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Sample records for facilitating language utterances

  1. Conversation principles and second language utterances

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    Phyllis Kaburise

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Conversation principles, such as those of Grice (1957, 1968, 1975, Austin (1962, Searle (1962, 1969 are formulated to enable interlocutors to interact meaningfully, in a linguistic project. Non-observance and flouting of these principles occur regularly in the verbal behaviours of users of a language, indeed, sophisticated users of a language, sometimes deliberately go against these norms, as stylistic devices in their output. When such non-conformities occur, hearers and readers resort to implicatures, maxims, inferences and their general world knowledge to interpret an utterance. Although the decision to observe some, and not all of the principles during a linguistic encounter, may seem to be taken casually, it is the contention of this paper that such decisions are made deliberately, particularly, by users of a second language. This paper attempts to identify the selection processes involved in the creation of some utterances produced by Ghanaian and Tshivenda second language users of English, using Grice’s verbal interaction maxims. The discussion will focus on the tension between semantic and pragmatic meaning, the factors involved in the creation of linguistic meaning and the role that interaction requirements such as Grice’s conversational maxims and the concept of a New Englishes approach to language play in the creation of some second language utterances.

  2. Semiotic diversity in utterance production and the concept of 'language'.

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    Kendon, Adam

    2014-09-19

    Sign language descriptions that use an analytic model borrowed from spoken language structural linguistics have proved to be not fully appropriate. Pictorial and action-like modes of expression are integral to how signed utterances are constructed and to how they work. However, observation shows that speakers likewise use kinesic and vocal expressions that are not accommodated by spoken language structural linguistic models, including pictorial and action-like modes of expression. These, also, are integral to how speaker utterances in face-to-face interaction are constructed and to how they work. Accordingly, the object of linguistic inquiry should be revised, so that it comprises not only an account of the formal abstract systems that utterances make use of, but also an account of how the semiotically diverse resources that all languaging individuals use are organized in relation to one another. Both language as an abstract system and languaging should be the concern of linguistics.

  3. Acoustic Model Adaptation for Indonesian Language Utterance Training System

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    Linda Indrayanti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In order to build an utterance training system for Indonesian language, a speech recognition system designed for Indonesian is necessary. However, the system hardly works well due to the pronunciation variants of non-native utterances may lead to substitution/deletion error. This research investigated the pronunciation variant and proposes acoustic model adaptation to improve performance of the system. Approach: The proposed acoustic model adaptation worked in three steps: to analyze pronunciation variant with knowledge-based and data-derived methods; to align knowledge-based and data-derived results in order to list frequently mispronounced phones with their variants; to perform a state-clustering procedure with the list obtained from the second step. Further, three Speaker Adaptation (SA techniques were used in combination with the acoustic model adaptation and they are compared each other. In order to evaluate and tune the adaptation techniques, perceptual-based evaluation by three human raters is performed to obtain the "true"recognition results. Results: The proposed method achieved an average gain in Hit + Rejection (the percentage of correctly accepted and correctly rejected utterances by the system as the human raters do of 2.9 points and 2 points for native and non-native subjects, respectively, when compared with the system without adaptation. Average gains of 12.7 and 6.2 points for native and non-native students in Hit + Rejection were obtained by combining SA to the acoustic model adaptation. Conclusion/Recommendations: Performance evaluation of the adapted system demonstrated that the proposed acoustic model adaptation can improve Hit even though there is a slight increase of False Alarm (FA, the percentage of incorrectly accepted utterances by the system of which the human raters reject. The performance of the proposed acoustic model adaptation depends strongly on the effectiveness of state-clustering procedure

  4. Fine-Tuning of Utterance Length to Preverbal Infants: Effects on Later Language Development.

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    Murray, Ann D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Fourteen Mother-Infant pairs were studied at three, six, and nine months to determine whether mothers simplify speech during the second half of the infant's first year and whether speech adjustment influences later language acquisition by infants. A mother's mean length of utterance (MLU) was predictive of later language development by her infant.…

  5. Language Identification in Short Utterances Using Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks.

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    Zazo, Ruben; Lozano-Diez, Alicia; Gonzalez-Dominguez, Javier; Toledano, Doroteo T; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) have recently outperformed other state-of-the-art approaches, such as i-vector and Deep Neural Networks (DNNs), in automatic Language Identification (LID), particularly when dealing with very short utterances (∼3s). In this contribution we present an open-source, end-to-end, LSTM RNN system running on limited computational resources (a single GPU) that outperforms a reference i-vector system on a subset of the NIST Language Recognition Evaluation (8 target languages, 3s task) by up to a 26%. This result is in line with previously published research using proprietary LSTM implementations and huge computational resources, which made these former results hardly reproducible. Further, we extend those previous experiments modeling unseen languages (out of set, OOS, modeling), which is crucial in real applications. Results show that a LSTM RNN with OOS modeling is able to detect these languages and generalizes robustly to unseen OOS languages. Finally, we also analyze the effect of even more limited test data (from 2.25s to 0.1s) proving that with as little as 0.5s an accuracy of over 50% can be achieved.

  6. Language Identification in Short Utterances Using Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM Recurrent Neural Networks.

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    Ruben Zazo

    Full Text Available Long Short Term Memory (LSTM Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs have recently outperformed other state-of-the-art approaches, such as i-vector and Deep Neural Networks (DNNs, in automatic Language Identification (LID, particularly when dealing with very short utterances (∼3s. In this contribution we present an open-source, end-to-end, LSTM RNN system running on limited computational resources (a single GPU that outperforms a reference i-vector system on a subset of the NIST Language Recognition Evaluation (8 target languages, 3s task by up to a 26%. This result is in line with previously published research using proprietary LSTM implementations and huge computational resources, which made these former results hardly reproducible. Further, we extend those previous experiments modeling unseen languages (out of set, OOS, modeling, which is crucial in real applications. Results show that a LSTM RNN with OOS modeling is able to detect these languages and generalizes robustly to unseen OOS languages. Finally, we also analyze the effect of even more limited test data (from 2.25s to 0.1s proving that with as little as 0.5s an accuracy of over 50% can be achieved.

  7. Lexical and Acoustic Features of Maternal Utterances Addressing Preverbal Infants in Picture Book Reading Link to 5-Year-Old Children's Language Development

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    Liu, Huei-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: I examined the long-term association between the lexical and acoustic features of maternal utterances during book reading and the language skills of infants and children. Maternal utterances were collected from 22 mother-child dyads in picture book-reading episodes when children were ages 6-12 months and 5 years. Two aspects of…

  8. Analysis of the Utterance Function of Body Language%浅析体势语言的话语功能

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    罗琪; 王晓燕; 周兰

    2014-01-01

    Nonverbal communication is one of the important means of communication ,and body language is an important part of nonverbal communication ,so the role of body language cannot be neglected in the process of communication .Body language is a kind of nonverbal language ,including gestures ,facial expressions ,and body movements .Body language helps verbal language to express the communicator ’ s emotions and attitudes more clearly and more real .In conversation ,body language plays an important role in substituting ,complementing ,re-peating ,negating and accenting utterance meaning .From the perspective of utterance function of body language , this paper mainly explores the repeating ,accenting and substituting functions of body language .%非语言交际是交际的重要手段之一,而体势语言又是非语言交际的重要组成部分,因此体势语言在交际过程中的作用不容忽视。体势语言是包括手势、面部表情、和体态动作等的一种无声语言。体势语言能够辅助有声语言更清晰、更真实地表达交际者的真实情绪和态度。在交际过程中起着代替、补充、重复、否定和加强话语等作用。从体势语言的语言功能角度看,体态语的重复,有加强和代替话语的功能。

  9. The role of supported joint engagement and parent utterances in language and social communication development in children with autism spectrum disorder.

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    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Yoder, Paul J; Hochman, Julia M; Watson, Linda R

    2014-09-01

    This study examined associations between three parent–child engagement states and social communication, expressive language, and receptive language at 8 month follow-up, in 63 preschool-age children with autism spectrum disorder. We extend the literature on supported joint engagement by dividing this state into higher order (HSJE) and lower order types, with HSJE involving greater reciprocity in toy play. We also examined parents’ follow-in utterances that co-occurred with each state. We found that only HSJE predicts later social communication and expressive language, while object engagement predicts receptive language. HSJE combined with follow-in utterances (HSJE+FI) predicts all three outcomes when controlling for HSJE+FI in other engagement states. When controlling for total HSJE, HSJE+FI is predictive of receptive language.

  10. How Do Utterance Measures Predict Raters' Perceptions of Fluency in French as a Second Language?

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    Préfontaine, Yvonne; Kormos, Judit; Johnson, Daniel Ezra

    2016-01-01

    While the research literature on second language (L2) fluency is replete with descriptions of fluency and its influence with regard to English as an additional language, little is known about what fluency features influence judgments of fluency in L2 French. This study reports the results of an investigation that analyzed the relationship between…

  11. Facilitating Second Language Learning with Music

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    Bae, Su-Young

    2006-01-01

    The use of music in facilitating second language (as well as first language) learning is supported by evidence that points to the musical nature of even preverbal infants. Music and language have been found to develop similarly, and researchers have noted advantages to using song in learning. The author observed her Korean 21-month-old for …

  12. Singing can facilitate foreign language learning.

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    Ludke, Karen M; Ferreira, Fernanda; Overy, Katie

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the first experimental evidence that singing can facilitate short-term paired-associate phrase learning in an unfamiliar language (Hungarian). Sixty adult participants were randomly assigned to one of three "listen-and-repeat" learning conditions: speaking, rhythmic speaking, or singing. Participants in the singing condition showed superior overall performance on a collection of Hungarian language tests after a 15-min learning period, as compared with participants in the speaking and rhythmic speaking conditions. This superior performance was statistically significant (p sing" learning method can facilitate verbatim memory for spoken foreign language phrases.

  13. Cooperative Principle and English Humorous Utterance

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    徐芳

    2010-01-01

    <正>Humorous utterances,especially those in the form of conversation in life,have distinctive pragmatic features.There is a close relationship between humor and pragmatics,which can be found in various books on pragmatics.In those books,humorous utterances function as examples for pragmatic analysis.Effective humorous languages often reflect one or several pragmatic features.This paper specifically introduces one of the important theories of pragmatics:cooperative principle,by which the paper analyzes the humorous utterance and explores the relationship between pragmatic rules and humorous utterance.The purpose is to make people know humorous utterance is a matter of pragmatics. The reality of the humor especially depends on implication of the language and the context.

  14. Semantic facilitation in bilingual first language acquisition.

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    Bilson, Samuel; Yoshida, Hanako; Tran, Crystal D; Woods, Elizabeth A; Hills, Thomas T

    2015-07-01

    Bilingual first language learners face unique challenges that may influence the rate and order of early word learning relative to monolinguals. A comparison of the productive vocabularies of 435 children between the ages of 6 months and 7 years-181 of which were bilingual English learners-found that monolinguals learned both English words and all-language concepts faster than bilinguals. However, bilinguals showed an enhancement of an effect previously found in monolinguals-the preference for learning words with more associative cues. Though both monolinguals and bilinguals were best fit by a similar model of word learning, semantic network structure and growth indicated that the two groups were learning English words in a different order. Further, in comparison with a model of two-monolinguals-in-one-mind, bilinguals overproduced translational equivalents. Our results support an emergent account of bilingual first language acquisition, where learning a word in one language facilitates its acquisition in a second language. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Japanese Language Education from "the Standpoint of Facilitation"

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In "Language Education as a Hope for a Sustainable Society", Uehara (2014) discussed a systematic language education from the standpoint of a native language education. This article also discusses the same topic, but this time the author does so from the standpoint of teacher training. The report includes the Japanese language education as a method of interaction, Japanese language education from the perspective of facilitation and actual practice of the method in a Japanese language teacher ...

  16. Efficiency of Picture Description and Storytelling Methods in Language Sampling According to the Mean Length of Utterance Index

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    Salime Jafari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Due to limitation of standardized tests for Persian-speakers with language disorders, spontaneous language sampling collection is an important part of assessment of languageprotocol. Therefore, selection of a language sampling method, which will provide information of linguistic competence in a short time, is important. Therefore, in this study, we compared the languagesamples elicited with picture description and storytelling methods in order to determine the effectiveness of the two methods.Methods: In this study 30 first-grade elementary school girls were selected with simple sampling. To investigate picture description method, we used two illustrated stories with four pictures. Languagesamples were collected through storytelling by telling a famous children’s story. To determine the effectiveness of these two methods the two indices of duration of sampling and mean length ofutterance (MLU were compared.Results: There was no significant difference between MLU in description and storytelling methods(p>0.05. However, duration of sampling was shorter in the picture description method than the storytelling method (p<0.05.Conclusion: Findings show that, the two methods of picture description and storytelling have the same potential in language sampling. Since, picture description method can provide language samples with the same complexity in a shorter time than storytelling, it can be used as a beneficial method forclinical purposes.

  17. Foreign language comprehension achievement: insights from the cognate facilitation effect

    OpenAIRE

    Casaponsa, Aina; Antón, Eneko; Pérez, Alejandro; Duñabeitia, Jon A.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the native language influences foreign word recognition and that this influence is modulated by the proficiency in the non-native language. Here we explored how the degree of reliance on cross-language similarity (as measured by the cognate facilitation effect) together with other domain-general cognitive factors contribute to reading comprehension achievement in a non-native language at different stages of the learning process. We tested two groups of native ...

  18. Spatio-temporal variation of conversational utterances on Twitter

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    Alis, Christian M

    2013-01-01

    Conversations reflect the existing norms of a language. Previously, we found that utterance lengths in English fictional conversations in books and movies have shortened over a period of 200 years. In this work, we show that this shortening occurs even for a brief period of 3 years (September 2009-December 2012) using 229 million utterances from Twitter. Furthermore, the subset of geographically-tagged tweets from the United States show an inverse proportion between utterance lengths and the state-level percentage of the Black population. We argue that shortening of utterances can be explained by the increasing usage of jargon including coined words.

  19. Pragmatic Distance and Appropriateness of Utterance Politeness

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    吴丽丽

    2014-01-01

    The Politeness Principle proposed by Leech complements Grice ’ Cooperative Principle to a cer-tain extent in explaining the indirectness of language .However , the nature of politeness is its relativity . Determined by various factors such as social and cultural ones , the appropriateness of politeness at utter-ance level is affected by the appropriateness of the pragmatic distance between the participants .Different from the interpersonal relationships , pragmatic distance is calculated and determined in the process of communication varying with the variation of the communicative factors .Pragmatic distance is dynamic and can be maintained and altered by participants by using certain linguistic expressions to achieve the appro -priateness of politeness in communication .

  20. A Pilot Study of Language Facilitation for Bilingual, Language-Handicapped Children: Theoretical and Intervention Implications.

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    Perozzi, Joseph A.

    1985-01-01

    A within-subject design involving three Spanish speaking and three English speaking preschoolers with language handicaps provided support for the practice of initial language intervention in the native language when bilingualism is a goal and for transference/facilitation theories of second language learning. (CL)

  1. THE JOURNALISTIC UTTERANCE ON TWITTER

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    Mabel Oliveira Teixeira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the impact of the characteristics of the Twitter platform on the application of standard journalistic technique (TRAQUINA, 2008 during the creation and production of news releases as tweets and, at the same time, it seeks to identify their specifications regarding traditional journalistic utterances. Through the analysis of 134 tweets collected from newspaper profiles of Folha de S. Paulo, Zero Hora and Diário Popular, we have obtained indications that led us to confirm our central assumption. In other words, the hierarchical pattern and purpose that guide the creation of standard news, and therefore, the special language that characterizes traditional journalism, begin to give way to models that are more horizontal and interactive, that redesign the standard technique (based on the model of the Inverted Pyramid and thus, modify journalistic writing - interfering in its discursive effects (GOMES, 2000.

  2. Foreign language comprehension achievement: insights from the cognate facilitation effect.

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    Casaponsa, Aina; Antón, Eneko; Pérez, Alejandro; Duñabeitia, Jon A

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the native language influences foreign word recognition and that this influence is modulated by the proficiency in the non-native language. Here we explored how the degree of reliance on cross-language similarity (as measured by the cognate facilitation effect) together with other domain-general cognitive factors contribute to reading comprehension achievement in a non-native language at different stages of the learning process. We tested two groups of native speakers of Spanish learning English at elementary and intermediate levels in an academic context. A regression model approach showed that domain-general cognitive skills are good predictors of second language reading achievement independently of the level of proficiency. Critically, we found that individual differences in the degree of reliance on the native language predicted foreign language reading achievement, showing a markedly different pattern between proficiency groups. At lower levels of proficiency the cognate facilitation effect was positively related with reading achievement, while this relation became negative at intermediate levels of foreign language learning. We conclude that the link between native- and foreign-language lexical representations helps participants at initial stages of the learning process, whereas it is no longer the case at intermediate levels of proficiency, when reliance on cross-language similarity is inversely related to successful non-native reading achievement. Thus, at intermediate levels of proficiency strong and direct mappings from the non-native lexical forms to semantic concepts are needed to achieve good non-native reading comprehension, in line with the premises of current models of bilingual lexico-semantic organization.

  3. Foreign language comprehension achievement: insights from the cognate facilitation effect

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    Aina eCasaponsa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown that the native language influences foreign word recognition and that this influence is modulated by the proficiency in the nonnative language. Here we explored how the degree of reliance on cross-language similarity (as measured by the cognate facilitation effect together with other domain-general cognitive factors contribute to reading comprehension achievement in a nonnative language at different stages of the learning process. We tested two groups of native speakers of Spanish learning English at elementary and intermediate levels in an academic context. A regression model approach showed that domain-general cognitive skills are good predictors of second language reading achievement independently of the level of proficiency. Critically, we found that individual differences in the degree of reliance on the native language predicted foreign language reading achievement, showing a markedly different pattern between proficiency groups. At lower levels of proficiency the cognate facilitation effect was positively related with reading achievement, while this relation became negative at intermediate levels of foreign language learning. We conclude that the link between native- and foreign-language lexical representations helps participants at initial stages of the learning process, whereas it is no longer the case at intermediate levels of proficiency, when reliance on cross-language similarity is inversely related to successful nonnative reading achievement. Thus, at intermediate levels of proficiency strong and direct mappings from the nonnative lexical forms to semantic concepts are needed to achieve good nonnative reading comprehension, in line with the premises of current models of bilingual lexico-semantic organization.

  4. Facilitating Digital Video Production in the Language Arts Curriculum

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    McKenney, Susan; Voogt, Joke

    2011-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to facilitate the development of feasible support for the process of integrating digital video making activities in the primary school language arts curriculum. The first study explored which teaching supports would be necessary to enable primary school children to create digital video as a means of fostering…

  5. Facilitating digital video production in the language arts curriculum

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    McKenney-Jensh, Susan E.; Voogt, Joke

    2011-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to facilitate the development of feasible support for the process of integrating digital video making activities in the primary school language arts curriculum. The first study explored which teaching supports would be necessary to enable primary school children to create

  6. Using Signs to Facilitate Vocabulary in Children with Language Delays

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    Lederer, Susan Hendler; Battaglia, Dana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore recommended practices in choosing and using key word signs (i.e., simple single-word gestures for communication) to facilitate first spoken words in hearing children with language delays. Developmental, theoretical, and empirical supports for this practice are discussed. Practical recommendations for…

  7. Scientific Divulgation and Digital Utterances

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    Flávia Silvia Machado

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Under the perspective of the Bakhtin Circle's theory, this paper aims to study a few specifications, as well as aspects that constitute the digital scientific divulgation (DSD utterances. Besides verbal and verbo-visual aspects, which characterize scientific divulgation utterances in several print genres, it is important to consider that our object of study is also composed by/in the complexity of the digital environment. We intend to present a reflection upon hypertextual dialogic relations, conclusibility and utterance alternation, and finally the conditions of production and reception in DSD utterances.

  8. Contributions of Early Language and Maternal Facilitation Variables to Later Language and Reading Abilities

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    Fewell, Rebecca; Deutscher, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the contributions of four variables (children's expressive language scores at 30 months of age, mother's facilitation of child language, mother's education, and group assignment) to the prediction of IQ at age 3, verbal IQ at ages 5 and 8, and reading at age 8 for 571 children of low-birthweight. Four separate multiple…

  9. Functions of Cognitive Context in Utterance Understanding

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    卢胡卓越; 李美涵

    2015-01-01

    Utterance understanding is a two-way activity which includes the generation and reception of information,in the process of utterance understanding,cognitive context functions utterance understanding from three aspects.

  10. A pilot study of language facilitation for bilingual, language-handicapped children: theoretical and intervention implications.

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    Perozzi, J A

    1985-11-01

    Three Spanish-speaking (SS) and 3 English-Speaking (ES) preschool children served as subjects. One SS subject was diagnosed as having mild language delay, 1 as being language disordered, and 1 as having normal language. One ES subject was diagnosed as having mild language delay and 2 as having normal language. A within-subject design wherein Condition A consisted of teaching receptive vocabulary in L1 (native language) followed by L2 (second language) and Condition B consisted of teaching receptive vocabulary in L2 followed by L1 was utilized. The sequence of conditions was ABBA for each subject. Analysis of each subject's trials to criterion for L2 in each condition indicated a strong tendency for recently learned receptive vocabulary in L1 to facilitate the learning of receptive vocabulary in L2. The results are interpreted as support for the practice of initial language intervention in L1 when bilingualism is a goal and for transference/facilitation theories of L2 learning.

  11. Intelligent Virtual Agents as Language Trainers Facilitate Multilingualism

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    Manuela eMacedonia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a new generation of language trainers: intelligent virtual agents (IVAs with human appearance and the capability to teach foreign language vocabulary. We report results from studies that we have conducted with Billie, an IVA employed as a vocabulary trainer, as well as research findings on the acceptance of the agent as a trainer by adults and children. The results show that Billie can train humans as well as a human teacher can and that both adults and children accept the IVA as a trainer. The advantages of IVAs are multiple. First, their teaching methods can be based on neuropsychological research findings concerning memory and learning practice. Second, virtual teachers can provide individualized training. Third, they coach users during training, are always supportive, and motivate learners to train. Fourth, agents will reside in the user’s mobile devices and thus be at the user’s disposal everywhere and anytime. Agents in apps will make foreign language training accessible to anybody at low cost. This will enable people around the world, including physically, financially and geographically disadvantaged persons, to learn a foreign language and help to facilitate multilingualism.

  12. The Role of Supported Joint Engagement and Parent Utterances in Language and Social Communication Development in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

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    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Yoder, Paul J.; Hochman, Julia M.; Watson, Linda R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between three parent-child engagement states and social communication, expressive language, and receptive language at 8 month follow-up, in 63 preschool-age children with autism spectrum disorder. We extend the literature on supported joint engagement by dividing this state into higher order (HSJE) and lower order…

  13. Integrating Best Practices in Language Intervention and Curriculum Design to Facilitate First Words

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    Lederer, Susan Hendler

    2014-01-01

    For children developing language typically, exposure to language through the natural, general language stimulation provided by families, siblings, and others is sufficient enough to facilitate language learning (Bloom & Lahey, 1978; Nelson, 1973; Owens, 2008). However, children with language delays (even those who are receptively and…

  14. Voice recognition through phonetic features with Punjabi utterances

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    Kaur, Jasdeep; Juglan, K. C.; Sharma, Vishal; Upadhyay, R. K.

    2017-07-01

    This paper deals with perception and disorders of speech in view of Punjabi language. Visualizing the importance of voice identification, various parameters of speaker identification has been studied. The speech material was recorded with a tape recorder in their normal and disguised mode of utterances. Out of the recorded speech materials, the utterances free from noise, etc were selected for their auditory and acoustic spectrographic analysis. The comparison of normal and disguised speech of seven subjects is reported. The fundamental frequency (F0) at similar places, Plosive duration at certain phoneme, Amplitude ratio (A1:A2) etc. were compared in normal and disguised speech. It was found that the formant frequency of normal and disguised speech remains almost similar only if it is compared at the position of same vowel quality and quantity. If the vowel is more closed or more open in the disguised utterance the formant frequency will be changed in comparison to normal utterance. The ratio of the amplitude (A1: A2) is found to be speaker dependent. It remains unchanged in the disguised utterance. However, this value may shift in disguised utterance if cross sectioning is not done at the same location.

  15. How to Understand an Utterance

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    杨开春

    2011-01-01

    1 ,Someone might claim that understanding an utterance is a simple matter of linguistic decoding. For instance, a certain politician-call her Margaret-is speaking to us in English; it might be claimed that all we need to understand her is a knowledge of E

  16. Academic literacies approaches for facilitating language for specific purposes

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    Magnus Gustafsson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a possible framework for working with language for specific purposes (LSP in an integrated fashion, i.e. with disciplinary learning as the main lever to promote academic literacy. I suggest that a genuine literacies approach in higher education is already disciplinary by necessity and that even if we do not have an immediate disciplinary context to work in, we still need to work with the students’ understanding of the communities they are active in. The framework draws on previous research on “literacies” and “generic skills” as the basic components and incorporates ways of adapting other frameworks such as peer learning and activity theory at the institutional level. The framework is applied on three cases at the Division for Language and Communication. The examples indicate how important flexibility in application is, and how the facilitation of learning under an umbrella concept like “academic literacies” is inherently dependent on learning philosophy. The examples also show how the consistent implementation of a framework philosophy requires versatile solutions of the constructive alignment puzzle in designing the environment, the activities, and the assessment of specific interventions. In combination with the three examples, the suggested framework offers a way of prioritising approaches for arriving at academic literacy.

  17. Exploring the Utility of a School-Age Narrative Microstructure Index: Proportion of Restricted Utterances

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    Jerger, Sara; Thorne, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This research attempted to replicate Hoffman's 2009 finding that the proportion of narrative utterances with semantic or syntactic errors (i.e., = 14% "restricted utterances") can differentiate school-age children with typical development from those with language impairment with a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 88%.…

  18. Help-Giving Robot Behaviors in Child-Robot Games : Exploring Semantic Free Utterances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaga, Cristina; De Vries, Roelof A.J.; Spenkelink, Sem J.; Truong, Khiet P.; Evers, Vanessa

    We present initial findings from an experiment where we used Semantic Free Utterances vocalizations and sounds without semantic content as an alternative to Natural Language in a child-robot collaborative game. We tested (i) if two types of Semantic Free Utterances could be accurately recognized by

  19. Help-Giving Robot Behaviors in Child-Robot Games : Exploring Semantic Free Utterances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaga, Cristina; De Vries, Roelof A.J.; Spenkelink, Sem J.; Truong, Khiet P.; Evers, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    We present initial findings from an experiment where we used Semantic Free Utterances vocalizations and sounds without semantic content as an alternative to Natural Language in a child-robot collaborative game. We tested (i) if two types of Semantic Free Utterances could be accurately recognized by

  20. The Role of Context in Utterance Interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Xin-xin

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the function of context in utterance interpretation.In speech communication,context plays a very important role in expressing utterance meaning appropriately and understanding that precisely.Context can be classified into three kinds,which is context of utterance,context of situation,and context of culture

  1. Comprehension of Ironic Utterances by Bilingual Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banasik Natalia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates verbal irony comprehension by 6-year old bilingual children speaking Polish and English and living in the USA. Researchers have predominantly focused on monolingual populations when examining non-literal language in young children. This is the first exploratory study of how irony is comprehended by children growing up in a bilingual setting. Results suggest that 6-year olds from this population score high in decoding the intended meaning behind an ironic utterance and that there is a relation between this ability and the development of their theory of mind (ToM. Interestingly, the data suggests that in the tested sample, no difference could be observed between comprehension of sarcastic irony (i.e., irony containing the element of blame directed towards the addressee and non-sarcastic irony (irony without criticism towards the interlocutor. The results may be a basis for assuming that irony comprehension may be different in bilingual, compared to monolingual, samples.

  2. Facebook: Facilitating Social Access and Language Acquisition for International Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kent; Ranta, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Many international students come to Canada to improve their English language proficiency and develop friendships with Canadians and other international students. However, gaining access to host nationals (i.e., Canadians) is not an easy task for most English as a second language (ESL) learners. Factors such as language proficiency may hamper…

  3. Facilitating Comprehension and Processing of Language in Classroom and Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasky, Elaine Z.

    A speech/language remediation-intervention model is proposed to enhance processing of auditory information in students with language or learning disabilities. Such children have difficulty attending to language signals (verbal and nonverbal responses ranging from facial expressions and gestures to those requiring the generation of complex…

  4. Study on the CE/EC Humorous Utterances Translation under the Skopos Theory%Study on the CE/EC Humorous Utterances Translation under the Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛昆

    2012-01-01

    This thesis takes the Skopos Theory which is the core of German functionalism as the breakthrough point. According to the general classification of humorous utterance, this thesis divides it into situational humor and language humor. This thesis aims to analyze the application of the Skopos Theory in the two classifications of humorous utterances translation from the two perspectives which are conformity and conflict between the source-te~tfunction and the target-text function.

  5. Second Language Experience Facilitates Statistical Learning of Novel Linguistic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christine E.; Wang, Tianlin; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has begun to explore individual differences in statistical learning, and how those differences may be related to other cognitive abilities, particularly their effects on language learning. In this research, we explored a different type of relationship between language learning and statistical learning: the possibility that learning…

  6. Facilitating Greater Test Success for English Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Fairbairn

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In an age of test-based accountability, accurate assessment is paramount. When testing English language learners (ELLs, challenges associated with language, the use of test accommodations, and test/item format can undermine this accuracy. This paper describes these challenges and offers strategies for overcoming them in order to more accurately assess what ELLs know and can do.

  7. Facilitating vocabulary acquisition of young English language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Neris, Mirza J; Jackson, Carla Wood; Goldstein, Howard

    2010-07-01

    This study examined whether English-only vocabulary instruction or English vocabulary instruction enhanced with Spanish bridging produced greater word learning in young Spanish-speaking children learning English during a storybook reading intervention while considering individual language characteristics. Twenty-two Spanish-speaking children learning English (ages 4-6) who participated in a summer education program for migrant families were randomly assigned to receive 2 weeks of each instruction: (a) word expansions in English or (b) English readings with word expansions in Spanish. Researcher-created measures of target vocabulary were administered, as were English and Spanish standardized measures of language proficiency and vocabulary. Results revealed significant improvement in naming, receptive knowledge, and expressive definitions for those children who received Spanish bridging. Spanish expansions produced the greatest gains in the children's use of expressive definitions. Initial language proficiency in both languages was found to affect participants' gains from intervention, as those with limited skills in both languages showed significantly less vocabulary growth than those with strong skills in Spanish. Additional benefits to using Spanish expansions in vocabulary instruction were observed. Future research should explore additional ways of enhancing the vocabulary growth of children with limited skills in both languages in order to support and strengthen the child's first language and promote second language acquisition.

  8. MIKHAIL BAKHTIN, LANGSTON HUGHES AND THE POETIC UTTERANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Eugene Amsler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A critical pragmatics finds good grounding in Bakhtin and Voloshinov’s theory of the Utterance in Marxism and the Philosophy of Language (1929. In this essay I explore and extend the notion of ‘reaccenting’ with that of ‘retexting’ and call attention to the role of textualities in the performance and deformance of written language. Critical pragmatic moves beyond stylistics and proposes a more critical linguistic approach to literary texts. I use critical pragmatics informed by Bakhtin’s theory of the utterance to read Langston Hughes’s dialogic lyrics in Montage of a Dream Deferred (1951 and poetic retexting as a literate and critical practice.

  9. Follow-up utterances in QA dialogue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schooten, van Boris; Akker, op den Rieks

    2006-01-01

    The processing of user follow-up utterances by a QA system is a topic which is still in its infant stages, but enjoys growing interest in the QA community. In this paper, we discuss the broader issues related to handling follow-up utterances in a real-life "information kiosk" setting. With help of a

  10. Influence of interlocutor/reader on utterance in reflective writing and interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, Vivian M.

    2010-03-01

    The influence of the Other on utterance is foundational to language study. This analysis contrasts this influence within two modes of communication: reflective writing and interview. The data source is derived from the reflective writings and interview transcripts of a twelfth-grade physics student. In this student's case, reflective writing includes extensive utterances, utilizing rhetorical devices to persuade and reconcile with his reader. In the interview, on-going back-and-forth utterances allow the two participants to negotiate a co-constructed meaning for religion. Implications for the classroom are briefly discussed.

  11. "Language Immersion Tepee" as a Facilitator of Sámi Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskitalo, Pigga; Määttä, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2014-01-01

    Due to the history of assimilation, power relations, and their sociolinguistic situation, the Sámi languages are categorized as endangered. The position of the Sámi languages in Sámi education is reviewed, and language immersion as a teaching method and as a means of language maintenance is discussed. Sámi language learning is described through…

  12. AN EXPLORATION ON THE CULTIVATION OF UTTERANCE INTERPRETATION AT TERTIARY LEVEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Due to the increasing opportunities for face-to-face communication, students should be able to understand utterances in a particular context. Grice’s conversational implicature theory, mainly consisting of the cooperative principle and the maxims, purports to explain what is conveyed by an utterance. Austin and Searle’s speech act theories contribute to the functional explanation of language and explore the illocutionary acts beyond the literal meaning of utterances. With these theories as the theoretical framework, the author proposes a way to improve students’ ability to interpret utterances, that is, teaching theories of conversational implicature and speech act, creating an appropriate and plausible context and inculcating cultural knowledge of the target language.

  13. Facilitating Emergent Literacy: Efficacy of a Model that Partners Speech-Language Pathologists and Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolametto, Luigi; Weitzman, Elaine; Greenberg, Janice

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the efficacy of a professional development program for early childhood educators that facilitated emergent literacy skills in preschoolers. The program, led by a speech-language pathologist, focused on teaching alphabet knowledge, print concepts, sound awareness, and decontextualized oral language within naturally…

  14. Dictating or Facilitating: The Supervisory Process for Language Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaoglu, M. Naci

    2012-01-01

    This study is an attempt to explore the supervisory process from the standpoint of supervised English language teachers. The research, which has been going on for three years, aims to weigh the results in terms of teachers who were exposed to the supervision. More specifically, the research answers whether teachers are really helped in improving…

  15. Facilitating Vocabulary Acquisition of Young English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Neris, Mirza J.; Jackson, Carla Wood; Goldstein, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether English-only vocabulary instruction or English vocabulary instruction enhanced with Spanish bridging produced greater word learning in young Spanish-speaking children learning English during a storybook reading intervention while considering individual language characteristics. Method: Twenty-two…

  16. Blissymbol learning as a tool for facilitating language and literacy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acquisition of language and literacy skills by young children re- mains an important ... The role of graphic symbol systems in the development of these skills is ... As Blissymbols have traditionally been used for communication with people who ... The verbal comprehension scale of the Reynell (1969) was administered in ...

  17. Second Language Experience Facilitates Statistical Learning of Novel Linguistic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christine E; Wang, Tianlin; Saffran, Jenny R

    2016-12-18

    Recent research has begun to explore individual differences in statistical learning, and how those differences may be related to other cognitive abilities, particularly their effects on language learning. In this research, we explored a different type of relationship between language learning and statistical learning: the possibility that learning a new language may also influence statistical learning by changing the regularities to which learners are sensitive. We tested two groups of participants, Mandarin Learners and Naïve Controls, at two time points, 6 months apart. At each time point, participants performed two different statistical learning tasks: an artificial tonal language statistical learning task and a visual statistical learning task. Only the Mandarin-learning group showed significant improvement on the linguistic task, whereas both groups improved equally on the visual task. These results support the view that there are multiple influences on statistical learning. Domain-relevant experiences may affect the regularities that learners can discover when presented with novel stimuli.

  18. Electrophysiology of cross-language interference and facilitation in picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Ardi; Piai, Vitória; Garrido Rodriguez, Gabriela; Chwilla, Dorothee J

    2016-03-01

    Disagreement exists about how bilingual speakers select words, in particular, whether words in another language compete, or competition is restricted to a target language, or no competition occurs. Evidence that competition occurs but is restricted to a target language comes from response time (RT) effects obtained when speakers name pictures in one language while trying to ignore distractor words in another language. Compared to unrelated distractor words, RT is longer when the picture name and distractor are semantically related, but RT is shorter when the distractor is the translation of the name of the picture in the other language. These effects suggest that distractor words from another language do not compete themselves but activate their counterparts in the target language, thereby yielding the semantic interference and translation facilitation effects. Here, we report an event-related brain potential (ERP) study testing the prediction that priming underlies both of these effects. The RTs showed semantic interference and translation facilitation effects. Moreover, the picture-word stimuli yielded an N400 response, whose amplitude was smaller on semantic and translation trials than on unrelated trials, providing evidence that interference and facilitation priming underlie the RT effects. We present the results of computer simulations showing the utility of a within-language competition account of our findings.

  19. How the strengths of Lisp-family languages facilitate building complex and flexible bioinformatics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomtchouk, Bohdan B; Weitz, Edmund; Karp, Peter D; Wahlestedt, Claes

    2016-12-31

    We present a rationale for expanding the presence of the Lisp family of programming languages in bioinformatics and computational biology research. Put simply, Lisp-family languages enable programmers to more quickly write programs that run faster than in other languages. Languages such as Common Lisp, Scheme and Clojure facilitate the creation of powerful and flexible software that is required for complex and rapidly evolving domains like biology. We will point out several important key features that distinguish languages of the Lisp family from other programming languages, and we will explain how these features can aid researchers in becoming more productive and creating better code. We will also show how these features make these languages ideal tools for artificial intelligence and machine learning applications. We will specifically stress the advantages of domain-specific languages (DSLs): languages that are specialized to a particular area, and thus not only facilitate easier research problem formulation, but also aid in the establishment of standards and best programming practices as applied to the specific research field at hand. DSLs are particularly easy to build in Common Lisp, the most comprehensive Lisp dialect, which is commonly referred to as the 'programmable programming language'. We are convinced that Lisp grants programmers unprecedented power to build increasingly sophisticated artificial intelligence systems that may ultimately transform machine learning and artificial intelligence research in bioinformatics and computational biology. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Second Language Use Facilitates Implicit Emotion Regulation via Content Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawetz, Carmen; Oganian, Yulia; Schlickeiser, Ulrike; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies reported that negative stimuli induced less affect in bilinguals when stimuli were presented in bilinguals’ second, weaker language (L2) than when they were presented in their native language (L1). This effect of L2 use was attributed to increased emotional distance as well as to increased levels of cognitive control during L2 use. Here we investigated how explicit (cognitive reappraisal, i.e., reinterpreting the meaning of the emotional stimulus to alter its emotional impact) and implicit (content labeling, i.e., categorizing the content of the image; and emotion labeling, i.e., naming the emotion induced by the emotional stimulus) emotion regulation strategies are altered in an L2 (English) context in German native speakers with medium to high proficiency in their L2. While previous studies used linguistic stimuli, such as words, to induce affect, here we used images to test whether reduced affect could also be observed for non-linguistic stimuli when presented in an L2 context. We hypothesized that the previously implicated increase in emotional distance and cognitive control in an L2 would result in an L2 advantage in emotion regulation (i.e., leading to less negative emotions compared to an L1 context), by strengthening the effect of linguistic re-evaluation on the evoked emotions. Using a classic emotion regulation paradigm, we examined changes in subjective emotional state ratings during reappraisal, emotion labeling and content labeling in a L1 and L2 context. We found that the strength of evoked affective responses did not depend on the language context in which an image was presented. Crucially, content labeling in L2 was more effective than in L1, whereas emotion labeling did not differ between languages. Overall, evoked responses were regulated most effectively through explicit emotion regulation (reappraisal) in L1 and L2 context. These results demonstrate an L2 advantage effect for emotion regulation through content labeling and

  1. Designedly Incomplete Utterances: A Pedagogical Practice for Eliciting Knowledge Displays in Error Correction Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshik, Irene

    2002-01-01

    Uses a conversation analytic framework to analyze a practice used by teachers in 1-0-1, second language writing conferences when eliciting self-correction of students' written language errors. This type of turn used to elicit a knowledge display from the student is labeled designedly incomplete utterance (DIU). Teachers use DIUs made up of…

  2. Designedly Incomplete Utterances: A Pedagogical Practice for Eliciting Knowledge Displays in Error Correction Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshik, Irene

    2002-01-01

    Uses a conversation analytic framework to analyze a practice used by teachers in 1-0-1, second language writing conferences when eliciting self-correction of students' written language errors. This type of turn used to elicit a knowledge display from the student is labeled designedly incomplete utterance (DIU). Teachers use DIUs made up of…

  3. Can language acquisition be facilitated in cochlear implanted children? Comparison of cognitive and behavioral psychologists' viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshizadeh, Leila; Vameghi, Roshanak; Yadegari, Fariba; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Hashemi, Seyed Basir

    2016-11-08

    To study how language acquisition can be facilitated for cochlear implanted children based on cognitive and behavioral psychology viewpoints? To accomplish this objective, literature related to behaviorist and cognitive psychology prospects about language acquisition were studied and some relevant books as well as Medline, Cochrane Library, Google scholar, ISI web of knowledge and Scopus databases were searched. Among 25 articles that were selected, only 11 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Based on the inclusion criteria, review articles, expert opinion studies, non-experimental and experimental studies that clearly focused on behavioral and cognitive factors affecting language acquisition in children were selected. Finally, the selected articles were appraised according to guidelines of appraisal of medical studies. Due to the importance of the cochlear implanted child's language performance, the comparison of behaviorist and cognitive psychology points of view in child language acquisition was done. Since each theoretical basis, has its own positive effects on language, and since the two are not in opposition to one another, it can be said that a set of behavioral and cognitive factors might facilitate the process of language acquisition in children. Behavioral psychologists believe that repetition, as well as immediate reinforcement of child's language behavior help him easily acquire the language during a language intervention program, while cognitive psychologists emphasize on the relationship between information processing, memory improvement through repetitively using words along with "associated" pictures and objects, motor development and language acquisition. It is recommended to use a combined approach based on both theoretical frameworks while planning a language intervention program.

  4. Can language acquisition be facilitated in cochlear implanted children? Comparison of cognitive and behavioral psychologists’ viewpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshizadeh, Leila; Vameghi, Roshanak; Yadegari, Fariba; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Hashemi, Seyed Basir

    2016-01-01

    AIM To study how language acquisition can be facilitated for cochlear implanted children based on cognitive and behavioral psychology viewpoints? METHODS To accomplish this objective, literature related to behaviorist and cognitive psychology prospects about language acquisition were studied and some relevant books as well as Medline, Cochrane Library, Google scholar, ISI web of knowledge and Scopus databases were searched. Among 25 articles that were selected, only 11 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Based on the inclusion criteria, review articles, expert opinion studies, non-experimental and experimental studies that clearly focused on behavioral and cognitive factors affecting language acquisition in children were selected. Finally, the selected articles were appraised according to guidelines of appraisal of medical studies. RESULTS Due to the importance of the cochlear implanted child’s language performance, the comparison of behaviorist and cognitive psychology points of view in child language acquisition was done. Since each theoretical basis, has its own positive effects on language, and since the two are not in opposition to one another, it can be said that a set of behavioral and cognitive factors might facilitate the process of language acquisition in children. Behavioral psychologists believe that repetition, as well as immediate reinforcement of child’s language behavior help him easily acquire the language during a language intervention program, while cognitive psychologists emphasize on the relationship between information processing, memory improvement through repetitively using words along with “associated” pictures and objects, motor development and language acquisition. CONCLUSION It is recommended to use a combined approach based on both theoretical frameworks while planning a language intervention program. PMID:27872829

  5. The Road to Language Learning Is Not Entirely Iconic: Iconicity, Neighborhood Density, and Frequency Facilitate Acquisition of Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Naomi K; Pyers, Jennie E

    2017-07-01

    Iconic mappings between words and their meanings are far more prevalent than once estimated and seem to support children's acquisition of new words, spoken or signed. We asked whether iconicity's prevalence in sign language overshadows two other factors known to support the acquisition of spoken vocabulary: neighborhood density (the number of lexical items phonologically similar to the target) and lexical frequency. Using mixed-effects logistic regressions, we reanalyzed 58 parental reports of native-signing deaf children's productive acquisition of 332 signs in American Sign Language (ASL; Anderson & Reilly, 2002) and found that iconicity, neighborhood density, and lexical frequency independently facilitated vocabulary acquisition. Despite differences in iconicity and phonological structure between signed and spoken language, signing children, like children learning a spoken language, track statistical information about lexical items and their phonological properties and leverage this information to expand their vocabulary.

