WorldWideScience

Sample records for facilitating information transfer

  1. Managing Climate Policy Information Facilitating Knowledge Transfer to Policy Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charikleia Karakosta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the challenging context of intense negotiations and radical developments in the field of climate policy, informing stakeholders about opportunities and pathways and about scientific insights and warnings is important to help create positive dynamics. Policy makers need digestible information to design good policies, and understand their options and the possible impacts of these options. They need access to well-structured knowledge, as well as appropriate techniques to manage information and data. However, available information is often difficult to access, not in the right format and of limited use to stakeholders. The range of knowledge needs identified has to be effectively addressed by providing interested parties with suitable, to-the-point information, covering the identified gaps. This is the main aim of this article that proposes the design and development of a climate policy database, which contains all the resources that can cover the identified knowledge gaps. The resources are derived from a broad range of existing reports, research and climate policy decisions at different levels. The goal is to render climate policy associated stakeholders able to extract key policy conclusions. The added value of this database was verified by users and stakeholders that generally argued that the climate policy database facilitates solid understanding of climate policy implications and fosters collaborative knowledge exchange in the field.

  2. Polysialic Acid Regulates Sympathetic Outflow by Facilitating Information Transfer within the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokiniec, Phillip; Shahbazian, Shila; McDougall, Stuart J; Berning, Britt A; Cheng, Delfine; Llewellyn-Smith, Ida J; Burke, Peter G R; McMullan, Simon; Mühlenhoff, Martina; Hildebrandt, Herbert; Braet, Filip; Connor, Mark; Packer, Nicolle H; Goodchild, Ann K

    2017-07-05

    Expression of the large extracellular glycan, polysialic acid (polySia), is restricted in the adult, to brain regions exhibiting high levels of plasticity or remodeling, including the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). The NTS, located in the dorsal brainstem, receives constant viscerosensory afferent traffic as well as input from central regions controlling sympathetic nerve activity, respiration, gastrointestinal functions, hormonal release, and behavior. Our aims were to determine the ultrastructural location of polySia in the NTS and the functional effects of enzymatic removal of polySia, both in vitro and in vivo polySia immunoreactivity was found throughout the adult rat NTS. Electron microscopy demonstrated polySia at sites that influence neurotransmission: the extracellular space, fine astrocytic processes, and neuronal terminals. Removing polySia from the NTS had functional consequences. Whole-cell electrophysiological recordings revealed altered intrinsic membrane properties, enhancing voltage-gated K(+) currents and increasing intracellular Ca(2+) Viscerosensory afferent processing was also disrupted, dampening low-frequency excitatory input and potentiating high-frequency sustained currents at second-order neurons. Removal of polySia in the NTS of anesthetized rats increased sympathetic nerve activity, whereas functionally related enzymes that do not alter polySia expression had little effect. These data indicate that polySia is required for the normal transmission of information through the NTS and that changes in its expression alter sympathetic outflow. polySia is abundant in multiple but discrete brain regions, including sensory nuclei, in both the adult rat and human, where it may regulate neuronal function by mechanisms identified here.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT All cells are coated in glycans (sugars) existing predominantly as glycolipids, proteoglycans, or glycoproteins formed by the most complex form of

  3. Facilitating networks of information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. van Mulligen (Erik); M. Diwersy; M.E. Schmidt (Marie); H. Buurman; B. Mons (Barend)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we describe an approach to respond to a request for information with the identification and location of the appropriate person as a source of information for answering the question. The expertise of a person is characterized using a weighted pr

  4. Digital Cadastres Facilitating Land Information Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Digital Cadastres Facilitating Land Information Management. ... Journal Home > Vol 3, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register ... Raw materials required for the manufacturing industry which drives the economy are extracted from the land resource.

  5. Facilitating consumer access to health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, Anne; Schnarr, Karin; Alessi, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The lead paper from Zelmer and Hagens details the substantive evolution occurring in health information technologies that has the potential to transform the relationship between consumers, health practitioners and health systems. In this commentary, the authors suggest that Canada is experiencing a shift in consumer behaviour toward a desire to actively manage one's health and wellness that is being facilitated through the advent of health applications on mobile and online technologies platforms. The result is that Canadians are now able to create personalized health solutions based on their individual health values and goals. However, before Canadians are able to derive a personal health benefit from these rapid changes in information technology, they require and are increasingly demanding greater real-time access to their own health information to better inform decision-making, as well as interoperability between their personal health tracking systems and those of their health practitioner team.

  6. Imperfect information facilitates the evolution of reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun

    2016-06-01

    The existence of cooperation demands explanation since cooperation is costly to the actor. Reciprocity has long been regarded as a potential explanatory mechanism for the existence of cooperation. Reciprocity is a mechanism wherein a cooperator responds to an opponent's behavior by switching his/her own behavior. Hence, a possible problematic case relevant to the theory of reciprocity evolution arises when the mechanism is such that the information regarding an opponent's behavior is imperfect. Although it has been confirmed also by previous theoretical studies that imperfect information interferes with the evolution of reciprocity, this argument is based on the assumption that there are no mistakes in behavior. And, a previous study presumed that it might be expected that when such mistakes occur, reciprocity can more readily evolve in the case of imperfect information than in the case of perfect information. The reason why the previous study considers so is that in the former case, reciprocators can miss defections incurred by other reciprocators' mistakes due to imperfect information, allowing cooperation to persist when such reciprocators meet. However, contrary to this expectation, the previous study has shown that even when mistakes occur, imperfect information interferes with the evolution of reciprocity. Nevertheless, the previous study assumed that payoffs are linear (i.e., that the effect of behavior is additive and there are no synergetic effects). In this study, we revisited the same problem but removed the assumption that payoffs are linear. We used evolutionarily stable strategy analysis to compare the condition for reciprocity to evolve when mistakes occur and information is imperfect with the condition for reciprocity to evolve when mistakes occur and information is perfect. Our study revealed that when payoffs are not linear, imperfect information can facilitate the evolution of reciprocity when mistakes occur; while when payoffs are linear

  7. Exogenous attention facilitates location transfer of perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Ian; Szpiro, Sarit; Carrasco, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual skills can be improved through practice on a perceptual task, even in adulthood. Visual perceptual learning is known to be mostly specific to the trained retinal location, which is considered as evidence of neural plasticity in retinotopic early visual cortex. Recent findings demonstrate that transfer of learning to untrained locations can occur under some specific training procedures. Here, we evaluated whether exogenous attention facilitates transfer of perceptual learning to untrained locations, both adjacent to the trained locations (Experiment 1) and distant from them (Experiment 2). The results reveal that attention facilitates transfer of perceptual learning to untrained locations in both experiments, and that this transfer occurs both within and across visual hemifields. These findings show that training with exogenous attention is a powerful regime that is able to overcome the major limitation of location specificity.

  8. Human factors and information transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1989-01-01

    Key problem areas in the management and transfer of information in the National Airspace System, contributing to human errors are identified. Information-management aspects supporting the user's ability to assess prevailing situations accurately with adequate time to make an informed decision are considered. The relationship between judgment biases and requirements for managing weather information is illustrated by examining such hazardous weather phenomena as microbursts and windshears. The system of air-ground communication relying almost exclusively on voice transmissions is discussed, and recommendations in the areas of communications procedures and technology development are provided.

  9. Utilizing Information Technology to Facilitate Rapid Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    PAGES 109 14. SUBJECT TERMS Rapid Acquisition, eCommerce , eProcurement, Information Technology, Contracting, Global Information Network...Agency. 5 eCommerce and eProcurement, and possess an adequate knowledge of information technology. D. RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. Primary Research... eCommerce , Information Technology, and eProcurement knowledge, and government and private industry reports utilizing numerous library and Internet

  10. Facilitating Physician Access to Medical Reference Information

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Context: Computer-based medical reference information is augmenting—and in some cases, replacing—many traditional sources. For Kaiser Permanente (KP) physicians, this change presents both advantages and obstacles to finding medical reference information.

  11. Measuring information-transfer delays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wibral

    Full Text Available In complex networks such as gene networks, traffic systems or brain circuits it is important to understand how long it takes for the different parts of the network to effectively influence one another. In the brain, for example, axonal delays between brain areas can amount to several tens of milliseconds, adding an intrinsic component to any timing-based processing of information. Inferring neural interaction delays is thus needed to interpret the information transfer revealed by any analysis of directed interactions across brain structures. However, a robust estimation of interaction delays from neural activity faces several challenges if modeling assumptions on interaction mechanisms are wrong or cannot be made. Here, we propose a robust estimator for neuronal interaction delays rooted in an information-theoretic framework, which allows a model-free exploration of interactions. In particular, we extend transfer entropy to account for delayed source-target interactions, while crucially retaining the conditioning on the embedded target state at the immediately previous time step. We prove that this particular extension is indeed guaranteed to identify interaction delays between two coupled systems and is the only relevant option in keeping with Wiener's principle of causality. We demonstrate the performance of our approach in detecting interaction delays on finite data by numerical simulations of stochastic and deterministic processes, as well as on local field potential recordings. We also show the ability of the extended transfer entropy to detect the presence of multiple delays, as well as feedback loops. While evaluated on neuroscience data, we expect the estimator to be useful in other fields dealing with network dynamics.

  12. Digital Cadastres Facilitating Land Information Management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sekuru

    information and technology, database technology, digital storage media and local ..... alternative is suggested in this study as financial constraints are among the major impediments to .... The Journal of South African and American Studies, vol.

  13. Information transfer - a look into the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, M. (Teleglobe Canada, Montreal, Quebec)

    1986-12-01

    This keynote address attempts to relate the interests of CODATA members in facilitating the worldwide exchange of scientific information with revolutionary new developments foreseen in the domain of telecommunications. Today's trends in telecommunications are projected into the future through two successive generations of technological evolution. The first generation of evolution starts in the relatively near future with initial implementation of functional capabilities for Integrated Service Digital Networks (ISDNs). The second generation mates the broadband transmission capability of fiber-optic cables with new concepts of fast-packet switching to afford unprecedented service flexibility. Standards development as a planning prerequisite of the future telecommunication network is discussed. Some aspects of standards development and other preliminary planning activity are suggested where possible CODATA involvement might prove advantageous in preparing to realize future objectives for information transfer.

  14. Information transfer through quantum channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretschmann, D.

    2007-03-12

    This PhD thesis represents work done between Aug. 2003 and Dec. 2006 in Reinhard F. Werner's quantum information theory group at Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, and Artur Ekert's Centre for Quantum Computation at the University of Cambridge. My thesis falls into the field of abstract quantum information theory. This work investigates both fundamental properties of quantum channels and their asymptotic capacities for classical as well as quantum information transfer. Stinespring's theorem is the basic structure theorem for quantum channels. It implies that every quantum channel can be represented as a unitary evolution on an enlarged system. In Ch. 3 we present a continuity theorem for Stinespring's representation: two quantum channels are similar if and only if it is possible to find unitary implementations that are likewise similar, with dimension-independent norm bounds. The continuity theorem allows to derive a formulation of the information-disturbance tradeoff in terms of quantum channels, and a continuity estimate for the no-broadcasting principle. In Ch. 4 we then apply the continuity theorem to give a strengthened no-go proof for quantum bit commitment, an important cryptographic primitive. This result also provides a natural characterization of those protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unconditional security, and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present a new such protocol whose security relies on decoherence in the receiver's lab. Ch. 5 reviews the capacities of quantum channels for the transfer of both classical and quantum information, and investigates several variations in the notion of channel capacity. Memory effects are then investigated in detail in Ch. 6. We advertise a model which is sufficiently general to encompass all causal automata: every quantum process in which the outputs up to any given time t do not depend on the inputs at times t'>t can be represented as a concatenated memory

  15. Nurses’ information exchange during older patient transfer: prevalence and associations with patient and transfer characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Mari Olsen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To ensure continuity of care, it is important to effectively communicate the health status of older patients who are transferred between health care organizations. The objectives of this study were to: (1 evaluate the prevalence of nursing transfer documents, and (2 identify patient and transfer characteristics associated with the presence of nursing transfer documents for older patients transferred from home care to hospital and back to home care again after hospitalization.Methods: Nursing documents were reviewed from a total of 102 records of older inpatients admitted from home care to medical wards at a local hospital in central Norway and later discharged home. Frequencies were used to describe patient and transfer characteristics, and the prevalence of transfer documents. Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression were used to identify possible associations between patient and transfer characteristics and the presence of nursing transfer documents.Results: While nursing admission notes were present in 1% of the patient transfers from home care to the hospital, 69% of patient discharges from the hospital to home care were accompanied by nursing discharge notes. Patient and transfer characteristics associated with the presence of a nursing discharge note were age, gender, medical department facility, and length of hospital stay.Conclusions: The low prevalence of nursing transfer documents constitutes a challenge to the continuity of care for hospitalized home care patients. Patient and transfer characteristics may impact the nurses' propensity to exchange patient information. These findings emphasize the need for nurses and managers to improve the exchange of written information. While nurses must strive to transfer accurate patient information at the right place and at the right time, the managers must facilitate this by providing appropriate guidelines and standards, as well as adequate personnel and resources.

  16. Nurses’ information exchange during older patient transfer: prevalence and associations with patient and transfer characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Mari Olsen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To ensure continuity of care, it is important to effectively communicate the health status of older patients who are transferred between health care organizations. The objectives of this study were to: (1 evaluate the prevalence of nursing transfer documents, and (2 identify patient and transfer characteristics associated with the presence of nursing transfer documents for older patients transferred from home care to hospital and back to home care again after hospitalization. Methods: Nursing documents were reviewed from a total of 102 records of older inpatients admitted from home care to medical wards at a local hospital in central Norway and later discharged home. Frequencies were used to describe patient and transfer characteristics, and the prevalence of transfer documents. Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression were used to identify possible associations between patient and transfer characteristics and the presence of nursing transfer documents. Results: While nursing admission notes were present in 1% of the patient transfers from home care to the hospital, 69% of patient discharges from the hospital to home care were accompanied by nursing discharge notes. Patient and transfer characteristics associated with the presence of a nursing discharge note were age, gender, medical department facility, and length of hospital stay. Conclusions: The low prevalence of nursing transfer documents constitutes a challenge to the continuity of care for hospitalized home care patients. Patient and transfer characteristics may impact the nurses' propensity to exchange patient information. These findings emphasize the need for nurses and managers to improve the exchange of written information. While nurses must strive to transfer accurate patient information at the right place and at the right time, the managers must facilitate this by providing appropriate guidelines and standards, as well as adequate personnel and resources.

