies, museums risk opposing didactic intention if pedagogies do not sufficiently attend to young learners’ systemic expectations to learning and to their expectations to the digital experience influenced...
New learning technologies have the capacity to dramatically impact how students go about learning and to facilitate an active, self-directed learning approach. In U. S. medical education, students encounter a large volume of content, which must be mastered at an accelerated pace. The added pressure to excel on the USMLE Step 1 licensing exam and competition for residency placements, require that students adopt an informed approach to the use of learning technologies so as to enhance rather than to detract from the learning process. The primary aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of how students were using recorded lectures in their learning and how their study habits have been influenced by the technology. Survey research was undertaken using a convenience sample. Students were asked to voluntarily participate in an electronic survey comprised of 27 closed ended, multiple choice questions, and one open ended item. The survey was designed to explore students' perceptions of how recorded lectures affected their choices regarding class participation and impacted their learning and to gain an understanding of how recorded lectures facilitated a strategic, active learning process. Findings revealed that recorded lectures had little influence on students' choices to participate, and that the perceived benefits of integrating recorded lectures into study practices were related to their facilitation of and impact on efficient, active, and self-directed learning. This study was a useful investigation into how the availability of lecture capture technology influenced medical students' study behaviors and how students were making valuable use of the technology as an active learning tool.
Miao, Yongwu; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob
Miao, Y., Sloep, P. B., & Koper, R. (2010). Facilitating Work Based Learning Projects: A Business Process Oriented Knowledge Management Approach. In D. Griffiths & R. Koper (Eds.), Rethinking Learning and Employment at a Time of Economic Uncertainty. Proceedings of the 6th TENCompetence Open workshop (pp. 22-33). November, 19-20, 2009, Manchester, UK. Bolton, UK: Institute for Educational Cybernetics, The University of Bolton. For the complete book please see http://hdl.handle.net/1820/3191
Mason, Glenn; Wang, Shaoyu
Objectives This study analyses the ways in which curriculum reform facilitated student learning about professionalism. Methods Design-based research provided the structure for an iterative approach to curriculum change which we undertook over a 3 year period. The learning environment of the Personal and Professional Development Theme (PPD) was analysed through the sociocultural lens of Activity Theory. Lave and Wenger’s and Mezirow’s learning theories informed curriculum reform to support student development of a patient-centred and critically reflective professional identity. The renewed pedagogical outcomes were aligned with curriculum content, learning and teaching processes and assessment, and intense staff education was undertaken. We analysed qualitative data from tutor interviews and free-response student surveys to evaluate the impact of curriculum reform. Results Students’ and tutors’ reflections on learning in PPD converged on two principle themes - ‘Developing a philosophy of medicine’ and ‘Becoming an ethical doctor’- which corresponded to the overarching PPD theme aims of communicative learning. Students and tutors emphasised the importance of the unique learning environment of PPD tutorials for nurturing personal development and the positive impact of the renewed assessment programme on learning. Conclusions A theory-led approach to curriculum reform resulted in student engagement in the PPD curriculum and facilitated a change in student perspective about the epistemological foundation of medicine. PMID:26845777
O'Kelly, James B.
This study examined the effects of picture books belonging to different literary genres on the learning of science by primary grade students. These genres included modern fantasy, fiction, and nonfiction. The students were exposed to two topics through books, butterflies and snails. The study focused on the effects of those books on children's expressions of (a) knowledge, (b) erroneous information, (c) creative ideas, and (d) the support required to elicit information and ideas from the children. Sixty-one children from three kindergarten and three second grade participated. Children were designated by their teachers as being high or low with respect to academic achievement. These categories allowed measurement of interactions between literary genres, grade levels, and academic achievement levels. Children first learned about butterflies, and then about snails. For each topic, children were interviewed about their knowledge and questions of the topic. Teachers engaged their classes with a book about the topic. The children were re-interviewed about their knowledge and questions about the topic. No class encountered the same genre of book twice. Comparisons of the children's prior knowledge of butterflies and snails indicated that the children possessed significantly more knowledge about butterflies than about snails. Literary genre had one significant effect on children's learning about snails. Contrary to expectations, children who encountered nonfiction produced significantly more creative expressions about snails than children who encountered faction or modern fantasy. No significant effects for literary genre were demonstrated with respect to children's learning about butterflies. The outcomes of the study indicated that nonfiction had its strongest impact on the learning of science when children have a relatively small fund of knowledge about a topic. This study has implications for future research. The inclusion of a larger number of students, classes, and
Zhai, Junqing; Tan, Aik-Ling
This study delves into the different roles that elementary science teachers play in the classroom to orchestrate science learning opportunities for students. Examining the classroom practices of three elementary science teachers in Singapore, we found that teachers shuttle between four key roles in enabling student learning in science. Teachers…
National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2010
Research on science teaching and learning plays an important role in improving science literacy, a goal called for in the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996) and supported by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA 2003). NSTA promotes a research agenda that is focused on the goal of enhancing student learning through effective…
Sato, Mistilina; Bartiromo, Margo; Elko, Susan
The authors report on their work with the Academy for Leadership in Science Instruction, a program targeted to help science teachers promote a science teaching and learning culture in their own schools.
Mitchell, Tania D.
This article highlights elements of civic engagement programs that have the rich potential to facilitate civic identity development. Focusing on research with alumni, the study examines 3 civic engagement programs, the approaches of which are guided by critical service-learning. It explores elements of the experiences that alumni name as…
Bjerregaard, Kirstien; Haslam, S. Alexander; Morton, Thomas
Worldwide, organizations are keen to ensure that they achieve a performance return from the large investment they make in employee training. This study examines the way in which workgroup identification facilitates trainees' motivation to transfer learning into workplace performance. A 2 × 2 longitudinal study evaluated the effects of a new…
Connolly, John; Reid, Garth; Mooney, Allan
It is necessary for public managers to be able to evaluate programmes in the context of complexity. This article offers key learning and reflections based on the experience of facilitating the evaluation of complexity with a range of public sector partners in Scotland. There have been several articles that consider evaluating complexity and…
In this article we discuss our attempt to incorporate research-informed learning and teaching activities into a final year undergraduate Statistics course. We make use of the Shiny web-based application framework for R to develop "Shiny apps" designed to help facilitate student interaction with methods from recently published papers in…
André, Marion Agnès Emma; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise
Recently, it has emerged that visual spatial exploration facilitates synaptic plasticity at different synapses within the trisynaptic network. Particularly striking is the finding that visuospatial contexts facilitate hippocampal long-term depression (LTD), raising the possibility that this form of plasticity may be important for memory formation. It is not known whether other sensory modalities elicit similar permissive effects on LTD. Here, we explored if spatial olfactory learning facilitates LTD in the hippocampus region of freely behaving rats. Patterned afferent stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals elicited short-term depression (STD) (<1 h) of evoked responses in the Stratum radiatum of the CA1 region. Coupling of this protocol with novel exploration of a spatial constellation of olfactory cues facilitated short-term depression into LTD that lasted for over 24 h. Facilitation of LTD did not occur when animals were re-exposed 1 week later to the same odors in the same spatial constellation. Evaluation of learning behavior revealed that 1 week after the 1st odor exposure, the animals remembered the odors and their relative positions. These data support that the hippocampus can use nonvisuospatial resources, and specifically can use spatial olfactory information, to facilitate LTD and to generate spatial representations. The data also support that a tight relationship exists between the processing of spatial contextual information and the expression of LTD in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pimpare, Stephen; Fast, Jonathan
This article describes two case studies: one is from a graduate course in social work practice evaluation taught by the second author; the other is from an undergraduate political science course in media and politics taught by the first author. These cases describe the way blogs, created by students and the professors, facilitate communications…
Okulu, Hasan Zuhtu; Oguz-Unver, Ayse
From the perspective of teaching, the huge natural laboratory that astronomy provides constitutes the most prominent connection between astronomy and other branches of science. The purpose of this research was to provide educators with activities of observation using simple materials that were developed to facilitate the teaching of basic concepts…
Foshee Reed, Lynn
The Joint Science Education Project (JSEP) is a successful summer science and culture opportunity in which students and teachers from the United States, Denmark, and Greenland come together to learn about the research conducted in Greenland and the logistics involved in supporting the research. They conduct experiments first-hand and participate in inquiry-based educational activities alongside scientists and graduate students at a variety of locations in and around Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, and on the top of the ice sheet at Summit Station. The Joint Committee, a high-level forum involving the Greenlandic, Danish and U.S. governments, established the Joint Science Education Project in 2007, as a collaborative diplomatic effort during the International Polar Year to: • Educate and inspire the next generation of polar scientists; • Build strong networks of students and teachers among the three countries; and • Provide an opportunity to practice language and communication skills Since its inception, JSEP has had 82 student and 22 teacher participants and has involved numerous scientists and field researchers. The JSEP format has evolved over the years into its current state, which consists of two field-based subprograms on site in Greenland: the Greenland-led Kangerlussuaq Science Field School and the U.S.-led Arctic Science Education Week. All travel, transportation, accommodations, and meals are provided to the participants at no cost. During the 2013 Kangerlussuaq Science Field School, students and teachers gathered data in a biodiversity study, created and set geo- and EarthCaches, calculated glacial discharge at a melt-water stream and river, examined microbes and tested for chemical differences in a variety of lakes, measured ablation at the edge of the Greenland Ice Sheet, and learned about fossils, plants, animals, minerals and rocks of Greenland. In addition, the students planned and led cultural nights, sharing food, games, stories, and traditions of
Viczko, Jeremy; Sergeeva, Valya; Ray, Laura B.; Owen, Adrian M.; Fogel, Stuart M.
Sleep facilitates the consolidation (i.e., enhancement) of simple, explicit (i.e., conscious) motor sequence learning (MSL). MSL can be dissociated into egocentric (i.e., motor) or allocentric (i.e., spatial) frames of reference. The consolidation of the allocentric memory representation is sleep-dependent, whereas the egocentric consolidation…
Giuliana Batista Rodrigues de Queiroz
Full Text Available This article is a mapping of Brazilian universities that maintain a structured work for Science Journalism and / or the dissemination of science. It analyses the strategies used by the top 50 Brazilian universities for including dissemination of science in their communication activities. In order to do this each institution’s website was examined for the purpose of collecting a large sample size of universities that organize and prioritize the dissemination of science and science journalism, and make their studies and projects available to the public. The dissemination of science is a priority for only 15 universities; ones that have structured science journalism programs. 11 of these universities are among the top 25 in the country which indicates that there is a direct relationship between academic quality and dissemination of science. Thus, this study lends to a deeper understanding of the field of science journalism.
Johan, H.; Suhandi, A.; Wulan, A. R.; Widiasih; Ruyani, A.; Karyadi, B.; Sipriyadi
The purpose of this study was to embed spiritual value through science learning program especially earth planet. Various phenomena in earth planet describe a divinity of super power. This study used quasi experimental method with one group pre-test-post-test design. Convenience sampling was conducted in this study. 23 pre-service physics teacher was involved. Pre-test and post-test used a questionnaire had been conducted to collected data of spiritual attitude. Open ended question had been utilized at post-test to collected data. A fourth indicators of spiritual value related to divinity of God was used to embed spiritual value. The results show a shifted of students’ awareness to divinity of God. Before implementing the earth planet learning, 85.8% of total students strongly agree that learning activity embed spiritual value while after learning process, it increased be 93.4%. After learning earth planet, it known that students’ spiritual value was influenced by character of earth planet concept which unobservable and media visual which display each incredible phenomena process in our earth planet. It can be concluded that spiritual value can be embedded through unobservable phenomena of during learning earth planet process.
Tobin, Kenneth; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Zimmermann, Andrea
Teaching in urban schools, with their problems of violence, lack of resources, and inadequate funding, is difficult. It is even more difficult to learn to teach in urban schools. Yet learning in those locations where one will subsequently be working has been shown to be the best preparation for teaching. In this article we propose coteaching as a viable model for teacher preparation and the professional development of urban science teachers. Coteaching - working at the elbow of someone else - allows new teachers to experience appropriate and timely action by providing them with shared experiences that become the topic of their professional conversations with other coteachers (including peers, the cooperating teacher, university supervisors, and high school students). This article also includes an ethnography describing the experiences of a new teacher who had been assigned to an urban high school as field experience, during which she enacted a curriculum that was culturally relevant to her African American students, acknowledged their minority status with respect to science, and enabled them to pursue the school district standards. Even though coteaching enables learning to teach and curricula reform, we raise doubts about whether our approaches to teacher education and enacting science curricula are hegemonic and oppressive to the students we seek to emancipate through education.
This study explored the content, processes, and dynamics of Professional Learning Community (PLC) sessions. This study also investigated changes in preschool teachers' attitudes and beliefs toward science teaching after they participated in two different forms of PLCs including workshop and face-to-face PLC as well as workshop and online PLC. Multiple sources of data were collected for this study including participant artifacts and facilitator field notes during the PLC sessions. The participants in this study were eight teachers from NAEYC-accredited child care centers serving 3- to 5-year-old children in an urban Midwest city. All teachers participated in a workshop entitled, "Ramps and Pathways." Following the workshop, the first group engaged in face-to-face PLC sessions and the other group engaged in online PLC sessions. Qualitative data were collected through audio recordings, online archives, and open-ended surveys. The teachers' dialogue during the face-to-face PLC sessions was audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed for emerging themes. Online archives during the online PLC sessions were collected and analyzed for emerging themes. Four main themes and 13 subthemes emanated from the face-to-face sessions, and 3 main themes and 7 subthemes emanated from the online sessions. During the face-to-face sessions, the teachers worked collaboratively by sharing their practices, supporting each other, and planning a lesson together. They also engaged in inquiry and reflection about their science teaching and child learning in a positive climate. During the online sessions, the teachers shared their thoughts and documentation and revisited their science teaching and child learning. Five themes and 15 subthemes emanated from the open-ended survey responses of face-to-face group teachers, and 3 themes and 7 subthemes emanated from the open-ended survey responses of online group teachers. Quantitative data collected in this study showed changes in teachers' attitudes and
The purpose of this study was to gain a comprehensive understanding of the facilitators of and barriers to learning within occupational therapy fieldwork education from the perspective of both Canadian and American students. A qualitative study using an online open survey format was conducted to gather data from 29 occupational therapy students regarding their fieldwork experiences. An inductive grounded theory approach to content analysis was used. Individual, environmental, educational, and institutional facilitators of and barriers to learning within occupational therapy fieldwork education were identified. This study's findings suggest that learning within fieldwork education is a highly individual and dynamic process that is influenced by numerous factors. The new information generated by this study has the potential to positively affect the future design and implementation of fieldwork education. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
. The facilitation process focuses on interactive learning and is divided into phases, which makes it easier for SMEs to progressive engage in innovation projects with researchers. In-depth interviews with the facilitators of the programme were conducted and focused on barriers to collaboration, human interaction......, and lessons learned. From the facilitators’ perspective, a conceptual model capturing the main actor’s activities in each phase paralleled with an illustration of the narrowed gap from the human interaction is presented in the paper. The main findings addressed the issues of human-based and system......-based barriers. One of the lessons learned is the importance of human interaction of narrowing the perceived gap by mitigating the human-based barriers, and to some extent also system-based barriers. The case presented in this paper has managerial and innovation policy implications....
Kangas, Jari; Rantanen, Elisa; Kettunen, Lauri
Most freshmen enter universities with high expectations and with good motivation, but too many are driven into performing instead of true learning. The issues are not only related to the challenge of comprehending the substance, social and other factors have an impact as well. All these multifaceted needs should be accounted for to facilitate student learning. Learning is an individual process and remarkable improvement in the learning practices is possible, if proper actions are addressed early enough. We motivate and describe a study of the experience obtained from a set of tailor-made courses that were given alongside standard curriculum. The courses aimed to provide a 'safe community' to address the multifaceted needs. Such support was integrated into regular coursework where active learning techniques, e.g. interactive small groups were incorporated. To assess impact of the courses we employ the feedback obtained during the courses and longitudinal statistical data about students' success.
Anastopoulou, Stamatina; Sharples, Mike; Baber, Chris
This paper explores the value of employing multiple modalities to facilitate science learning with technology. In particular, it is argued that when multiple modalities are employed, learners construct strong relations between physical movement and visual representations of motion. Body interactions with visual representations, enabled by…
Owens, David C.; Sadler, Troy D.; Barlow, Angela T.; Smith-Walters, Cindi
Several studies have found active learning to enhance students' motivation and attitudes. Yet, faculty indicate that students resist active learning and censure them on evaluations after incorporating active learning into their instruction, resulting in an apparent paradox. We argue that the disparity in findings across previous studies is the result of variation in the active learning instruction that was implemented. The purpose of this study was to illuminate sources of motivation from and resistance to active learning that resulted from a novel, exemplary active-learning approach rooted in essential science practices and supported by science education literature. This approach was enacted over the course of 4 weeks in eight sections of an introductory undergraduate biology laboratory course. A plant concept inventory, administered to students as a pre-, post-, and delayed-posttest indicated significant proximal and distal learning gains. Qualitative analysis of open-response questionnaires and interviews elucidated sources of motivation and resistance that resulted from this active-learning approach. Several participants indicated this approach enhanced interest, creativity, and motivation to prepare, and resulted in a challenging learning environment that facilitated the sharing of diverse perspectives and the development of a community of learners. Sources of resistance to active learning included participants' unfamiliarity with essential science practices, having to struggle with uncertainty in the absence of authoritative information, and the extra effort required to actively construct knowledge as compared to learning via traditional, teacher-centered instruction. Implications for implementation, including tips for reducing student resistance to active learning, are discussed.
Quinnell, R.; Thompson, R.; LeBard, R. J.
Developing quantitative skills, or being academically numerate, is part of the curriculum agenda in science teaching and learning. For many of our students, being asked to 'do maths' as part of 'doing science' leads to disengagement from learning. Notions of 'I can't do maths' speak of a rigidity of mind, a 'standoff', forming a barrier to learning in science that needs to be addressed if we, as science educators, are to offer solutions to the so-called 'maths problem' and to support students as they move from being novice to expert. Moving from novice to expert is complex and we lean on several theoretical frameworks (thinking dispositions, threshold concepts and mindfulness in learning) to characterize this pathway in science, with a focus on quantitative skills. Fluid thinking and application of numeracy skills are required to manipulate experimental data sets and are integral to our science practice; we need to stop students from seeing them as optional 'maths' or 'statistics' tasks within our discipline. Being explicit about the ways those in the discipline think, how quantitative data is processed, and allowing places for students to address their skills (including their confidence) offer some ways forward.
Full Text Available Warning signals protect unpalatable prey from predation because predators who learn the association between the warning signal and prey unprofitability decrease attacks on the prey. Most of the research have focused on visual aposematic signals that are constantly presented and visible to the predators. But a variety of chemically defended insects are rather cryptic when resting, and only in response to predator attacks (post-attack they perform displays of conspicuous abdomens or hindwings normally hidden under forewings. The function of those displays in unpalatable insects is not well understood. We examined two adaptive hypotheses on this facultative aposematic display using wild-caught oriental tits (Parus minor as predators. First, we tested whether the display increases the rejection of the prey by predators upon seeing the display (i.e. at the moment of attack through learning trials (aposematic signaling hypothesis. Second, we tested whether the display facilitates the memory formation between cryptic visible form of the prey and prey defense so that it prevents the predators initiate an attack upon seeing the cryptic form (facilitation hypothesis. We found that predators learned to avoid attacking the prey which supports the facilitation hypothesis. However, the support for the aposematic signaling hypothesis was equivocal. Our results open new directions of research by highlighting the possibility that similar facilitation effects may contribute to the evolution of various forms of post-attack visual displays in chemically, or otherwise, defended animals.
Hughes, Julie W; Schnur, Tatiana T
Our success with naming depends on what we have named previously, a phenomenon thought to reflect learning processes. Repeatedly producing the same name facilitates language production (i.e., repetition priming), whereas producing semantically related names hinders subsequent performance (i.e., semantic interference). Semantic interference is found whether naming categorically related items once (continuous naming) or multiple times (blocked cyclic naming). A computational model suggests that the same learning mechanism responsible for facilitation in repetition creates semantic interference in categorical naming (Oppenheim, Dell, & Schwartz, 2010). Accordingly, we tested the predictions that variability in semantic interference is correlated across categorical naming tasks and is caused by learning, as measured by two repetition priming tasks (picture-picture repetition priming, Exp. 1; definition-picture repetition priming, Exp. 2, e.g., Wheeldon & Monsell, 1992). In Experiment 1 (77 subjects) semantic interference and repetition priming effects were robust, but the results revealed no relationship between semantic interference effects across contexts. Critically, learning (picture-picture repetition priming) did not predict semantic interference effects in either task. We replicated these results in Experiment 2 (81 subjects), finding no relationship between semantic interference effects across tasks or between semantic interference effects and learning (definition-picture repetition priming). We conclude that the changes underlying facilitatory and interfering effects inherent to lexical access are the result of distinct learning processes where multiple mechanisms contribute to semantic interference in naming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schmidt, Nola A; Brown, Janet M
Service learning is recognized as a valuable pedagogy involving experiential learning, reflection, and reciprocal learning. Students develop critical thinking and social awareness by using the crucial activity of reflecting upon their experiential learning with community partners. The purpose of this paper is to demystify the process of reflection by identifying best practices to enhance reflection and offering suggestions for grading. By understanding "the what" and "the how" of reflection, educators can implement service learning experiences designed to include the essential component of reflection. Strategies for facilitating meaningful reflection are described including descriptions of what students should reflect upon and how to initiate reflection through writing, reading, doing, and telling. Grading rubrics are suggested to facilitate evaluation of student reflection. When properly implemented, service learning encourages students to be good citizens of the world. By using best practices associated with reflection, students can be challenged to think critically about the world and how their service can achieve community goals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
de Laat, M.M.; Vrieling, E.; van den Beemt, A.A.J.; McDonald, J.; Cater-Steel, A.
To understand the organization of social learning by groups in practice, this chapter elaborates on the use of a framework of dimensions and indicators to explore social learning within (prospective) teacher groups. The applied framework that we call the ‘Dimensions of Social Learning (DSL)
Jamniczky, Heather A; Cotton, Darrel; Paget, Michael; Ramji, Qahir; Lenz, Ryan; McLaughlin, Kevin; Coderre, Sylvain; Ma, Irene W Y
Ultrasonography is increasingly used in medical education, but its impact on learning outcomes is unclear. Adding ultrasound may facilitate learning, but may also potentially overwhelm novice learners. Based upon the framework of cognitive load theory, this study seeks to evaluate the relationship between cognitive load associated with using ultrasound and learning outcomes. The use of ultrasound was hypothesized to facilitate learning in anatomy for 161 novice first-year medical students. Using linear regression analyses, the relationship between reported cognitive load on using ultrasound and learning outcomes as measured by anatomy laboratory examination scores four weeks after ultrasound-guided anatomy training was evaluated in consenting students. Second anatomy examination scores of students who were taught anatomy with ultrasound were compared with historical controls (those not taught with ultrasound). Ultrasound's perceived utility for learning was measured on a five-point scale. Cognitive load on using ultrasound was measured on a nine-point scale. Primary outcome was the laboratory examination score (60 questions). Learners found ultrasound useful for learning. Weighted factor score on "image interpretation" was negatively, but insignificantly, associated with examination scores [F (1,135) = 0.28, beta = -0.22; P = 0.61]. Weighted factor score on "basic knobology" was positively and insignificantly associated with scores; [F (1,138) = 0.27, beta = 0.42; P = 0.60]. Cohorts exposed to ultrasound had significantly higher scores than historical controls (82.4% ± SD 8.6% vs. 78.8% ± 8.5%, Cohen's d = 0.41, P learning and may improve learning outcomes. Anat Sci Educ 10: 144-151. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.
Tekkumru-Kisa, Miray; Stein, Mary Kay; Coker, Ryan
Attaining the vision for science teaching and learning emphasized in the Framework for K-12 Science Education and the next generation science standards (NGSS) will require major shifts in teaching practices in many science classrooms. As NGSS-inspired cognitively demanding tasks begin to appear in more and more science classrooms, facilitating…
Kendrick, S B; Simmons, J M; Richards, B F; Roberge, L P
Despite changes in modern medicine the role of the clinical teacher remains central to medical residents' education and rotations continue to be their dominant educational context. Residents have strong positive feelings for clinical teachers who are perceived as interested in teaching and for those rotations that provide a balance of educational opportunities and patient care responsibilities. Research in residency education has focused on teacher behaviours used to teach medical residents clinical information or patient care skills but has neglected teacher behaviours used to facilitate effective learning relationships with residents. To explore the impact of clinical teachers' use of facilitative behaviours on residents' educational experience, we use concepts stemming from the psychologist Carl Rogers' work previously shown to be associated with positive learning outcomes--empathy, unconditional positive regard, and congruence. These constructs are measured by the use of the four scales of the Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory (BLRI)--level of regard, unconditionality of regard, congruence and empathy. Our study measures the correlation between residents' perceptions of clinical teachers' use of facilitative behaviours and residents' evaluation of the learning value of rotations. Thirty-three residents completed the BLRI on a different clinical teacher for each of six monthly rotations. A total of 158 surveys were returned. There were strong positive correlations between three of the BLRI variables and residents' perception of the learning value of rotations. Potential uses of these findings are discussed.
Leroy, Lisa; Rittner, Jessica Levin; Johnson, Karin E; Gerteis, Jessie; Miller, Therese
Collaborative research networks are increasingly used as an effective mechanism for accelerating knowledge transfer into policy and practice. This paper explored the characteristics and collaborative learning approaches of nine health research networks. Semi-structured interviews with representatives from eight diverse US health services research networks conducted between November 2012 and January 2013 and program evaluation data from a ninth. The qualitative analysis assessed each network's purpose, duration, funding sources, governance structure, methods used to foster collaboration, and barriers and facilitators to collaborative learning. The authors reviewed detailed notes from the interviews to distill salient themes. Face-to-face meetings, intentional facilitation and communication, shared vision, trust among members and willingness to work together were key facilitators of collaborative learning. Competing priorities for members, limited funding and lack of long-term support and geographic dispersion were the main barriers to coordination and collaboration across research network members. The findings illustrate the importance of collaborative learning in research networks and the challenges to evaluating the success of research network functionality. Conducting readiness assessments and developing process and outcome evaluation metrics will advance the design and show the impact of collaborative research networks. Copyright © 2017 Longwoods Publishing.