  6. Facilitating Exposure to Sign Languages of the World: The Case for Mobile Assisted Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, Becky Sue

    2014-01-01

    Foreign sign language instruction is an important, but overlooked area of study. Thus the purpose of this paper was two-fold. First, the researcher sought to determine the level of knowledge and interest in foreign sign language among Deaf teenagers along with their learning preferences. Results from a survey indicated that over a third of the…

  7. Language and the Facilitation of Authority: The Discourse of Noam Chomsky (Reader Response).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaugrande, Robert de

    1991-01-01

    Applies discourse analysis to an interview with Noam Chomsky to show the use of language to facilitate authority. Discusses idealism and scientism, change and the role of the intellectual, Chomsky's dualism, his "problem," his method, creativity and composition, activism and the intellectual, and the future of intellectualism. (PRA)

  8. Language and the Facilitation of Authority: The Discourse of Noam Chomsky (Reader Response).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaugrande, Robert de

    1991-01-01

    Applies discourse analysis to an interview with Noam Chomsky to show the use of language to facilitate authority. Discusses idealism and scientism, change and the role of the intellectual, Chomsky's dualism, his "problem," his method, creativity and composition, activism and the intellectual, and the future of intellectualism. (PRA)

  9. Differences of Articulation Rate and Utterance Length in Fluent and Disfluent Utterances of Preschool Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, HeeCheong; Sawyer, Jean; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate characteristics of four types of utterances in preschool children who stutter: perceptually fluent, containing normal disfluencies (OD utterance), containing stuttering-like disfluencies (SLD utterance), and containing both normal and stuttering-like disfluencies (SLD+OD utterance).…

  10. Language-experience facilitates discrimination of /d-th/ in monolingual and bilingual acquisition of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundara, Megha; Polka, Linda; Genesee, Fred

    2006-06-01

    To trace how age and language experience shape the discrimination of native and non-native phonetic contrasts, we compared 4-year-olds learning either English or French or both and simultaneous bilingual adults on their ability to discriminate the English /d-th/ contrast. Findings show that the ability to discriminate the native English contrast improved with age. However, in the absence of experience with this contrast, discrimination of French children and adults remained unchanged during development. Furthermore, although simultaneous bilingual and monolingual English adults were comparable, children exposed to both English and French were poorer at discriminating this contrast when compared to monolingual English-learning 4-year-olds. Thus, language experience facilitates perception of the English /d-th/ contrast and this facilitation occurs later in development when English and French are acquired simultaneously. The difference between bilingual and monolingual acquisition has implications for language organization in children with simultaneous exposure.

  11. Language facilitates introspection: Verbal mind-wandering has privileged access to consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Mikaël; Lerique, Sébastien; Adam, Vincent; Franklin, Michael S; Schooler, Jonathan W; Sackur, Jérôme

    2017-03-01

    Introspection and language are the cognitive prides of humankind, but their interactions in healthy cognition remain unclear. Episodes of mind-wandering, where personal thoughts often go unnoticed for some time before being introspected, offer a unique opportunity to study the role of language in introspection. In this paper, we show that inner speech facilitates awareness of mind-wandering. In two experiments, we either interfered with verbal working memory, via articulatory suppression (Exp. 1), or entrained it, via presentation of verbal material (Exp. 2), and measured the resulting awareness of mind-wandering. Articulatory suppression decreased the likelihood to spontaneously notice mind-wandering, whereas verbal material increased retrospective awareness of mind-wandering. In addition, an ecological study using smartphones confirmed that inner speech vividness positively predicted mind-wandering awareness (Exp. 3). Together, these findings support the view that inner speech facilitates introspection of one's thoughts, and therefore provides empirical evidence for a positive relation between language and consciousness.

  12. Language exposure facilitates talker learning prior to language comprehension, even in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orena, Adriel John; Theodore, Rachel M; Polka, Linda

    2015-10-01

    Adults show a native language advantage for talker identification, which has been interpreted as evidence that phonological knowledge mediates talker learning. However, infants also show a native language benefit for talker discrimination, suggesting that sensitivity to linguistic structure due to systematic language exposure promotes talker learning, even in the absence of functional phonological knowledge or language comprehension. We tested this hypothesis by comparing two groups of English-monolingual adults on their ability to learn English and French voices. One group resided in Montréal with regular exposure to spoken French; the other resided in Storrs, Connecticut and did not have French exposure. Montréal residents showed faster learning and better retention for the French voices compared to their Storrs-residing peers. These findings demonstrate that systematic exposure to a foreign language bolsters talker learning in that language, expanding the gradient effect of language experience on talker learning to perceptual learning that precedes sentence comprehension. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Recurring Utterances - Targeting a Breakthrough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Stark

    2014-05-01

    The most interesting phenomenon is KB’s production of words from former sessions indicating that they are still ‘active’ and the production of completely novel incorrect words. The observable features indicate that immediate auditory processing is possible in the form of repeating target words. However, as soon as KB must retrieve information from the (semantic lexicon, even after being able to correctly ‘repeat’ the target word several times, he responds with a RU, perseveration, or paraphasia. Several of his productions can be characterized as aphasic confabulations which stem from a memory gap. Thus, although KB’s language impairment is severe, his responses across time indicate that step-by-step a breakthrough is being made.

  14. Influence of Interlocutor/Reader on Utterance in Reflective Writing and Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, Vivian M.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the Other on utterance is foundational to language study. This analysis contrasts this influence within two modes of communication: reflective writing and interview. The data source is derived from the reflective writings and interview transcripts of a twelfth-grade physics student. In this student's case, reflective writing…

  15. TRANSFER OF JAVANESE CULTURE IN THE PRODUCTION OF ENGLISH UTTERANCES AND ITS POSSIBLE IMPACT ON INTER-CULTURAL INTERACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Nadar, FX.

    2012-01-01

    This brief paper discusses the ways Javanese speaking English produce utterances in English which show transfer and influence from Javanese culture . It argues that cultural transfer from first language has possible negative impact in intercultural interaction . First, some important characteristics of Javanese culture will be discussed, then examples of utterances commonly produced by Javanese speaking English will be given . The writer collected the data from his classroom activities, his p...

  16. A Systemic Functional Linguistic Analysis of the Utterances of Three South African Physical Sciences Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawahar, Kavish; Dempster, Edith R.

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the sociocultural view of science as a language and some quantitative language features of the complementary theoretical framework of systemic functional linguistics are employed to analyse the utterances of three South African Physical Sciences teachers. Using a multi-case study methodology, this study provides a sophisticated description of the utterances of Pietermaritzburg Physical Sciences teachers in language contexts characterised by varying proportions of English Second Language (ESL) students in each class. The results reveal that, as expected, lexical cohesion as measured by the cohesive harmony index and proportion of repeated content words relative to total words, increased with an increasing proportion of ESL students. However, the use of nominalisation by the teachers and the lexical density of their utterances did not decrease with an increasing proportion of ESL students. Furthermore, the results reveal that each individual Physical Sciences teacher had a 'signature' talk, unrelated to the language context in which they taught. This study signals the urgent and critical need for South African science teacher training programmes to place a greater emphasis on the functional use of language for different language contexts in order to empower South African Physical Sciences teachers to adequately apprentice their students into the use of the register of scientific English.

  17. Parental reactions to the morphologically correct and incorrect utterances of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrida Balčiūnienė

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of the first language is a long and complicated process. Besides incorrect pronunciation, one can observe various morphonological, grammatical, and lexical errors in the speech of young children. The goal of the present research was to analyse the parental reactions both to the correct and incorrect utterances of children and to discuss the dependence of parental reactions on the errors of the child’s speech. The analysis is based on longitudinal data from the conversations between a Lithuanian girl (from the age of twenty months to thirty-two months and her mother. The results of the study indicate that parents rather tend to react to the form than to the content of the incorrect utterances of children. On the other hand, the responses to the correct utterances are related more often to the content.

  18. Teacher support - an exploration of how foundation-phase teachers facilitate language skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria Wium

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of speech-language therapists (SLTs has been redefined by White Paper 6, which emphasises the role of support to both teachers and learners. SLTs have expert knowledge and skills pertaining to communication and language, and therefore have much to contribute to the process of learning in teaching. This article builds on a previous article published in the 2010 edition of the journal, which reported on the process of supporting teachers to facilitate listening, language and numeracy skills in semi-rural and urban (township contexts. In this follow-up article the focus is on the qualitative findings obtained from a specific section of the larger study. Where the overall study made use of a mixed methods approach to evaluate the process of providing support, and reported on the entire continued professional development (CPD programme, this article focuses specifically on the qualitative data collected when the CPD programme addressed the facilitation of language. This article explores how the strategies were used in the classrooms, and the benefits of the support provided. The data discussed in this article were obtained from questionnaires, focus groups, and critical self-evaluation by teachers, as well as a research diary used by the programme facilitator. The results show that both the participants and their learners benefited from the support provided. The participants reportedly for the first time were able to meet curriculum outcomes which previously had been omitted, and showed an increased ability to plan their lessons. Several teachers experienced changes in their teaching practices and could reflect on their practices, which contributed to their professional development. These teachers became more empowered. Learning in the classroom was enhanced through increased participation of all learners, and enjoyment of the strategies.

  19. Multiclausal Utterances Aren't Just for Big Kids: A Framework for Analysis of Complex Syntax Production in Spoken Language of Preschool- and Early School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Karen Barako; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Complex syntax production emerges shortly after the emergence of two-word combinations in oral language and continues to develop through the school-age years. This article defines a framework for the analysis of complex syntax in the spontaneous language of preschool- and early school-age children. The purpose of this article is to provide…

  20. [Dissociated preservation of written expression in aphasia with recurrent utterances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, J; Masson, C; Robine, B

    1993-01-01

    In a female patient, aphasia with recurrent utterances resulted from a double lesion of the left hemisphere, located in the base of the third frontal gyrus and the upper temporal gyri. Predominant in the fluent oral expression was a repeated neologism of which the patient was unaware. The written expression, efficient for lexical entities, was devoid of syntax and had the features of phonological agraphia. Both orally and in written words comprehension was satisfactory but syntactic comprehension was deficient. The stereotyped verbal behaviour could be due to dysfunction of the phonemic programmer. Rupture of the audi-phonatory loop, confirmed by degradation of the verbal working, memory, made this dysfunction worse and accounted for the anosognosia. The participation of the right hemisphere and of the preserved left hemispheric structures in the persistence of various language activities are discussed.

  1. Language production and interpretation linguistics meets cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Zeevat, Henk

    2014-01-01

    A model of production and interpretation of natural language utterances is developed which explains why communication is normally fast and successful. Interpretation is taken to be analogous with visual perception in finding the most probable hypothesis that explains the utterance.

  2. Language facilitates event memory in early childhood: Child comprehension, adult-provided linguistic support and delayed recall at 16 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowski, Angela F; Phung, Janice N; Milojevich, Helen M

    2015-01-01

    Adult-provided supportive language facilitates memory for the past in preverbal and verbal children. Work conducted with 18-month-olds indicates that children benefit from supportive adult language when tested after a 4-week delay but not when tested immediately after sequence demonstration; moreover, findings reveal that supportive language provided only at test may be more facilitative of recall after a delay relative to supportive language provided only at encoding. In the present study, we examined whether child language comprehension abilities moderated the extent to which preverbal children benefitted from supportive language provided at encoding and test. The findings indicated that child language comprehension and supportive language provided at encoding were unassociated with performance at baseline or immediate imitation; however, the moderating effect of child language comprehension on adult-provided supportive language at encoding and test was observed after a 1-week delay. Correlations revealed continuous associations between general comprehension scores and recall performance after the 1-week delay on sequences presented in the most supportive condition at encoding. Taken together, the presented findings reveal that the complex interplay between language and cognition is established in early childhood, with foundational relations emerging before children are capable of verbally reporting on the past.

  3. First Language Proficiency as a Facilitator in Foreign/ Second Language Acquisition: A Case Study in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Marajan Awad Adam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available English is taught as a foreign language in the Arab world even though practical concerns call for greater emphasis on the language. In all personal interactions too Arabic is the preferred language. Thus the environment for English is really very limited as by the time the learners are exposed to the language they are well entrenched in Arabic. While this may be a handicap in some EFL situations (for example where adults are concerned, in the Arab context this can prove a big boon. This is because young language learners who are proficient in their first language can apply the learning techniques while acquiring the second language. This paper targets the teaching fraternity in the Arab world to help them understand how first language proficiency can aid second/foreign language acquisition.Keywords: language acquisition, Saudi EFL learners, language proficiency, Arabic as a first language 

  4. Verbalization of Mean Field Utterances in German Instructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayupova O. I.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates ways of actualization of mean field utterances used in modern German instructions considering the type of the text. The author determines and analyzes similarities and differences in linguistic means used in mean field utterances in the context of such text subtypes as instructions to household appliances, cosmetic products directions and prescribing information for pharmaceutical drugs use.

  5. Predicting pauses in L1 and L2 speech: the effects of utterance boundaries and word frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, N.H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper compares the distribution of silent and filled pauses in first (L1) and second language (L2) speech. The occurrence of pauses of 52 L2 and 18 L1 Dutch speakers was evaluated with respect to utterance boundaries and word frequency. We found that L2 speakers paused more often than L1

  6. Predicting pauses in L1 and L2 speech: the effects of utterance boundaries and word frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, N.H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper compares the distribution of silent and filled pauses in first (L1) and second language (L2) speech. The occurrence of pauses of 52 L2 and 18 L1 Dutch speakers was evaluated with respect to utterance boundaries and word frequency. We found that L2 speakers paused more often than L1 speake

  7. Exploring the Affordances of WeChat for Facilitating Teaching, Social and Cognitive Presence in Semi-Synchronous Language Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuping; Fang, Wei-Chieh; Han, Julia; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2016-01-01

    This research is an exploratory study that evaluates the affordances of WeChat for the development of a community of inquiry (CoI) in semi-synchronous language exchange supported by WeChat. WeChat is an instant messenger that facilitates a multimodal environment in which interaction can happen synchronously, semi-synchronously and asynchronously…

  8. The Role of Peer Facilitator in Enhancing English Language Proficiency in a Simulated Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nur Salina; Atek, Engku Suhaimi Engku; Azmi, Mohd Nazri Latiff; Mohamad, Mahani

    2015-01-01

    For many learners, language class can be anxiety-provoking than other courses. Mostly, university students are seen to have language anxiety especially in their second language learning. They tend to be nervous when using English language in the formal situation like in classroom. English Outdoor Programme (EOP) in 2011 as part of informal setting…

  9. Continuous time limits of the Utterance Selection Model

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we derive new continuous time limits of the Utterance Selection Model (USM) for language change (Baxter et al., Phys. Rev. E {\\bf 73}, 046118, 2006). This is motivated by the fact that the Fokker-Planck continuous time limit derived in the original version of the USM is only valid for a small range range of parameters. We investigate the consequences of relaxing these constraints on parameters. Using the normal approximation of the multinomial approximation, we derive a new continuous time limit of the USM in the form of a weak-noise stochastic differential equation. We argue that this weak noise, not captured by the Kramers-Moyal expansion, can not be neglected. We then propose a coarse-graining procedure, which takes the form of a stochastic version of the \\emph{heterogeneous mean field} approximation. This approximation groups the behaviour of nodes of same degree, reducing the complexity of the problem. With the help of this approximation, we study in detail two simple families of networks:...

  10. Translation of the Nursing Clinical Facilitators Questionnaire (NCFQ) to Norwegian language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Råholm, Maj-Britt; Thorkildsen, Kari; Löfmark, Anna

    2010-07-01

    The translation and adaptation of English instruments to be used with populations speaking other languages is an important and complex process which is attracting increased attention in nursing and health-related research. The aim of this article is to describe the translation process of the Nursing Clinical Facilitators Questionnaire (NCFQ) for testing in Norway. The instrument is a 28-item-questionnaire with a Likert-type (1-5) scale ranging from the descriptions "strongly agree (1) to strongly disagree (5)". The aim of the instrument is to measure the efficiency of, and satisfaction with the supervision received from the nurse students' perspective. The NCFQ questionnaire was translated in six phases. The translation process was conducted systematically by applying the three methods described in the literature: the methods of forward-translation, back-translation and comparison followed by an empirical study (pilot test). The methods were chosen to test the quality of translation, establish semantic equivalence of the translated instrument and to estimate the cross-cultural relevance of the instrument. The translation process has given prerequisites to use the NCFQ questionnaire in a larger study and a possibility to compare different models for supervision of nursing students in the clinical part of their education.

  11. How Are English Utterances Found in Japanese Utterances in Student Speech? : Analyses of a Change Process

    OpenAIRE

    黒田, 真由美

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to learn how the children's speech changes, and how are English utterances different, depending on the address of the student’s speech. I observed, and analyzed English activity by students in the third grade of elementary school. I compared communications of children that had been done in the first term and then in the second term. As a result, the study of children's English was divided into three stages: where children knew English, confirmed English, and sh...

  12. First Language Proficiency as a Facilitator in Foreign/ Second Language Acquisition: A Case Study in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    English is taught as a foreign language in the Arab world even though practical concerns call for greater emphasis on the language. In all personal interactions too Arabic is the preferred language. Thus the environment for English is really very limited as by the time the learners are exposed to the language they are well entrenched in Arabic. While this may be a handicap in some EFL situations (for example where adults are concerned), in the Arab context this can prove a big boon. This is b...

  13. Electrophysiology of cross-language interference and facilitation in picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, A.P.A.; Piai, V.; Rodriguez, G.G.; Chwilla, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    Disagreement exists about how bilingual speakers select words, in particular, whether words in another language compete, or competition is restricted to a target language, or no competition occurs. Evidence that competition occurs but is restricted to a target language comes from response time (RT)

  14. Implementing Task-Based Instruction to Facilitate Language Learning: Moving Away from Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen Griffiths

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of tasks has gained growing acceptance in the field of language teaching. In the task-based teaching, the organization of th language classroom is learner-centered and the learning activities involve communicative language use. This paper discuss task-based teaching by presenting a brief overview of its underlying rationales. The rationales for incoporating task-based activities are dirived from the psycholinguistic and pedagogical perpectives. Some practical insights in this paper might be useful for English teachers and language experts.

  15. Continuous time limits of the utterance selection model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Jérôme

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we derive alternative continuous time limits of the utterance selection model (USM) for language change [G. J. Baxter et al., Phys. Rev. E 73, 046118 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevE.73.046118]. This is motivated by the fact that the Fokker-Planck continuous time limit derived in the original version of the USM is only valid for a small range of parameters. We investigate the consequences of relaxing these constraints on parameters. Using the normal approximation of the multinomial approximation, we derive a continuous time limit of the USM in the form of a weak-noise stochastic differential equation. We argue that this weak noise, not captured by the Kramers-Moyal expansion, cannot be neglected. We then propose a coarse-graining procedure, which takes the form of a stochastic version of the heterogeneous mean field approximation. This approximation groups the behavior of nodes of the same degree, reducing the complexity of the problem. With the help of this approximation, we study in detail two simple families of networks: the regular networks and the star-shaped networks. The analysis reveals and quantifies a finite-size effect of the dynamics. If we increase the size of the network by keeping all the other parameters constant, we transition from a state where conventions emerge to a state where no convention emerges. Furthermore, we show that the degree of a node acts as a time scale. For heterogeneous networks such as star-shaped networks, the time scale difference can become very large, leading to a noisier behavior of highly connected nodes.

  16. Exploring Elision of Schwa of /ə/ in English Utterances by C & U English Majors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUAI-ZHOU MAO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic study on the elision of schwa [ʃwɑ:] of /ə/ in English utterances produced by a native speaker of English, a Han Chinese learner of English major, [C] and a Uyghur learner of English  majors [U] presented in this paper. With Praat software, three acoustic parameters-fundamental frequencies [F0], the first formant [F1] and the second formant [F2]-are measured with two tiers (syllables and words. The results show that the Uyghur learner of English major produces the elision (omission of schwa in the same way as the native speaker of English does, while the Han Chinese learner of English major produces schwa of /ə/ in English poorly. The paper indicates that the Elision of Schwa in English produced by learners is influenced by the transfer of their mother tongues. Thus, it enlightens that the second [L2] or third language [L3] speech acquisition is restricted by phonological system of their mother languages, and the contrastive study of the phonological system of the native tongue and the second or third language will give us scaffolding in our phonetic instruction, especially in the teaching of Schwa /ə/ and others in English utterances of Chinese and Uyghur English majors.

  17. Happy babies, chatty toddlers: infant positive affect facilitates early expressive, but not receptive language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laake, Lauren M; Bridgett, David J

    2014-02-01

    Eighty-three mother-infant dyads participated in this study. Positive affect (PA) broadly, along with fine-grained aspects of PA, was measured at 10 months of age. Language was measured at 14 months. Infant PA predicted expressive, but not receptive, language. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. Facilitation of Language Acquisition Viewed through an Interpretative Lens: The Role of Authenticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Melanie Ann

    2013-01-01

    A paradigm is the conceptual framework or lens one uses to view reality. The field of speech-language pathology is traditionally rooted in the empirical paradigm, which believes that language can be fragmented into isolated skills and taught in a hierarchal fashion. This belief has resulted in service delivery models that remove students from…

  19. Another Look at Semantic Relational Categories and Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Ida J.

    1992-01-01

    Types of utterances (with locative action utterances specifically differentiated) were evaluated in a language-impaired child tracked between one year, six months and three years of age. Comparison with utterances in other children suggests the importance of such a fine-grained analysis in detecting semantic properties of child language…

  20. Speech Repairs, Intonational Boundaries and Discourse Markers Modeling Speakers' Utterances in Spoken Dialog

    CERN Document Server

    Heeman, P A

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis, we present a statistical language model for resolving speech repairs, intonational boundaries and discourse markers. Rather than finding the best word interpretation for an acoustic signal, we redefine the speech recognition problem to so that it also identifies the POS tags, discourse markers, speech repairs and intonational phrase endings (a major cue in determining utterance units). Adding these extra elements to the speech recognition problem actually allows it to better predict the words involved, since we are able to make use of the predictions of boundary tones, discourse markers and speech repairs to better account for what word will occur next. Furthermore, we can take advantage of acoustic information, such as silence information, which tends to co-occur with speech repairs and intonational phrase endings, that current language models can only regard as noise in the acoustic signal. The output of this language model is a much fuller account of the speaker's turn, with part-of-speech ...

  1. Utterance independent bimodal emotion recognition in spontaneous communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jianhua; Pan, Shifeng; Yang, Minghao; Li, Ya; Mu, Kaihui; Che, Jianfeng

    2011-12-01

    Emotion expressions sometimes are mixed with the utterance expression in spontaneous face-to-face communication, which makes difficulties for emotion recognition. This article introduces the methods of reducing the utterance influences in visual parameters for the audio-visual-based emotion recognition. The audio and visual channels are first combined under a Multistream Hidden Markov Model (MHMM). Then, the utterance reduction is finished by finding the residual between the real visual parameters and the outputs of the utterance related visual parameters. This article introduces the Fused Hidden Markov Model Inversion method which is trained in the neutral expressed audio-visual corpus to solve the problem. To reduce the computing complexity the inversion model is further simplified to a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) mapping. Compared with traditional bimodal emotion recognition methods (e.g., SVM, CART, Boosting), the utterance reduction method can give better results of emotion recognition. The experiments also show the effectiveness of our emotion recognition system when it was used in a live environment.

  2. Utterance and Function in Genre Studies: A Literary Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auken, Sune

    2015-01-01

    of the complexities involved when Genre Studies confront genres whose utterances are more complex than the “homely discourses” usually discussed in RGS. Formal and thematic features play a far too significant role in literary works to be explicable simply as derivations from function alone. But this is not limited...... to formal and thematic interpretations of genre, by allowing the utterances themselves to re-enter center stage. This enables an improved understanding of complex genres. It also revives close reading as a viable approach to understanding genre and thus to inform the rhetorical, linguistic, and sociological...

  3. Disfluencies as intra-utterance dialogue moves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Ginzburg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although disfluent speech is pervasive in spoken conversation, disfluencies have received little attention within formal theories of grammar. The majority of work on disfluent language has come from psycholinguistic models of speech production and comprehension and from structural approaches designed to improve performance in speech applications. In this paper, we argue for the inclusion of this phenomenon in the scope of formal grammar, and present a detailed formal account which: (a unifies disfluencies (self-repair with Clarification Requests, without conflating them, (b offers a precise explication of the roles of all key components of a disfluency, including editing phrases and filled pauses, and (c accounts for the possibility of self addressed questions in a disfluency. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.7.9 BibTeX info

  4. Representing nursing guideline with unified modeling language to facilitate development of a computer system: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeeyae; Choi, Jeungok E

    2014-01-01

    To provide best recommendations at the point of care, guidelines have been implemented in computer systems. As a prerequisite, guidelines are translated into a computer-interpretable guideline format. Since there are no specific tools to translate nursing guidelines, only a few nursing guidelines are translated and implemented in computer systems. Unified modeling language (UML) is a software writing language and is known to well and accurately represent end-users' perspective, due to the expressive characteristics of the UML. In order to facilitate the development of computer systems for nurses' use, the UML was used to translate a paper-based nursing guideline, and its ease of use and the usefulness were tested through a case study of a genetic counseling guideline. The UML was found to be a useful tool to nurse informaticians and a sufficient tool to model a guideline in a computer program.

  5. How language production shapes language form and comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryellen C MacDonald

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Language production processes can provide insight into how language comprehension works and language typology—why languages tend to have certain characteristics more often than others. Drawing on work in memory retrieval, motor planning, and serial order in action planning, the Production-Distribution-Comprehension (PDC account links work in the fields of language production, typology, and comprehension: 1 faced with substantial computational burdens of planning and producing utterances, language producers implicitly follow three biases in utterance planning that promote word order choices that reduce these burdens, thereby improving production fluency. 2 These choices, repeated over many utterances and individuals, shape the distributions of utterance forms in language. The claim that language form stems in large degree from producers’ attempts to mitigate utterance planning difficulty is contrasted with alternative accounts in which form is driven by language use more broadly, language acquisition processes, or producers’ attempts to create language forms that are easily understood by comprehenders. 3 Language perceivers implicitly learn the statistical regularities in their linguistic input, and they use this prior experience to guide comprehension of subsequent language. In particular, they learn to predict the sequential structure of linguistic signals, based on the statistics of previously-encountered input. Thus key aspects of comprehension behavior are tied to lexico-syntactic statistics in the language, which in turn derive from utterance planning biases promoting production of comparatively easy utterance forms over more difficult ones. This approach contrasts with classic theories in which comprehension behaviors are attributed to innate design features of the language comprehension system and associated working memory. The PDC instead links basic features of comprehension to a different source: production processes that shape

  6. Continued professional development of teachers to facilitate language used in numeracy and mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wium, Anna-Marie; Louw, Brenda

    2012-12-01

    Learners in South African schools have been found to perform poorly in mathematics because they do not understand the language used in solving mathematical problems. In order to improve academic performance teachers need to be made aware of the importance of language in the development of numeracy. A continued professional development (CPD) programme addressed this need. The purpose of the research was to understand how the participants implemented the strategies developed during the programme and how they perceived the support provided by the programme. The research was conducted over 2 years in semi-rural and urban contexts. As part of a more comprehensive mixed method study, the qualitative data referred to in this article were obtained through open-ended questions in questionnaires, focus groups,I reflections in portfolios, and a research diary. Results showed that numeracy terminology was often used by learners that differed from standard terminology prescribed by the curriculum. The participants themselves did not necessarily understand the numeracy terminology and thus found it a challenge to implement curriculum outcomes. Issues related to language use of the participants in teaching numeracy were associated with the lack of resources available in the language of learning and teaching (LoLT). Some of the participants taught numeracy in English, rather than LoLT. The results indicated low teacher expectations of the learners. The CPD programme was considered valuable and effective. SLPs in schools need to be expand their role to provide CPD opportunities for teachers.

  7. How Can the Use of Blog Software Facilitate the Writing Process of English Language Learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Recep S.; Sahin-Kizil, Aysel

    2010-01-01

    Blog use may offer instructors a helpful tool for teaching writing at the tertiary level in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) classrooms. This article reports on a quasi-experimental study regarding the effect of blog-centered writing instruction on students' writing performance. Fifty intermediate English students at a Turkish…

  8. Joyful Voices: Facilitating Language Growth through the Rhythmic Response to Chants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchoff, Rita

    1994-01-01

    Preschool and elementary school children can participate in pleasurable and worthwhile language experiences through the use of rhythmic group chants. Teachers can select contemporary poems, nursery rhymes, or have children make up their own chants. Provides examples of group chants and sources for chants, rhymes, and poems. (MDM)

  9. Grammar Intervention: Content and Procedures for Facilitating Children's Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Sarita L.

    2013-01-01

    Children with language impairment (LI) show an overall immaturity in grammatical structure. This includes difficulties with basic sentence constituents, pronouns, verb form elaboration, negative and interrogative sentences, noun phrase elaboration, and complex sentences. This article describes explicit instruction and scaffolding strategies, based…

  10. Continued professional development of teachers to facilitate language used in numeracy and mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria Wium

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Learners in South African schools have been found to perform poorly in mathematics because they do not understand the language used in solving mathematical problems. In order to improve academic performance teachers need to be made aware of the importance of language in the development of numeracy. A continued professional development (CPD programme addressed this need. The purpose of the research was to understand how the participants implemented the strategies developed during the programme and how they perceived the support provided by the programme. The research was conducted over 2 years in semi-rural and urban contexts. As part of a more comprehensive mixed method study, the qualitative data referred to in this article were obtained through open-ended questions in questionnaires, focus groups, reflections in portfolios, and a research diary. Results showed that numeracy terminology was often used by learners that differed from standard terminology prescribed by the curriculum. The participants themselves did not necessarily understand the numeracy terminology and thus found it a challenge to implement curriculum outcomes. Issues related to language use of the participants in teaching numeracy were associated with the lack of resources available in the language of learning and teaching  (LoLT. Some of the participants taught numeracy in English, rather than LoLT. The results indicated low teacher expectations of the learners. The CPD programme was considered valuable and effective. SLPs in schools need to be expand their role to provide CPD opportunities for teachers.

  11. Contrastive and Error Analyses in Inverted Order to Facilitate English Language Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Saini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Both Contrastive and Error Analysis have vital roles in accounting for problems in teaching English as a foreign/second language (TEFL/TESL. Contrastive Analysis (CA compares languages and makes predictions about possible errors learners make due to the influence of their first language (L1, while Error Analysis (EA analyses pupils’ compositions or conversations and investigates different sources of errors one of which is cross linguistic influence. It is obvious that CA and EA are not the same. They overlap in a certain area, but they are not competing against each other. Both CA and EA can be used in a complementary role in understanding learners’ errors in second language learning. In the present article, a teaching methodology (“a contrastive approach” to EA will be explored where the traditional order of conducting CA and EA (where CA leads to EA has been inverted. The approach in the present study is that the job of diagnosis belongs to EA and here CA can be used as complementary to EA as a remedial procedure

  12. Temporally Regular Musical Primes Facilitate Subsequent Syntax Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoin, Nathalie; Brisseau, Lucie; Molinier, Pauline; Roch, Didier; Tillmann, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Children with developmental language disorders have been shown to be also impaired in rhythm and meter perception. Temporal processing and its link to language processing can be understood within the dynamic attending theory. An external stimulus can stimulate internal oscillators, which orient attention over time and drive speech signal segmentation to provide benefits for syntax processing, which is impaired in various patient populations. For children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and dyslexia, previous research has shown the influence of an external rhythmic stimulation on subsequent language processing by comparing the influence of a temporally regular musical prime to that of a temporally irregular prime. Here we tested whether the observed rhythmic stimulation effect is indeed due to a benefit provided by the regular musical prime (rather than a cost subsequent to the temporally irregular prime). Sixteen children with SLI and 16 age-matched controls listened to either a regular musical prime sequence or an environmental sound scene (without temporal regularities in event occurrence; i.e., referred to as “baseline condition”) followed by grammatically correct and incorrect sentences. They were required to perform grammaticality judgments for each auditorily presented sentence. Results revealed that performance for the grammaticality judgments was better after the regular prime sequences than after the baseline sequences. Our findings are interpreted in the theoretical framework of the dynamic attending theory (Jones, 1976) and the temporal sampling (oscillatory) framework for developmental language disorders (Goswami, 2011). Furthermore, they encourage the use of rhythmic structures (even in non-verbal materials) to boost linguistic structure processing and outline perspectives for rehabilitation. PMID:27378833

  13. Revisiting Speech Rate and Utterance Length Manipulations in Stuttering Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomgren, Michael; Goberman, Alexander M.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate stuttering frequency across a multidimensional (2 x 2) hierarchy of speech performance tasks. Specifically, this study examined the interaction between changes in length of utterance and levels of speech rate stability. Forty-four adult male speakers participated in the study (22 stuttering speakers and 22…

  14. 话语与礼貌%UTTERANCE AND POLITENESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林耀群

    2001-01-01

    讲话者的话语内容及言语行为方式是否恰当,是决定其言语行为是否礼貌的两个重要因素。%The politeness of speech act depends on whether the content of utterance and the way of speech act are appropriate.

  15. Revisiting Speech Rate and Utterance Length Manipulations in Stuttering Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomgren, Michael; Goberman, Alexander M.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate stuttering frequency across a multidimensional (2 x 2) hierarchy of speech performance tasks. Specifically, this study examined the interaction between changes in length of utterance and levels of speech rate stability. Forty-four adult male speakers participated in the study (22 stuttering speakers and 22…

  16. Women’s Voice and Religious Utterances in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Giordano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tackles the issue of women and religion through a particular looking glass: religious utterances such as curses, supplication, and prayer, as reflected in some passages from ancient Greek epic and tragedy—pivotal literary genres in the ideological discourse of the Greek polis.

  17. The Development of Proto-Performative Utterances in Deaf Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtert, Guido F.; Loncke, Filip T.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the development of proto-imperative and proto-declarative utterances in normally developing, non-neonatally screened, profoundly deaf toddlers. Method: Both types of proto-declarative are considered to be the most basic prelinguistic and early linguistic communicative functions.…

  18. The Phonological Mean Length of Utterance: methodological challenges from a crosslinguistic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaristo-Helin, Katri; Savinainen-Makkonen, Tuula; Kunnari, Sari

    2006-02-01

    The present study assesses the phonological development of 17 children acquiring Finnish at the developmental point of 25 words (ages 1; 2-2;0). The analysis is made using the PHONOLOGICAL MEAN LENGTH OF UTTERANCE (PMLU) method (Ingram & Ingram, 2001; Ingram, 2002), which focuses on the children's whole-word productions. Two separate analyses are carried out: the first analysis concentrates on consonants and follows the procedure devised by Ingram and Ingram (2001), and the second analysis also scores the correctness of vowels. The PMLU results of both analyses are found to be much higher than those reported for children acquiring English. The results show the apparent need for more language-specific research in order to develop the PMLU method suitable for various language environments.

  19. SLA before ABC: Factors Facilitating Second Language Acquisition in Irish-Medium Playgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhathuna, Maire Mhic

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated factors facilitating acquisition of Irish in Irish-medium playgroups designed for children who are native English-speakers. Data were gathered in four visits each to two such playgroups, each containing approximately 20 children. Four aspects of conversational exchanges were examined: understanding; code mixing; formulaic…

  20. Music as a facilitating tool of learning English as a foreign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen María TOSCANO FUENTES

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A great number of researches ensure that the inclusion of songs and/or sound-music elements in the teaching of foreign languages provides benefits in the learning process at linguistic, affective and sociolinguistic levels. The main objective of this study was to show the results of a sound-music program of English teaching with Spanish sixth grade students. Firstly, a quantitative analysis was carried out to check if students with good auditory ability learned a foreign language more effectively, and, they showed a well-developed musical intelligence. After that, a sound-music program of English was led to verify if those students with low level in musical intelligence could improve their listening ability and their communicative competence. The results of this study suggest that this program improves not only the listening comprehension skill but speaking, reading and learners’ motivation as well.

  1. Language learning, recasts, and interaction involving AAC: background and potential for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Michael T; Soto, Gloria; Nelson, Keith

    2017-03-01

    For children with typical development, language is learned through everyday discursive interaction. Adults mediate child participation in such interactions through the deployment of a range of co-constructive strategies, including repeating, questioning, prompting, expanding, and reformulating the child's utterances. Adult reformulations of child utterances, also known as recasts, have also been shown to relate to the acquisition of linguistic structures in children with language and learning disabilities and children and adults learning a foreign language. In this paper we discuss the theoretical basis and empirical evidence for the use of different types of recasts as a major language learning catalyst, and what may account for their facilitative effects. We consider the occurrence of different types of recasts in AAC-mediated interactions and their potential for language facilitation, within the typical operational and linguistic constraints of such interactions. We also consider the benefit of explicit and corrective forms of recasts for language facilitation in conversations with children who rely on AAC. We conclude by outlining future research directions.

  2. FURTHER OPTIMISATIONS OF CONSTANT Q CEPSTRAL PROCESSING FOR INTEGRATED UTTERANCE AND TEXT-DEPENDENT SPEAKER VERIFICATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgado, Hector; Todisco, Massimiliano; Sahidullah, Md

    2016-01-01

    Many authentication applications involving automatic speaker verification (ASV) demand robust performance using short-duration, fixed or prompted text utterances. Text constraints not only reduce the phone-mismatch between enrollment and test utterances, which generally leads to improved performa...

  3. Further optimisations of constant Q cepstral processing for integrated utterance and text-dependent speaker verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgado, Hector; Todisco, Massimiliano; Sahidullah, Md

    2016-01-01

    Many authentication applications involving automatic speaker verification (ASV) demand robust performance using short-duration, fixed or prompted text utterances. Text constraints not only reduce the phone-mismatch between enrollment and test utterances, which generally leads to improved performa...

  4. Effects of type of agreement violation and utterance position on the auditory processing of subject-verb agreement: An ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sithembinkosi Dube

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous ERP studies have often reported two ERP components—LAN and P600—in response to subject-verb (S-V agreement violations (e.g., the boys *runs. However, the latency, amplitude and scalp distribution of these components have been shown to vary depending on various experiment-related factors. One factor that has not received attention is the extent to which the relative perceptual salience related to either the utterance position (verbal inflection in utterance-medial vs. utterance-final contexts or the type of agreement violation (errors of omission vs. errors of commission may influence the auditory processing of S-V agreement. The lack of reports on these effects in ERP studies may be due to the fact that most studies have used the visual modality, which does not reveal acoustic information. To address this gap, we used ERPs to measure the brain activity of Australian English-speaking adults while they listened to sentences in which the S-V agreement differed by type of agreement violation and utterance position. We observed early negative and positive clusters (AN/P600 effects for the overall grammaticality effect. Further analysis revealed that the mean amplitude and distribution of the P600 effect was only significant in contexts where the S-V agreement violation occurred utterance-finally, regardless of the type of agreement violation. The mean amplitude and distribution of the negativity did not differ significantly across types of agreement violation and utterance position. These findings suggest that the increased perceptual salience of the violation in utterance-final position (due to phrase-final lengthening influenced how S-V agreement violations were processed during sentence comprehension. Implications for the functional interpretation of language-related ERPs and experimental design are discussed.

  5. Notes on disaligning ‘yes but’ initiated utterances in German and Danish conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensig, Jakob; Asmuß, Birte

    2005-01-01

    The article investigates ‘yes but’ initiated utterances in German and Danish conversations. The investigated utterances perform rejecting and disagreeing actions and they occur after suggestions, assessments and assertion with a clear action preference for acceptance and agreement. It is found...... that utterances that begin with an integrates ‘yes but’ token are constructed as "no fault" accounts and show little orientation to social problematicity, whereas utterances initiated with separated ‘yes but’ involve more socially problematic rejections and disagreements....

  6. Political Impediments and Opportunities that Facilitated the Fro-and-back Shift of Indigenous Language in Wolaita and Its Effects on overall Identities of the Nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshesha Make Jobo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate both negative political obstacles and fertile political situations that hampered or facilitated the growth of Wolaita language and its effects on overall identities of the Nation. The subjects used for the current study were 8 elders for interview selected by purposive sampling and other 1000 people selected by availability sampling from four selected Woredas of Wolaita Zone for filling questinnaire and 40 of them for focused group dicussion (FGD. The descriptive survey research design was used to conduct this study by using both quantitative and qualitative methods of data analysis. The result indicated that there were various political factors that facilitated the fro-shift of Wolaita language (from Wolaita to Amharic in the three successive regimes (Menellik, Hailesilassie and Dergue which highly threatened the overall identity (history, culture, heritage and indigenous wisdom of Wolaita Nation. Before conquest of Independent Wolaita by Menelillik and after downfall of Dergue; Wolaita language has got fertile political landscape for growth. However, the practical language growth in the mentioned periods has been too limited. Based on these findings, therefore, different projects of revitalization are recommended for the maintenance of Wolaita language: awareness training on the use of Wolaita language, development of a (creative writing culture, establishment of school-based language revitalization project, planning of family-based language revitalization project and establishment of series, deep and multifaceted training and research projects that involve linguists and language experts.

  7. Using Computer Systems as Microswitches for Vocal Utterances of Persons with Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Oliva, Doretta; Montironi, Gianluigi; Piazza, Francesco; Ciavattini, Emanuele; Bettarelli, Ferruccio

    2004-01-01

    We assessed the effects of two computer systems used as microswitches for the vocal utterances of an adolescent and a young adult with multiple disabilities. The systems were to respond to three one-syllable utterances of the first participant and nine word-like utterances of the second participant by presenting favorite stimuli linked to those…

  8. Utterance Verification for Text-Dependent Speaker Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnunen, Tomi; Sahidullah, Md; Kukanov, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Text-dependent automatic speaker verification naturally calls for the simultaneous verification of speaker identity and spoken content. These two tasks can be achieved with automatic speaker verification (ASV) and utterance verification (UV) technologies. While both have been addressed previously...... in the literature, a treatment of simultaneous speaker and utterance verification with a modern, standard database is so far lacking. This is despite the burgeoning demand for voice biometrics in a plethora of practical security applications. With the goal of improving overall verification performance, this paper...... reports different strategies for simultaneous ASV and UV in the context of short-duration, text-dependent speaker verification. Experiments performed on the recently released RedDots corpus are reported for three different ASV systems and four different UV systems. Results show that the combination...

  9. Stress perception of Chinese disyllabic words in utterance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yunjia; CHU Min; HE Lin; FENG Yongqiang

    2003-01-01

    A perceptual experiment was conducted on the stress of 1,898 Chinese disyllabic words in 300 sentences taken from the Chinese speech corpus of Microsoft Research Asia. The analyses revealed (1) that the perceptual stress location in utterance was influenced by the prosodic boundary where a word stood; (2) that the perceptual stress degree of a syllable was positively correlated with the pitch of the syllable and the duration as well, while the correlation coefficient between the stress degree and the pitch was larger than that between the stress degree and the duration; (3) that the pitch and the duration was not correlated if there was no pause following a word, but weakly and positively correlated if there was a pause;(4) that tone pattern of a syllable showed an effect on stress perception. The results of the experiment indicate that the perceptual characteristics of word stress in utterance are quite different from those in isolated words.