  17. Factors in the Transfer of Governance-Facilitation Skills within Farmers' Marketing Organizations in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miiro, Richard F.; Mazur, Robert E.; Matsiko, Frank B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Training transfer has been examined for formal industrial and service organizations in developed countries but rarely for rural organizations in sub-Saharan Africa. This study sought to identify transfer system factors that best explain the transfer of governance-facilitation skills provided to leaders of farmers' marketing organizations…

  18. Factors in the Transfer of Governance-Facilitation Skills within Farmers' Marketing Organizations in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miiro, Richard F.; Mazur, Robert E.; Matsiko, Frank B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Training transfer has been examined for formal industrial and service organizations in developed countries but rarely for rural organizations in sub-Saharan Africa. This study sought to identify transfer system factors that best explain the transfer of governance-facilitation skills provided to leaders of farmers' marketing organizations…

  19. Interactive Joint Transfer of Energy and Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovski, Petar; Fouladgar, A. M.; Simeone, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    In some communication networks, such as passive RFID systems, the energy used to transfer information between a sender and a recipient can be reused for successive communication tasks. In fact, from known results in physics, any system that exchanges information via the transfer of given physical...... key design insights. Index Terms— Two-way channel, interactive communication, energy transfer, energy harvesting....... resources, such as radio waves, particles and qubits, can conceivably reuse, at least part, of the received resources. This paper aims at illustrating some of the new challenges that arise in the design of communication networks in which the signals exchanged by the nodes carry both information and energy...

  20. Using social media to facilitate knowledge transfer in complex engineering environments: a primer for educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Glen; Salomone, Sonia

    2013-03-01

    While highly cohesive groups are potentially advantageous they are also often correlated with the emergence of knowledge and information silos based around those same functional or occupational clusters. Consequently, an essential challenge for engineering organisations wishing to overcome informational silos is to implement mechanisms that facilitate, encourage and sustain interactions between otherwise disconnected groups. This paper acts as a primer for those seeking to gain an understanding of the design, functionality and utility of a suite of software tools generically termed social media technologies in the context of optimising the management of tacit engineering knowledge. Underpinned by knowledge management theory and using detailed case examples, this paper explores how social media technologies achieve such goals, allowing for the transfer of knowledge by tapping into the tacit and explicit knowledge of disparate groups in complex engineering environments.

  1. Information transfer for small-amplitude signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostal, Lubomir; Lansky, Petr

    2010-05-01

    We study the optimality conditions of information transfer in systems with memory in the low signal-to-noise ratio regime of vanishing input amplitude. We find that the optimal mutual information is represented by a maximum variance of the signal time course, with correlation structure determined by the Fisher information matrix. We provide illustration of the method on a simple biologically inspired model of electrosensory neuron. Our general results apply also to the study of information transfer in single neurons subject to weak stimulation, with implications to the problem of coding efficiency in biological systems.

  2. Electromagnetic transfer information in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Settimio Grimaldi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Only recently has the critical importance of electromagnetic (EM field interactions in biology and medicine been recognized. We review the phenomenon of resonance signaling, discussing how specific frequencies modulate cellular function to restore or maintain health. Evidence: Application of EM tuned signals represents more than merely a new tool in Information Medicine. It can also be viewed in the larger context of Electromagnetic Medicine, the all-encompassing view that elevates the electromagnetic over the biochemical. The discovery by Zhadin that ultrasmall magnetic intensities are biologically significant suggests that EM signaling is endogenous to cell regulation, and consequently that the remarkable effectiveness of EM resonance treatments reflects a fundamental aspect of biological systems. The concept that organisms contain mechanisms for generating biologically useful electric signals is not new, dating back to the 19th century discovery of currents of injury by Matteucci. The corresponding modern-day version is that ion cyclotron resonance magnetic field combinations help regulate biological information. Prospects: The next advance in medicine will be to discern and apply those electromagnetic signaling parameters acting to promote wellness, with decreasing reliance on marginal biochemical remediation and pharmaceuticals.

  3. Thermodynamic Model of Noise Information Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejna, Bohdan

    2008-10-01

    In this paper we apply a certain unifying physical description of the results of Information Theory. Assuming that heat entropy is a thermodynamic realization of information entropy [2], we construct a cyclical, thermodynamic, average-value model of an information transfer chain [3] as a general heat engine, in particular a Carnot engine, reversible or irreversible. A working medium of the cycle (a thermodynamic system transforming input heat energy) can be considered as a thermodynamic, average-value model or, as such, as a realization of an information transfer channel. We show that in a model realized in this way the extended II. Principle of Thermodynamics is valid [2] and we formulate its information form.

  4. Conscious attention, meditation, and bilateral information transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob, Petr; Zimmerman, Elizabeth M; Hamilton, Elizabeth A; Sheftel, Jenna G; Bajo, Stephanie D; Raboch, Jiri; Golla, Megan; Konopka, Lukasz M

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that conscious attention is related to large-scale information integration of various brain regions, including both hemispheres, that enables integration of parallel distributed modalities of processed information. There is also evidence that the level of information transference related to integration or splitting among brain regions, and between hemispheres, establishes a certain level of efficiency of the information processing. The level of information transference also may have modulatory influences on attentional capacity that are closely linked to the emotional arousal and autonomic response related to a stimulus. These findings suggest a hypothesis that changes in conscious attention, specifically during meditation could be reflected in the autonomic activity as the left-right information transference calculated from bilateral electrodermal activity (EDA). With the aim to compare conscious attention during meditation with other attentional states (resting state, Stroop task, and memory task), we performed bilateral EDA measurement in 7 healthy persons during resting state, Stroop task, neurofeedback memory test, and meditation. The results indicate that the information transference (ie, transinformation) is able to distinguish those attentional states, and that the highest level of the transinformation has been found during attentional processing related to meditation, indicating higher level of connectivity between left and right sides. Calculations other than pointwise transinformation (PTI) performed on EDA records, such as mean skin conductance level or laterality index, were not able to distinguish attentional states. The results suggest that PTI may present an interesting method useful for the assessment of information flow, related to neural functioning, that in the case of meditation may reflect typical integrative changes in the autonomic nervous system related to brain functions and focused attentional processing.

  5. Noise enhances information transfer in hierarchical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Holyst, Janusz A; Sloot, Peter M A

    2013-01-01

    We study the influence of noise on information transmission in the form of packages shipped between nodes of hierarchical networks. Numerical simulations are performed for artificial tree networks, scale-free Ravasz-Barabási networks as well for a real network formed by email addresses of former Enron employees. Two types of noise are considered. One is related to packet dynamics and is responsible for a random part of packets paths. The second one originates from random changes in initial network topology. We find that the information transfer can be enhanced by the noise. The system possesses optimal performance when both kinds of noise are tuned to specific values, this corresponds to the Stochastic Resonance phenomenon. There is a non-trivial synergy present for both noisy components. We found also that hierarchical networks built of nodes of various degrees are more efficient in information transfer than trees with a fixed branching factor.

  6. Facilitating Transfers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    as the implosion of the euro‐ and later on Western‐centric world has increased the pluralistic structural setup of contemporary world society. The contemporary world is at the same a community of common destiny and a world which consists of many worlds insofar as the globe is characterised by a multiplicity...... of contextual societal orders (societies, communities, regimes etc.) with some of them being state‐based and some of the falling outside the category of statehood. This development, acting as the central structural driving force for the emergence of regulatory governance frameworks, can be traced back...... to specific logics of temporalisation and spatial expansion of a diverse set of social processes in relation to, for example, the economy, politics, science and the mass media. On this background, the paper will more concretely develop a conceptual framework for classifying different contextual orders...

  7. Kinesthetic information facilitates saccades towards proprioceptive-tactile targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voudouris, Dimitris; Goettker, Alexander; Mueller, Stefanie; Fiehler, Katja

    2016-05-01

    Saccades to somatosensory targets have longer latencies and are less accurate and precise than saccades to visual targets. Here we examined how different somatosensory information influences the planning and control of saccadic eye movements. Participants fixated a central cross and initiated a saccade as fast as possible in response to a tactile stimulus that was presented to either the index or the middle fingertip of their unseen left hand. In a static condition, the hand remained at a target location for the entire block of trials and the stimulus was presented at a fixed time after an auditory tone. Therefore, the target location was derived only from proprioceptive and tactile information. In a moving condition, the hand was first actively moved to the same target location and the stimulus was then presented immediately. Thus, in the moving condition additional kinesthetic information about the target location was available. We found shorter saccade latencies in the moving compared to the static condition, but no differences in accuracy or precision of saccadic endpoints. In a second experiment, we introduced variable delays after the auditory tone (static condition) or after the end of the hand movement (moving condition) in order to reduce the predictability of the moment of the stimulation and to allow more time to process the kinesthetic information. Again, we found shorter latencies in the moving compared to the static condition but no improvement in saccade accuracy or precision. In a third experiment, we showed that the shorter saccade latencies in the moving condition cannot be explained by the temporal proximity between the relevant event (auditory tone or end of hand movement) and the moment of the stimulation. Our findings suggest that kinesthetic information facilitates planning, but not control, of saccadic eye movements to proprioceptive-tactile targets.

  8. The role of boundary objects in the facilitation of dynamic knowledge transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadirad, Solmaz; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2015-01-01

    the boundary object as a static knowledge transfer mechanism. This paper explores the dynamic properties of the boundary object as a means to facilitate a continuous learning process. For this purpose we explore the literature and investigate three pilot cases from Danish industry....

  9. Making Learning Meaningful: Facilitating Interest Development and Transfer in At-Risk College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddy, Benjamin C.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Seli, Helena; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Mukhopadhyay, Ananya

    2017-01-01

    The Teaching for Transformative Experience in Science (TTES) model has shown to be a useful tool to generate learning and engagement in science. We investigated the effectiveness of TTES for facilitating transformative experience (TE), learning, the development of topic interest and transfer of course concepts to other courses employing a…

  10. Secure information transfer based on computing reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmoski, R. M.; Ferrari, F. A. S.; de S. Pinto, S. E.; Baptista, M. S.; Viana, R. L.

    2013-04-01

    There is a broad area of research to ensure that information is transmitted securely. Within this scope, chaos-based cryptography takes a prominent role due to its nonlinear properties. Using these properties, we propose a secure mechanism for transmitting data that relies on chaotic networks. We use a nonlinear on-off device to cipher the message, and the transfer entropy to retrieve it. We analyze the system capability for sending messages, and we obtain expressions for the operating time. We demonstrate the system efficiency for a wide range of parameters. We find similarities between our method and the reservoir computing.

  11. Information systems and technology transfer programs on geothermal energy and other renewable sources of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, M.J.; Antunez, E.

    1996-01-01

    In order to remain competitive, it is necessary to stay informed and use the most advanced technologies available. Recent developments in communication, like the Internet and the World Wide Web, enormously facilitate worldwide data and technology transfer. A compilation of the most important sources of data on renewable energies, especially geothermal, as well as lists of relevant technology transfer programs are presented. Information on how to gain access to, and learn more about them, is also given.

  12. THE TRANSFER OF ALKALINE EARTH-METAL ION AT W/NB INTERFACE FACILITATED BY JOSAMYCIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范瑞溪; 狄俊伟

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the invesligation of the transfer behaviour of the alkaline earth-metal cations across the water/nitrobenzene interface facilitated by josamycin in the nitrobenzene phase using semi-differential cyclic voltammetry .The peak height is directly proportional to the concentration of josaycin (nb) and to the potential scan rate.The complexes formed from alkaline earth-metal ions and josamycin at the w/nb interface are ML22+ ion.

  13. Small-volume effect enables the spine robust, sensitive and efficient information transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Masashi; Karasawa, Yasuaki; Hikichi, Minori; Kuroda, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    Why is the spine of a neuron so small that only small numbers of molecules can exist and reactions inevitably become stochastic? Despite such noisy conditions, we previously showed that the spine exhibits robust, sensitive and efficient features of information transfer using probability of Ca$^{2+}$ increase; however, their mechanisms remains unknown. Here we show that the small-volume effect enables robust, sensitive and efficient information transfer in the spine volume, but not in the cell volume. In the spine volume, intrinsic noise in reactions becomes larger than extrinsic noise of input, making robust information transfer against input fluctuation. Stochastic facilitation of Ca$^{2+}$ increase occurs in the spine volume, making higher sensitivity to lower intensity of input. Volume-dependency of information transfer enables efficient information transfer per input in the spine volume. Thus, we propose that the small-volume effect is the functional reasons why the spine has to be so small.

  14. Using mobile phone contextual information to facilitate managing image collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Luniewski, Maciej

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a prototype application that utilizes the embedded sensors in advanced mobile phones to infer meaningful contextual information, with the potential to support the users in managing their personal information. Contextual information such as time, location, movement...... in personal information management. We hypothesize that information inferred from embedded mobile phone sensors can offer useful contextual information for managing personal information, including the domain of interest here, namely image collections. This has potential for individuals as well as groups...

  15. The potential role of sea spray droplets in facilitating air-sea gas transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, E. L.; Vlahos, P.; Monahan, E. C.

    2016-05-01

    For over 30 years, air-sea interaction specialists have been evaluating and parameterizing the role of whitecap bubbles in air-sea gas exchange. To our knowledge, no one, however, has studied the mirror image process of whether sea spray droplets can facilitate air-sea gas exchange. We are therefore using theory, data analysis, and numerical modeling to quantify the role of spray on air-sea gas transfer. In this, our first formal work on this subject, we seek the rate-limiting step in spray-mediated gas transfer by evaluating the three time scales that govern the exchange: τ air , which quantifies the rate of transfer between the atmospheric gas reservoir and the surface of the droplet; τ int , which quantifies the exchange rate across the air-droplet interface; and τ aq , which quantifies gas mixing within the aqueous solution droplet.