Donna M. Kridelbaugh
Full Text Available Citizen science is becoming even more accessible to the general public through technological advances in the development of mobile applications, facilitating information dissemination and data collection. With the advent of “big data,” many citizen-science projects designed to help researchers sift through piles of research data now exist entirely online, either in the form of playing a game or via other digital avenues. Recent trends in citizen science have also focused on “crowdsourcing” solutions from the general public to help solve societal issues, often requiring nothing more than brainstorming and a computer to submit ideas. Online citizen science thus provides an excellent platform to expand the accessibility of experiential learning opportunities for a broad range of nonmajor science students at institutions with limited resources (e.g., community colleges. I created an activity for a general microbiology lecture to engage students in hands-on experiences via participation in online citizen-science projects. The objectives of the assignment were for students to: 1 understand that everyone can be a scientist; 2 learn to be creative and innovative in designing solutions to health and science challenges; and 3 further practice science communication skills with a written report. This activity is designed for introductory science courses with nonmajor science students who have limited opportunities to participate in undergraduate research experiences.
Campbell, Paul; Evans, Peter
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the beliefs held by managers about their roles as facilitators of learning with their employees in a public utilities organisation. Design/methodology/approach: The research was based on Ellinger and Bostrom's (2002) study on managers' beliefs on their role as facilitators of learning in…
Li, Ming-Chaun; Tsai, Chin-Chung
The purpose of this study is to review empirical research articles regarding game-based science learning (GBSL) published from 2000 to 2011. Thirty-one articles were identified through the Web of Science and SCOPUS databases. A qualitative content analysis technique was adopted to analyze the research purposes and designs, game design and implementation, theoretical backgrounds and learning foci of these reviewed studies. The theories and models employed by these studies were classified into four theoretical foundations including cognitivism, constructivism, the socio-cultural perspective, and enactivism. The results indicate that cognitivism and constructivism were the major theoretical foundations employed by the GBSL researchers and that the socio-cultural perspective and enactivism are two emerging theoretical paradigms that have started to draw attention from GBSL researchers in recent years. The analysis of the learning foci showed that most of the digital games were utilized to promote scientific knowledge/concept learning, while less than one-third were implemented to facilitate the students' problem-solving skills. Only a few studies explored the GBSL outcomes from the aspects of scientific processes, affect, engagement, and socio-contextual learning. Suggestions are made to extend the current GBSL research to address the affective and socio-contextual aspects of science learning. The roles of digital games as tutor, tool, and tutee for science education are discussed, while the potentials of digital games to bridge science learning between real and virtual worlds, to promote collaborative problem-solving, to provide affective learning environments, and to facilitate science learning for younger students are also addressed.
Full Text Available This essential publication is for all research and academic libraries, especially those institutions with online and distance education courses available in their science education programs. This book will also benefit audiences within the science education community of practice and others interested in STEM education, virtual schools, e-learning, m-learning, natural sciences, physical sciences, biological sciences, geosciences, online learning models, virtual laboratories, virtual field trips, cyberinfrastructure, neurological learning and the neuro-cognitive model. The continued growth in general studies and liberal arts and science programs online has led to a rise in the number of students whose science learning experiences are partially or exclusively online. character and quality of online science instruction.
I have been involved in research on collaborative activities for improving the quality of teaching and learning high school science. Initially the collaborative activities we researched involved the uses of coteaching and cogenerative dialogue in urban middle and high schools in Philadelphia and New York (currently I have active research sites in New York and Brisbane, Australia). The research not only transformed practices but also produced theories that informed the development of additional collaborative activities and served as interventions for research and creation of heuristics for professional development programs and teacher certification courses. The presentation describes a collage of collaborative approaches to teaching and learning science, including coteaching, cogenerative dialogue, radical listening, critical reflection, and mindful action. For each activity in the collage I provide theoretical frameworks and empirical support, ongoing research, and priorities for the road ahead. I also address methodologies used in the research, illustrating how teachers and students collaborated as researchers in multilevel investigations of teaching and learning and learning to teach that included ethnography, video analysis, and sophisticated analyses of the voice, facial expression of emotion, eye gaze, and movement of the body during classroom interactions. I trace the evolution of studies of face-to-face interactions in science classes to the current focus on emotions and physiological aspects of teaching and learning (e.g., pulse rate, pulse strength, breathing patterns) that relate to science participation and achievement.
Etherington, Matthew B.
This study reports on the success of using a problem-based learning approach (PBL) as a pedagogical mode of learning open inquiry science within a traditional four-year undergraduate elementary teacher education program. In 2010, a problem-based learning approach to teaching primary science replaced the traditional content driven syllabus. During…
A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient’s everyday speech. The SLP’s plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit...... are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3...... change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy...
Romanov, Kalle; Nevgi, Anne
There is controversial evidence of the impact of individual learning style on students' performance in computer-aided learning. We assessed the association between the use of multimedia materials, such as video clips, and collaborative communication tools with learning outcome among medical students. One hundred and twenty-one third-year medical students attended a course in medical informatics (0.7 credits) consisting of lectures, small group sessions and eLearning material. The eLearning material contained six learning modules with integrated video clips and collaborative learning tools in WebCT. Learning outcome was measured with a course exam. Approximately two-thirds of students (68.6%) viewed two or more videos. Female students were significantly more active video-watchers. No significant associations were found between video-watching and self-test scores or the time used in eLearning. Video-watchers were more active in WebCT; they loaded more pages and more actively participated in discussion forums. Video-watching was associated with a better course grade. Students who watched video clips were more active in using collaborative eLearning tools and achieved higher course grades.
Libao, Nhorvien Jay P.; Sagun, Jessie John B.; Tamangan, Elvira A.; Pattalitan, Agaton P., Jr.; Dupa, Maria Elena D.; Bautista, Romiro G.
This study was designed to analyze the relationship of students' learning motivation and their academic performances in science. The study made use of 21 junior and senior Biological Science students to conclude on the formulated research problems. The respondents had a good to very good motivation in learning science. In general, the extent of…
Chapman, Georgina; Langley, Mark; Skilling, Gus; Walker, John
The national network of Science Learning Centres is a co-ordinating partner in the Getting Practical--Improving Practical Work in Science programme. The principle of training provision for the "Getting Practical" programme is a cascade model. Regional trainers employed by the national network of Science Learning Centres trained the cohort of local…
Do, Phuong T; Moreland, John R
The present study investigated the influence of 3D multimodal visualization and learning rehearsal on memory recall. Participants (N = 175 college students ranging from 21 to 25 years) were assigned to different training conditions and rehearsal processes to learn a list of 14 terms associated with construction of a wood-frame house. They then completed a memory test determining their cognitive ability to free recall the definitions of the 14 studied terms immediately after training and rehearsal. The audiovisual modality training condition was associated with the highest accuracy, and the visual- and auditory-modality conditions with lower accuracy rates. The no-training condition indicated little learning acquisition. A statistically significant increase in performance accuracy for the audiovisual condition as a function of rehearsal suggested the relative importance of rehearsal strategies in 3D observational learning. Findings revealed the potential application of integrating virtual reality and cognitive sciences to enhance learning and teaching effectiveness.
Today, it takes only a few months for the amount of knowledge to double. The volume of information available has grown so much that it cannot be fully encompassed by the human mind. For this reason, science, learning, and education have to change in the third millennium. The question is thus: what is it that needs to be done? The answer may be found through three basic stages. The first stage is persuading scientists of the necessity to change science education. The second stage is more difficult, in that scientists must be told that they should not place an exaggerated importance on their own academic field and that they should see their field as being on an equal basis with other fields. In the last stage, scientists need to condense the bulk of information on their hands to a manageable size. "Change" is the magic word of our time. Change brings about new rules, and this process happens very quickly in a global world. If we scientists do not rapidly change our scientific learning and education, we will find our students and ourselves caught up in an irreversibly destructive and fatal change that sets its own rules, just like the Arab spring.
Full Text Available Today, it takes only a few months for the amount of knowledge to double. The volume of information available has grown so much that it cannot be fully encompassed by the human mind. For this reason, science, learning, and education have to change in the third millennium. The question is thus: what is it that needs to be done? The answer may be found through three basic stages. The first stage is persuading scientists of the necessity to change science education. The second stage is more difficult, in that scientists must be told that they should not place an exaggerated importance on their own academic field and that they should see their field as being on an equal basis with other fields. In the last stage, scientists need to condense the bulk of information on their hands to a manageable size. “Change” is the magic word of our time. Change brings about new rules, and this process happens very quickly in a global world. If we scientists do not rapidly change our scientific learning and education, we will find our students and ourselves caught up in an irreversibly destructive and fatal change that sets its own rules, just like the Arab spring.
Meissner, Sarah Nadine; Südmeyer, Martin; Keitel, Ariane; Pollok, Bettina; Bellebaum, Christian
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) provides an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD) motor symptoms. However, findings of effects on cognitive function such as feedback learning remain controversial and rare. The aim of the present study was to gain a better understanding of cognitive alterations associated with STN-DBS. Therefore, we investigated effects of STN-DBS on active and observational feedback learning in PD. 18 PD patients with STN-DBS and 18 matched healthy controls completed active and observational feedback learning tasks. Patients were investigated ON and OFF STN-DBS. Tasks consisted of learning (with feedback) and test phases (without feedback). STN-DBS improved active learning during feedback trials and PD patients ON (but not OFF) STN-DBS showed comparable performance patterns as healthy controls. No STN-DBS effect was found when assessing performance during active test trials without feedback. In this case, however, STN-DBS effects were found to depend on symptom severity. While more impaired patients benefited from STN-DBS, stimulation had no facilitating effect on patients with less severe symptoms. Along similar lines, the severity of motor symptoms tended to be significantly correlated with differences in active test performance due to STN-DBS. For observational feedback learning, there was a tendency for a positive STN-DBS effect with patients reaching the performance level of healthy controls only ON STN-DBS. The present data suggest that STN-DBS facilitates active feedback learning in PD patients. Furthermore, they provide first evidence that STN-DBS might not only affect learning from own but also from observed actions and outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shen, Kuan-Ming; Lee, Min-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen
In the area of science education research, studies have attempted to investigate conceptions of learning, approaches to learning, and self-efficacy, mainly focusing on science in general or on specific subjects such as biology, physics, and chemistry. However, few empirical studies have probed students' earth science learning. This study aimed to…
Whelan, Alexander; Leddy, John J; Mindra, Sean; Matthew Hughes, J D; El-Bialy, Safaa; Ramnanan, Christopher J
The purpose of this study was to compare student perceptions regarding two, small group learning approaches to compressed (46.5 prosection-based laboratory hours), integrated anatomy education at the University of Ottawa medical program. In the facilitated active learning (FAL) approach, tutors engage students and are expected to enable and balance both active learning and progression through laboratory objectives. In contrast, the emphasized independent learning (EIL) approach stresses elements from the "flipped classroom" educational model: prelaboratory preparation, independent laboratory learning, and limited tutor involvement. Quantitative (Likert-style questions) and qualitative data (independent thematic analysis of open-ended commentary) from a survey of students who had completed the preclerkship curriculum identified strengths from the EIL (promoting student collaboration and communication) and FAL (successful progression through objectives) approaches. However, EIL led to student frustration related to a lack of direction and impaired completion of objectives, whereas active learning opportunities in FAL were highly variable and dependent on tutor teaching style. A "hidden curriculum" was also identified, where students (particularly EIL and clerkship students) commonly compared their compressed anatomy education or their anatomy learning environment with other approaches. Finally, while both groups highly regarded the efficiency of prosection-based learning and expressed value for cadaveric-based learning, student commentary noted that the lack of grade value dedicated to anatomy assessment limited student accountability. This study revealed critical insights into small group learning in compressed anatomy education, including the need to balance student active learning opportunities with appropriate direction and feedback (including assessment). © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.
Annali E Fichardt
Full Text Available In 1997 the School for Nursing, University of the Orange Free State, changed from the traditional lecture method of teaching to problem-based learning and from a curative to a community-based approach. Lecturers from a traditional environment became facilitators and new skills such as listening, dialogue, negotiation, counselling and problemsolving were expected from them. Besides the role change, the environment changed from a structural classroom to an unstructured community. The aim of this research was to determine the perceptions and experiences of facilitators in problem-based learning and community-base education. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.
Stolper, Margreet; Molewijk, Bert; Widdershoven, Guy
Moral case deliberation (MCD) is a dialogue among health care professionals about moral issues in practice. A trained facilitator moderates the dialogue, using a conversation method. Often, the facilitator is an ethicist. However, because of the growing interest in MCD and the need to connect MCD to practice, healthcare professionals should also become facilitators themselves. In order to transfer the facilitating expertise to health care professionals, a training program has been developed. This program enables professionals in health care institutions to acquire expertise in dealing with moral questions independent of the expertise of an (external) ethicist. Over the past 10 years, we developed a training program with a specific mix of theory and practice, aiming to foster the right attitude, skills and knowledge of the trainee. The content and the didactics of the training developed in line with the philosophy of MCD: pragmatic hermeneutics, dialogical ethics and Socratic epistemology. Central principles are: 'learning by doing', 'reflection instead of ready made knowledge', and 'dialogue on dialogue'. This paper describes the theoretical background and the didactic content of the current training. Furthermore, we present didactic tools which we developed for stimulating active learning. We also go into lessons we learned in developing the training. Next, we provide some preliminary data from evaluation research of the training program by participants. The discussion highlights crucial aspects of educating professionals to become facilitators of MCD. The paper ends with concluding remarks and a plea for more evaluative evidence of the effectiveness and meaning of this training program for doing MCD in institutions.
Rahayu, Y. S.; Pratiwi, R.; Indana, S.
This research aims to describe development of Biology student worksheets to facilitate science process skills of student, at the same time to facilitate thinking skills of students in senior high school are equipped with Assesment Sheets. The worksheets development refers to cycle which includes phase analysis (analysis), planning (planning), design (design), development (development), implementation (implementation), evaluation and revision (evaluation and revision). Phase evaluation and revision is an ongoing activity conducted in each phase of the development cycle. That is, after the evaluation of the results of these activities and make revisions at any phase, then continue to the next phase. Based on the test results for grade X, XI, and XII in St. Agnes Surabaya high school, obtained some important findings. The findings are as follows. (1) Developed biology student worksheets could be used to facilitate thinking ability of students in particular skills integrated process that includes components to formulate the problem, formulate hypotheses, determine the study variables, formulate an operational definition of variables, determine the steps in the research, planning data tables, organizing Data in the form of tables/charts, drawing conclusions, (2) Developed biology student worksheets could also facilitate the development of social interaction of students such as working together, listening/respect the opinions of others, assembling equipment and materials, discuss and share information and facilitate the upgrading of skills hands-on student activity. (3) Developed biology worksheets basically could be implemented with the guidance of the teacher step by step, especially for students who have never used a similar worksheet. Guidance at the beginning of this need, especially for worksheets that require special skills or understanding of specific concepts as a prerequisite, such as using a microscope, determine the heart rate, understand the mechanism of
Carlisle, Caroline; Ibbotson, Tracy
The evidence base for the effectiveness of problem-based learning (PBL) has never been substantively established, although PBL is a generally accepted approach to learning in health care curricula. PBL is believed to encourage transferable skills, including problem-solving and team-working. PBL was used to deliver a postgraduate research methods module and a small evaluation study to explore its efficacy was conducted amongst the students (n = 51) and facilitators (n = 6). The study comprised of an evaluation questionnaire, distributed after each themed group of PBL sessions, and a group discussion conducted 4 weeks after the conclusion of the module, which was attended by student representatives and the facilitators. Questionnaire data was analysed using SPSS, and a transcript of the interview was subjected to content analysis. The results indicated that students felt that a PBL approach helped to make the subject matter more interesting to them and they believed that they would retain knowledge for a longer period than if their learning had used a more traditional lecture format. Students also perceived that PBL was effective in its ability to enhance students' understanding of the group process. All those involved in the PBL process reinforced the pivotal role of the facilitator. This study indicates that there is potential for PBL to be used beyond the more usual clinical scenarios constructed for health care professional education and further exploration of its use in areas such as building research capability should be undertaken.
Park, Jiyeon; Jeon, Dongryul
The systemizing and empathizing brain type represent two contrasted students' characteristics. The present study investigated differences in the conceptions and approaches to learning science between the systemizing and empathizing brain type students. The instruments are questionnaires on the systematizing and empathizing, questionnaires on the…
Suwono, H.; Susanti, S.; Lestari, U.
The learning activities that involve the students to learn actively is one of the characteristics of a qualified education. The learning strategy that involves students’ active learning is guided inquiry. Learning problems today are growing metacognitive skills and cognitive learning outcomes. It is the research and development of learning module by using 4D models of Thiagarajan. The first phase is Define, which analyses the problems and needs required by the prior preparation of the module. The second phase is Design, which formulates learning design and devices to obtain the initial draft of learning modules. The third stage is Develop, which is developing and writing module, module validation, product testing, revision, and the resulting an end-product results module development. The fourth stage is Disseminate, which is disseminating of the valid products. Modules were validated by education experts, practitioners, subject matter experts, and expert of online media. The results of the validation module indicated that the module was valid and could be used in teaching and learning. In the validation phase of testing methods, we used experiments to know the difference of metacognitive skills and learning outcomes between the control group and experimental group. The experimental design was a one group pretest-posttest design. The results of the data analysis showed that the modules could enhance metacognitive skills and learning outcomes. The advantages of this module is as follows, 1) module is accompanied by a video link on a website that contains practical activities that are appropriate to Curriculum 2013, 2) module is accompanied by a video link on a website that contains about manual laboratory activities that will be used in the classroom face-to-face, so that students are ready when doing laboratory activities, 3) this module can be online through chat to increase students’ understanding. The disadvantages of this module are the material presented in
Wegner, Claas; Homann, Wiebke; Strehlke, Friederike
The German science project "NAWI-Interaktiv" is an example of innovative use of E-Learning and new media education. Since 2009, the learning platform provides learners and teachers with high-quality learning tools, teaching material, useful information and E-learning programs for free. This is to raise the pupils' motivation to learn…
Liu, Min; Rosenblum, Jason A.; Horton, Lucas; Kang, Jina
Given the growing popularity of digital games as a form of entertainment, educators are interested in exploring using digital games as a tool to facilitate learning. In this study, we examine game-based learning by describing a learning environment that combines game elements, play, and authenticity in the real world for the purpose of engaging…
Menges, Steven A; Riepe, Joshua R; Philips, Gary T
A highly conserved feature of memory is that it can exist in a latent, non-expressed state which is revealed during subsequent learning by its ability to significantly facilitate (savings) or inhibit (latent inhibition) subsequent memory formation. Despite the ubiquitous nature of latent memory, the mechanistic nature of the latent memory trace and its ability to influence subsequent learning remains unclear. The model organism Aplysia californica provides the unique opportunity to make strong links between behavior and underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Using Aplysia, we have studied the mechanisms of savings due to latent memory for a prior, forgotten experience. We previously reported savings in the induction of three distinct temporal domains of memory: short-term (10min), intermediate-term (2h) and long-term (24h). Here we report that savings memory formation utilizes molecular signaling pathways that are distinct from original learning: whereas the induction of both original intermediate- and long-term memory in naïve animals requires mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and ongoing protein synthesis, 2h savings memory is not disrupted by inhibitors of MAPK or protein synthesis, and 24h savings memory is not dependent on MAPK activation. Collectively, these findings reveal that during forgetting, latent memory for the original experience can facilitate relearning through molecular signaling mechanisms that are distinct from original learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mitchener, Carole P.; Jackson, Wendy M.
In this article, we present a case study of a beginning science teacher's year-long action research project, during which she developed a meaningful grasp of learning from practice. Wendy was a participant in the middle grade science program designed for career changers from science professions who had moved to teaching middle grade science. An…
Libao, Nhorvien Jay P.; Sagun, Jessie John B.; Tamangan, Elvira A.; Pattalitan, Agaton P.; Dupa, Maria Elena D.; Bautista, Romiro Gordo
This study was designed to analyze the relationship of students’ learning motivation and their academic performances in science. The study made use of 21 junior and senior Biological Science students to conclude on the formulated research problems. The respondents had a good to very good motivation in learning science. In general, the extent of their motivation do not vary across their sex, age, and curriculum year. Moreover, the respondents had good academic performances in science. Aptly, e...
Bilican, K.; Cakiroglu, J.; Oztekin, C.
Exploring different contexts to facilitate in-depth nature of science (NOS) views were seen as critical for better professional development of pre-service science teachers, which ultimately would assure better students' NOS understanding and achieve an ultimate goal of current science education reforms. This study aimed to reduce the lack of…
Full Text Available Blended learning combines face-to-face class based and online teaching and learning delivery in order to increase flexibility in how, when, and where students study and learn. The development, integration, and promotion of blended learning in frameworks of curriculum design can optimize the opportunities afforded by information and communication technologies and, concomitantly, accommodate a broad range of student learning styles. This study critically reviews the potential benefits of blended learning as a progressive educative paradigm for the teaching of biomedical science and evaluates the opportunities that blended learning offers for the delivery of accessible, flexible and sustainable teaching and learning experiences. A central tenet of biomedical science education at the tertiary level is the development of comprehensive hands-on practical competencies and technical skills (many of which require laboratory-based learning environments, and it is advanced that a blended learning model, which combines face-to-face synchronous teaching and learning activities with asynchronous online teaching and learning activities, effectively creates an authentic, enriching, and student-centred learning environment for biomedical science. Lastly, a blending learning design for introductory biochemistry will be described as an effective example of integrating face-to-face and online teaching, learning and assessment activities within the teaching domain of biomedical science. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v3i4.169
the impact on teaching and learning in terms of how the teacher and the students used the materials and the impact on the students’ performance and satisfaction. The article concludes that replacing face-to-face lectures with webcasts and online activities has the potential to improve learning in terms...... of a better student performance, higher student satisfaction, and a higher degree of flexibility for the students. In addition, the article discusses implications of using learning design for educational development, how learning design may help breaking with the perception that facilitating blended learning...... is a daunting process, and, ultimately, its potential for addressing some of the grand challenges in science education and the political agenda of today....
Lovelace, Matthew; Brickman, Peggy
Science educators often characterize the degree to which tests measure different facets of college students' learning, such as knowing, applying, and problem solving. A casual survey of scholarship of teaching and learning research studies reveals that many educators also measure how students' attitudes influence their learning. Students' science attitudes refer to their positive or negative feelings and predispositions to learn science. Science educators use attitude measures, in conjunction with learning measures, to inform the conclusions they draw about the efficacy of their instructional interventions. The measurement of students' attitudes poses similar but distinct challenges as compared with measurement of learning, such as determining validity and reliability of instruments and selecting appropriate methods for conducting statistical analyses. In this review, we will describe techniques commonly used to quantify students' attitudes toward science. We will also discuss best practices for the analysis and interpretation of attitude data.
Jarvers, Christian; Brosch, Tobias; Brechmann, André; Woldeit, Marie L; Schulz, Andreas L; Ohl, Frank W; Lommerzheim, Marcel; Neumann, Heiko
Biologically plausible modeling of behavioral reinforcement learning tasks has seen great improvements over the past decades. Less work has been dedicated to tasks involving contingency reversals, i.e., tasks in which the original behavioral goal is reversed one or multiple times. The ability to adjust to such reversals is a key element of behavioral flexibility. Here, we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying contingency-reversal tasks. We first conduct experiments with humans and gerbils to demonstrate memory effects, including multiple reversals in which subjects (humans and animals) show a faster learning rate when a previously learned contingency re-appears. Motivated by recurrent mechanisms of learning and memory for object categories, we propose a network architecture which involves reinforcement learning to steer an orienting system that monitors the success in reward acquisition. We suggest that a model sensory system provides feature representations which are further processed by category-related subnetworks which constitute a neural analog of expert networks. Categories are selected dynamically in a competitive field and predict the expected reward. Learning occurs in sequentialized phases to selectively focus the weight adaptation to synapses in the hierarchical network and modulate their weight changes by a global modulator signal. The orienting subsystem itself learns to bias the competition in the presence of continuous monotonic reward accumulation. In case of sudden changes in the discrepancy of predicted and acquired reward the activated motor category can be switched. We suggest that this subsystem is composed of a hierarchically organized network of dis-inhibitory mechanisms, dubbed a dynamic control network (DCN), which resembles components of the basal ganglia. The DCN selectively activates an expert network, corresponding to the current behavioral strategy. The trace of the accumulated reward is monitored such that large sudden
D'Antoni, Anthony V; Zipp, Genevieve Pinto; Olson, Valerie G; Cahill, Terrence F
A learning strategy underutilized in medical education is mind mapping. Mind maps are multi-sensory tools that may help medical students organize, integrate, and retain information. Recent work suggests that using mind mapping as a note-taking strategy facilitates critical thinking. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a relationship existed between mind mapping and critical thinking, as measured by the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT), and whether a relationship existed between mind mapping and recall of domain-based information. In this quasi-experimental study, 131 first-year medical students were randomly assigned to a standard note-taking (SNT) group or mind map (MM) group during orientation. Subjects were given a demographic survey and pre-HSRT. They were then given an unfamiliar text passage, a pre-quiz based upon the passage, and a 30-minute break, during which time subjects in the MM group were given a presentation on mind mapping. After the break, subjects were given the same passage and wrote notes based on their group (SNT or MM) assignment. A post-quiz based upon the passage was administered, followed by a post-HSRT. Differences in mean pre- and post-quiz scores between groups were analyzed using independent samples t-tests, whereas differences in mean pre- and post-HSRT total scores and subscores between groups were analyzed using ANOVA. Mind map depth was assessed using the Mind Map Assessment Rubric (MMAR). There were no significant differences in mean scores on both the pre- and post-quizzes between note-taking groups. And, no significant differences were found between pre- and post-HSRT mean total scores and subscores. Although mind mapping was not found to increase short-term recall of domain-based information or critical thinking compared to SNT, a brief introduction to mind mapping allowed novice MM subjects to perform similarly to SNT subjects. This demonstrates that medical students using mind maps can successfully
Thomas Barbosa Fejolo
Full Text Available This paper presents a research on informal Science learning in the context of the Institutional Scholarship Program Initiation to Teaching (PIBID. We take as reference the strands of informal Science learning (FAC, representing six dimensions of learning, they are: 1 Development of interest in Science; 2 Understanding of scientific knowledge; 3 Engaging in scientific reasoning; 4 Reflection on Science; 5 Engagement in scientific practice; 6 Identification with Science. For the lifting data, it was used the filming record of the interactions and dialogues of undergraduate students while performing activities of Optical Spectroscopy in the laboratory. Based on the procedures of content analysis and interpretations through communication, we investigate which of the six strands were present during the action of the students in activities. As a result we have drawn a learning profile for each student by distributing communications in different strands of informal Science learning.