  10. The Examination of the Effects of Writing Strategy-Based Procedural Facilitative Environments on Students' English Foreign Language Writing Anxiety Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiriotakis, Ioanna K; Vassilaki, Eleni; Spantidakis, Ioannis; Stavrou, Nektarios A M

    2016-01-01

    Empirical studies have shown that anxiety and negative emotion can hinder language acquisition. The present study implemented a writing instructional model so as to investigate its effects on the writing anxiety levels of English Foreign Language learners. The study was conducted with 177 participants, who were administered the Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI; Cheng, 2004) that assesses somatic, cognitive and behavioral anxiety, both at baseline and following the implementation of a writing instructional model. The hypothesis stated that the participant's writing anxiety levels would lessen following the provision of a writing strategy-based procedural facilitative environment that fosters cognitive apprenticeship. The initial hypothesis was supported by the findings. Specifically, in the final measurement statistical significant differences appeared where participants in the experimental group showed notable lower mean values of the three factors of anxiety, a factor that largely can be attributed to the content of the intervention program applied to this specific group. The findings validate that Foreign Language writing anxiety negatively effects Foreign Language learning and performance. The findings also support the effectiveness of strategy-based procedural facilitative writing environments that foster cognitive apprenticeship, so as to enhance language skill development and reduce feelings of Foreign Language writing anxiety.

  11. The Examination of the Effects of Writing Strategy-Based Procedural Facilitative Environments on Students' English Foreign Language Writing Anxiety Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiriotakis, Ioanna K.; Vassilaki, Eleni; Spantidakis, Ioannis; Stavrou, Nektarios A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Empirical studies have shown that anxiety and negative emotion can hinder language acquisition. The present study implemented a writing instructional model so as to investigate its effects on the writing anxiety levels of English Foreign Language learners. The study was conducted with 177 participants, who were administered the Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI; Cheng, 2004) that assesses somatic, cognitive and behavioral anxiety, both at baseline and following the implementation of a writing instructional model. The hypothesis stated that the participant's writing anxiety levels would lessen following the provision of a writing strategy-based procedural facilitative environment that fosters cognitive apprenticeship. The initial hypothesis was supported by the findings. Specifically, in the final measurement statistical significant differences appeared where participants in the experimental group showed notable lower mean values of the three factors of anxiety, a factor that largely can be attributed to the content of the intervention program applied to this specific group. The findings validate that Foreign Language writing anxiety negatively effects Foreign Language learning and performance. The findings also support the effectiveness of strategy-based procedural facilitative writing environments that foster cognitive apprenticeship, so as to enhance language skill development and reduce feelings of Foreign Language writing anxiety. PMID:28119658

  12. Facilitating Revision in the English as a Second Language (ESL) Composition Classroom through Computer-Based Multimodal Composing Activities: A Case Study of Composing Practices of ESL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzekoe, Richmond

    2013-01-01

    Literature on second language (L2) writing indicates that, on their own, L2 writers are not able to notice problems with the linguistic and rhetorical features of their drafts and do successful self-revision; and that there is the need to facilitate self-revision in the L2 writing classroom. In view of this need, this dissertation explored the…

  13. Utterance-final position and pitch marking aid word learning in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Piera; Laaha, Sabine; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the effects of word order and prosody on word learning in school-age children. Third graders viewed photographs belonging to one of three semantic categories while hearing four-word nonsense utterances containing a target word. In the control condition, all words had the same pitch and, across trials, the position of the target word was varied systematically within each utterance. The only cue to word-meaning mapping was the co-occurrence of target words and referents. This cue was present in all conditions. In the Utterance-final condition, the target word always occurred in utterance-final position, and at the same fundamental frequency as all the other words of the utterance. In the Pitch peak condition, the position of the target word was varied systematically within each utterance across trials, and produced with pitch contrasts typical of infant-directed speech (IDS). In the Pitch peak + Utterance-final condition, the target word always occurred in utterance-final position, and was marked with a pitch contrast typical of IDS. Word learning occurred in all conditions except the control condition. Moreover, learning performance was significantly higher than that observed with simple co-occurrence (control condition) only for the Pitch peak + Utterance-final condition. We conclude that, for school-age children, the combination of words' utterance-final alignment and pitch enhancement boosts word learning.

  14. Japanese mothers’ utterances about agents and actions during joint picture-book reading

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    Toshiki eMURASE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study extended the research on the scaffolding provided by mothers while reading picture books with their children from a focus on conversational styles related to labeling to a focus on those related to agents and actions to clarify the process by which language develops from the one-word to the syntactic stage. We clarified whether mothers decreased the degree of scaffolding in their initiation of conversations, in the responses to their children’s utterances, and in the choice of referential ranges of their utterances. We also investigated whether maternal conversational styles contributed to the development of their children’s vocabularies. Eighteen pairs of Japanese mothers and their children were longitudinally observed when the children were 20 and 27 months of age. The pairs were given a picture book depicting 24 animals engaged in everyday behavior. The mothers shifted their approach in the initiation of conversation from providing to requesting information as a function of their children’s age. The proportion of maternal elaborative information-seeking responses was positively correlated with the size of their children’s productive vocabulary. In terms of referential choices, mothers broadened the range of their references as their children aged. In terms of the contribution of maternal conversational styles to children’s vocabulary development, the use of a maternal elaborative information-seeking style when the children were 20 months of age predicted the size of the children’s productive vocabulary at 27 months. These results indicate that mothers decrease the degree of scaffolding by introducing more complex information into the conversations and transferring the role of actively producing information to their children by requesting information as their children develop. The results also indicate that these conversational styles promote the development of children’s vocabularies during the transition from the one

  15. Japanese mothers' utterances about agents and actions during joint picture-book reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Toshiki

    2014-01-01

    This study extended the research on the scaffolding provided by mothers while reading picture books with their children from a focus on conversational styles related to labeling to a focus on those related to agents and actions to clarify the process by which language develops from the one-word to the syntactic stage. We clarified whether mothers decreased the degree of scaffolding in their initiation of conversations, in the responses to their children's utterances, and in the choice of referential ranges of their utterances. We also investigated whether maternal conversational styles contributed to the development of their children's vocabularies. Eighteen pairs of Japanese mothers and their children were longitudinally observed when the children were 20 and 27 months of age. The pairs were given a picture book depicting 24 animals engaged in everyday behavior. The mothers shifted their approach in the initiation of conversation from providing to requesting information as a function of their children's age. The proportion of maternal elaborative information-seeking responses was positively correlated with the size of their children's productive vocabulary. In terms of referential choices, mothers broadened the range of their references as their children aged. In terms of the contribution of maternal conversational styles to children's vocabulary development, the use of a maternal elaborative information-seeking style when the children were 20 months of age predicted the size of the children's productive vocabulary at 27 months. These results indicate that mothers decrease the degree of scaffolding by introducing more complex information into the conversations and transferring the role of actively producing information to their children by requesting information as their children develop. The results also indicate that these conversational styles promote the development of children's vocabularies during the transition from the one-word to the syntactic stage.

  16. The nature of facilitation and interference in the multilingual language system: insights from treatment in a case of trilingual aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Caitlin; Kiran, Swathi

    2015-01-01

    The rehabilitation study described here sets out to test the premise of Abutalebi and Green's neurocognitive model--specifically, that language selection and control are components of overall cognitive control. We follow a trilingual woman (first language, L1: Amharic; second language, L2: English; third language, L3: French) with damage to the left frontal lobe and left basal ganglia who presented with cognitive control and naming deficits, through two periods of semantic treatment (French, followed by English) to alleviate naming deficits. The results showed that while the participant improved on trained items, she did not show within- or cross-language generalization. In addition, error patterns revealed a substantial increase of interference of the currently trained language into the nontrained language during each of the two treatment phases. These results are consistent with Abutalebi and Green's neurocognitive model and support the claim that language selection and control are components of overall cognitive control.

  17. Cross-Linguistic Transfer of Morphological Awareness in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners: The Facilitating Effect of Cognate Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Gloria; Chen, Xi; Pasquarella, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Cross-language effects of Spanish derivational awareness on English vocabulary and reading comprehension were studied in Spanish-speaking English Language Learners (N = 90) in grades four and seven. The role of cognate vocabulary in cross-language transfer of derivational awareness was also examined. Multivariate path analyses controlling for age,…

  18. Cross-Linguistic Transfer of Morphological Awareness in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners: The Facilitating Effect of Cognate Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Gloria; Chen, Xi; Pasquarella, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Cross-language effects of Spanish derivational awareness on English vocabulary and reading comprehension were studied in Spanish-speaking English Language Learners (N = 90) in grades four and seven. The role of cognate vocabulary in cross-language transfer of derivational awareness was also examined. Multivariate path analyses controlling for age,…

  19. Brain basis of communicative actions in language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, Natalia; Shtyrov, Yury; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2016-01-15

    Although language is a key tool for communication in social interaction, most studies in the neuroscience of language have focused on language structures such as words and sentences. Here, the neural correlates of speech acts, that is, the actions performed by using language, were investigated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were shown videos, in which the same critical utterances were used in different communicative contexts, to Name objects, or to Request them from communication partners. Understanding of critical utterances as Requests was accompanied by activation in bilateral premotor, left inferior frontal and temporo-parietal cortical areas known to support action-related and social interactive knowledge. Naming, however, activated the left angular gyrus implicated in linking information about word forms and related reference objects mentioned in critical utterances. These findings show that understanding of utterances as different communicative actions is reflected in distinct brain activation patterns, and thus suggest different neural substrates for different speech act types.

  20. Utterance Complexity and Stuttering on Function Words in Preschool-Age Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richels, Corrin; Buhr, Anthony; Conture, Edward; Ntourou, Katerina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the relation between utterance complexity and utterance position and the tendency to stutter on function words in preschool-age children who stutter (CWS). Two separate studies involving two different groups of participants (Study 1, n = 30; Study 2, n = 30) were conducted. Participants were…

  1. Limits and articulations between modalities and meditative as markers of utterance responsibility in academic text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Queiroz Carvalho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we aim to identify and describe the markers of utterance responsibility in academic texts through modality and mediative. The theoretical and methodological approach we follow is based on textual analysis of discourses postulates according to Adam (2011. Our theoretical background is also based on Rabatel (2009 studies on the utterance responsibility; Campos (2004 and Castilho & Castilho (2002 on the category of modalities, Guentchèva (1994 regarding the meditative category, and Neves (2012, which promotes a discussion that articulates both categories. The analysis showed that speakers-utterers (S1/U1 base their points of view on the second utterer's points of view (U2. We also observed that S1/U1 expressed different degrees of engagement in relation to the information reported, assuming or imputing the utterance responsibility

  2. Thinking soap But Speaking ‘oaps’. The Sound Preparation Period: Backward Calculation From Utterance to Muscle Innervation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Wiedenmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    In this article’s model—on speech and on speech errors, dyscoordinations, and disorders—, the time-course from the muscle innervation impetuses to the utterance of sounds as intended for canonical speech sound sequences is calculated backward. This time-course is shown as the sum of all the known physiological durations of speech sounds and speech gestures that are necessary to produce an utterance. The model introduces two internal clocks, based on positive or negative factors, representing certain physiologically-based time-courses during the sound preparation period (Lautvorspann. The use of these internal clocks show that speech gestures—like other motor activities—work according to a simple serialization principle: Under non-default conditions,
    alterations of the time-courses may cause speech errors of sound serialization, dyscoordinations of sounds as observed during first language acquisition, or speech disorders as pathological cases. These alterations of the time-course are modelled by varying the two internal-clock factors. The calculation of time-courses uses as default values the sound durations of the context-dependent Munich PHONDAT Database of Spoken German (see Appendix 4. As a new, human approach, this calculation agrees mathematically with the approach of Linear Programming / Operations Research. This work gives strong support to the fairly old suspicion (of 1908 of the famous Austrian speech error scientist Meringer [15], namely that one mostly thinks and articulates in a different serialization than is audible from one’s uttered sound sequences.

  3. FUNCTIONS OF IRONIC UTTERANCES IN THE DIALOGIC INTERACTION (BASED ON THE TEXTS OF GERMAN PORTRAIT INTERVIEWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chechet Tamara Ivanovna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of irony is considered within the cognitive and pragmatic approach to language, which puts the pragmatic potential of the investigated phenomenon to the foreground. The irony is interpreted as a context-dependent linguistic phenomenon, as it expresses the evaluating attitude to the object of irony, the correct interpretation of which is firmly linked to the speech situation. The semantic origin of irony is a contradiction between the actual and expected situation. The study showed that in German portrait interviews the object of ironic impact can change: both a journalist and their interlocutor widely use the irony as a communicative means. From the perspective of a journalist the study revealed the following functions of ironic utterances: logical and psychological impact, emancipation of an interlocutor, strengthening the credibility of the journalist's position (function of the hidden ridicule, establishing contact with an interlocutor. Moreover, the basic three types of the addressee's response to the journalist irony were established: an ironic response-surprise; an ironic response-evasion; direct responseignoring. Therefore, from the perspective of the interlocutor, the irony functions as a means of stress relief, or may become a protective function of self-affirmation. Laugh response of the addressee directly proves the correct decoding of ironic subtext in journalist's questions and accompanies the response-surprise and the response-evasion.

  4. Sources of variation in developmental language disorders: evidence from eye-tracking studies of sentence production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

    2014-01-01

    Skilled sentence production involves distinct stages of message conceptualization (deciding what to talk about) and message formulation (deciding how to talk about it). Eye-movement paradigms provide a mechanism for observing how speakers accomplish these aspects of production in real time. These methods have recently been applied to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and specific language impairment (LI) in an effort to reveal qualitative differences between groups in sentence production processes. Findings support a multiple-deficit account in which language production is influenced not only by lexical and syntactic constraints, but also by variation in attention control, inhibition and social competence. Thus, children with ASD are especially vulnerable to atypical patterns of visual inspection and verbal utterance. The potential to influence attentional focus and prime appropriate language structures are considered as a mechanism for facilitating language adaptation and learning.

  5. Theory of mind in utterance interpretation: The case from clinical pragmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise eCummings

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive basis of utterance interpretation is an area that continues to provoke intense theoretical debate among pragmatists. That utterance interpretation involves some type of mind-reading or theory of mind (ToM is indisputable. However, theorists are divided on the exact nature of this ToM-based mechanism. In this paper, it is argued that the only type of ToM-based mechanism that can adequately represent the cognitive basis of utterance interpretation is one which reflects the rational, intentional, holistic character of interpretation. Such a ToM-based mechanism is supported on conceptual and empirical grounds. Empirical support for this view derives from the study of children and adults with pragmatic disorders. Specifically, three types of clinical case are considered. In the first case, evidence is advanced which indicates that individuals with pragmatic disorders exhibit deficits in reasoning and the use of inferences. These deficits compromise the ability of children and adults with pragmatic disorders to comply with the rational dimension of utterance interpretation. In the second case, evidence is presented which suggests that subjects with pragmatic disorders struggle with the intentional dimension of utterance interpretation. This dimension extends beyond the recognition of communicative intentions to include the attribution of a range of cognitive and affective mental states that play a role in utterance interpretation. In the third case, evidence is presented that children and adults with pragmatic disorders struggle with the holistic character of utterance interpretation. This serves to distort the contexts in which utterances are processed for their implicated meanings. The paper concludes with some thoughts about the role of theorizing in relation to utterance interpretation.

  6. Theory of mind in utterance interpretation: the case from clinical pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Louise

    2015-01-01

    The cognitive basis of utterance interpretation is an area that continues to provoke intense theoretical debate among pragmatists. That utterance interpretation involves some type of mind-reading or theory of mind (ToM) is indisputable. However, theorists are divided on the exact nature of this ToM-based mechanism. In this paper, it is argued that the only type of ToM-based mechanism that can adequately represent the cognitive basis of utterance interpretation is one which reflects the rational, intentional, holistic character of interpretation. Such a ToM-based mechanism is supported on conceptual and empirical grounds. Empirical support for this view derives from the study of children and adults with pragmatic disorders. Specifically, three types of clinical case are considered. In the first case, evidence is advanced which indicates that individuals with pragmatic disorders exhibit deficits in reasoning and the use of inferences. These deficits compromise the ability of children and adults with pragmatic disorders to comply with the rational dimension of utterance interpretation. In the second case, evidence is presented which suggests that subjects with pragmatic disorders struggle with the intentional dimension of utterance interpretation. This dimension extends beyond the recognition of communicative intentions to include the attribution of a range of cognitive and affective mental states that play a role in utterance interpretation. In the third case, evidence is presented that children and adults with pragmatic disorders struggle with the holistic character of utterance interpretation. This serves to distort the contexts in which utterances are processed for their implicated meanings. The paper concludes with some thoughts about the role of theorizing in relation to utterance interpretation.

  7. Bootstrapping language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, Omri; Kwiatkowski, Tom; Smith, Nathaniel J; Goldwater, Sharon; Steedman, Mark

    2017-07-01

    The semantic bootstrapping hypothesis proposes that children acquire their native language through exposure to sentences of the language paired with structured representations of their meaning, whose component substructures can be associated with words and syntactic structures used to express these concepts. The child's task is then to learn a language-specific grammar and lexicon based on (probably contextually ambiguous, possibly somewhat noisy) pairs of sentences and their meaning representations (logical forms). Starting from these assumptions, we develop a Bayesian probabilistic account of semantically bootstrapped first-language acquisition in the child, based on techniques from computational parsing and interpretation of unrestricted text. Our learner jointly models (a) word learning: the mapping between components of the given sentential meaning and lexical words (or phrases) of the language, and (b) syntax learning: the projection of lexical elements onto sentences by universal construction-free syntactic rules. Using an incremental learning algorithm, we apply the model to a dataset of real syntactically complex child-directed utterances and (pseudo) logical forms, the latter including contextually plausible but irrelevant distractors. Taking the Eve section of the CHILDES corpus as input, the model simulates several well-documented phenomena from the developmental literature. In particular, the model exhibits syntactic bootstrapping effects (in which previously learned constructions facilitate the learning of novel words), sudden jumps in learning without explicit parameter setting, acceleration of word-learning (the "vocabulary spurt"), an initial bias favoring the learning of nouns over verbs, and one-shot learning of words and their meanings. The learner thus demonstrates how statistical learning over structured representations can provide a unified account for these seemingly disparate phenomena. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of High and Low Constraint Utterances on the Production of Immediate and Delayed Echolalia in Young Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Patrick J.; Mirenda, Pat

    1994-01-01

    Examination of the effects of adult antecedent utterances on echolalia in seven male children with autism (ages five and six) during free play found that most immediate echoes followed high constraint utterances and were used as responsives, organizational devices, and cognitives. Most delayed echoes followed low constraint utterances and were…

  9. The Role of Utterance Length and Position in 3-Year-Olds' Production of Third Person Singular -s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealings, Kiri T.; Demuth, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence from children's spontaneous speech suggests that utterance length and utterance position may help explain why children omit grammatical morphemes in some contexts but not others. This study investigated whether increased utterance length (hence, increased grammatical complexity) adversely affects children's third person singular…

  10. Nurse practitioner perceptions of barriers and facilitators in providing health care for deaf American Sign Language users: A qualitative socio-ecological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrass, Kathy M; Nemeth, Lynne; Newman, Susan D; Jenkins, Carolyn M; Jones, Elaine G

    2017-06-01

    Nurse practitioners (NPs), as well as all healthcare clinicians, have a legal and ethical responsibility to provide health care for deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users equal to that of other patients, including effective communication, autonomy, and confidentiality. However, very little is known about the feasibility to provide equitable health care. The purpose of this study was to examine NP perceptions of barriers and facilitators in providing health care for deaf ASL users. Semistructured interviews in a qualitative design using a socio-ecological model (SEM). Barriers were identified at all levels of the SEM. NPs preferred interpreters to facilitate the visit, but were unaware of their role in assuring effective communication is achieved. A professional sign language interpreter was considered a last resort when all other means of communication failed. Gesturing, note-writing, lip-reading, and use of a familial interpreter were all considered facilitators. Interventions are needed at all levels of the SEM. Resources are needed to provide awareness of deaf communication issues and legal requirements for caring for deaf signers for practicing and student NPs. Protocols need to be developed and present in all healthcare facilities for hiring interpreters as well as quick access to contact information for these interpreters. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  11. 45 THE PROBLEM OF NON-STANDARD UTTERANCES USED BY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    standard international. English. (National Language. Project. 1992: 19). This seems to .... The latter issue, that is, accounting for the variable ..... request strategy was used more frequently by first year full-time students .... of adoption in order.

  12. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  13. Providing English Foreign Language Teachers with Content Knowledge to Facilitate Decoding and Spelling Acquisition: A Longitudinal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn-Horwitz, Janina

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study adds to the small existing literature on orthographic-related teacher knowledge in an English as a foreign language (EFL) context. The study examined the impact of a course on English orthography on predominantly non-native-speaking EFL preservice and inservice teachers' orthographic content knowledge, and the extent…

  14. Exemplar variability facilitates rapid learning of an otherwise unlearnable grammar by individuals with language-based learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Koss Torkildsen, Janne; Dailey, Natalie S; Aguilar, Jessica M; Gómez, Rebecca; Plante, Elena

    2013-04-01

    Even without explicit instruction, learners are able to extract information about the form of a language simply by attending to input that reflects the underlying grammar. In this study, the authors explored the role of variability in this learning by asking whether varying the number of unique exemplars heard by the learner affects learning of an artificial syntactic form. Learners with normal language (n = 16) and language-based learning disability (LLD; n = 16) were exposed to strings of nonwords that represented an underlying grammar. Half of the learners heard 3 exemplars 16 times each (low variability group), and the other half of the learners heard 24 exemplars twice each (high variability group). Learners were then tested for recognition of items heard and generalization of the grammar with new nonword strings. Only those learners with LLD who were in the high variability group were able to demonstrate generalization of the underlying grammar. For learners with normal language, both those in the high and the low variability groups showed generalization of the grammar, but relative effect sizes suggested a larger learning effect in the high variability group. The results demonstrate that the structure of the learning context can determine the ability to generalize from specific training items to novel cases.

  15. Providing English Foreign Language Teachers with Content Knowledge to Facilitate Decoding and Spelling Acquisition: A Longitudinal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn-Horwitz, Janina

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study adds to the small existing literature on orthographic-related teacher knowledge in an English as a foreign language (EFL) context. The study examined the impact of a course on English orthography on predominantly non-native-speaking EFL preservice and inservice teachers' orthographic content knowledge, and the extent…

  16. Conversation electrified: ERP correlates of speech act recognition in underspecified utterances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisladottir, Rosa S; Chwilla, Dorothee J; Levinson, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recognize speech acts (verbal actions) in conversation is critical for everyday interaction. However, utterances are often underspecified for the speech act they perform, requiring listeners to rely on the context to recognize the action. The goal of this study was to investigate the time-course of auditory speech act recognition in action-underspecified utterances and explore how sequential context (the prior action) impacts this process. We hypothesized that speech acts are recognized early in the utterance to allow for quick transitions between turns in conversation. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants listened to spoken dialogues and performed an action categorization task. The dialogues contained target utterances that each of which could deliver three distinct speech acts depending on the prior turn. The targets were identical across conditions, but differed in the type of speech act performed and how it fit into the larger action sequence. The ERP results show an early effect of action type, reflected by frontal positivities as early as 200 ms after target utterance onset. This indicates that speech act recognition begins early in the turn when the utterance has only been partially processed. Providing further support for early speech act recognition, actions in highly constraining contexts did not elicit an ERP effect to the utterance-final word. We take this to show that listeners can recognize the action before the final word through predictions at the speech act level. However, additional processing based on the complete utterance is required in more complex actions, as reflected by a posterior negativity at the final word when the speech act is in a less constraining context and a new action sequence is initiated. These findings demonstrate that sentence comprehension in conversational contexts crucially involves recognition of verbal action which begins as soon as it can.

  17. Conversation electrified: ERP correlates of speech act recognition in underspecified utterances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa S Gisladottir

    Full Text Available The ability to recognize speech acts (verbal actions in conversation is critical for everyday interaction. However, utterances are often underspecified for the speech act they perform, requiring listeners to rely on the context to recognize the action. The goal of this study was to investigate the time-course of auditory speech act recognition in action-underspecified utterances and explore how sequential context (the prior action impacts this process. We hypothesized that speech acts are recognized early in the utterance to allow for quick transitions between turns in conversation. Event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded while participants listened to spoken dialogues and performed an action categorization task. The dialogues contained target utterances that each of which could deliver three distinct speech acts depending on the prior turn. The targets were identical across conditions, but differed in the type of speech act performed and how it fit into the larger action sequence. The ERP results show an early effect of action type, reflected by frontal positivities as early as 200 ms after target utterance onset. This indicates that speech act recognition begins early in the turn when the utterance has only been partially processed. Providing further support for early speech act recognition, actions in highly constraining contexts did not elicit an ERP effect to the utterance-final word. We take this to show that listeners can recognize the action before the final word through predictions at the speech act level. However, additional processing based on the complete utterance is required in more complex actions, as reflected by a posterior negativity at the final word when the speech act is in a less constraining context and a new action sequence is initiated. These findings demonstrate that sentence comprehension in conversational contexts crucially involves recognition of verbal action which begins as soon as it can.

  18. Dynamics of vocalization-induced modulation of auditory cortical activity at mid-utterance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaocong Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent research has addressed the suppression of cortical sensory responses to altered auditory feedback that occurs at utterance onset regarding speech. However, there is reason to assume that the mechanisms underlying sensorimotor processing at mid-utterance are different than those involved in sensorimotor control at utterance onset. The present study attempted to examine the dynamics of event-related potentials (ERPs to different acoustic versions of auditory feedback at mid-utterance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects produced a vowel sound while hearing their pitch-shifted voice (100 cents, a sum of their vocalization and pure tones, or a sum of their vocalization and white noise at mid-utterance via headphones. Subjects also passively listened to playback of what they heard during active vocalization. Cortical ERPs were recorded in response to different acoustic versions of feedback changes during both active vocalization and passive listening. The results showed that, relative to passive listening, active vocalization yielded enhanced P2 responses to the 100 cents pitch shifts, whereas suppression effects of P2 responses were observed when voice auditory feedback was distorted by pure tones or white noise. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The present findings, for the first time, demonstrate a dynamic modulation of cortical activity as a function of the quality of acoustic feedback at mid-utterance, suggesting that auditory cortical responses can be enhanced or suppressed to distinguish self-produced speech from externally-produced sounds.

  19. Relationship between Maternal Language Parameters and the Child's Language Competency and Developmental Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshyar, Nahid T.

    Maternal language directed to 21 nonhandicapped, 21 Down syndrome, and 19 language impaired preschool children was examined. The three groups (all Caucasian and middle-class) were matched in mean length of utterance (MLU) and in developmental skills as measured on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. Mother-child language interaction was…

  20. Gesture and Motor Skill in Relation to Language in Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Jana M.; Braddock, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine gesture and motor abilities in relation to language in children with language impairment (LI). Method: Eleven children with LI (aged 2;7 to 6;1 [years;months]) and 16 typically developing (TD) children of similar chronological ages completed 2 picture narration tasks, and their language (rate of verbal utterances, mean length…

  1. The Relation between Event Apprehension and Utterance Formulation in Children: Evidence from Linguistic Omissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunger, Ann; Trueswell, John C.; Papafragou, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The relation between event apprehension and utterance formulation was examined in children and adults. English-speaking adults and 4-year-olds viewed motion events while their eye movements were monitored. Half of the participants in each age group described each event (Linguistic task), whereas the other half studied the events for an upcoming memory test (Nonlinguistic task). All participants then completed a memory test in which they identified changes to manners of motion and path endpoints in target events. In the Nonlinguistic task, eye movements and memory responses revealed striking similarities across age groups. Adults and preschoolers attended to manner and path endpoints with similar timing, and in the memory test both successfully detected manner and path changes at similar rates. Substantial differences in production emerged between age groups in the Linguistic task: whereas adults usually mentioned both manners and paths in their event descriptions, preschoolers tended to omit one event component or the other. However, eyegaze patterns remained equivalent across the two age groups, with both children and adults allocating more attention to event components that they planned to talk about. Children in the Linguistic task were at chance in the memory test, whereas adults actually showed a memory benefit as compared to the Nonlinguistic task. We conclude that developmental differences in the description of motion events are not due to pure attentional differences between adults and children, but leave open the possibility that they stem from limitations that are solely linguistic in nature or that arise at the interface of attention and language production. PMID:22055989

  2. Effect Evaluation of Utterance Length on Speech Dysfluency in Stuttering and Nonstuttering Persian-Speaker Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Haresabadi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The correlation of stuttering and different linguistic factors is assessed in many studies. The obtained results can pave the way to reach a better understanding of stuttering, as well as finding more appropriate treatments. This study investigates the effect of utterance length on speech dysfluency comparing stuttering Persian(Farsi -speaking children and nonstuttering ones.Methods: Ten stuttering and ten nonstuttering Persian-speaking children between 4 and 6 years of age, matched by age and gender where included in this cross-sectional study. All individuals were investigated by ten sets of simple and complex sentences. Morphemes were added one by one to sentences in each set in order to assess the impact of utterance length on dysfluency. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results: In practicing ten sets of sentences, the speech dysfluency shows significant enhance with increase of utterance length in both stuttering and nonstuttering children (p=0.001. Furthermore, while comparing two groups of simple and complex sentences, significant increase of speech dysfluency was observed by length enhance of utterance, in both stuttering and nonstuttering children (p<0.05. The comparison of stuttering and nonstuttering children showed significant difference between the two groups as well (p=0.001. Conclusions: The results of this study show that increase in utterance length in both simple and complex sentences lead to increase in dysfluency in stuttering and nonstuttering children. Stuttering children indicated more dysfluency than nonstuttering ones.

  3. Effects of utterance length and vocal loudness on speech breathing in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Jessica E

    2008-12-31

    Age-related reductions in pulmonary elastic recoil and respiratory muscle strength can affect how older adults generate subglottal pressure required for speech production. The present study examined age-related changes in speech breathing by manipulating utterance length and loudness during a connected speech task (monologue). Twenty-three older adults and twenty-eight young adults produced a monologue at comfortable loudness and pitch and with multi-talker babble noise playing in the room to elicit louder speech. Dependent variables included sound pressure level, speech rate, and lung volume initiation, termination, and excursion. Older adults produced shorter utterances than young adults overall. Age-related effects were larger for longer utterances. Older adults demonstrated very different lung volume adjustments for loud speech than young adults. These results suggest that older adults have a more difficult time when the speech system is being taxed by both utterance length and loudness. The data were consistent with the hypothesis that both young and older adults use utterance length in premotor speech planning processes.

  4. LANGUAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱妤

    2009-01-01

    @@ The word"language"comes from the Latin(拉丁语)word"lingua",which means"tongue".The tongue is used in more sound combinations(结合)than any other organ(器官)of speech.A broader(概括性的)interpretation(解释)of"language"is that it is any form of expression.This includes(包括)writing,sign(手势)language,dance,music,painting,and mathematics.But the basic(基本的)form of language is speech.

  5. Evaluation of speech and language in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, H M; Eilert, P

    1978-07-01

    Changes of language and speech in neuropsychiatric patients are described by use of a quantifying procedure. In the transcript of a standardized interview the following variables are evaluated (by estimation of indices): rate of speech, pauses, indistinct and incomprehensible articulations, aphasic disturbances, subordinate: principal clause ratio, stuttering, neologisms, grammatical mistakes, thought disconnections, perseverations/verbigerations, vague utterances, disturbances of orientation, utterances with unusual though content, euphoric utterances, dysphoric utterances, and change of the affective state. Reliability of these indices is tested by inter-rater comparison. The course of speech-language reorganization during therapy is followed. The present method does not intend to give a detailed psycholinguistic analysis, but it yields an objective measure of clinical impressions on abnormalities of language and speech in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  6. Providing English foreign language teachers with content knowledge to facilitate decoding and spelling acquisition: a longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn-Horwitz, Janina

    2016-04-01

    This quasi-experimental study adds to the small existing literature on orthographic-related teacher knowledge in an English as a foreign language (EFL) context. The study examined the impact of a course on English orthography on predominantly non-native-speaking EFL preservice and inservice teachers' orthographic content knowledge, and the extent to which these teachers retained orthographic-related content knowledge four months after participating in a semester course on the topic. In addition, the study examined the relationship between participants' acquired orthographic-related content knowledge and EFL spelling. Both groups of teachers that studied in the course improved on overall orthographic-related content knowledge, both immediately following the course and longitudinally. Preservice and inservice participants showed similar levels of orthographic knowledge prior to course participation and both showed significant improvements compared to controls following course participation. Participants also retained knowledge four months after course completion. Overall, the inservice teachers scored higher on orthographic-related knowledge, possibly as a result of the immediate application of their newly acquired knowledge. An unexpected finding was a lack of interaction between acquired orthographic-related content knowledge and pseudo word spelling scores. Possible methodological limitations, such as number of participants as well as the length and scope of the course, may explain this outcome. This paper also discusses practical implications of this study for EFL decoding and spelling instruction.

  7. Language Development in Children with Language Disorders: An Introduction to Skinner's Verbal Behavior and the Techniques for Initial Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Laura Baylot; Bicard, David F.

    2009-01-01

    Language development in typically developing children has a very predictable pattern beginning with crying, cooing, babbling, and gestures along with the recognition of spoken words, comprehension of spoken words, and then one word utterances. This predictable pattern breaks down for children with language disorders. This article will discuss…

  8. A crosslinguistic comparison of the production of utterances in discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, V M

    1995-02-01

    Functionalist theorists have proposed a number of decisions that a speaker has to make regarding the packaging of messages in response to the knowledge shared by the speaker and the listener in a discourse situation. The present study examined some procedures used by French and English speakers to implement message packaging during sentence formulation. The speech of French and English students talking informally about topics of interest to them was recorded, and hesitations were identified and located in the speech. According to the hesitation data, like English speakers, French speakers organised their thoughts into successive units having a variety of structural characterisations. Sentences, surface clauses, basic clauses and phrases were all found to be output units. In addition, French as well as English speakers output clauses containing new information more independently than clauses either containing presupposed information or satisfying an essential argument of the verb. French speakers also differed from English speakers in several ways. During articulation, phrases acted as more tightly integrated output units for French than for English speakers. French speakers also used different syntactic devices from English speakers for introducing and focussing on topics in the discourse. They did this by means other than the use of lexical subjects, such as left-detached topics and cleft sentences, supporting the hypothesis that spoken French has topic-comment structure, while English has subject-verb-object organisation. The crosslinguistic differences were argued to result largely from the distinct prosodic characteristics of the languages. The results were seen as providing new evidence for the similar and contrasting ways in which speakers of different languages respond to decisions about message packaging.

  9. Identifying Second Language Errors: How Plausible are Plausible Reconstructions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Obaidul

    2007-01-01

    The research reported in the study was undertaken to measure English language teachers' ability to interpret second language learners' intended meanings in idiosyncratic utterances in written English. In doing so, it also aimed at verifying Corder's (1981) speculation that language teachers can correctly guess the intended meanings of learners in…

  10. Judgments of Vocal Affect by Language-Delayed Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Sybil

    1983-01-01

    The judgment of vocal affect was studied in 19 language delayed children and 19 children with normal language. The children identified utterances spoken in an angry, happy, or sad tone of voice. The language delayed children made significantly fewer correct judgments. (Author/SEW)

  11. Dilemmas in Implementing Language Rights in Multilingual Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namyalo, Saudah; Nakayiza, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Even after decades of uttering platitudes about the languages of Uganda, language policy pronouncements have invariably turned out to be public relations statements rather than blueprints for action. A serious setback for the right to linguistic equality and the right to use Uganda's indigenous languages has largely hinged on the language…

  12. Spoken Utterance Detection Using Dynamic Time Warping Method Along With a Hashing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Sahaya Rani Alex

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technique of searching a keyword in a spoken utterance using Dynamic Programming algorithm. This method is being revisited because of the evolution in computing power. The proposed methods present less computational complexity compared with the conventional Dynamic Time Warping (DTW method. The proposed methods are tested with connected TIDIGIT data.

  13. Pause and Utterance Duration in Child-Directed Speech in Relation to Child Vocabulary Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Ulrika; Marklund, Ellen; Lacerda, Francisco; Schwarz, Iris-Corinna

    2015-01-01

    This study compares parental pause and utterance duration in conversations with Swedish speaking children at age 1;6 who have either a large, typical, or small expressive vocabulary, as measured by the Swedish version of the McArthur-Bates CDI. The adjustments that parents do when they speak to children are similar across all three vocabulary…

  14. Pause and Utterance Duration in Child-Directed Speech in Relation to Child Vocabulary Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Ulrika; Marklund, Ellen; Lacerda, Francisco; Schwarz, Iris-Corinna

    2015-01-01

    This study compares parental pause and utterance duration in conversations with Swedish speaking children at age 1;6 who have either a large, typical, or small expressive vocabulary, as measured by the Swedish version of the McArthur-Bates CDI. The adjustments that parents do when they speak to children are similar across all three vocabulary…

  15. Some Utterances Are Underinformative: The Onset and Time Course of Scalar Inferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Lewis; Noveck, Ira A.

    2004-01-01

    When Tarzan asks Jane "Do you like my friends?" and Jane answers "Some of them," her underinformative reply implicates "Not all of them." This "scalar inference" arises when a less-than-maximally informative utterance implies the denial of a more informative proposition. Default Inference accounts (e.g.,…

  16. The Effect of Nonverbal Cues on the Interpretation of Utterances by People with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak-Wernicka, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this article is to explore the effect of nonverbal information (gestures and facial expressions) provided in real time on the interpretation of utterances by people with total blindness. Methods: The article reports on an exploratory study performed on two groups of participants with visual impairments who were tested…

  17. Utterance-final particles in Taiwan Mandarin : contact, context and core functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Chin-hui

    2014-01-01

    The use of utterance-final particles (UFPs) is a salient feature of Taiwan Mandarin, a Mandarin variety spoken in Taiwan. Despite their widespread use, Taiwan Mandarin UFPs have not attracted much attention in previous research. One reason for this neglect is that previous studies focus on UFPs that

  18. The Relation between Grammatical Development and Mean Length of Utterance in Morphemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Thomas; Fitzgerald, Martha Deitz

    1985-01-01

    Describes a study to determine: (1) the relationship between age and mean length of utterance measured in morphemes (MLU) in a group of normally developing two- and three-year-old chidren; (2) the standard error of MLU; (3) the relationship between MLU and age; and, (4) the ability of MLU to predict children's grammatical development. (SED)

  19. Conceptual Memory: A Theory and Computer Program for Processing the Meaning Content of Natural Language Utterances

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-07-01

    place at which the solution of anaphoric references logically fits m the processing sequence, although much research remains to be done in this area...variable binding must occur io pcr-ts m a matched pattern. In cata-dased matching, special, often ted’Ous, provisions must be made m order to »KtrKl

  20. Second Language Acquisition across Modalities: Production Variability in Adult L2 Learners of American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, Allison I.; Loucks, Torrey M. J.; Quinto-Pozos, David; Dye, Matthew W. G.

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine production variability in American Sign Language (ASL) in order to gain insight into the development of motor control in a language produced in another modality. Production variability was characterized through the spatiotemporal index (STI), which represents production stability in whole utterances and is a…

  1. Formulas in First and Second Language Acquisition. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihman, Marilyn May

    The use of formulaic speech is seen as a learning strategy in children's first language (L1) acquisition to a limited extent, and to an even greater extent in their second language (L2) acquisition. While the first utterances of the child learning L1 are mostly one-word constructions, many of them are routine words or phrases that the child learns…

  2. Inter-experimental discrepancy in facial muscle activity during vowel utterance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Ganesh R; Kumar, Dinesh K

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the inter-experimental similarities in the muscle activation during vowel sound production by an individual. Surface electromyography has been used as an indicator of muscle activity and independent component analysis has been used to separate the electrical activity from different muscles. The results indicate that there is a 'reasonable' relationship between muscle activities of the corresponding muscles when the experiments are repeated. The results demonstrate that when people speak, they use a similar set of muscles when they repeat the same sound. The results also indicate that there is a variation when the same sound is spoken at different speeds of utterances. This can be attributable to the lack of audio feedback when the same sound is uttered.

  3. Effects of disfluencies, predictability, and utterance position on word form variation in English conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Alan; Jurafsky, Daniel; Fosler-Lussier, Eric; Girand, Cynthia; Gregory, Michelle; Gildea, Daniel

    2003-02-01

    Function words, especially frequently occurring ones such as (the, that, and, and of ), vary widely in pronunciation. Understanding this variation is essential both for cognitive modeling of lexical production and for computer speech recognition and synthesis. This study investigates which factors affect the forms of function words, especially whether they have a fuller pronunciation (e.g., edh,eye, edh,æ,tee, æ,en,&dee, vee) or a more reduced or lenited pronunciation (e.g., edh,schwa, edh,bari;t, n, schwa). It is based on over 8000 occurrences of the ten most frequent English function words in a 4-h sample from conversations from the Switchboard corpus. Ordinary linear and logistic regression models were used to examine variation in the length of the words, in the form of their vowel (basic, full, or reduced), and whether final obstruents were present or not. For all these measures, after controlling for segmental context, rate of speech, and other important factors, there are strong independent effects that made high-frequency monosyllabic function words more likely to be longer or have a fuller form (1) when neighboring disfluencies (such as filled pauses uh and um) indicate that the speaker was encountering problems in planning the utterance; (2) when the word is unexpected, i.e., less predictable in context; (3) when the word is either utterance initial or utterance final. Looking at the phenomenon in a different way, frequent function words are more likely to be shorter and to have less-full forms in fluent speech, in predictable positions or multiword collocations, and utterance internally. Also considered are other factors such as sex (women are more likely to use fuller forms, even after controlling for rate of speech, for example), and some of the differences among the ten function words in their response to the factors.

  4. [Repetitive phenomenona in the spontaneous speech of aphasic patients: perseveration, stereotypy, echolalia, automatism and recurring utterance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallesch, C W; Brunner, R J; Seemüller, E

    1983-12-01

    Repetitive phenomena in spontaneous speech were investigated in 30 patients with chronic infarctions of the left hemisphere which included Broca's and/or Wernicke's area and/or the basal ganglia. Perseverations, stereotypies, and echolalias occurred with all types of brain lesions, automatisms and recurring utterances only with those patients, whose infarctions involved Wernicke's area and basal ganglia. These patients also showed more echolalic responses. The results are discussed in view of the role of the basal ganglia as motor program generators.

  5. Unsupervised Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marcken, Carl

    1996-11-01

    This thesis presents a computational theory of unsupervised language acquisition, precisely defining procedures for learning language from ordinary spoken or written utterances, with no explicit help from a teacher. The theory is based heavily on concepts borrowed from machine learning and statistical estimation. In particular, learning takes place by fitting a stochastic, generative model of language to the evidence. Much of the thesis is devoted to explaining conditions that must hold for this general learning strategy to arrive at linguistically desirable grammars. The thesis introduces a variety of technical innovations, among them a common representation for evidence and grammars, and a learning strategy that separates the ``content'' of linguistic parameters from their representation. Algorithms based on it suffer from few of the search problems that have plagued other computational approaches to language acquisition. The theory has been tested on problems of learning vocabularies and grammars from unsegmented text and continuous speech, and mappings between sound and representations of meaning. It performs extremely well on various objective criteria, acquiring knowledge that causes it to assign almost exactly the same structure to utterances as humans do. This work has application to data compression, language modeling, speech recognition, machine translation, information retrieval, and other tasks that rely on either structural or stochastic descriptions of language.