  16. Information transfer in community structured multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Solé-Ribalta, Albert; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The study of complex networks that account for different types of interactions has become a subject of interest in the last few years, specially because its representational power in the description of users interactions in diverse online social platforms (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc.). The mathematical description of these interacting networks has been coined under the name of multilayer networks, where each layer accounts for a type of interaction. It has been shown that diffusive processes on top of these networks present a phenomenology that cannot be explained by the naive superposition of single layer diffusive phenomena but require the whole structure of interconnected layers. Nevertheless, the description of diffusive phenomena on multilayer networks has obviated the fact that social networks have strong mesoscopic structure represented by different communities of individuals driven by common interests, or any other social aspect. In this work, we study the transfer of information in multilayer ...

  17. Parallel information transfer in a multinode quantum information processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borneman, T W; Granade, C E; Cory, D G

    2012-04-06

    We describe a method for coupling disjoint quantum bits (qubits) in different local processing nodes of a distributed node quantum information processor. An effective channel for information transfer between nodes is obtained by moving the system into an interaction frame where all pairs of cross-node qubits are effectively coupled via an exchange interaction between actuator elements of each node. All control is achieved via actuator-only modulation, leading to fast implementations of a universal set of internode quantum gates. The method is expected to be nearly independent of actuator decoherence and may be made insensitive to experimental variations of system parameters by appropriate design of control sequences. We show, in particular, how the induced cross-node coupling channel may be used to swap the complete quantum states of the local processors in parallel.

  18. Mass transfer model of nanoparticle-facilitated contaminant transport in saturated porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Wan Lutfi Wan; Diamessis, Peter J; Lion, Leonard W

    2010-02-01

    A one-dimensional model has been evaluated for transport of hydrophobic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds, facilitated by synthetic amphiphilic polyurethane (APU) nanoparticles in porous media. APU particles synthesized from poly(ethylene glycol)-modified urethane acrylate (PMUA) precursor chains have been shown to enhance the desorption rate and mobility of phenanthrene (PHEN) in soil. A reversible process governed by attachment and detachment rates was considered to describe the PMUA binding in soil in addition to PMUA transport through advection and dispersion. Ultimately, an irreversible second-order PMUA attachment rate in which the fractional soil saturation capacity with PMUA was a rate control was found to be adequate to describe the retention of PMUA particles. A gamma-distributed site model (GS) was used to describe the spectrum of physical/chemical constraints for PHEN transfer from solid to aqueous phases. Instantaneous equilibrium was assumed for PMUA-PHEN interactions. The coupled model for PMUA and PHEN behavior successfully described the enhanced elution profile of PHEN by PMUA. Sensitivity analysis was performed to analyze the significance of model parameters on model predictions. The adjustable parameter alpha in the gamma-distribution shapes the contaminant desorption distribution profile as well as elution and breakthrough curves. Model simulations show the use of PMUA can be also expected to improve the release rate of PHEN in soils with higher organic carbon content. The percentage removal of PHEN mass over time is shown to be influenced by the concentration of PMUA added and this information can be used to optimize cost and time require to accomplish a desired remediation goal.

  19. Using mobile phone contextual information to facilitate managing image collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Luniewski, Maciej

    2009-01-01

    in personal information management. We hypothesize that information inferred from embedded mobile phone sensors can offer useful contextual information for managing personal information, including the domain of interest here, namely image collections. This has potential for individuals as well as groups...

  20. 28 CFR 22.26 - Requests for transfer of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requests for transfer of information. 22... RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.26 Requests for transfer of information. (a) Requests for..., or OJP, the request shall describe the general objectives of the project for which information is...

  1. Information transfer in community structured multiplex networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert eSolé Ribalta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of complex networks that account for different types of interactions has become a subject of interest in the last few years, specially because its representational power in the description of users interactions in diverse online social platforms (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc.. The mathematical description of these interacting networks has been coined under the name of multilayer networks, where each layer accounts for a type of interaction. It has been shown that diffusive processes on top of these networks present a phenomenology that cannot be explained by the naive superposition of single layer diffusive phenomena but require the whole structure of interconnected layers. Nevertheless, the description of diffusive phenomena on multilayer networks has obviated the fact that social networks have strong mesoscopic structure represented by different communities of individuals driven by common interests, or any other social aspect. In this work, we study the transfer of information in multilayer networks with community structure. The final goal is to understand and quantify, if the existence of well-defined community structure at the level of individual layers, together with the multilayer structure of the whole network, enhances or deteriorates the diffusion of packets of information.

  2. Library and Information Science (LIS Transferable Competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Fraser-Arnott

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article uses data obtained from a content analysis of job advertisements to explore the questions of (1 what types of non-traditional jobs are available for library and information science (LIS professionals and (2 how can LIS students and professionals take advantage of non-traditional job opportunities. Two groups of job advertisements were used in this investigation: advertisements from LIS-targeted job boards (two library school job boards and two library association job boards and Government of Canada internal job postings. These two sets of job postings were selected to compare the competencies in job postings targeted to LIS graduates (the LIS job board advertisements and job postings that were not targeted to the LIS community (the Government of Canada job advertisements. An analysis of these groups of job advertisements demonstrated that both samples focused mainly on transferable competencies. Due to the emphasis on transferable competencies, the analysis of job postings from the Government of Canada job list revealed that there are many non-traditional opportunities for LIS graduates. A typical LIS professional could apply for 51 (or 25.8% of the job advertisements in this set, having met all of the listed criteria. This individual may be able to apply for an additional 40 (or 21.2% of the jobs listed if they had certain additional competencies or knowledge obtained through prior experience working in the Government of Canada but not necessarily obtained by the average LIS professional. This supports the argument that there are numerous opportunities for LIS professionals in non-traditional jobs. The exploration of commonly requested competencies can be used to guide LIS job seekers to craft their resumes and CVs to address the competencies requested by potential employers.

  3. Facilitated ion transfer of protonated primary organic amines studied by square wave voltammetry and chronoamperometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralba, E; Ortuño, J A; Molina, A; Serna, C; Karimian, F

    2014-05-15

    The transfer of the protonated forms of heptylamine, octylamine, decylamine, procaine and procainamide facilitated by dibenzo-18-crown-6 from water to a solvent polymeric membrane has been investigated by using cyclic square wave voltammetry. The experimental voltammograms obtained are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The values of the standard ion transfer potential, complexation constant and diffusion coefficient in water have been obtained from these experiments, and have been used to draw some conclusions about the lipophilicity of these species and the relative stability of the organic ammonium complexes with dibenzo-18-crown-6. The results have been compared with those provided by linear sweep voltammetry. Calibration graphs were obtained with both techniques. An interesting chronoamperometric method for the determination of the diffusion coefficient of the target ion in the membrane has been developed and applied to all these protonated amines.

  4. Distal [FeS]-Cluster Coordination in [NiFe]-Hydrogenase Facilitates Intermolecular Electron Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Alexander; Stein, Matthias

    2017-01-05

    Biohydrogen is a versatile energy carrier for the generation of electric energy from renewable sources. Hydrogenases can be used in enzymatic fuel cells to oxidize dihydrogen. The rate of electron transfer (ET) at the anodic side between the [NiFe]-hydrogenase enzyme distal iron-sulfur cluster and the electrode surface can be described by the Marcus equation. All parameters for the Marcus equation are accessible from Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. The distal cubane FeS-cluster has a three-cysteine and one-histidine coordination [Fe₄S₄](His)(Cys)₃ first ligation sphere. The reorganization energy (inner- and outer-sphere) is almost unchanged upon a histidine-to-cysteine substitution. Differences in rates of electron transfer between the wild-type enzyme and an all-cysteine mutant can be rationalized by a diminished electronic coupling between the donor and acceptor molecules in the [Fe₄S₄](Cys)₄ case. The fast and efficient electron transfer from the distal iron-sulfur cluster is realized by a fine-tuned protein environment, which facilitates the flow of electrons. This study enables the design and control of electron transfer rates and pathways by protein engineering.

  5. Transfer mutual information: A new method for measuring information transfer to the interactions of time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaojun; Shang, Pengjian; Lin, Aijing

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method to measure the influence of a third variable on the interactions of two variables. The method called transfer mutual information (TMI) is defined by the difference between the mutual information and the partial mutual information. It is established on the assumption that if the presence or the absence of one variable does make change to the interactions of another two variables, then quantifying this change is supposed to be the influence from this variable to those two variables. Moreover, a normalized TMI and other derivatives of the TMI are introduced as well. The empirical analysis including the simulations as well as real-world applications is investigated to examine this measure and to reveal more information among variables.

  6. Information delivery manuals to facilitate it supported energy analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondrup, Thomas Fænø; Karlshøj, Jan; Vestergaard, Flemming

    In response to continuing Building Information Modeling (BIM) progress, building performance simulation tools such as IESVE are being utilized to explore construction projects and influence design decisions with increasing frequency. To maximize the potential of these tools, a specification...... of information exchange and digital workflows is required. This paper presents the preliminary findings of an ongoing study aimed at developing an Information Delivery Manual (IDM) for IT supported energy analysis at concept design phase. The IDM development is based on: (1) a review of current approaches (2...

  7. Facilitating knowledge transfer in virtual teams through a social network approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch-Sijtsema, Petra M.; Rispens, Sonja

    2003-01-01

    Due to geographical dispersion and high use of information technology in virtual settings, face-to-face communication and therefore transfer of knowledge is made more difficult in virtual teams. Virtual teams (VT) are characterized by geographical dispersion, use of IT for communication, members hav

  8. Facilitating knowledge transfer in virtual teams through a social network approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch-Sijtsema, Petra M.; Rispens, Sonja

    2003-01-01

    Due to geographical dispersion and high use of information technology in virtual settings, face-to-face communication and therefore transfer of knowledge is made more difficult in virtual teams. Virtual teams (VT) are characterized by geographical dispersion, use of IT for communication, members

  9. Using dual-process theory and analogical transfer to explain facilitation on a hypothetico-deductive reasoning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Cynthia S; Platt, Richard D; Griggs, Richard A

    2007-07-01

    Using the analogical transfer paradigm, the present study investigated the competing explanations of Girotto and Legrenzi (Psychological Research 51: 129-135, 1993) and Griggs, Platt, Newstead, and Jackson (Thinking and Reasoning 4: 1-14, 1998) for facilitation on the SARS version of the THOG problem, a hypothetico-deductive reasoning task. Girotto and Legrenzi argue that facilitation is based on logical analysis of the task [System 2 reasoning in Evans's (Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7: 454-459, 2003) dual-process account of reasoning] while Griggs et al. maintain that facilitation is due to an attentional heuristic produced by the wording of the problem (System 1 reasoning). If Girotto and Legrenzi are correct, then System 2 reasoning, which is volitional and responsible for deductive reasoning, should be elicited, and participants should comprehend the solution principle of the THOG task and exhibit analogical transfer. However, if Griggs et al. are correct, then System 1 reasoning, which is responsible for heuristic problem solving strategies such as an attentional heuristic, should occur, and participants should not abstract the solution principle and transfer should not occur. Significant facilitation (68 and 82% correct) was only observed for the two SARS source problems, but significant analogical transfer did not occur. This lack of transfer suggests that System 1 reasoning was responsible for the facilitation observed in the SARS problem, supporting Griggs et al.'s attentional heuristic explanation. The present results also underscore the explanatory value of using analogical transfer rather than facilitation as the criterion for problem understanding.

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobium facilitate nitrogen uptake and transfer in soybean/maize intercropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingbo eMeng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The tripartite symbiosis between legumes, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi are generally considered to be beneficial for the nitrogen (N uptake of legumes, but the facilitation of symbiosis in legume/non-legume intercropping systems is not clear. Therefore, the aims of the research are as follows: 1 to verify if the dual inoculation can facilitate the N uptake and N transfer in maize/soybean intercropping systems and 2 to calculate how much N will be transferred from soybean to maize. A pot experiment with different root separations (solid barrier, mesh (30 µm barrier and no barrier was conducted, and the 15N isotopic tracing method was used to calculate how much N transferred from soybean to maize inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and rhizobium in a soybean (Glycine max L.cv. Dongnong No.42/maize (Zea mays L.cv. Dongnong No.48 intercropping system. Compared with the Glomus mosseae inoculation (G.m., Rhizobium SH212 inoculation (SH212, no inoculation (NI, the dual inoculation (SH212+G.m. increased the N uptake of soybean by 28.69%, 39.58% and 93.07% in a solid barrier system. N uptake of maize inoculated with both Glomus mosseae and rhizobium was 1.20, 1.28 and 1.68 times more than that of G.m., SH212 and NI, respectively, in solid barrier treatments. In addition, the amount of N transferred from soybean to maize in a dual inoculation system with a mesh barrier was 7.25 mg, 7.01 mg and 11.45 mg more than that of G.m., SH212 and NI and similarly, 6.40 mg, 7.58 mg and 12.46 mg increased in no barrier treatments. Inoculating with both AMF and rhizobium in the soybean/maize intercropping system improved the N fixation efficiency of soybean and promoted N transfer from soybean to maize, resulting in the improvement of yield advantages of legume/non-legume intercropping.