Girod, Mark; Twyman, Todd; Wojcikiewicz, Steve
Drawing from the Deweyan theory of experience (1934, 1938), the goal of teaching and learning for transformative, aesthetic experience is contrasted against teaching and learning from a cognitive, rational framework. A quasi-experimental design was used to investigate teaching and learning of fifth grade science from each perspective across an entire school year including three major units of instruction. Detailed comparisons of teaching are given and pre and post measures of interest in learning science, science identity affiliation, and efficacy beliefs are investigated. Tests of conceptual understanding before, after, and one month after instruction reveal teaching for transformative, aesthetic experience fosters more, and more enduring, learning of science concepts. Investigations of transfer also suggest students learning for transformative, aesthetic experiences learn to see the world differently and find more interest and excitement in the world outside of school.
Sudharsanam, Manni Balasubramaniam
Topics on environmental health are usually neglected by students and it is necessary for them to learn this area with a public health perspective as environment plays a vital role in multi-factorial causation of diseases. Hence there is a need for alternative teaching/learning methods to facilitate students in acquiring the required knowledge. To increase the student interest and enhance their participation in acquiring knowledge in public health perspective of environmental health. Teaching Objectives/Learning Were: At the end of the session students should know the importance of air as an environmental factor in disease causation in special reference to public health hazards, the major sources of air pollution, major pollutants causing the health hazards, the way to measure pollutants and control them. The whole class of students was divided into two batches and one session was planned for each batch. Each batch was divided into six small groups. The groups were given task of exploring the internet on the different topics mentioned in the learning objectives. All the students were asked to explore, compile information and collectively prepare a presentation and present their findings based on their reviews. Students' feedback was collected at the end of each session. Eighty five percent of them were clear about the learning objectives and interested about internet learning. Most of them gave a positive opinion about the newer teaching learning method. Internet assisted group study served as a valuable alternative, innovative, and interesting tool to teach and learn the environmental health as revealed by students' feedback.
Mohammad Reza Shahabi Kaseb
Full Text Available Introduction: Preparation of neuromuscular system prior to performing motor skills affects the learning of motor skills. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF on limb coordination and accuracy in dart throwing skill. Methods: Thirty two male students were randomly selected as study sample. Based on the pretest scores, the participants were divided into three groups: experimental (proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, first control (without warm-up, and second control (specific warm-up. During the acquisition phase, the participants first performed the preparation training related to their own group, then all groups performed the exercise program of dart throwing consisting of 6 blocks of 9 trials in 4 training sessions. Finally, 20 days following the last exercise session, the subjects took the retention and transfer tests. Results: The results of one-way ANOVA test for coordination variable in acquisition test showed no significant difference between the groups, while there was a statistically significant difference between groups regarding coordination variable in retention and transfer tests. Furthermore, the results of one-way ANOVA for the accuracy variable in acquisition and retention tests showed no statistically significant difference between the three groups, while there was a statistically significant difference between groups for accuracy variable in transfer test. Conclusion: It seems that proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, as a preparation method before performance, can enhance the efficacy of training to better learn the coordination pattern of fine motor skills.
Löfmark, A; Wikblad, K
The aim of this study was to provide information on what the student nurses found facilitating and obstructing for their learning during clinical practice. Earlier studies of experiences of learning in clinical practice have shown that factors as the possibilities of variations of experiences, the culture of the workplace, and communication between the educational institution and health care facilities are of importance. Less is known about the opportunities which students are given in order to practise the skills that they will be expected to perform as new graduate nurses. The experiences of 47 degree student nurses from two colleges in Sweden were gathered in weekly diaries during their final period of clinical practice. A content analysis technique was used to analyse their diaries. The students emphasized responsibility and independence, opportunities to practise different tasks, and receiving feedback as facilitating factors. Other perceived promoting factors included perceptions of control of the situation and understanding of the 'total picture'. Examples of obstructing factors were the nurses as supervisors not relying on the students, supervision that lacked continuity and lack of opportunities to practise. Perception of their own insufficiency and low self-reliance were drawbacks for some students. Recommended proposals are presented to lecturers and supervising staff concerning organizational and educational changes, and changes of attitudes for elucidating the students' experiences of different facilitating and obstructing factors. Changes may contribute to making easier the students' transition into the nursing profession.
Full Text Available Background: Ethical care is a core value in nursing. Pediatric nurses are in direct and continuous contact with children and their parents. They manage their lives and health. As part of the pediatric nurses' daily work, ethical issues play an important role in making decisions, are important to make decisions, and this capability is only achieved by ethical practice. This study aimed to explore the factors facilitating the learning of ethical practice among Iranian pediatric nurses. Materials and Methods: This study is a conventional qualitative content analysis based on the Graneheim and Lundman method. It was conducted through semi-structured interviews with two focus groups, incorporating 28 nurses working in pediatric wards. Unstructured observation and field notes were other methods of data collection. Purposive sampling continued until data saturation was ensured. All interviews were tape recorded and transcribed in verbatim. Results: Three main categories and 12 subcategories emerged from this study. The facilitating factors include (1 individual competencies (knowledge, experience, emotional intelligence, and loving children, (2 ethical imprinting (responsibility, reflection, empathy, and ethical beliefs, and (3 an environment that nurtures moral values (organizational, spiritual, family, and cultural environments as facilitating factors. Conclusions: The promotion of nurses' competencies, ethical virtues, and imprinting, as well as improvement of the quality of nursing care must be the top priority of the health team. Undoubtedly, the success of the health care system is not possible without ensuring that pediatric nurses learn ethical practices.
Mustard, John F.
In the fall of 1998, MacMillan Hall opened at Brown University to students. In MacMillan Hall was the new Computer Learning Center, since named the EarthLab which was outfitted with high-end workstations and peripherals primarily focused on the use of remotely sensed and other spatial data in the environmental sciences. The NASA grant we received as part of the "Centers of Excellence in Applications of Remote Sensing to Regional and Global Integrated Environmental Assessments" was the primary source of funds to outfit this learning and research center. Since opening, we have expanded the range of learning and research opportunities and integrated a cross-campus network of disciplines who have come together to learn and use spatial data of all kinds. The EarthLab also forms a core of undergraduate, graduate, and faculty research on environmental problems that draw upon the unique perspective of remotely sensed data. Over the last two years, the Earthlab has been a center for research on the environmental impact of water resource use in and regions, impact of the green revolution on forest cover in India, the design of forest preserves in Vietnam, and detailed assessments of the utility of thermal and hyperspectral data for water quality analysis. It has also been used extensively for local environmental activities, in particular studies on the impact of lead on the health of urban children in Rhode Island. Finally, the EarthLab has also served as a key educational and analysis center for activities related to the Brown University Affiliated Research Center that is devoted to transferring university research to the private sector.
Prior knowledge, in the form of a mental schema or framework, is viewed to facilitate the learning of new information in a range of experimental and everyday scenarios. Despite rising interest in the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying schema-driven facilitation of new learning, few paradigms have been developed to examine this issue in humans. Here we develop a multiphase experimental scenario aimed at characterizing schema-based effects in the context of a paradigm that has been very widely used across species, the transitive inference task. We show that an associative schema, comprised of prior knowledge of the rank positions of familiar items in the hierarchy, has a marked effect on transitivity performance and the development of relational knowledge of the hierarchy that cannot be accounted for by more general changes in task strategy. Further, we show that participants are capable of deploying prior knowledge to successful effect under surprising conditions (i.e., when corrective feedback is totally absent), but only when the associative schema is robust. Finally, our results provide insights into the cognitive mechanisms underlying such schema-driven effects, and suggest that new hierarchy learning in the transitive inference task can occur through a contextual transfer mechanism that exploits the structure of associative experiences.
Prior knowledge, in the form of a mental schema or framework, is viewed to facilitate the learning of new information in a range of experimental and everyday scenarios. Despite rising interest in the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying schema-driven facilitation of new learning, few paradigms have been developed to examine this issue in humans. Here we develop a multiphase experimental scenario aimed at characterizing schema-based effects in the context of a paradigm that has been very widely used across species, the transitive inference task. We show that an associative schema, comprised of prior knowledge of the rank positions of familiar items in the hierarchy, has a marked effect on transitivity performance and the development of relational knowledge of the hierarchy that cannot be accounted for by more general changes in task strategy. Further, we show that participants are capable of deploying prior knowledge to successful effect under surprising conditions (i.e., when corrective feedback is totally absent), but only when the associative schema is robust. Finally, our results provide insights into the cognitive mechanisms underlying such schema-driven effects, and suggest that new hierarchy learning in the transitive inference task can occur through a contextual transfer mechanism that exploits the structure of associative experiences. PMID:23782509
Pecore, John L.
Current curriculum trends promote inquiry-based student-centered strategies as a way to foster critical thinking and learning. Problem-based learning (PBL), a type of inquiry focusing on an issue or "problem," is an instructional approach taught on the basis that science reform efforts increase scientific literacy. PBL is a constructivist approach to learning real life problems where understanding is a function of content, context, experiences, and learner goals; historical PBL situates the lesson in a historical context and provides opportunities for teaching NOS concepts. While much research exists on the benefits of historical PBL to student learning in general, more research is warranted on how teachers implement PBL in the secondary science curriculum. The purpose of this study was to examine the classroom-learning environment of four science teachers implementing a historical PBL instructional unit to identify the teachers' understandings, successes and obstacles. By identifying teachers' possible achievements and barriers with implementing a constructivist philosophy when executing historical PBL, educators and curriculum designers may improve alignment of the learning environment to constructivist principles. A qualitative interpretive case study guided this research study. The four participants of this study were purposefully and conveniently selected from biology teachers with at least three years of teaching experience, degrees in education, State Licensure, and completion of a PBL workshop. Data collection consisted of pre and post questionnaires, structured interviews, a card sort activity in which participants categorized instructional outcomes, and participant observations. Results indicated that the four teachers assimilated reform-based constructivist practices to fit within their preexisting routines and highlighted the importance of incorporating teachers' current systems into reform-based teacher instruction. While participating teachers
Germain, Marie-Line; Grenier, Robin S.
Purpose: This study aims to describe the lectores (readers) who read the world news and works of literature to workers in pre-World War II cigar factories in Tampa, Florida, and in New York City. The paper addresses the need for more examination of some neglected aspects of workplace learning by presenting a more critical approach to workplace…
Kolmos, Anette; Holgaard, Jette Egelund
At the Faculty of Engineering and Science at Aalborg University, Denmark, process skills are an integrated part of the curriculum objectives. During the first year programme, a special course in Collaboration, Learning and Project Management (CLP) is given to develop those skills. In order...... to develop students’ learning and the CLP-course, the Felder-Soloman Index of Learning Styles (ILS®) has been used in that course and data has been collected to investigate whether some learning style preferences are more conspicuous that others in a problem based learning environment. The results show, more...... pronounced than similar studies, that the first year engineering students at Aalborg University are considerable more active than reflective. This results leads to a discussion of whether reflection and conceptualization should be facilitated further in the curriculum to balance the students learning style...
This book describes interactive learning environments (ILEs) and their underlying concepts. It explains how ILEs can be used to improve the decision-making process and how these improvements can be empirically verified. The objective of this book is to enhance our understanding of and to gain insights into the process by which human facilitated ILEs are effectively designed and used in improving users’ decision making in complex, dynamic tasks. This book is divided into four major parts. Part I serves as an introduction to the importance and complexity of decision making in dynamic tasks. Part II provides background material, drawing upon relevant literature, for the development of an integrated process model on the effectiveness of human facilitated ILEs in improving decision making in dynamic tasks. Part III focuses on the design, development, and application of FishBankILE in laboratory experiments to gather empirical evidence for the validity of the process model. Finally, part IV presents a comprehensi...
Bugbee, K.; Ramachandran, R.; Maskey, M.; Gatlin, P. N.; Weigel, A. M.
STEM learning is most effective when students are encouraged to see the connections between science, technology and real world problems. Helping to make these connections has become an increasingly important aspect of Earth science data research. The Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC), one of NASA's 12 EOSDIS data centers, has developed a new type of documentation called the micro article to facilitate making connections between data and Earth science research problems. Micro articles are short academic texts that enable a reader to quickly understand a scientific phenomena, a case study, or an instrument used to collect data. While originally designed to increase data discovery and usability, micro articles also serve as a reliable starting point for project-based learning, an educational approach in STEM education, for high school and higher education environments. This presentation will highlight micro articles at the Global Hydrology Resource Center data center and will demonstrate the potential applications of micro articles in project-based learning.
Edelmann, Hans G.; Martius, Thilo; Hahn, Achim; Schlüter, Kirsten; Nessler, Stefan H.
Enquiry learning and teaching about the nature of science (NoS) is a key element of science education. We have designed an experimental setting for students aged 12-14 years to exercise enquiry-learning skills and to introduce students to the NoS aspects of creativity and imagination. It also illustrates the impact of carbon dioxide on the growth…
Konecki, Loretta R.; Schiller, Ellen
This paper explains how brain-based learning has become an area of interest to elementary school science teachers, focusing on the possible relationships between, and implications of, research on brain-based learning to the teaching of science education standards. After describing research on the brain, the paper looks at three implications from…
Bidarra, José; Rusman, Ellen
This paper proposes a framework to support science education through blended learning, based on a participatory and interactive approach supported by ICT-based tools, called Science Learning Activities Model (SLAM). The study constitutes a work in progress and started as a response to complex
Jimerson, Shane R; Haddock, Aaron D
Teacher quality has a vital influence on student success or failure. Thus, further research regarding teacher effectiveness, teacher evaluation, teacher well-being, and teacher contributions is essential to inform school psychologists and allied educational professionals who collaborate and consult with teachers to facilitate student success. In this special topic section of School Psychology Quarterly, a series of 6 articles further elucidate teachers' powerful contributions to student outcomes along with concrete, research-based ways for school psychologists to support and collaborate with teachers. The studies included in the special section describe how teacher support facilitates students' positive academic and social-emotional outcomes and how students' attitudes toward learning moderate the association between the classroom environment and students' academic achievement. Studies also report on the development and validation of self-report measures focused on both teacher subjective well-being and teachers' use of evidence-based practices. Finally, the articles included in the special topic section offer insights and ideas for refining teacher evaluation practices, understanding the factors contributing to program implementation fidelity, and improving prevention, early identification, and intervention efforts aimed at fostering school completion and positive youth development. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Albrecht, Tim; Slabaugh, Gregory; Alonso, Eduardo; Al-Arif, SM Masudur R.
Exploring and making predictions based on single-molecule data can be challenging, not only due to the sheer size of the datasets, but also because a priori knowledge about the signal characteristics is typically limited and poor signal-to-noise ratio. For example, hypothesis-driven data exploration, informed by an expectation of the signal characteristics, can lead to interpretation bias or loss of information. Equally, even when the different data categories are known, e.g., the four bases in DNA sequencing, it is often difficult to know how to make best use of the available information content. The latest developments in machine learning (ML), so-called deep learning (DL) offer interesting, new avenues to address such challenges. In some applications, such as speech and image recognition, DL has been able to outperform conventional ML strategies and even human performance. However, to date DL has not been applied much in single-molecule science, presumably in part because relatively little is known about the ‘internal workings’ of such DL tools within single-molecule science as a field. In this Tutorial, we make an attempt to illustrate in a step-by-step guide how one of those, a convolutional neural network (CNN), may be used for base calling in DNA sequencing applications. We compare it with a SVM as a more conventional ML method, and discuss some of the strengths and weaknesses of the approach. In particular, a ‘deep’ neural network has many features of a ‘black box’, which has important implications on how we look at and interpret data.
This study involved 458 ninth-grade students from two different Arab middle schools in Israel. Half of the students learned science using project-based learning strategies and the other half learned using traditional methods (non-project-based). The classes were heterogeneous regarding their achievements in the sciences. The adapted questionnaire…
Jenkins, Jon M.
The experience acquired through development, implementation and operation of the KeplerK2 science pipelines can provide lessons learned for the development of science pipelines for other missions such as NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, and ESA's PLATO mission.
Tolmie, Andrew K; Ghazali, Zayba; Morris, Suzanne
Research has identified the core skills that predict success during primary school in reading and arithmetic, and this knowledge increasingly informs teaching. However, there has been no comparable work that pinpoints the core skills that underlie success in science. The present paper attempts to redress this by examining candidate skills and considering what is known about the way in which they emerge, how they relate to each other and to other abilities, how they change with age, and how their growth may vary between topic areas. There is growing evidence that early-emerging tacit awareness of causal associations is initially separated from language-based causal knowledge, which is acquired in part from everyday conversation and shows inaccuracies not evident in tacit knowledge. Mapping of descriptive and explanatory language onto causal awareness appears therefore to be a key development, which promotes unified conceptual and procedural understanding. This account suggests that the core components of initial science learning are (1) accurate observation, (2) the ability to extract and reason explicitly about causal connections, and (3) knowledge of mechanisms that explain these connections. Observational ability is educationally inaccessible until integrated with verbal description and explanation, for instance, via collaborative group work tasks that require explicit reasoning with respect to joint observations. Descriptive ability and explanatory ability are further promoted by managed exposure to scientific vocabulary and use of scientific language. Scientific reasoning and hypothesis testing are later acquisitions that depend on this integration of systems and improved executive control. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
is a prerequisite for effective simulation based education and there are many educator competencies such as developing scenarios, debriefing, creating a safe and positive learning environment, mastery of technology, equipment operation and professional communication skills and comportment to name only some...... is not enough to expect faculty to deliver expert pedagogical practice. Capital expenditure on developing educational environments and equipment has not necessarily been matched with investment in the capability of educators to maximise the potential of simulation based learning. A skilled educator...... for good practice in this field. • This tested model could then be used to quality assure the education and skills of the teachers and facilitators of simulation-based education in the field of nursing, both nationally and internationally. This presentation will, on the basis of the work in the NESTLED...
Advanced Artificial Science. The development of an artificial science and engineering research infrastructure to facilitate innovative computational modeling, analysis, and application to interdisciplinary areas of scientific investigation.
Saffer, Shelley (Sam) I.
This is a final report of the DOE award DE-SC0001132, Advanced Artificial Science. The development of an artificial science and engineering research infrastructure to facilitate innovative computational modeling, analysis, and application to interdisciplinary areas of scientific investigation. This document describes the achievements of the goals, and resulting research made possible by this award.
Evans, Sherryn; Shaw, Nicole; Ward, Catherine; Hayley, Alexa
While there is extensive research examining the outcomes of interprofessional education (IPE) for students, minimal research has investigated how facilitating student learning influences the facilitators themselves. This exploratory case study aimed to explore whether and how facilitating IPE influences facilitators' own collaborative practice attitudes, knowledge, and workplace behaviours. Sixteen facilitators of an online pre-licensure IPE unit for an Australian university participated in semi-structured telephone interviews. Inductive thematic analysis revealed three emergent themes and associated subthemes characterising participants' reflexivity as IPE facilitators: interprofessional learning; professional behaviour change; and collaborative practice expertise. Participants experienced interprofessional learning in their role as facilitators, improving their understanding of other professionals' roles, theoretical and empirical knowledge underlying collaborative practice, and the use and value of online communication. Participants also reported having changed several professional behaviours, including improved interprofessional collaboration with colleagues, a change in care plan focus, a less didactic approach to supervising students and staff, and greater enthusiasm impressing the value of collaborative practice on placement students. Participants reported having acquired their prior interprofessional collaboration expertise via professional experience rather than formal learning opportunities and believed access to formal IPE as learners would aid their continuing professional development. Overall, the outcomes of the IPE experience extended past the intended audience of the student learners and positively impacted on the facilitators as well.
Yew, Elaine H. J.; Yong, Janice J. Y.
In problem-based learning (PBL), the role of a tutor or facilitator is different from what is typically considered as the role of a traditional teacher. In addition to being a subject-matter expert, the facilitator is also expected to be "socially" and "cognitively congruent". In this study, we analyze the survey responses from…
Tran, Natalie A.
This study sought to understand the connection between students' out-of-school experiences and their learning in science. This study addresses the following questions: (a) What effects does contextualized information have on student achievement and engagement in science? (b) To what extent do students use their out-of-school activities to construct their knowledge and understanding about science? (c) To what extent do science teachers use students' skills and knowledge acquired in out-of-school settings to inform their instructional practices? This study integrates mixed methods using both quantitative and qualitative approaches to answer the research questions. It involves the use of survey questionnaire and science assessment and features two-level hierarchical analyses of student achievement outcomes nested within classrooms. Hierarchical Linear Model (HLM) analyses were used to account for the cluster effect of students nested within classrooms. Interviews with students and teachers were also conducted to provide information about how learning opportunities that take place in out-of-school settings can be used to facilitate student learning in science classrooms. The results of the study include the following: (a) Controlling for student and classroom factors, students' ability to transfer science learning across contexts is associated with positive learning outcomes such as achievement, interest, career in science, self-efficacy, perseverance, and effort. Second, teacher practice using students' out-of-school experiences is associated with decrease in student achievement in science. However, as teachers make more connection to students' out-of-school experiences, the relationship between student effort and perseverance in science learning and transfer gets weaker, thus closing the gaps on these outcomes between students who have more ability to establish the transfer of learning across contexts and those who have less ability to do so. Third, science teachers
Sahin, Elif Adibelli; Deniz, Hasan; Topçu, Mustafa Sami
The present study investigated to what extent Turkish preservice elementary teachers' orientations to teaching science could be explained by their epistemological beliefs, conceptions of learning, and approaches to learning science. The sample included 157 Turkish preservice elementary teachers. The four instruments used in the study were School…
Anderson, Janice L.; Barnett, Mike
The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with middle school students. To this end, we explored the impact of using a game called Supercharged! on middle school students' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who conducted a more traditional inquiry-oriented investigation of the same concepts. This study was a part of a larger design experiment examining the pedagogical potential of Supercharged! The control group learned through a series of guided inquiry methods while the experimental group played Supercharged! during the laboratory sections of the science course. There was significant difference, F(2,91) = 3.6, p hands-on activities are integrated, with each activity informing the other, could be a very powerful technique for supporting student scientific understanding. Further, our findings suggest that game designers should embed meta-cognitive activities such as reflective opportunities into educational video games in order to provide scaffolds for students and to reinforce that they are engaged in an educational learning experience.
Gronemann, Sigurd Trolle
Despite the increasing use of portable tablets in learning, their impact has received little attention in research. In five different projects, this media-ethnographic and design-based analysis of the use of portable tablets as a learning resource in science museums investigates how young people's learning with portable tablets matches the…
Crompton, Helen; Burke, Diane; Gregory, Kristen H.; Gräbe, Catharina
The use of mobile learning in education is growing at an exponential rate. To best understand how mobile learning is being used, it is crucial to gain a collective understanding of the research that has taken place. This systematic review reveals the trends in mobile learning in science with a comprehensive analysis and synthesis of studies from…
Pupils ask STEM subject teachers about jobs and careers in science, but where else do they learn about work? This article outlines career-related learning within schools in England alongside other factors that influence pupils' career decisions. The effect of the Education Act 2011 will be to change career learning in schools. The impact on…
American middle school student science scores have been stagnating for several years, demonstrating a need for better learning strategies to aid teachers in instruction and students in content learning. It has also been suggested by researchers that music can be used to aid students in their learning and memory. Employing the theoretical framework…
; Optimal Learning for Material Discovery & Design Data Science and Optimal Learning for Material inference and optimization methods that can constrain predictions using insights and results from theory directions in the application of information theoretic tools to materials problems related to learning from
Girod, Mark; Twyman, Todd; Wojcikiewicz, Steve
Drawing from the Deweyan theory of experience (1934, 1938), the goal of teaching and learning for transformative, aesthetic experience is contrasted against teaching and learning from a cognitive, rational framework. A quasi-experimental design was used to investigate teaching and learning of fifth grade science from each perspective across an…
Hilte, Maartje; Reitsma, Pieter
Spelling pronunciations are hypothesized to be helpful in building up relatively stable phonologically underpinned orthographic representations, particularly for learning words with irregular phoneme-grapheme correspondences. In a four-week computer-based training, the efficacy of spelling pronunciations and previewing the spelling patterns on learning to spell loan words in Dutch, originating from French and English, was examined in skilled and less skilled spellers with varying ages. Reading skills were taken into account. Overall, compared to normal pronunciation, spelling pronunciation facilitated the learning of the correct spelling of irregular words, but it appeared to be no more effective than previewing. Differences between training conditions appeared to fade with older spellers. Less skilled young spellers seemed to profit more from visual examination of the word as compared to practice with spelling pronunciations. The findings appear to indicate that spelling pronunciation and allowing a preview can both be effective ways to learn correct spellings of orthographically unpredictable words, irrespective of age or spelling ability.
Do, Kieu Anh; Anderson-Knott, Mindy; de Guzman, Maria Rosario T; Boeckner, Linda; Koszewski, Wanda
Childhood obesity is a major public health concern with underpinnings at the individual, family, community and societal levels. The Transdisciplinary Childhood Obesity Prevention Graduate Certificate Program (TOP) is an innovative graduate-level certificate program developed to train professionals to understand and address obesity from multiple perspectives using an interprofessional education (IPE) approach. Currently, there is limited knowledge on what promotes or hinders learning in IPE approaches dealing with obesity prevention. The goal of this report is to address this gap by describing facilitators and barriers to learning in a graduate-level training program. Using a qualitative research design, semi-structured interviews were collected from 23 professional students, as part of a larger program evaluation project for TOP. Thematic analysis revealed the challenges and strengths of the program that relate specifically to: its interprofessional approach, its structure, and its activities. Interprofessional exchanges were reported to expand students' learning, but adequate interprofessional representation must be maintained, and the complexity of interprofessional collaborations must also be well-coordinated. Standardising the program structure and courses for consistency across professions, and clear communication are critical to program success. Findings add to the existing literature on what promotes effective learning in a professional obesity prevention program using an IPE approach.
A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient's everyday speech. The SLP's plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3) Repetition; 4) Cognitive activation; 5) Negative practice; 6) Inhibition through interruption; 7) Decomposing complex behavior; 8) The 'each time-every time' principle; and 9) Successive implementation of automaticity.