  6. [Big data, medical language and biomedical terminology systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Stefan; López-García, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    A variety of rich terminology systems, such as thesauri, classifications, nomenclatures and ontologies support information and knowledge processing in health care and biomedical research. Nevertheless, human language, manifested as individually written texts, persists as the primary carrier of information, in the description of disease courses or treatment episodes in electronic medical records, and in the description of biomedical research in scientific publications. In the context of the discussion about big data in biomedicine, we hypothesize that the abstraction of the individuality of natural language utterances into structured and semantically normalized information facilitates the use of statistical data analytics to distil new knowledge out of textual data from biomedical research and clinical routine. Computerized human language technologies are constantly evolving and are increasingly ready to annotate narratives with codes from biomedical terminology. However, this depends heavily on linguistic and terminological resources. The creation and maintenance of such resources is labor-intensive. Nevertheless, it is sensible to assume that big data methods can be used to support this process. Examples include the learning of hierarchical relationships, the grouping of synonymous terms into concepts and the disambiguation of homonyms. Although clear evidence is still lacking, the combination of natural language technologies, semantic resources, and big data analytics is promising.

  7. A Comparison of the Age-MLU Relation in Normal and Specifically Language-Impaired Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Thomas; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The study found that mean length of utterance (MLU) and age were significantly correlated in both language impaired (N=24) and normal preschool children with rates of MLU change also similar for both groups of children. (DB)

  8. What Influences Children's Conceptualizations of Language Input?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca; Moody, Amanda; Gerken, LouAnn

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Children learning language conceptualize the nature of input they receive in ways that allow them to understand and construct utterances they have never heard before. This study was designed to illuminate the types of information children with and without specific language impairment (SLI) focus on to develop their conceptualizations and…

  9. Production of Infinitival Complements by Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Karen Barako; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the production of infinitival complements by children with specific language impairment (SLI) as compared with mean length of utterance (MLU)-matched children in an effort to clarify inconsistencies in the literature. Spontaneous language samples were analysed for infinitival complements (reduced…

  10. The Examination of the Effects of Writing Strategy-Based Procedural Facilitative Environments on Students' English Foreign Language Writing Anxiety Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Tsiriotakis, Ioanna K.; Vassilaki, Eleni; Spantidakis, Ioannis; Stavrou, Nektarios A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Empirical studies have shown that anxiety and negative emotion can hinder language acquisition. The present study implemented a writing instructional model so as to investigate its effects on the writing anxiety levels of English Foreign Language learners. The study was conducted with 177 participants, who were administered the Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI; Cheng, 2004) that assesses somatic, cognitive and behavioral anxiety, both at baseline and following the implementati...

  11. Contrastive analysis and its relevance to language teaching

    OpenAIRE

    R. C. Jansen van Rensburg

    1983-01-01

    In the course of learning a second language, learners regularly produce utterances in speech and writing which judged by the rules of the second language are erroneous, or ill-formed. Traditionally the attitude to errors was that they were an indication of the difficulties that the learners had with certain aspects of the language, which could be explained by the persistence of the habits of the mother tongue and their transfer to the new language (Lado, 1957). Errors were the result of...

  12. Referent Salience Affects Second Language Article Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenkic, Danijela; Pongpairoj, Nattama

    2013-01-01

    The effect of referent salience on second language (L2) article production in real time was explored. Thai (-articles) and French (+articles) learners of English described dynamic events involving two referents, one visually cued to be more salient at the point of utterance formulation. Definiteness marking was made communicatively redundant with…

  13. Gradual Emergence of Developmental Language Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, John L.

    1994-01-01

    A theory of normal and delayed development of language is presented, arguing that linguistic capacity develops in gradual, sequential, critically timed phases; children with slowly developing brains have delays in storing utterances; a critical period for activation of experience-dependent grammatical mechanisms declines without optimal result;…

  14. A Repeater in the Language Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, B. T.

    1969-01-01

    Discusses the feasilility of the use of repeater devices in the language laboratory in order to enable the student to "recapitulate effortlessly and and indefinitely any utterance of any length which is causing him difficulty or is of special interest. (FWB)

  15. Language style matching and police interrogation outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, Beth H.; Taylor, Paul J.; Snook, Brent; Conchie, Stacey M.; Bennell, Craig

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the coordination of interrogator and suspects’ verbal behavior in interrogations. Sixty-four police interrogations were examined at the aggregate and utterance level using a measure of verbal mimicry known as Language Style Matching. Analyses revealed an interaction between co

  16. Language Differentiation by the Bilingual Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihman, Marilyn May

    1985-01-01

    Examines the lexical and syntactic development of a bilingual child and the cognitive developments that coincided with the child's linguistic processes. Concludes that it is the development of self-awareness and sensitivity to standards in the second year which provides the motive for the child to avoid mixed-language utterances. (SED)

  17. Holophrases, Speech Acts and Language Universals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, John

    1975-01-01

    The arguments for and against viewing the child's initial one-word utterances as holophrases are reviewed. An alternative view of early language development, which takes the speech act as the basic unit of linguistic communication, rather than the sentence, is offered as a solution to the holophrase controversy. (Author/RM)

  18. Human-Level Natural Language Understanding: False Progress and Real Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignoli, Perrin G.

    2013-01-01

    The field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) focuses on the study of how utterances composed of human-level languages can be understood and generated. Typically, there are considered to be three intertwined levels of structure that interact to create meaning in language: syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. Not only is a large amount of…

  19. Using an e-Portfolio to Facilitate the Self-Assessment of Both Language and Intercultural Learning in Higher Education: A Case-Study Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Fionnuala; Bruen, Jenny; Péchenart, Juliette

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this paper is twofold: first, on the development of an electronic version of a European Language Portfolio (ELP), known as the LOLIPOP (Language On-line Portfolio Project) ELP, and second on its integration into an undergraduate module on Intercultural Communication in an institute of higher education in Ireland. The paper begins by…

  20. An Analysis of 'Distinctive' Utterances in Non-task-oriented Conversational Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuhisa, Ryoko; Terashima, Ryuta

    In this paper, we investigate distinctive utterances in non-task-oriented conversational dialogue through the comparison between task-oriented dialogue and non-task-oriented conversational dialogue. We then found that Indirect Responses (IRs) and Clarification Requests (CRs) are significant in non-task-oriented conversational dialogue. IRs are cooperative responses to other's question, while CRs are clarification questions. We analyzed the rhetorical relations about IRs and CRs. We then found that the IRs are generated by evidence and causal relations, while the CRs are generated by elaboration relation and causal relations.

  1. Automatic Language Identification with Discriminative Language Characterization Based on SVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Hongbin; Li, Ming; Lu, Ping; Yan, Yonghong

    Robust automatic language identification (LID) is the task of identifying the language from a short utterance spoken by an unknown speaker. The mainstream approaches include parallel phone recognition language modeling (PPRLM), support vector machine (SVM) and the general Gaussian mixture models (GMMs). These systems map the cepstral features of spoken utterances into high level scores by classifiers. In this paper, in order to increase the dimension of the score vector and alleviate the inter-speaker variability within the same language, multiple data groups based on supervised speaker clustering are employed to generate the discriminative language characterization score vectors (DLCSV). The back-end SVM classifiers are used to model the probability distribution of each target language in the DLCSV space. Finally, the output scores of back-end classifiers are calibrated by a pair-wise posterior probability estimation (PPPE) algorithm. The proposed language identification frameworks are evaluated on 2003 NIST Language Recognition Evaluation (LRE) databases and the experiments show that the system described in this paper produces comparable results to the existing systems. Especially, the SVM framework achieves an equal error rate (EER) of 4.0% in the 30-second task and outperforms the state-of-art systems by more than 30% relative error reduction. Besides, the performances of proposed PPRLM and GMMs algorithms achieve an EER of 5.1% and 5.0% respectively.

  2. Facilitated Communication in Mainstream Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington-Gurney, Jane; Crossley, Rosemary

    Facilitated communication is described as a method of training communication partners or facilitators to provide physical assistance to communication aid users, to help them overcome physical and emotional problems in using their aids. In Melbourne (Victoria, Australia), the DEAL (Dignity, Education and Language) Centre has identified 96 people…

  3. 语结、语境与话语理解%Nexus, Context and Utterance Interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟建钢

    2001-01-01

    Nexus segments and their cohesive manners, in the projection ofcontext and interpretation of truth-value utterance, are essential to the achievement of discourse coherence. Nexus and context are one inseparable in tegrity, and context has two basic functions for nexus: projection and cohesi on. T he various complex contexts are summarized as those of psychology, logic and background, upon which the nexuses in utterances rely to perform their cohesive and coherent functions.%在话语信息真值的理解中,话语的语结切分及其语境映射下的衔接表义方式对实现语篇连贯起着重要的作用。在语言行为中语结和语境是不可分割的统一体,且语境对语结具有两大基本功能,即投射(projection)和衔接(cohesion)。各种复杂状态的语境可以归纳为心理的、逻辑的和背景的三个层次,话语中的语结都依赖这三层语境的作用来实现其衔接表义功能。

  4. Korean as a Heritage Language in the U.S. University Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Sook Kang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the less-commonly-taught foreign languages in U.S. universities, Korean-language classes are often taken by students of Korean descent. Many Korean Americans with long-term exposure to the target language in a combination of naturalistic and instructional settings have developed proficiency in their heritage language through parental and community support, such as Saturday schools (Lee, 2002. However, upon closer examination, the bilingualism that many Korean-American learners achieve is unbalanced. These heritage learners often lack grammatical accuracy and precision despite high fluency, as the moniker "kitchen Korean" implies. As a way to facilitate the accuracy aspect of the heritage learners' language, this article suggests the benefits of corrective feedback, explicit and implicit, in the forms of metalinguistic comments, provision of an alternative correct form contingent on the learner's ill-formed utterance, and partial or full repetitions or reformulations of the learner's output when interacting with them in the classroom and beyond.

  5. Making Words in Two Languages: A Prosodic Account of Japanese-English Language Mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimota, Yukiko

    1999-01-01

    Provides an account of so-called "word-internal codeswitching," instances where lexemes are taken from one language to combine with affix-like elements from another. Data are from Japanese-English bilingual utterances as well as from other pairs. Argues that two factors determine proper selection and combination of morphemes coming from different…

  6. Unsupervised Language Acquisition

    CERN Document Server

    De Marcken, C

    1996-01-01

    This thesis presents a computational theory of unsupervised language acquisition, precisely defining procedures for learning language from ordinary spoken or written utterances, with no explicit help from a teacher. The theory is based heavily on concepts borrowed from machine learning and statistical estimation. In particular, learning takes place by fitting a stochastic, generative model of language to the evidence. Much of the thesis is devoted to explaining conditions that must hold for this general learning strategy to arrive at linguistically desirable grammars. The thesis introduces a variety of technical innovations, among them a common representation for evidence and grammars, and a learning strategy that separates the ``content'' of linguistic parameters from their representation. Algorithms based on it suffer from few of the search problems that have plagued other computational approaches to language acquisition. The theory has been tested on problems of learning vocabularies and grammars from unse...

  7. PROFANITY HAUNTS CHILDREN’S FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Gede Purnawan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at describing the phenomenon that more children use profanity or bad language nowadays and proposing a possible way to solve the problem. The materials for this article were the utterances of an eight-year-old boy in his interaction with adults in natural setting. The method of collecting data was by observation with recording technique. The collected data in the form of the transcription of the boy’s utterances were descriptively analyzed using ABC theory. The result shows that environment, like adults and mass media, have enormous impacts on children’s language.

  8. Incorporating POS Tagging into Language Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Heeman, P A; Heeman, Peter A.; Allen, James F.

    1997-01-01

    Language models for speech recognition tend to concentrate solely on recognizing the words that were spoken. In this paper, we redefine the speech recognition problem so that its goal is to find both the best sequence of words and their syntactic role (part-of-speech) in the utterance. This is a necessary first step towards tightening the interaction between speech recognition and natural language understanding.

  9. Is it over-respectful or disrespectful? Differential patterns of brain activity in perceiving pragmatic violation of social status information during utterance comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoming; Li, Yi; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2013-09-01

    A critical issue in the study of language communication is how extra-linguistic information, such as the social status of the communicators, is taken into account by the online comprehension system. In Mandarin Chinese, the second-person pronoun (you/your) can be in a respectful form (nin/nin-de) when the addressee is of higher status than the speaker or in a less respectful form (ni/ni-de) when the addressee is of equal or lower status. We conducted an event-related potential (ERP) study to investigate how social status information affects pronoun resolution during utterance comprehension. Participants read simple conversational scenarios for comprehension, with each scenario including a context describing a speaker and an addressee and a directly-quoted utterance beginning with the second-person pronoun. The relative status between the speaker and the addressee was varied, creating conditions in which the second-person pronoun was either consistent or inconsistent with the relationship between conversants, or in which the two conversants were of equal status. ERP results showed that, compared with the status-consistent and status-equal conditions, the status-inconsistent condition elicited an anterior N400-like effect on nin-de (over-respectful) and a broadly distributed N400 on ni-de (disrespectful). In a later time window, both the status-reversed and the status-equal conditions elicited a sustained positivity effect on nin-de and a sustained negativity effect on ni-de. These findings suggest that the comprehender builds up expectance towards the upcoming pronoun based on the perceived social status of conversants. While the inconsistent pronoun causes semantic integration difficulty in an earlier stage of processing, the strategy to resolve the inconsistency and the corresponding brain activity vary according to the pragmatic implications of the pronoun.

  10. Teaching Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Laura F.

    1986-01-01

    The article details on three classroom projects using computers and synthesized speech software to foster expressive language and facilitate language comprehension in severely visually handicapped preschoolers and in preschool- and school-age Downs syndrome children. Computer use with a cerebral palsied child for story comprehension and…

  11. Program Facilitates Distributed Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    KNET computer program facilitates distribution of computing between UNIX-compatible local host computer and remote host computer, which may or may not be UNIX-compatible. Capable of automatic remote log-in. User communicates interactively with remote host computer. Data output from remote host computer directed to local screen, to local file, and/or to local process. Conversely, data input from keyboard, local file, or local process directed to remote host computer. Written in ANSI standard C language.

  12. Exploring the relationship between changes in weight and utterances in an online weight loss forum: a content and correlational analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekler, Eric B; Dubey, Gaurav; McDonald, David W; Poole, Erika S; Li, Victor; Eikey, Elizabeth

    2014-12-08

    There is increasing interest in the use of online forums as a component of eHealth weight loss interventions. Although the research is mixed on the utility of online forums in general, results suggest that there is promise to this, particularly if the systems can be designed well to support healthful interactions that foster weight loss and continued engagement. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the styles of utterances individuals make on an online weight loss forum and week-to-week fluctuations in weight. This analysis was conducted to generate hypotheses on possible strategies that could be used to improve the overall design of online support groups to facilitate more healthful interactions. A convenience sample of individuals using an online weight loss forum (N=4132) included data both on online forum use and weight check-in data. All interactions were coded utilizing the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) system. Mixed model analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between these LIWC variables and weight over time. Results suggested that increased use of past-tense verbs (P=.05) and motion (P=.02) were associated with lower weekly weights whereas increased use of conjunctions (eg, and, but, whereas; P=.001) and exclusion words (eg, but, without, exclude; P=.07) were both associated with higher weight during the weeks when these utterances were used more. These results provide some insights on the styles of interactions that appear to be associated with weight fluctuations. Future work should explore the stability of these findings and also explore possibilities for fostering these types of interactions more explicitly within online weight loss forums.

  13. Analysis of Timing Control Mechanism of Utterance and Body Motion Using Dialogue between Human and Communication Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasugi, Shoji; Yamamoto, Tomohito; Muto, Yumiko; Abe, Hiroyuki; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of timing control of utterance and body motion in human-robot interaction. Our previous study has already revealed the correlation of timing of utterance and body motion in human-human communication. Here we proposed a timing control model based on our previous research and estimated its influence to realize human-like communication using a questionnaire method. The results showed that the difference of effectiveness between the communication with the timing control model and that without it was observed. In addition, elderly people evaluated the communication with timing control much higher than younger people. These results show not only the importance of timing control of utterance and body motion in human communication but also its effectiveness for realizing human-like human-robot interaction.

  14. Contextual Information and Specific Language Models for Spoken Language Understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Baggia, P; Gerbino, E; Moisa, L M; Popovici, C; Baggia, Paolo; Danieli, Morena; Gerbino, Elisabetta; Moisa, Loreta M.; Popovici, Cosmin

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we explain how contextual expectations are generated and used in the task-oriented spoken language understanding system Dialogos. The hard task of recognizing spontaneous speech on the telephone may greatly benefit from the use of specific language models during the recognition of callers' utterances. By 'specific language models' we mean a set of language models that are trained on contextually appropriated data, and that are used during different states of the dialogue on the basis of the information sent to the acoustic level by the dialogue management module. In this paper we describe how the specific language models are obtained on the basis of contextual information. The experimental result we report show that recognition and understanding performance are improved thanks to the use of specific language models.

  15. Estimating Performance of Pipelined Spoken Language Translation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rayner, M; Price, P; Lyberg, B; Rayner, Manny; Carter, David; Price, Patti; Lyberg, Bertil

    1994-01-01

    Most spoken language translation systems developed to date rely on a pipelined architecture, in which the main stages are speech recognition, linguistic analysis, transfer, generation and speech synthesis. When making projections of error rates for systems of this kind, it is natural to assume that the error rates for the individual components are independent, making the system accuracy the product of the component accuracies. The paper reports experiments carried out using the SRI-SICS-Telia Research Spoken Language Translator and a 1000-utterance sample of unseen data. The results suggest that the naive performance model leads to serious overestimates of system error rates, since there are in fact strong dependencies between the components. Predicting the system error rate on the independence assumption by simple multiplication resulted in a 16\\% proportional overestimate for all utterances, and a 19\\% overestimate when only utterances of length 1-10 words were considered.

  16. Learning to attend: a connectionist model of situated language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Marshall R; Crocker, Matthew W; Knoeferle, Pia

    2009-05-01

    Evidence from numerous studies using the visual world paradigm has revealed both that spoken language can rapidly guide attention in a related visual scene and that scene information can immediately influence comprehension processes. These findings motivated the coordinated interplay account (Knoeferle & Crocker, 2006) of situated comprehension, which claims that utterance-mediated attention crucially underlies this closely coordinated interaction of language and scene processing. We present a recurrent sigma-pi neural network that models the rapid use of scene information, exploiting an utterance-mediated attentional mechanism that directly instantiates the CIA. The model is shown to achieve high levels of performance (both with and without scene contexts), while also exhibiting hallmark behaviors of situated comprehension, such as incremental processing, anticipation of appropriate role fillers, as well as the immediate use, and priority, of depicted event information through the coordinated use of utterance-mediated attention to the scene.

  17. COML (Classroom Orchestration Modelling Language) and Scenarios Designer: Toolsets to Facilitate Collaborative Learning in a One-to-One Technology Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Niramitranon, Jitti; Sharples, Mike; Greenhalgh, Chris

    2006-01-01

    In a one-to-one collaborative learning classroom supported by ubiquitous computing, teachers require tools that allow them to design of learning scenarios, and to manage and monitor the activities happening in the classroom. Our project proposes an architecture for a classroom management system and a scenarios designer tool, both based on a Classroom Orchestration Modelling Language (COML), to support these requirements. We are developing and testing this with the GroupScribbles software usin...

  18. Language change in a multiple group society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Cristina-Maria; Frey, Erwin

    2013-08-01

    The processes leading to change in languages are manifold. In order to reduce ambiguity in the transmission of information, agreement on a set of conventions for recurring problems is favored. In addition to that, speakers tend to use particular linguistic variants associated with the social groups they identify with. The influence of other groups propagating across the speech community as new variant forms sustains the competition between linguistic variants. With the utterance selection model, an evolutionary description of language change, Baxter [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.73.046118 73, 046118 (2006)] have provided a mathematical formulation of the interactions inside a group of speakers, exploring the mechanisms that lead to or inhibit the fixation of linguistic variants. In this paper, we take the utterance selection model one step further by describing a speech community consisting of multiple interacting groups. Tuning the interaction strength between groups allows us to gain deeper understanding about the way in which linguistic variants propagate and how their distribution depends on the group partitioning. Both for the group size and the number of groups we find scaling behaviors with two asymptotic regimes. If groups are strongly connected, the dynamics is that of the standard utterance selection model, whereas if their coupling is weak, the magnitude of the latter along with the system size governs the way consensus is reached. Furthermore, we find that a high influence of the interlocutor on a speaker's utterances can act as a counterweight to group segregation.

  19. The Edge Factor in Early Word Segmentation: Utterance-Level Prosody Enables Word Form Extraction by 6-Month-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth K.; Seidl, Amanda; Tyler, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Past research has shown that English learners begin segmenting words from speech by 7.5 months of age. However, more recent research has begun to show that, in some situations, infants may exhibit rudimentary segmentation capabilities at an earlier age. Here, we report on four perceptual experiments and a corpus analysis further investigating the initial emergence of segmentation capabilities. In Experiments 1 and 2, 6-month-olds were familiarized with passages containing target words located either utterance medially or at utterance edges. Only those infants familiarized with passages containing target words aligned with utterance edges exhibited evidence of segmentation. In Experiments 3 and 4, 6-month-olds recognized familiarized words when they were presented in a new acoustically distinct voice (male rather than female), but not when they were presented in a phonologically altered manner (missing the initial segment). Finally, we report corpus analyses examining how often different word types occur at utterance boundaries in different registers. Our findings suggest that edge-aligned words likely play a key role in infants’ early segmentation attempts, and also converge with recent reports suggesting that 6-month-olds’ have already started building a rudimentary lexicon. PMID:24421892

  20. Kindergartners' Spontaneous Focusing on Numerosity in Relation to Their Number-Related Utterances during Numerical Picture Book Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathé, Sanne; Torbeyns, Joke; Hannula-Sormunen, Minna M.; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between kindergartners' Spontaneous Focusing on Numerosity (SFON) and their number-related utterances during numerical picture book reading. Forty-eight 4- to 5-year-olds were individually interviewed via a SFON Imitation Task and a numerical picture book reading activity. We expected differences in the…

  1. An evaluation of the facilitative effects of inverted yes-no questions on the acquisition of auxiliary verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, Marc E; Loeb, Diane Frome

    2002-02-01

    According to the Auxiliary Clarification Hypothesis (ACH), yes-no questions with sentence-initial auxiliaries (i.e., inverted questions) facilitate children's initial acquisition of auxiliary verbs. Sixteen 3-year-old children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 18 2-year-olds with typical language (TL) participated in an experiment to evaluate the ACH. The children were not yet making use of auxiliaries. Half of the children participated in twenty 30-min "enrichment" sessions over a 2-month period, during which an assistant produced 30 inverted question recasts in response to the child's own utterances. Fifteen question recasts contained the auxiliary is, and 15 contained the modal will. The other half of the children participated in play sessions but were not exposed to inverted is and will questions. Contrary to predictions based on the ACH, the results revealed no positive effects of the enrichment for is, for will, or for the broader BE and Modal auxiliary categories for either group of children. The children with TL demonstrated advantages over the children with SLI for the general category of BE forms but not for the category of Modals. Inverted questions may be too complex to foster the initial acquisition of auxiliaries in children not already using them productively.

  2. The Speech-Language Interface in the Spoken Language Translator

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, D; Carter, David; Rayner, Manny

    1994-01-01

    Abstract: The Spoken Language Translator is a prototype for practically useful systems capable of translating continuous spoken language within restricted domains. The prototype system translates air travel (ATIS) queries from spoken English to spoken Swedish and to French. It is constructed, with as few modifications as possible, from existing pieces of speech and language processing software. The speech recognizer and language understander are connected by a fairly conventional pipelined N-best interface. This paper focuses on the ways in which the language processor makes intelligent use of the sentence hypotheses delivered by the recognizer. These ways include (1) producing modified hypotheses to reflect the possible presence of repairs in the uttered word sequence; (2) fast parsing with a version of the grammar automatically specialized to the more frequent constructions in the training corpus; and (3) allowing syntactic and semantic factors to interact with acoustic ones in the choice of a meaning struc...

  3. The language of extraversion: Extraverted people talk more abstractly, introverts are more concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, C.J.; Tanis, M.A.; Vermeulen, I.E.

    2013-01-01

    To understand the impact of personality, one needs to know how personality differences manifest themselves in language use. The present study investigates the link between extraversion and language abstraction. Participants’ spontaneous verbal utterances in face-to-face interactions were analyzed fo

  4. The Relationship between Task Difficulty and Second Language Fluency in French: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préfontaine, Yvonne; Kormos, Judit

    2015-01-01

    While there exists a considerable body of literature on task-based difficulty and second language (L2) fluency in English as a second language (ESL), there has been little investigation with French learners. This mixed methods study examines learner appraisals of task difficulty and their relationship to automated utterance fluency measures in…

  5. Significance of Social Applications on a Mobile Phone for English Task-Based Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Anmol; Farrukh, Fizza

    2015-01-01

    The utter importance of knowing the English language cannot be denied today. Despite the existence of traditional methods for teaching a language in schools, a big number of children are left without the requisite knowledge of English as a result of which they fail to compete in the modern world. With English being a Lingua Franca, more efforts…

  6. Do Adults Show an Effect of Delayed First Language Acquisition When Calculating Scalar Implicatures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Kathryn; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2015-01-01

    Language acquisition involves learning not only grammatical rules and a lexicon but also what people are intending to convey with their utterances: the semantic/pragmatic component of language. In this article we separate the contributions of linguistic development and cognitive maturity to the acquisition of the semantic/pragmatic component of…

  7. Do Adults Show an Effect of Delayed First Language Acquisition When Calculating Scalar Implicatures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Kathryn; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2015-01-01

    Language acquisition involves learning not only grammatical rules and a lexicon but also what people are intending to convey with their utterances: the semantic/pragmatic component of language. In this article we separate the contributions of linguistic development and cognitive maturity to the acquisition of the semantic/pragmatic component of…

  8. Play in two languages. Language alternation and code-switching in role-play in North Sámi and Norwegian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Kleemann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses how children in a Sámi kindergarten use their languages, North Sámi and Norwegian, in everyday life. My focus is on role-play in periods of free play in a kindergarten where children speak both North Sámi and Norwegian. Role-play is a bilingual context in that one sequence of play most often uses elements from both languages. Role-play as a situation is suitable for studying language alternation and code-switching because it is an in-group driven activity. The language alternation and code-switching which appears in role-play situations is discussed in light of theories advocating dividing code and language, viewing language choice as one of a cluster of codes used in role-play. I argue the children observed for this study have layers of codes to use. I discuss the language codes North Sámi, Norwegian and bilingual, which the children use in the role-play setting; the main codes used are directory utterances, role utterances, magical utterances and out-of-play-utterances.

  9. On Metaphor Cognitive Pragmatics in Dhyana’s Recorded Utterances Based on Relevance Theories%关联理论视域下禅宗俗谚隐喻的认知语用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常焕辉

    2015-01-01

    In the sayings of Dhyana’s recorded utterance,Metaphor is a common language phenomenon. Based on the relevance theory of cognitive linguistics,this paper argued on metaphor cognitive pragmatics of the sayings of Dhyana’s recorded utterance. According to the basic human cognitive experience,this paper tried to explaining the cognitive pragmatic inference and meaning of Dhyana’s conversations. So,it is is an unique and extraordinary role of metaphor construction and connection to the optimal relevance in the two cognitive domains,and the optimal rel-evance is an effective way to understand the metaphor of Dhyana’s Recorded Utterance,and it is also very vital for us on how to interpret its metaphor from the source domain when we translate its material from Chinese to English.%在禅宗俗谚中,隐喻是一种普遍的语言现象。本文在认知语用学关联理论的框架下,对禅宗俗谚进行隐喻语用研究。依据人类基本认知体验方式,来解释俗谚的认知语用推理和会话内涵。最佳关联在认知双域中的隐喻构建与连接作用是非凡独特的,是解读禅宗俗谚隐喻的一种有效方式;禅宗俗谚隐喻原语域恰当的认知语用解读,也是其外汉翻译的基础。

  10. THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEGATIVE CONSTRUCTION IN THE LANGUAGE OF AN INDONESIAN CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patuan Raja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of negative construction in the language of an Indonesian child is examined. The data were the male child's utterances recorded for one year, from age 1;6 to 2;6, in a naturalistic parental participant observation. The results of data analysis seem to lead to a confirmation that the linguistic behaviors of language-acquiring children at the same time reflect species-specific, language-specific, and individual-specific processes of language acquisition.

  11. Usable, Real-Time, Interactive Spoken Language Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    data coming from MIT. 1,289 utterances were truncated or contained word fragments due to stuttering . Many more contained various nonspeech sounds...performed well. Delphi has also been ported to a spuken language demonstrcation system in an Air Force Resource Management domain. We disc~ iss results of

  12. On the give and take between event apprehension and utterance formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleitman, Lila R; January, David; Nappa, Rebecca; Trueswell, John C

    2007-11-01

    Two experiments are reported which examine how manipulations of visual attention affect speakers' linguistic choices regarding word order, verb use and syntactic structure when describing simple pictured scenes. Experiment 1 presented participants with scenes designed to elicit the use of a perspective predicate (The man chases the dog/The dog flees from the man) or a conjoined noun phrase sentential Subject (A cat and a dog/A dog and a cat). Gaze was directed to a particular scene character by way of an attention-capture manipulation. Attention capture increased the likelihood that this character would be the sentential Subject and altered the choice of perspective verb or word order within conjoined NP Subjects accordingly. Experiment 2 extended these results to word order choice within Active versus Passive structures (The girl is kicking the boy/The boy is being kicked by the girl) and symmetrical predicates (The girl is meeting the boy/The boy is meeting the girl). Experiment 2 also found that early endogenous shifts in attention influence word order choices. These findings indicate a reliable relationship between initial looking patterns and speaking patterns, reflecting considerable parallelism between the on-line apprehension of events and the on-line construction of descriptive utterances.

  13. Processing emotions in sounds: cross-domain aftereffects of vocal utterances and musical sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Casady; Yamauchi, Takashi

    2016-11-16

    Nonlinguistic signals in the voice and musical instruments play a critical role in communicating emotion. Although previous research suggests a common mechanism for emotion processing in music and speech, the precise relationship between the two domains is unclear due to the paucity of direct evidence. By applying the adaptation paradigm developed by Bestelmeyer, Rouger, DeBruine, and Belin [2010. Auditory adaptation in vocal affect perception. Cognition, 117(2), 217-223. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2010.08.008 ], this study shows cross-domain aftereffects from vocal to musical sounds. Participants heard an angry or fearful sound four times, followed by a test sound and judged whether the test sound was angry or fearful. Results show cross-domain aftereffects in one direction - vocal utterances to musical sounds, not vice-versa. This effect occurred primarily for angry vocal sounds. It is argued that there is a unidirectional relationship between vocal and musical sounds where emotion processing of vocal sounds encompasses musical sounds but not vice-versa.

  14. Usability of XML Query Languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaumans, J.P.M.

    2005-01-01

    The eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language which enables re-use of information. Specific query languages for XML are developed to facilitate this. There are large differences between history, design goal, and syntax of the XML query languages. However, in practice these languages are

  15. Language change in a multiple group society

    CERN Document Server

    Pop, Cristina-Maria

    2013-01-01

    The processes leading to change in languages are manifold. In order to reduce ambiguity in the transmission of information, agreement on a set of conventions for recurring problems is favored. In addition to that, speakers tend to use particular linguistic variants associated with the social groups they identify with. The influence of other groups propagating across the speech community as new variant forms sustains the competition between linguistic variants. With the utterance selection model, an evolutionary description of language change, Baxter et al. [Phys. Rev. E 73, 046118 (2006)] have provided a mathematical formulation of the interactions inside a group of speakers, exploring the mechanisms that lead to or inhibit the fixation of linguistic variants. In this paper, we take the utterance selection model one step further by describing a speech community consisting of multiple interacting groups. Tuning the interaction strength between groups allows us to gain deeper understanding about the way in whic...

  16. The interactional significance of formulas in autistic language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbinson, Sushie; Perkins, Mick; Boucher, Jill

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of echolalia in autistic language is well documented. Whilst much early research dismissed echolalia as merely an indicator of cognitive limitation, later work identified particular discourse functions of echolalic utterances. The work reported here extends the study of the interactional significance of echolalia to formulaic utterances. Audio and video recordings of conversations between the first author and two research participants were transcribed and analysed according to a Conversation Analysis framework and a multi-layered linguistic framework. Formulaic language was found to have predictable interactional significance within the language of an individual with autism, and the generic phenomenon of formulaicity in company with predictable discourse function was seen to hold across the research participants, regardless of cognitive ability. The implications of formulaicity in autistic language for acquisition and processing mechanisms are discussed.

  17. "Multiculturalism" - a dead end in conceptualizing difference, or an open-ended approach to facilitating democratic experiences in the foreign language classroom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Tornberg

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this text is on the multicultural condition, related to the foreignlanguage classroom as a possible arena for democratic experiences. However,due to the increasing ambiguity, to say the least, of the conceptions of “culture”and “multiculturalism” today, I will argue that, depending on how “multicul-turalism” is conceived, this focus may indeed either lead to a cultural andcommunicative closure, or open up the possibility of multi-vocal dialogue andcommunication. If, on the one hand, “multiculturalism” is understood asdifference, mainly constituted by a variety of categorized cultural groupings,you may end up essentializing culture to something that people “have”, andthat is imposed on them collectively from an outside position. If, on the otherhand, cultural differences are seen as constructed within human practices ofongoing narratives and negotiations between individuals and groups – acrossand beyond all kinds of cultural borders – then the hybrid, pluralistic condi-tion of a society, or even of a foreign language classroom, may offer at least anopportunity for cultural identities to co-construct a social space, where nor-mative conflicts and different viewpoints could be dealt with through multi-vocal deliberative communication.

  18. Utterance Verification for Text-Dependent Speaker Recognition: a Comparative Assessment Using the RedDots Corpus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnunen, Tomi; Sahidullah, Md; Kukanov, Ivan;

    2016-01-01

    Text-dependent automatic speaker verification naturally calls for the simultaneous verification of speaker identity and spoken content. These two tasks can be achieved with automatic speaker verification (ASV) and utterance verification (UV) technologies. While both have been addressed previously...... in the literature, a treatment of simultaneous speaker and utterance verification with a modern, standard database is so far lacking. This is despite the burgeoning demand for voice biometrics in a plethora of practical security applications. With the goal of improving overall verification performance, this paper...... reports different strategies for simultaneous ASV and UV in the context of short-duration, text-dependent speaker verification. Experiments performed on the recently released RedDots corpus are reported for three different ASV systems and four different UV systems. Results show that the combination...

  19. Detecting Abnormal Word Utterances in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Machine-Learning-Based Voice Analysis Versus Speech Therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yasushi; Takiguchi, Tetsuya; Matsui, Gakuyo; Yamaoka, Noriko; Takada, Satoshi

    2017-10-01

    Abnormal prosody is often evident in the voice intonations of individuals with autism spectrum disorders. We compared a machine-learning-based voice analysis with human hearing judgments made by 10 speech therapists for classifying children with autism spectrum disorders ( n = 30) and typical development ( n = 51). Using stimuli limited to single-word utterances, machine-learning-based voice analysis was superior to speech therapist judgments. There was a significantly higher true-positive than false-negative rate for machine-learning-based voice analysis but not for speech therapists. Results are discussed in terms of some artificiality of clinician judgments based on single-word utterances, and the objectivity machine-learning-based voice analysis adds to judging abnormal prosody.

  20. Language choice in bimodal bilingual development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane eLillo-Martin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bilingual children develop sensitivity to the language used by their interlocutors at an early age, reflected in differential use of each language by the child depending on their interlocutor. Factors such as discourse context and relative language dominance in the community may mediate the degree of language differentiation in preschool age children.Bimodal bilingual children, acquiring both a sign language and a spoken language, have an even more complex situation. Their Deaf parents vary considerably in access to the spoken language. Furthermore, in addition to code-mixing and code-switching, they use code-blending – expressions in both speech and sign simultaneously – an option uniquely available to bimodal bilinguals. Code-blending is analogous to code-switching sociolinguistically, but is also a way to communicate without suppressing one language. For adult bimodal bilinguals, complete suppression of the non-selected language is cognitively demanding. We expect that bimodal bilingual children also find suppression difficult, and use blending rather than suppression in some contexts. We also expect relative community language dominance to be a factor in children’s language choices.This study analyzes longitudinal spontaneous production data from four bimodal bilingual children and their Deaf and hearing interlocutors. Even at the earliest observations, the children produced more signed utterances with Deaf interlocutors and more speech with hearing interlocutors. However, while three of the four children produced >75% speech alone in speech target sessions, they produced <25% sign alone in sign target sessions. All four produced bimodal utterances in both, but more frequently in the sign sessions, potentially because they find suppression of the dominant language more difficult.Our results indicate that these children are sensitive to the language used by their interlocutors, while showing considerable influence from the dominant

  1. Les systemes approximatifs et l'enseignement des langues secondes (Approximative Systems and the Teaching of Second Languages).

    Science.gov (United States)

    High, Virginia Lacastro

    Errors can be considered concrete representations of stages through which one must go in order to acquire one's native language and a second language. It has been discovered that certain errors appear systematically, revealing an approximate system, or "interlanguage," behind the erroneous utterances. Present research in second language…

  2. Data-Oriented Language Processing An Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Bod, R; Bod, Rens; Scha, Remko

    1996-01-01

    During the last few years, a new approach to language processing has started to emerge, which has become known under various labels such as "data-oriented parsing", "corpus-based interpretation", and "tree-bank grammar" (cf. van den Berg et al. 1994; Bod 1992-96; Bod et al. 1996a/b; Bonnema 1996; Charniak 1996a/b; Goodman 1996; Kaplan 1996; Rajman 1995a/b; Scha 1990-92; Sekine & Grishman 1995; Sima'an et al. 1994; Sima'an 1995-96; Tugwell 1995). This approach, which we will call "data-oriented processing" or "DOP", embodies the assumption that human language perception and production works with representations of concrete past language experiences, rather than with abstract linguistic rules. The models that instantiate this approach therefore maintain large corpora of linguistic representations of previously occurring utterances. When processing a new input utterance, analyses of this utterance are constructed by combining fragments from the corpus; the occurrence-frequencies of the fragments are used to ...

  3. How Coursebook Teaching Materials Facilitate English Classroom Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卉

    2013-01-01

    As classroom interaction forms the basis of any interactive language classroom, it is thus very important and valuable for language teacher to investigate. And This article attempts to account for how the teaching materials facilitate classroom interac-tion.

  4. 转喻视角下的名词性同义反复话语的分析%The Analysis of Nominal Tautological Utterances from the Perspective of Metonymy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑娟

    2011-01-01

    同义反复话语是言语交际中有趣的语言现象。修辞学家、逻辑学家及语言学家都很关注这种语言现象,并提出了很多看法。本文试图从认知转喻的角度阐释名词性同义反复话语"N是N"构式的意义及功能。%Tautological utterances are an interesting linguistic phenomenon in language communications. Rhetoricians, logicians and linguists all have been paying attentions to this linguistic phenomenon and putting forward some views. This paper attempts to interpr

  5. Interaction and Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红叶

    2016-01-01

    Based on Long's Interaction Hypothesis (IH), the paper examines the aspects of interaction that might facilitate natu-ralistic language development and goes further to propose features of interaction that could encourage classroom second lan-guage acquisition, in the hope that improved classroom interation will enhance teaching effectiveness in language classroom.

  6. Memory limitations and chunking are variable and cannot explain language structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Maryellen C

    2016-01-01

    Both the Now-or-Never bottleneck and the chunking mechanisms hypothesized to cope with it are more variable than Christiansen & Chater (C&C) suggest. These constructs are, therefore, too weak to support C&C's claims for the nature of language. Key aspects of the hierarchical nature of language instead arise from the nature of sequencing of subgoals during utterance planning in language production.

  7. Language Recognition Using Latent Dynamic Conditional Random Field Model with Phonological Features

    OpenAIRE

    Sirinoot Boonsuk; Atiwong Suchato; Proadpran Punyabukkana; Chai Wutiwiwatchai; Nattanun Thatphithakkul

    2014-01-01

    Spoken language recognition (SLR) has been of increasing interest in multilingual speech recognition for identifying the languages of speech utterances. Most existing SLR approaches apply statistical modeling techniques with acoustic and phonotactic features. Among the popular approaches, the acoustic approach has become of greater interest than others because it does not require any prior language-specific knowledge. Previous research on the acoustic approach has shown less interest in apply...

  8. Ways of looking ahead: hierarchical planning in language production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Kyung; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah; Watson, Duane G

    2013-12-01

    It is generally assumed that language production proceeds incrementally, with chunks of linguistic structure planned ahead of speech. Extensive research has examined the scope of language production and suggests that the size of planned chunks varies across contexts (Ferreira & Swets, 2002; Wagner & Jescheniak, 2010). By contrast, relatively little is known about the structure of advance planning, specifically whether planning proceeds incrementally according to the surface structure of the utterance, or whether speakers plan according to the hierarchical relationships between utterance elements. In two experiments, we examine the structure and scope of lexical planning in language production using a picture description task. Analyses of speech onset times and word durations show that speakers engage in hierarchical planning such that structurally dependent lexical items are planned together and that hierarchical planning occurs for both direct and indirect dependencies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A CLOSER LOOK AT THE ISSUES IN FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION: NINE MAJOR ISSUES REVISITED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfollah Karimi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Concerning issues in first language acquisition, the present paper explores positions in theory- making, asyntacticity of early child language, Piaget's idea about children's logical thinking, Vygotsky's and Chomsky's controversy over the origins of language, the relationship between communicative competence and other abilities, the stage where child's utterance is counted to be communicative, reflecting on the relationship between language and thought, the idea of modularity, the role of emergentism in language acquisition, and the authors’ perspectives about different explanations on language acquisition in general.

  10. Do Formulaic Utterances Cease to Be "Chunks" When They Are Analyzed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Yasuko

    1993-01-01

    Many second-language learners in their early stages of development are known to make an extensive use of prefabricated formulae. These formulae are extracted holistically from the input and memorized by rote. Learners can learn to use expressions that are far beyond their current knowledge of syntax and vocabulary, by guessing their meaning from…

  11. From Performance to Passionate Utterance: Rethinking the Purpose of Restorative Conference Scripts in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Naziya

    2017-01-01

    In recent years restorative practice in schools has been heralded as a new paradigm for thinking about student behaviour. Its premise is to provide solutions to indiscipline, to restore relationships where there has been conflict or harm, and to give pupils a language with which to understand wrongdoing. This article offers a critique of…

  12. Analysis of Characters’Utterances in Bianxingji From the Perspective of Politeness Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜寒箫; 王珏

    2014-01-01

    Bianxingji is a role-exchange reality show developed by Hunan Satellite TV. Based on Leech’s Politeness Principle, the author analyzes the actual language of Bianxingji. The author hopes this article will help the readers employ PP in daily communication to achieve a more harmonious interpersonal relationship.

  13. Analysis of Characters’ Utterances in BianxingjiFrom the Perspective of Politeness Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜寒箫; 王珏

    2014-01-01

    Bianxingji is a role-exchange reality show developed by Hunan Satellite TV.Based on Leech’s Politeness Principle,the author analyzes the actual language of Bianxingji.The author hopes this article will help the readers employ PP in daily communication to achieve a more harmonious interpersonal relationship.