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobium facilitate nitrogen uptake and transfer in soybean/maize intercropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingbo; Zhang, Aiyuan; Wang, Fei; Han, Xiaoguang; Wang, Dejiang; Li, Shumin

    2015-01-01

    The tripartite symbiosis between legumes, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi are generally considered to be beneficial for the nitrogen (N) uptake of legumes, but the facilitation of symbiosis in legume/non-legume intercropping systems is not clear. Therefore, the aims of the research are as follows: (1) to verify if the dual inoculation can facilitate the N uptake and N transfer in maize/soybean intercropping systems and (2) to calculate how much N will be transferred from soybean to maize. A pot experiment with different root separations [solid barrier, mesh (30 μm) barrier and no barrier] was conducted, and the 15N isotopic tracing method was used to calculate how much N transferred from soybean to maize inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and rhizobium in a soybean (Glycine max L.cv. Dongnong No. 42)/maize (Zea mays L.cv. Dongnong No. 48) intercropping system. Compared with the Glomus mosseae inoculation (G.m.), Rhizobium SH212 inoculation (SH212), no inoculation (NI), the dual inoculation (SH212+G.m.) increased the N uptake of soybean by 28.69, 39.58, and 93.07% in a solid barrier system. N uptake of maize inoculated with both G. mosseae and rhizobium was 1.20, 1.28, and 1.68 times more than that of G.m., SH212 and NI, respectively, in solid barrier treatments. In addition, the amount of N transferred from soybean to maize in a dual inoculation system with a mesh barrier was 7.25, 7.01, and 11.45 mg more than that of G.m., SH212 and NI and similarly, 6.40, 7.58, and 12.46 mg increased in no barrier treatments. Inoculating with both AMF and rhizobium in the soybean/maize intercropping system improved the N fixation efficiency of soybean and promoted N transfer from soybean to maize, resulting in the improvement of yield advantages of legume/non-legume intercropping. PMID:26029236

  12. Semantic information can facilitate covert face recognition in congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivolta, Davide; Schmalzl, Laura; Coltheart, Max; Palermo, Romina

    2010-11-01

    People with congenital prosopagnosia have never developed the ability to accurately recognize faces. This single case investigation systematically investigates covert and overt face recognition in "C.," a 69 year-old woman with congenital prosopagnosia. Specifically, we: (a) describe the first assessment of covert face recognition in congenital prosopagnosia using multiple tasks; (b) show that semantic information can contribute to covert recognition; and (c) provide a theoretical explanation for the mechanisms underlying covert face recognition.

  13. Informative Cues Facilitate Saccadic Localization in Blindsight Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masatoshi; Hafed, Ziad M; Isa, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Patients with damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) demonstrate residual visual performance during laboratory tasks despite denying having a conscious percept. The mechanisms behind such performance, often called blindsight, are not fully understood, but the use of surgically-induced unilateral V1 lesions in macaque monkeys provides a useful animal model for exploring such mechanisms. For example, V1-lesioned monkeys localize stimuli in a forced-choice condition while at the same time failing to report awareness of identical stimuli in a yes-no detection condition, similar to human patients. Moreover, residual cognitive processes, including saliency-guided eye movements, bottom-up attention with peripheral non-informative cues, and spatial short-term memory, have all been demonstrated in these animals. Here we examined whether post-lesion residual visuomotor processing can be modulated by top-down task knowledge. We tested two V1-lesioned monkeys with a visually guided saccade task in which we provided an informative foveal pre-cue about upcoming target location. Our monkeys fixated while we presented a leftward or rightward arrow (serving as a pre-cue) superimposed on the fixation point (FP). After various cue-target onset asynchronies (CTOAs), a saccadic target (of variable contrast across trials) was presented either in the affected (contra-lesional) or seeing (ipsi-lesional) hemifield. Critically, target location was in the same hemifield that the arrow pre-cue pointed towards in 80% of the trials (valid-cue trials), making the cue highly useful for task performance. In both monkeys, correct saccade reaction times were shorter during valid than invalid trials. Moreover, in one monkey, the ratio of correct saccades towards the affected hemifield was higher during valid than invalid trials. We replicated both reaction time and correct ratio effects in the same monkey using a symbolic color cue. These results suggest that V1-lesion monkeys can use informative

  14. Informative Cues Facilitate Saccadic Localization in Blindsight Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masatoshi; Hafed, Ziad M.; Isa, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Patients with damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) demonstrate residual visual performance during laboratory tasks despite denying having a conscious percept. The mechanisms behind such performance, often called blindsight, are not fully understood, but the use of surgically-induced unilateral V1 lesions in macaque monkeys provides a useful animal model for exploring such mechanisms. For example, V1-lesioned monkeys localize stimuli in a forced-choice condition while at the same time failing to report awareness of identical stimuli in a yes-no detection condition, similar to human patients. Moreover, residual cognitive processes, including saliency-guided eye movements, bottom-up attention with peripheral non-informative cues, and spatial short-term memory, have all been demonstrated in these animals. Here we examined whether post-lesion residual visuomotor processing can be modulated by top-down task knowledge. We tested two V1-lesioned monkeys with a visually guided saccade task in which we provided an informative foveal pre-cue about upcoming target location. Our monkeys fixated while we presented a leftward or rightward arrow (serving as a pre-cue) superimposed on the fixation point (FP). After various cue-target onset asynchronies (CTOAs), a saccadic target (of variable contrast across trials) was presented either in the affected (contra-lesional) or seeing (ipsi-lesional) hemifield. Critically, target location was in the same hemifield that the arrow pre-cue pointed towards in 80% of the trials (valid-cue trials), making the cue highly useful for task performance. In both monkeys, correct saccade reaction times were shorter during valid than invalid trials. Moreover, in one monkey, the ratio of correct saccades towards the affected hemifield was higher during valid than invalid trials. We replicated both reaction time and correct ratio effects in the same monkey using a symbolic color cue. These results suggest that V1-lesion monkeys can use informative

  15. Year 7 Students, Information Literacy, and Transfer: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, James E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the views of year 7 students, teacher librarians, and teachers in three state secondary schools in rural New South Wales, Australia, on information literacy and transfer. The aims of the study included the development of a grounded theory in relation to information literacy and transfer in these schools. The study's perspective…

  16. Nonviolent information transfer from black holes: a field theory parameterization

    CERN Document Server

    Giddings, Steven B

    2013-01-01

    A candidate parameterization is introduced, in an effective field theory framework, for the quantum information transfer from a black hole that is necessary to restore unitarity. This in particular allows description of the effects of such information transfer in the black hole atmosphere, for example seen by infalling observers. In the presence of such information transfer, it is shown that infalling observers need not experience untoward violence. Moreover, the presence of general moderate-frequency couplings to field modes with high angular momenta offers a mechanism to enhance information transfer rates, commensurate with the increased energy flux, when a string is introduced to "mine" a black hole. Generic such models for nonviolent information transfer predict extra energy flux from a black hole, beyond that of Hawking.

  17. Graphene oxide-facilitated electron transfer of metalloproteins at electrode surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xiaolei; He, Shijiang; Li, Di; Peng, Cheng; Huang, Qing; Song, Shiping; Fan, Chunhai

    2010-02-02

    Graphene is a particularly useful nanomaterial that has shown great promise in nanoelectronics. Because of the ultrahigh electron mobility of graphene and its unique surface properties such as one-atom thickness and irreversible protein adsorption at surfaces, graphene-based materials might serve as an ideal platform for accommodating proteins and facilitating protein electron transfer. In this work, we demonstrate that graphene oxide (GO) supports the efficient electrical wiring the redox centers of several heme-containing metalloproteins (cytochrome c, myoglobin, and horseradish peroxidase) to the electrode. Importantly, proteins retain their structural intactness and biological activity upon forming mixtures with GO. These important features imply the promising applications of GO/protein complexes in the development of biosensors and biofuel cells.

  18. Eeg Transfer Entropy Tracks Changes in Information Transfer on the Onset of Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madulara, M. D.; Francisco, P. A. B.; Nawang, S.; Arogancia, D. C.; Cellucci, C. J.; Rapp, P. E.; Albano, A. M.

    We investigate the pairwise mutual information and transfer entropy of ten-channel, free-running electroencephalographs measured from thirteen subjects under two behavioral conditions: eyes open resting and eyes closed resting. Mutual information measures nonlinear correlations; transfer entropy determines the directionality of information transfer. For all channel pairs, mutual information is generally lower with eyes open compared to eyes closed indicating that EEG signals at different scalp sites become more dissimilar as the visual system is engaged. On the other hand, transfer entropy increases on average by almost two-fold when the eyes are opened. The largest one-way transfer entropies are to and from the Oz site consistent with the involvement of the occipital lobe in vision. The largest net transfer entropies are from F3 and F4 to almost all the other scalp sites.

  19. Donor-acceptor graphene-based hybrid materials facilitating photo-induced electron-transfer reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, Anastasios; Pagona, Georgia; Tagmatarchis, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Graphene research and in particular the topic of chemical functionalization of graphene has exploded in the last decade. The main aim is to increase the solubility and thereby enhance the processability of the material, which is otherwise insoluble and inapplicable for technological applications when stacked in the form of graphite. To this end, initially, graphite was oxidized under harsh conditions to yield exfoliated graphene oxide sheets that are soluble in aqueous media and amenable to chemical modifications due to the presence of carboxylic acid groups at the edges of the lattice. However, it was obvious that the high-defect framework of graphene oxide cannot be readily utilized in applications that are governed by charge-transfer processes, for example, in solar cells. Alternatively, exfoliated graphene has been applied toward the realization of some donor-acceptor hybrid materials with photo- and/or electro-active components. The main body of research regarding obtaining donor-acceptor hybrid materials based on graphene to facilitate charge-transfer phenomena, which is reviewed here, concerns the incorporation of porphyrins and phthalocyanines onto graphene sheets. Through illustrative schemes, the preparation and most importantly the photophysical properties of such graphene-based ensembles will be described. Important parameters, such as the generation of the charge-separated state upon photoexcitation of the organic electron donor, the lifetimes of the charge-separation and charge-recombination as well as the incident-photon-to-current efficiency value for some donor-acceptor graphene-based hybrids, will be discussed.

  20. Quantum information storage and state transfer based on spin systems

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Z

    2004-01-01

    The idea of quantum state storage is generalized to describe the coherent transfer of quantum information through a coherent data bus. In this universal framework, we comprehensively review our recent systematical investigations to explore the possibility of implementing the physical processes of quantum information storage and state transfer by using quantum spin systems, which may be an isotropic antiferromagnetic spin ladder system or a ferromagnetic Heisenberg spin chain. Our studies emphasize the physical mechanisms and the fundamental problems behind the various protocols for the storage and transfer of quantum information in solid state systems.

  1. 'OnePoint'--combining OneNote and SharePoint to facilitate knowledge transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Christopher G; Haque, Nuzrul; Gardner, Ben

    2009-09-01

    The identification and development of novel drugs requires a multidisciplinary team of individuals whose membership changes during the lifecycle of a project. Incomplete knowledge transfer across this team can be a barrier to effective decision-making and efficient drug discovery. We have deployed a new infrastructure supporting information storage and distribution within small teams using Microsoft's SharePoint server technology in conjunction with the desktop application OneNote. This delivers a user-friendly collaborative workspace that is fast, flexible and carries a low training burden. Demand from drug project teams for this 'solution' has now resulted in site-wide deployment to over 500 people across research.

  2. Wireless digital information transfer: modelling, prediction and assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lager, I.E.; De Hoop, A.T.; Kikkawa, T.

    2013-01-01

    The loop-to-loop pulsed electromagnetic field wireless signal transfer is investigated with a view on its application in wireless digital information transfer. Closed-form expressions are derived for the emitted magnetic field and for the open-circuit voltage of the receiving loop in dependence on t

  3. Feedback Specificity, Information Processing, and Transfer of Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jodi S.; Wood, Robert E.; Chen, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of feedback specificity on transfer of training and the mechanisms through which feedback can enhance or inhibit transfer. We used concurrent verbal protocol methodology to elicit and operationalize the explicit information processing activities used by 48 trainees performing the Furniture Factory computer…

  4. Feedback Specificity, Information Processing, and Transfer of Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jodi S.; Wood, Robert E.; Chen, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of feedback specificity on transfer of training and the mechanisms through which feedback can enhance or inhibit transfer. We used concurrent verbal protocol methodology to elicit and operationalize the explicit information processing activities used by 48 trainees performing the Furniture Factory computer…

  5. Language as information system: transfer and saving of the information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Mikhaylovna Nekipelova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to research of the language system as an information system. The language is not the information itself. It contains information minimum and has information restrictions. Under the information should be understood texts and speech, created by using a language. Modern forms of existence of living natural language are distributed databases with multiple accesses, because bearers of language constantly and concurrently use it. Language and speech always exchange information, creating a unified information environment, where a human is. At any stage of information exchange the change of self-descriptiveness takes place one way or the other. When a human try to reflect world around him, some part of reflected information is lost due to conversion into language and saving into it in formalized form. These processes of storing information are related to the fact that in the production and perception of the statements optimization mechanisms of human thinking are made. When we perceive information its preservation can happen without information loss and with the loss of information.

  6. A flight test facility design for examining digital information transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on a flight test facility design for examining digital information transfer. Information is given on aircraft/ground exchange, data link research activities, data link display format, a data link flight test, and the flight test setup.

  7. Towards facilitating circular product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena; Lindkvist, Louise; Sundin, Erik

    2015-01-01

    In order to achieve a sustainable development, circular economy approaches and circular material flows are explored in industry. However, circular information flows remain essentially unestablished. The aim of this paper is to: 1) explore categories and types of product life-cycle information available for remanufacturing; 2) identify constraints for efficient product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing; and 3) propose initiatives to facilitate product life-cycle information flow ...

  8. Donor–acceptor graphene-based hybrid materials facilitating photo-induced electron-transfer reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Stergiou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Graphene research and in particular the topic of chemical functionalization of graphene has exploded in the last decade. The main aim is to increase the solubility and thereby enhance the processability of the material, which is otherwise insoluble and inapplicable for technological applications when stacked in the form of graphite. To this end, initially, graphite was oxidized under harsh conditions to yield exfoliated graphene oxide sheets that are soluble in aqueous media and amenable to chemical modifications due to the presence of carboxylic acid groups at the edges of the lattice. However, it was obvious that the high-defect framework of graphene oxide cannot be readily utilized in applications that are governed by charge-transfer processes, for example, in solar cells. Alternatively, exfoliated graphene has been applied toward the realization of some donor–acceptor hybrid materials with photo- and/or electro-active components. The main body of research regarding obtaining donor–acceptor hybrid materials based on graphene to facilitate charge-transfer phenomena, which is reviewed here, concerns the incorporation of porphyrins and phthalocyanines onto graphene sheets. Through illustrative schemes, the preparation and most importantly the photophysical properties of such graphene-based ensembles will be described. Important parameters, such as the generation of the charge-separated state upon photoexcitation of the organic electron donor, the lifetimes of the charge-separation and charge-recombination as well as the incident-photon-to-current efficiency value for some donor–acceptor graphene-based hybrids, will be discussed.