Jones, M. Gail; Corin, Elysa Nicole; Andre, Thomas; Childers, Gina M.; Stevens, Vanessa
This research examined lifelong science learning reported by amateur astronomers and birders. One hundred seven adults who reported engaging in an informal (out-of-school) science interest were interviewed as part of an ongoing series of studies of lifelong science learners. The goal of the study was to gain insight into how and why amateur…
Haworth, Claire M. A.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert
Previous studies have shown that environmental influences on school science performance increase in importance from primary to secondary school. Here we assess for the first time the relationship between the science-learning environment and science performance using a genetically sensitive approach to investigate the aetiology of this link. 3000…
Smith, Kathy; Lindsay, Simon
In 2013, as part of a process to renew an overall sector vision for science education, Catholic Education Melbourne (CEM) undertook a review of its existing teacher in-service professional development programs in science. This review led to some data analysis being conducted in relation to two of these programs where participant teachers were positioned as active learners undertaking critical reflection in relation to their science teaching practice. The conditions in these programs encouraged teachers to notice critical aspects of their teaching practice. The analysis illustrates that as teachers worked in this way, their understandings about effective science pedagogy began to shift, in particular, teachers recognised how their thinking not only influenced their professional practice but also ultimately shaped the quality of their students' learning. The data from these programs delivers compelling evidence of the learning experience from a teacher perspective. This article explores the impact of this experience on teacher thinking about the relationship between pedagogical choices and quality learning in science. The findings highlight that purposeful, teacher-centred in-service professional learning can significantly contribute to enabling teachers to think differently about science teaching and learning and ultimately become confident pedagogical leaders in science. The future of quality school-based science education therefore relies on a new vision for teacher professional learning, where practice explicitly recognises, values and attends to teachers as professionals and supports them to articulate and share the professional knowledge they have about effective science teaching practice.
Lucélio B. Couto
Full Text Available Background: In problem-based learning (PBL, the facilitator plays an important role in guiding the student learning process. However, although content expertise is generally regarded as a useful but non-essential prerequisite for effective PBL facilitation, the perceived importance of content knowledge may be subject to cultural, contextual, and/or experiential influences. Aim: We sought to examine medical students’ perceptions of subject-matter expertise among PBL facilitators in a region of the world (Brazil where such active learning pedagogies are not widely used in university or pre-university settings. Results: Of the 252 Brazilian medical students surveyed, significantly (p≤0.001 greater proportions viewed content expert facilitators to be more effective than their non-expert counterparts at building knowledge (95% vs. 6%, guiding the learning process (93% vs. 7%, achieving cognitive learning (92% vs. 18%, generating learning goals (87% vs. 15%, and motivating self-study (80% vs. 15%. Discussion/conclusion: According to Brazilian medical students, subject-matter expertise among PBL facilitators is essential to the learning process. We believe this widespread perception is due, in large part, to the relative lack of prior educational exposure to such pedagogies.
Hopwood, Nick; Clerke, Teena; Nguyen, Anne
Nursing work increasingly demands forms of expertise that complement specialist knowledge. In child and family nursing, this need arises when nurses work in partnership with parents of young children at risk. Partnership means working with parents in respectful, negotiated and empowering ways. Existing partnership literature emphasises communicative and relational skills, but this paper focuses on nurses' capacities to facilitate parents' learning. Referring to data from home visiting, day-stay and specialist toddler clinic services in Sydney, a pedagogical framework is presented. Analysis shows how nurses notice aspects of children, parents and parent-child interactions as a catalyst for building on parents' strengths, enhancing guided chance or challenging unhelpful constructs. Prior research shows the latter can be a sticking point in partnership, but this paper reveals diverse ways in which challenges are folded into learning process that position parents as agents of positive change. Noticing is dependent on embodied and communicative expertise, conceptualised in terms of sensory and reported channels. The framework offers a new view of partnership as mind-expanding for the parent and specifies the nurse's role in facilitating this process. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bongers, Peggy; van den Akker, Karolien; Havermans, Remco; Jansen, Anita
Emotional eating has been suggested to be a learned behaviour; more specifically, classical conditioning processes might be involved in its development. In the present study we investigated whether a negative mood facilitates appetitive conditioning and whether trait impulsivity influences this process. After undergoing either a negative or neutral mood induction, participants were subjected to a differential classical conditioning procedure, using neutral stimuli and appetizing food. Two initially neutral distinctive vases with flowers were (CS+) or were not (CS-) paired with chocolate mousse intake. We measured participants' expectancy and desire to eat (4 CS+ and 4 CS- trials), salivation response, and actual food intake. The BIS-11 was administered to assess trait impulsivity. In both mood conditions, participants showed a classically conditioned appetite. Unexpectedly, there was no evidence of facilitated appetitive learning in a negative mood with regard to expectancy, desire, salivation, or intake. However, immediately before the taste test, participants in the negative mood condition reported a stronger desire to eat in the CS+ compared to the CS- condition, while no such effect occurred in the neutral group. An effect of impulsivity was found with regard to food intake in the neutral mood condition: high-impulsive participants consumed less food when presented with the CS+ compared to the CS-, and also less than low-impulsive participants. An alternative pathway to appetitive conditioning with regard to emotions is that it is not the neutral stimuli, but the emotions themselves that become conditioned stimuli and elicit appetitive responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bryans Bongey, Sarah
This quantitative study involved 157 students in two sections of an undergraduate class in general biology, as well as one instructor who taught both sections of the course. It used resources from the Center for Applied Special Technologies (CAST) to evaluate the viability of a Learning Management System (LMS) to provide Universal Design for Learning (UDL). It also measured and tracked the instructor's level of efficacy in sustaining UDL approaches throughout the semester. In an effort to identify the UDL's specific outcomes or benefits to students, this study used a pre- and post- test to identify the treatment's impact on student engagement. Findings indicated that the LMS could be designed to comply with UDL guidelines, and the instructor was able to establish a high level of efficacy in maintaining that UDL design. However, based on the statistical analysis of pre- and post-test responses from control vs. treatment groups of students, the treatment was seen to have no significant effect in the area of student engagement. Overall, the study added to the literature by suggesting (a) the viability of the LMS as a means of providing UDL approaches, (b) the promise of the LMS as a tool faculty can use to deliver UDL with a high level of efficacy, and (c) the design's lack of effect in the area of student engagement. The fact that this study was limited to a single brand of LMS (Blackboard), a single instructor, and a single group of students underscores the need for further research.
Fanny Angulo Delgado
Full Text Available Understanding the mediating role of science museum in learning scientific content in school, it involves reflecting on the contributions of research to the question of what and how people learn in non-conventional educational settings. It has been shown that most people spend less than 3% of their lives learning in school, which emphasizes the importance of conceptualizing what they are and how much of their learning take place. While that question is resolved, it speaks at this bioassay on the complementary relationship between the museum and the school, as both institutions share the same educational purpose, but differ in the ways of achieving it. The science museum joins the class as a mediator that facilitates student learning as part of an education that promotes understanding of the phenomena of the world through models, which means that school learning goes in stages, one of which is that students have opportunity to structure new knowledge and synthesize on its own model. For this it is necessary that students speak, read, listen and write in science class, while the thought is expressed in language to attest to the facts. These communication skills arise in science class as indicators of mediation exercised by the museum and allow us to understand that it takes place in at least two dimensions: museographic and didactics.
Pengaruh Pembelajaran Inkuiri Terbimbing dengan Mind Map terhadap Keterampilan Proses Sains dan Hasil Belajar IPA Abstract: Science learning in junior high school aims to enable students conducts scientific inquiry, improves knowledge, concepts, and science skills. Organization materials for students supports learning process so that needs to be explored techniques that allows students to enable it. This study aimed to determine the effect of guided inquiry learning with mind map on...
Herpratiwi; Darsono; Sasmiati; Pujiyatli
Purpose: The research objective was to compare students' learning achievement for sociable learning motivation students in social science (IPS) using cooperative learning. Research Methods: This research used a quasi-experimental method with a pre-test/post-test design involving 35 fifth-grade students. The learning process was conducted four…
Gelman, Rochel; Brenneman, Kimberly; Macdonald, Gay; Roman, Moises
To ensure they're meeting state early learning guidelines for science, preschool educators need fun, age-appropriate, and research-based ways to teach young children about scientific concepts. The basis for the PBS KIDS show "Sid the Science Kid," this teaching resource helps children ages 3-5 investigate their everyday world and develop the…
Full Text Available Developing an effective treatment plan that promotes learning-generalization beyond treated stimuli remains a challenging task in language rehabilitation. Many specific treatments have been used to document therapeutic gains in learned lexical behaviors and now learning generalizations beyond practiced stimuli are being forged (Boyle, 2004 and Kiran & Thompson, 2003.Accordingly, generalization beyond practiced structures still remains an exciting therapeutic strategy. As major elements of cognitive processing, the perceptual representations embedded within mental imagery (MI, have long been recognized for their healing potential (Thomas, 2008, and training mindfulness. MI is also known to modulate the brain’s neural-circuitry in new learning (Davidson, 2000. It also acts as a mean to access memories and passes undistorted through mental resistances (Singer 1974. Purpose We integrated blocked and random presentations of MI with our treatment of anomia with three goals in mind: (1 to evaluate whether activation of the neural circuitry through controlled MI facilitated word finding skills; (2 to determine if the blocked or random modes of MI presentation facilitate learning equally or not; and, (3 to evaluate if the effects of evoked MI generalize to untrained lexical items. Subject The participating subject was a three-year post-onset, right-handed, 68-year old University-educated male with chronic aphasia secondary to a MRI confirmed large left temporal-parietal infarct in addition to an earlier left frontal infarct. These strokes resulted in moderately impaired comprehension and verbal expression. He made gains in both aspects of language following two years of SLP treatment. However, he continued to exhibit moderate to severe word finding (Goodglass & Kaplan, 1983. Methods We incorporated MI with random and blocked presentations in ABA format to explore the learning and generalization of trained mental representations that comprised of both
Haefner, Leigh Ann; Zembal-Saul, Carla
This study examined prospective elementary teachers' learning about scientific inquiry in the context of an innovative life science course. Research questions included: (1) What do prospective elementary teachers learn about scientific inquiry within the context of the course? and (2) In what ways do their experiences engaging in science investigations and teaching inquiry-oriented science influence prospective elementary teachers' understanding of science and science learning and teaching? Eleven prospective elementary teachers participated in this qualitative, multi-participant case study. Constant comparative analysis strategies attempted to build abstractions and explanations across participants around the constructs of the study. Findings suggest that engaging in scientific inquiry supported the development more appropriate understandings of science and scientific inquiry, and that prospective teachers became more accepting of approaches to teaching science that encourage children's questions about science phenomena. Implications include careful consideration of learning experiences crafted for prospective elementary teachers to support the development of robust subject matter knowledge.
Digital texts which are based on hypertext and hypermedia technologies are now being used to support science learning. Hypertext offers certain opportunities for learning as well as difficulties that challenge readers to become metacognitively aware of their navigation decisions in order to trade both meaning and structure while reading. The goal of this study was to investigate whether supporting sixth grade students to monitor and regulate their navigation behavior while reading from hypertext would lead to better navigation and learning. Metanavigation support in the form of prompts was provided to groups of students who used a hypertext system called CoMPASS to complete a design challenge. The metanavigation prompts aimed at encouraging students to understand the affordances of the navigational aids in CoMPASS and use them to guide their navigation. The study was conducted in a real classroom setting during the implementation of CoMPASS in sixth grade science classes. Multiple sources of group and individual data were collected and analyzed. Measures included student's individual performance in a pre-science knowledge test, the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI), a reading comprehension test and a concept map test. Process measures included log file information that captured group navigation paths during the use of CoMPASS. The results suggested that providing metanavigation support enabled the groups to make coherent transitions among the text units. Findings also revealed that reading comprehension, presence of metanavigation support and prior domain knowledge significantly predicted students' individual understanding of science. Implications for hypertext design and literacy research fields are discussed.
Science teaching and learning require knowledge about how learning takes place (cognition) and how learners interact with their surroundings (affective and sociocultural factors). The study reported on focussed on learning for understanding of Newton's second law of motion from a cognitive perspective that takes social factors into account. A…
Shadiev, Rustam; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Huang, Yueh-Min
This study investigated three aspects: how project-based collaborative learning facilitates cross-cultural understanding; how students perceive project-based collaborative learning implementation in a collaborative cyber community (3C) online environment; and what types of communication among students are used. A qualitative case study approach…
Embo, M.; Driessen, E.; Valcke, M.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der
BACKGROUND: Self-directed learning is an educational concept that has received increasing attention. The recent workplace literature, however, reports problems with the facilitation of self-directed learning in clinical practice. We developed the Midwifery Assessment and Feedback Instrument (MAFI)
Shih, Wen-Ling; Tsai, Chun-Yen
This study investigated students' perception of a flipped classroom approach to facilitating online project-based learning (FC-OPBL) in a marketing research course at a technical university. This combined strategy was aimed at improving teaching quality and learning efficiency. Sixty-seven students taking a marketing research course were surveyed.…
McIntosh, Paul; Freeth, Della; Berridge, Emma Jane
This paper examines the use of appreciative inquiry (AI) to guide development of web-based learning resources for medical educators who facilitate simulation-based learning experiences for doctors-in-training. AI can be viewed as a positive form of action research, which seeks to avoid deficit-based analyses and solutions, and commonly associated…
Fradika, H. D.; Surjono, H. D.
The purpose of this article described about ME Science (Mobile Education Science) as mobile learning application learning of Fisika Inti. ME Science is a product of research and development (R&D) that was using Alessi and Trollip model. Alessi and Trollip model consists three stages that are: (a) planning include analysis of problems, goals, need, and idea of development product, (b) designing includes collecting of materials, designing of material content, creating of story board, evaluating and review product, (c) developing includes development of product, alpha testing, revision of product, validation of product, beta testing, and evaluation of product. The article describes ME Science only to development of product which include development stages. The result of development product has been generates mobile learning application based on virtual reality that can be run on android-based smartphone. These application consist a brief description of learning material, quizzes, video of material summery, and learning material based on virtual reality.
Jackson, Debra; Power, Tamara; Sherwood, Juanita; Geia, Lynore
If health professionals are to effectively contribute to improving the health of Indigenous people, understanding of the historical, political, and social disadvantage that has lead to health disparity is essential. This paper describes a teaching and learning experience in which four Australian Indigenous academics in collaboration with a non-Indigenous colleague delivered an intensive workshop for masters level post-graduate students. Drawing upon the paedagogy of Transformative Learning, the objectives of the day included facilitating students to explore their existing understandings of Indigenous people, the impact of ongoing colonisation, the diversity of Australia's Indigenous people, and developing respect for alternative worldviews. Drawing on a range of resources including personal stories, autobiography, film and interactive sessions, students were challenged intellectually and emotionally by the content. Students experienced the workshop as a significant educational event, and described feeling transformed by the content, better informed, more appreciative of other worldviews and Indigenous resilience and better equipped to contribute in a more meaningful way to improving the quality of health care for Indigenous people. Where this workshop differs from other Indigenous classes was in the involvement of an Indigenous teaching team. Rather than a lone academic who can often feel vulnerable teaching a large cohort of non-Indigenous students, an Indigenous teaching team reinforced Indigenous authority and created an emotionally and culturally safe space within which students were allowed to confront and explore difficult truths. Findings support the value of multiple teaching strategies underpinned by the theory of transformational learning, and the potential benefits of facilitating emotional as well as intellectual student engagement when presenting sensitive material.
Choi, Kup-Sze; Chan, Tak-Yin
To investigate the feasibility of using tablet device as user interface for students with upper extremity disabilities to input mathematics efficiently into computer. A touch-input system using tablet device as user interface was proposed to assist these students to write mathematics. User-switchable and context-specific keyboard layouts were designed to streamline the input process. The system could be integrated with conventional computer systems only with minor software setup. A two-week pre-post test study involving five participants was conducted to evaluate the performance of the system and collect user feedback. The mathematics input efficiency of the participants was found to improve during the experiment sessions. In particular, their performance in entering trigonometric expressions by using the touch-input system was significantly better than that by using conventional mathematics editing software with keyboard and mouse. The participants rated the touch-input system positively and were confident that they could operate at ease with more practice. The proposed touch-input system provides a convenient way for the students with hand impairment to write mathematics and has the potential to facilitate their mathematics learning. Implications for Rehabilitation Students with upper extremity disabilities often face barriers to learning mathematics which is largely based on handwriting. Conventional computer user interfaces are inefficient for them to input mathematics into computer. A touch-input system with context-specific and user-switchable keyboard layouts was designed to improve the efficiency of mathematics input. Experimental results and user feedback suggested that the system has the potential to facilitate mathematics learning for the students.
This article sets to explore the attitudes of higher education students enrolled in a political science programme at Master level towards e-learning facilitated by the introduction of a Moodle platform. The students have been surveyed at the end of public management course in the first semester of the programme asking them to evaluate both the…
Marsili, Antonella; D'Addezio, Giuliana; Todaro, Riccardo; Scipilliti, Francesca
The Laboratorio Divulgazione Scientifica e Attività Museali of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV's Laboratory for Outreach and Museum Activities) in Rome, organizes every year intense educational and outreach activities to convey scientific knowledge and to promote research on Earth Science, focusing on volcanic and seismic hazard. Focusing on kids, we designed and implemented the "greedy laboratory for children curious on science (Laboratorio goloso per bambini curiosi di scienza)", to intrigue children from primary schools and to attract their interest by addressing in a fun and unusual way topics regarding the Earth, seismicity and seismic risk. We performed the "greedy laboratory" using experiential teaching, an innovative method envisaging the use and handling commonly used substances. In particular, in the "greedy laboratory" we proposed the use of everyday life's elements, such as food, to engage, entertain and convey in a simple and interesting communication approach notions concerning Earth processes. We proposed the initiative to public during the "European Researchers Night" in Rome, on September 26, 2014. Children attending the "greedy laboratory", guided by researchers and technicians, had the opportunity to become familiar with scientific concepts, such as the composition of the Earth, the Plate tectonics, the earthquake generation, the propagation of seismic waves and their shaking effects on the anthropogenic environment. During the hand-on laboratory, each child used not harmful substances such as honey, chocolate, flour, barley, boiled eggs and biscuits. At the end, we administered a questionnaire rating the proposed activities, first evaluating the level of general satisfaction of the laboratory and then the various activities in which it was divided. This survey supplied our team with feedbacks, revealing some precious hints on appreciation and margins of improvement. We provided a semi-quantitative assessment with a
Rahayu, Y. S.; Yuliani; Wijaya, B. R.
The purpose of this study is to describe the results of the implementation of a teaching-learning package in Plant Physiology courses to improve the student’s life skills using the science process skills-based approach ICT. This research used 15 students of Biology Education of Undergraduate International Class who are in the Plant Physiology course. This study consists of two phases items, namely the development phase and implementation phase by using a one-shot case study design. Research parameters were the feasibility of lesson plans, student achievement, Including academic skills, thinking skills, and social skills. Data were descriptively Analyzed According to the characteristics of the existing data. The result shows that the feasibility of a lesson plan is very satisfied and can be improvements in student’s life skills, especially with regards to student’s thinking skills and scientific thinking skills. The results indicate that the science process skills using ICT-based approach can be effective methods to improve student’s life skills.
Zoghi, Maryam; Brown, Ted; Williams, Brett; Roller, Louis; Jaberzadeh, Shapour; Palermo, Claire; McKenna, Lisa; Wright, Caroline; Baird, Marilyn; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal; Hewitt, Lesley; Sim, Jenny; Holt, Tangerine-Ann
It has been identified that health science student groups may have distinctive learning needs. By university educators' and professional fieldwork supervisors' being aware of the unique learning style preferences of health science students, they have the capacity to adjust their teaching approaches to best fit with their students' learning preferences. The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning style preferences of a group of Australian health science students enrolled in 10 different disciplines. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory was distributed to 2,885 students enrolled in dietetics and nutrition, midwifery, nursing, occupational therapy, paramedics, pharmacy, physiotherapy, radiation therapy, radiography, and social work at one Australian university. A total of 752 usable survey forms were returned (response rate 26%). The results indicated the converger learning style to be most frequently preferred by health science students and that the diverger and accommodator learning styles were the least preferred. It is recommended that educators take learning style preferences of health science students into consideration when planning, implementing, and evaluating teaching activities, such as including more problem-solving activities that fit within the converger learning style.
Maloney, A.; Walsh, E.
A solid understanding of timescales is crucial for any climate change discussion. This hands-on lab was designed as part of a dual-credit climate change course in which high school students can receive college credit. Using homemade ice cores, students have the opportunity to participate in scientific practices associated with collecting, processing, and interpreting temperature and CO2 data. Exploring millennial-scale cycles in ice core data and extending the CO2 record to the present allows students to discover timescales from an investigators perspective. The Ice Core Lab has been piloted in two high school classrooms and student engagement, and epistemological and conceptual understanding was evaluated using quantitative pre and post assessment surveys. The process of creating this lab involved a partnership between an education assessment professional, high school teachers, and University of Washington professors and graduate students in Oceanography, Earth and Space Sciences, Atmospheric Sciences and the Learning Sciences as part of the NASA Global Climate Change University of Washington in the High School program. This interdisciplinary collaboration led to the inception of the lab and was necessary to ensure that the lesson plan was pedagogically appropriate and scientifically accurate. The lab fits into a unit about natural variability and is paired with additional hands-on activities created by other graduate students that explore short-timescale temperature variations, Milankovitch cycles, isotopes, and other proxies. While the Ice Core Lab is intended to follow units that review the scientific process, global energy budget, and transport, it can be modified to fit any teaching platform.
Full Text Available In bilingual classrooms, content is often learned simultaneously with a new language. Recent applied linguistics research has identified shifts in discourse made by teachers and learners as they work towards these two goals. Departing from a sociocultural perspective on teaching and learning, this study assumes learners and teachers bring rich and diverse linguistic repertoires to the classroom. This paper examines selected episodes of discourse shifts which took place in a week-long mathematics enrichment programme run by a non-government organisation in rural South Africa. In this Xhosa-English bilingual context, I undertook a small-scale ethnographically-informed case study in which evidence of and comment on discourse shifting was collected in the form of video and audio recordings of lessons and interviews with participants. The focus of the analysis is on the translanguaging strategies (especially register meshing of the teacher and a learning facilitator as they work to make the curriculum accessible to the learners. The argument made in the paper is that the unidirectional notion of discourse shifting from more everyday, spoken, home language discourses to more discipline-specific, written, English discourses is not adequate in explaining the complex multidirectional shifting apparent in my data.
Vandenberghe, Michel E.; Scott, Marietta L. J.; Scorer, Paul W.; Söderberg, Magnus; Balcerzak, Denis; Barker, Craig
Tissue biomarker scoring by pathologists is central to defining the appropriate therapy for patients with cancer. Yet, inter-pathologist variability in the interpretation of ambiguous cases can affect diagnostic accuracy. Modern artificial intelligence methods such as deep learning have the potential to supplement pathologist expertise to ensure constant diagnostic accuracy. We developed a computational approach based on deep learning that automatically scores HER2, a biomarker that defines patient eligibility for anti-HER2 targeted therapies in breast cancer. In a cohort of 71 breast tumour resection samples, automated scoring showed a concordance of 83% with a pathologist. The twelve discordant cases were then independently reviewed, leading to a modification of diagnosis from initial pathologist assessment for eight cases. Diagnostic discordance was found to be largely caused by perceptual differences in assessing HER2 expression due to high HER2 staining heterogeneity. This study provides evidence that deep learning aided diagnosis can facilitate clinical decision making in breast cancer by identifying cases at high risk of misdiagnosis.
Hakuno, Yoko; Omori, Takahide; Yamamoto, Jun-Ichi; Minagawa, Yasuyo
In natural settings, infants learn spoken language with the aid of a caregiver who explicitly provides social signals. Although previous studies have demonstrated that young infants are sensitive to these signals that facilitate language development, the impact of real-life interactions on early word segmentation and word-object mapping remains elusive. We tested whether infants aged 5-6 months and 9-10 months could segment a word from continuous speech and acquire a word-object relation in an ecologically valid setting. In Experiment 1, infants were exposed to a live tutor, while in Experiment 2, another group of infants were exposed to a televised tutor. Results indicate that both younger and older infants were capable of segmenting a word and learning a word-object association only when the stimuli were derived from a live tutor in a natural manner, suggesting that real-life interaction enhances the learning of spoken words in preverbal infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Among the genes that are up-regulated in response to a reaching training in rats, Tachykinin 1 (Tac1-a gene that encodes the neuropeptide Substance P (Sub P-shows an especially strong expression. Using Real-Time RT-PCR, a detailed time-course of Tac1 expression could be defined: a significant peak occurs 7 hours after training ended at the first and second training session, whereas no up-regulation could be detected at a later time-point (sixth training session. To assess the physiological role of Sub P during movement acquisition, microinjections into the primary motor cortex (M1 contralateral to the trained paw were performed. When Sub P was injected before the first three sessions of a reaching training, effectiveness of motor learning became significantly increased. Injections at a time-point when rats already knew the task (i.e. training session ten and eleven had no effect on reaching performance. Sub P injections did not influence the improvement of performance within a single training session, but retention of performance between sessions became strengthened at a very early stage (i.e. between baseline-training and first training session. Thus, Sub P facilitates motor learning in the very early phase of skill acquisition by supporting memory consolidation. In line with these findings, learning related expression of the precursor Tac1 occurs at early but not at later time-points during reaching training.
Hertler, Benjamin; Hosp, Jonas Aurel; Blanco, Manuel Buitrago; Luft, Andreas Rüdiger
Among the genes that are up-regulated in response to a reaching training in rats, Tachykinin 1 (Tac1)-a gene that encodes the neuropeptide Substance P (Sub P)-shows an especially strong expression. Using Real-Time RT-PCR, a detailed time-course of Tac1 expression could be defined: a significant peak occurs 7 hours after training ended at the first and second training session, whereas no up-regulation could be detected at a later time-point (sixth training session). To assess the physiological role of Sub P during movement acquisition, microinjections into the primary motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the trained paw were performed. When Sub P was injected before the first three sessions of a reaching training, effectiveness of motor learning became significantly increased. Injections at a time-point when rats already knew the task (i.e. training session ten and eleven) had no effect on reaching performance. Sub P injections did not influence the improvement of performance within a single training session, but retention of performance between sessions became strengthened at a very early stage (i.e. between baseline-training and first training session). Thus, Sub P facilitates motor learning in the very early phase of skill acquisition by supporting memory consolidation. In line with these findings, learning related expression of the precursor Tac1 occurs at early but not at later time-points during reaching training.