  14. NATIVE LANGUAGE INFLUENCE IN LEARNERS'. ASSESSMENT OF ENGLISH FOCUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Garcia Lecumberri

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Accentual focus is a frequent linguistic device in English which may also be used in Spanish but less widely and less frequently. Given this disparity, it was expected that native language influence would manifest itself in FL leamers' focus assessrnents as cornpared to native English speakers. Other factors were also expected to account of listener perceptions, such as task type and linguistic competence. Two focus domains were used to test hypotheses: utterance initial and utterance medial focus. Focus identification was tested using two tasks which differed in their cognitive demands: multiple choice and open questions. Acceptability was estirnated by asking listeners to rate utterances on a five point scale. English NL listeners displayed better focus identification rates as cornpared to FL learners. This result may be understood both as an effect of native competence advantage and also as a reflection of native language influence. Both listener groups found utterance initial focus easier to identi@ and considered it to be more acceptable than medial focus. Both groups showed worse results in the open test, which is interpreted as a consequence of this task being more demanding on listeners' explicit knowledge. These trends were much more pronounced amongst FL leamers. It is suggested that the potential ambiguity of English medial focus is partly responsible for the bias against it. Additionally, Spanish listeners results show the their NL influence in this bias as well as in the good results for initial focus and acceptability estirnations.

  15. The SolemnAddress Uttered by Vasile Goldiş in Alba-Iulia on 1 December, 1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen GAGEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the report he presented before the Great National Assembly of Alba-Iulia, Vasile Goldişunderlined some of the ideals for which humankind had fought and continued to fight in the postwarperiod: national freedom, social equality. The solemn address he uttered is an expression of hishumanism and confidence in human civilization, of the conviction that the organization of ademocratic state and the achievement of equality of rights for all citizens are and must be a “workof civilization”.

  16. Context and Content: From Language to Thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FRANCOIS RECANATI

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I present an overview of my research in the philosophy of language in mind over more than tmrty years, from my early work on speech act theory to my current work on mental files. The unifying theme is context-dependence, both in language and thought. I distinguish several varieties of context-dependence and, along the way, provide tentative accounts of various phenomena: performative utterances, indexicals, modulation (metonymy and loose talk, free enrichment), de se thought, the content of experiential states, and immunity to error through misidentification.

  17. How Do Typically Developing Deaf Children and Deaf Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Use the Face When Comprehending Emotional Facial Expressions in British Sign Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, Tanya; Atkinson, Joanna; Campbell, Ruth; Swettenham, John

    2014-01-01

    Facial expressions in sign language carry a variety of communicative features. While emotion can modulate a spoken utterance through changes in intonation, duration and intensity, in sign language specific facial expressions presented concurrently with a manual sign perform this function. When deaf adult signers cannot see facial features, their…

  18. Differentiating the Use of Gaze in Bilingual-Bimodal Language Acquisition: A Comparison of Two Sets of Twins with Deaf Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond-Welty, E. Daylene; Siple, Patricia

    1999-01-01

    Gaze during utterance was examined in a set of bilingual-bimodal twins acquiring spoken English and American Sign Language (ASL) and a set of monolingual twins acquiring ASL. The bilingual-bimodal twins differentiated their languages by age 3. Like the monolingual twins, the bilingual-bimodal twins established mutual gaze at the beginning of their…

  19. Differentiating the Use of Gaze in Bilingual-Bimodal Language Acquisition: A Comparison of Two Sets of Twins with Deaf Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond-Welty, E. Daylene; Siple, Patricia

    1999-01-01

    Gaze during utterance was examined in a set of bilingual-bimodal twins acquiring spoken English and American Sign Language (ASL) and a set of monolingual twins acquiring ASL. The bilingual-bimodal twins differentiated their languages by age 3. Like the monolingual twins, the bilingual-bimodal twins established mutual gaze at the beginning of their…

  20. Unusual ictal foreign language automatisms in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soe, Naing Ko; Lee, Sang Kun

    2014-12-01

    The distinct brain regions could be specifically involved in different languages and the differences in brain activation depending on the language proficiency and on the age of language acquisition. Speech disturbances are observed in the majority of temporal lobe complex motor seizures. Ictal verbalization had significant lateralization value: 90% of patients with this manifestation had seizure focus in the non-dominant temporal lobe. Although, ictal speech automatisms are usually uttered in the patient's native language, ictal speech foreign language automatisms are unusual presentations of non-dominent temporal lobe epilepsy. The release of isolated foreign language area could be possible depending on the pattern of ictal spreading of non-dominant hemisphere. Most of the case reports in ictal speech foreign language automatisms were men. In this case report, we observed ictal foreign language automatisms in middle age Korean woman.

  1. Using naturalistic utterances to investigate vocal communication processing and development in human and non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talkington, William J; Taglialatela, Jared P; Lewis, James W

    2013-11-01

    Humans and several non-human primates possess cortical regions that are most sensitive to vocalizations produced by their own kind (conspecifics). However, the use of speech and other broadly defined categories of behaviorally relevant natural sounds has led to many discrepancies regarding where voice-sensitivity occurs, and more generally the identification of cortical networks, "proto-networks" or protolanguage networks, and pathways that may be sensitive or selective for certain aspects of vocalization processing. In this prospective review we examine different approaches for exploring vocal communication processing, including pathways that may be, or become, specialized for conspecific utterances. In particular, we address the use of naturally produced non-stereotypical vocalizations (mimicry of other animal calls) as another category of vocalization for use with human and non-human primate auditory systems. We focus this review on two main themes, including progress and future ideas for studying vocalization processing in great apes (chimpanzees) and in very early stages of human development, including infants and fetuses. Advancing our understanding of the fundamental principles that govern the evolution and early development of cortical pathways for processing non-verbal communication utterances is expected to lead to better diagnoses and early intervention strategies in children with communication disorders, improve rehabilitation of communication disorders resulting from brain injury, and develop new strategies for intelligent hearing aid and implant design that can better enhance speech signals in noisy environments. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Communication Sounds and the Brain: New Directions and Perspectives".

  2. Definition of (so MIScalled) ''Complexity'' as UTTER-SIMPLICITY!!! Versus Deviations From it as Complicatedness-Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, F.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    (so MIScalled) "complexity" with INHERENT BOTH SCALE-Invariance Symmetry-RESTORING, AND 1 / w (1.000..) "pink" Zipf-law Archimedes-HYPERBOLICITY INEVITABILITY power-spectrum power-law decay algebraicity. Their CONNECTION is via simple-calculus SCALE-Invariance Symmetry-RESTORING logarithm-function derivative: (d/ d ω) ln(ω) = 1 / ω , i.e. (d/ d ω) [SCALE-Invariance Symmetry-RESTORING](ω) = 1/ ω . Via Noether-theorem continuous-symmetries relation to conservation-laws: (d/ d ω) [inter-scale 4-current 4-div-ergence} = 0](ω) = 1 / ω . Hence (so MIScalled) "complexity" is information inter-scale conservation, in agreement with Anderson-Mandell [Fractals of Brain/Mind, G. Stamov ed.(1994)] experimental-psychology!!!], i.e. (so MIScalled) "complexity" is UTTER-SIMPLICITY!!! Versus COMPLICATEDNESS either PLUS (Additive) VS. TIMES (Multiplicative) COMPLICATIONS of various system-specifics. COMPLICATEDNESS-MEASURE DEVIATIONS FROM complexity's UTTER-SIMPLICITY!!!: EITHER [SCALE-Invariance Symmetry-BREAKING] MINUS [SCALE-Invariance Symmetry-RESTORING] via power-spectrum power-law algebraicity decays DIFFERENCES: ["red"-Pareto] MINUS ["pink"-Zipf Archimedes-HYPERBOLICITY INEVITABILITY]!!!

  3. The verbal-visual discourse in Brazilian Sign Language – Libras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Felipe

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to broaden the discussion on verbal-visual utterances, reflecting upon theoretical assumptions of the Bakhtin Circle that can reinforce the argument that the utterances of a language that employs a visual-gestural modality convey plastic-pictorial and spatial values of signs also through non-manual markers (NMMs. This research highlights the difference between affective expressions, which are paralinguistic communications that may complement an utterance, and verbal-visual grammatical markers, which are linguistic because they are part of the architecture of phonological, morphological, syntactic-semantic and discursive levels in a particular language. These markers will be described, taking the Brazilian Sign Language–Libras as a starting point, thereby including this language in discussions of verbal-visual discourse when investigating the need to do research on this discourse also in the linguistic analyses of oral-auditory modality languages, including Transliguistics as an area of knowledge that analyzes discourse, focusing upon the verbal-visual markers used by the subjects in their utterance acts.

  4. Insight into the neurophysiological processes of melodically intoned language with functional MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orellana, Carolina P. Mendez; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke E.; Saliasi, Emi; van der Meulen, Ineke; Klip, Simone; van der Lugt, Aad; Smits, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Background: Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT) uses the melodic elements of speech to improve language production in severe nonfluent aphasia. A crucial element of MIT is the melodically intoned auditory input: the patient listens to the therapist singing a target utterance. Such input of melodically

  5. Verb Morphology Deficits in Arabic-Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Fauzia; Crago, Martha

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores tense and agreement marking in the spontaneous production of verbs in Arabic-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and two groups of typically developing children: one group matched for mean length of utterance, and the other group matched for age. The special characteristics of Arabic such as its rich bound…

  6. Child and Maternal Contributions to Shared Reading: Effects on Language and Literacy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckner, Deborah F.; Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-five children and their mothers were studied longitudinally from 18 to 42 months to determine the effects of home literacy practices, children's interest in reading, and mothers' metalingual utterances during reading on children's expressive and receptive language development, letter knowledge, and knowledge of print concepts. At 27 months,…

  7. Increasing Second Language Learners' Production and Comprehension of Developmentally Advanced Syntactic Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez, Perla B.; Vasilyeva, Marina

    2015-01-01

    This investigation extended the use of the priming methodology to 5- and 6-year-olds at the beginning stages of learning English as a second language (L2). In Study 1, 14 L2 children described transitive scenes without an experimenter's input. They produced no passives and minimal actives; most of their utterances were incomplete. In Study 2, 56…

  8. Insight into the neurophysiological processes of melodically intoned language with functional MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orellana, Carolina P. Mendez; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke E.; Saliasi, Emi; van der Meulen, Ineke; Klip, Simone; van der Lugt, Aad; Smits, Marion

    Background: Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT) uses the melodic elements of speech to improve language production in severe nonfluent aphasia. A crucial element of MIT is the melodically intoned auditory input: the patient listens to the therapist singing a target utterance. Such input of melodically

  9. Increasing Second Language Learners' Production and Comprehension of Developmentally Advanced Syntactic Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez, Perla B.; Vasilyeva, Marina

    2015-01-01

    This investigation extended the use of the priming methodology to 5- and 6-year-olds at the beginning stages of learning English as a second language (L2). In Study 1, 14 L2 children described transitive scenes without an experimenter's input. They produced no passives and minimal actives; most of their utterances were incomplete. In Study 2, 56…

  10. Conduite du discours enfantin et complexite syntaxique (Child Language Behavior and Syntactical Complexity)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Genevieve

    1976-01-01

    Criticizes traditional methods of defining the syntactical complexity of utterances and proposes distinguishing the various types of subordination in the sentence as well as elements of continuity and discontinuity in discourse structure, with particular reference to child language. (Text is in French.) (CDSH/AM)

  11. On the Margins of Discourse: The Relation of Literature to Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barbara Herrnstein

    This centrally focused collection of articles and lectures examines literary interpretation and the relation of literature to language. The first of the book's three parts introduces the distinction between natural discourse and fictive discourse (verbal structures that function as representatives of natural utterances). It also deals with the…

  12. The teaching of African languages to European students: the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dictionaries and learning grammars with the linguistic facts used in everyday conversations. ... languages, who often don't have the opportunity to study among native speakers ... (lmu) to choose two suitable persons out of the mass of applicants. ..... First, 'yaani' can signal that the utterances produced immediately before by.

  13. Beginning to talk like an adult: increases in speech-like utterances in young cochlear implant recipients and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertmer, David J; Jung, Jongmin; Kloiber, Diana True

    2013-11-01

    Speech-like utterances containing rapidly combined consonants and vowels eventually dominate the prelinguistic and early word productions of typically developing (TD) toddlers. It seems reasonable to expect a similar phenomenon in young recipients of cochlear implants (CIs). The authors of this study sought to determine the number of months of robust hearing experience needed to achieve a majority of speech-like utterances in both of these groups. Speech samples were recorded from CI recipients at 3-month intervals during the first 2 years of CI experience, and from TD children at time points between 6 and 24 months of age. Speech-like utterances were operationally defined as those belonging to the basic canonical syllables (BCS) or advanced forms (AF) levels of the Consolidated Stark Assessment of Early Vocal Development-Revised ( Ertmer, Young, & Nathani, 2007). On average, the CI group achieved a majority of speech-like utterances after 12 months of robust hearing experience and the TD group after 18 months. The CI group produced greater percentages of speech-like utterances at each interval until 24 months, when both groups approximated 80%. Auditory deprivation did not limit progress in vocal development as young CI recipients showed more-rapid-than-typical speech development during the first 2 years of device use. Implications for the infraphonological model of speech development are considered.

  14. Beginning to Talk Like an Adult: Increases in Speech-like Utterances in Young Cochlear Implant Recipients and Toddlers with Normal Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertmer, David J.; Jung, Jongmin; Kloiber, Diana True

    2013-01-01

    Background Speech-like utterances containing rapidly combined consonants and vowels eventually dominate the prelinguistic and early word productions of toddlers who are developing typically (TD). It seems reasonable to expect a similar phenomenon in young cochlear implants (CI) recipients. This study sought to determine the number of months of robust hearing experience needed to achieve a majority of speech-like utterances in both of these groups. Methods Speech samples were recorded at 3-month intervals during the first 2 years of CI experience, and between 6- and 24 months of age in TD children. Speech-like utterances were operationally defined as those belonging to the Basic Canonical Syllables (BCS) or Advanced Forms (AF) levels of the Consolidated Stark Assessment of Early Vocal Development-Revised. Results On average, the CI group achieved a majority of speech- like utterances after 12 months, and the TD group after 18 months of robust hearing experience. The CI group produced greater percentages of speech-like utterances at each interval until 24-months, when both groups approximated 80%. Conclusion Auditory deprivation did not limit progress in vocal development as young CI recipients showed more-rapid-than-typical speech development during the first 2 years of device use. Implications for the Infraphonological model of speech development are considered. PMID:23813203

  15. Psycholinguistics discovers the operant: a review of Roger Brown's A first language: the early stages1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Evalyn F.

    1975-01-01

    Brown's book is selectively reviewed with the aim of noting points of similarity between Brown's psycholinguistic analysis of language acquisition and a functional analysis of verbal behavior. Brown divides early language acquisition into five stages, based on mean length of utterance in samples of child speech. His book concentrates on Stage I, when mean length of utterance first rises above 1.0, indicating that children are beginning to speak in multi-morphemic utterances, and Stage II, when mean length of utterance in morphemes is about 2.25. Multi-morphemic utterances in Stage I consist mainly of ordered sequences of uninflected nouns and verbs, the order being that of the simple declarative sentence (agent-action-indirect object-direct object-locative). The review attempts a theoretical analysis of the functional stimulus control of Stage I syntactic order, concluding that the control must originate partly in relations among events in the environment and partly in covert autoclitic verbal behavior. Increases in mean length of utterance in Stage II are mainly due to the appearance of several “grammatical morphemes” such as the progressive -ing inflection on verbs and the plural -s inflection on nouns. The review attempts a behavioral paraphrase, again in terms of tacts and autoclitics, of Brown's psycholinguistic analysis of grammatical morphemes, concluding that Stage II displays the further development, building on Stage I, of the combined control of verbal behavior by relations in the environment and covert self-generated verbal stimuli. Similarities between Brown's psycholinguistic analysis and a functional analysis of language acquisition suggest that the two viewpoints are converging on a common concern with the stimulus control of verbal behavior.

  16. Quantifying repetitive speech in autism spectrum disorders and language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Santen, Jan P H; Sproat, Richard W; Hill, Alison Presmanes

    2013-10-01

    We report on an automatic technique for quantifying two types of repetitive speech: repetitions of what the child says him/herself (self-repeats) and of what is uttered by an interlocutor (echolalia). We apply this technique to a sample of 111 children between the ages of four and eight: 42 typically developing children (TD), 19 children with specific language impairment (SLI), 25 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) plus language impairment (ALI), and 25 children with ASD with normal, non-impaired language (ALN). The results indicate robust differences in echolalia between the TD and ASD groups as a whole (ALN + ALI), and between TD and ALN children. There were no significant differences between ALI and SLI children for echolalia or self-repetitions. The results confirm previous findings that children with ASD repeat the language of others more than other populations of children. On the other hand, self-repetition does not appear to be significantly more frequent in ASD, nor does it matter whether the child's echolalia occurred within one (immediate) or two turns (near-immediate) of the adult's original utterance. Furthermore, non-significant differences between ALN and SLI, between TD and SLI, and between ALI and TD are suggestive that echolalia may not be specific to ALN or to ASD in general. One important innovation of this work is an objective fully automatic technique for assessing the amount of repetition in a transcript of a child's utterances.

  17. Facilitering som styringsredskab

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Karen Overgaard

    2006-01-01

    #This thesis surveys facilitation as a new tool of steering within the public sector in Denmark. It is explored how facilitation is articulated and practiced among facilitators from the public, private and voluntary sector. Furthermore, the facilitator’s challenges by using facilitation are examined. The thesis is based on the presumption that facilitation is articulated by rationalities, which influence how facilitation is practiced and performed. Also, a facilitator is seen as a performer a...

  18. Predicting utterance pitch targets in Yoruba for tone realisation in speech synthesis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, DR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available -velar stop />gb/ and certain nasalised vowels indicated by a succeeding n, for example o.n refers to /O˜/). The syllable structure is relatively simple, with all syllables being open or consisting of syllabic nasals with no consonant clusters; thus any... of consonant-vowel (CV), vowel only (V) and syllabic nasal (N). A more detailed presentation of these language details can be found in Section 2 of O. de´. jo. bı´ et al. (2006). The Yoru`ba´ tone system is based on 3 tonemes (H, M and L), with rising...

  19. Awakening the Languages. Challenges of Enduring Language Programs: Field Reports from 15 Programs from Arizona, New Mexico and Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Mary S.; Naranjo, Tessie; Nicholas, Sheilah; Slaughter, Inee; Yamamoto, Akira; Zepeda, Ofelia

    The Indigenous Language Institute (ILI) collaborates with indigenous language communities to combat language decline. ILI facilitates community-based language programs, increases public awareness of language endangerment, and disseminates information on language preservation and successful language revitalization programs. In response to numerous…

  20. Multiple levels of bilingual language control: evidence from language intrusions in reading aloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Tamar H; Schotter, Elizabeth R; Gomez, Joanne; Murillo, Mayra; Rayner, Keith

    2014-02-01

    Bilinguals rarely produce words in an unintended language. However, we induced such intrusion errors (e.g., saying el instead of he) in 32 Spanish-English bilinguals who read aloud single-language (English or Spanish) and mixed-language (haphazard mix of English and Spanish) paragraphs with English or Spanish word order. These bilinguals produced language intrusions almost exclusively in mixed-language paragraphs, and most often when attempting to produce dominant-language targets (accent-only errors also exhibited reversed language-dominance effects). Most intrusion errors occurred for function words, especially when they were not from the language that determined the word order in the paragraph. Eye movements showed that fixating a word in the nontarget language increased intrusion errors only for function words. Together, these results imply multiple mechanisms of language control, including (a) inhibition of the dominant language at both lexical and sublexical processing levels, (b) special retrieval mechanisms for function words in mixed-language utterances, and (c) attentional monitoring of the target word for its match with the intended language.

  1. Vague Language and Its Application in Business Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金霞; 曹林

    2011-01-01

    <正>As vague language can be widely identified in business communication and positive effects can be achieved when properly handled,this thesis tries to explain the reasonable existence of vague language in business communication.Though there are many forms of classification,the author of this thesis attaches great importance to pragmatic vagueness.Through concrete examples of vague language in business negotiation,the author verifies her point of view.The adoption of vague expressions can help to make the utterance more diplomatic,euphemistic and easier to be accepted.

  2. Analysis of Pragmatic Function of Humorous Utterances in Business Communication%商务交际中的幽默言语语用功能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗国太; 李娟

    2012-01-01

    Through the analysis of the feasibility of using humorous utterances in business communication, the paper briefly explored three functions of humorous utterances in business communication from a social pragmatic perspective, such as relaxation of tensions, saving face, sarcasm, criticism and irony.%通过对商务交际中使用幽默言语的可行性分析,从社会语用的角度,总结了幽默言语在商务交际中缓和紧张局面,保全“面子”,讽刺批判和自我解嘲的功能。

  3. Deep bottleneck features for spoken language identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Jiang

    Full Text Available A key problem in spoken language identification (LID is to design effective representations which are specific to language information. For example, in recent years, representations based on both phonotactic and acoustic features have proven their effectiveness for LID. Although advances in machine learning have led to significant improvements, LID performance is still lacking, especially for short duration speech utterances. With the hypothesis that language information is weak and represented only latently in speech, and is largely dependent on the statistical properties of the speech content, existing representations may be insufficient. Furthermore they may be susceptible to the variations caused by different speakers, specific content of the speech segments, and background noise. To address this, we propose using Deep Bottleneck Features (DBF for spoken LID, motivated by the success of Deep Neural Networks (DNN in speech recognition. We show that DBFs can form a low-dimensional compact representation of the original inputs with a powerful descriptive and discriminative capability. To evaluate the effectiveness of this, we design two acoustic models, termed DBF-TV and parallel DBF-TV (PDBF-TV, using a DBF based i-vector representation for each speech utterance. Results on NIST language recognition evaluation 2009 (LRE09 show significant improvements over state-of-the-art systems. By fusing the output of phonotactic and acoustic approaches, we achieve an EER of 1.08%, 1.89% and 7.01% for 30 s, 10 s and 3 s test utterances respectively. Furthermore, various DBF configurations have been extensively evaluated, and an optimal system proposed.

  4. Relation between language experiences in preschool classrooms and children's kindergarten and fourth-grade language and reading abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David K; Porche, Michelle V

    2011-01-01

    Indirect effects of preschool classroom indexes of teacher talk were tested on fourth-grade outcomes for 57 students from low-income families in a longitudinal study of classroom and home influences on reading. Detailed observations and audiotaped teacher and child language data were coded to measure content and quantity of verbal interactions in preschool classrooms. Preschool teachers' use of sophisticated vocabulary during free play predicted fourth-grade reading comprehension and word recognition (mean age=9; 7), with effects mediated by kindergarten child language measures (mean age=5; 6). In large group preschool settings, teachers' attention-getting utterances were directly related to later comprehension. Preschool teachers' correcting utterances and analytic talk about books, and early support in the home for literacy predicted fourth-grade vocabulary, as mediated by kindergarten receptive vocabulary.

  5. Theories of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, H J; Howell, R W

    1971-03-01

    Prior to the advent of generative grammar, theoretical approaches to language development relied heavily upon the concepts ofdifferential reinforcement andimitation. Current studies of linguistic acquisition are largely dominated by the hypothesis that the child constructs his language on the basis of a primitive grammar which gradually evolves into a more complex grammar. This approach presupposes that the investigator does not impose his own grammatical rules on the utterances of the child; that the sound system of the child and the rules he employs to form sentences are to be described in their own terms, independently of the model provided by the adult linguistic community; and that there is a series of steps or stages through which the child passes on his way toward mastery of the adult grammar in his linguistic environment. This paper attempts to trace the development of human vocalization through prelinguistic stages to the development of what can be clearly recognized as language behavior, and then progresses to transitional phases in which the language of the child begins to approximate that of the adult model. In the view of the authors, the most challenging problems which confront theories of linguistic acquisition arise in seeking to account for structure of sound sequences, in the rules that enable the speaker to go from meaning to sound and which enable the listener to go from sound to meaning. The principal area of concern for the investigator, according to the authors, is the discovery of those rules at various stages of the learning process. The paper concludes with a return to the question of what constitutes an adequate theory of language ontogenesis. It is suggested that such a theory will have to be keyed to theories of cognitive development and will have to include and go beyond a theory which accounts for adult language competence and performance, since these represent only the terminal stage of linguistic ontogenesis.

  6. Chinese spoken language understanding in SHTQS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Jia-ju; GUO Rong; LU Ru-zhan

    2005-01-01

    Spoken dialogue systems are an active research field with wide applications. But the differences in the Chinese spoken dialogue system are not as distinct as that of English. In Chinese spoken dialogues, there are many language phenomena. Firstly, most utterances are ill-formed. Secondly, ellipsis, anaphora and negation are also widely used in Chinese spoken dialogue. Determining how to extract semantic information from incomplete sentences and resolve negation, anaphora and ellipsis is crucial. SHTQS ( Shanghai Transportation Query System) is an intelligent telephone-based spoken dialogue system providing information about the best route between any two sites in Shanghai. After a brief description of the system, the natural language processing is emphasized.Speech recognition sentences unavoidably contain errors. In language sequence processing procedures,these errors can be easily passed to the later parts and take on a ripple effect. To detect and recover these from errors as early as possible, language-processing strategies are specially considered. For errors resulting from divided words in speech recognition, segmentation and POS Tagging approaches that can rectify these errors are designed. Since most of the inquiry utterances are ill-formed and negation, anaphora and ellipsis are common language phenomena, the language understanding must be adequately adaptive. So, a partial syntactic parsing scheme is adopted and a chart algorithm is used. The parser is based on unification grammar. The semantic frame that extracts from the best arc set of the chart is used to represent the meaning of sentences. The negation, anaphora and ellipsis are also analyzed and corresponding processing approaches are presented. The accuracy of the language processing part is 88. 39% and the testing result shows that the language processing strategies are rational and effective.

  7. Integrating Language and Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmeyer, Jon, Ed.; Barduhn, Susan, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The definition of "English language classroom" is changing. When students have the opportunity to learn content and language at the same time, disciplinary boundaries overlap. Teachers are rethinking how they design courses, plan lessons, assess students, and collaborate with colleagues to support student learning and facilitate their…

  8. Narrative Language Competence in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Moore Channell

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the narrative language abilities of children and adolescents with Down syndrome in comparison to same-age peers with fragile X syndrome and younger typically developing children matched by nonverbal cognitive ability levels. Participants produced narrative retells from a wordless picture book. Narratives were analyzed at the macrostructural (i.e., their internal episodic structure and the microstructural (i.e., rate of use of specific word categories levels. Mean length of utterance, a microstructural metric of syntactic complexity, was used as a control variable. Participants with Down syndrome produced fewer episodic elements in their narratives (i.e., their narratives were less fully realized than the typically developing participants, although mean length of utterance differences accounted for the macrostructural differences between participant groups. At the microstructural level, participants with Down syndrome displayed a lower rate of verb use than the groups with fragile X syndrome and typical development, even after accounting for mean length of utterance. These findings reflect both similarities and differences between individuals with Down syndrome or fragile X syndrome and contribute to our understanding of the language phenotype of Down syndrome. Implications for interventions to promote language development and academic achievement are discussed.

  9. Manipulative-semantic complications of utterance syntax based on the British parliamentary speeches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zyubina Irina Anatolevna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the possible impact on the addressee by manipulating. The analysis was applied to the manipulative strategy of the syntax complexity by the targeted and motivated selection of the best linguistic units of semantic pragmatic content. The relevance of the parliamentary discourse study is dictated by the need to search the best ways of speech influence on the audience for the parliament members, on the one hand, and the need to understand the real intentions of the audience and latent methods of language manipulation, on the other hand. The purpose of this article is to consider and identify the peculiarities of the mechanism of linguistic manipulation in the parliamentary speeches of the UK at the syntactic level. The study analyses the texts of the parliamentary political discourse of Britain on the issues related to the situation in the Ukraine in 2015. As a result, it was found out that the most frequent are the following means of manipulation: repetition inside a statement, antithesis, anaphora, syntactic parallelism, ellipse, inversion, rhetorical question, graduation, anadiplosis and epiphora. The study of such a mechanism of manipulation with the help of linguistic means and understanding its laws are important because they help to avoid the psycho-technical effect of speech manipulation, aggression or even speech abuse.

  10. Who Is Responsible for Understanding in a Conversation? A Contrastive Pragmatic Analysis of Utterances in Japanese and Korean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sumi

    2012-01-01

    Korean learners of the Japanese language and Japanese learners of the Korean language not only feel that it is easier to learn the respective foreign language, but also acquire Japanese and Korean faster than learners from other countries because of the grammatical similarity between Japanese and Korean. However, the similarity of grammatical…

  11. GenieTutor: A Computer Assisted Second-Language Learning System Based on Semantic and Grammar Correctness Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh-Woog; Lee, Kiyoung; Kim, Young-Kil; Lee, Yunkeun

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a Dialog-Based Computer-Assisted second-Language Learning (DB-CALL) system using semantic and grammar correctness evaluations and the results of its experiment. While the system dialogues with English learners about a given topic, it automatically evaluates the grammar and content properness of their English utterances, then…

  12. Anxiety in foreign language learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英

    2012-01-01

    Among the affective emotional variables in foreign language learning and teaching, anxiety stands out as one of the main blocking factors for affective language learning. In this paper, the author comes up with some solutions in dealing with different types of anxiety. The author believes the facilitative anxiety may benefit a lot in language teaching and learning.

  13. Language as a multimodal phenomenon: implications for language learning, processing and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigliocco, Gabriella; Perniss, Pamela; Vinson, David

    2014-09-19

    Our understanding of the cognitive and neural underpinnings of language has traditionally been firmly based on spoken Indo-European languages and on language studied as speech or text. However, in face-to-face communication, language is multimodal: speech signals are invariably accompanied by visual information on the face and in manual gestures, and sign languages deploy multiple channels (hands, face and body) in utterance construction. Moreover, the narrow focus on spoken Indo-European languages has entrenched the assumption that language is comprised wholly by an arbitrary system of symbols and rules. However, iconicity (i.e. resemblance between aspects of communicative form and meaning) is also present: speakers use iconic gestures when they speak; many non-Indo-European spoken languages exhibit a substantial amount of iconicity in word forms and, finally, iconicity is the norm, rather than the exception in sign languages. This introduction provides the motivation for taking a multimodal approach to the study of language learning, processing and evolution, and discusses the broad implications of shifting our current dominant approaches and assumptions to encompass multimodal expression in both signed and spoken languages. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Language, Language Teaching and Language Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文华

    2002-01-01

    Departing from a brief presentation of the various views of language, this article elaborates the influence of views of languageon language teaching and language testing. This will help us have background knowledge on language teaching and language testing.

  15. Language-Specific Effects on Story and Procedural Narrative tasks between Korean-speaking and English-speaking Individuals with Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee Eun Sung

    2015-04-01

    Results suggested that Korean-speaking individuals with aphasia produced more numbers of different verbs, number of verbs per utterance and higher VNRs than English speakers. Both groups generated more words in story. The significant two-way interactions between the language group and task type suggested that there are task-specific effects on linguistic measures across the groups. The study implied that the linguistic characteristics differentially affected language symptoms of aphasia across the different languages and task types.

  16. Differentiating the use of gaze in bilingual-bimodal language acquisition: a comparison of two sets of twins with deaf parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond-Welty, E D; Siple, P

    1999-06-01

    Signed languages make unique demands on gaze during communication. Bilingual children acquiring both a spoken and a signed language must learn to differentiate gaze use for their two languages. Gaze during utterances was examined for a set of bilingual-bimodal twins acquiring spoken English and American Sign Language (ASL) and a set of monolingual twins acquiring ASL when the twins were aged 2;0, 3;0 and 4;0. The bilingual-bimodal twins differentiated their languages by age 3;0. Like the monolingual ASL twins, the bilingual-bimodal twins established mutual gaze at the beginning of their ASL utterances and either maintained gaze to the end or alternated gaze to include a terminal look. In contrast, like children acquiring spoken English monolingually, the bilingual-bimodal twins established mutual gaze infrequently for their spoken English utterances. When they did establish mutual gaze, it occurred later in their spoken utterances and they tended to look away before the end.

  17. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the school and home language environments of preschool-aged children with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Sloane; Audet, Lisa; Harjusola-Webb, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to begin to characterize and compare the school and home language environments of 10 preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Naturalistic language samples were collected from each child, utilizing Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) digital voice recorder technology, at 3-month intervals over the course of one year. LENA software was used to identify 15-min segments of each sample that represented the highest number of adult words used during interactions with each child for all school and home language samples. Selected segments were transcribed and analyzed using Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT). LENA data was utilized to evaluate quantitative characteristics of the school and home language environments and SALT data was utilized to evaluate quantitative and qualitative characteristics of language environment. Results revealed many similarities in home and school language environments including the degree of semantic richness, and complexity of adult language, types of utterances, and pragmatic functions of utterances used by adults during interactions with child participants. Study implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. The reader will be able to, (1) describe how two language sampling technologies can be utilized together to collect and analyze language samples, (2) describe characteristics of the school and home language environments of young children with ASD, and (3) identify environmental factors that may lead to more positive expressive language outcomes of young children with ASD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Phrase frequency effects in language production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Janssen

    Full Text Available A classic debate in the psychology of language concerns the question of the grain-size of the linguistic information that is stored in memory. One view is that only morphologically simple forms are stored (e.g., 'car', 'red', and that more complex forms of language such as multi-word phrases (e.g., 'red car' are generated on-line from the simple forms. In two experiments we tested this view. In Experiment 1, participants produced noun+adjective and noun+noun phrases that were elicited by experimental displays consisting of colored line drawings and two superimposed line drawings. In Experiment 2, participants produced noun+adjective and determiner+noun+adjective utterances elicited by colored line drawings. In both experiments, naming latencies decreased with increasing frequency of the multi-word phrase, and were unaffected by the frequency of the object name in the utterance. These results suggest that the language system is sensitive to the distribution of linguistic information at grain-sizes beyond individual words.

  19. Symbolic gestures and spoken language are processed by a common neural system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiang; Gannon, Patrick J; Emmorey, Karen; Smith, Jason F; Braun, Allen R

    2009-12-08

    Symbolic gestures, such as pantomimes that signify actions (e.g., threading a needle) or emblems that facilitate social transactions (e.g., finger to lips indicating "be quiet"), play an important role in human communication. They are autonomous, can fully take the place of words, and function as complete utterances in their own right. The relationship between these gestures and spoken language remains unclear. We used functional MRI to investigate whether these two forms of communication are processed by the same system in the human brain. Responses to symbolic gestures, to their spoken glosses (expressing the gestures' meaning in English), and to visually and acoustically matched control stimuli were compared in a randomized block design. General Linear Models (GLM) contrasts identified shared and unique activations and functional connectivity analyses delineated regional interactions associated with each condition. Results support a model in which bilateral modality-specific areas in superior and inferior temporal cortices extract salient features from vocal-auditory and gestural-visual stimuli respectively. However, both classes of stimuli activate a common, left-lateralized network of inferior frontal and posterior temporal regions in which symbolic gestures and spoken words may be mapped onto common, corresponding conceptual representations. We suggest that these anterior and posterior perisylvian areas, identified since the mid-19th century as the core of the brain's language system, are not in fact committed to language processing, but may function as a modality-independent semiotic system that plays a broader role in human communication, linking meaning with symbols whether these are words, gestures, images, sounds, or objects.

  20. Pitch enhancement facilitates word learning across visual contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piera eFilippi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates word-learning using a new model that integrates three processes: a extracting a word out of a continuous sound sequence, b inferring its referential meanings in context, c mapping the segmented word onto its broader intended referent, such as other objects of the same semantic category, and to novel utterances. Previous work has examined the role of statistical learning and/or of prosody in each of these processes separately. Here, we combine these strands of investigation into a single experimental approach, in which participants viewed a photograph belonging to one of three semantic categories while hearing a complex, five-syllable utterance containing a one-syllable target word. Six between-subjects conditions were tested with 20 adult participants each. In condition 1, the only cue to word-meaning mapping was the co-occurrence of word and referents. This statistical cue was present in all conditions. In condition 2, the target word was sounded at a higher pitch. In condition 3, random one-syllable words were sounded at a higher pitch, creating an inconsistent cue. In condition 4, the duration of the target word was lengthened. In conditions 5 and 6, an extraneous acoustic cue and a visual cue were associated with the target word, respectively. Performance in this word-learning task was significantly higher than that observed with simple co-occurrence only when pitch prominence consistently marked the target word. We discuss implications for the intentional value of pitch marking as well as the relevance of our findings to language acquisition and language evolution.

  1. Development of an Expressive Language Sampling Procedure in Fragile X Syndrome: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Doll, Emily; Sterling, Audra; Kover, Sara T; Schroeder, Susen M; Mathur, Shaguna; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Objective There is a great need for valid outcome measures of functional improvement for impending clinical trials of targeted interventions for Fragile X syndrome (FXS). Families often report conversational language improvement during clinical treatment, but no validated measures exist to quantify this outcome. This small-scale study sought to determine the feasibility, reproducibility, and clinical validity of highly structured expressive language sampling as an outcome measure reflecting language ability. Methods Narrative and conversation tasks were administered to 36 verbal participants (25 males, 11 females) with FXS (age 5–36, mean 18±7). Alternate versions were used with randomized task order, at 2–3 week (mean 19.6±6.4 days) intervals. Audio recordings of sessions were transcribed and analyzed. Dependent measures reflected talkativeness (total number of utterances), utterance planning (proportion of communication (C) units with mazes), articulation (proportion of unintelligible/partly unintelligible C-units), vocabulary (number of different word roots) and syntactic ability (mean length of utterance (MLU) in words). Reproducibility of measures was evaluated with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Results All participants could complete the tasks. Coded data were highly reproducible with Pearson correlations pVABS). Conclusions These expressive language sampling tasks appear to be feasible, reproducible, and clinically valid and should be further validated in a larger cohort, as a promising means of assessing functional expressive language outcomes during clinical trials in FXS. PMID:23669871

  2. Spoken Word Recognition Strategy for Tamil Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An. Sigappi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a strategy for recognizing a preferred vocabulary of words spoken in Tamil language. The basic philosophy is to extract the features using mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC from the spoken words that are used as representative features of the speech to create models that aid in recognition. The models chosen for the task are hidden Markov models (HMM and autoassociative neural networks (AANN. The HMM is used to model the temporal nature of speech and the AANNs to capture the distribution of feature vectors in the feature space. The created models provide a way to investigate an unexplored speech recognition arena for the Tamil language. The performance of the strategy is evaluated for a number of test utterances through HMM and AANN and the results project the reliability of HMM for emerging applications in regional languages.

  3. Shaping at the point of utterance: an investigation of the composing processes of the deaf student writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, C

    1999-01-01

    All writers face the challenge of making meaning on a blank page. They struggle to make meaning for themselves and to communicate this meaning to the potential readers of their texts. Although, in this way, the act of writing can be perceived as a solitary endeavor, the activity of writing, as one aspect of literacy development, is embedded in a sociocultural framework and must be considered not only from the perspective of an individual's mental functioning but from the social context in which it exists. What follows is a preliminary report from a larger case study examining the composing processes of four deaf student writers. This broader study aspires to the goal of sociocultural research, which is to understand the relationship between human mental functioning, on one hand and cultural historical and institutional settings, on the other (Wertsch, 1995). From such a perspective, individual mental processes and sociocultural setting are understood in terms of this relationship, and human action is understood in the context of interrelated moments. I focus on one 'moment' of the writing process that I will term, to borrow a phrase from Stephen Krashen (1977) and James Britton (1978), 'shaping at the point of utterance.' In other words, I will explore what deaf writers do as they face the 'challenge of the blank page.'

  4. The use of sophisticated words with children with specific language impairment during shared book reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorano, Marinella; Lavelli, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the use of sophisticated (i.e., low-frequency) words with children with specific language impairment (SLI), the present study investigates the relationship between maternal interactive support for meaning and both conversational responsiveness and lexical development of children with SLI. Fifteen Italian-speaking children with SLI (age range: 3;4-5;6) and two groups of typically developing children--15 chronological age (CA)-matched (3;8-5;8) and 15 language age (LA)-matched (1;10-3;5)--were videotaped during shared book reading with their mothers. Maternal utterances which included or were related to a sophisticated word were coded on the basis of informativeness and scaffolding provided; child utterances were coded for complexity. In addition, child's lexical development was assessed three months later. Mothers of children with SLI produced a higher percentage of directly informative utterances with gestural scaffolding than did mothers of CA-matched children, and only in the SLI group this kind of utterances were significantly followed by child's extended utterances. Child's lexical development (production) was related to direct maternal informativeness in both the SLI- and CA-matched groups, and to gestural scaffolding only in the SLI group. On the whole, these findings suggest that mothers of children with SLI attune their language to their children's linguistic limitations and that the gestural quality of the interactive scaffolding is related to these children's conversational participation and their level of lexical progress. The reader will recognize the importance of maternal support for the meaning of low-frequency words in promoting the child's conversational responsiveness and lexical development, particularly with children with SLI. These children seem to benefit when provided with direct information accompanied by gestural scaffolding. These findings, if replicated with a larger group of participants, could help clinicians develop

  5. Learning facilitating leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne

    2016-01-01

    in teaching facilitation and the literature. These types of skills are most effectively acquired by combining conceptual lectures, classroom exercises and the facilitation of groups in a real-life context. The paper also reflects certain ‘shadow sides’ related to facilitation observed by the students...

  6. Flipped Approach to Mobile Assisted Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Junko

    2013-01-01

    There are abundant possibilities for using smart phones and tablet computers for foreign language learning. However, if there is an emphasis on memorization or on technology, language learners may not develop proficiency in their target language. Therefore, language teachers should be familiar with strategies for facilitating creative…

  7. Spoken Language Understanding Systems for Extracting Semantic Information from Speech

    CERN Document Server

    Tur, Gokhan

    2011-01-01

    Spoken language understanding (SLU) is an emerging field in between speech and language processing, investigating human/ machine and human/ human communication by leveraging technologies from signal processing, pattern recognition, machine learning and artificial intelligence. SLU systems are designed to extract the meaning from speech utterances and its applications are vast, from voice search in mobile devices to meeting summarization, attracting interest from both commercial and academic sectors. Both human/machine and human/human communications can benefit from the application of SLU, usin

  8. Introducing Dialogue in Early Foreign Language Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Jaffke, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    In many Asian countries, discontent is often voiced about the way people were taught foreign languages as schoolchildren. Frequently heard utterances are along the lines of “We had English at school for ten years but still can’t speak it.” The present article describes an approach to learning that enables teachers to encourage students of elementary school age (6-11 years) to use language in meaningful age-appropriate conversation from the very first week of learning. The game format plays a ...

  9. Children's acquisition of nouns and verbs in Italian: contrasting the roles of frequency and positional salience in maternal language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Emiddia; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia; Spataro, Pietro; Putnick, Diane L; Bornstein, Marc H

    2015-01-01

    Because of its structural characteristics, specifically the prevalence of verb types in infant-directed speech and frequent pronoun-dropping, the Italian language offers an attractive opportunity to investigate the predictive effects of input frequency and positional salience on children's acquisition of nouns and verbs. We examined this issue in a sample of twenty-six mother-child dyads whose spontaneous conversations were recorded, transcribed, and coded at 1;4 and 1;8. The percentages of nouns occurring in the final position of maternal utterances at 1;4 predicted children's production of noun types at 1;8. For verbs, children's growth rates were positively predicted by the percentages of input verbs occurring in utterance-initial position, but negatively predicted by the percentages of verbs located in the final position of maternal utterances at 1;4. These findings clearly illustrate that the effects of positional salience vary across lexical categories.