  9. Development of a Screening Tool to Facilitate Technology Transfer of an Innovative Technology to Treat Perchlorate-Contaminated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    specific technology screening instrument, Mandalas et al. (1998) demonstrated that technology transfer can be facilitated by making available user...S. D., and Aly, O. M. (1998). Chemistry of Water Treatment, 2nd Edition. Boca Raton, Florida: Lewis Publishers. Goltz, M. N., Mandalas , G. C...McGraw-Hill. Mandalas , G., Christ, J., and Goltz, M. (1998). Software to Aid Transfer of an Innovative In Situ Bioremediation Technology

  10. Forest Resource Information System. Phase 3: System transfer report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczynski, R. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Transfer of the forest reserve information system (FRIS) from the Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing to St. Regis Paper Company is described. Modifications required for the transfer of the LARYS image processing software are discussed. The reformatting, geometric correction, image registration, and documentation performed for preprocessing transfer are described. Data turnaround was improved and geometrically corrected and ground-registered CCT LANDSAT 3 data provided to the user. The technology transfer activities are summarized. An application test performed in order to assess a Florida land acquisition is described. A benefit/cost analysis of FRIS is presented.

  11. TOFIR: A Tool of Facilitating Information Retrieval - Introduce a Visual Retrieval Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a new method for the visualization of information retrieval called TOFIR (Tool of Facilitating Information Retrieval). Discusses the use of angle attributes of a document to construct the angle-based visual space; two-dimensional and three-dimensional visual tools; ambiguity; and future research directions. (Author/LRW)

  12. Quantum information transfer between topological and conventional charge qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Li; Yan, Zou

    2016-02-01

    We propose a scheme to realize coherent quantum information transfer between topological and conventional charge qubits. We first consider a hybrid system where a quantum dot (QD) is tunnel-coupled to a semiconductor Majorana-hosted nanowire (MNW) via using gated control as a switch, the information encoded in the superposition state of electron empty and occupied state can be transferred to each other through choosing the proper interaction time to make measurements. Then we consider another system including a double QDs and a pair of parallel MNWs, it is shown that the entanglement information transfer can be realized between the two kinds of systems. We also realize long distance quantum information transfer between two quantum dots separated by an MNW, by making use of the nonlocal fermionic level formed with the pared Majorana feimions (MFs) emerging at the two ends of the MNW. Furthermore, we analyze the teleportationlike electron transfer phenomenon predicted by Tewari et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 027001 (2008)] in our considered system. Interestingly, we find that this phenomenon exactly corresponds to the case that the information encoded in one QD just returns back to its original place during the dynamical evolution of the combined system from the perspective of quantum state transfer. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11304031).

  13. Wireless Information Transfer with Opportunistic Energy Harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Liang; Chua, Kee-Chaing

    2012-01-01

    Energy harvesting is a promising solution to prolong the operation of energy-constrained wireless networks. In particular, scavenging energy from ambient radio signals, namely wireless energy harvesting (WEH), has recently drawn significant attention. In this paper, we consider a point-to-point wireless link over the flat-fading channel subject to the time-varying co-channel interference. It is assumed that the receiver has no fixed power supplies and thus needs to replenish energy via WEH from the unintended interference and/or the intended signal sent by the transmitter. We further assume a single-antenna receiver that can only decode information or harvest energy at any given time due to the practical circuit limitation. As a result, it is important to investigate when the receiver should switch between the two modes of information decoding (ID) and energy harvesting (EH), based on the instantaneous channel and interference conditions. In this paper, we derive the optimal mode switching rule at the receive...

  14. Facilitators on networks reveal the optimal interplay between information exchange and reciprocity

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila; Mobilia, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Reciprocity is firmly established as an important mechanism that promotes cooperation. An efficient information exchange is likewise important, especially on structured populations, where interactions between players are limited. Motivated by these two facts, we explore the role of facilitators in social dilemmas on networks. Facilitators are here mirrors to their neighbors -- they cooperate with cooperators and defect with defectors -- but they do not participate in the exchange of strategies. As such, in addition to introducing direct reciprocity, they also obstruct information exchange. In well-mixed populations, facilitators favor the replacement and invasion of defection by cooperation as long as their number exceeds a critical value. In structured populations, on the other hand, there exists a delicate balance between the benefits of reciprocity and the deterioration of information exchange. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations of social dilemmas on various interaction networks reveal that there exists an ...

  15. Production and transfer of energy and information in Hamiltonian systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris G Antonopoulos

    Full Text Available We present novel results that relate energy and information transfer with sensitivity to initial conditions in chaotic multi-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. We show the relation among Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, Lyapunov exponents, and upper bounds for the Mutual Information Rate calculated in the Hamiltonian phase space and on bi-dimensional subspaces. Our main result is that the net amount of transfer from kinetic to potential energy per unit of time is a power-law of the upper bound for the Mutual Information Rate between kinetic and potential energies, and also a power-law of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. Therefore, transfer of energy is related with both transfer and production of information. However, the power-law nature of this relation means that a small increment of energy transferred leads to a relatively much larger increase of the information exchanged. Then, we propose an "experimental" implementation of a 1-dimensional communication channel based on a Hamiltonian system, and calculate the actual rate with which information is exchanged between the first and last particle of the channel. Finally, a relation between our results and important quantities of thermodynamics is presented.

  16. Production and transfer of energy and information in Hamiltonian systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulos, Chris G; Bianco-Martinez, Ezequiel; Baptista, Murilo S

    2014-01-01

    We present novel results that relate energy and information transfer with sensitivity to initial conditions in chaotic multi-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. We show the relation among Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, Lyapunov exponents, and upper bounds for the Mutual Information Rate calculated in the Hamiltonian phase space and on bi-dimensional subspaces. Our main result is that the net amount of transfer from kinetic to potential energy per unit of time is a power-law of the upper bound for the Mutual Information Rate between kinetic and potential energies, and also a power-law of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. Therefore, transfer of energy is related with both transfer and production of information. However, the power-law nature of this relation means that a small increment of energy transferred leads to a relatively much larger increase of the information exchanged. Then, we propose an "experimental" implementation of a 1-dimensional communication channel based on a Hamiltonian system, and calculate the actual rate with which information is exchanged between the first and last particle of the channel. Finally, a relation between our results and important quantities of thermodynamics is presented.

  17. Linking attentional processes and conceptual problem solving: Visual cues facilitate the automaticity of extracting relevant information from diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy eRouinfar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated links between lower-level visual attention processes and higher-level problem solving. This was done by overlaying visual cues on conceptual physics problem diagrams to direct participants’ attention to relevant areas to facilitate problem solving. Participants (N = 80 individually worked through four problem sets, each containing a diagram, while their eye movements were recorded. Each diagram contained regions that were relevant to solving the problem correctly and separate regions related to common incorrect responses. Problem sets contained an initial problem, six isomorphic training problems, and a transfer problem. The cued condition saw visual cues overlaid on the training problems. Participants’ verbal responses were used to determine their accuracy. The study produced two major findings. First, short duration visual cues can improve problem solving performance on a variety of insight physics problems, including transfer problems not sharing the surface features of the training problems, but instead sharing the underlying solution path. Thus, visual cues can facilitate re-representing a problem and overcoming impasse, enabling a correct solution. Importantly, these cueing effects on problem solving did not involve the solvers’ attention necessarily embodying the solution to the problem. Instead, the cueing effects were caused by solvers attending to and integrating relevant information in the problems into a solution path. Second, these short duration visual cues when administered repeatedly over multiple training problems resulted in participants becoming more efficient at extracting the relevant information on the transfer problem, showing that such cues can improve the automaticity with which solvers extract relevant information from a problem. Both of these results converge on the conclusion that lower-order visual processes driven by attentional cues can influence higher-order cognitive processes

  18. Health information use in home care: brainstorming barriers, facilitators, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolee, Paul; Steeves, Brandie; Manderson, Brooke L; Toscan, Justine L; Glenny, Christine; Berg, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the importance of sharing health information in home care; however, limited research exists to identify appropriate strategies, especially with home care providers. We engaged home care stakeholders from three locations in Ontario to determine facilitators, barriers, and recommendations for using health information in home care. The results suggest that health professionals recognize the potential of these systems to enhance communication through several emergent themes; however, there was a lack of agreement on the current facilitators, barriers, and recommendations for future interventions. More research is needed to achieve consensus before strategies for improvement can be initiated.

  19. Human frataxin activates Fe-S cluster biosynthesis by facilitating sulfur transfer chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridwell-Rabb, Jennifer; Fox, Nicholas G; Tsai, Chi-Lin; Winn, Andrew M; Barondeau, David P

    2014-08-05

    Iron-sulfur clusters are ubiquitous protein cofactors with critical cellular functions. The mitochondrial Fe-S assembly complex, which consists of the cysteine desulfurase NFS1 and its accessory protein (ISD11), the Fe-S assembly protein (ISCU2), and frataxin (FXN), converts substrates l-cysteine, ferrous iron, and electrons into Fe-S clusters. The physiological function of FXN has received a tremendous amount of attention since the discovery that its loss is directly linked to the neurodegenerative disease Friedreich's ataxia. Previous in vitro results revealed a role for human FXN in activating the cysteine desulfurase and Fe-S cluster biosynthesis activities of the Fe-S assembly complex. Here we present radiolabeling experiments that indicate FXN accelerates the accumulation of sulfur on ISCU2 and that the resulting persulfide species is viable in the subsequent synthesis of Fe-S clusters. Additional mutagenesis, enzyme kinetic, UV-visible, and circular dichroism spectroscopic studies suggest conserved ISCU2 residue C104 is critical for FXN activation, whereas C35, C61, and C104 are all essential for Fe-S cluster formation on the assembly complex. These results cannot be fully explained by the hypothesis that FXN functions as an iron donor for Fe-S cluster biosynthesis, and further support an allosteric regulator role for FXN. Together, these results lead to an activation model in which FXN accelerates persulfide formation on NFS1 and favors a helix-to-coil interconversion on ISCU2 that facilitates the transfer of sulfur from NFS1 to ISCU2 as an initial step in Fe-S cluster biosynthesis.

  20. Information to Change the World--Fulfilling the Information Needs of Technology Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duberman, Josh; Zeller, Martin

    1996-01-01

    Provides an introduction to fulfilling the information needs of technology transfer. Highlights include a definition of technology transfer; government and university involvement; industry's role; publishers; an annotated list of information sources and contacts; technology assessment, including patent searching, competitive intelligence, and…

  1. Implementing AORN recommended practices for transfer of patient care information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Patricia C

    2012-11-01

    The Joint Commission estimates that 80% of serious medical errors are associated with miscommunication during patient transfers. Patient transfers may occur between a wide array of settings: between physicians' offices or preoperative areas and traditional ORs or ambulatory settings, between emergency departments or interventional suites and the OR, and between other areas where the exchange of patient information occurs. AORN's "Recommended practices for transfer of patient care information" serves as a guide for establishing achievable practices that promote a safe level of care during perioperative patient transfers. Strategies for the successful implementation of the recommended practices include promoting teamwork, including with the patient and the patient's family members; developing effective communication skills; documenting processes; creating and adhering to policies and procedures; and establishing quality management programs.

  2. Facilitators on networks reveal optimal interplay between information exchange and reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž; Mobilia, Mauro

    2014-04-01

    Reciprocity is firmly established as an important mechanism that promotes cooperation. An efficient information exchange is likewise important, especially on structured populations, where interactions between players are limited. Motivated by these two facts, we explore the role of facilitators in social dilemmas on networks. Facilitators are here mirrors to their neighbors—they cooperate with cooperators and defect with defectors—but they do not participate in the exchange of strategies. As such, in addition to introducing direct reciprocity, they also obstruct information exchange. In well-mixed populations, facilitators favor the replacement and invasion of defection by cooperation as long as their number exceeds a critical value. In structured populations, on the other hand, there exists a delicate balance between the benefits of reciprocity and the deterioration of information exchange. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations of social dilemmas on various interaction networks reveal that there exists an optimal interplay between reciprocity and information exchange, which sets in only when a small number of facilitators occupy the main hubs of the scale-free network. The drawbacks of missing cooperative hubs are more than compensated for by reciprocity and, at the same time, the compromised information exchange is routed via the auxiliary hubs with only marginal losses in effectivity. These results indicate that it is not always optimal for the main hubs to become leaders of the masses, but rather to exploit their highly connected state to promote tit-for-tat-like behavior.

  3. Using Financial Instruments to Transfer the Information Security Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj Pandey; Einar Snekkenes

    2016-01-01

    For many individuals and organizations, cyber-insurance is the most practical and only way of handling a major financial impact of an information security event. However, the cyber-insurance market suffers from the problem of information asymmetry, lack of product diversity, illiquidity, high transaction cost, and so on. On the other hand, in theory, capital market-based financial instruments can provide a risk transfer mechanism with the ability to absorb the adverse impact of an information...

  4. Information transfer in auditoria and room-acoustical quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Jason E

    2013-04-01

    It is hypothesized that room-acoustical quality correlates with the information-transfer rate. Auditoria are considered as multiple-input multiple-output communication channels and a theory of information-transfer is outlined that accounts for time-variant multipath, spatial hearing, and distributed directional sources. Source diversity and spatial hearing are shown to be the mechanisms through which multipath increases the information-transfer rate by overcoming finite spatial resolution. In addition to predictions that are confirmed by recent and historical findings, the theory provides explanations for the influence of factors such as musical repertoire and ensemble size on subjective preference and the influence of multisource, multichannel auralization on perceived realism.