Chamnanwong, Pornpaka; Thathong, Kongsak
In preparing a science lesson plan, teachers may deal with numerous difficulties. Having a deep understanding of their problems and their demands is extremely essential for the teachers in preparing themselves for the job. Moreover, it is also crucial for the stakeholders in planning suitable and in-need teachers' professional development programs, in school management, and in teaching aid. This study aimed to investigate the primary school science teachers' opinion toward practice of teaching and learning activities in science learning area. Target group was 292 primary science teachers who teach Grade 4 - 6 students in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand in the academic year of 2014. Data were collected using Questionnaire about Investigation the opinions of the primary science teachers toward practice of teaching and learning activities in science learning area. The questionnaires were consisted of closed questions scored on Likert scale and open-ended questions that invite a sentence response to cover from LS Process Ideas. Research findings were as follow. The primary science teachers' level of opinion toward teaching and learning science subject ranged from 3.19 - 3.93 (mean = 3.43) as "Moderate" level of practice. The primary school science teachers' needs to participate in a training workshop based on LS ranged from 3.66 - 4.22 (mean = 3.90) as "High" level. The result indicated that they were interested in attending a training course under the guidance of the Lesson Study by training on planning of management of science learning to solve teaching problems in science contents with the highest mean score 4.22. Open-ended questions questionnaire showed the needs of the implementation of the lesson plans to be actual classrooms, and supporting for learning Medias, innovations, and equipment for science experimentation.
This article outlines how social justice theories, in combination with the concepts of infrastructure access, literacies and community acceptance, can be used to think about equity in out-of-school science learning. The author applies these ideas to out-of-school learning via television, science clubs, and maker spaces, looking at research as well…
Bland, G.; Henry, A.; Bydlowski, D.
NASA Science Objectives include capturing the global view of Earth from space. This unique perspective is often augmented by instrumented research aircraft, to provide in-situ and remote sensing observations in support of the world picture. Our "Advancing Earth Research Observations with Kites and Atmospheric /Terrestrial Sensors" (AEROKATS) project aims to bring this novel and exciting perspective into the hands of learners young and old. The practice of using instrumented kites as surrogate satellites and aircraft is gaining momentum, as our team undertakes the technical, operational, and scientific challenges in preparations to bring new and easy-to-field tools to broad audiences. The third dimension in spatial perception ("up") has previously been difficult to effectively incorporate in learning and local-scale research activities. AEROKATS brings simple to use instrumented aerial systems into the hands of students, educators, and scientists, with the tangible benefits of detailed, high resolution measurements and observations directly applicable to real-world studies of the environments around us.
Patrick, Jennifer Drake
The highly specialized language of science is both challenging and alienating to adolescent readers. This study investigated how secondary science teachers learn to teach the specialized language of science in their classrooms. Three research questions guided this study: (a) what do science teachers know about teaching reading in science? (b) what understanding about the unique language demands of science reading do they construct through professional development? and (c) how do they integrate what they have learned about these specialized features of science language into their teaching practices? This study investigated the experience of seven secondary science teachers as they participated in a professional development program designed to teach them about the specialized language of science. Data sources included participant interviews, audio-taped professional development sessions, field notes from classroom observations, and a prior knowledge survey. Results from this study suggest that science teachers (a) were excited to learn about disciplinary reading practices, (b) developed an emergent awareness of the specialized features of science language and the various genres of science writing, and (c) recognized that the challenges of science reading goes beyond vocabulary. These teachers' efforts to understand and address the language of science in their teaching practices were undermined by their lack of basic knowledge of grammar, availability of time and resources, their prior knowledge and experiences, existing curriculum, and school structure. This study contributes to our understanding of how secondary science teachers learn about disciplinary literacy and apply that knowledge in their classroom instruction. It has important implications for literacy educators and science educators who are interested in using language and literacy practices in the service of science teaching and learning. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University
Arrigo, J. S.; Hooper, R. P.; Choi, Y.; Ames, D. P.; Kadlec, J.; Whiteaker, T.
"Water is everywhere." This sentiment underscores the importance of instilling hydrologic and earth science literacy in educators, students, and the general public, but also presents challenges for water scientists and educators. Scientific data about water is collected and distributed by several different sources, from federal agencies to scientific investigators to citizen scientists. As competition for limited water resources increase, increasing access to and understanding of the wealth of information about the nation's and the world's water will be critical. The CUAHSI-HIS system is a web based system for sharing hydrologic data that can help address this need. HydroDesktop is a free, open source application for finding, getting, analyzing and using hydrologic data from the CUAHSI-HIS system. It works with HydroCatalog which indexes the data to find out what data exists and where it is, and then it retrieves the data from HydroServers where it is stored communicating using WaterOneFlow web services. Currently, there are over 65 services registered in HydroCatalog providing central discovery of water data from several federal and state agencies, university projects, and other sources. HydroDesktop provides a simplified GIS that allows users to incorporate spatial data, and simple analysis tools to facilitate graphing and visualization. HydroDesktop is designed to be useful for a number of different groups of users with a wide variety of needs and skill levels including university faculty, graduate and undergraduate students, K-12 students, engineering and scientific consultants, and others. This presentation will highlight some of the features of HydroDesktop and the CUAHSI-HIS system that make it particularly appropriate for use in educational and public outreach settings, and will present examples of educational use. The incorporation of "real data," localization to an area of interest, and problem-based learning are all recognized as effective strategies for
Wilson, Penne L.
This study was conducted as part of the five year evaluation of the Star Schools grant awarded to Oklahoma State University for the development on online teacher professional development in the Hypothesis Based Learning (HbL) method of science instruction. Participants in this research were five teachers who had completed the online workshop, submitted a lesson plan, and who allowed this researcher and other members of the University of New Mexico Evaluation Team into their classrooms to observe and to determine if the learning of the method from the online HbL workshop had translated into practice. These teachers worked in inner city, suburban, metropolitan, and rural communities in the U.S. Southwest. This study was conducted to determine if teachers learned the HbL method from the online HbL workshop, to examine the relationship of satisfaction to learning, and to determine the elements of the online workshop that led to teacher learning. To measure learning of HbL, three different assessment instruments were used: embedded assessments within the online HbL workshop that gave teachers a scenario and asked them to generate questions to facilitate the HbL process; the analysis of a lesson plan provided by teachers using a science concept that they wished to incorporate in their curriculum using an HbL lesson template provided at the HbL website; and, observations of teachers facilitating the HbL process conducted at three different times during the year that they began the HbL online workshop. To determine if teachers were satisfied with the learning environment, the online HbL workshop, and the product, HbL Method for Teaching Science, and to determine if teachers could identify the elements of the online workshop that led to learning, interviews with the participants were conducted. The research findings were presented in two parts: Part I is an analysis of data provided by the assessment instruments and a content analysis of the transcripts of the teacher
Marzouk, Zahia; Rakovic, Mladen; Liaqat, Amna; Vytasek, Jovita; Samadi, Donya; Stewart-Alonso, Jason; Ram, Ilana; Woloshen, Sonya; Winne, Philip H.; Nesbit, John C.
Learning analytics are often formatted as visualisations developed from traced data collected as students study in online learning environments. Optimal analytics inform and motivate students' decisions about adaptations that improve their learning. We observe that designs for learning often neglect theories and empirical findings in learning…
Johnson, Lenora; Ousley, Anita; Swarz, Jeffrey; Bingham, Raymond J; Erickson, J Bianca; Ellis, Steven; Moody, Terra
Cancer education is a constantly evolving field, as science continues to advance both our understanding of cancer and its effects on patients, families, and communities. Moving discoveries to practice expeditiously is paramount to impacting cancer outcomes. The continuing education of cancer care professionals throughout their practice life is vital to facilitating the adoption of therapeutic innovations. Meanwhile, more general educational programs serve to keep cancer patients, their families, and the public informed of the latest findings in cancer research. The National Cancer Institute conducted an assessment of the current knowledge base for cancer education which involved two literature reviews, one of the general literature of the evaluation of medical and health education efforts, and the other of the preceding 5 years of the Journal of Cancer Education (JCE). These reviews explored a wide range of educational models and methodologies. In general, those that were most effective used multiple methodologies, interactive techniques, and multiple exposures over time. Less than one third of the articles in the JCE reported on a cancer education or communication product, and of these, only 70% had been evaluated for effectiveness. Recommendations to improve the evaluation of cancer education and the educational focus of the JCE are provided.
Sanchez, Christopher A
Although previous research has demonstrated that performance on visuospatial assessments can be enhanced through relevant experience, an unaddressed question is whether such experience also produces a similar increase in target domains (such as science learning) where visuospatial abilities are directly relevant for performance. In the present study, participants completed either spatial or nonspatial training via interaction with video games and were then asked to read and learn about the geologic topic of plate tectonics. Results replicate the benefit of playing appropriate video games in enhancing visuospatial performance and demonstrate that this facilitation also manifests itself in learning science topics that are visuospatial in nature. This novel result suggests that visuospatial training not only can impact performance on measures of spatial functioning, but also can affect performance in content areas in which these abilities are utilized.
Full Text Available This study focuses on attitudes toward (teaching science and the learning of science for primary school among pre-service teachers at the Open University of Indonesia. A three-year longitudinal survey was conducted, involving 379 students as pre-service teachers (PSTs from the Open University in Surabaya regional office. Attitudes toward (teaching science’ (ATS instrument was used to portray PSTs’ preparation for becoming primary school teachers. Data analyses were used, including descriptive analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The model fit of the attitudes toward (teaching science can be described from seven dimensions: self-efficacy for teaching science, the relevance of teaching science, gender-stereotypical beliefs, anxiety in teaching science, the difficulty of teaching science, perceived dependency on contextual factors, and enjoyment in teaching science. The results of the research also described science learning at the Open University of Indonesia looks like. Implications for primary teacher education are discussed.
Wang, Shi; Pan, De-Xi; Wang, Dan; Wan, Peng; Qiu, De-Lai; Jin, Qing-Hua
The hippocampus is a key structure for learning and memory in mammals, and long-term potentiation (LTP) is an important cellular mechanism responsible for learning and memory. Despite a number of studies indicating that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the formation and maintenance of LTP as a retrograde messenger, few studies have used neurotransmitter release as a visual indicator in awake animals to explore the role of NO in learning-dependent long-term enhancement of synaptic efficiency. Therefore, in the present study, the effects of l-NMMA (a NO synthase inhibitor) and SNP (a NO donor) on extracellular glutamate (Glu) concentrations and amplitudes of field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) were measured in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region during the acquisition and extinction of active-avoidance behavior in freely-moving conscious rats. In the control group, the extracellular concentration of Glu in the DG was significantly increased during the acquisition of active-avoidance behavior and gradually returned to baseline levels following extinction training. In the experimental group, the change in Glu concentration was significantly reduced by local microinjection of l-NMMA, as was the acquisition of the active-avoidance behavior. In contrast, the change in Glu concentration was significantly enhanced by SNP, and the acquisition of the active-avoidance behavior was significantly accelerated. Furthermore, in all groups, the changes in extracellular Glu were accompanied by corresponding changes in fEPSP amplitude and active-avoidance behavior. Our results suggest that NO in the hippocampal DG facilitates active avoidance learning via enhancements of glutamate levels and synaptic efficiency in rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Crompton, Helen; Burke, Diane; Gregory, Kristen H.; Gräbe, Catharina
The use of mobile learning in education is growing at an exponential rate. To best understand how mobile learning is being used, it is crucial to gain a collective understanding of the research that has taken place. This systematic review reveals the trends in mobile learning in science with a comprehensive analysis and synthesis of studies from the year 2000 onward. Major findings include that most of the studies focused on designing systems for mobile learning, followed by a combination of evaluating the effects of mobile learning and investigating the affective domain during mobile learning. The majority of the studies were conducted in the area of life sciences in informal, elementary (5-11 years) settings. Mobile devices were used in this strand of science easily within informal environments with real-world connections. A variety of research methods were employed, providing a rich research perspective. As the use of mobile learning continues to grow, further research regarding the use of mobile technologies in all areas and levels of science learning will help science educators to expand their ability to embrace these technologies.
Hoban, Garry; Nielsen, Wendy
Many preservice primary teachers have inadequate science knowledge, which often limits their confidence in implementing the subject. This paper proposes a new way for preservice teachers to learn science by designing and making a narrated stop-motion animation as an instructional resource to explain a science concept. In this paper, a simplified way for preservice teachers to design and make an animation called 'slowmation' (abbreviated from 'slow animation') is exemplified. A case study of three preservice primary teachers creating one from start to finish over 2 h was conducted to address the following research question: How do the preservice primary teachers create a slowmation and how does this process influence their science learning? The method of inquiry used a case study design involving pre- and post-individual interviews in conjunction with a discourse analysis of video and audio data recorded as they created a slowmation. The data illustrate how the preservice teachers' science learning was related to their prior knowledge and how they iteratively revisited the content through the construction of five representations as a cumulative semiotic progression: (i) research notes; (ii) storyboard; (iii) models; (iv) digital photographs; culminating in (v) the narrated animation. This progression enabled the preservice teachers to revisit the content in each representation and make decisions about which modes to use and promoted social interaction. Creating a slowmation facilitated the preservice teachers' learning about the life cycle of a ladybird beetle and revised their alternative conceptions.
Schulze, Salomé; Lemmer, Eleanor
Science education is particularly important for both developed and developing countries to promote technological development, global economic competition and economic growth. This study explored the relationship between family experiences, the motivation for science learning, and the science achievement of a group of Grade Nine learners in South…
Kim, Sun Young; Irving, Karen E.
This study (1) explores the effectiveness of the contextualized history of science on student learning of nature of science (NOS) and genetics content knowledge (GCK), especially interrelationships among various genetics concepts, in high school biology classrooms; (2) provides an exemplar for teachers on how to utilize history of science in…
Garcia, Juan O.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether mnemonic instruction could assist students in learning fifth-grade science terminology more effectively than traditional-study methods of recall currently in practice The task was to examine if fifth-grade students were able to learn a mnemonic and then use it to understand science vocabulary; subsequently, to determine if students were able to remember the science terms after a period of time. The problem is that in general, elementary school students are not being successful in science achievement at the fifth grade level. In view of this problem, if science performance is increased at the elementary level, then it is likely that students will be successful when tested at the 8th and 10th grade in science with the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) in the future. Two research questions were posited: (1) Is there a difference in recall achievement when a mnemonic such as method of loci, pegword method, or keyword method is used in learning fifth-grade science vocabulary as compared to the traditional-study method? (2) If using a mnemonic in learning fifth-grade science vocabulary was effective on recall achievement, would this achievement be maintained over a span of time? The need for this study was to assist students in learning science terms and concepts for state accountability purposes. The first assumption was that memorization techniques are not commonly applied in fifth-grade science classes in elementary schools. A second assumption was that mnemonic devices could be used successfully in learning science terms and increase long term retention. The first limitation was that the study was conducted on one campus in one school district in South Texas which limited the generalization of the study. The second limitation was that it included random assigned intact groups as opposed to random student assignment to fifth-grade classroom groups.
The purpose of this study is to explore feminist pedagogy integrated with facilitation skills. A pedagogy project was undertaken with students participating in the BSc (Hons) Nursing programme, whereby a module, "Interpersonal Skills for Nurses" was developed for 72 year 1 students. A feminist pedagogy involves employing the powers of diversity to create an environment where all students' voices are heard. It values the power of sharing to create a community of learners in which teachers and students share their talents, skills and abilities to enhance the learning of all (Chinn, 2001). An end of semester evaluation provided feedback which indicated this was a valuable module to teach year 1 student nurses. It highlighted that student nurses found the topic both interesting and relevant and felt it was taught in a way that promoted their personal development and identity as a nurse. © 2013.
Gardner, Christina M.
learning environments through cross-case analyses of these cases. Finally, it offers suggestions about structuring activities, selecting materials and resources, and designing facilitation and software-realized scaffolding in the design of these types of learning environments. These design implications focus on affording participant engagement in science content and practices learning. Overall, the case studies, cross-case analyses, and empirically-based design implications begin to bridge the gap between theory and practice in the design and implementation of these learning environments. This is demonstrated by providing detailed and explanatory examples and factors that affect how participants take up the affordances of the learning opportunities designed into these learning environments.
Paige, Kathryn; Zeegers, Yvonne; Lloyd, David; Roetman, Philip
This paper reports on an action research-based professional learning programme (PLP) in which early career teachers volunteered to identify and then research an aspect of their science teaching practice. The PLP was facilitated by academics from the School of Education and the Barbara Hardy Institute at the University of South Australia. The…
Dieckmann, Peter; Glavin, Ronnie; Hartvigsen Grønholm Jepsen, Rikke Malene; Krage, Ralf
Acquiring the concepts of non-technical skills (NTS) beyond a superficial level is a challenge for healthcare professionals and simulation faculty. Current simulation-based approaches to teach NTS are challenged when learners have to master NTS concepts, clinically challenging situations, and simulation as a complex technique. The combination of all three aspects might overwhelm learners. To facilitate the deeper comprehension of NTS concepts, we describe an innovative video-based game, the Non-Technical Skills (NTS) Bingo. Participants get NTS Bingo cards that show five NTS elements each. While observing (non-medical) video clips, they try to find examples for the elements on their cards, typically observable behaviours that match a given element. After the video, participants "defend" their solution in a discussion with the game leader and other players. This discussion and the reflection aim to deepen the processing of the NTS concepts. We provide practical guidance for the conduct of NTS Bingo, including a selection of usable video clips and tips for the facilitated discussion after a clip. We use NTS in anaesthesia as example and provide guidance on how to adapt NTS Bingo to other disciplines. NTS Bingo is based on theoretical considerations on concept learning, which we describe to support the rationale for its conduct.
Full Text Available The dominant form of teaching in higher education remains the lecture,even though evidence suggests that it alone is inadequate to facilitate the development ofthe higher order thinking skills required in clinical practice. The use of wikis may have a roleto play in facilitating collaborative learning practices that are important for professionaldevelopment. This descriptive survey evaluated the use of a wiki for a collaborative learningactivity within small groups of undergraduate physiotherapy students in a South Africanuniversity. Students participated in a wiki-based assignment and were then surveyedusing open- and closed-ended questions to determine their perceptions and experiences of the process. The results indicate thatalthough a wiki can be used to develop relevant content, there were significant challenges in its implementation. These included apoor understanding by students of how to work effectively in groups, a lack of physical and epistemological access to the internet,and the need for adequate preparation and support. Some features of the wiki were found to have an impact on the quality ofthe work produced, including the use of Discussion pages, peer review, and the public nature of the wiki. The conclusion is thatwikis may have a role to play in collaborative groupwork, but that that students need to be adequately prepared and supportedthroughout the process.
VanBuskirk, Shireen Adele
The purpose of this research project is to describe how existing communication technologies are used to foster scientific literacy for secondary students. This study develops a new framework as an analytic tool to categorize the activities of teachers and students involved in scientific literacy to describe what elements of scientific literacy are facilitated by such technologies. Four case studies are analyzed using the framework to describe the scientific literacy initiatives. Data collection at each site included interviews with the teacher, student focus groups, student surveys, and classroom observations. Qualitative analysis of the data provided insight into the learning activities and student experiences in the four cases. This study intentionally provides a platform for student voice. Very few previous empirical studies in the area of scientific literacy include the student experience. This represents a significant gap in the current literature on scientific literacy. An interpretation of scientific literacy that promotes student engagement, interaction, and initiative corresponds to a need to listen to students' perspectives on these experiences. Findings of the study indicated that the classroom activities depended on the teacher's philosophy regarding scientific literacy. Communication technology was ubiquitous; where the teacher did not initiate the use of social media in the classroom, the students did. The goal of supporting scientific literacy in students is an objective that extends beyond the boundaries of classroom walls, and it can be facilitated by technologies that seem both abundant and underutilized. Technology-enhanced pedagogy altered the classroom practices and resulted in more student participation and engagement.
de Vos, Marit S; Hamming, Jaap F; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J
To explore barriers and facilitators to successful morbidity and mortality conferences (M&M), driving learning and improvement. This is a qualitative study with semistructured interviews. Inductive, thematic content analysis was used to identify barriers and facilitators, which were structured across a pre-existing framework for change in healthcare. Dutch academic surgical department with a long tradition of M&M. An interview sample of surgeons, residents and physician assistants (n=12). A total of 57 barriers and facilitators to successful M&M, covering 18 themes, varying from 'case type' to 'leadership', were perceived by surgical staff. While some factors related to M&M organisation, others concerned individual or social aspects. Eight factors, of which four were at the social level, had simultaneous positive and negative effects (eg, 'hierarchy' and 'team spirit'). Mediating pathways for M&M success were found to relate to available information , staff motivation and realisation processes. This study provides leads for improvement of M&M practice, as well as for further research on key elements of successful M&M. Various factors were perceived to affect M&M success, of which many were individual and social rather than organisational factors, affecting information and realisation processes but also staff motivation. Based on these findings, practical recommendations were formulated to guide efforts towards best practices for M&M. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Perin, Suzanne Marie
By first recognizing the valuable social and scientific practices taking place within families as they learn science together across multiple, everyday settings, this dissertation addresses questions of how to design and scaffold activities that build and expand on those practices to foster a deep understanding of science, and how the aesthetic experience of learning science builds connections across educational settings. Families were invited to visit a natural history museum, an aquarium, and a place or activity of the family's choice that they associated with science learning. Some families were asked to use a set of activities during their study visits based on the practices of science (National Research Council, 2012), which were delivered via smartphone app or on paper cards. I use design-based research, video data analysis and interaction analysis to examine how families build connections between informal science learning settings. Chapter 2 outlines the research-based design process of creating activities for families that fostered connections across multiple learning settings, regardless of the topical content of those settings. Implications of this study point to means for linking everyday family social practices such as questioning, observing, and disagreeing to the practices of science through activities that are not site-specific. The next paper delves into aesthetic experience of science learning, and I use video interaction analysis and linguistic analysis to show how notions of beauty and pleasure (and their opposites) are perfused throughout learning activity. Designing for aesthetic experience overtly -- building on the sensations of enjoyment and pleasure in the learning experience -- can motivate those who might feel alienated by the common conception of science as merely a dispassionate assembly of facts, discrete procedures or inaccessible theory. The third paper, a case study of a family who learns about salmon in each of the sites they visit
Vogel, Amanda L; Stipelman, Brooke A; Hall, Kara L; Nebeling, Linda; Stokols, Daniel; Spruijt-Metz, Donna
The National Cancer Institute has been a leader in supporting transdisciplinary (TD) team science. From 2005-2010, the NCI supported Transdisciplinary Research on Energetic and Cancer I (TREC I), a center initiative fostering the TD integration of social, behavioral, and biological sciences to examine the relationships among obesity, nutrition, physical activity and cancer. In the final year of TREC I, we conducted qualitative in-depth-interviews with 31 participating investigators and trainees to learn more about their experiences with TD team science, including challenges, facilitating factors, strategies for success, and impacts. Five main challenges emerged: (1) limited published guidance for how to engage in TD team science, when TREC I was implemented; (2) conceptual and scientific challenges inherent to efforts to achieve TD integration; (3) discipline-based differences in values, terminology, methods, and work styles; (4) project management challenges involved in TD team science; and (5) traditional incentive and reward systems that do not recognize or reward TD team science. Four main facilitating factors and strategies for success emerged: (1) beneficial attitudes and beliefs about TD research and team science; (2) effective team processes; (3) brokering and bridge-building activities by individuals holding particular roles in a research center; and (4) funding initiative characteristics that support TD team science. Broad impacts of participating in TD team science in the context of TREC I included: (1) new positive attitudes about TD research and team science; (2) new boundary-crossing collaborations; (3) scientific advances related to research approaches, findings, and dissemination; (4) institutional culture change and resource creation in support of TD team science; and (5) career advancement. Funding agencies, academic institutions, and scholarly journals can help to foster TD team science through funding opportunities, institutional policies on
Albrecht, Nancy Jean
The gap between a student's home culture and that of classroom science may create challenges for students and families, especially those from recent immigrant cultures, including refugees. As a result, science learning in schools may require a form of cultural border crossing between home cultures and the culture of classroom science. Given this, as educators, how do we make these borders more porous for better science learning experiences? Using the frameworks of funds of knowledge, culturally relevant pedagogy, and socio-constructivism, this study focuses on the perspectives of Somali-American elders and parents about school science. Designed as an in-depth interview study, five purposefully selected participants were interviewed over a period of two years. The guiding questions for the study included: 1) What are the perceptions of Somali elders about school science? and 2) How do Somali elders believe science teaching and learning can facilitate Somali students' engagement in science?. Analysis of the interview data revealed that Somali-American adults have complicated perceptions of school science that include both conflicts and acceptance with current pedagogy and content. For example, science education was highly valued by both individuals and the Somali community, both as a way for individuals to attain economic prosperity and respect, but also as a way to lift up the Somali diaspora, both here and in their native homeland. On the other hand, science was also viewed as an abstract discipline with little connection to students' and families' everyday home lives. Moreover, due to the intrinsic role that Islam plays in traditional and contemporary Somali culture, several areas of science education, including geology, evolution and sex education, were viewed as problematic and unresolvable. Various potential areas of funds of knowledge and culturally relevant pedagogy were discussed including nutrition, food preparation and storage, health education, and
Nhorvien Jay P. Libao
Full Text Available This study was designed to analyze the relationship of students’ learning motivation and their academic performances in science. The study made use of 21 junior and senior Biological Science students to conclude on the formulated research problems. The respondents had a good to very good motivation in learning science. In general, the extent of their motivation do not vary across their sex, age, and curriculum year. Moreover, the respondents had good academic performances in science. Aptly, extrinsic motivation was found to be related with their academic performances among the indicators of motivations in learning science.