  10. The Effect of Caretakers’ Frequency and Positional Saliency on Noun Bias in Persian Children: A Study on Child Language Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Soleimani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Noun bias in children’s early vocabulary development is a long-held belief. The present study intended to examine the correlation between the input features like frequency and positional saliency in infant-directed speech and the noun bias characteristic of infants in their early child lexical development. To this purpose, the utterances of ten Persian children aged 1;4 and their caretakers at a kindergarten in Isfahan, Iran, were transcribed for twelve sessions. Persian language with its SOV order that gives much importance to verbs compared to nouns can make noun bias hypothesis of infants unstable. The results demonstrated a positive correlation between the frequency of nouns and verbs in Persian caretakers’ utterances and the lexical development of children on age of 1;4. The transcriptions also identified a significant noun bias in the utterances of Persian children. Therefore, the lexical items in adult utterances can predict the initial lexical repertoire of infants. It can be inferred that nurture and the utterances heard by children might play a significant role in child vocabulary development.   

  11. Project ASPIRE: Spoken Language Intervention Curriculum for Parents of Low-socioeconomic Status and Their Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suskind, Dana L; Graf, Eileen; Leffel, Kristin R; Hernandez, Marc W; Suskind, Elizabeth; Webber, Robert; Tannenbaum, Sally; Nevins, Mary Ellen

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the impact of a spoken language intervention curriculum aiming to improve the language environments caregivers of low socioeconomic status (SES) provide for their D/HH children with CI & HA to support children's spoken language development. Quasiexperimental. Tertiary. Thirty-two caregiver-child dyads of low-SES (as defined by caregiver education ≤ MA/MS and the income proxies = Medicaid or WIC/LINK) and children aged children's early language environments. Changes in caregiver knowledge of child language development (questionnaire scores) and language behavior (word types, word tokens, utterances, mean length of utterance [MLU], LENA Adult Word Count (AWC), Conversational Turn Count (CTC)). Significant increases in caregiver questionnaire scores as well as utterances, word types, word tokens, and MLU in the treatment but not the control group. No significant changes in LENA outcomes. Results partially support the notion that caregiver-directed language enrichment interventions can change home language environments of D/HH children from low-SES backgrounds. Further longitudinal studies are necessary.

  12. Language Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelde, Peter Hans

    1995-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  13. 中学语文课堂教师语言艺术浅析%A Brief Analysis of Teachers' Utterance in Middle School Chinese Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁巧

    2011-01-01

    A successful Chinese course can't be separated from the splendidness of classroom utterance. With the depth of new curriculum reform, teachers' classroom utterance should keep pace with the times and reflect the idea of students-orientation. This paper an%一节成功的语文课离不开课堂语言的精彩。随着新课程改革的不断深入,教师的课堂语言亦应与时俱进.体现以学生发展为本的理念。本文结合笔者的教学经验对中学语文课堂教师的语言艺术进行了分析。

  14. Repetition and Turn-Allocation in the Non-Native Acquisition of Discourse. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Cohen, Deborah; Gracey, Cheryl

    A study of non-native children's acquisition of communicative competence examined the child's construction of rules of conversation in the second language. The linguistic devices that children use to link up their utterances with those of another speaker, i.e., cohesion-creating devices that create textual unity, were focused upon. Repetition, one…

  15. NOT CARELESS BUT WEAK: LANGUAGE MIXING OF MALAYSIAN CHINESE IN A BUSINESS TRANSACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang Ching Hei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Language is an inevitable tool for business transactions and regardless of nationality, ethnicity, gender, religion, age and social class, interlocutors depend on it to conduct their daily dealings. In multilingual and multicultural Malaysia, it is not uncommon to hear a business transaction being conducted in various languages depending on who the participants are and what the context involves. This study focussed on the phenomenon of language (code mixing within a business transaction that involved four Malaysians of Chinese descent. The study aimed to detect at what level language mixing occurred and what their functions would be. Data were video recorded and then transcribed verbatim. Mandarin utterances were documented in Chinese and Han Yu Pin Yin and provided with translations. Utterances containing a mixture of languages were then extracted for analysis. Findings suggest that language mixing occurred at the word, phrase, sentential and tag level. Language mixing was applied as a strategy to sustain the conversation mainly because of the interlocutors’ weak proficiency in specific languages. It was also employed for various functions such as for distancing or narrowing the social status, making emphasis and projecting a higher personal identity. A follow up interview is required in order to verify the extent of the participants’ low or high proficiency level in the various languages used in this context.

  16. 新课标下的初中数学课堂教学语言%The Utterance in Junior High School Mathematics Classroom Teaching in the Light of New Curriculum Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解自荣

    2012-01-01

    Utterance is the expressive form of thoughts and teachers' adequate utterance can make students better understand contents. This paper analyzes teachering utterance in mathematics classroom teaching from eight aspects%语言是思想的表达形式,教师恰当合理的语言表达可以使学生更好地理解教师所讲授的内容。本文从八个方面分析了数学课堂教学中的教学语言。

  17. Language processing for speech understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, W. A.

    1983-07-01

    This report considers language understanding techniques and control strategies that can be applied to provide higher-level support to aid in the understanding of spoken utterances. The discussion is illustrated with concepts and examples from the BBN speech understanding system, HWIM (Hear What I Mean). The HWIM system was conceived as an assistant to a travel budget manager, a system that would store information about planned and taken trips, travel budgets and their planning. The system was able to respond to commands and answer questions spoken into a microphone, and was able to synthesize spoken responses as output. HWIM was a prototype system used to drive speech understanding research. It used a phonetic-based approach, with no speaker training, a large vocabulary, and a relatively unconstraining English grammar. Discussed here is the control structure of the HWIM and the parsing algorithm used to parse sentences from the middle-out, using an ATN grammar.

  18. Direct and Indirect Effects of Behavioral Parent Training on Infant Language Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagner, Daniel M; Garcia, Dainelys; Hill, Ryan

    2016-03-01

    Given the strong association between early behavior problems and language impairment, we examined the effect of a brief home-based adaptation of Parent-child Interaction Therapy on infant language production. Sixty infants (55% male; mean age 13.47±1.31 months) were recruited at a large urban primary care clinic and were included if their scores exceeded the 75th percentile on a brief screener of early behavior problems. Families were randomly assigned to receive the home-based parenting intervention or standard pediatric primary care. The observed number of infant total (i.e., token) and different (i.e., type) utterances spoken during an observation of an infant-led play and a parent-report measure of infant externalizing behavior problems were examined at pre- and post-intervention and at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Infants receiving the intervention demonstrated a significantly higher number of observed different and total utterances at the 6-month follow-up compared to infants in standard care. Furthermore, there was an indirect effect of the intervention on infant language production, such that the intervention led to decreases in infant externalizing behavior problems from pre- to post-intervention, which, in turn, led to increases in infant different utterances at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups and total utterances at the 6-month follow-up. Results provide initial evidence for the effect of this brief and home-based intervention on infant language production, including the indirect effect of the intervention on infant language through improvements in infant behavior, highlighting the importance of targeting behavior problems in early intervention.

  19. School-Aged Children and Adult Language Production in an Indonesian TV Show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisno

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to find out the language produced by the school-aged children and the adult in a TV show. The study was carried out applying descriptive qualitative research design. The data for this research included the conversations between an adult (the host and three school-aged children. The data analysis procedures included- observing the video, transcribing the conversation, identifying the linguistics and non-linguistics features of the utterances, categorizing the language produced by the children and the adult, and interpreting the result of the analysis. The findings of data analysis showed that the five-year-old children produced one-word and two-word utterances rather than longer sentences. In contrast, the seven-year-old child produced longer sentences rather than one-word or two-word utterances. On the other hand, the host applied different ways and modified the way she produced language (‘caregiver speech’ or ‘motherese’ such as using exclamation, using gestures, using complimenting words, using intimate pronouns, and using direct instruction. The results obtained indicated that the school-aged children and the adult have their own ways in producing language in a TV show in Indonesia.

  20. Facilitating Participation: Teacher Roles in a Multiuser Virtual Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Airong

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a task-based language teaching course in Second Life. The data set consists of transcribed recordings and a teacher interview. Focusing on how the teacher facilitated student participation, this paper aims to explore the discourse functions in the teacher language output and then to address the teacher roles in three…

  1. Facilitating Participation: Teacher Roles in a Multiuser Virtual Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Airong

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a task-based language teaching course in Second Life. The data set consists of transcribed recordings and a teacher interview. Focusing on how the teacher facilitated student participation, this paper aims to explore the discourse functions in the teacher language output and then to address the teacher roles in three…

  2. Transcription and the IELTS Speaking Test: Facilitating Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stones, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a transcription task cycle that was designed to facilitate the development of skills for the IELTS (International English Language Testing System) speaking test at a language school in Japan. The cycle involved practice test, transcription, student correction, teacher correction, and retrial of the original test and…

  3. Cognate facilitation effects in trilingual word recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Szubko-Sitarek

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on bilingual word recognition suggests that lexical access is nonselective with respect to language, i.e., that word representations of both languages become active during recognition. One piece of evidence supporting nonselective access is that bilinguals recognize cognates (words that are identical or similar in form and meaning in two or more languages faster than noncognates. In fact, any difference between how cognates and ‘monolingual’ words are processed by multilinguals would indicate that the other, currently irrelevant language must have played a role as well, at least as long as the two groups of words are comparable with respect to all dimensions other than language membership. The aim of the present paper is to report on two visual perceptual experiments conducted within the lexical decision task paradigm whose aim was to test the assumptions concerning the special position of cognates (the cognate facilitation effect, cf. Dijkstra, 2005 within a trilingual mind and to answer the question whether trilinguals rely upon their second language lexical knowledge when recognizing L3 words. The results of the experiments attest to simultaneous activation and parallel processing as well as interaction among all the three languages. At the same time, they point to the fact that cross-linguistic lexical access and the source and strength of transfer may be constrained by variables such task demands.

  4. Learning facilitating leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper explains how engineering students at a Danish university acquired the necessary skills to become emergent facilitators of organisational development. The implications of this approach are discussed and related to relevant viewpoints and findings in the literature. The methodology deplo....... By connecting the literature, the authors’ and engineering students’ reflections on facilitator skills, this paper adds value to existing academic and practical discussions on learning facilitating leadership....

  5. Visual explorer facilitator's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Palus, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    Grounded in research and practice, the Visual Explorer™ Facilitator's Guide provides a method for supporting collaborative, creative conversations about complex issues through the power of images. The guide is available as a component in the Visual Explorer Facilitator's Letter-sized Set, Visual Explorer Facilitator's Post card-sized Set, Visual Explorer Playing Card-sized Set, and is also available as a stand-alone title for purchase to assist multiple tool users in an organization.

  6. Evaluation of Language Function under Awake Craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Aya; Mikuni, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Awake craniotomy is the only established way to assess patients' language functions intraoperatively and to contribute to their preservation, if necessary. Recent guidelines have enabled the approach to be used widely, effectively, and safely. Non-invasive brain functional imaging techniques, including functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging, have been used preoperatively to identify brain functional regions corresponding to language, and their accuracy has increased year by year. In addition, the use of neuronavigation that incorporates this preoperative information has made it possible to identify the positional relationships between the lesion and functional regions involved in language, conduct functional brain mapping in the awake state with electrical stimulation, and intraoperatively assess nerve function in real time when resecting the lesion. This article outlines the history of awake craniotomy, the current state of pre- and intraoperative evaluation of language function, and the clinical usefulness of such functional evaluation. When evaluating patients' language functions during awake craniotomy, given the various intraoperative stresses involved, it is necessary to carefully select the tasks to be undertaken, quickly perform all examinations, and promptly evaluate the results. As language functions involve both input and output, they are strongly affected by patients' preoperative cognitive function, degree of intraoperative wakefulness and fatigue, the ability to produce verbal articulations and utterances, as well as perform synergic movement. Therefore, it is essential to appropriately assess the reproducibility of language function evaluation using awake craniotomy techniques.

  7. On internal definite reference in Slavic languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piper Predrag J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The considered examples of use of the “such and such“ type of expression in Serbian and other Slavic languages and their analysis show that they represent a special type of reference and hold a special place in the system of pronominal words and expressions. Regardless of the fact that they can take a variety of functions, which are discussed in the article, their main function is to refer to what is determined for participants in a primary communicative situation, denoted by an utterance within an utterance, but which is undetermined for participants in a secondary communicative situation (with the exception of cases of same participants being involved in both primary and secondary situations. The forms of expressing internal definite reference are not entirely the same in all Slavic languages, although reduplication of pronominal demonstrative prevails with a high degree of match in their functions. The highest match is found when performing their main function of internal definite reference, while the lowest match is found when performing the function of euphemistic replacement of invective. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178021: Opis i standardizacija savremenog srpskog jezika

  8. Assessing students' English language proficiency during clinical placement: A qualitative evaluation of a language framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, Caroline; Rogan, Fran

    2015-06-01

    The increase in nursing students for whom English is an additional language requires clinical facilitators to assess students' performance regarding clinical skills, nursing communication and English language. However, assessing language proficiency is a complex process that is often conflated with cultural norms and clinical skills, and facilitators may lack confidence in assessing English language. This paper discusses an evaluation of a set of guidelines developed in a large metropolitan Australian university to help clinical facilitators make decisions about students' English language proficiency. The study found that the guidelines were useful in helping facilitators assess English language. However, strategies to address identified language problems needed to be incorporated to enable the guidelines to also be used as a teaching tool. The study concludes that to be effective, such guidelines need embedding within a systematic approach that identifies and responds to students who may be underperforming due to a low level of English language proficiency.

  9. The Impact of Positive Affect on Language Learning Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Pan

    2013-01-01

    To generate a further understanding of the impact of positive affective variables on foreign language learning efficiency, a theoretical analysis was conducted, from second language acquisition and cognitive psychology perspectives. Second language ac⁃quisition process is inevitably influenced by individual affective variables residing within the learner. To improve language learn⁃ing efficiency, positive and facilitative affect should be enhanced in language learning.

  10. The challenges of facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika

    and at the same time make closures in order to secure progress in the process? The analysis draws upon theoretical perspectives on deliberative democracy and facilitation. Whereas, the scholarly literature on deliberative democracy is rich in describing potential outcomes and criteria for deliberative processes...... hours transcriptions of three table deliberations; questionnaires of 91 participants, 2 focus group interviews with participants and facilitators....

  11. Training facilitators and supervisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Louise Binow; O Connor, Maja; Krogh, Kristian;

    At the Master’s program in Medicine at Aarhus University, Denmark, we have developed a faculty development program for facilitators and supervisors in 4 progressing student modules in communication, cooperation, and leadership. 1) A course for module 1 and 3 facilitators inspired by the apprentic...

  12. Multiunit Sequences in First Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theakston, Anna; Lieven, Elena

    2017-07-01

    Theoretical and empirical reasons suggest that children build their language not only out of individual words but also out of multiunit strings. These are the basis for the development of schemas containing slots. The slots are putative categories that build in abstraction while the schemas eventually connect to other schemas in terms of both meaning and form. Evidence comes from the nature of the input, the ways in which children construct novel utterances, the systematic errors that children make, and the computational modeling of children's grammars. However, much of this research is on English, which is unusual in its rigid word order and impoverished inflectional morphology. We summarize these results and explore their implications for languages with more flexible word order and/or much richer inflectional morphology. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. Approaching the relationship between religion and science through language games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Stanciulescu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Generally, applying Wittgenstein phrase “language games” into the science and religion relationship, reflects the futility of attempting to identify the truth beyond linguistic communities in which each of them takes part. Starting from the idea that through semantic assumption of some concepts, specific to a particular language game by another language game, the principles of comprehension can be violated, the postmodernist thinkers consider necessary the compartmentalization of the two types of discourses, scientific and religious. Therefore, the statements should be regarded as moves in a game. Each category of utterance operate according to some rules, without which there can be no “language game” and whose change, even minor, leads to changing the whole game.

  14. Neural correlates of audiovisual speech processing in a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Visser, Maya; Alsius, Agnès; Pallier, Christophe; Avila Rivera, César; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2013-09-01

    Neuroimaging studies of audiovisual speech processing have exclusively addressed listeners' native language (L1). Yet, several behavioural studies now show that AV processing plays an important role in non-native (L2) speech perception. The current fMRI study measured brain activity during auditory, visual, audiovisual congruent and audiovisual incongruent utterances in L1 and L2. BOLD responses to congruent AV speech in the pSTS were stronger than in either unimodal condition in both L1 and L2. Yet no differences in AV processing were expressed according to the language background in this area. Instead, the regions in the bilateral occipital lobe had a stronger congruency effect on the BOLD response (congruent higher than incongruent) in L2 as compared to L1. According to these results, language background differences are predominantly expressed in these unimodal regions, whereas the pSTS is similarly involved in AV integration regardless of language dominance.

  15. Contrastive analysis and its relevance to language teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Jansen van Rensburg

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available In the course of learning a second language, learners regularly produce utterances in speech and writing which judged by the rules of the second language are erroneous, or ill-formed. Traditionally the attitude to errors was that they were an indication of the difficulties that the learners had with certain aspects of the language, which could be explained by the persistence of the habits of the mother tongue and their transfer to the new language (Lado, 1957. Errors were the result of interference and in an ideal teaching situation could be avoided. From this notion has developed the whole industry of “contrastive linguistics”, with research projects and regular publications of results in a number of countries, including South Africa.

  16. The Evolution of a Connectionist Model of Situated Human Language Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Marshall R.; Crocker, Matthew W.

    The Adaptive Mechanisms in Human Language Processing (ALPHA) project features both experimental and computational tracks designed to complement each other in the investigation of the cognitive mechanisms that underlie situated human utterance processing. The models developed in the computational track replicate results obtained in the experimental track and, in turn, suggest further experiments by virtue of behavior that arises as a by-product of their operation.

  17. Applying feature reduction analysis to a PPRLM-multiple Gaussian language identification system

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Cuesta, Juan Manuel; Córdoba Herralde, Ricardo de; D'haro Enríquez, Luis Fernando

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a feature selection technique such as LDA to a language identification (LID) system. The baseline system consists of a PPRLM module followed by a multiple-Gaussian classifier. This classifier makes use of acoustic scores and duration features of each input utterance. We applied a dimension reduction of the feature space in order to achieve a faster and easier-trainable system. We imputed missing values of our vectors before projecting them on the new spa...

  18. Is Korean Really a Listener-Responsible Language like Japanese?: A Contrastive Analysis of Discourse in Apologies between Korean and Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumi YOON

    2012-01-01

    The informants in the present study consisted of four groups: Japanese university students who live in their own country, Japanese university students who live in the U.S., Korean university students who live in their own country and Korean university students who live in the U.S. A Discourse Complete Test (DCT was completed by Japanese and Korean university students to compare the differences in speaker responsibility in apologies. The results suggest that Korean should be classified as a speaker-responsible language for understanding in conversations, since Korean speakers produce many more utterances and convey more information per utterance to the interlocutor than Japanese speakers. Furthermore, it is found that the responsibility for the understanding of utterances correlate with daily use of American English, especially in the case of Japanese university students.

  19. Language-specific vocal tract configurations during nonspeech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gick, Bryan; Cook, Clare

    2003-04-01

    Previous work has been found to be surprisingly low within-speaker variability in baseline articulator positions during inter-utterance nonspeech [Gick, Phonetica (2002)], raising the question of whether these baseline positions may in fact be active in speech production. If so, then they should be specified and should vary systematically across languages. A study was conducted to test for cross-language differences in inter-utterance articulator positions. Individual video frames were extracted at the midpoint of interutterance pauses in x-ray films of 5 French and 5 English speakers. Measures were made of articulator positions relative to fixed bone points, and values normalized to jaw size. Frames with potentially confounding surrounding phonetic contexts were omitted. Results for lip measures indicate that French speakers have significantly greater protrusion of the lower lip, but significantly less upper lip protrusion, than English speakers. Additional results will be presented for lingual articulators. Thus these baseline vocal tract configurations do appear to be specified differently for different languages. Additional implications will be discussed, such as possible roles these configurations may play in phonology, potential influence on vowel systems (especially schwa), and cross-language vowel normalization. [Research supported by NSERC and NIH.

  20. Language Revitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Leanne

    2003-01-01

    Surveys developments in language revitalization and language death. Focusing on indigenous languages, discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. (Author/VWL)

  1. What influences children's conceptualizations of language input?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca; Moody, Amanda; Gerken, LouAnn

    2013-10-01

    Children learning language conceptualize the nature of input they receive in ways that allow them to understand and construct utterances they have never heard before. This study was designed to illuminate the types of information children with and without specific language impairment (SLI) focus on to develop their conceptualizations and whether they can rapidly shift their initial conceptualizations if provided with additional input. In 2 studies, preschool children with and without SLI were exposed to an artificial language, the characteristics of which allowed for various types of conceptualizations about its fundamental properties. After being familiarized with the language, children were asked to judge test strings that conformed to the input in 1 of 4 different ways. All children preferred test items that reflected a narrow conceptualization of the input (i.e., items most like those heard during familiarization). Children showed a strong preference for phonology as a defining property of the artificial language. Restructuring the input to the child could induce them to track word order information as well. Children tend toward narrow conceptualizations of language input, but the nature of their conceptualizations can be influenced by the nature of the input they receive.

  2. Challenges for Contextualizing Language Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Søren; Rehm, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    To help facilitate language learning for immigrants or foreigners arriving to another culture and language, we propose a context-aware mobile application. To expand on the known elements like location, activity, time and identity, we investigate the challenges on including cultural awareness...

  3. Learning language in autism: maternal linguistic input contributes to later vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Janet; Nadig, Aparna

    2015-04-01

    It is well established that children with typical development (TYP) exposed to more maternal linguistic input develop larger vocabularies. We know relatively little about the linguistic environment available to children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and whether input contributes to their later vocabulary. Children with ASD or TYP and their mothers from English and French-speaking families engaged in a 10 min free-play interaction. To compare input, children were matched on language ability, sex, and maternal education (ASD n = 20, TYP n = 20). Input was transcribed, and the number of word tokens and types, lexical diversity (D), mean length of utterances (MLU), and number of utterances were calculated. We then examined the relationship between input and children's spoken vocabulary 6 months later in a larger sample (ASD: n = 19, 50-85 months; TYP: n = 44, 25-58 months). No significant group differences were found on the five input features. A hierarchical multiple regression model demonstrated input MLU significantly and positively contributed to spoken vocabulary 6 months later in both groups, over and above initial language levels. No significant difference was found between groups in the slope between input MLU and later vocabulary. Our findings reveal children with ASD and TYP of similar language levels are exposed to similar maternal linguistic environments regarding number of word tokens and types, D, MLU, and number of utterances. Importantly, linguistic input accounted for later vocabulary growth in children with ASD.

  4. Facilitating Understandings of Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Christine C.; Bush, Sara

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates some learning encounters for facilitating first graders' understanding of geometry. Describes some of children's approaches using Cuisenaire rods and teacher's intervening. Presents six problems involving various combinations of Cuisenaire rods and cubes. (YP)

  5. Prosodic Variations and Language Attainment in a Multilingual Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Babalola

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Prosody is considered to be the higher level of language performance. It is a model of human linguistic output in the speaking aspect. Some rhythmic and vocative distributions of human utterance are determined according to some dynamic rules. This paper considers the structures of stress and phrasing in English and a Nigerian language specifically Yoruba language and tries to identify the linguistic properties that really differentiate them. The speech pattern of two languages cannot be the same. The concern therefore is to know the particular points of differences that could generate an acute impediment to student’s proficiency in the use of English as the major official language in Nigeria. The sample for the study consisted of 120 students out of the population of 10870 students of J.S.S class in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Analysis of variance was used to determine the variations among the groups of the local dialects of Yoruba language while t-test was applied to determine the variations that exist between the Received Pronunciation (RP model of English language and that of Yoruba language. There was a kind of homogeneity among the groups while a remarkable linguistic variation was recorded between the RP and the Local Pronunciation (LP of English language. It is recommended that more attention must be given to prosody in language teaching programme and procedure over the segmental features.

  6. Querying and Serving N-gram Language Models with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Statistical n-gram language modeling is a very important technique in Natural Language Processing (NLP and Computational Linguistics used to assess the fluency of an utterance in any given language. It is widely employed in several important NLP applications such as Machine Translation and Automatic Speech Recognition. However, the most commonly used toolkit (SRILM to build such language models on a large scale is written entirely in C++ which presents a challenge to an NLP developer or researcher whose primary language of choice is Python. This article first provides a gentle introduction to statistical language modeling. It then describes how to build a native and efficient Python interface (using SWIG to the SRILM toolkit such that language models can be queried and used directly in Python code. Finally, it also demonstrates an effective use case of this interface by showing how to leverage it to build a Python language model server. Such a server can prove to be extremely useful when the language model needs to be queried by multiple clients over a network: the language model must only be loaded into memory once by the server and can then satisfy multiple requests. This article includes only those listings of source code that are most salient. To conserve space, some are only presented in excerpted form. The complete set of full source code listings may be found in Volume 1 of The Python Papers Source Codes Journal.

  7. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    Abstract This paper argues that knowledge sharing can be conceptualized as different situations of exchange in which individuals relate to each other in different ways, involving different rules, norms and traditions of reciprocity regulating the exchange. The main challenge for facilitating...... and the intermediaries regulating the exchange, and facilitating knowledge sharing should therefore be viewed as a continuum of practices under the influence of opportunistic behaviour, obedience or organizational citizenship behaviour. Keywords: Knowledge sharing, motivation, organizational settings, situations...

  8. TO BE A FACILITATOR,NOT ONLY A LECTURER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This article stresses the teacher’s role in foreign language classroom teaching according to the modernteaching theory and shows how to help cultivate students’ ability to use the language and how one canbecome a qualified facilitator.The development of the four modernizations,the situation of opening our country to the outside world,the progress of the theory and practice of foreign language science and the improvement in the entrancelevel of new students have set an even higher demand on foreign language teaching for non-majors(nowcalled College English).

  9. Phonology and children with specific language impairment: status of structural constraints in two languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolini, U; Leonard, L B

    2000-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which the phonological characteristics of preschool-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) are compared with those seen in younger normally developing children matched for mean length of utterance and consonant inventory size. The productions of both English-speaking and Italian-speaking children with SLI were more likely to deviate from the adult standard than the productions of the younger control children. In Italian, the children with SLI had more difficulty than the younger controls in the use of non-final weak syllables; in English, the children with SLI were poorer than the younger controls in the use of non-final weak syllables, word-final consonants, and word-final consonant clusters. These are the same phonological details that are required for several grammatical inflections and many function words in the two languages. However, the children with SLI were also less consistent than their younger compatriots in using consonants in structurally simple words. These findings provide evidence for the view that for many preschool-age children with SLI, phonological problems go beyond those that might be predicted on the basis of the children's short utterances and limited consonant inventories.

  10. Un gars, une fille: plaidoyer pour la culture avec un "petit c" dans un cours de francais languae etrangere (Un gars, une fille: Culture with a "Litte c" in a French as a econd Language Course).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    Looks at the Quebecois TV show, "Un gars, Une fille" used in a university French course to teach the socio-cultural reality that underlies all linguistic utterances in a university-level French course. Attempts to identify what makes the show more authentic than videos and CD ROMs that accompany most language textbooks in French.…

  11. Transfer in Second Language Learning Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉琳

    2008-01-01

    Transfer is the carryover of the previous linguistic knowledge to the subsequent target language learning. Positive transfer facilitates while negative one impedes the acquisition of a second language. Therefore teachers and learners can enhance their efficiency by taking advantage of positive transfer and minimizing negative transfer or interference of their native languages.

  12. Learning Strategies in Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chun-lan

    2013-01-01

      The proper use of learning strategies can facilitate language learning. There are abundant studies on L2 learning strate⁃gies and the initial research is studies on good language learners, which provides information on strategy use contributing to suc⁃cessful language learning. Strategies used by successful learners differ from less successful learners and strategies can be learned.

  13. Foreign Language Houses: Identities in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, Jennifer; Dewey, Dan P.; Martinsen, Rob A.; Baker, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the lived experience of students participating in foreign language houses to improve their skills in Russian, French, or Japanese. American students residing in apartments with other language learners and a native-speaking resident facilitator were required to speak with one another exclusively in the target language and…

  14. The relationship of phonological skills to language skills in Spanish-English-speaking bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperson, Solaman J; Bedore, Lisa M; Peña, Elizabeth D

    2013-05-01

    These two studies investigate the relationship between phonological production skills and performance in other domains of language in Spanish-English-speaking bilingual children. We examine the relationship between scores on a single-word phonology test and language measures selected from formal testing and narrative samples in Spanish and English. The first study explores the language and phonology scores of 186 children (mean age = 5 years, 9 months) who represent a range of language ability levels. Phonology scores in both languages were most strongly correlated with performance on the Spanish morphosyntax subtest of the bilingual English-Spanish assessment and grammaticality of utterances in English narratives. The second study focuses on 12 children with low or high phonology skills selected from those who participated in the first study. Children with higher phonological production accuracy in both languages produced grammatical structures of low-phonetic salience with greater accuracy than children with lower phonological skills.

  15. Consistent wind Facilitates Vection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Ogawa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether a consistent haptic cue suggesting forward self-motion facilitated vection. We used a fan with no blades (Dyson, AM01 providing a wind of constant strength and direction (wind speed was 6.37 m/s to the subjects' faces with the visual stimuli visible through the fan. We used an optic flow of expansion or contraction created by positioning 16,000 dots at random inside a simulated cube (length 20 m, and moving the observer's viewpoint to simulate forward or backward self-motion of 16 m/s. we tested three conditions for fan operation, which were normal operation, normal operation with the fan reversed (ie, no wind, and no operation (no wind and no sound. Vection was facilitated by the wind (shorter latency, longer duration and larger magnitude values with the expansion stimuli. The fan noise did not facilitate vection. The wind neither facilitated nor inhibited vection with the contraction stimuli, perhaps because a headwind is not consistent with backward self-motion. We speculate that the consistency between multi modalities is a key factor in facilitating vection.

  16. Systemic Cognition: Human Artifice in Life and Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen; Vallée-Tourangeau, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    and learning arise as dynamics in one time-scale are co-regulated by dynamics in other scales. For example, in ontogenesis, interactivity prompts a child to strategic use of second-order language. By linking cultural scales to inter-bodily dynamics, circumstances are coloured by resources that serve in using...... thus emerges in a temporal trajectory of action that takes place within a space populated by people and objects. Utterances, thoughts and deeds all draw on physical, biological and cultural constraints. Even plans are shaped as first-order activity is shaped by second-order structures. Intentions...

  17. "Our teacher speaks English at all times!" The mining of profesors usage of language at forin language lesson"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Sešek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Different approaches to foreign language teaching can entail very different approaches to the use of the target language in the classroom. The currently prevailing opinion is that the teacher should not primarily use the learners' mother tongue but the target language, as far as that is possible and meaningful. This is important even though today's learners of mainstream-taught foreign languages in Slovenia are much more exposed to their target language outside of school than they were even 10 years ago. The teacher's use of the target language namely represents not only a source of input and a model of its active usage but is also a means of establishing authority and a tool for execution of classroom activities. In order to successfully carry out all of her/his increasingly demanding professional tasks, the teacher should maintain and develop their target language competences in terms of accuracy, appropriateness and modification strategies to adapt to learner needs. It is also very useful to look at the teacher's target language use from a functional perspective to become aware of how different types of utterances / speech acts / language forms can contribute to achieving different educational goals.

  18. Facilitation skills for trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cilliers

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop the facilitation skills of trainers. Facilitation is defined form the Person-Centered approach, as providing an opportunity for the trainee to experience personal growth and learning. A facilitation skills workshop was presented to 40 trainers, focussing on enhancing selfactualisation, its intra and inter personal characteristics, and attending and responding behaviour. Measurement with the Personal Orientation Inventory and Carkhuff scales, indicate enhanced cognitive, affective and conative sensitivity and interpersonal skills. A post-interview indicates the trainers experienced empowerment in dealing with the providing of opportunities for growth amongst trainees, in all kinds of training situations. Recommendations are made to enhance facilitation development amongst trainers. Opsomming Hierdie navorsing poog om die fasiliteringsvaardighede van opieiers te ontwikkel. Fasilitering word gedefinieer vanuit die Persoonsgesentreerde benadering as die beskikbaarstelling van 'n geleentheid om persoonlike groei en leer te ervaar. 'n Fasiliteringsvaardighede werkswinkel is aangebied vir 40 opieiers, met die fokus op die stimulering van selfaktualisering, die intra en interpersoonlike kenmerke daarvan, en aandagskenk- en responderings- gedrag. Meting met die Persoonlike Orientasievraelys en die Carkhuff skale, dui op n toename in kognitiewe, affektiewe en konatiewe sensitiwiteit en interpersoonlike vaardighede. n Post-onderhoud dui op die opleier se ervaarde bemagtiging in die beskikbaarstelling van groeigeleenthede vir opleidelinge, in all tipe opleidingsituasies. Aanbevelings word gemaak om die ontwikkeling van fasiliteringsvaardighede by opleiers te verhoog.

  19. From Teaching to Facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Graaff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    A shift from teaching to learning is characteristic of the introduction of Problem Based Learning (PBL) in an existing school. As a consequence the teaching staff has to be trained in skills like facilitating group work and writing cases. Most importantly a change in thinking about teaching...

  20. Facilitation of Adult Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Taking an autobiographical approach, I tell the story of my experiences facilitating adult development, in a polytechnic and as a management consultant. I relate these to a developmental framework of Modes of Being and Learning that I created and elaborated with colleagues. I connect this picture with a number of related models, theories,…

  1. Facilitation skills for nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Cilliers

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the pcrson-centered approach, facilitation in this study was conceptualised as providing opportunities for personal growth in the patient, and operationalised in a skills workshop for 40 nurses from different hospitals in Gauteng. The first objective was to evaluate the workshop and the second to ascertain its effect on the participant’s experienced performance. A combined quantitative and qualitative research design was used. The quantitative measurement (Personal Orientation Inventory, Carkhuff scales indicated that the workshop stimulated self-actualisation in terms of intrapersonal awareness, and the interpersonal skills of respect, realness, concreteness, empathy, as well as in terms of attending and responding behaviour. The qualitative measurement (a semi-structured interview indicated that the participants were able to empower patients to find their own answers to difficult personal questions. The alternative hypothesis was accepted, namely that this workshop in facilitations skills significantly enhanced the intra- and interpersonal characteristics associated with self-actualisation and the facilitation of growth in patients. The findings highlighted the difference between the two roles of instructor and facilitator, and recommendations to this effect were formulated.

  2. Facilitating leadership team communication

    OpenAIRE

    Hedman, Eerika

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand and describe how to facilitate competent communication in leadership teamwork. Grounded in the premises of social constructionism and informed by such theoretical frameworks as coordinated management of meaning theory (CMM), dialogic organization development (OD), systemic-constructionist leadership, communication competence, and reflexivity, this study seeks to produce further insights into understanding leadership team communicati...

  3. Categorical phonotactic knowledge filters second language input, but probabilistic phonotactic knowledge can still be acquired

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentz, T.O.; Kager, R.W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Probabilistic phonotactic knowledge facilitates perception, but categorical phonotactic illegality can cause misperceptions, especially of non-native phoneme combinations. If misperceptions induced by first language (L1) knowledge filter second language input, access to second language (L2) probabil

  4. Experimental pragmatics: a Gricean turn in the study of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noveck, Ira A; Reboul, Anne

    2008-11-01

    Discerning the meaning of an utterance requires not only mastering grammar and knowing the meanings of words but also understanding the communicative (i.e., pragmatic) features of language. Although it has been an ever present aspect of linguistic analyses and discussions, it is only over the last ten years or so that cognitive scientists have been investigating--in a concerted fashion--the pragmatic features of language experimentally. We begin by highlighting Paul Grice's contributions to ordinary language philosophy and show how it has led to this active area of experimental investigation. We then focus on two exemplary phenomena--'scalar inference' and 'reference resolution'--before considering other topics that fit into the paradigm known as 'experimental pragmatics'.

  5. Creating an Authentic Learning Environment in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, Larisa

    2011-01-01

    Theatrical activities are widely used by language educators to promote and facilitate language learning. Involving students in production of their own video or a short movie in the target language allows a seamless fusion of language learning, art, and popular culture. The activity is also conducive for creating an authentic learning situation…

  6. Markedness in Universal Grammar and Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhao-zi; Shao, Chang-zhong

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the study of markedness theory in Universal Grammar (UG) and its implications in Second Language Acquisition (SLA), showing that the language learners should consciously compare and contrast the similarities and differences between his native language and target language, which will facilitate their learning. (Contains 2…

  7. A CASE STUDY OF PROSODIC PHRASAL GROUPING AND INTONATIONAL PROMINENCE IN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In language acquisition, children use prosody in their comprehension and production of utterances. In line with that, as a case study in this research, I analyze two particular aspects of prosody in a child’s language acquisition, i.e. prosodic phrasal grouping and intonational prominence. In the first aspect, I investigate whether the child uses prosodic phrases to group words together into interpretable units. In the second aspect, I analyze whether the child uses intonational prominence to focus marking prosody. The result indicates that both aspects are used by the child.

  8. Perceived variability and symbol use: a common language-cognition interface in children and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, P M; Savage-Rumbaugh, E S

    1984-06-01

    Analysis of two chimpanzees' conversations with their teacher during a tool-use training task demonstrated that chimps use lexigrams, a humanly devised visual symbol system, selectively to encode perceived variability; that is, they generally used their symbols to differentiate alternative possibilities or to represent change or novelty in a situation. In contrast, they tended to leave unsaid what was unchanging, repetitive, or the unique possibility in a situation. Perceived variability influenced not only which symbols were selected but also utterance length: A single dimension of variability in a situation leads to single-lexigram utterances; multiple dimensions are associated with multi-lexigram utterances. This pattern of results indicates that the absence of formal grammatical structure in chimp language does not imply that utterances beyond one word in length are either rote strings or imitations. The chimps' tendency to mention the variable while leaving the constant or redundant unsaid is, moreover, strong support for the position that their use of a humanly devised symbol system is more than a series of conditioned responses.

  9. French Sign Language Gesture Description Formatlism for the Generation of Virtual Signer Motion Formalisme de description des gestes de la langue des signes française pour la génération du mouvement de signeurs virtuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Héloir

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for generating French sign language gestures, which is based on both a semi-formal modelling approach, and on a specification formalism yielding to the translation of an utterance into a continuous data flow for the control of a virtual character. This approach benefits from knowledge of structural linguistics proper to sign language, and results of motion capture analysis.

  10. Conversational Interaction in the Scanner: Mentalizing during Language Processing as Revealed by MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bögels, Sara; Barr, Dale J; Garrod, Simon; Kessler, Klaus

    2015-09-01

    Humans are especially good at taking another's perspective-representing what others might be thinking or experiencing. This "mentalizing" capacity is apparent in everyday human interactions and conversations. We investigated its neural basis using magnetoencephalography. We focused on whether mentalizing was engaged spontaneously and routinely to understand an utterance's meaning or largely on-demand, to restore "common ground" when expectations were violated. Participants conversed with 1 of 2 confederate speakers and established tacit agreements about objects' names. In a subsequent "test" phase, some of these agreements were violated by either the same or a different speaker. Our analysis of the neural processing of test phase utterances revealed recruitment of neural circuits associated with language (temporal cortex), episodic memory (e.g., medial temporal lobe), and mentalizing (temporo-parietal junction and ventromedial prefrontal cortex). Theta oscillations (3-7 Hz) were modulated most prominently, and we observed phase coupling between functionally distinct neural circuits. The episodic memory and language circuits were recruited in anticipation of upcoming referring expressions, suggesting that context-sensitive predictions were spontaneously generated. In contrast, the mentalizing areas were recruited on-demand, as a means for detecting and resolving perceived pragmatic anomalies, with little evidence they were activated to make partner-specific predictions about upcoming linguistic utterances.

  11. Mindfulness for group facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Krohn, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that mindfulness techniques can be used for enhancing the outcome of group performance. The word mindfulness has different connotations in the academic literature. Broadly speaking there is ‘mindfulness without meditation’ or ‘Western’ mindfulness which involves active...... thinking and ‘Eastern’ mindfulness which refers to an open, accepting state of mind, as intended with Buddhist-inspired techniques such as meditation. In this paper, we are interested in the latter type of mindfulness and demonstrate how Eastern mindfulness techniques can be used as a tool for facilitation....... A brief introduction to the physiology and philosophy of Eastern mindfulness constitutes the basis for the arguments of the effect of mindfulness techniques. The use of mindfulness techniques for group facilitation is novel as it changes the focus from individuals’ mindfulness practice...

  12. Facilitating Learning at Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib; Elsborg, Steen

    2011-01-01

    and facilitate a variety of simple learning techniques at thirty one- and two-day conferences of up to 300 participants each. We present ten of these techniques and data evaluating them. We conclude that if conference organizers allocate a fraction of the total conference time to facilitated processes......The typical conference consists of a series of PowerPoint presentations that tend to render participants passive. Students of learning have long abandoned the transfer model that underlies such one-way communication. We propose an al-ternative theory of conferences that sees them as a forum...... for learning, mutual inspiration and human flourishing. We offer five design principles that specify how conferences may engage participants more and hence increase their learning. In the research-and-development effort reported here, our team collaborated with conference organizers in Denmark to introduce...

  13. Language Competence and Performance in ELT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Xuehua

    2006-01-01

    In modern society, foreign language learning is essential for every college student. But When we speak about second language acquisition and what it entails, initially we might mention learning vocabulary, and grammatical structures, developing appropriate pronunciation and such; however, language acquisition does go beyond the mechanical elements of language. So we should talk about the language performance, i.e. being able to put that knowledge to use in communicating with people in a variety of settings and situations. Teaching as Guiding and Facilitating Learning, Enabling the Learners to Learn and Setting the Conditions for Acquiring the Language. So the teachers' role should be changed and improved.

  14. The Role of First Language in the Development of Second Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋江惠

    2006-01-01

    The article mainly argues the negative role played by the first language in the development of second language, which includes the contrastive analysis hypothesis and cross-linguistic influence and error analysis. In addiction, it discusses the facilitating effect of first language as well .

  15. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This paper argues that knowledge sharing can be conceptualized as different situations of exchange in which individuals relate to each other in different ways, involving different rules, norms and traditions of reciprocity regulating the exchange. The main challenge for facilitating knowledge sharing is to ensure that the exchange is seen as equitable for the parties involved, and by viewing the problems of knowledge sharing as motivational problems situated in different organization...