  5. Attention and Facilitation: Converging Information Versus Inadvertent Reading in Stroop Task Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Disagreement exists about whether color-word Stroop facilitation is caused by converging information (e.g.. Cohen et al.. 1990: Roelofs, 2003) or inadvertent reading (MacLeod & MacDonald, 2000). Four experiments tested between these hypotheses by examining Stroop effects oil response time (RT) both

  6. Attention and Facilitation: Converging Information Versus Inadvertent Reading in Stroop Task Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Disagreement exists about whether color-word Stroop facilitation is caused by converging information (e.g.. Cohen et al.. 1990: Roelofs, 2003) or inadvertent reading (MacLeod & MacDonald, 2000). Four experiments tested between these hypotheses by examining Stroop effects oil response time (RT) both

  7. Energy and Information Transfer Via Coherent Exciton Wave Packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xiaoning

    associated excitations were dubbed twisted excitons. Twisted exciton packets can be manipulated as they travel down molecular chains, and this has applications in quantum information science as well. In each setting considered, exciton dynamics were initially studied using a simple tight-binding formalism. This misses the actual many-body interactions and multiple energy levels associated real systems. To remedy this, I adapted an existing time-domain Density Functional Theory code and applied it to study the dynamics of exciton wave packets on quasi-one-dimensional systems. This required the use of high-performance computing and the construction of a number of key auxiliary codes. Establishing the requisite methodology constituted a substantial part of the entire thesis. Surprisingly, this effort uncovered a computational issue associated with Rabi oscillations that had been incorrectly characterized in the literature. My research elucidated the actual problem and a solution was found. This new methodology was an integral part of the overall computational analysis. The thesis then takes up the a detailed consideration of the prospect for creating systems that support a strong measure of transport coherence. While physical implementations include molecular assemblies, solid-state superlattices, and even optical lattices, I decided to focus on assemblies of nanometer-sized silicon quantum dots. First principles computational analysis was used to quantify reorganization within individual dots and excitonic coupling between dots. Quantum dot functionalizations were identified that make it plausible to maintain a measure of excitonic coherence even at room temperatures. Attention was then turned to the use of covalently bonded bridge material to join quantum dots in a way that facilitates efficient exciton transfer. Both carbon and silicon structures were considered by considering the way in which subunits might be best brought together. This resulted in a set of design criteria

  8. Benefits of testing for nontested information: retrieval-induced facilitation of episodically bound material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Christopher A; DeLosh, Edward L

    2014-12-01

    Testing is a powerful means to boost the retention of information. The extent to which the benefits of testing generalize to nontested information, however, is not clear. In three experiments, we found that completing cued-recall tests for a subset of studied materials enhanced retention for the specific information tested, as well as for associated, nontested information during later free-recall testing. In Experiment 1, this generalized benefit was revealed for lists of category-exemplar pairs. Experiment 2 extended the effect to unrelated words, suggesting that retrieval can enhance later free recall of nontested information that is bound solely through episodic context. In Experiment 3, we manipulated the format of the final test and found facilitation in free-recall, but not in cued-recall, testing. The results suggest that testing may facilitate later free recall in part by enhancing access to information that is present during a prior temporal or list context. More generally, these findings suggest that retrieval-induced facilitation extends to a broader range of conditions than has previously been suggested, and they further motivate the adoption of testing as a practical and effective learning tool.

  9. Facilitating consumer clinical information seeking by maintaining referential context: evaluation of a prototypic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobach, David F; Waters, Andrew; Silvey, Garry M; Clark, Shelly J; Kalyanaraman, Sri; Kawamoto, Kensaku; Lipkus, Isaac

    2009-11-14

    Millions of consumers seek health information on the Internet. Unfortunately, this searching often falls short because of design limitations of many consumer-oriented Web sites. In this paper, we describe an approach that addresses several known barriers to consumer health information seeking. This approach primarily involves maintaining the referential context throughout a consumer's search for information. To maintain referential context, this approach uses multiple levels of hierarchical constructs to organize complex information, and data elements are toggled to minimize the need for scrolling. An information resource based on this approach was implemented for information about smoking using standard Web technologies. The resource was evaluated by 31 diverse consumers through standardized usability instruments. Consumers found the resource to be easy to navigate and to use. We conclude that the approach described in this manuscript could be applied more broadly to facilitate the organization and presentation of consumer health information.

  10. Learning is in the facilitation: faculty perspectives with facilitated teaching and learning-recommendations from informal discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Prospero, Lisa; Bhimji-Hewitt, Sheena

    2011-01-01

    Small group learning is an interactive activity that requires a skilled teacher with the ability to facilitate and debrief. Approximately 250 students from seven health professions were enrolled in a first year interprofessional education course that focused on the importance of communication and collaboration. Weekly faculty debrief sessions were conducted and were utilized to share the teachers perspectives with facilitative teaching as well as for feedback and improvement strategies. Recommendations included linking the learning within the small group sessions back to clinical and professional practice in order to validate the course content and thereby increase student engagement; creation of facilitator guides with specific debrief instructions for the given objectives in order to encourage effective learning dialogue among all participants; and providing faculty with formalized facilitator training as well as debrief strategies in order to attain the skills to better guide student learning.

  11. Facilitated Ion Transfer Across the Micro-liquid/Liquid Interface Supported at the Tip of a Silanized Micropipette

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Glass micropipettes with silanized inner walls can be filled with an organic solvent for voltammetric measurements in an aqueous solution. This arrangement was employed to investigate systematically the mechanism of facilitated potassium ion transfer by an ionophore dibenzo-18-crown-6(DB18C6) across a micro-water/1,2-dichloroethane(W/DCE) interface supported at the tip of a silanized micropipette. Our experimental results verify that this facilitated ion transfer across the liquid/liquid interface did occur by an interfacial complexation-dissociation process(TIC-TID mechanism). The ratio of the diffusion coefficient of DB18C6 to that of its complexed ion in the DCE phase was calculated to be 1.74±0.07.

  12. A Survey on Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, T. D. P.; Jayakody, D. N. K.; De, S.; Ivanov, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive study related to simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) in different types of wireless communication setups. Harvesting energy using SWIPT is an appealing solution in the context of extending battery life of wireless devices for a fully sustainable communication system. Strong signal power increases power transfer, but also causes more interference in information transfer, causing realization of the SWIPT challenging problem. This article provides an overview of technical evolution of SWIPT. A survey and qualitative comparison of the existing SWIPT schemes is provided to demonstrate their limitations in the current and 5G networks. Open challenges are emphasized and guidelines are provided to adapt the existing schemes in order to overcome these limitations and make them fit for integrating with the modern and emerging next generation communication networks, such as 5G systems.

  13. Negative electron-transfer dissociation nLC-MS/MS facilitates the analysis of thousands of acidic peptides

    OpenAIRE

    McAlister, Graeme C.; Russell, Jason D.; Rumachik, Neil G.; Hebert, Alexander S.; Syka, John E. P.; Geer, Lewis Y.; Westphall, Michael S.; Pagliarini, David J; Coon, Joshua J.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the first implementation of negative electron-transfer dissociation (NETD) on a hybrid ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometer and its application to high-throughput sequencing of peptide anions. NETD – coupled with high pH separations, negative electrospray ionization (ESI), and an NETD compatible version of OMSSA – is part of a complete workflow that includes the formation, interrogation and sequencing of peptide anions. Together these interlocking pieces facilitated the identificat...

  14. Information Transfer and the Adoption of Agricultural Innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Rose Mary Juliano

    1990-01-01

    Data collected in the Federal District of Brazil were analyzed in terms of information transfer through mass media and interpersonal communication and how they influence farmers in the Federal District of Brazil in their decisions to adopt agricultural innovations. (42 references) (EAM)

  15. Information transfer during contingency operations: Emergency air-ground communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    Safety related problems are reported which occur as a consequence of information transfer deficiencies that arise when air/ground communications are (or should be) used as a resource in inflight emergency situations. The system factors, the human errors, and the associated causes of these problem are defined.

  16. The DeepTree Exhibit: Visualizing the Tree of Life to Facilitate Informal Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, F; Horn, M S; Phillips, B C; Diamond, J; Evans, E M; Shen, Chia

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we present the DeepTree exhibit, a multi-user, multi-touch interactive visualization of the Tree of Life. We developed DeepTree to facilitate collaborative learning of evolutionary concepts. We will describe an iterative process in which a team of computer scientists, learning scientists, biologists, and museum curators worked together throughout design, development, and evaluation. We present the importance of designing the interactions and the visualization hand-in-hand in order to facilitate active learning. The outcome of this process is a fractal-based tree layout that reduces visual complexity while being able to capture all life on earth; a custom rendering and navigation engine that prioritizes visual appeal and smooth fly-through; and a multi-user interface that encourages collaborative exploration while offering guided discovery. We present an evaluation showing that the large dataset encouraged free exploration, triggers emotional responses, and facilitates visitor engagement and informal learning.

  17. Adaptive Local Information Transfer in Random Boolean Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruna, Taichi

    2017-01-01

    Living systems such as gene regulatory networks and neuronal networks have been supposed to work close to dynamical criticality, where their information-processing ability is optimal at the whole-system level. We investigate how this global information-processing optimality is related to the local information transfer at each individual-unit level. In particular, we introduce an internal adjustment process of the local information transfer and examine whether the former can emerge from the latter. We propose an adaptive random Boolean network model in which each unit rewires its incoming arcs from other units to balance stability of its information processing based on the measurement of the local information transfer pattern. First, we show numerically that random Boolean networks can self-organize toward near dynamical criticality in our model. Second, the proposed model is analyzed by a mean-field theory. We recognize that the rewiring rule has a bootstrapping feature. The stationary indegree distribution is calculated semi-analytically and is shown to be close to dynamical criticality in a broad range of model parameter values.

  18. Measuring information transfer in a soft robotic arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, K; Schmidt, N; Pfeifer, R

    2015-05-13

    Soft robots can exhibit diverse behaviors with simple types of actuation by partially outsourcing control to the morphological and material properties of their soft bodies, which is made possible by the tight coupling between control, body, and environment. In this paper, we present a method that will quantitatively characterize these diverse spatiotemporal dynamics of a soft body based on the information-theoretic approach. In particular, soft bodies have the ability to propagate the effect of actuation through the entire body, with a certain time delay, due to their elasticity. Our goal is to capture this delayed interaction in a quantitative manner based on a measure called momentary information transfer. We extend this measure to soft robotic applications and demonstrate its power using a physical soft robotic platform inspired by the octopus. Our approach is illustrated in two ways. First, we statistically characterize the delayed actuation propagation through the body as a strength of information transfer. Second, we capture this information propagation directly as local information dynamics. As a result, we show that our approach can successfully characterize the spatiotemporal dynamics of the soft robotic platform, explicitly visualizing how information transfers through the entire body with delays. Further extension scenarios of our approach are discussed for soft robotic applications in general.

  19. The electronic transfer of information and aerospace knowledge diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Bishop, Ann P.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Increasing reliance on and investment in information technology and electronic networking systems presupposes that computing and information technology will play a motor role in the diffusion of aerospace knowledge. Little is known, however, about actual information technology needs, uses, and problems within the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. The authors state that the potential contributions of information technology to increased productivity and competitiveness will be diminished unless empirically derived knowledge regarding the information-seeking behavior of the members of the social system - those who are producing, transferring, and using scientific and technical information - is incorporated into a new technology policy framework. Research into the use of information technology and electronic networks by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists, collected as part of a research project designed to study aerospace knowledge diffusion, is presented in support of this assertion.

  20. Students' Characteristics that Facilitate the Transfer from Two-Year to Four-Year Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Valerie E.; Frank, Kenneth A.

    1990-01-01

    Investigates how social and academic background factors influenced transfer to 4-year colleges for 2,500 community college students. Reports that past academic performance was the strongest predictor of eventual transfer. Concludes community colleges contribute to social stratification in higher education. (DB)

  1. Applying the Digital Doorway design research model in facilitating skills transfer in rural communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herselman, ME

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to indicate how skills can be transferred through the application of the Digital Doorway (DD) design research model. Skills transfer takes place between the initiators of Digital Doorway (CSIR Meraka Institute) project...

  2. Exploring knowledge transfer within manufacturing networks and codified information characteristics: the hidden dangers of inaccurate information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2004-01-01

    Technology transfer is an important aspect of, and takes frequently place in, international manufacturing networks. A key component of a specific technology is the knowledge and information that accompanies it. This study explores the difficulties with transferring technological knowledge and codifi

  3. 76 FR 7559 - Access in Litigation to Confidential Business Information; Transfer of Information Claimed as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... AGENCY Access in Litigation to Confidential Business Information; Transfer of Information Claimed as Confidential Business Information to the United States Department of Justice and Parties to Certain Litigation...., Adv. Proc. No. 09-01198 (ALG), pending in the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District...

  4. Serotonergic Psychedelics Temporarily Modify Information Transfer in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Joan Francesc; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miquel Àngel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychedelics induce intense modifications in the sensorium, the sense of “self,” and the experience of reality. Despite advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular level mechanisms of these drugs, knowledge of their actions on global brain dynamics is still incomplete. Recent imaging studies have found changes in functional coupling between frontal and parietal brain structures, suggesting a modification in information flow between brain regions during acute effects. Methods: Here we assessed the psychedelic-induced changes in directionality of information flow during the acute effects of a psychedelic in humans. We measured modifications in connectivity of brain oscillations using transfer entropy, a nonlinear measure of directed functional connectivity based on information theory. Ten healthy male volunteers with prior experience with psychedelics participated in 2 experimental sessions. They received a placebo or a dose of ayahuasca, a psychedelic preparation containing the serotonergic 5-HT2A agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine. Results: The analysis showed significant changes in the coupling of brain oscillations between anterior and posterior recording sites. Transfer entropy analysis showed that frontal sources decreased their influence over central, parietal, and occipital sites. Conversely, sources in posterior locations increased their influence over signals measured at anterior locations. Exploratory correlations found that anterior-to-posterior transfer entropy decreases were correlated with the intensity of subjective effects, while the imbalance between anterior-to-posterior and posterior-to-anterior transfer entropy correlated with the degree of incapacitation experienced. Conclusions: These results suggest that psychedelics induce a temporary disruption of neural hierarchies by reducing top-down control and increasing bottom-up information transfer in the human brain. PMID:25820842

  5. Intention and Outcome: Key Components of Causal Structure Facilitating Mapping in Children's Analogical Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Daehler, Marvin W.

    1992-01-01

    Kindergartners and second graders heard stories containing an intention to solve a problem and a successful outcome or stories that lacked these components. Second graders showed evidence of transfer of knowledge for stories containing an intentional component. (BC)

  6. Evaluating the effects of pollinator-mediated interactions using pollen transfer networks: evidence of widespread facilitation in south Andean plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur, C; Sáez, A; Traveset, A; Aizen, M A

    2016-05-01

    Information about the relative importance of competitive or facilitative pollinator-mediated interactions in a multi-species context is limited. We studied interspecific pollen transfer (IPT) networks to evaluate quantity and quality effects of pollinator sharing among plant species on three high-Andean communities at 1600, 1800 and 2000 m a.s.l. To estimate the sign of the effects (positive, neutral or negative), the relation between conspecific and heterospecific pollen deposited on stigmas was analysed with GLMMs. Network analyses showed that communities were characterised by the presence of pollen hub-donors and receptors. We inferred that facilitative and neutral pollinator-mediated interactions among plants prevailed over competition. Thus, the benefits from pollinator sharing seem to outweigh the costs (i.e. heterospecific deposition and conspecific pollen loss). The largest proportion of facilitated species was found at the highest elevation community, suggesting that under unfavourable conditions for the pollination service and at lower plant densities facilitation can be more common.