Roche, Richard Ap
BACKGROUND: Repeated rehearsal is one method by which verbal material may be transferred from short- to long-term memory. We hypothesised that extended engagement of memory structures through prolonged rehearsal would result in enhanced efficacy of recall and also of brain structures implicated in new learning. Twenty-four normal participants aged 55-70 (mean = 60.1) engaged in six weeks of rote learning, during which they learned 500 words per week every week (prose, poetry etc.). An extensive battery of memory tests was administered on three occasions, each six weeks apart. In addition, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was used to measure metabolite levels in seven voxels of interest (VOIs) (including hippocampus) before and after learning. RESULTS: Results indicate a facilitation of new learning that was evident six weeks after rote learning ceased. This facilitation occurred for verbal\\/episodic material only, and was mirrored by a metabolic change in left posterior hippocampus, specifically an increase in NAA\\/(Cr+Cho) ratio. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that repeated activation of memory structures facilitates anamnesis and may promote neuronal plasticity in the ageing brain, and that compliance is a key factor in such facilitation as the effect was confined to those who engaged fully with the training.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeated rehearsal is one method by which verbal material may be transferred from short- to long-term memory. We hypothesised that extended engagement of memory structures through prolonged rehearsal would result in enhanced efficacy of recall and also of brain structures implicated in new learning. Twenty-four normal participants aged 55-70 (mean = 60.1 engaged in six weeks of rote learning, during which they learned 500 words per week every week (prose, poetry etc.. An extensive battery of memory tests was administered on three occasions, each six weeks apart. In addition, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS was used to measure metabolite levels in seven voxels of interest (VOIs (including hippocampus before and after learning. Results Results indicate a facilitation of new learning that was evident six weeks after rote learning ceased. This facilitation occurred for verbal/episodic material only, and was mirrored by a metabolic change in left posterior hippocampus, specifically an increase in NAA/(Cr+Cho ratio. Conclusion Results suggest that repeated activation of memory structures facilitates anamnesis and may promote neuronal plasticity in the ageing brain, and that compliance is a key factor in such facilitation as the effect was confined to those who engaged fully with the training.
Roche, Richard Ap; Mullally, Sinéad L; McNulty, Jonathan P; Hayden, Judy; Brennan, Paul; Doherty, Colin P; Fitzsimons, Mary; McMackin, Deirdre; Prendergast, Julie; Sukumaran, Sunita; Mangaoang, Maeve A; Robertson, Ian H; O'Mara, Shane M
Repeated rehearsal is one method by which verbal material may be transferred from short- to long-term memory. We hypothesised that extended engagement of memory structures through prolonged rehearsal would result in enhanced efficacy of recall and also of brain structures implicated in new learning. Twenty-four normal participants aged 55-70 (mean = 60.1) engaged in six weeks of rote learning, during which they learned 500 words per week every week (prose, poetry etc.). An extensive battery of memory tests was administered on three occasions, each six weeks apart. In addition, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was used to measure metabolite levels in seven voxels of interest (VOIs) (including hippocampus) before and after learning. Results indicate a facilitation of new learning that was evident six weeks after rote learning ceased. This facilitation occurred for verbal/episodic material only, and was mirrored by a metabolic change in left posterior hippocampus, specifically an increase in NAA/(Cr+Cho) ratio. Results suggest that repeated activation of memory structures facilitates anamnesis and may promote neuronal plasticity in the ageing brain, and that compliance is a key factor in such facilitation as the effect was confined to those who engaged fully with the training.
American middle school student science scores have been stagnating for several years, demonstrating a need for better learning strategies to aid teachers in instruction and students in content learning. It has also been suggested by researchers that music can be used to aid students in their learning and memory. Employing the theoretical framework of brain-based learning, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of original, science-based music on student content learning and student perceptions of the music and its impact on learning. Students in the treatment group at a public middle school learned songs with lyrics related to the content of a 4-week cells unit in science; whereas an equally sized control group was taught the same material using existing methods. The content retention and learning experiences of the students in this study were examined using a concurrent triangulation, mixed-methods study. Independent sample t test and ANOVA analyses were employed to determine that the science posttest scores of students in the treatment group (N = 93) were significantly higher than the posttest scores of students in the control group (N = 93), and that the relative gains of the boys in the treatment group exceeded those of the girls. The qualitative analysis of 10 individual interviews and 3 focus group interviews followed Patton's method of a priori coding, cross checking, and thematic analysis to examine the perceptions of the treatment group. These results confirmed that the majority of the students thought the music served as an effective learning tool and enhanced recall. This study promoted social change because students and teachers gained insight into how music can be used in science classrooms to aid in the learning of science content. Researchers could also utilize the findings for continued investigation of the interdisciplinary use of music in educational settings.
Post, Phillip G; Aiken, Christopher A; Laughlin, David D; Fairbrother, Jeffrey T
Allowing learners to control the video presentation of knowledge of performance (KP) or an expert model during practice has been shown to facilitate motor learning (Aiken, Fairbrother, & Post, 2012; Wulf, Raupach, & Pfeiffer, 2005). Split-screen replay features now allow for the simultaneous presentation of these modes of instructional support. It is uncertain, however, if such a combination incorporated into a self-control protocol would yield similar benefits seen in earlier self-control studies. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of self-controlled split-screen replay on the learning of a golf chip shot. Participants completed 60 practice trials, three administrations of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory, and a questionnaire on day one. Retention and transfer tests and a final motivation inventory were completed on day two. Results revealed significantly higher form and accuracy scores for the self-control group during transfer. The self-control group also had significantly higher scores on the perceived competence subscale, reported requesting feedback mostly after perceived poor trials, and recalled a greater number of critical task features compared to the yoked group. The findings for the performance measures were consistent with previous self-control research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Christopher M. Raymond
Full Text Available This study presents a self-assessment tool and process that facilitate community capacity building and social learning for natural resource management. The tool and process provide opportunities for rural landholders and project teams both to self-assess their capacity to plan and deliver natural resource management (NRM programs and to reflect on their capacities relative to other organizations and institutions that operate in their region. We first outline the tool and process and then present a critical review of the pilot in the South Australian Arid Lands NRM region, South Australia. Results indicate that participants representing local, organizational, and institutional tiers of government were able to arrive at a group consensus position on the strength, importance, and confidence of a variety of capacities for NRM categorized broadly as human, social, physical, and financial. During the process, participants learned a lot about their current capacity as well as capacity needs. Broad conclusions are discussed with reference to the iterative process for assessing and reflecting on community capacity.
Sandars, John; Patel, Rakesh S; Goh, Poh Sun; Kokatailo, Patricia K; Lafferty, Natalie
There is an increasing use of technology for teaching and learning in medical education but often the use of educational theory to inform the design is not made explicit. The educational theories, both normative and descriptive, used by medical educators determine how the technology is intended to facilitate learning and may explain why some interventions with technology may be less effective compared with others. The aim of this study is to highlight the importance of medical educators making explicit the educational theories that inform their design of interventions using technology. The use of illustrative examples of the main educational theories to demonstrate the importance of theories informing the design of interventions using technology. Highlights the use of educational theories for theory-based and realistic evaluations of the use of technology in medical education. An explicit description of the educational theories used to inform the design of an intervention with technology can provide potentially useful insights into why some interventions with technology are more effective than others. An explicit description is also an important aspect of the scholarship of using technology in medical education.
Mahagan, Vikki Lynn
Instructional facilitators are known by a variety of titles depending on the school district in which they are employed. They are sometimes called instructional coaches, teacher leaders, lead teachers, and instructional specialist (Denton & Hasbrouck, 2009). Throughout this study, the title instructional facilitator was used and will refer to secondary math or science instructional facilitators who are housed at least one day per week on a campus. This study is a mixed-methods descriptive study which has identified character traits, specials skill, and talents possessed by effective secondary math and science instructional facilitators as perceived by practicing facilitators and principals and assistant principals who work along side instructional facilitators. Specific job training to help ensure the success of a facilitator was identified as viewed by both facilitators and principals. Additionally, this study compared the perceptions of practicing facilitators and principals to determine if significant differences exist with respect to perceptions of staff development opportunities, support structures, and resources available for instructional facilitators.
Full Text Available This project aimed to improve the laboratory learning experience for undergraduate science students, focusing initially on first and third year cohorts, through specific objectives. Firstly, to incorporate novel teaching and assessment methods, including student led laboratories, in-house produced instructional videos, „Clickers‟ audience response devices, and pre-practical on-line MCQ assessments. Secondly, to develop timely feedback mechanisms, including peer review, tutor face to face and audio feedback, online automatic feedback, and report checklists. Finally, to imbed transferable skills into the laboratory including group work, communication skills (written and oral, organisation & project planning, health & safety, and preparedness for laboratories, final year projects & placement. Pedagogical evaluation was through anonymous multiple choice questionnaires and independent academic facilitated discussion forums. The main benefits are students who are better prepared, both for basic undergraduate laboratories and for independent research-based final year projects; continuity in the development of transferable skills; improved assessment quality though constructive alignment and appropriate feedback; and improved student satisfaction through engagement and feedback. The key recommendations arising from this study are; to encourage preparedness for practical sessions, harnessing technology to engage students through interesting pre-practical activities; to encourage an improved culture of feedback, including mechanisms such as podcasts, which also "feed-forward‟; and to encourage a culture where value is added to modules by actively incorporating transferable skills into all student activities and assessments, rather than a "bolt on" approach
Honey, Margaret A., Ed.; Hilton, Margaret, Ed.
At a time when scientific and technological competence is vital to the nation's future, the weak performance of U.S. students in science reflects the uneven quality of current science education. Although young children come to school with innate curiosity and intuitive ideas about the world around them, science classes rarely tap this potential.…
Li, Mang; Zheng, Chunping; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Zhang, Yun; Tsai, Chin-Chung
This study explored the structural relationships among secondary school students' conceptions, self-regulation, and strategies of learning science in mainland China. Three questionnaires, namely conceptions of learning science (COLS), self-regulation of learning science (SROLS), and strategies of learning science (SLS) were developed for…
Puhan, Milo A; Steinemann, Nina; Kamm, Christian P; Müller, Stephanie; Kuhle, Jens; Kurmann, Roland; Calabrese, Pasquale; Kesselring, Jürg; von Wyl, Viktor; Swiss Multiple Sclerosis Registry Smsr
Our aim was to assess whether a novel approach of digitally facilitated, citizen-science research, as followed by the Swiss Multiple Sclerosis Registry (Swiss MS Registry), leads to accelerated participant recruitment and more diverse study populations compared with traditional research studies where participants are mostly recruited in study centres without the use of digital technology. The Swiss MS Registry is a prospective, longitudinal, observational study covering all Switzerland. Participants actively contribute to the Swiss MS Registry, from defining research questions to providing data (online or on a paper form) and co-authoring papers. We compared the recruitment dynamics over the first 18 months with the a priori defined recruitment goals and assessed whether a priori defined groups were enrolled who are likely to be missed by traditional research studies. The goal to recruit 400 participants in the first year was reached after only 20 days, and by the end of 18 months 1700 participants had enrolled in the Swiss MS Registry, vastly exceeding expectations. Of the a priori defined groups with potential underrepresentation in other studies, 645 participants (46.5%) received care at a private neurology practice, 167 participants (12%) did not report any use of healthcare services in the past 12 months, 32 (2.3%) participants lived in rural mountainous areas, and 20 (2.0% of the 1041 for whom this information was available) lived in a long-term care facility. Having both online and paper options increased diversity of the study population in terms of geographic origin and type and severity of disease, as well as use of health care services. In particular, paper enrolees tended to be older, more frequently affected by progressive MS types and more likely to have accessed healthcare services in the past 12 months. Academic and industry-driven medical research faces substantial challenges in terms of patient involvement, recruitment, relevance and
Mayer, Richard E.
Among his many accomplishments in educational psychology, Merlin C. Wittrock is perhaps best remembered for his enduring contributions to the science of learning. His vision of how learning works is best explicated in articles published in "Educational Psychologist" (Wittrock, 1974, 1978, 1989, 1991, 1992), beginning with his classic 1974 article,…
The learning of science concepts within a traditional socio-cultural environment were investigated by looking at: 1) the nature of \\"cognitive border crossing\\" exhibited by the students from the traditional to the scientific worldview, and 2) whether or not three learning theories / hypotheses: border crossing, collaterality, and ...
People have different learning styles that are reflected in different academic strengths, weaknesses, skills, and interests. Given the almost unlimited variety of job descriptions within food science and engineering, it is safe to say that students with every possible learning style have the potential to succeed as food scientists and engineers.…
Chen, Y-H.; Jang, S-J.; Chen, P-J.
Wiki bears great potential to transform learning and instruction by scaffolding personal and social constructivism. Past studies have shown that proper application of wiki benefits both students and teachers; however, few studies have integrated wiki and collaborative learning to examine the growth of science teachers' "Technological,…
Wang, Chien-hsing; Ke, Yi-Ting; Wu, Jin-Tong; Hsu, Wen-Hua
This paper briefly reports the outcomes of an action research inquiry on the use of blogs, MS PowerPoint [PPT], and the Internet as learning tools with a science class of sixth graders for project-based learning. Multiple sources of data were essential to triangulate the key findings articulated in this paper. Corresponding to previous studies,…
Ainsworth, Heather L.; Eaton, Sarah Elaine
This research report investigates the links between formal, non-formal and informal learning and the differences between them. In particular, the report aims to link these notions of learning to the field of sciences and engineering in Canada and the United States, including professional development of adults working in these fields. It offers…
Limoncelli, Stephanie A.
The increasing internationalisation of social science curricula in undergraduate education along with the growth of service-learning has provided new opportunities to join the two. This article offers a refection and discussion of service-learning with placements in international nongovernmental organisations (INGOs), drawing from its application…
Annetta, Leonard; Vallett, David; Fusarelli, Bonnie; Lamb, Richard; Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Holmes, Shawn; Folta, Elizabeth; Thurmond, Brandi
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect Serious Educational Games (SEGs) had on student interest in science in a federally funded game-based learning project. It can be argued that today's students are more likely to engage in video games than they are to interact in live, face-to-face learning environments. With a keen eye on…
Alonzo, Alicia C.
Learning progressions--particularly as defined and operationalized in science education--have significant potential to inform teachers' formative assessment practices. In this overview article, I lay out an argument for this potential, starting from definitions for "formative assessment practices" and "learning progressions"…
Patricia Villalonga de García
Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to introduce the methodology used to carry out a diagnostic of the system of evaluation in learning for Mathematics I (subject of the first year in the Facultad de Bioquímica, Química y Farmacia of the Universidad Nacional of Tucumán in Argentina This diagnostic was based on a model of alternative evaluation of learning, designed on the basis of criteria resulting from constructivist pedagogical currents and on the basis of methodological principles for the qualitative and quantitative paradigms in socioeducational research. The criteria stated in this model led to the formulation of the hypothesis: “the evaluation of learning in the subject is enhanced with a reductionistic and disintegrated conception of the processes of teaching and learning”. In order to contrast it, surveys were designed which were applied to students in years 2001 and 2003 and to teachers in year 2001, and a study was carried out on the items of summative evaluation of the subject based on the principles of evaluation standards of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. The sources of information were chosen by attending to the characteristics of the context of work and the limitations which conditioned the investigation. A technique was designed to analyze the open and close questions of the surveys and to study the items of the exams. This facilitated the elaboration of a system of categories with which the diagnostic was implemented. The methodological design adopted and the sources used were adequate to reach the aims proposed in the study. Besides, they provided the means to find solid argumentations to contrast the hypotheses of work.
This article comments on some trends in the evolution of science teaching at a distance using the Open University UK (OU UK) experience as a benchmark. Even from the first years of the university there was an understanding of the potential role for media in developing methods for teaching science at a distance, in particular the potential for…
Lemberger, Nancy; Vinogradova, Olga
Describes one secondary Russian/English bilingual science teacher's practice and her literate students' experiences as they learn science and adapt to a new school. Discusses the notion of whether literacy skills in the native language are transferable to a second language. (Author/VWL)
Bell, Philip, Ed.; Lewenstein, Bruce, Ed.; Shouse, Andrew W., Ed.; Feder, Michael A., Ed.
Informal science is a burgeoning field that operates across a broad range of venues and envisages learning outcomes for individuals, schools, families, and society. The evidence base that describes informal science, its promise, and effects is informed by a range of disciplines and perspectives, including field-based research, visitor studies, and…
Tytler, Russell; Symington, David
There is considerable evidence suggesting that students in rural schools lag behind their city counterparts in measures of science literacy and attitude to science learning. If we are to address this situation we need to build as full a picture as we can of the key features of what is a complex and varied rural schooling context. In this article…
Kablan, Zeynel; Kaya, Sibel
Problem Statement: The interest in raising levels of achievement in math and science has led to a focus on investigating the factors that shape achievement in these subjects. Understanding how different learning styles might influence science achievement may guide educators in their efforts to raise achievement. This study is an attempt to examine…
Elliot, Dely; Wilson, Delia; Boyle, Stephen
Scotland's rich heritage in the field of science and engineering and recent curricular developments led to major investment in education to equip pupils with improved scientific knowledge and skills. However, due to its abstract and conceptual nature, learning science can be challenging. Literature supports the role of multimedia technology in…
Moeed, Azra; Easterbrook, Matthew
Internationally, conceptual and procedural understanding, understanding the Nature of Science, and scientific literacy are considered worthy goals of school science education in modern times. The empirical study presented here reports on promising teacher practices that in the students' views afford learning opportunities and support their science…
Lee, Silvia Wen-Yu; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Wu, Ying-Tien; Tsai, Meng-Jung; Liu, Tzu-Chien; Hwang, Fu-Kwun; Lai, Chih-Hung; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Wu, Huang-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yen
Internet-based science learning has been advocated by many science educators for more than a decade. This review examines relevant research on this topic. Sixty-five papers are included in the review. The review consists of the following two major categories: (1) the role of demographics and learners' characteristics in Internet-based science…
Murphy, P. Karen; Knight, Stephanie L.
The past century has yielded a plethora of advancements in the science of learning, from expansions in the theoretical frames that undergird education research to cultural and contextual considerations in educational practice. The overarching purpose of this chapter is to explore and document the growth and development of the science of learning…
Higdon, Robbie L.
The process of teaching, especially inquiry, is complex and requires extended time for developing one's instructional practice (Loucks-Horsley, Stiles, Mundry, Love, & Hewson, 2010). The implementation of a continued cycle of self-reflection can engage teachers in analyzing their prior experiences and understandings about their instructional practice to promote the accommodation of new concepts and transform their practice. However, many teachers have difficulty engaging in the cognitive dissonance needed to identify those problems and promote their own growth without support. As one's professional practice becomes more repetitive and routine, it is difficult for the practitioner to recognize opportunities in which to contemplate one's habitual actions (Schon, 1983). In this multi-case study, two middle school science teachers who were engaged within a sustained professional development initiative participated in a series of one-on-one reflective dialogues regarding the decisions they made about the utilization of inquiry-based instruction. In addition, these teachers were asked to reflect upon the criteria used to determine how and when to implement these inquiry-based practices. These reflective dialogue sessions provided the opportunity to observe teacher conceptions and stimulate teacher cognitive dissonance about instructional practice. Qualitative analysis of data collected from these reflective dialogues along with informal and formal classroom observations of instructional practice uncovered diverse perceptions regarding the implementation of inquiry-based methods into present teaching practice. The use of reflective dialogue within the existing structure of the professional development initiative allowed for the facilitators of the professional development initiative to tailor ongoing support and their effective implementation of inquiry-based instruction. Additional research is needed to investigate the impact of reflective dialogue in achieving
Inquiry-based learning is widely considered for science education in this era. This study aims to explore inquiry-based learning in teacher preparation program and the findings will help us to understanding what inquiry-based classroom is and how inquiry-based learning are. Data were collected by qualitative methods; classroom observation,…
Gnaur, Dorina; Hüttel, Hans
This paper reports initial experiences with flipping the classroom in an undergraduate computer science course as part of an overall attempt to enhance the pedagogical support for student learning. Our findings indicate that, just as the flipped classroom implies, a shift of focus in the learning...... context influences the way students engage with the course and their learning strategies....
Full Text Available The ability to learn sequential behaviors is a fundamental property of our brains. Yet a long stream of studies including recent experiments investigating motor sequence learning in adult human subjects have produced a number of puzzling and seemingly contradictory results. In particular, when subjects have to learn multiple action sequences, learning is sometimes impaired by proactive and retroactive interference effects. In other situations, however, learning is accelerated as reflected in facilitation and transfer effects. At present it is unclear what the underlying neural mechanism are that give rise to these diverse findings. Here we show that a recently developed recurrent neural network model readily reproduces this diverse set of findings. The self-organizing recurrent neural network (SORN model is a network of recurrently connected threshold units that combines a simplified form of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP with homeostatic plasticity mechanisms ensuring network stability, namely intrinsic plasticity (IP and synaptic normalization (SN. When trained on sequence learning tasks modeled after recent experiments we find that it reproduces the full range of interference, facilitation, and transfer effects. We show how these effects are rooted in the network's changing internal representation of the different sequences across learning and how they depend on an interaction of training schedule and task similarity. Furthermore, since learning in the model is based on fundamental neuronal plasticity mechanisms, the model reveals how these plasticity mechanisms are ultimately responsible for the network's sequence learning abilities. In particular, we find that all three plasticity mechanisms are essential for the network to learn effective internal models of the different training sequences. This ability to form effective internal models is also the basis for the observed interference and facilitation effects. This suggests that
Pype, Peter; Mertens, Fien; Wens, Johan; Stes, Ann; Van den Eynden, Bart; Deveugele, Myriam
Palliative care requires a multidisciplinary care team. General practitioners often ask specialised palliative home care teams for support. Working with specialised nurses offers learning opportunities, also called workplace learning. This can be enhanced by the presence of a learning facilitator. To describe the development and evaluation of a training programme for nurses in primary care. The programme aimed to prepare palliative home care team nurses to act as facilitators for general practitioners' workplace learning. A one-group post-test only design (quantitative) and semi-structured interviews (qualitative) were used. A multifaceted train-the-trainer programme was designed. Evaluation was done through assignments with individual feedback, summative assessment through videotaped encounters with simulation-physicians and individual interviews after a period of practice implementation. A total of 35 nurses followed the programme. The overall satisfaction was high. Homework assignments interfered with the practice workload but showed to be fundamental in translating theory into practice. Median score on the summative assessment was 7 out of 14 with range 1-13. Interviews revealed some aspects of the training (e.g. incident analysis) to be too difficult for implementation or to be in conflict with personal preferences (focus on patient care instead of facilitating general practitioners' learning). Training palliative home care team nurses as facilitator of general practitioners' workplace learning is a feasible but complex intervention. Personal characteristics, interpersonal relationships and contextual variables have to be taken into account. Training expert palliative care nurses to facilitate general practitioners' workplace learning requires careful and individualised mentoring. © The Author(s) 2014.
Campbell, Ralph Ian
This analytic paper asks one question: How does Basil Bernstein's concept of the structure of pedagogic discourse (SPD) contribute to our understanding of the role of teacher-student interactions in science learning in the classroom? Applying Bernstein's theory of the SPD to an analysis of current research in science education explores the structure of Bernstein's theory as a tool for understanding the challenges and questions related to current concerns about classroom science learning. This analysis applies Bernstein's theory of the SPD as a heuristic through a secondary reading of selected research from the past fifteen years and prompts further consideration of Bernstein's ideas. This leads to a reevaluation of the categories of regulative discourse (RD) and instructional discourse (ID) as structures that frame learning environments and the dynamics of student-teacher interactions, which determine learning outcomes. The SPD becomes a simple but flexible heuristic, offering a useful deconstruction of teaching and learning dynamics in three different classroom environments. Understanding the framing interactions of RD and ID provides perspectives on the balance of agency and expectation, suggesting some causal explanations for the student learning outcomes described by the authors. On one hand, forms of open inquiry and student-driven instruction may lack the structure to ensure the appropriation of desired forms of scientific thinking. On the other hand, well-designed pathways towards the understanding of fundamental concepts in science may lack the forms of more open-ended inquiry that develop transferable understanding. Important ideas emerge about the complex dynamics of learning communities, the materials of learning, and the dynamic role of the teacher as facilitator and expert. Simultaneously, the SPD as a flexible heuristic proves ambiguous, prompting a reevaluation of Bernstein's organization of RD and ID. The hierarchical structure of pedagogic
This dissertation study investigates what happens when students participate in an afterschool science club designed around action-oriented science instruction, a set of curriculum design principles based on social justice pedagogy. Comprised of three manuscripts written for journal publication, the dissertation includes 1) Negotiating community-based action-oriented science teaching and learning: Articulating curriculum design principles, 2) Middle school girls' socio-scientific participation pathways in an afterschool science club, and 3) Laughing and learning together: Productive science learning spaces for middle school girls. By investigating how action-oriented science design principles get negotiated, female identity development in and with science, and the role of everyday social interactions as students do productive science, this research fills gaps in the understanding of how social justice pedagogy gets enacted and negotiated among multiple stakeholders including students, teachers, and community members along what identity development looks like across social and scientific activity. This study will be of interest to educators thinking about how to enact social justice pedagogy in science learning spaces and those interested in identity development in science.
Mortensen, Jonas Egmose
This discussion paper deliberates on how the concept of social learning can be used for evaluating upstream engagement initiatives in science and technology. The paper briefly introduces to the concept of upstream engagement and a concrete case, the UK Citizen Science for Sustainability project...... (SuScit), as an outset for discussing how the concept of social learning can be used for analysing and understanding relations between citizen participation, Science and research, and sustainability. A number of relevant research questions and methodological considerations are distilled...
learning process. California Management Review, 18(3), 21- 31. Kolb , D.A. 1981. Experiential learning theory and the learning style... Experiential Learning Model (adapted from Kolb , 1976). Kolb (1976) questions whether anyone can become highly skilled in all of the four abilities. He...To complement his theory , Kolb (1976) developed a learning style preference instrument, the Learning Style Inventory (LSI), from
Brauer, Heike; Wilde, Matthias
Learning beliefs influence learning and teaching. For this reason, teachers and teacher educators need to be aware of them. To support students' knowledge construction, teachers must develop appropriate learning and teaching beliefs. Teachers appear to have difficulties when analysing students' learning. This seems to be due to the inability to differentiate the beliefs about their students' learning from those about their own learning. Both types of beliefs seem to be intertwined. This study focuses on whether pre-service teachers' beliefs about their own learning are identical to those about their students' learning. Using a sample of pre-service teachers, we measured general beliefs about "constructivist" and "transmissive" learning and science-specific beliefs about "connectivity" and "taking pre-concepts into account". We also analysed the development of these four beliefs during teacher professionalisation by comparing beginning and advanced pre-service teachers. Our results show that although pre-service teachers make the distinction between their own learning and the learning of their students for the general tenets of constructivist and transmissive learning, there is no significant difference for science-specific beliefs. The beliefs pre-service teachers hold about their students' science learning remain closely tied to their own.