  16. All together now: concurrent learning of multiple structures in an artificial language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romberg, Alexa R; Saffran, Jenny R

    2013-01-01

    Natural languages contain many layers of sequential structure, from the distribution of phonemes within words to the distribution of phrases within utterances. However, most research modeling language acquisition using artificial languages has focused on only one type of distributional structure at a time. In two experiments, we investigated adult learning of an artificial language that contains dependencies between both adjacent and non-adjacent words. We found that learners rapidly acquired both types of regularities and that the strength of the adjacent statistics influenced learning of both adjacent and non-adjacent dependencies. Additionally, though accuracy was similar for both types of structure, participants' knowledge of the deterministic non-adjacent dependencies was more explicit than their knowledge of the probabilistic adjacent dependencies. The results are discussed in the context of current theories of statistical learning and language acquisition. © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  17. The proactive bilingual brain: Using interlocutor identity to generate predictions for language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Clara D; Molnar, Monika; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-05-13

    The present study investigated the proactive nature of the human brain in language perception. Specifically, we examined whether early proficient bilinguals can use interlocutor identity as a cue for language prediction, using an event-related potentials (ERP) paradigm. Participants were first familiarized, through video segments, with six novel interlocutors who were either monolingual or bilingual. Then, the participants completed an audio-visual lexical decision task in which all the interlocutors uttered words and pseudo-words. Critically, the speech onset started about 350 ms after the beginning of the video. ERP waves between the onset of the visual presentation of the interlocutors and the onset of their speech significantly differed for trials where the language was not predictable (bilingual interlocutors) and trials where the language was predictable (monolingual interlocutors), revealing that visual interlocutor identity can in fact function as a cue for language prediction, even before the onset of the auditory-linguistic signal.

  18. SCREEN: Learning a Flat Syntactic and Semantic Spoken Language Analysis Using Artificial Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wermter, S

    2008-01-01

    Previous approaches of analyzing spontaneously spoken language often have been based on encoding syntactic and semantic knowledge manually and symbolically. While there has been some progress using statistical or connectionist language models, many current spoken- language systems still use a relatively brittle, hand-coded symbolic grammar or symbolic semantic component. In contrast, we describe a so-called screening approach for learning robust processing of spontaneously spoken language. A screening approach is a flat analysis which uses shallow sequences of category representations for analyzing an utterance at various syntactic, semantic and dialog levels. Rather than using a deeply structured symbolic analysis, we use a flat connectionist analysis. This screening approach aims at supporting speech and language processing by using (1) data-driven learning and (2) robustness of connectionist networks. In order to test this approach, we have developed the SCREEN system which is based on this new robust, lea...

  19. Language Acquisition and Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡红

    2007-01-01

    Language is at the center of human life. This essay tries to seek similarities and differences between language acquisition and language learning from the theory achievements of some linguists. On this basis, it is pointed out that language acquisition is the effect of sub consciousness, while language learning is connected with conscious system. Thereby this paper analyzes the interaction between them and the influence on the present situation of foreign language teaching in China.

  20. Language Acquisition and Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡红

    2007-01-01

    Language is at the center of human life.This essay tries to seek similarities and differences between language acquisition and language learning from the theory achievements of some linguists.On this basis,it is pointed out that language acquisition is the effect of sub consciousness,while language learning is connected with conscious system.Thereby this paper analyzes the interaction between them and the influence on the present situation of foreign language teaching in China.

  1. Facilitative root interactions in intercrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Jensen, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    Facilitation takes place when plants ameliorate the environment of their neighbours, and increase their growth and survival. Facilitation occurs in natural ecosystems as well as in agroecosystems. We discuss examples of facilitative root interactions in intercropped agroecosystems; including...... intensified cropping systems using chemical and mechanical inputs also show that facilitative interactions definitely can be of significance. It is concluded that a better understanding of the mechanisms behind facilitative interactions may allow us to benefit more from these phenomena in agriculture...

  2. Facilitation as a teaching strategy : experiences of facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Lekalakala-Mokgele

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in nursing education involve the move from traditional teaching approaches that are teacher-centred to facilitation, a student centred approach. The studentcentred approach is based on a philosophy of teaching and learning that puts the learner on centre-stage. The aim of this study was to identify the challenges of facilitators of learning using facilitation as a teaching method and recommend strategies for their (facilitators development and support. A qualitative, explorative and contextual design was used. Four (4 universities in South Africa which utilize facilitation as a teaching/ learning process were identified and the facilitators were selected to be the sample of the study. The main question posed during in-depth group interviews was: How do you experience facilitation as a teaching/learning method?. Facilitators indicated different experiences and emotions when they first had to facilitate learning. All of them indicated that it was difficult to facilitate at the beginning as they were trained to lecture and that no format for facilitation was available. They experienced frustrations and anxieties as a result. The lack of knowledge of facilitation instilled fear in them. However they indicated that facilitation had many benefits for them and for the students. Amongst the ones mentioned were personal and professional growth. Challenges mentioned were the fear that they waste time and that they do not cover the content. It is therefore important that facilitation be included in the training of nurse educators.

  3. Identifying formulas in first language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, T

    1993-02-01

    With the increase in interest in formulas, or apparently non-productive utterances in children's speech, a range of definitions has emerged and sometimes conflicting criteria have been proposed for their identification. These definitions of formulas are compared, and the criteria of Brown (1973), Wong Fillmore (1976), Peters (1983) and Plunkett (1990) for the recognition of formulas are reviewed. A preference rule system is proposed, which distinguishes necessary, typical and graded conditions for the recognition of formulas. Using these conditions, some of the formulas found in the data of one child acquiring Irish between 1;4 and 2;1 are examined. Issues such as length of units, frequency of occurrence and appropriateness of use are discussed. The methods developed in this study could be used to assess the importance of formulas in the language acquisition of other children.

  4. [Language performance of deaf children and adolescents in verbal and written retelling of a picture story].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, R; Schildhammer, A; Ruoss, M

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation of the spoken and written language skills of prelingually deaf pupils is necessary to improve existing language curricula. Research on written language shows notable delays and substantial differences in the development of written language in comparison to hearing peers. It is difficult to investigate the spontaneous speech because of methodological problems (no control of speech parameters, language becomes a confounding variable). The written language is therefore a good indicator of language development. Nevertheless, oral communication ability can only be studied through spoken utterances. The present study deals with oral and writing performance of 23 prelingually deaf pupils from 9 to 15 years of age whose hearing losses range from 85 to 117 dB. Tape-recorded short picture sequences described by the children and adolescents were examined by experienced listeners. Furthermore, the written narratives of these picture sequences were also analyzed. Parameters included frequency of occurrence of content and function words, type-token ratio, mean length of sentence, and speech fluency. Speech intelligibility was rated by a panel of naive listeners. The results demonstrate the enormous retardation of oral and written language development and specific qualitative differences compared to hearing children. Language skills improve with age, especially in writing. However, oral and written narrative abilities are positively correlated. The loss of sound requires substitutional media for the acquisition of a formal language system. This should be taken into account in the teaching of language to the deaf in order to build up a language competence which is adequate for their age.

  5. Referring expressions and structural language abilities in children with specific language impairment: A pragmatic tolerance account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Catherine; Andrés-Roqueta, Clara; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

    2016-04-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) has traditionally been characterized as a deficit of structural language (specifically grammar), with relative strengths in pragmatics. In this study, comprehensive assessment of production, comprehension, and metalinguistic judgment of referring expressions revealed that children with SLI have weaknesses in both structural and pragmatic language skills relative to age-matched peers. Correlational analyses highlight a relationship between their performance on the experimental tasks and their structural language ability. Despite their poor performance on the production and comprehension tasks, children with SLI were able to recognize pragmatically under-informative reference relative to other types of utterance, although they imposed a less severe penalty on such expressions than typically developing peers, a pattern that supports the pragmatic tolerance account. Our novel methodology (which probed structural abilities from both the speaker's and hearer's perspectives as well as metalinguistic and pragmatic skills in the same sample) challenges the assumption that pragmatic errors stem from deficits in social cognition and instead supports recent findings suggesting that when the impact of structural language is isolated, pragmatic deficits may be resolved.

  6. Language Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, Lana; Maylath, J. Bruce; Adams, Anthony; Couzijn, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Language Awareness: A History and Implementations offers teachers of mother tongue and foreign languages a view of the beginnings and the ramifications of the language-teaching movement called Language Awareness. The philosophy held in common among the teachers in this international movement is twof

  7. Language Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, Lana; Maylath, J. Bruce; Adams, Anthony; Couzijn, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Language Awareness: A History and Implementations offers teachers of mother tongue and foreign languages a view of the beginnings and the ramifications of the language-teaching movement called Language Awareness. The philosophy held in common among the teachers in this international movement is

  8. Dynamical Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huimin

    The following sections are included: * Definition of Dynamical Languages * Distinct Excluded Blocks * Definition and Properties * L and L″ in Chomsky Hierarchy * A Natural Equivalence Relation * Symbolic Flows * Symbolic Flows and Dynamical Languages * Subshifts of Finite Type * Sofic Systems * Graphs and Dynamical Languages * Graphs and Shannon-Graphs * Transitive Languages * Topological Entropy

  9. The Influence of Cross-Language Similarity on within- and between-Language Stroop Effects in Trilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heuven, Walter J B; Conklin, Kathy; Coderre, Emily L; Guo, Taomei; Dijkstra, Ton

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated effects of cross-language similarity on within- and between-language Stroop interference and facilitation in three groups of trilinguals. Trilinguals were either proficient in three languages that use the same-script (alphabetic in German-English-Dutch trilinguals), two similar scripts and one different script (Chinese and alphabetic scripts in Chinese-English-Malay trilinguals), or three completely different scripts (Arabic, Chinese, and alphabetic in Uyghur-Chinese-English trilinguals). The results revealed a similar magnitude of within-language Stroop interference for the three groups, whereas between-language interference was modulated by cross-language similarity. For the same-script trilinguals, the within- and between-language interference was similar, whereas the between-language Stroop interference was reduced for trilinguals with languages written in different scripts. The magnitude of within-language Stroop facilitation was similar across the three groups of trilinguals, but smaller than within-language Stroop interference. Between-language Stroop facilitation was also modulated by cross-language similarity such that these effects became negative for trilinguals with languages written in different scripts. The overall pattern of Stroop interference and facilitation effects can be explained in terms of diverging and converging color and word information across languages.

  10. Essence: Facilitating Software Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2008-01-01

      This paper suggests ways to facilitate creativity and innovation in software development. The paper applies four perspectives – Product, Project, Process, and People –to identify an outlook for software innovation. The paper then describes a new facility–Software Innovation Research Lab (SIRL......) – and a new method concept for software innovation – Essence – based on views, modes, and team roles. Finally, the paper reports from an early experiment using SIRL and Essence and identifies further research....

  11. Japanese Language, Standard Language, National Language: Rethinking Language and Nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka CULIBERG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the relationship between language and nation through the historical process by which the modern Japanese language came to exist and proposes a tentative answer as to what this says about the nature of phenomena such as language and nation themselves. The paper suggests that if language is understood as an actually existing natural and definable object, it must indeed be claimed that the Japanese language is no more than a hundred years old.

  12. Language codes and sense-making among deaf schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, M; Doyle, J

    1996-01-01

    There are at least two languages (American Sign Language [ASL], English) and three modalities (sign, speech, print) in most deaf individuals' lives. Mixing of ASL and English in utterances of deaf adults has been described in various ways (pidgins, diglossia, language contact, bilingualism), but children's mixing usually is treated as the 'fault' of poor input language. Alternatively, how might language mixing serve their communication goals? This article describes code variations and adaptations to particular situations. Deaf children were seen to exhibit a wide variety of linguistic structures mixing ASL, English, Spanish, signing, and speaking. Formal lessons supported a recoding of English print as sign and speech, but the children who communicated English speech were the two who could hear speech. The children who communicated ASL were those who had deaf parents communicating ASL or who identified with deaf houseparents communicating ASL. Most language produced by the teacher and children in this study was mixed in code and mode. While some mixing was related to acquisition and proficiency, mixing, a strategy of many deaf individuals, uniquely adapts linguistic resources to communication needs. Investigating deaf children's language by comparing it to standard English or ASL overlooks the rich strategies of mixing that are central to their communication experience.

  13. Early childhood stuttering III: initial status of expressive language abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, R V; Yairi, E; Ambrose, N G

    1999-10-01

    This investigation evaluated the expressive language abilities of 84 preschool-age children who stuttered, 62 who recovered from stuttering, and 22 who persisted in stuttering. The participants were identical to those identified in E. Yairi and N. G. Ambrose (1999) and E. Paden, E. Yairi, and N. G. Ambrose (1999). A range of lexical, morphological, and syntactic measures--calculated from spontaneous language samples of approximately 250-300 utterances in length collected relatively near stuttering onset--were used to examine the children's expressive language skills. For the purpose of analysis and comparison to normative data, children were grouped into three age intervals, in terms of the age at which they entered the study (2- to 3-year-olds, 3- to 4-year-olds, and 4- to 5-year-olds). Findings revealed similarity in the expressive language abilities of children whose stuttering persisted as opposed to abated at all age intervals. In addition, persistent and recovered stutterers displayed expressive language abilities near or above developmental expectations, based on comparison with normative data, at all age intervals. Children who entered the study at the youngest age level consistently demonstrated expressive language abilities well above normative expectations; this pattern was found for both persistent and recovered groups. These findings provide relatively limited information to assist in the early differentiation of persistence in or recovery from stuttering, but they do shed light on theoretical issues regarding the nature and character of early stuttering and potential associations with language learning.

  14. 论语境的歧义消除功能%Function of Context on the Disambiguation of Utterances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧艳

    2007-01-01

    As a common phenomenon in languages, ambiguity arises frequently in people's daily communication,which sometimes causes the communication failure. There are mainly four ambiguities: the phonological ambiguity, the lexical ambiguity, the grammatical ambiguity, and the multi-context piling ambiguity. As an important concept and theory in pragmatics, context plays an important role in the study of meaning, especially in the cancellation of ambiguities. Although ambiguity can be cancelled through many ways, such as further explanation, this paper coneentrates mainly on the context 's function of disambiguation.%歧义是许多语言的普遍现象,歧义现象频繁出现,一定程度上给人们的交流带来了不便.根据其产生原因可将歧义分为语音歧义、词汇歧义、语法歧义、多语境叠加歧义.但是歧义并非不可消除,途经之一且最佳途径便是语境.作为语用学里一个极其重要的理论,语境在意义的研究中占有重要位置.笔者主要论述了语境的歧义消除功能.

  15. Collaboration around Facilitating Emergent Literacy: Role of Occupational Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Asha; Nichols, Joy D.

    2016-01-01

    The article uses a case study to illustrate transdisciplinary perspectives on facilitating emergent literacy skills of Elsa, a primary grade student with autism. The study demonstrates how a professional learning community implemented motor, sensory, and speech/language components to generate a classroom model supporting emergent literacy skills.…

  16. Ego is a Hurdle in Second Language Learning: A Contrastive Study between Adults and Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumaila Abdullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to find out by comparing and contrasting between the adults and children in second language learning process how language ego of adult learners affects them to learn second language, and how it becomes a barrier for them in second language learning process. Nowadays learning English as foreign and second language is one of the most dominant socio-cultural   requirements of people for seeking employment, foreign tour, business, education and other basic communicative purposes. Therefore, English as foreign and second language is definitely necessary for everybody because it is one of the most urgent socio-cultural pre-requisites of the Post-modern era. It is commonly observed during teaching and learning English as a foreign language in Pakistan, that language ego hinders the adults to learn it properly. Therefore, children are more successful L2 learners than the adults are. Children learning L2 use to reproduce construction process just as they do in their L1 learning and they have the ability to cognize and reproduce new and novel utterances. The compare and contrast between adult and child second language learner will be highlighted in this research paper, which may be helpful for teachers, researchers and scholars on the subject.   Keywords:  Second Language Learning Process, Adult Learner, Child Learner, Language Ego, Critical Period and Puberty Period

  17. Community-Specific Strategies of Intergenerational Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These were examined to determine their influence in facilitating parents to transfer ... namely; parental attitudinal predispositions, language choice patterns in the ... resulted into the current state of micro-linguistic perfomativity are scrutinized.

  18. The Effects of Two Levels of Linguistic Constraint on Echolalia and Generative Language Production in Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Patrick J.; Mirenda, Pat

    1991-01-01

    This study of 3 boys (ages 5-6) with autism found that adult high-constraint antecedent utterances elicited more verbal utterances in general, including subjects' echolalia; adult low-constraint utterances elicited more subject high-constraint utterances; and the degree of adult-utterance constraint did not influence the mean lengths of subjects'…

  19. Spanish language teacher program

    CERN Multimedia

    Caraban Gonzalez, Noemi

    2017-01-01

    These one-week programmes are held in one of the national languages of CERN Member States. National teacher programmes are also open for teachers from other countries speaking the same language. To follow up after each teacher programme, the lecture material and video recordings of selected lectures are archived to act as unique resources for all physics teachers when introducing particle physics into the classroom. CERN provides all scientific, administrative and technical support for the programme free of charge. This includes the scientific content and provision of national language facilitators, lecturers, and guides. However, costs for travel, accommodation and meals have to be covered individually by the teachers or by official sources, e.g. educational foundations or national authorities.

  20. Modelling language

    CERN Document Server

    Cardey, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int

  1. Expert and novice facilitated modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical study based on action research in which expert and novice facilitators in facilitated modelling workshops are compared. There is limited empirical research analysing the differences between expert and novice facilitators. Aiming to address this gap we study...

  2. Some Considerations about "Languages Games” in Noica’s View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia-Ionela Baciu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Our intention into this paper is to reveal that the visionof Constantin Noica about thelanguage is opened for other philosophical points of view. The idea that we want to emphasize in thispaper is that thelanguages gamesstudied by Wittgenstein may belong to the hermeneutics. Throwthis idea we want to argue the possibility that thelanguages gamescan also be found in the Romanianphilosophy, here the Romanian philosopher Constantin Noica approaches in his studies to thehermeneutics domain and also to the languages games analyzed by Wittgenstein. Some reviewsto theworks of Noica allowed us to conclude that the analysis achieved by the philosopher in the paper, theCreation and beautiful in the Romanian utterance(1973 resembles to the languages gamesdeveloped by Wittgenstein in the paperThe blue book.

  3. Hybrid Transfer in an English-French Spoken Language Translator

    CERN Document Server

    Rayner, M; Rayner, Manny; Bouillon, Pierrette

    1995-01-01

    The paper argues the importance of high-quality translation for spoken language translation systems. It describes an architecture suitable for rapid development of high-quality limited-domain translation systems, which has been implemented within an advanced prototype English to French spoken language translator. The focus of the paper is the hybrid transfer model which combines unification-based rules and a set of trainable statistical preferences; roughly, rules encode domain-independent grammatical information and preferences encode domain-dependent distributional information. The preferences are trained from sets of examples produced by the system, which have been annotated by human judges as correct or incorrect. An experiment is described in which the model was tested on a 2000 utterance sample of previously unseen data.

  4. Improving Statistical Language Model Performance with Automatically Generated Word Hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    McMahon, J; Mahon, John Mc

    1995-01-01

    An automatic word classification system has been designed which processes word unigram and bigram frequency statistics extracted from a corpus of natural language utterances. The system implements a binary top-down form of word clustering which employs an average class mutual information metric. Resulting classifications are hierarchical, allowing variable class granularity. Words are represented as structural tags --- unique $n$-bit numbers the most significant bit-patterns of which incorporate class information. Access to a structural tag immediately provides access to all classification levels for the corresponding word. The classification system has successfully revealed some of the structure of English, from the phonemic to the semantic level. The system has been compared --- directly and indirectly --- with other recent word classification systems. Class based interpolated language models have been constructed to exploit the extra information supplied by the classifications and some experiments have sho...

  5. Language abilities of 18-month-old Zulu speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortz, M A

    1992-01-01

    The receptive, expressive and pragmatic language abilities of 18-month-old Zulu speakers were assessed in order to obtain preliminary norms. Twenty-five participants of the Birth to Ten cohort study were investigated using parent reports, mother-child and tester-child interactions. Data was transcribed and analysed using nonparametric statistics. Results demonstrated that receptively subjects understood two-part instructions. Expressively, the mean lexicon was 4.12 words and mean length of utterance 0.65. Pragmatically, subjects were functioning on a nonverbal level and exhibited culture-specific items. The results provided information which could enable speech, language and hearing therapists to engage in primary and secondary prevention. An appropriate test battery for these children is discussed.

  6. Corporate Language and Implications for Organizational Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores empirically implications of language use for MNCs’ learning from subsidiaries. Drawing on sociolinguistic literature, the article argues that while employing a single corporate language facilitates quick and direct communication of explicit knowledge, such a language design...... is insufficient to leverage contextually specific and culturally embedded knowledge. This indicates the need for disentangling language and culture. The paper further argues for the need to go beyond national language to consider how prevailing kinds of corporate talk may curb headquarters potential for learning...

  7. Language sampling for children with and without cochlear implant: MLU, NDW, and NTW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Mahdiye; Jalilevand, Nahid; Kamali, Mohammad; Modarresi, Yahya; Zarandy, Masoud Motasaddi

    2015-12-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) can considerably improve the oral language of prelingual hearing-impaired children. However, because most studies have been performed with English speaking children, available information regarding Persian-speaking children is scarce. Therefore, this study compared measures of lexical diversity (numbers of different words and total words), and syntactic complexity (mean length of utterance) in Persian-speaking children with and without CIs. A cross-sectional study with 20 children with CIs and 20 typically developing children was conducted. To collect the data, the children's language samples were gathered via picture descriptions. The first 50 utterances were analyzed. All measures were significantly different between children with CIs and their typically developing age-matched peers, whereas no differences between children with CIs and their typically developing hearing age-matched peers were detected (pchildren to acquire speech and language abilities similar to their typically developing hearing age-matched peers. After implantation, the performance of children with CIs is similar to the performance of normal children with the same hearing experience. The duration of the hearing experience after the implantation is an important factor for determining the development of speech and language abilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Pattern Language for the Evolution of Component-based Software Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Aakash; Jamshidi, Pooyan; Pahl, Claus

    2013-01-01

    ) as a complementary and integrated phase to facilitate reuse-driven architecture change execution (pattern language application). Reuse-knowledge in the proposed pattern language is expressed as a formalised collection of interconnected-patterns. Individual patterns in the language build on each other to facilitate...... as a measure of selecting the most appropriate pattern(s) from the language collection. The pattern language itself continuously evolves with an incremental acquisition of new patterns from change logs over time....

  9. Program Facilitates CMMI Appraisals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetser, Wesley

    2005-01-01

    A computer program has been written to facilitate appraisals according to the methodology of Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). [CMMI is a government/industry standard, maintained by the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, for objectively assessing the engineering capability and maturity of an organization (especially, an organization that produces software)]. The program assists in preparation for a CMMI appraisal by providing drop-down lists suggesting required artifacts or evidence. It identifies process areas for which similar evidence is required and includes a copy feature that reduces or eliminates repetitive data entry. It generates reports to show the entire framework for reference, the appraisal artifacts to determine readiness for an appraisal, and lists of interviewees and questions to ask them during the appraisal. During an appraisal, the program provides screens for entering observations and ratings, and reviewing evidence provided thus far. Findings concerning strengths and weaknesses can be exported for use in a report or a graphical presentation. The program generates a chart showing capability level ratings of the organization. A context-sensitive Windows help system enables a novice to use the program and learn about the CMMI appraisal process.

  10. Facilitating post traumatic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Helen

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst negative responses to traumatic injury have been well documented in the literature, there is a small but growing body of work that identifies posttraumatic growth as a salient feature of this experience. We contribute to this discourse by reporting on the experiences of 13 individuals who were traumatically injured, had undergone extensive rehabilitation and were discharged from formal care. All participants were injured through involvement in a motor vehicle accident, with the exception of one, who was injured through falling off the roof of a house. Methods In this qualitative study, we used an audio-taped in-depth interview with each participant as the means of data collection. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically to determine the participants' unique perspectives on the experience of recovery from traumatic injury. In reporting the findings, all participants' were given a pseudonym to assure their anonymity. Results Most participants indicated that their involvement in a traumatic occurrence was a springboard for growth that enabled them to develop new perspectives on life and living. Conclusion There are a number of contributions that health providers may make to the recovery of individuals who have been traumatically injured to assist them to develop new views of vulnerability and strength, make changes in relationships, and facilitate philosophical, physical and spiritual growth.

  11. Facilitating post traumatic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, de Sales; Cox, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Background Whilst negative responses to traumatic injury have been well documented in the literature, there is a small but growing body of work that identifies posttraumatic growth as a salient feature of this experience. We contribute to this discourse by reporting on the experiences of 13 individuals who were traumatically injured, had undergone extensive rehabilitation and were discharged from formal care. All participants were injured through involvement in a motor vehicle accident, with the exception of one, who was injured through falling off the roof of a house. Methods In this qualitative study, we used an audio-taped in-depth interview with each participant as the means of data collection. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically to determine the participants' unique perspectives on the experience of recovery from traumatic injury. In reporting the findings, all participants' were given a pseudonym to assure their anonymity. Results Most participants indicated that their involvement in a traumatic occurrence was a springboard for growth that enabled them to develop new perspectives on life and living. Conclusion There are a number of contributions that health providers may make to the recovery of individuals who have been traumatically injured to assist them to develop new views of vulnerability and strength, make changes in relationships, and facilitate philosophical, physical and spiritual growth. PMID:15248894

  12. Ascriptive speech act and legal language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogleznev Vitaly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author explicates Herbert Hart’s theory of an ascriptive language as it has been developed in his influential early paper “The Ascription of Responsibility and Rights”. In the section ‘Discussion’ the author argues that the theory of ascriptive legal utterances, which is grounded on Austin’s and Searle’s theory of a speech act, provides the methodological basis for his analytical approach to philosophical and legal issues. In the section ‘Results’ the author justifies that an ascriptive is a specific speech (illocutionary act. In the section ‘Conclusion’ the matter concerns the original linguistic formula of an ascriptive that accurately reflects its nature. This article elaborates on the interpretation of ascriptive speech acts in legal language by evaluating the influence of philosophy of language on the formation of modern legal philosophy, along with evaluating the contribution of conceptual development of legal philosophy in the speech acts theory.

  13. Community Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, John

    2001-01-01

    Presents historical and political contexts for discussing language maintenance and development in Scotland, explaining that research findings rarely have an impact on policy. While good practice exists in the maintenance of Gaelic and British Sign Language, these is a significant lack of support for other languages, and provision for all community…

  14. Learning Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Foreign language study is finding a niche in the elementary school curriculum. Schools now offer Chinese, Russian, Arabic, Swedish, and Japanese, instead of teaching mostly German and the Romance languages. Studies agree that children pursuing foreign languages show more creativity, divergent thinking, and higher-order thinking skills and score…

  15. Instinctive Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokoe, William C.

    1994-01-01

    "Patterns of the Mind," by Ray Jackendoff, and "The Language Instinct," by Steven Pinker, are reviewed. Each are written to support the theory that language is predetermined by genetically endowed brain structure but also include discussions of studies that use sign language to confirm the standard model of linguistic theory. (Contains seven…

  16. Language Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upshur, John A.

    1974-01-01

    It is suggested in this column that trends in language testing in the last 15 years have followed trends in modern language teaching. Language testing adopted the tenets of audiolingualism and contrastive analysis, then incorporated test-making procedures of psychometrics, and finally became more eclectic in its approach. (SW)

  17. Practice Output in College Language Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岩

    2010-01-01

    <正>Practice output constitutes an indispensable part in second language learning.Relevant theories like"Interface Position"and"Comprehensible Output"are discussed in order to analyze in detail how this practice can actually facilitate acquisition and finally pave the way for communicative output—a goal all language learners are striving for.

  18. Persistence of emphasis in language production: a cross-linguistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernolet, Sarah; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Pickering, Martin J

    2009-08-01

    This study investigates the way in which speakers determine which aspects of an utterance to emphasize and how this affects the form of utterances. To do this, we ask whether the binding between emphasis and thematic roles persists between utterances. In one within-language (Dutch-Dutch) and three cross-linguistic (Dutch-English) structural priming experiments, we measured persistence effects for four different Dutch transitives (actives, PP-initial passives, PP-medial passives, and PP-final passives). Whereas English allows only one passive (PP-final passive), Dutch allows three different variants with the same functional assignment, but different constituent structures. Additionally, the degree of emphasis on the agent differs significantly between the PP-initial passive and the other passives (Experiment 1). Experiment 2 showed persistence of actives, PP-medial, and PP-final passives in Dutch, but no priming between passives with different constituent structures. Experiments 3 and 4, however, showed that both PP-medial and PP-final passives prime the use of English passives. Experiment 5 confirmed that the emphasis on thematic roles persists: the proportion of passives in the PP-initial passive condition fell midway between the proportions produced in the active and PP-medial passive condition.

  19. Teaching Reading Strategies to English Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Christopher J.

    This paper discusses the importance of teaching English language learners (ELLs) three reading strategies to help facilitate a productive literacy environment, suggesting that students must be taught specific reading strategies in which purpose, comprehension, and memorization are facilitated. The first section presents a pre-reading strategy,…

  20. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  1. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  2. Dimensão verbo-visual de enunciados de Scientific American Brasil / Verbo-Visual Dimension in Utterances from Scientifc American Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Vieira de Camargo Grillo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Os enunciados de divulgação científica caracterizam-se pelo diálogo de saberes da esfera científica com os de outras esferas. Entre as diferentes dimensões pertinentes à abordagem da divulgação científica, serão investigadas as relações entre as imagens e o texto, materializadas na parceria entre as ilustrações e o material verbal. O corpus da pesquisa é constituído por artigos da revista Scientific American Brasil no período entre 2002 e 2007. A análise focará os sentidos produzidos pela “ilustração síntese” de uma capa. ABSTRACT: The utterances of the scientific diffusion are characterized by the dialogue between the knowledge from the scientific sphere with the others spheres. It will be investigated the relationships between the images and the text, materialized in the partnership between illustrations and verbal material. The corpus of the research is formed by articles from the magazine Scientific American Brasil published from 2002 to 2007. The analyses willfocus the senses produced by the “synthetic illustration” in a cover.

  3. Gauss Modular-Arithmetic Congruence = Signal X Noise PRODUCT: Clock-model Archimedes HYPERBOLICITY Centrality INEVITABILITY: Definition: Complexity= UTTER-SIMPLICITY: Natural-Philosophy UNITY SIMPLICITY Redux!!!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, E. E.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    Clock-model Archimedes [http://linkage.rockeller.edu/ wli/moved.8.04/ 1fnoise/ index. ru.html] HYPERBOLICITY inevitability throughout physics/pure-maths: Newton-law F=ma, Heisenberg and classical uncertainty-principle=Parseval/Plancherel-theorems causes FUZZYICS definition: (so miscalled) "complexity" = UTTER-SIMPLICITY!!! Watkins[www.secamlocal.ex.ac.uk/people/staff/mrwatkin/]-Hubbard[World According to Wavelets (96)-p.14!]-Franklin[1795]-Fourier[1795;1822]-Brillouin[1922] dual/inverse-space(k,w) analysis key to Fourier-unification in Archimedes hyperbolicity inevitability progress up Siegel cognition hierarchy-of-thinking (HoT): data-info.-know.-understand.-meaning-...-unity-simplicity = FUZZYICS!!! Frohlich-Mossbauer-Goldanskii-del Guidice [Nucl.Phys.B:251,375(85);275,185 (86)]-Young [arXiv-0705.4678y2, (5/31/07] theory of health/life=aqueous-electret/ ferroelectric protoplasm BEC = Archimedes-Siegel [Schrodinger Cent.Symp.(87); Symp.Fractals, MRS Fall Mtg.(89)-5-pprs] 1/w-"noise" Zipf-law power-spectrum hyperbolicity INEVITABILITY= Chi; Dirac delta-function limit w=0 concentration= BEC = Chi-Quong.

  4. Styles of coping and the level of dogmatism in utterance texts as an indicator of anxiety in situations of social exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinczuk-Zielazna Joanna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out involving persons representing high-anxious, low-anxious and repressor types according to the classification of Weinberger, Davidson & Schwartz (1979, selected using the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and the trait anxiety scale of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. In seeking indicators of anxiety in repressors and high-anxious groups, the authors decided to analyse the level of dogmatism observed in utterance texts. The research was intended to determine whether styles of coping with threatening stimuli condition the level of dogmatism, which was regarded as a cognitive defence mechanism against anxiety. The method of formal analysis of texts (speeches given by the participants in a situation of social exposure was used to identify their level of dogmatism, measured using the Dogmatism Quotient developed by Ertel. The highest value of the Dogmatism Quotient was recorded for repressors, and the lowest for the low-anxious subjects; a similar pattern was also observed for certain particular dimensions of dogmatism. Statistically significant differences in the level of dogmatism were found between the repressor and lowanxious groups and between the high-anxious and low-anxious groups. The study confirmed the previously discovered pattern whereby repressors exhibit more similarities to high-anxious than to low-anxious persons.

  5. The Effectiveness of Adopting E-Readers to Facilitate EFL Students' Process-Based Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hui-Chun; Young, Shelley Shwu-Ching

    2015-01-01

    English as Foreign Language (EFL) students face additional difficulties for academic writing largely due to their level of language competency. An appropriate structural process of writing can help students develop their academic writing skills. This study explored the use of the e-readers to facilitate EFL students' process-based academic…

  6. The Effectiveness of Adopting E-Readers to Facilitate EFL Students' Process-Based Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hui-Chun; Young, Shelley Shwu-Ching

    2015-01-01

    English as Foreign Language (EFL) students face additional difficulties for academic writing largely due to their level of language competency. An appropriate structural process of writing can help students develop their academic writing skills. This study explored the use of the e-readers to facilitate EFL students' process-based academic…

  7. Imagining and Moving beyond the ESL Bubble: Facilitating Communities of Practice through the ELL Ambassadors Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przymus, Steve Daniel

    2016-01-01

    When educators do not facilitate English language learners' (ELLs) social integration in schools, this can perpetuate ELLs' marginalized status and the plateauing of ELLs' English language development. This study highlights a program for secondary ELLs called the ELL Ambassadors program, which partnered ELLs with non-ELLs based on shared…

  8. Toward a Socioliterate Approach to Second Language Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedgcock, John S.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests effective language teacher preparation should facilitate candidates' access to the shared knowledge, discursive practices, and instructional processes of language teaching as an inherently disparate discipline. Argues that a genre-based, sociorhetorical approach to language teaching discourse can build candidates' awareness of…

  9. Innovative Learning Modules for Language in Context: MIMEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Angelika; Ahn, Seongmee; Hillman, Sara; Fei, Fei

    2009-01-01

    Students learning foreign languages in the United States generally have little exposure to the target language outside the classroom. Web-based technology can facilitate language learning in context by offering easily accessible, authentic materials. This paper introduces MIMEA (Multimedia Interactive Modules for Education and Assessment), an…

  10. Agrammatic aphasia verb and argument patterns in Kiswahili-English spontaneous language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillary K. Sang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The spontaneous and narrative language of Kiswahili agrammatic aphasic and non-brain-damaged speakers was analysed. The bilingual participants were also tested in English to enable comparisons of verb production in the two languages. The significance of this study was to characterise bilingual Kiswahili-English spontaneous agrammatic output. This was done by describing Kiswahili-English bilingual output data with a specific focus on the production of verbs. The description involves comparison of verb and argument production in Kiswahili and English. Methods and procedures: The participants recruited for this study were drawn from two groups of participants (six non-fluent aphasic/agrammatic speakers and six non-braindamaged. From each participant, a sample of spontaneous output was tape-recorded in English and Kiswahili based on the description and narration of the Flood rescue picture’ and the ‘Cookie theft picture’. The data elicited were compared for each subject and between the participants and relevant verb parameters have been analysed. The variables that were studied included mean length of utterance (MLU, inflectional errors, verb tokens and types, copulas and auxiliaries. Further, all verbs produced were classified as per their argument structure. Results: The results from English data supported previous findings on agrammatic output. The agrammatic participants produced utterances with shorter MLU and simpler sentence structure. However, Kiswahili data surprisingly showed reversed results, with agrammatic speakers producing longer utterances than non-brain-damaged (NBD controls. The results also revealed selective impairment in some agrammatic speakers who made inflectional errors. The verb argument structure showed contrasting results, with agrammatic speakers preferring transitive verbs whilst the NBD speakers used more intransitive verbs.Conclusions: The study attempts for the first time to characterise English

  11. Early development of abstract language knowledge: Evidence from perception-production transfer of birth-language memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, J.Y.; Cutler, A.; Broersma, M.

    2017-01-01

    Children adopted early in life into another linguistic community typically forget their birth language but retain, unaware, relevant linguistic knowledge that may facilitate (re)learning of birth-language patterns. Understanding the nature of this knowledge can shed light on how language is acquired

  12. The influence of cross-language similarity on within- and between-language Stroop effects in trilinguals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuven, W.J.B. van; Conklin, K.; Coderre, E.L.; Guo, T.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated effects of cross-language similarity on within- and between-language Stroop interference and facilitation in three groups of trilinguals. Trilinguals were either proficient in three languages that use the same-script (alphabetic in German–English–Dutch trilinguals), two simil

  13. Using Parametrics to Facilitate Collaborative Urban Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai; Benbih, Karima; Obeling, Esben

    2013-01-01

    Collaborative urban design faces three inherent dilemmas of limitations to time and resources, of barriers to language and communication between professionals and stakeholders, and of the reciprocal nature of the relation between influence and understanding. Parametric design tools may address all...... of these dilemmas, as they provide a fast way to test different design scenarios and make it possible keep designs open while at the same time allowing for a level of detailing which is high enough to facilitate an understanding of the generic qualities of proposed designs. This is particularly relevant...... in the context of the urban South which is characterized by high urban growth rates, weak planning systems and modest means. The current state of planning and urban development in Morocco is introduced as a context for discussing collaborative urban design and parametric urban design, and some tentative...

  14. Specialized languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise

    2016-01-01

    -disciplinarily, because they work with both derivative and contributory approaches. Derivative, because specialized language retrieves its philosophy of science as well as methods from both the natural sciences, social sciences and humanistic sciences. Contributory because language results support the communication......Across different fields of research, one feature is often overlooked: the use of language for specialized purposes (LSP) as a cross-discipline. Mastering cross-disciplinarity is the precondition for communicating detailed results within any field. Researchers in specialized languages work cross...... science fields communicate their findings. With this article, we want to create awareness of the work in this special area of language studies and of the inherent cross-disciplinarity that makes LSP special compared to common-core language. An acknowledgement of the importance of this field both in terms...

  15. "Wha Dis?" and Other Toddler-Initiated, Expressive Language-Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Robert A.; Goldstein-Alpern, Neva

    1999-01-01

    In this study, six percent of a 2-year-old child's spontaneous utterances in six 3-hour samples were identified as one of three expressive metalinguistic utterance types: interrogatives, hypothesis tests, and evocative utterances. Evocative utterances were used most frequently. The subject used the strategies to seek nouns 78 percent of the time.…

  16. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2008-01-01

    @@ For Teachers: The Wordless Language Spoken by Everyone by Pamela Osment An old saying goes:"Actions speak louder than words."That's true according to communication experts.Some studies show that up to 90 percent of communication is nonverbal.Though you might say one thing,your body movements may indicate something entirely different.This nonverbal way of communicating is called body language.The Universal(通用的)Language

  17. [Mother's language addressed to her baby during the 1st year: value in studying early interactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, M

    1986-01-01

    This article aims to demonstrate the value of the analysis of maternal language in the study of mother-infant interactions. It reviews questions confronting three types of data in the literature: modifications in the language of mothers when they address a baby, the early mother infant interactions in their verbal and non-verbal aspects, the recent linguistic findings and notably those of utterance acts theory. The different approaches discussed complement each other. Through them one sees how the analysis of maternal language can enrich the description of observable behavior in mother-child interactions and can make possible the exploration of the successive representations which the mother has both of her child and of herself as a maternal figure. In conclusion, we propose several lines of inquiry, drawn from utterance acts theory, which reveals the relationship between the words addressed to the baby, the partners in the interaction, and the situational context. This permits us to look at the way in which the baby's identity as a subject is progressively constituted for the mother.

  18. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  19. Relationship between the linguistic environments and early bilingual language development of hearing children in deaf-parented families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanto, Laura; Huttunen, Kerttu; Laakso, Marja-Leena

    2013-04-01

    We explored variation in the linguistic environments of hearing children of Deaf parents and how it was associated with their early bilingual language development. For that purpose we followed up the children's productive vocabulary (measured with the MCDI; MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory) and syntactic complexity (measured with the MLU10; mean length of the 10 longest utterances the child produced during videorecorded play sessions) in both Finnish Sign Language and spoken Finnish between the ages of 12 and 30 months. Additionally, we developed new methodology for describing the linguistic environments of the children (N = 10). Large variation was uncovered in both the amount and type of language input and language acquisition among the children. Language exposure and increases in productive vocabulary and syntactic complexity were interconnected. Language acquisition was found to be more dependent on the amount of exposure in sign language than in spoken language. This was judged to be related to the status of sign language as a minority language. The results are discussed in terms of parents' language choices, family dynamics in Deaf-parented families and optimal conditions for bilingual development.

  20. Is Korean Really a Listener-Responsible Language like Japanese?: A Contrastive Analysis of Discourse in Apologies between Korean and Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumi YOON

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available According to Hinds’ typology of languages on discourse level, Japanese and Korean are both considered listener-responsible languages, whereas English is classified as a speaker-responsible language (Hinds, 1987. However, in conversation, Yoon (2009 demonstrated that Korean should be classified as a speaker-responsible language based on her contrastive analysis of daily conversations between married couples in Japanese and Korean, where address terms and fillers are used as contextualization cues (Gumperz, 1982 to convey a speaker's intention to the interlocutor metacommunicatively. The purpose of the present study is to show that Japanese is listener-responsible, while Korean is a speaker-responsible language on the level of conversational communication. In order to test the hypothesis, surveys and recordings of real conversations of Japanese and Korean people were conducted and analyzed.The informants in the present study consisted of four groups: Japanese university students who live in their own country, Japanese university students who live in the U.S., Korean university students who live in their own country and Korean university students who live in the U.S. A Discourse Complete Test (DCT was completed by Japanese and Korean university students to compare the differences in speaker responsibility in apologies. The results suggest that Korean should be classified as a speaker-responsible language for understanding in conversations, since Korean speakers produce many more utterances and convey more information per utterance to the interlocutor than Japanese speakers. Furthermore, it is found that the responsibility for the understanding of utterances correlate with daily use of American English, especially in the case of Japanese university students.

  1. Second-first language acquisition: analysis of expressive language skills in a sample of girls adopted from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tony Xing; Loker, Troy; Dedrick, Robert F; Marfo, Kofi

    2012-03-01

    In this study we investigated adopted Chinese girls' expressive English language outcomes in relation to their age at adoption, chronological age, length of exposure to English and developmental risk status at the time of adoption. Vocabulary and phrase utterance data on 318 girls were collected from the adoptive mothers using the Language Development Survey (LDS) (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000). The girls, aged 18-35 months (M=26·2 months, SD=4·9 months), were adopted at ages ranging from 6·8 to 24 months (M=12·6 months, SD=3·1 months), and had been exposed to English for periods ranging from 1·6 to 27·6 months (M=13·7, SD=5·7). Findings suggest that vocabulary and mean length of phrase scores were negatively correlated with age at adoption but positively correlated with chronological age and length of exposure to English. Developmental risk status at the time of adoption was not correlated with language outcomes. The gap between their expressive language and that of same-age girls from the US normative sample was wider for children aged 18-23 months but was closed for children aged 30-35 months. About 16% of the children met the LDS criteria for delays in vocabulary and 17% met the LDS criteria for delays in mean length of phrase. Speech/language interventions were received by 33·3% of the children with delays in vocabulary and 25% with delays in phrase.