  7. Microfluidic bubbler facilitates near complete mass transfer for sustainable multiphase and microbial processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jordan J; Crivellari, Francesca; Gagnon, Zachary; Betenbaugh, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    A microfluidic device (channels mass transfer efficiency at low flow rates. The convergence of one gas and two liquid channels at a Y-junction generates bubbles via cyclic changes in pressure. At low flow rates, the bubbles had an average diameter of 110 μm, corresponding to a volumetric mass transfer KL a of 1.43 h(-1) . Values of KL a normalized per flow rate showed that the microbubbler had a 100-fold increased transfer efficiency compared to four other commonly used bubblers. The calculated percentage of oxygen transferred was approximately 90%, which was consistent with a separate off-gas analysis. The improved mass transfer was also tested in an algae bioreactor in which the microbubbler absorbed approximately 90% of the CO2 feed compared to 2% in the culture with an alternative needle bubbling method. The microbubbler yielded a cell density 82% of the cell density for the alternative needle tip with an 800-fold lower flow rate (0.5 mL/min versus 400 mL/min) and a 700-fold higher ratio of biomass to fed carbon dioxide. The application of microfluidics may transform interfacial processing in order to increase mass transfer efficiencies, minimize gas feeding, and provide for more sustainable multiphase processes. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1924-1933. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Mutual Alignment Comparison Facilitates Abstraction and Transfer of a Complex Scientific Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Judy M.; Anggoro, Florencia K.; Jee, Benjamin D.

    2012-01-01

    Learning about a scientific concept often occurs in the context of unfamiliar examples. Mutual alignment analogy--a type of analogical comparison in which the analogues are only partially understood--has been shown to facilitate learning from unfamiliar examples . In the present study, we examined the role of mutual alignment analogy in the…

  9. You Should Know Better: Can Self-Affirmation Facilitate Information-Seeking Behavior and Interpersonal Discussion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriades, Stefanie Z; Walter, Nathan

    2016-11-01

    This study explores whether self-affirmation has the capacity not merely to reduce the perceived threat associated with health-related information but also to facilitate interpersonal discussion and affect health information-seeking behavior. The context for the study is the ongoing California drought, which serves as suitable context to examine the intersection of self-affirmation and information-seeking behavior because it involves a threatening message (the destructive consequences of the drought) and highlights discrepancies between actual (water waste) and prosocial (water conservation) behavior. Results of a month-long longitudinal panel study demonstrate significant effects of self-affirmation on interpersonal discussion, information seeking, knowledge, and water-conserving behavior across time. Implications for theorizing longer term effects of self-affirmation and practical implications for promoting behavioral change through the enhancement of knowledge and self-esteem are considered.

  10. Facilitating the improved management of waste in South Africa through a national waste information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Developing a waste information system (WIS) for a country is more than just about collecting routine data on waste; it is about facilitating the improved management of waste by providing timely, reliable information to the relevant role-players. It is a means of supporting the waste governance challenges facing South Africa - challenges ranging from strategic waste management issues at national government to basic operational challenges at local government. The paper addresses two hypotheses. The first is that the identified needs of government can provide a platform from which to design a national WIS framework for a developing country such as South Africa, and the second is that the needs for waste information reflect greater, currently unfulfilled challenges in the sustainable management of waste. Through a participatory needs analysis process, it is shown that waste information is needed by the three spheres of government, to support amongst others, informed planning and decision-making, compliance monitoring and enforcement, community participation through public access to information, human, infrastructure and financial resource management and policy development. These needs for waste information correspond closely with key waste management challenges currently facing the country. A shift in governments approach to waste, in line with national and international policy, is evident from identified current and future waste information needs. However, the need for information on landfilling remains entrenched within government, possibly due to the poor compliance of landfill sites in South Africa and the problems around the illegal disposal of both general and hazardous waste.

  11. Using Financial Instruments to Transfer the Information Security Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Pandey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For many individuals and organizations, cyber-insurance is the most practical and only way of handling a major financial impact of an information security event. However, the cyber-insurance market suffers from the problem of information asymmetry, lack of product diversity, illiquidity, high transaction cost, and so on. On the other hand, in theory, capital market-based financial instruments can provide a risk transfer mechanism with the ability to absorb the adverse impact of an information security event. Thus, this article addresses the limitations in the cyber-(reinsurance markets with a set of capital market-based financial instruments. This article presents a set of information security derivatives, namely options, vanilla options, swap, and futures that can be traded at an information security prediction market. Furthermore, this article demonstrates the usefulness of information security derivatives in a given scenario and presents an evaluation of the same in comparison with cyber-insurance. In our analysis, we found that the information security derivatives can at least be a partial solution to the problems in the cyber-insurance markets. The information security derivatives can be used as an effective tool for information elicitation and aggregation, cyber risk pricing, risk hedging, and strategic decision making for information security risk management.

  12. DO SEMANTIC CONTEXTUAL CUES FACILITATE TRANSFER LEARNING FROM VIDEO IN TODDLERS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eZimmermann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Young children typically demonstrate a transfer deficit, learning less from video than live presentations. Semantically meaningful context has been demonstrated to enhance learning in young children. We examined the effect of a semantically meaningful context on toddlers’ imitation performance. Two- and 2.5-year-olds participated in a puzzle imitation task to examine learning from either a live or televised model. The model demonstrated how to assemble a three-piece puzzle to make a fish or a boat, with the puzzle demonstration occurring against a semantically meaningful background context (ocean or a yellow background (no context. Participants in the video condition performed significantly worse than participants in the live condition, demonstrating the typical transfer deficit effect. While the context helped improve overall levels of imitation, especially for the boat puzzle, only individual differences in the ability to self-generate a stimulus label were related to a reduction in the transfer deficit.

  13. 77 FR 4815 - Ace Info Solutions, Inc., and Information International Associates; Transfer of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... Manual. In addition, Ace Info Solutions, Inc., and its subcontractor, Information International... AGENCY Ace Info Solutions, Inc., and Information International Associates; Transfer of Data AGENCY... transferred to Ace Info Solutions, Inc., and its subcontractor, Information International Associates, in...

  14. Anesthesia-related changes in information transfer may be caused by reduction in local information generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollstadt, Patricia; Sellers, Kristin K; Hutt, Axel; Frohlich, Flavio; Wibral, Michael

    2015-08-01

    In anesthesia research it is an open question how general anesthetics lead to loss of consciousness (LOC). It has been proposed that LOC may be caused by the disruption of cortical information processing, preventing information integration. Therefore, recent studies investigating information processing under anesthesia focused on changes in information transfer, measured by transfer entropy (TE). However, often this complex technique was not applied rigorously, using time series in symbolic representation, or using TE differences without accounting for neural conduction delays, or without accounting for signal history. Here, we used current best-practice in TE estimation to investigate information transfer under anesthesia: We conducted simultaneous recordings in primary visual cortex (V1) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of head-fixed ferrets in a dark environment under different levels of anesthesia (awake, 0.5% isoflurane, 1.0 % isoflurane). To elucidate reasons for changes in TE, we further quantified information processing within brain areas by estimating active information storage (AIS) as an estimator of predictable information, and Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZC) as an estimator of signal entropy. Under anesthesia, we found a reduction in information transfer (TE) between PFC and V1 with a stronger reduction for the feedback direction (PFC to V1), validating previous results. Furthermore, entropy (LZC) was reduced and activity became more predictable as indicated by higher values of AIS. We conclude that higher anesthesia concentrations indeed lead to reduced inter-areal information transfer, which may be partly caused by decreases in local entropy and increases in local predictability. In revealing a possible reason for reduced TE that is potentially independent of inter-areal coupling, we demonstrate the value of directly quantifying information processing in addition to focusing on dynamic properties such as coupling strength.

  15. International Co-operation and Trends in Social Science Information Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozsa, Gyorgy; Foldi, Tamas

    1980-01-01

    Identifies the role and mechanism of information transfer in the social sciences, and surveys selected, significant institutions and organizations (mostly international), which promote such transfer. (RAA)

  16. Increasing Self-Efficacy Expectations and Outcome Expectations: A Model to Facilitate Transfer of Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Jean M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Without organizationwide commitment to training programs, educators may be able to increase learners' self-efficacy to acquire desired skills or behavior. But behavior and skills will not be transferred to the job if learners have low expectations about their use or if positive reinforcement is lacking. (SK)

  17. A conserved endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein complex (EMC) facilitates phospholipid transfer from the ER to mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Sujoy; Chao, Jesse T; Tavassoli, Shabnam; Wong, Andrew K O; Choudhary, Vineet; Young, Barry P; Loewen, Christopher J R; Prinz, William A

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondrial membrane biogenesis and lipid metabolism require phospholipid transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to mitochondria. Transfer is thought to occur at regions of close contact of these organelles and to be nonvesicular, but the mechanism is not known. Here we used a novel genetic screen in S. cerevisiae to identify mutants with defects in lipid exchange between the ER and mitochondria. We show that a strain missing multiple components of the conserved ER membrane protein complex (EMC) has decreased phosphatidylserine (PS) transfer from the ER to mitochondria. Mitochondria from this strain have significantly reduced levels of PS and its derivative phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Cells lacking EMC proteins and the ER-mitochondria tethering complex called ERMES (the ER-mitochondria encounter structure) are inviable, suggesting that the EMC also functions as a tether. These defects are corrected by expression of an engineered ER-mitochondrial tethering protein that artificially tethers the ER to mitochondria. EMC mutants have a significant reduction in the amount of ER tethered to mitochondria even though ERMES remained intact in these mutants, suggesting that the EMC performs an additional tethering function to ERMES. We find that all Emc proteins interact with the mitochondrial translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) complex protein Tom5 and this interaction is important for PS transfer and cell growth, suggesting that the EMC forms a tether by associating with the TOM complex. Together, our findings support that the EMC tethers ER to mitochondria, which is required for phospholipid synthesis and cell growth.

  18. Acid sphingomyelinase activity is regulated by membrane lipids and facilitates cholesterol transfer by NPC2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oninla, Vincent O; Breiden, Bernadette; Babalola, Jonathan O; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2014-12-01

    During endocytosis, membrane components move to intraluminal vesicles of the endolysosomal compartment for digestion. At the late endosomes, cholesterol is sorted out mainly by two sterol-binding proteins, Niemann-Pick protein type C (NPC)1 and NPC2. To study the NPC2-mediated intervesicular cholesterol transfer, we developed a liposomal assay system. (Abdul-Hammed, M., B. Breiden, M. A. Adebayo, J. O. Babalola, G. Schwarzmann, and K. Sandhoff. 2010. Role of endosomal membrane lipids and NPC2 in cholesterol transfer and membrane fusion. J. Lipid Res. 51: 1747-1760.) Anionic lipids stimulate cholesterol transfer between liposomes while SM inhibits it, even in the presence of anionic bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP). Preincubation of vesicles containing SM with acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) (SM phosphodiesterase, EC 3.1.4.12) results in hydrolysis of SM to ceramide (Cer), which enhances cholesterol transfer. Besides SM, ASM also cleaves liposomal phosphatidylcholine. Anionic phospholipids derived from the plasma membrane (phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidic acid) stimulate SM and phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by ASM more effectively than BMP, which is generated during endocytosis. ASM-mediated hydrolysis of liposomal SM was also stimulated by incorporation of diacylglycerol (DAG), Cer, and free fatty acids into the liposomal membranes. Conversely, phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis was inhibited by incorporation of cholesterol, Cer, DAG, monoacylglycerol, and fatty acids. Our data suggest that SM degradation by ASM is required for physiological secretion of cholesterol from the late endosomal compartment, and is a key regulator of endolysosomal lipid digestion.

  19. A Conserved Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Protein Complex (EMC) Facilitates Phospholipid Transfer from the ER to Mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, Shabnam; Wong, Andrew K. O.; Choudhary, Vineet; Young, Barry P.; Loewen, Christopher J. R.; Prinz, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial membrane biogenesis and lipid metabolism require phospholipid transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to mitochondria. Transfer is thought to occur at regions of close contact of these organelles and to be nonvesicular, but the mechanism is not known. Here we used a novel genetic screen in S. cerevisiae to identify mutants with defects in lipid exchange between the ER and mitochondria. We show that a strain missing multiple components of the conserved ER membrane protein complex (EMC) has decreased phosphatidylserine (PS) transfer from the ER to mitochondria. Mitochondria from this strain have significantly reduced levels of PS and its derivative phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Cells lacking EMC proteins and the ER–mitochondria tethering complex called ERMES (the ER–mitochondria encounter structure) are inviable, suggesting that the EMC also functions as a tether. These defects are corrected by expression of an engineered ER–mitochondrial tethering protein that artificially tethers the ER to mitochondria. EMC mutants have a significant reduction in the amount of ER tethered to mitochondria even though ERMES remained intact in these mutants, suggesting that the EMC performs an additional tethering function to ERMES. We find that all Emc proteins interact with the mitochondrial translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) complex protein Tom5 and this interaction is important for PS transfer and cell growth, suggesting that the EMC forms a tether by associating with the TOM complex. Together, our findings support that the EMC tethers ER to mitochondria, which is required for phospholipid synthesis and cell growth. PMID:25313861

  20. Information Transfer With Censored Data: Some Large-Sample Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Robin T.