Bjælde, Ole Eggers; Caspersen, Michael E.; Godsk, Mikkel
This paper presents the impact and perception of two initiatives at the Faculty of Science and Technology, Aarhus University: the teacher training module ‘Digital Learning Design’ (DiLD) for assistant professors and postdocs, and the STREAM learning design model and toolkit for enhancing and tran......This paper presents the impact and perception of two initiatives at the Faculty of Science and Technology, Aarhus University: the teacher training module ‘Digital Learning Design’ (DiLD) for assistant professors and postdocs, and the STREAM learning design model and toolkit for enhancing...... and transforming modules. Both DiLD and the STREAM model have proven to be effective and scalable approaches to encourage educators across all career steps to embrace the potentials of educational technology in science higher education. Moreover, the transformed modules have resulted in higher student satisfaction...
Goebel, Camille A.
This longitudinal investigation explores the change in four (3 female, 1 male) science undergraduates' beliefs expressed about low-income elementary school students' ability to learn science. The study sought to identify how the undergraduates in year-long public school science-teaching partnerships perceived the social, cultural, and economic factors affecting student learning. Previous service-learning research infrequently focused on science undergraduates relative to science and society or detailed expressions of their beliefs and field practices over the experience. Qualitative methodology was used to guide the implementation and analysis of this study. A sample of an additional 20 science undergraduates likewise involved in intensive reflection in the service learning in science teaching (SLST) course called Elementary Science Education Partners (ESEP) was used to examine the typicality of the case participants. The findings show two major changes in science undergraduates' belief expressions: (1) a reduction in statements of beliefs from a deficit thinking perspective about the elementary school students' ability to learn science, and (2) a shift in the attribution of students, underlying problems in science learning from individual-oriented to systemic-oriented influences. Additional findings reveal that the science undergraduates perceived they had personally and profoundly changed as a result of the SLST experience. Changes include: (1) the gain of a new understanding of others' situations different from their own; (2) the realization of and appreciation for their relative positions of privilege due to their educational background and family support; (3) the gain in ability to communicate, teach, and work with others; (4) the idea that they were more socially and culturally connected to their community outside the university and their college classrooms; and (5) a broadening of the way they understood or thought about science. Women participants stated
Land-Zandstra, Anne M; Devilee, Jeroen L A; Snik, Frans; Buurmeijer, Franka; van den Broek, Jos M
Citizen science provides researchers means to gather or analyse large datasets. At the same time, citizen science projects offer an opportunity for non-scientists to be part of and learn from the scientific process. In the Dutch iSPEX project, a large number of citizens turned their smartphones into actual measurement devices to measure aerosols. This study examined participants' motivation and perceived learning impacts of this unique project. Most respondents joined iSPEX because they wanted to contribute to the scientific goals of the project or because they were interested in the project topics (health and environmental impact of aerosols). In terms of learning impact, respondents reported a gain in knowledge about citizen science and the topics of the project. However, many respondents had an incomplete understanding of the science behind the project, possibly caused by the complexity of the measurements. © The Author(s) 2015.
Fridberg, Marie; Thulin, Susanne; Redfors, Andreas
This paper reports on a project aiming to extend the current understanding of how emerging technologies, i.e. tablets, can be used in preschools to support collaborative learning of real-life science phenomena. The potential of tablets to support collaborative inquiry-based science learning and reflective thinking in preschool is investigated through the analysis of teacher-led activities on science, including children making timelapse photography and Slowmation movies. A qualitative analysis of verbal communication during different learning contexts gives rise to a number of categories that distinguish and identify different themes of the discussion. In this study, groups of children work with phase changes of water. We report enhanced and focused reasoning about this science phenomenon in situations where timelapse movies are used to stimulate recall. Furthermore, we show that children communicate in a more advanced manner about the phenomenon, and they focus more readily on problem solving when active in experimentation or Slowmation producing contexts.
Wendell, Kristen Bethke; Lee, Hee-Sun
Materials science, which entails the practices of selecting, testing, and characterizing materials, is an important discipline within the study of matter. This paper examines how third grade students' materials science performance changes over the course of instruction based on an engineering design challenge. We conducted a case study of nine students who participated in engineering design-based science instruction with the goal of constructing a stable, quiet, thermally comfortable model house. The learning outcome of materials science practices was assessed by clinical interviews conducted before and after the instruction, and the learning process was assessed by students' workbooks completed during the instruction. The interviews included two materials selection tasks for designing a sturdy stepstool and an insulated pet habitat. Results indicate that: (1) students significantly improved on both materials selection tasks, (2) their gains were significantly positively associated with the degree of completion of their workbooks, and (3) students who were highly engaged with the workbook's reflective record-keeping tasks showed the greatest improvement on the interviews. These findings suggest the important role workbooks can play in facilitating elementary students' learning of science through authentic activity such as engineering design.
José Antonio C. S. Valadares
Full Text Available The foundations of the Meaningful Learning Theory (MLT were laid by David Ausubel. The MLT was highly valued by the contributions of Joseph Novak and D. B. Gowin. Unlike other learning theories, the MLT has an operational component, since there are some instruments based on it and with the meaningful learning facilitation as aim. These tools were designated graphic organizers by John Trowbridge and James Wandersee (2000, pp. 100-129. One of them is the concept map created by Novak to extract meanings from an amalgam of information, having currently many applications. The other one is the Vee diagram or knowledge Vee, also called epistemological Vee or heuristic Vee. It was created by Gowin, and is an excellent organizer, for example to unpack and make transparent the unclear information from an information source. Both instruments help us in processing and becoming conceptually transparent the information, to facilitate the cognitive process of new meanings construction. In this work, after a brief introduction, it will be developed the epistemological and psychological grounds of MLT, followed by a reference to constructivist learning environments facilitators of the meaningful learning, the characterization of concept maps and exemplification of its use in various applications that have proved to be very effective from the standpoint of meaningful learning.
Missingham, Dorothy; Matthews, Robert
This work examines an innovative and evolving approach to facilitating teamwork learning in a generic first-year mechanical engineering course. Principles of inclusive, student-active and democratic pedagogy were utilised to engage students on both the social and personal planes. Learner opportunities to facilitate, direct and lead the learning direction were emphasised. This emphasis encouraged a rich learning process and motivated students dismissive of the need to examine their communication skills and those who initially perceived the topic as a personal intrusion. Through a sharing of curriculum decisions, a climate of trust, ownership and shared value arose. Students chose from a range of tools across personality-type indicators, learning style indicators and hierarchies of human needs, to assist their capacity to express and discuss engineering designs and concepts. Peer teaching and collaborative exercises were incorporated to provide an authentic learning context and to further the student's sense of ownership.
Chiu, Yu-Li; Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung
Background: The sophistication of students' conceptions of science learning has been found to be positively related to their approaches to and outcomes for science learning. Little research has been conducted to particularly investigate students' conceptions of science learning by laboratory. Purpose: The purpose of this research, consisting of…
Docherty, Andrea; Sandhu, Harbinder
WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN IN THIS AREA • E-learning is being increasingly used within learning and teaching including its application within healthcare education and service provision. Multiple advantages have been identified including enhanced accessibility and increased flexibility of learning. Guidance on the generic-design and development of e-learning courses has been generated. WHAT THIS WORK ADDS • This paper provides a detailed understanding of the barriers and facilitators to e-learning as perceived by students on a continuing professional development (CPD); course arid highlights its multifaceted values. In addition, the paper ṕrovides evidence-based guidance for the development of courses within CPD utilising e-learning. SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH • Future research would benefit from, focusing upon the perceptions of staff including barriers and facilitators to the implementation of e-learning and awareness of student experience to generate a balanced and informed understanding of e-learning within the context-of CPD.
Fulop, Sean; Chater, Nick
This article reviews a number of different areas in the foundations of formal learning theory. After outlining the general framework for formal models of learning, the Bayesian approach to learning is summarized. This leads to a discussion of Solomonoff's Universal Prior Distribution for Bayesian learning. Gold's model of identification in the limit is also outlined. We next discuss a number of aspects of learning theory raised in contributed papers, related to both computational and representational complexity. The article concludes with a description of how semi-supervised learning can be applied to the study of cognitive learning models. Throughout this overview, the specific points raised by our contributing authors are connected to the models and methods under review. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Almeida, M. J.; Nobre, Alexandra; Pinto, Augusta; Cunha, Lília; Maciel, Elsa Marina Costa; Almeida Aguiar, Cristina; Forjaz, Maria Antónia
The development of teaching and learning strategies that effectively assist in the understanding of scientific knowledge is an ongoing challenge. Doing experiments outside the classroom, one of the recommended approaches, presents some risks, because students can divert their attention from the pedagogical objective of activity . However, experts agree in considering that learning outside the classroom can be used to facilitate Education. Providing students with learning activities in rele...
Bela, Györgyi; Peltola, Taru; Young, Juliette C; Balázs, Bálint; Arpin, Isabelle; Pataki, György; Hauck, Jennifer; Kelemen, Eszter; Kopperoinen, Leena; Van Herzele, Ann; Keune, Hans; Hecker, Susanne; Suškevičs, Monika; Roy, Helen E; Itkonen, Pekka; Külvik, Mart; László, Miklós; Basnou, Corina; Pino, Joan; Bonn, Aletta
The number of collaborative initiatives between scientists and volunteers (i.e., citizen science) is increasing across many research fields. The promise of societal transformation together with scientific breakthroughs contributes to the current popularity of citizen science (CS) in the policy domain. We examined the transformative capacity of citizen science in particular learning through environmental CS as conservation tool. We reviewed the CS and social-learning literature and examined 14 conservation projects across Europe that involved collaborative CS. We also developed a template that can be used to explore learning arrangements (i.e., learning events and materials) in CS projects and to explain how the desired outcomes can be achieved through CS learning. We found that recent studies aiming to define CS for analytical purposes often fail to improve the conceptual clarity of CS; CS programs may have transformative potential, especially for the development of individual skills, but such transformation is not necessarily occurring at the organizational and institutional levels; empirical evidence on simple learning outcomes, but the assertion of transformative effects of CS learning is often based on assumptions rather than empirical observation; and it is unanimous that learning in CS is considered important, but in practice it often goes unreported or unevaluated. In conclusion, we point to the need for reliable and transparent measurement of transformative effects for democratization of knowledge production. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.
Hu, Jiehui; Qi, Song; Becker, Benjamin; Luo, Lizhu; Gao, Shan; Gong, Qiyong; Hurlemann, René; Kendrick, Keith M
In male Caucasian subjects, learning is facilitated by receipt of social compared with non-social feedback, and the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) facilitates this effect. In this study, we have first shown a cultural difference in that male Chinese subjects actually perform significantly worse in the same reinforcement associated learning task with social (emotional faces) compared with non-social feedback. Nevertheless, in two independent double-blind placebo (PLC) controlled between-subject design experiments we found OXT still selectively facilitated learning with social feedback. Similar to Caucasian subjects this OXT effect was strongest with feedback using female rather than male faces. One experiment performed in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging showed that during the response, but not feedback phase of the task, OXT selectively increased activity in the amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and putamen during the social feedback condition, and functional connectivity between the amygdala and insula and caudate. Therefore, OXT may be increasing the salience and reward value of anticipated social feedback. In the PLC group, response times and state anxiety scores during social feedback were associated with signal changes in these same regions but not in the OXT group. OXT may therefore have also facilitated learning by reducing anxiety in the social feedback condition. Overall our results provide the first evidence for cultural differences in social facilitation of learning per se, but a similar selective enhancement of learning with social feedback under OXT. This effect of OXT may be associated with enhanced responses and functional connectivity in emotional memory and reward processing regions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mandell, Brian E.
The purpose of the present embedded mixed method study was to examine the self-regulatory processes used by high, average, and low achieving seventh grade students as they learned about a complex science topic from a hypermedia learning environment. Thirty participants were sampled. Participants were administered a number of measures to assess their achievement and self-efficacy. In addition, a microanalytic methodology, grounded in Zimmerman's cyclical model of self-regulated learning, was used to assess student self-regulated learning. It was hypothesized that there would be modest positive correlations between Zimmerman's three phases of self-regulated learning, that high achieving science students would deploy more self-regulatory subprocesses than average and low achieving science students, that high achieving science students would have higher self-efficacy beliefs to engage in self-regulated learning than average and low achieving science students, and that low achieving science students would over-estimate their self-efficacy for performance beliefs, average achieving science students would slightly overestimate their self-efficacy for performance beliefs, and high achieving science students would under-estimate their self-efficacy for performance beliefs. All hypotheses were supported except for the high achieving science students who under-estimated their self-efficacy for performance beliefs on the Declarative Knowledge Measure and slightly overestimated their self-efficacy for performance beliefs on the Conceptual Knowledge Measure. Finally, all measures of self-regulated learning were combined and entered into a regression formula to predict the students' scores on the two science tests, and it was revealed that the combined measure predicted 91% of the variance on the Declarative Knowledge Measure and 92% of the variance on the Conceptual Knowledge Measure. This study adds hypermedia learning environments to the contexts that the microanalytic
McClain, Elizabeth K; Babbott, Stewart F; Tsue, Terance T; Girod, Douglas A; Clements, Debora; Gilmer, Lisa; Persons, Diane; Unruh, Greg
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires residency programs to meet and demonstrate outcomes across 6 competencies. Measuring residents' competency in practice-based learning and improvement (PBLI) is particularly challenging. We developed an educational tool to meet ACGME requirements for PBLI. The PBLI template helped programs document quality improvement (QI) projects and supported increased scholarly activity surrounding PBLI learning. We reviewed program requirements for 43 residency and fellowship programs and identified specific PBLI requirements for QI activities. We also examined ACGME Program Information Form responses on PBLI core competency questions surrounding QI projects for program sites visited in 2008-2009. Data were integrated by a multidisciplinary committee to develop a peer-protected PBLI template guiding programs through process, documentation, and evaluation of QI projects. All steps were reviewed and approved through our GME Committee structure. An electronic template, companion checklist, and evaluation form were developed using identified project characteristics to guide programs through the PBLI process and facilitate documentation and evaluation of the process. During a 24 month period, 27 programs have completed PBLI projects, and 15 have reviewed the template with their education committees, but have not initiated projects using the template. The development of the tool generated program leaders' support because the tool enhanced the ability to meet program-specific objectives. The peer-protected status of this document for confidentiality and from discovery has been beneficial for program usage. The document aggregates data on PBLI and QI initiatives, offers opportunities to increase scholarship in QI, and meets the ACGME goal of linking measures to outcomes important to meeting accreditation requirements at the program and institutional level.
Full Text Available In the light of the poor academic achievement in science by secondary school students in South Africa, students' motivation for science learning should be enhanced. It is argued that this can only be achieved with insight into which motivational factors to target, with due consideration of the diversity in schools. The study therefore explored the impact of six motivational factors for science learning in a sample of 380 Grade Nine boys and girls from three racial groups, in both public and independent schools. The students completed the Student Motivation for Science Learning questionnaire. Significant differences were identified between different groups and school types. The study is important for identifying the key role of achievement goals, science learning values and science self-efficacies. The main finding emphasises the significant role played by science teachers in motivating students for science in terms of the learning environments that they create. This has important implications for future research, aimed at a better understanding of these environments. Such insights are needed to promote scientific literacy among the school students, and so contribute to the improvement of science achievement in South Africa.
Dimitroff, A; Ancona, A M; Beman, S B; Dodge, A M; Hutchinson, K L; LaBonte, M J; Mays, T L; Simon, D T
Problem-based learning (PBL) has been adopted by many medical schools in North America. Because problem solving, information seeking, and lifelong learning skills are central to the PBL curriculum, health sciences librarians have been actively involved in the PBL process at these medical schools. The introduction of PBL in a library and information science curriculum may be appropriate to consider at this time. PBL techniques have been incorporated into a health sciences librarianship course at the School of Library and Information Science (LIS) at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee to explore the use of this method in an advanced Library and Information Science course. After completion of the course, the use of PBL has been evaluated by the students and the instructor. The modified PBL course design is presented and the perceptions of the students and the instructor are discussed. PMID:9681169
One of the key challenges in mathematics and science education in secondary schools is to establish coherence between these school subjects. According to this PhD thesis statistical modelling can be a way to let students experience the connections between mathematics and science. The purpose of this
Jan 31, 2011 ... In poor countries, science journalists frequently lack training, ... Federation of Science Journalists (WFSJ) is making a good start on ... and may offer little chance for instructors to give close attention to individual students .... In some districts, basic research resources like cheap and reliable telephone service, ...
Binstead, Ayla; Campbell, Kirsty; Guasch, Susana Fraile; Sullivan, Claire; Williams, Lydia
In this article five trainee teachers specialising in science at the University of Winchester describe their experience teaching science for three consecutive Fridays within a 2 year class (ages 6-7). They were given the task of teaching food and nutrition through the class topic of "turrets and tiaras," a medieval history focus. Their…
Roberts, Deborah L.
This study investigated newly qualified teachers' visions of science learning and teaching. The study also documented their preparation in an elementary science methods course. The research questions were: What educational and professional experiences influenced the instructor's visions of science learning and teaching? What visions of science learning and teaching were promoted in the participants' science methods course? What visions of science learning and teaching did these newly qualified teachers bring with them as they graduated from their teacher preparation program? How did these visions compare with those advocated by reform documents? Data sources included participants' assignments, weekly reflections, and multi-media portfolio finals. Semi-structured interviews provided the emic voice of participants, after graduation but before they had begun to teach. These data were interpreted via a combination of qualitative methodologies. Vignettes described class activities. Assertions supported by excerpts from participants' writings emerged from repeated review of their assignments. A case study of a typical participant characterized weekly reflections and final multi-media portfolio. Four strands of science proficiency articulated in a national reform document provided a framework for interpreting activities, assignments, and interview responses. Prior experiences that influenced design of the methods course included an inquiry-based undergraduate physics course, participation in a reform-based teacher preparation program, undergraduate and graduate inquiry-based science teaching methods courses, participation in a teacher research group, continued connection to the university as a beginning teacher, teaching in diverse Title 1 schools, service as the county and state elementary science specialist, participation in the Carnegie Academy for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, service on a National Research Council committee, and experience teaching a
Abdekhoda, Mohammadhiwa; Dehnad, Afsaneh; Ghazi Mirsaeed, Sayd Javad; Zarea Gavgani, Vahideh
Background: Electronic Learning (E-learning), is the use of electronic technology in education via computer and the internet. Despite its slow adoption by faculty members, e-learning provides several benefits to individuals and organizations. This study was conducted to determine the factors influencing the adoption of e-learning by faculty members in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This was a cross- sectional study, in which a sample of 190 faculty members of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences was randomly selected, using stratified sampling. A Conceptual Path Model of Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) was applied to assess the faculty members’ attitude towards e-learning. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS16, using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The model was tested by structural equation modeling (SEM) and was finally represented by Analysis of Moment Structures. Results: The results evidenced that UTAUT model explains about 56% of the variance for adoption of elearning. The findings also revealed that performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences and behavior indentation had direct and significant effects on faculty members’ behavior towards the use of e-learning. However, facilitated condition had no significant effects on the use of e-learning. Conclusion: The authorized model provides considerable insight for perception and anticipation of faculty members’ behaviors in adopting e-learning. The survey clearly identified significant and non-significant factors that may affect the adoption of e-learning. The results of this study could help the policy makers when successful adoption of e-learning is in their agenda. PMID:28491832
Abdekhoda, Mohammadhiwa; Dehnad, Afsaneh; Ghazi Mirsaeed, Sayd Javad; Zarea Gavgani, Vahideh
Background: Electronic Learning (E-learning), is the use of electronic technology in education via computer and the internet. Despite its slow adoption by faculty members, e-learning provides several benefits to individuals and organizations. This study was conducted to determine the factors influencing the adoption of e-learning by faculty members in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This was a cross- sectional study, in which a sample of 190 faculty members of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences was randomly selected, using stratified sampling. A Conceptual Path Model of Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) was applied to assess the faculty members' attitude towards e-learning. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS16, using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The model was tested by structural equation modeling (SEM) and was finally represented by Analysis of Moment Structures. Results: The results evidenced that UTAUT model explains about 56% of the variance for adoption of elearning. The findings also revealed that performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences and behavior indentation had direct and significant effects on faculty members' behavior towards the use of e-learning. However, facilitated condition had no significant effects on the use of e-learning. Conclusion: The authorized model provides considerable insight for perception and anticipation of faculty members' behaviors in adopting e-learning. The survey clearly identified significant and non-significant factors that may affect the adoption of e-learning. The results of this study could help the policy makers when successful adoption of e-learning is in their agenda.
Lesson Study for Learning Community is one of lecturer profession building system through collaborative and continuous learning study based on the principles of openness, collegiality, and mutual learning to build learning community in order to form professional learning community. To achieve the above, we need a strategy and learning method with specific subscription technique. This paper provides a description of how the quality of learning in the field of science can be improved by implementing strategies and methods accordingly, namely by applying lesson study for learning community optimally. Initially this research was focused on the study of instructional techniques. Learning method used is learning model Contextual teaching and Learning (CTL) and model of Problem Based Learning (PBL). The results showed that there was a significant increase in competence, attitudes, and psychomotor in the four study programs that were modelled. Therefore, it can be concluded that the implementation of learning strategies in Lesson study for Learning Community is needed to be used to improve the competence, attitude and psychomotor of science students.
Full Text Available Background and objective: Extension of knowledge and information is given a new meaning to the concept of education. One of The most important reasons for the use of e-learning in medical education is that learning is learned by the learners themselves. This method facilitates their individualized education programs. This study introduced the challenges and solutions for the achievement of e-learning in medical education. Materials and Methods: This is a review article that was implemented a comprehensive review using the World Wide Web. The databases such as Medline, Ovid, ProQuest, and PubMed as well as key words “e-learning, educational challenges and medical education” in Persian and English languages were used. Of the 80 articles fund, 30 articles which were related to the research objective were chosen. Results: The research showed that e-learning, despite its advantages and wide applications, has drawbacks including the lack of implementation by lecturer due to lack of knowledge of its functioning, the fading role of lecturer, lack of expertise in its application, fear of its application, special cultural beliefs and insufficient resources. Conclusion: It is necessary to consider establishing standards and substructures for achieving the implementation of e-learning in medical education. Because of inexperience of universities of medical sciences in Iran compared with other universities around the world, we suggest using the experience of universities in other countries. Also holding workshops based on e-learning can be effective.
Chau, Lily S; Galvez, Roberto
It is widely accepted that the amygdala plays a critical role in acquisition and consolidation of fear-related memories. Some of the more widely employed behavioral paradigms that have assisted in solidifying the amygdala's role in fear-related memories are associative learning paradigms. With most associative learning tasks, a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with a salient unconditioned stimulus (US) that elicits an unconditioned response (UR). After multiple CS-US pairings, the subject learns that the CS predicts the onset or delivery of the US, and thus elicits a learned conditioned response (CR). Most fear-related associative paradigms have suggested that an aspect of the fear association is stored in the amygdala; however, some fear-motivated associative paradigms suggest that the amygdala is not a site of storage, but rather facilitates consolidation in other brain regions. Based upon various learning theories, one of the most likely sites for storage of long-term memories is the neocortex. In support of these theories, findings from our laboratory, and others, have demonstrated that trace-conditioning, an associative paradigm where there is a separation in time between the CS and US, induces learning-specific neocortical plasticity. The following review will discuss the amygdala's involvement, either as a site of storage or facilitating storage in other brain regions such as the neocortex, in fear- and non-fear-motivated associative paradigms. In this review, we will discuss recent findings suggesting a broader role for the amygdala in increasing the saliency of behaviorally relevant information, thus facilitating acquisition for all forms of memory, both fear- and non-fear-related. This proposed promiscuous role of the amygdala in facilitating acquisition for all memories further suggests a potential role of the amygdala in general learning disabilities.
Lily S Chau
Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the amygdala plays a critical role in acquisition and consolidation of fear-related memories. Some of the more widely employed behavioral paradigms that have assisted in solidifying the amygdala’s role in fear-related memories are associative learning paradigms. With most associative learning tasks, a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS is paired with a salient unconditioned stimulus (US that elicits an unconditioned response (UR. After multiple CS-US pairings, the subject learns that the CS predicts the onset or delivery of the US, and thus elicits a learned conditioned response (CR. Most fear-related associative paradigms have suggested that an aspect of the fear association is stored in the amygdala; however, some fear-motivated associative paradigms suggest that the amygdala is not a site of storage, but rather facilitates consolidation in other brain regions. Based upon various learning theories, one of the most likely sites for storage of long-term memories is the neocortex. In support of these theories, findings from our laboratory, and others, have demonstrated that trace-conditioning, an associative paradigm where there is a separation in time between the CS and US, induces learning-specific neocortical plasticity. The following review will discuss the amygdala’s involvement, either as a site of storage or facilitating storage in other brain regions such as the neocortex, in fear- and non-fear-motivated associative paradigms. In this review, we will discuss recent findings suggesting a broader role for the amygdala in increasing the saliency of behaviorally relevant information, thus facilitating acquisition for all forms of memory, both fear- and non-fear-related. This proposed promiscuous role of the amygdala in facilitating acquisition for all memories further suggests a potential role of the amygdala in general learning disabilities.
Nils Petter Hauan
Full Text Available One aim for many natural history museums, science museums and science centres is to contribute to school-related learning in science. In this article we review published empirical studies of this challenging area. The review indicates that the effectiveness of educational activities at different types of science-communication venues (SCV in supporting students’ science learning varies. There is also evidence of interesting differences between activities, depending on how these activities are designed. Firstly, these activities can stimulate interest and conceptual focus through a well-designed combination of structure and openness. Secondly, they can stimulate talks and explorations related to the presented topics. We have identified two possible areas which might prove fruitful in guiding further research: an exploration of the effects of different designs for guided exploratory learning, and an evaluation of the effectiveness of educational activities by studying the presence and quality of the learning processes visitors are engaged in.
Huntsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.
A longitudinal study examined differences in Chinese-American and Euro-American parents' facilitation of their young children's mathematics learning. Participating in the Time 2 data collection were 36 second-generation Chinese-American and 40 Euro-American first and second graders from well-educated suburban Chicago families. Children were given…
Eliyawati, Sunarya, Yayan; Mudzakir, Ahmad
This research attempts to enhance students' science literacy in the aspects of students' science content, application context, process, and students' attitude using solar cell learning multimedia containing science and nano technology. The quasi-experimental method with pre-post test design was used to achieve these objectives. Seventy-two students of class XII at a high school were employed as research's subject. Thirty-six students were in control class and another thirty-six were in experiment class. Variance test (t-test) was performed on the average level of 95% to identify the differences of students' science literacy in both classes. As the result, there were significant different of learning outcomes between experiment class and control class. Almost half of students (41.67%) in experiment class are categorized as high. Therefore, the learning using solar cell learning multimedia can improve students' science literacy, especially in the students' science content, application context, and process aspects with n-gain(%) 59.19 (medium), 63.04 (medium), and 52.98 (medium). This study can be used to develop learning multimedia in other science context.