  2. The Influence of Classroom Drama on English Learners' Academic Language Use during English Language Arts Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alida; Loughlin, Sandra M.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher and student academic discourse was examined in an urban arts-integrated school to better understand facilitation of students' English language learning. Participants' discourse was compared across English language arts (ELA) lessons with and without classroom drama in a third-grade classroom of English learning (EL) students (N = 18) with…

  3. The Influence of Classroom Drama on English Learners' Academic Language Use during English Language Arts Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alida; Loughlin, Sandra M.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher and student academic discourse was examined in an urban arts-integrated school to better understand facilitation of students' English language learning. Participants' discourse was compared across English language arts (ELA) lessons with and without classroom drama in a third-grade classroom of English learning (EL) students (N = 18) with…

  4. The Dual Language Program Planner: A Guide for Designing and Implementing Dual Language Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Elizabeth R.; Olague, Natalie; Rogers, David

    This guide offers a framework to facilitate the planning process for dual language programs, assuming at least a basic working knowledge of the central characteristics and essential features of dual language models. It provides an overview of the various models that serve linguistically diverse student populations, defining the term dual language…

  5. Intervention with linguistically diverse preschool children: a focus on developing home language(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnert, Kathryn; Yim, Dongsun; Nett, Kelly; Kan, Pui Fong; Duran, Lillian

    2005-07-01

    This article addresses a series of questions that are critical to planning and implementing effective intervention programs for young linguistically diverse learners with primary language impairment (LI). Linguistically diverse learners in the United States include children whose families speak languages such as Spanish, Korean, Cantonese, Hmong, Vietnamese, or any language other than, or in addition to, English. A narrative review of the relevant literature addresses clinical questions including (a) Why support the home language when it is not the language used in school or the majority community? (b) Does continued support for the home language undermine attainment in a second language? (c) Should we support the home language when it includes the code switching or mixing of two traditionally separate languages? and (d) What are some strategies that can be used to support the home language when it is a language that the speech-language pathologist (SLP) does not speak? SLPs should provide services to linguistically diverse preschool-age children with LI in a manner that effectively supports the development of the home language. Parent and paraprofessional training along with peer-mediated models of intervention are presented as two possible methods for facilitating the home language in children with LI.

  6. Sociolinguistics in selected textbooks used for teaching Polish as a native language in a primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymańska Marta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The text is an effort to present a change which took place at the turn of centuries in teaching Polish as a native language. It is, first of all, about a new sociolinguistic perspective in teaching Polish which appeared at schools. The author analyses four selected series of textbooks used for teaching Polish in a primary school. Special attention was paid to activity books, which are analysed with regard for presence of situational exercises that make students analyse communication situations and their typical language behaviours. They also make them create effective utterances adequate to a specific context. The conducted research shows that a communication perspective is not represented well in school textbooks. Activities focusing on development of communication competence are rare, they are scattered or separated from other language actions. Thus, they do not fit into a general textbook concept, and they often are only a decoration required by the core curriculum.

  7. Distal prosody affects learning of novel words in an artificial language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Tuuli H; McAuley, J Devin; Dilley, Laura C; Zdziarska, Patrycja A; Jones, Katherine B; Sanders, Lisa D

    2015-06-01

    The distal prosodic patterning established at the beginning of an utterance has been shown to influence downstream word segmentation and lexical access. In this study, we investigated whether distal prosody also affects word learning in a novel (artificial) language. Listeners were exposed to syllable sequences in which the embedded words were either congruent or incongruent with the distal prosody of a carrier phrase. Local segmentation cues, including the transitional probabilities between syllables, were held constant. During a test phase, listeners rated the items as either words or nonwords. Consistent with the perceptual grouping of syllables being predicted by distal prosody, congruent items were more likely to be judged as words than were incongruent items. The results provide the first evidence that perceptual grouping affects word learning in an unknown language, demonstrating that distal prosodic effects may be independent of lexical or other language-specific knowledge.

  8. Complexity markers in morphosyntactic productions in French-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigent, Gaïd; Parisse, Christophe; Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Maillart, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    The usage-based theory considers that the morphosyntactic productions of children with SLI are particularly dependent on input frequency. When producing complex syntax, the language of these children is, therefore, predicted to have a lower variability and to contain fewer infrequent morphosyntactic markers than that of younger children matched on morphosyntactic abilities. Using a spontaneous language task, the current study compared the complexity of the morphological and structural productions of 20 children with SLI and 20 language-matched peers (matched on both morphosyntactic comprehension and mean length of utterance). As expected, results showed that although basic structures were produced in the same way in both groups, several complex forms (i.e. tenses such as Imperfect, Future or Conditional and Conjunctions) were less frequent in the productions of children with SLI. Finally, we attempted to highlight complex linguistic forms that could be good clinical markers for these children.

  9. Estratégias utilizadas por aprendizes de línguas afins: a troca de código Strategies employed by learners of related languages: code-switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Ferroni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo analisamos a troca de código, uma estratégia de compensação que consiste na utilização de uma palavra ou frase em L1, L3 ou L4, no interior do enunciado em L2, empregada por aprendizes de italiano LE cuja língua materna é o português brasileiro, durante a realização em dupla de uma tarefa escrita. A pesquisa, que se baseou nos instrumentos propostos pela etnografia, mostra que a troca de código constitui um potencial para o desenvolvimento da interlíngua e para a aquisição/aprendizagem de LE e que tal estratégia, além de compensar eventuais lacunas linguísticas originadas pela falta de recursos adequados para expressar-se em LE, é usada pelos falantes como procedimento típico da conversação bilíngue para facilitar a comunicação.In this paper we examine code-switching, an achievement strategy consisting in the use of a word or phrase from L1, L3 or L4 within an utterance in L2, as employed by learners of Italian as a foreign language who have Brazilian Portuguese as their mother tongue, while performing a written task in pairs. The research, based on tools provided by an ethnographic approach, shows that code-switching constitutes a potential for developing interlanguage and for the acquisition/learning of a foreign language and that such strategy, in addition to compensating eventual linguistic gaps originated by a lack of proper resources for expression in L2, is used by speakers as a typical procedure in bilingual conversation, in order to facilitate the communication.

  10. Automatic Identification of Metaphoric Utterances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jonathan Edwin

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the problem of metaphor identification in linguistic and computational semantics, considering both manual and automatic approaches. It describes a manual approach to metaphor identification, the Metaphoricity Measurement Procedure (MMP), and compares this approach with other manual approaches. The dissertation then…

  11. From Utterance to Example Sentence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard

    2010-01-01

    for use in the dictionary consists of 11 stages in the DTS dictionary project. Special focus will be on the stage in the process where the sentence is judged suitable for dictionary use. A set of guidelines for what makes up a good example sentence has been developed for the DTS dictionary project...

  12. Facebook-Photovoice Interface: Empowering Non-Native Pre-Service English Language Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubrico, Jessie Grace U.; Hashim, Fatimah

    2014-01-01

    Engaging non-native pre-service English teachers who are still learning the language themselves requires two tasks: facilitating their language teaching skills and scaffolding their language learning. This action research interfaced Facebook and Photovoice technologies in order to empower participants to be proactive in their language learning and…

  13. The Company That Words Keep: Comparing the Statistical Structure of Child- versus Adult-Directed Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Does child-directed language differ from adult-directed language in ways that might facilitate word learning? Associative structure (the probability that a word appears with its free associates), contextual diversity, word repetitions and frequency were compared longitudinally across six language corpora, with four corpora of language directed at…

  14. Facebook-Photovoice Interface: Empowering Non-Native Pre-Service English Language Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubrico, Jessie Grace U.; Hashim, Fatimah

    2014-01-01

    Engaging non-native pre-service English teachers who are still learning the language themselves requires two tasks: facilitating their language teaching skills and scaffolding their language learning. This action research interfaced Facebook and Photovoice technologies in order to empower participants to be proactive in their language learning and…

  15. Language Learning Strategies and Styles among Iranian Engineering and Political Science Graduate Students Studying Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alireza, Shakarami; Abdullah, Mardziha H.

    2010-01-01

    Language learning strategies are used with the explicit goal of helping learners improve their knowledge and understanding of a target language. They are the conscious thoughts and behaviors used by students to facilitate language learning tasks and to personalize language learning process. Learning styles on the other hand, are "general…

  16. The Company That Words Keep: Comparing the Statistical Structure of Child- versus Adult-Directed Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Does child-directed language differ from adult-directed language in ways that might facilitate word learning? Associative structure (the probability that a word appears with its free associates), contextual diversity, word repetitions and frequency were compared longitudinally across six language corpora, with four corpora of language directed at…

  17. Effects of Teaching Literature on Culture Learning in the Language Classroom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chittra Muthusamy; Rasaya Marimuthu; Elangkeeran Sabapathy

    2011-01-01

    .... It is argued that the interface of language, literature and culture are at the forefront of present-day language and literature learning and this facilitates inter-racial, intra-racial and global understanding. Approach...

  18. Language Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugh, Marylou

    1978-01-01

    When a child uses his words and his ideas in learning to read, he also assists in the normal integration of his personality. Starting with a method of language experience developed by Sylvia Ashton-Warner, the author, a reading consultant, describes a language experience-reading program which utilizes the student's own curiosity and interests. (RK)

  19. LANGUAGE DILEMMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Linguists and the government hope to preserve the diversity of China’s languages When Xu Shixuan, a linguist from the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, returned to a southwestern county bordering Myanmar in 2002 to study the local language after a nine

  20. Learning to Facilitate (Online) Meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Peter; Bull, Susan; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    We describe an approach to teaching collaboration skills directly by building on competences for meeting facilitation. (Online) meetings provide a rich arena to practice collaboration since they can serve multiple purposes: learning, problem solving, decision making, idea generation and advancement......, etc.. We argue that facilitating meetings is a competence worth developing in students and describe the main knowledge and skill components that pertain to this competence. We then describe some implemented software tools that can be used in schools and colleges to provide opportunities for practicing...... and developing group facilitation skills....

  1. The Facilitating Role of L1 in ESL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağrı Tuğrul Mart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been widely advocated that insistence on English-only policy and the complete prohibition of L1 would maximize the effect of learning L2 but recent studies demonstrate that the appropriate use of L1 has a facilitating role in L2 classroom. This study attempts to demonstrate that the use of L1 in ESL classes does not hinder foreign language learning.

  2. BENEFITS OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING - LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY CERTIFICATES â€" A PREREQUISITE FOR THE BUSINESS GRADUATE

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Learning a new language at any age is an enormously rewarding experience in many ways. Studying a foreign language helps students understand English grammar better and improves their overall communication and problem-solving skills. Beyond the intellectual benefits, knowledge of a foreign language facilitates travel, enhances career opportunities, and enables one to learn more about different peoples and cultures. In Romania, languages continue to struggle to gain the status of key learning a...

  3. Native-language recognition abilities in 4-month-old infants from monolingual and bilingual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, L; Sebastián-Gallés, N

    1997-12-01

    This study examined the capacity of 4-month-old infants to identify their maternal language when phonologically similar languages are contrasted, using a visual orientation procedure with a reaction time measure. Infants from monolingual and bilingual environments were compared in order to analyze whether differences in linguistic background affect this behavioral response. In experiment 1 the validity of the procedure was assessed with a pair of phonologically dissimilar languages (Catalan or Spanish vs. English). In experiment 2, 20 infants from monolingual environments tested in a similar language contrast (Catalan vs. Spanish) indicated that discrimination is already possible at that age. Results from experiment 3, using low-pass filtered utterances, suggested that infants can rely on information about supra-segmental features to make this distinction. For the infants growing up in bilingual environments no preference for either of the familiar languages was found. Moreover, when their maternal language was contrasted either with English or with Italian, in both cases the bilingual group showed a similar pattern, consisting of significantly longer latencies for the familiar language. Possible interpretations of this unexpected pattern of results are discussed and its implications for bilingual language acquisition are considered.

  4. Using Language Sample Analysis in Clinical Practice: Measures of Grammatical Accuracy for Identifying Language Impairment in Preschool and School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Sarita; Guo, Ling-Yu

    2016-05-01

    This article reviews the existing literature on the diagnostic accuracy of two grammatical accuracy measures for differentiating children with and without language impairment (LI) at preschool and early school age based on language samples. The first measure, the finite verb morphology composite (FVMC), is a narrow grammatical measure that computes children's overall accuracy of four verb tense morphemes. The second measure, percent grammatical utterances (PGU), is a broader grammatical measure that computes children's accuracy in producing grammatical utterances. The extant studies show that FVMC demonstrates acceptable (i.e., 80 to 89% accurate) to good (i.e., 90% accurate or higher) diagnostic accuracy for children between 4;0 (years;months) and 6;11 in conversational or narrative samples. In contrast, PGU yields acceptable to good diagnostic accuracy for children between 3;0 and 8;11 regardless of sample types. Given the diagnostic accuracy shown in the literature, we suggest that FVMC and PGU can be used as one piece of evidence for identifying children with LI in assessment when appropriate. However, FVMC or PGU should not be used as therapy goals directly. Instead, when children are low in FVMC or PGU, we suggest that follow-up analyses should be conducted to determine the verb tense morphemes or grammatical structures that children have difficulty with.

  5. Den gode facilitator af refleksionsarbejde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Pia

    2009-01-01

    tværfaglig lektorgruppe fra social og sundhedssektoren.’Learning by doing’, selvevaluering og sparring følger herefter som bud på, hvordan man kan leve op til de tilsyneladende ret utopiske krav til en god facilitator. At kunne skabe det tillidsfulde refleksionsrum og at kunne stille gode...... præsenteres i det følgende afsnit, og forfatteren argumenterer for begrebet facilitator af refleksionsarbejde. Herefter udfoldes rollen som facilitator ifølge Ghay og Lillyman. De har fokus på positive praksisoplevelser og tillidsfulde relationer. Gillie Boltons teoretiske og praktiske referenceramme...... for facilitatorrollen beskrives herefter. Bolton beskriver refleksionsarbejde som en fysisk (ikke ren kognitiv), passioneret (ikke ren intellektuel) kontekstbunden kunstnerisk proces, som kræver flair, stil og intuition. I de følgende afsnit beskrives den gode facilitator af refleksionsarbejde detaljeret af en...

  6. Facilitating Value Co-Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veith, Anne; Assaf, Albert; Josiassen, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    ) introduced a new dominant logic in the marketing literature, the Service-Dominant Logic (S-D Logic), in which service, interactions, and enhanced experiences help create value, and this potential for value is what attracts consumers. Therefore organizations must be customer-centric in order to facilitate...... unique, positive experiences. As the name indicates, both organizations and consumers (should) obtain value when co-creating, which is why both parties are willing to increase their degree of involvement, e.g. spending more resources, sharing tacit knowledge, etc., because a high degree of involvement....... Through an exploratory qualitative study, 9 facilitators for B2C value co-creation were uncovered. The study was set in the creative industries. The 9 facilitators are a combination of the main facilitators found in the literature review and the ones found through the empirical research. The 9...

  7. LITERATURE AS A FACILITATOR OF TARGET CULTURE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur TOPALOĞLU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate how literature courses, involved in the curriculum of the department of English Language Teaching from the second year to the fourth year, help students to acquire the target culture in EFL classes. Since learning a language does not mean only learning the lexical structures of any language, culture holds an important place in internalizing the way of thinking and appropriate use of target language. This study has been designed in a naturalistic environment, thus interview and observation were used as the main data collection techniques. The study was designed as a descriptive qualitative research. Participants were chosen by the help of an experienced colleague working in the above mentioned department for three years, and most of the participants were under her supervision, thus this case facilitated the process of interviewing participants. The findings showed that the literature courses contribute much to gain the target culture due the very nature of literature reflecting the society and traditions of society in which it was written. In addition, leaarners may have the chance of comparing thier own culture with target culture and this facilitates their learning. However, some missing points and misapplications were reported by students in providing a more appropriate environment for reflecting the target culture.

  8. Cross-language activation in children's speech production: evidence from second language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G

    2012-03-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and adult German-English bilinguals, respectively, named pictures in German and in English; in Experiment 4, 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals named pictures in German. In both language conditions, cognate status was manipulated. We found that the bidirectional cognate facilitation effect was significant in all groups except the German monolinguals (Experiment 4) and, critically, the child second language learners (Experiment 1) in whom only native language (L1) German had an effect on second language (L2) English. The findings demonstrate how the integration of languages into a child's system follows a developmental path that, at lower levels of proficiency, allows only limited cross-language activation. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children both for early second language learners and for early bi- and trilinguals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Language acquisition is language change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen; Goro, Takuya; Thornton, Rosalind

    2006-01-01

    According to the theory of Universal Grammar, the primary linguistic data guides children through an innately specified space of hypotheses. On this view, similarities between child-English and adult-German are as unsurprising as similarities between cousins who have never met. By contrast, experience-based approaches to language acquisition contend that child language matches the input, with nonadult forms being simply less articulated versions of the forms produced by adults. This paper reports several studies that provide support for the theory of Universal grammar, and resist explanation on experience-based accounts. Two studies investigate English-speaking children's productions, and a third examines the interpretation of sentences by Japanese speaking children. When considered against the input children are exposed to, the findings of these and other studies are consistent with the continuity hypothesis, which supposes that child language can differ from the language spoken by adults only in ways that adult languages can differ from each other.

  10. Co-development of manner and path concepts in language, action, and eye-gaze behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohan, Katrin S; Griffiths, Sascha S; Sciutti, Alessandra; Partmann, Tim C; Rohlfing, Katharina J

    2014-07-01

    In order for artificial intelligent systems to interact naturally with human users, they need to be able to learn from human instructions when actions should be imitated. Human tutoring will typically consist of action demonstrations accompanied by speech. In the following, the characteristics of human tutoring during action demonstration will be examined. A special focus will be put on the distinction between two kinds of motion events: path-oriented actions and manner-oriented actions. Such a distinction is inspired by the literature pertaining to cognitive linguistics, which indicates that the human conceptual system can distinguish these two distinct types of motion. These two kinds of actions are described in language by more path-oriented or more manner-oriented utterances. In path-oriented utterances, the source, trajectory, or goal is emphasized, whereas in manner-oriented utterances the medium, velocity, or means of motion are highlighted. We examined a video corpus of adult-child interactions comprised of three age groups of children-pre-lexical, early lexical, and lexical-and two different tasks, one emphasizing manner more strongly and one emphasizing path more strongly. We analyzed the language and motion of the caregiver and the gazing behavior of the child to highlight the differences between the tutoring and the acquisition of the manner and path concepts. The results suggest that age is an important factor in the development of these action categories. The analysis of this corpus has also been exploited to develop an intelligent robotic behavior-the tutoring spotter system-able to emulate children's behaviors in a tutoring situation, with the aim of evoking in human subjects a natural and effective behavior in teaching to a robot. The findings related to the development of manner and path concepts have been used to implement new effective feedback strategies in the tutoring spotter system, which should provide improvements in human

  11. Language Change and Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorbjörg Hróarsdóttir

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present diachronic changes in terms of the conditions of first language acquisition. Grammars, seen as mental organs, may change between two generations. A change is initiated when (a population of learners converge on a grammatical system which differs in at least one parameter value from the system internalized by the speakers of the previous generation. Learnability issues then connect to both language acquisition and language change, and understanding language changes depends on understanding how children acquire their native language. Acquisition is a process in which Universal Grammar (UG interacts with a context-specific set of Primary Linguistic Data (PLD: the linguistic input to the child-learner and uses these PLD as the source for triggers or cues that map the innate (preexperience knowledge to a mature grammar. If a certain phenomenon has survived through many generations, it must have been reflected clearly in the PLD. Then, if we note that it has changed, something in the language performance of the previous generation must have changed, and thereby paved the way for a new interpretation. Innovation leading to linguistic variation in the PLD and gradual changes in PLD play a central role in the explanation here: the immediate cause of a grammar change must lie in some alternation in the PLD. We will look at how the language spoken in a certain community (E-language may gradually become different from the language that originally served as the triggering experience. These changes in the E-language also mean changes in the input available to the child-learners of the next generation and a motivation for a different parameter setting has arisen.

  12. Living language

    CERN Document Server

    Shuttleworth, John

    2008-01-01

    Living Language 3rd edition' has been devised to meet all the new specifications for AS and A level English Language. The best-selling previous edition has been comprehensively revised to ensure full assessment objectives coverage and fulfilment, and delivery of the new four-unit courses from 2008 onwards. 'Living Language 3rd edition' provides linguistic theory, information and ideas which are easily accessed via supported activities and investigations. The text will actively develop students' skills in reading, listening and responding to an extensive range of text genres and data. Building

  13. Integrating mechanisms of visual guidance in naturalistic language production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Moreno I; Keller, Frank

    2015-05-01

    Situated language production requires the integration of visual attention and linguistic processing. Previous work has not conclusively disentangled the role of perceptual scene information and structural sentence information in guiding visual attention. In this paper, we present an eye-tracking study that demonstrates that three types of guidance, perceptual, conceptual, and structural, interact to control visual attention. In a cued language production experiment, we manipulate perceptual (scene clutter) and conceptual guidance (cue animacy) and measure structural guidance (syntactic complexity of the utterance). Analysis of the time course of language production, before and during speech, reveals that all three forms of guidance affect the complexity of visual responses, quantified in terms of the entropy of attentional landscapes and the turbulence of scan patterns, especially during speech. We find that perceptual and conceptual guidance mediate the distribution of attention in the scene, whereas structural guidance closely relates to scan pattern complexity. Furthermore, the eye-voice span of the cued object and its perceptual competitor are similar; its latency mediated by both perceptual and structural guidance. These results rule out a strict interpretation of structural guidance as the single dominant form of visual guidance in situated language production. Rather, the phase of the task and the associated demands of cross-modal cognitive processing determine the mechanisms that guide attention.

  14. Language learners privilege structured meaning over surface frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Jennifer; Adger, David

    2014-04-22

    Although it is widely agreed that learning the syntax of natural languages involves acquiring structure-dependent rules, recent work on acquisition has nevertheless attempted to characterize the outcome of learning primarily in terms of statistical generalizations about surface distributional information. In this paper we investigate whether surface statistical knowledge or structural knowledge of English is used to infer properties of a novel language under conditions of impoverished input. We expose learners to artificial-language patterns that are equally consistent with two possible underlying grammars--one more similar to English in terms of the linear ordering of words, the other more similar on abstract structural grounds. We show that learners' grammatical inferences overwhelmingly favor structural similarity over preservation of superficial order. Importantly, the relevant shared structure can be characterized in terms of a universal preference for isomorphism in the mapping from meanings to utterances. Whereas previous empirical support for this universal has been based entirely on data from cross-linguistic language samples, our results suggest it may reflect a deep property of the human cognitive system--a property that, together with other structure-sensitive principles, constrains the acquisition of linguistic knowledge.

  15. Second-language acquisition via immersion in daycare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karniol, R

    1990-02-01

    This paper presents a case study of second-language acquisition of Hebrew via immersion in daycare between 1.10 and 3.0. A period of silence was followed by rapid onset of L2 production simultaneously with many references to language itself. Eight types of language awareness were identified, and of these, several types may be prerequisites for starting L2 production. The nature of L2 speech during the first stages of production suggests that to crack the sematic code of L2, the child relies on identifiable contingencies between utterances and subsequent behaviours by speakers and listeners. As a result there are many more imperatives and interrogatives in L2 than are evident in L1 speech, and these appear to be learned by rote in an unanalysed manner. The transition to complex constructions occurs via the juxtaposition of known but syntactically unanalysed chunks, and results in patterns of syntactic errors similar to those of adult second-language learners. Reliance on L1 as a fall-back strategy was also evident. Several implications of these data for cognitive development in general are discussed.

  16. Schizophrenia and the structure of language: the linguist's view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, Michael A; He, Congzhou; Brown, Cati; Naçi, Lorina; McClain, Jonathan T; Fjordbak, Bess Sirmon; Semple, James; Brown, John

    2005-09-01

    Patients with schizophrenia often display unusual language impairments. This is a wide ranging critical review of the literature on language in schizophrenia since the 19th century. We survey schizophrenic language level by level, from phonetics through phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. There are at least two kinds of impairment (perhaps not fully distinct): thought disorder, or failure to maintain a discourse plan, and schizophasia, comprising various dysphasia-like impairments such as clanging, neologism, and unintelligible utterances. Thought disorder appears to be primarily a disruption of executive function and pragmatics, perhaps with impairment of the syntax-semantics interface; schizophasia involves disruption at other levels. Phonetics is also often abnormal (manifesting as flat intonation or unusual voice quality), but phonological structure, morphology, and syntax are normal or nearly so (some syntactic impairments have been demonstrated). Access to the lexicon is clearly impaired, manifesting as stilted speech, word approximation, and neologism. Clanging (glossomania) is straightforwardly explainable as distraction by self-monitoring. Recent research has begun to relate schizophrenia, which is partly genetic, to the genetic endowment that makes human language possible.

  17. Intelligent Voice Prosthesis Converting Icons into Natural Language Sentences

    CERN Document Server

    Vaillant, P; Vaillant, Pascal; Checler, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The Intelligent Voice Prosthesis is a communication tool which reconstructs the meaning of an ill-structured sequence of icons or symbols, and expresses this meaning into sentences of a Natural Language (French). It has been developed for the use of people who cannot express themselves orally in natural language, and further, who are not able to comply to grammatical rules such as those of natural language. We describe how available corpora of iconic communication by children with Cerebral Palsy has led us to implement a simple and relevant semantic description of the symbol lexicon. We then show how a unification-based, bottom-up semantic analysis allows the system to uncover the meaning of the user's utterances by computing proper dependencies between the symbols. The result of the analysis is then passed to a lexicalization module which chooses the right words of natural language to use, and builds a linguistic semantic network. This semantic network is then generated into French sentences via hierarchizat...

  18. Connected digit speech recognition system for Malayalam language

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cini Kurian; Kannan Balakrishnan

    2013-12-01

    A connected digit speech recognition is important in many applications such as automated banking system, catalogue-dialing, automatic data entry, automated banking system, etc. This paper presents an optimum speaker-independent connected digit recognizer for Malayalam language. The system employs Perceptual Linear Predictive (PLP) cepstral coefficient for speech parameterization and continuous density Hidden Markov Model (HMM) in the recognition process. Viterbi algorithm is used for decoding. The training data base has the utterance of 21 speakers from the age group of 20 to 40 years and the sound is recorded in the normal office environment where each speaker is asked to read 20 set of continuous digits. The system obtained an accuracy of 99.5 % with the unseen data.

  19. Second Language Learners and Speech Act Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Recognizing the specific speech act ( Searle, 1969) that a speaker performs with an utterance is a fundamental feature of pragmatic competence. Past research has demonstrated that native speakers of English automatically recognize speech acts when they comprehend utterances (Holtgraves & Ashley, 2001). The present research examined whether this…

  20. Second Language Learners and Speech Act Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Recognizing the specific speech act ( Searle, 1969) that a speaker performs with an utterance is a fundamental feature of pragmatic competence. Past research has demonstrated that native speakers of English automatically recognize speech acts when they comprehend utterances (Holtgraves & Ashley, 2001). The present research examined whether this…

  1. Language acquisition and language change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, David

    2010-09-01

    Children acquire a mature language system and sometimes this system differs from that of their parents. This is a significant part of language change and understanding acquisition is key to understanding this kind of change in people's internal grammars. I outline one approach to language acquisition, based on children finding cues expressed in the input they are exposed to. This enables us to understand historical change in grammars: change in external language sometimes triggers a new internal grammar as cues come to be expressed differently. Work on language variation, acquisition, and change converges, and these three areas are mutually dependent; empirical work in one area may enrich understanding more generally, opening the way to new kinds of empirical work. Seen this way, language is a complex system and language change can be treated productively in the context of complexity science. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. [Language Delay: What is the Prognosis of Late Bloomers?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, P; Sachse, S; von Suchodoletz, W

    2015-07-01

    30-50% of late talkers catch-up their language delay during the third year of life. So far it is unclear whether this is a permanent or an illusionary recovery. The aim of the study was to examine the further language development of late bloomers. Language skills of 83 three-year-old children (16 late bloomers [LB], 29 late talkers [LT] with persistent language problems, 38 Non-LT) were assessed with a standardized language test. Before school entry formal language skills, expressive and receptive vocabulary and precursors of written language (verbal memory, phonological awareness, verbal information-processing speed) were assessed. At follow-up before school entry LB scored below Non-LT on phonological memory test. 31% of the LB in contrast to 3% of the Non-LT had slight language problems. 38% had received speech-language therapy. Nevertheless, no LB met the criteria of developmental language disorder. The language skills of LT with persistent language problems remained significantly below the level of LB and Non-LT. Every fourth of these children was language impaired. LB as a group are not at risk for later clinically relevant language disorders. However, their language abilities are often within the lower range of normal variation. Therefore, it is recommended to facilitate their language acquisition either by kindergarten training programs or by parent-directed intervention programs to provide a more stimulating environment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Does preterm birth increase a child's risk for language impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansavini, Alessandra; Guarini, Annalisa; Justice, Laura M; Savini, Silvia; Broccoli, Serena; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo

    2010-12-01

    Although premature birth is associated with lags in language acquisition, it is unclear whether preterms exhibit an elevated risk for language impairment (LI). This study determined whether preterms, without frank cerebral damage, at 2;6 and 3;6 exhibited a higher rate of risk for LI as compared to full-terms, and also sought to identify predictors of risk. Sixty-four Italian very immature preterms were assessed longitudinally at 2;6 and 3;6; age-matched full-terms served as controls at 2;6 (n=22) and 3;6 (n=40). Each completed individualized assessments of cognition and language ability. At each time point, using cut-offs specific to each of the language measures, children were differentiated into two groups (at risk for LI, not at risk). The percentage of full-terms at risk for LI at 2;6 (9.1% to 13.6%) and 3;6 (7.5%) was consistent with prior estimates of LI at these ages. The percentage of preterms at risk for LI at 2;6 (16.1% to 24.1%) and 3;6 (34.4%) was higher at both ages and statistically significant at 3;6 (difference=26.8%, 95% CI=12.3% to 41.4%). The best model predicting risk status at 3;6 was preterms' mean length of utterance (MLU) at 2;6, (sensitivity 72.73%, specificity 85%) when adjusting for maternal education. Preterms exhibit a heightened risk for LI in the preschool years, since about one in four preterms at 2;6 and one in three preterms at 3;6 experiences significant lags in language acquisition. Findings argue the importance of early identification of language difficulties among preterms coupled with implementation of systematic language-focused interventions for these youngsters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical expectations: what facilitators expect from ESL students on clinical placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, Caroline; Rogan, Fran

    2012-03-01

    Many nursing students for whom English is a second language (ESL) face challenges related to communication on clinical placement and although clinical facilitators are not usually trained language assessors, they are often in a position of needing to assess ESL students' clinical language performance. Little is known, however, about the particular areas of clinical performance facilitators focus on when they are assessing ESL students. This paper discusses the results of a study of facilitators' written assessment comments about the clinical performance of a small group of ESL nursing students over a two and a half year period. These comments were documented on students' clinical assessment forms at the end of each placement. The results provide a more detailed insight into facilitators' expectations of students' language performance and the particular challenges faced by ESL students and indicate that facilitators have clear expectations of ESL students regarding communication, learning styles and professional demeanour. These findings may help both ESL students and their facilitators better prepare for clinical placement.

  5. Facilitation as a Governance Strategy: Unravelling Governments’ Facilitation Frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Grotenbreg (Sanne); M.W. van Buuren (Arwin)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractGovernments increasingly choose facilitation as a strategy to entice others to produce public goods and services, including in relation to the realisation of sustainable energy innovations. An important instrument to implement this governance strategy is discursive framing. To learn how

  6. Facilitation as a governance strategy: Unravelling governments' facilitation frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grotenbreg, S. (Sanne); M.W. van Buuren (Arwin)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractGovernments increasingly choose facilitation as a strategy to entice others to produce public goods and services, including in relation to the realisation of sustainable energy innovations. An important instrument to implement this governance strategy is discursive framing. To learn how

  7. Facilitating Collaboration through Design Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Eva; Messeter, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    competences, interests, responsibilities and perhaps professional languages both within one organization, between several organizations and between the organizations and a group of (potential) users. It is necessary to find ways to learn about users and the contexts of use, and to create a common...

  8. First-language phonotactics in second-language listening

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, A.C.; Cutler, A.

    2006-01-01

    Highly proficient German users of English as a second language, and native speakers of American English, listened to nonsense sequences and responded whenever they detected an embedded English word. The responses of both groups were equivalently facilitated by preceding context that both by English and by German phonotactic constraints forced a boundary at word onset (e.g., lecture was easier to detect in moinlecture than in gorklecture, and wish in yarlwish than in plookwish. The American L1...

  9. Statistical phonetic learning in infants: facilitation and feature generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maye, Jessica; Weiss, Daniel J; Aslin, Richard N

    2008-01-01

    Over the course of the first year of life, infants develop from being generalized listeners, capable of discriminating both native and non-native speech contrasts, into specialized listeners whose discrimination patterns closely reflect the phonetic system of the native language(s). Recent work by Maye, Werker and Gerken (2002) has proposed a statistical account for this phenomenon, showing that infants may lose the ability to discriminate some foreign language contrasts on the basis of their sensitivity to the statistical distribution of sounds in the input language. In this paper we examine the process of enhancement in infant speech perception, whereby initially difficult phonetic contrasts become better discriminated when they define two categories that serve a functional role in the native language. In particular, we demonstrate that exposure to a bimodal statistical distribution in 8-month-old infants' phonetic input can lead to increased discrimination of difficult contrasts. In addition, this exposure also facilitates discrimination of an unfamiliar contrast sharing the same phonetic feature as the contrast presented during familiarization, suggesting that infants extract acoustic/phonetic information that is invariant across an abstract featural representation.

  10. Facilitation of learning: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Tyler; Trish, Houghton; Barry, Debbie

    2016-04-06

    This article, the fourth in a series of 11, discusses the context for the facilitation of learning. It outlines the main principles and theories for understanding the process of learning, including examples which link these concepts to practice. The practical aspects of using these theories in a practice setting will be discussed in the fifth article of this series. Together, these two articles will provide mentors and practice teachers with knowledge of the learning process, which will enable them to meet the second domain of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice on facilitation of learning.

  11. EXTENSION OF HIDDEN MARKOV MODEL FOR RECOGNIZING LARGE VOCABULARY OF SIGN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Jebali

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Computers still have a long way to go before they can interact with users in a truly natural fashion. From a user’s perspective, the most natural way to interact with a computer would be through a speech and gesture interface. Although speech recognition has made significant advances in the past ten years, gesture recognition has been lagging behind. Sign Languages (SL are the most accomplished forms of gestural communication. Therefore, their automatic analysis is a real challenge, which is interestingly implied to their lexical and syntactic organization levels. Statements dealing with sign language occupy a significant interest in the Automatic Natural Language Processing (ANLP domain. In this work, we are dealing with sign language recognition, in particular of French Sign Language (FSL. FSL has its own specificities, such as the simultaneity of several parameters, the important role of the facial expression or movement and the use of space for the proper utterance organization. Unlike speech recognition, Frensh sign language (FSL events occur both sequentially and simultaneously. Thus, the computational processing of FSL is too complex than the spoken languages. We present a novel approach based on HMM to reduce the recognition complexity.

  12. Parents' child-directed communication and child language development: a longitudinal study with Italian toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola

    2013-09-01

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1 ; 3 and 1 ; 9. The characteristics of the maternal and paternal child-directed language (characteristics of communicative functions and lexicon as reported in psycholinguistic norms for Italian language) were coded during free play. Child language development was assessed during free play and at ages 2 ; 6 and 3 ; 0 using the Italian version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (2 ; 6) and the revised Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-R) (3 ; 0). Data analysis indicated differences between mothers and fathers in the quantitative characteristics of communicative functions and language, such as the mean length of utterances (MLU), and the number of tokens and types. Mothers also produced the more frequent nouns in the child lexicon. There emerged a relation between the characteristics of parental child-directed language and child language development.

  13. OVERLOOKING LANGUAGE IN SOCIAL NETWORWOKS AND ITS CONNECTIONS WITH A PLURAL AND CRITICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Fernandes Azzari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The digital-technologic mobility has resignified social practices which – being re-located to other time-space frames – bring about a myriad of apparatus and genres, usually hybrid in its birth. The objective of this paper is to analyze two posts published in public social networks supported by Facebook, aiming at establishing possible dialogues between the concepts of chronotope and architectonic (as an articulating axis of utterances. We take as methodology a dialogic discourse analysis, based on Bakhtin´s proposed ideas (1981b; 1998[1975], 2006 [1929]. A plural and translingual approach to the languages which outcome from data sustains the analysis which questions its overlapping with critical language education. Recuero (2009 views of social media networks fundaments the understanding that they might be taken as a “metaphor” for the relationships established among their participants and assumes that Facebook takes a role of a system which supports those relations. In order to establish connections, social media participants resort to multimodality and multissemiosis as they construct, “like” and share texts/utterances that are permeated by cultural plurality, both refracting and reflecting it. Thus, contemporary literacies are constituted by as well as they constitute (themselves those practices, within multiple and diverse literacies which are interconnected by hypertextual interactions, generating a new ethos. Those interlocutors allow themselves to (re produce and circulate texts, engaging discursively to construct contextually shared meanings and sometimes pointing to translingualism and its manifestations.

  14. Effect of time of day on language in healthy ageing and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Amanda; Donovan, Neila; Hoffman, Paul

    2015-04-01

    To investigate whether narrative discourse followed a diurnal pattern across one ten-hour day in healthy ageing people and those with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ten healthy ageing people and ten clinically labelled with probable AD were recruited. Measurements of language and cognition were collected across one day at 9am, 12pm, 3pm and 6pm. Language samples were evaluated for quantity (total utterances and words per minute) and quality: mazes or fillers, repetitions and revisions, abandoned utterances and type token ratio or percentage of different words to total words. The healthy ageing group performed significantly better on cognitive measures across the day than the AD group. At all times the healthy ageing group produced significantly longer narrative samples that were significantly less aborted and revised than the AD group. Additionally, both groups demonstrated declining narrative performance as the day progressed. Based on these results, time of day may be an additional factor that moderates narrative performance. This change in narrative ability may have an effect on making a proper diagnosis, therapeutic effectiveness and patient interactions, therefore affecting quality of care.

  15. Gesture and speech during shared book reading with preschoolers with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelli, Manuela; Barachetti, Chiara; Florit, Elena

    2015-11-01

    This study examined (a) the relationship between gesture and speech produced by children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing (TD) children, and their mothers, during shared book-reading, and (b) the potential effectiveness of gestures accompanying maternal speech on the conversational responsiveness of children. Fifteen preschoolers with expressive SLI were compared with fifteen age-matched and fifteen language-matched TD children. Child and maternal utterances were coded for modality, gesture type, gesture-speech informational relationship, and communicative function. Relative to TD peers, children with SLI used more bimodal utterances and gestures adding unique information to co-occurring speech. Some differences were mirrored in maternal communication. Sequential analysis revealed that only in the SLI group maternal reading accompanied by gestures was significantly followed by child's initiatives, and when maternal non-informative repairs were accompanied by gestures, they were more likely to elicit adequate answers from children. These findings support the 'gesture advantage' hypothesis in children with SLI, and have implications for educational and clinical practice.

  16. Selected Topics from LVCSR Research for Asian Languages at Tokyo Tech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furui, Sadaoki

    This paper presents our recent work in regard to building Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition (LVCSR) systems for the Thai, Indonesian, and Chinese languages. For Thai, since there is no word boundary in the written form, we have proposed a new method for automatically creating word-like units from a text corpus, and applied topic and speaking style adaptation to the language model to recognize spoken-style utterances. For Indonesian, we have applied proper noun-specific adaptation to acoustic modeling, and rule-based English-to-Indonesian phoneme mapping to solve the problem of large variation in proper noun and English word pronunciation in a spoken-query information retrieval system. In spoken Chinese, long organization names are frequently abbreviated, and abbreviated utterances cannot be recognized if the abbreviations are not included in the dictionary. We have proposed a new method for automatically generating Chinese abbreviations, and by expanding the vocabulary using the generated abbreviations, we have significantly improved the performance of spoken query-based search.

  17. Language Learning Strategies and Strategic Teaching in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jiang-tao

    2015-01-01

    The results of a great deal of research have suggested that language learning strategies can be taught and that instructing learning strategies and integrating them into regular instruction can greatly facilitate the learning of a second/foreign language. The aim of this article is to draw the readers’attention to strategic teaching that should be introduced in the foreign language classroom in order to meet the demands of contemporary language education. In particular, it points to the necessity that teachers should change their attitudes towards the roles they play in the classroom to become truly responsible for their learning.

  18. The field representation language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsafnat, Guy

    2008-02-01

    The complexity of quantitative biomedical models, and the rate at which they are published, is increasing to a point where managing the information has become all but impossible without automation. International efforts are underway to standardise representation languages for a number of mathematical entities that represent a wide variety of physiological systems. This paper presents the Field Representation Language (FRL), a portable representation of values that change over space and/or time. FRL is an extensible mark-up language (XML) derivative with support for large numeric data sets in Hierarchical Data Format version 5 (HDF5). Components of FRL can be reused through unified resource identifiers (URI) that point to external resources such as custom basis functions, boundary geometries and numerical data. To demonstrate the use of FRL as an interchange we present three models that study hyperthermia cancer treatment: a fractal model of liver tumour microvasculature; a probabilistic model simulating the deposition of magnetic microspheres throughout it; and a finite element model of hyperthermic treatment. The microsphere distribution field was used to compute the heat generation rate field around the tumour. We used FRL to convey results from the microsphere simulation to the treatment model. FRL facilitated the conversion of the coordinate systems and approximated the integral over regions of the microsphere deposition field.

  19. Sleep facilitates learning a new linguistic rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterink, Laura J; Oudiette, Delphine; Reber, Paul J; Paller, Ken A

    2014-12-01

    Natural languages contain countless regularities. Extraction of these patterns is an essential component of language acquisition. Here we examined the hypothesis that memory processing during sleep contributes to this learning. We exposed participants to a hidden linguistic rule by presenting a large number of two-word phrases, each including a noun preceded by one of four novel words that functioned as an article (e.g., gi rhino). These novel words (ul, gi, ro and ne) were presented as obeying an explicit rule: two words signified that the noun referent was relatively near, and two that it was relatively far. Undisclosed to participants was the fact that the novel articles also predicted noun animacy, with two of the articles preceding animate referents and the other two preceding inanimate referents. Rule acquisition was tested implicitly using a task in which participants responded to each phrase according to whether the noun was animate or inanimate. Learning of the hidden rule was evident in slower responses to phrases that violated the rule. Responses were delayed regardless of whether rule-knowledge was consciously accessible. Brain potentials provided additional confirmation of implicit and explicit rule-knowledge. An afternoon nap was interposed between two 20-min learning sessions. Participants who obtained greater amounts of both slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep showed increased sensitivity to the hidden linguistic rule in the second session. We conclude that during sleep, reactivation of linguistic information linked with the rule was instrumental for stabilizing learning. The combination of slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep may synergistically facilitate the abstraction of complex patterns in linguistic input.

  20. Early second language acquisition: a comparison of the linguistic output of a pre-school child acquiring English as a second language with that of a monolingual peer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, C A

    1991-08-01

    Two pre-school children were recorded at regular intervals over a 9-month period while playing freely together. One child was acquiring English as a second language, whilst the other was a monolingual English speaker. The sociolinguistic domain was such that the children were likely to be motivated to communicate with each other in English. A variety of quantitative measures were taken from the transcribed data, including measures of utterance type, length, type-token ratios, use of auxiliaries and morphology. The child for whom English was a second language was found to be well able to interact on equal terms with his partner, despite being somewhat less advanced in some aspects of English language development by the end of the sampling period. Whilst he appeared to be consolidating his language skills during this time, his monolingual partner appeared to be developing rapidly. It is hoped that normative longitudinal data of this kind will be of use in the accurate assessment of children from dual language backgrounds, who may be referred for speech and language therapy.