Goschy, Harriet; Bakos, Sarolta; Müller, Hermann J; Zehetleitner, Michael
Targets in a visual search task are detected faster if they appear in a probable target region as compared to a less probable target region, an effect which has been termed "probability cueing." The present study investigated whether probability cueing cannot only speed up target detection, but also minimize distraction by distractors in probable distractor regions as compared to distractors in less probable distractor regions. To this end, three visual search experiments with a salient, but task-irrelevant, distractor ("additional singleton") were conducted. Experiment 1 demonstrated that observers can utilize uneven spatial distractor distributions to selectively reduce interference by distractors in frequent distractor regions as compared to distractors in rare distractor regions. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that intertrial facilitation, i.e., distractor position repetitions, and statistical learning (independent of distractor position repetitions) both contribute to the probability cueing effect for distractor locations. Taken together, the present results demonstrate that probability cueing of distractor locations has the potential to serve as a strong attentional cue for the shielding of likely distractor locations.
Full Text Available Bossel's (2001 systems-based approach for deriving comprehensive indicator sets provides one of the most holistic frameworks for developing sustainability indicators. It ensures that indicators cover all important aspects of system viability, performance, and sustainability, and recognizes that a system cannot be assessed in isolation from the systems upon which it depends and which in turn depend upon it. In this reply, we show how Bossel's approach is part of a wider convergence toward integrating participatory and reductionist approaches to measure progress toward sustainable development. However, we also show that further integration of these approaches may be able to improve the accuracy and reliability of indicators to better stimulate community learning and action. Only through active community involvement can indicators facilitate progress toward sustainable development goals. To engage communities effectively in the application of indicators, these communities must be actively involved in developing, and even in proposing, indicators. The accuracy, reliability, and sensitivity of the indicators derived from local communities can be ensured through an iterative process of empirical and community evaluation. Communities are unlikely to invest in measuring sustainability indicators unless monitoring provides immediate and clear benefits. However, in the context of goals, targets, and/or baselines, sustainability indicators can more effectively contribute to a process of development that matches local priorities and engages the interests of local people.
DeMizio, Joanne Greenwald
This quantitative study examined the associations between the values held by middle school science teachers in Catholic schools and their attitudes towards science teaching. A total of six value types were studied---theoretical, economic, aesthetic, social, political, and religious. Teachers can have negative, positive, or neutral attitudes towards their teaching that are linked to their teaching practices and student learning. These teachers' attitudes may affect their competence and have a subsequent impact on their students' attitudes and dispositions towards science. Of particular interest was the relationship between science teaching attitudes and religious values. A non-experimental research design was used to obtain responses from 54 teachers with two survey instruments, the Science Teaching Attitude Scale II and the Allport-Vernon-Lindzey Study of Values. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that political values were negatively associated with attitudes towards science teaching. Data collected were inconsistent with the existence of any measurable association between religious values and attitudes towards science teaching. This study implies that science teacher preparation programs should adopt a more contextual perspective on science that seeks to develop the valuation of science within a cultural context, as well as programs that enable teachers to identify the influence of their beliefs on instructional actions to optimize the impact of learning new teaching practices that may enhance student learning.
Gopalan, Valarmathie; Bakar, Juliana Aida Abu; Zulkifli, Abdul Nasir
This paper reviews several literatures concerning the theories and model that could be applied for science motivation for upper secondary school learners (16-17 years old) in order to make the learning experience more amazing and useful. The embedment of AR in science could bring an awe-inspiring transformation on learners' viewpoint towards the respective subject matters. Augmented Reality is able to present the real and virtual learning experience with the addition of multiple media without replacing the real environment. Due to the unique feature of AR, it attracts the mass attention of researchers to implement AR in science learning. This impressive technology offers learners with the ultimate visualization and provides an astonishing and transparent learning experience by bringing to light the unseen perspective of the learning content. This paper will attract the attention of researchers in the related field as well as academicians in the related discipline. This paper aims to propose several related theoretical guidance that could be applied in science motivation to transform the learning in an effective way.
Khalil, Mohammed K; Abdel Meguid, Eiman M; Elkhider, Ihsan A
Blended learning is the integration of different learning approaches, new technologies, and activities that combine traditional face-to-face teaching methods with authentic online methodologies. Although advances in educational technology have helped to expand the selection of different pedagogies, the teaching of anatomical sciences has been challenged by implementation difficulties and other limitations. These challenges are reported to include lack of time, costs, and lack of qualified teachers. Easy access to online information and advances in technology make it possible to resolve these limitations by adopting blended learning approaches. Blended learning strategies have been shown to improve students' academic performance, motivation, attitude, and satisfaction, and to provide convenient and flexible learning. Implementation of blended learning strategies has also proved cost effective. This article provides a theoretical foundation for blended learning and proposes a validated framework for the design of blended learning activities in the teaching and learning of anatomical sciences. Clin. Anat. 31:323-329, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The impact of decreasing faculty numbers on the nursing shortage has been well documented. Mentoring is recognized as the most significant way to grow and nurture nurse educators. The purpose of this article was to describe the Teaching Mentorship Program within the College of Nursing Department of Biobehavioral Health Science at a Midwestern state university. The program activities are designed to facilitate new faculty members' transition from the role of nurse clinician to the role of nurse educator, to support the implementation of evidence-based teaching practices, and to encourage the development of teaching scholarship. Outcomes of the program include retention of new faculty, improved student satisfaction with the quality of instruction, and increased teaching scholarship activities. The program demonstrates the three hallmarks of an effective mentoring program. First, the program is supported by an institutional culture that values mentoring and provides it with an organizational home. Second, the Associate Department Head and primary mentor has been an educator for 37 years with expertise in curriculum development, program evaluation, and teaching methodologies. Third, because the associate department head's principle role is to implement the program and serve as the primary mentor, her commitment is to provide flexible, timely access to faculty. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Laine, Teemu H.; Nygren, Eeva; Dirin, Amir; Suk, Hae-Jung
Lack of motivation and of real-world relevance have been identified as reasons for low interest in science among children. Game-based learning and storytelling are prominent methods for generating intrinsic motivation in learning. Real-world relevance requires connecting abstract scientific concepts with the real world. This can be done by…
One of the teaching-learning strategies that may .... together in small groups, while sharing ideas ... lecturer and learner when scaffolding pedagogy, .... their roles, interaction and access to resources. ... When using the measure of practical.
This standard recommends programming practices to facilitate the portability of computer programs prepared for scientific and engineering computations. These practices are intended to simplify implementation, conversion, and modification of computer programs
Tank, Kristina Maruyama; Coffino, Kara
Elementary students in grade two make sense of science ideas and knowledge through their contextual experiences. Mattis Lundin and Britt Jakobson find in their research that early grade students have sophisticated understandings of human anatomy and physiology. In order to understand what students' know about human body and various systems,…
This article presents the author's response to the article "Taking Stock: Existing Resources for Assessing a New Vision of Science Learning" by Alonzo and Ke (this issue), which identifies numerous challenges that the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) pose for large-scale assessment. Jill Werthem comments that among those…
Wolfensberger, Balz; Canella, Claudia
This paper reports a predominantly qualitative classroom study on cooperative learning about nature of science (NOS) using a case from the history of science. The purpose of the research was to gain insight into how students worked with the historical case study during cooperative group work, how students and teachers assessed the teaching unit,…
In this paper, I discuss different types of models in science education and applications of them in learning and teaching science, in particular physics. Based on the literature, I categorize models as conceptual and mental models according to their characteristics. In addition to these models, there is another model called "physics model" by the…
Baron, Alex; Chen, Hsiao-Lan Sharon
Worldwide proliferation of pedagogical innovations creates expanding potential in the field of science education. While some teachers effectively improve students' scientific learning, others struggle to achieve desirable student outcomes. This study explores a Taiwanese science teacher's ability to effectively enhance her students' science learning. The authors visited a Taipei city primary school class taught by an experienced science teacher during a 4-week unit on astronomy, with a total of eight, 90-minute periods. Research methods employed in this study included video capture of each class as well as reflective interviews with the instructor, eliciting the teacher's reflection upon both her pedagogical choices and the perceived results of these choices. We report that the teacher successfully teaches science by creatively diverging from culturally generated educational expectations. Although the pedagogical techniques and ideas enumerated in the study are relevant specifically to Taiwan, creative cultural divergence might be replicated to improve science teaching worldwide.
Szymanski, D. W.
Successful collaborations in community science require the participation of non-scientists as advocates for the use of science in addressing complex problems. This is especially true, but particularly difficult, with respect to the wicked problems of sustainability. The complicated, unsolvable, and inherently political nature of challenges like climate change can provoke cynicism and apathy about the use of science. While science education is a critical part of preparing all students to address wicked problems, it is not sufficient. Non-scientists must also learn how to advocate for the role of science in policy solutions. Fortunately, the transdisciplinary nature of sustainability provides a venue for engaging all undergraduates in community science, regardless of major. I describe a model for involving non-science majors in a form of service-learning, where the pursuit of community science becomes a powerful pedagogical tool for civic engagement. Bentley University is one of the few stand-alone business schools in the United States and provides an ideal venue to test this model, given that 95% of Bentley's 4000 undergraduates major in a business discipline. The technology-focused business program is combined with an integrated arts & sciences curriculum and experiential learning opportunities though the nationally recognized Bentley Service-Learning and Civic Engagement Center. In addition to a required general education core that includes the natural sciences, students may opt to complete a second major in liberal studies with thematic concentrations like Earth, Environment, and Global Sustainability. In the course Science in Environmental Policy, students may apply to complete a service-learning project for an additional course credit. The smaller group of students then act as consultants, conducting research for a non-profit organization in the Washington, D.C. area involved in geoscience policy. At the end of the semester, students travel to D.C. and present
Kumar, David Devraj
This paper reports an analysis of an interactive technology-supported, problem-based learning (PBL) project in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) from a Learning Sciences perspective using the Selected Learning Sciences Interest Areas (SLSIA). The SLSIA was adapted from the "What kinds of topics do ISLS [International…
Perry, Emily; Boylan, Mark
Research on teacher professional development is extensive but there are fewer studies about the practitioners who facilitate professional development. Here we report on a pilot programme for professional development facilitators rooted in a cycle of action research. Informed by a categorisation of professional knowledge and skills of facilitators,…
Warren, Amy L; Donnon, Tyrone
As veterinary medical curricula evolve, the time dedicated to biomedical science teaching, as well as the role of biomedical science knowledge in veterinary education, has been scrutinized. Aside from being mandated by accrediting bodies, biomedical science knowledge plays an important role in developing clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic reasoning skills in the application of clinical skills, in supporting evidence-based veterinary practice and life-long learning, and in advancing biomedical knowledge and comparative medicine. With an increasing volume and fast pace of change in biomedical knowledge, as well as increased demands on curricular time, there has been pressure to make biomedical science education efficient and relevant for veterinary medicine. This has lead to a shift in biomedical education from fact-based, teacher-centered and discipline-based teaching to applicable, student-centered, integrated teaching. This movement is supported by adult learning theories and is thought to enhance students' transference of biomedical science into their clinical practice. The importance of biomedical science in veterinary education and the theories of biomedical science learning will be discussed in this article. In addition, we will explore current advances in biomedical teaching methodologies that are aimed to maximize knowledge retention and application for clinical veterinary training and practice.
Tolentino, Lisa; Birchfield, David; Megowan-Romanowicz, Colleen; Johnson-Glenberg, Mina C.; Kelliher, Aisling; Martinez, Christopher
As emerging technologies become increasingly inexpensive and robust, there is an exciting opportunity to move beyond general purpose computing platforms to realize a new generation of K-12 technology-based learning environments. Mixed-reality technologies integrate real world components with interactive digital media to offer new potential to combine best practices in traditional science learning with the powerful affordances of audio/visual simulations. This paper introduces the realization of a learning environment called SMALLab, the Situated Multimedia Arts Learning Laboratory. We present a recent teaching experiment for high school chemistry students. A mix of qualitative and quantitative research documents the efficacy of this approach for students and teachers. We conclude that mixed-reality learning is viable in mainstream high school classrooms and that students can achieve significant learning gains when this technology is co-designed with educators.
Higgins, Tara Eileen
Professional development is important for improving teacher practice and student learning, particularly in inquiry-oriented and technology-enhanced science instruction. This study examines professional developers' practices and their impact on teachers' classroom instruction and student achievement. It analyzes professional developers designing and implementing a five-year professional development program designed to support middle school science teachers. The professional developers are four university-based researchers who worked with sixteen science teachers over three years, setting program goals, facilitating workshops, providing in-classroom support for teachers, and continually refining the program. The analysis is guided by the knowledge integration perspective, a sociocognitive framework for understanding how teachers and professional developers integrate their ideas about teaching and learning. The study investigates the professional developers' goals and teachers' interpretations of those goals. It documents how professional developers plan teacher learning experiences and explores the connection between professional development activities and teachers' classroom practice. Results are based on two rounds of interviews with professional developers, audio recordings of professional developers' planning meetings and videotaped professional development activities. Data include classroom observations, teacher interviews, teacher reflections during professional development activities, and results from student assessments. The study shows the benefit of a professional development approach that relies on an integrated cycle of setting goals, understanding teachers' interpretations, and refining implementation. The professional developers based their design on making inquiry and technology accessible, situating professional development in teachers' work, supporting collaboration, and sustaining learning. The findings reflect alignment of the design goals with the
This article addresses the importance of teaching and learning science in local languages. The author argues that acknowledging local knowledge and using local languages in science education while emphasising inquiry-based learning improve teaching and learning science. She frames her arguments with the theory of inquiry, which draws on perspectives of both dominant and non-dominant cultures with a focus on science literacy as a human right. She first examines key assumptions about knowledge which inform mainstream educational research and practice. She then argues for an emphasis on contextualised learning as a right in education. This means accounting for contextualised knowledge and resisting the current trend towards de-contextualisation of curricula. This trend is reflected in Zanzibar's recent curriculum reform, in which English replaced Kiswahili as the language of instruction (LOI) in the last two years of primary school. The author's own research during the initial stage of the change (2010-2015) revealed that the effect has in fact proven to be counterproductive, with educational quality deteriorating further rather than improving. Arguing that language is essential to inquiry-based learning, she introduces a new didactic model which integrates alternative assumptions about the value of local knowledge and local languages in the teaching and learning of science subjects. In practical terms, the model is designed to address key science concepts through multiple modalities - "do it, say it, read it, write it" - a "hands-on" experiential combination which, she posits, may form a new platform for innovation based on a unique mix of local and global knowledge, and facilitate genuine science literacy. She provides examples from cutting-edge educational research and practice that illustrate this new model of teaching and learning science. This model has the potential to improve learning while supporting local languages and culture, giving local languages their
Full Text Available New accessible learning methods delivered through mobile mixed reality are becoming possible in education, shifting pedagogy from the use of two dimensional images and videos to facilitating learning via interactive mobile environments. This is especially important in medical and health education, where the required knowledge acquisition is typically much more experiential, self-directed, and hands-on than in many other disciplines. Presented are insights obtained from the implementation and testing of two mobile mixed reality interventions across two Australian higher education classrooms in medicine and health sciences, concentrating on student perceptions of mobile mixed reality for learning physiology and anatomy in a face-to-face medical and health science classroom and skills acquisition in airways management focusing on direct laryngoscopy with foreign body removal in a distance paramedic science classroom. This is unique because most studies focus on a single discipline, focusing on either skills or the learner experience and a single delivery modality rather than linking cross-discipline knowledge acquisition and the development of a student’s tangible skills across multimodal classrooms. Outcomes are presented from post-intervention student interviews and discipline academic observation, which highlight improvements in learner motivation and skills, but also demonstrated pedagogical challenges to overcome with mobile mixed reality learning.
This study looks at how beginner teachers learn to teach science for social justice in urban schools. The research questions are: (1) what views do beginner teachers hold about teaching science for social justice in urban schools? (2) How do beginner teachers' views about teaching science for social justice develop as part of their learning? In looking at teacher learning, I take a situative perspective that defines learning as increased participation in a community of practice. I use the case study methodology with five teacher participants as the individual units of analysis. In measuring participation, I draw from mathematics education literature that offers three domains of professional practice: Content, pedagogy and professional identity. In addition, I focus on agency as an important component of increased participation from a social justice perspective. My findings reveal two main tensions that arose as teachers considered what it meant to teach science from a social justice perspective: (1) Culturally responsive teaching vs. "real" science and (2) Teaching science as a political act. In negotiating these tensions, teachers drew on a variety of pedagogical and conceptual tools offered in USE that focused on issues of equity, access, place-based pedagogy, student agency, ownership and culture as a toolkit. Further, in looking at how the five participants negotiated these tensions in practice, I describe four variables that either afforded or constrained teacher agency and consequently the development of their own identity and role as socially just educators. These four variables are: (1) Accessing and activating social, human and cultural capital, (2) reconceptualizing culturally responsive pedagogical tools, (3) views of urban youth and (4) context of participation. This study has implications for understanding the dialectical relationship between agency and social justice identity for beginner teachers who are learning how to teach for social justice. Also
Stromholt, Shelley; Bell, Philip
In this study, we present a case for designing expansive science learning environments in relation to neoliberal instantiations of standards-based implementation projects in education. Using ethnographic and design-based research methods, we examine how the design of coordinated learning across settings can engage youth from non-dominant communities in scientific and engineering practices, resulting in learning experiences that are more relevant to youth and their communities. Analyses highlight: (a) transformative moments of identification for one fifth-grade student across school and non-school settings; (b) the disruption of societal, racial stereotypes on the capabilities of and expectations for marginalized youth; and (c) how youth recognized themselves as members of their community and agents of social change by engaging in personally consequential science investigations and learning.
Full Text Available Science and technology are evolving leaps and bounds. The advancements in GI-Science for natural and built environment helps in improving the quality of life. Learning through education and training needs to be at par with those advancements, which plays a vital role in utilization of technology. New technologies that creates new opportunities have enabled Geomatics to broaden the horizon (skills and competencies. Government policies and decisions support the use of geospatial science in various sectors of governance. Mapping, Land management, Urban planning, Environmental planning, Industrialization are some of the areas where the geomatics has become a baseline for decision making at national level. There is a need to bridge the gap between developments in geospatial science and its utilization and implementation. To prepare a framework for standardisation it is important to understand the theories of education and prevailing practices, with articulate goals exploring variety of teaching techniques. E-Learning is an erudition practice shaped for facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources through digital and network-enabled technology. It is a shift from traditional education or training to ICT-based flexible and collaborative learning based on the community of learners, academia, professionals, experts and facilitators. Developments in e-learning is focussed on computer assisted learning which has become popular because of its potential for providing more flexible access to content and instruction at any time, from any place (Means et al, 2009. With the advent of the geo-spatial technology, fast development in the software and hardware, the demand for skilled manpower is increasing and the need is for training, education, research and dissemination. It suggests inter-organisational cooperation between academia, industry, government and international
Vyas, Anjana; König, Gerhard
Science and technology are evolving leaps and bounds. The advancements in GI-Science for natural and built environment helps in improving the quality of life. Learning through education and training needs to be at par with those advancements, which plays a vital role in utilization of technology. New technologies that creates new opportunities have enabled Geomatics to broaden the horizon (skills and competencies). Government policies and decisions support the use of geospatial science in various sectors of governance. Mapping, Land management, Urban planning, Environmental planning, Industrialization are some of the areas where the geomatics has become a baseline for decision making at national level. There is a need to bridge the gap between developments in geospatial science and its utilization and implementation. To prepare a framework for standardisation it is important to understand the theories of education and prevailing practices, with articulate goals exploring variety of teaching techniques. E-Learning is an erudition practice shaped for facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources through digital and network-enabled technology. It is a shift from traditional education or training to ICT-based flexible and collaborative learning based on the community of learners, academia, professionals, experts and facilitators. Developments in e-learning is focussed on computer assisted learning which has become popular because of its potential for providing more flexible access to content and instruction at any time, from any place (Means et al, 2009). With the advent of the geo-spatial technology, fast development in the software and hardware, the demand for skilled manpower is increasing and the need is for training, education, research and dissemination. It suggests inter-organisational cooperation between academia, industry, government and international collaboration. There is a
Wolfe, Robert E.; Ridgway, Bill L.; Patt, Fred S.; Masuoka, Edward J.
For almost 10 years, standard global products from NASA's Earth Observing System s (EOS) two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors are being used world-wide for earth science research and applications. This paper discusses the lessons learned in developing the science algorithms and the data systems needed to produce these high quality data products for the earth sciences community. Strong science team leadership and communication, an evolvable and scalable data system, and central coordination of QA and validation activities enabled the data system to grow by two orders of magnitude from the initial at-launch system to the current system able to reprocess data from both the Terra and Aqua missions in less than a year. Many of the lessons learned from MODIS are already being applied to follow-on missions.
Koch, Melissa; Gorges, Torie
Underrepresented populations such as women, African-Americans, and Latinos/as often come to STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) careers by less traditional paths than White and Asian males. To better understand how and why women might shift toward STEM, particularly computer science, careers, we investigated the education and…
Crompton, Helen; Burgin, Stephen R.; De Paor, Declan G.; Gregory, Kristen
Asking scientific questions is the first practice of science and engineering listed in the Next Generation Science Standards. However, getting students to ask unsolicited questions in a large class can be difficult. In this qualitative study, undergraduate students sent SMS text messages to the instructor who received them on his mobile phone and…
Carrejo, David J.; Reinhartz, Judy
Engaging students in both hands-on and minds-on experiences is needed for education that is relevant and complete. Many middle school students enter science classrooms with pre-conceived ideas about their world. Some of these ideas are misconceptions that hinder students from developing accepted concepts in science, such as those related to…
Ofei-Manu, Paul; Didham, Robert J.; Byun, Won Jung; Phillips, Rebecca; Dickella Gamaralalage, Premakumara Jagath; Rees, Sian
Quality learning for sustainability can have a transformative effect in terms of promoting empowerment, leadership and wise investments in individual and collective lives and regenerating the local economies of cities, making them more inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. It can also help cities move towards achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Effecting the transformation of cities into Learning Cities, however, requires changes in the structure of governance. Drawing on interviews with key informants as well as secondary data, this article examines how collaborative governance has facilitated quality learning for sustainability in Bristol (United Kingdom), Kitakyushu (Japan) and Tongyeong (Republic of Korea). Focusing on a conceptual framework and practical application of learning initiatives, this comparative study reveals how these cities' governance mechanisms and institutional structures supported initiatives premised on cooperative learning relationships. While recognising differences in the scope and depth of the learning initiatives and the need for further improvements, the authors found evidence of general support for the governance structures and mechanisms for learning in these cities. The authors conclude by recommending that (1) to implement the Learning Cities concept based on UNESCO's Key Features of Learning Cities, recognition should be given to existing sustainability-related learning initiatives in cities; (2) collaborative governance of the Learning Cities concept at both local and international levels should be streamlined; and (3) UNESCO's Global Network of Learning Cities could serve as a hub for sharing education/learning resources and experiences for other international city-related programmes as an important contribution to the implementation of the SDGs.
We begin with a paradox. On one hand, not nearly enough is known about exactly how learning takes place in the brain, although exciting new results are emerging thanks to improved brain imaging and a greater focus on neuroscience by government and universities. But this research is just beginning, and a much larger effort and investment are needed to answer even the most basic questions. On the other hand, more than enough is already known about what best promotes learning to motivate and drive educational reform for years to come. This is a report from the front lines of both research and educational implementation. This information should prove of use to anyone--teachers, students, parents, patients, and health practitioners--who is concerned about how best to improve formal or informal teaching and learning, to help people remember complex instructions, or to change unhealthy habits and practices. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.
Topping, K. J.; Thurston, A.; Tolmie, A.; Christie, D.; Murray, P.; Karagiannidou, E.
The use of cooperative learning in secondary school is reported - an area of considerable concern given attempts to make secondary schools more interactive and gain higher recruitment to university science courses. In this study the intervention group was 259 pupils aged 12-14 years in nine secondary schools, taught by 12 self-selected teachers. Comparison pupils came from both intervention and comparison schools (n = 385). Intervention teachers attended three continuing professional development days, in which they received information, engaged with resource packs and involved themselves in cooperative learning. Measures included both general and specific tests of science, attitudes to science, sociometry, self-esteem, attitudes to cooperative learning and transferable skills (all for pupils) and observation of implementation fidelity. There were increases during cooperative learning in pupil formulation of propositions, explanations and disagreements. Intervened pupils gained in attainment, but comparison pupils gained even more. Pupils who had experienced cooperative learning in primary school had higher pre-test scores in secondary education irrespective of being in the intervention or comparison group. On sociometry, comparison pupils showed greater affiliation to science work groups for work, but intervention pupils greater affiliation to these groups at break and out of school. Other measures were not significant. The results are discussed in relation to practice and policy implications.
Piasta, Shayne B.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Miller, Heather Lynnine
Research findings The present study observed and coded instruction in 65 preschool classrooms to examine (a) overall amounts and (b) types of mathematics and science learning opportunities experienced by preschool children as well as (c) the extent to which these opportunities were associated with classroom and program characteristics. Results indicated that children were afforded an average of 24 and 26 minutes of mathematics and science learning opportunities, respectively, corresponding to spending approximately 25% of total instructional time in each domain. Considerable variability existed, however, in the amounts and types of mathematics and science opportunities provided to children in their classrooms; to some extent, this variability was associated with teachers’ years of experience, teachers’ levels of education, and the socioeconomic status of children served in the program. Practice/policy Although results suggest greater integration of mathematics and science in preschool classrooms than previously established, there was considerable diversity in the amounts and types of learning opportunities provided in preschool classrooms. Affording mathematics and science experiences to all preschool children, as outlined in professional and state standards, may require additional professional development aimed at increasing preschool teachers’ understanding and implementation of learning opportunities in these two domains in their classrooms. PMID:25489205
Bruun, Jesper; Johannsen, Bjørn Friis
that students use bodily explorations to construct meaning and understanding from kinaesthetic learning that is relevant to school physics? To answer the question, we employ a semiotics perspective to analyse data from a 1-hour lesson for 8-9th graders which introduced students to kinaesthetic activities, where......?”). The analysis is conducted by searching the data to find episodes that illustrate student activity which can serve as a sign of the object that the ‘experiential gestalt of causation’ is employed in the construction of the intended learning outcome. In essence, we study a chaotic but authentic teaching...