    1991-06-01

    This paper presents some new results for the transfer and extension of information at sites with short hydrological records. The results refer particularly to the transfer and extension of annual flood data. The methods described make use of incomplete or "censored" data such as may be supplied by people living near a river or from records collected for nonhydrological purposes, and they constitute extensions to methods already described in the literature. For two specific censoring configurations, the gain in information is assessed analytically; it is shown that, under certain conditions, the gain in information can be substantial, but in general the gain is small, particularly where scale parameters are estimated. For other configurations of censored data, an analytical formulation is not possible, and integrals are given from which information gain may be assessed by numerical calculation. Another result extends the use of flood peaks exceeding some threshold value ("peaks over a threshold," POTs); probabilistic models of flood frequency using POTs are, in effect, fitted using censored data. The value of the results presented in the paper is likely to be restricted by assumptions about the probabilistic structure of flood sequences: in one case that their distribution (at different sites) is bivariate lognormal, and, for the POT model, that floods occur as a Poisson process with POTs exponentially distributed. The results show, in strictly qualitative terms, the circumstances in which information might be gained by the use of censored data at two sites, and how large (or small) the gains might be.

  1. Tech transfer outreach. An informal proceedings of the first technology transfer/communications conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebetrau, S. [ed.

    1992-10-01

    This document provides an informal summary of the conference workshop sessions. ``Tech Transfer Outreach!`` was originally designed as an opportunity for national laboratory communications and technology transfer staff to become better acquainted and to discuss matters of mutual interest. When DOE field office personnel asked if they could attend, and then when one of our keynote speakers became a participant in the discussions, the actual event grew in importance. The conference participants--the laboratories and DOE representatives from across the nation--worked to brainstorm ideas. Their objective: identify ways to cooperate for effective (and cost-effective) technology transfer outreach. Thus, this proceedings is truly a product of ten national laboratories and DOE, working together. It candidly presents the discussion of issues and the ideas generated by each working group. The issues and recommendations are a consensus of their views.

  2. Facilitating access to information in large documents with an intelligent hypertext system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathe, Nathalie

    1993-01-01

    Retrieving specific information from large amounts of documentation is not an easy task. It could be facilitated if information relevant in the current problem solving context could be automatically supplied to the user. As a first step towards this goal, we have developed an intelligent hypertext system called CID (Computer Integrated Documentation) and tested it on the Space Station Freedom requirement documents. The CID system enables integration of various technical documents in a hypertext framework and includes an intelligent context-sensitive indexing and retrieval mechanism. This mechanism utilizes on-line user information requirements and relevance feedback either to reinforce current indexing in case of success or to generate new knowledge in case of failure. This allows the CID system to provide helpful responses, based on previous usage of the documentation, and to improve its performance over time.

  3. Wax On, Wax Off: Nest Soil Facilitates Indirect Transfer of Recognition Cues between Ant Nestmates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bos, Nick; Grinsted, Lena; Holman, Luke

    2011-01-01

    Social animals use recognition cues to discriminate between group members and non-members. These recognition cues may be conceptualized as a label, which is compared to a neural representation of acceptable cue combinations termed the template. In ants and other social insects, the label consists...... of a waxy layer of colony-specific hydrocarbons on the body surface. Genetic and environmental differences between colony members may confound recognition and social cohesion, so many species perform behaviors that homogenize the odor label, such as mouth-to-mouth feeding and allogrooming. Here, we test...... for another mechanism of cue exchange: indirect transfer of cuticular hydrocarbons via the nest material. Using a combination of chemical analysis and behavioral experiments with Camponotus aethiops ants, we show that nest soil indirectly transfers hydrocarbons between ants and affects recognition behavior...

  4. Information transfer and behavioural inertia in starling flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, Alessandro; Cavagna, Andrea; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Giardina, Irene; Grigera, Tomas S.; Jelić, Asja; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Pohl, Oliver; Shen, Edward; Viale, Massimiliano

    2014-09-01

    Collective decision-making in biological systems requires all individuals in the group to go through a behavioural change of state. During this transition fast and robust transfer of information is essential to prevent cohesion loss. The mechanism by which natural groups achieve such robustness, however, is not clear. Here we present an experimental study of starling flocks performing collective turns. We find that information about direction changes propagates across the flock with a linear dispersion law and negligible attenuation, hence minimizing group decoherence. These results contrast starkly with present models of collective motion, which predict diffusive transport of information. Building on spontaneous symmetry breaking and conservation-law arguments, we formulate a theory that correctly reproduces linear and undamped propagation. Essential to this framework is the inclusion of the birds' behavioural inertia. The theory not only explains the data, but also predicts that information transfer must be faster the stronger the group's orientational order, a prediction accurately verified by the data. Our results suggest that swift decision-making may be the adaptive drive for the strong behavioural polarization observed in many living groups.

  5. Horizontal gene transfer facilitated the evolution of plant parasitic mechanisms in the oomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Thomas A; Soanes, Darren M; Jones, Meredith D M; Vasieva, Olga; Leonard, Guy; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Foster, Peter G; Hall, Neil; Talbot, Nicholas J

    2011-09-13

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) can radically alter the genomes of microorganisms, providing the capacity to adapt to new lifestyles, environments, and hosts. However, the extent of HGT between eukaryotes is unclear. Using whole-genome, gene-by-gene phylogenetic analysis we demonstrate an extensive pattern of cross-kingdom HGT between fungi and oomycetes. Comparative genomics, including the de novo genome sequence of Hyphochytrium catenoides, a free-living sister of the oomycetes, shows that these transfers largely converge within the radiation of oomycetes that colonize plant tissues. The repertoire of HGTs includes a large number of putatively secreted proteins; for example, 7.6% of the secreted proteome of the sudden oak death parasite Phytophthora ramorum has been acquired from fungi by HGT. Transfers include gene products with the capacity to break down plant cell walls and acquire sugars, nucleic acids, nitrogen, and phosphate sources from the environment. Predicted HGTs also include proteins implicated in resisting plant defense mechanisms and effector proteins for attacking plant cells. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that some oomycetes became successful plant parasites by multiple acquisitions of genes from fungi.

  6. Nonlocal Quantum Information Transfer Without Superluminal Signalling and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walleczek, Jan; Grössing, Gerhard

    2016-09-01

    It is a frequent assumption that—via superluminal information transfers—superluminal signals capable of enabling communication are necessarily exchanged in any quantum theory that posits hidden superluminal influences. However, does the presence of hidden superluminal influences automatically imply superluminal signalling and communication? The non-signalling theorem mediates the apparent conflict between quantum mechanics and the theory of special relativity. However, as a `no-go' theorem there exist two opposing interpretations of the non-signalling constraint: foundational and operational. Concerning Bell's theorem, we argue that Bell employed both interpretations, and that he finally adopted the operational position which is associated often with ontological quantum theory, e.g., de Broglie-Bohm theory. This position we refer to as "effective non-signalling". By contrast, associated with orthodox quantum mechanics is the foundational position referred to here as "axiomatic non-signalling". In search of a decisive communication-theoretic criterion for differentiating between "axiomatic" and "effective" non-signalling, we employ the operational framework offered by Shannon's mathematical theory of communication, whereby we distinguish between Shannon signals and non-Shannon signals. We find that an effective non-signalling theorem represents two sub-theorems: (1) Non-transfer-control (NTC) theorem, and (2) Non-signification-control (NSC) theorem. Employing NTC and NSC theorems, we report that effective, instead of axiomatic, non-signalling is entirely sufficient for prohibiting nonlocal communication. Effective non-signalling prevents the instantaneous, i.e., superluminal, transfer of message-encoded information through the controlled use—by a sender-receiver pair —of informationally-correlated detection events, e.g., in EPR-type experiments. An effective non-signalling theorem allows for nonlocal quantum information transfer yet—at the same time

  7. Evaluating information literacy educators' practices before and after the course facilitating information literacy education: from tutor to learner-centred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, Susie

    2011-09-01

    The article gives an account of a study on the impact of facilitating information literacy education (FILE) on its participants, health librarians who have attended this course between 2007 and 2010. The analysis presented here is based on the first stage of the research, funded by the Higher Education Academy Information and Computer Sciences and consisting of an online survey. This survey was conducted in Autumn 2010 and examined the respondents' examples of information literacy practice before and after FILE. Two main outcomes can be drawn from the data. First, that overall the respondents' provision of information literacy education has shifted from a tutor-centred approach (where the trainer decides what the learner needs) to a learner-centred approach (where the learner decides what he/she needs). And secondly, that the impact of FILE should be seen in terms of a self-perpetuating professional development, rather than measured in terms of specific changes that occur at set times (e.g., at the end of the course or 6 months after completion). As one FILE participant puts it: 'When FILE ends your career as an information literacy professional starts.' © 2011 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2011 Health Libraries Group.

  8. Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Private Integrated Services Network - Specification, functional model and information flows - Call transfer supplementary service

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Private Integrated Services Network - Specification, functional model and information flows - Call transfer supplementary service

  9. Genetic Redundancies Enhance Information Transfer in Noisy Regulatory Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Guillermo; Poyatos, Juan F.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular decision making is based on regulatory circuits that associate signal thresholds to specific physiological actions. This transmission of information is subjected to molecular noise what can decrease its fidelity. Here, we show instead how such intrinsic noise enhances information transfer in the presence of multiple circuit copies. The result is due to the contribution of noise to the generation of autonomous responses by each copy, which are altogether associated with a common decision. Moreover, factors that correlate the responses of the redundant units (extrinsic noise or regulatory cross-talk) contribute to reduce fidelity, while those that further uncouple them (heterogeneity within the copies) can lead to stronger information gain. Overall, our study emphasizes how the interplay of signal thresholding, redundancy, and noise influences the accuracy of cellular decision making. Understanding this interplay provides a basis to explain collective cell signaling mechanisms, and to engineer robust decisions with noisy genetic circuits. PMID:27741249

  10. Thermodynamic aspects of information transfer in complex dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafaro, Carlo; Ali, Sean Alan; Giffin, Adom

    2016-02-01

    From the Horowitz-Esposito stochastic thermodynamical description of information flows in dynamical systems [J. M. Horowitz and M. Esposito, Phys. Rev. X 4, 031015 (2014)], it is known that while the second law of thermodynamics is satisfied by a joint system, the entropic balance for the subsystems is adjusted by a term related to the mutual information exchange rate between the two subsystems. In this article, we present a quantitative discussion of the conceptual link between the Horowitz-Esposito analysis and the Liang-Kleeman work on information transfer between dynamical system components [X. S. Liang and R. Kleeman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 244101 (2005)]. In particular, the entropic balance arguments employed in the two approaches are compared. Notwithstanding all differences between the two formalisms, our work strengthens the Liang-Kleeman heuristic balance reasoning by showing its formal analogy with the recent Horowitz-Esposito thermodynamic balance arguments.

  11. Using Social Media to Facilitate Knowledge Transfer in Complex Engineering Environments: A Primer for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Glen; Salomone, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    While highly cohesive groups are potentially advantageous they are also often correlated with the emergence of knowledge and information silos based around those same functional or occupational clusters. Consequently, an essential challenge for engineering organisations wishing to overcome informational silos is to implement mechanisms that…

  12. Human Experience Modeler: context-driven cognitive retraining to facilitate transfer of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidopiastis, C M; Stapleton, C B; Whiteside, J D; Hughes, C E; Fiore, S M; Martin, G A; Rolland, J P; Smith, E M

    2006-04-01

    We describe a cognitive rehabilitation mixed-reality system that allows therapists to explore natural cuing, contextualization, and theoretical aspects of cognitive retraining, including transfer of training. The Human Experience Modeler (HEM) mixed-reality environment allows for a contextualized learning experience with the advantages of controlled stimuli, experience capture and feedback that would not be feasible in a traditional rehabilitation setting. A pilot study for testing the integrated components of the HEM is discussed where the participant presents with working memory impairments due to an aneurysm.

  13. Facilitating Out-of-Home Caregiving Through Health Information Technology: Survey of Informal Caregivers’ Current Practices, Interests, and Perceived Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, John D; Jenchura, Emily C; Asch, Steven M; Rosland, Ann-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Background Many patients with chronic conditions are supported by out-of-home informal caregivers—family members, friends, and other individuals who provide care and support without pay—who, if armed with effective consumer health information technology, could inexpensively facilitate their care. Objective We sought to understand caregivers’ use of, interest in, and perceived barriers to health information technology for out-of-home caregiving. Methods We conducted 2 sequential Web-based surveys with a national sample of individuals who provide out-of-home caregiving to an adult family member or friend with a chronic illness. We queried respondents about their use of health information technology for out-of-home caregiving and used multivariable regression to investigate caregiver and care-recipient characteristics associated with caregivers’ technology use for caregiving. Results Among 316 out-of-home caregiver respondents, 34.5% (109/316) reported using health information technology for caregiving activities. The likelihood of a caregiver using technology increased significantly with intensity of caregiving (as measured by number of out-of-home caregiving activities). Compared with very low intensity caregivers, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of technology use was 1.88 (95% CI 1.01-3.50) for low intensity caregivers, 2.39 (95% CI 1.11-5.15) for moderate intensity caregivers, and 3.70 (95% CI 1.62-8.45) for high intensity caregivers. Over 70% (149/207) of technology nonusers reported interest in using technology in the future to support caregiving. The most commonly cited barriers to technology use for caregiving were health system privacy rules that restrict access to care-recipients’ health information and lack of familiarity with programs or websites that facilitate out-of-home caregiving. Conclusions Health information technology use for out-of-home caregiving is common, especially among individuals who provide more intense caregiving. Health care

  14. Facilitating resident information seeking regarding meals in a special care unit: an environmental design intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Beth A D; Mathews, R Mark

    2004-10-01

    Repetitive questions and requests for information are common in older adults with dementia. The purpose of this environmental design intervention was to provide residents continuous access to information about common mealtime questions with the intent of decreasing agitation around mealtimes and facilitating more pleasant patient-staff and patient-patient interactions. A special care unit for residents with dementia of the Alzheimer's type was the setting. During the intervention conditions, a large clock and a sign with large lettering that identified mealtimes were hung in the dining area. Direct observations of 35 residents were conducted at mealtimes for a 5-month period. Results showed reductions from baseline to the intervention phase in food-related questions or requests. These results suggest a simple, inexpensive environmental change intervention can reduce repetitive questions commonly exhibited by individuals with dementia.

  15. FK506 regulates pigmentation by maturing the melanosome and facilitating their transfer to keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyejung; Chung, Heesung; Chang, Sung Eun; Kang, Duk-Hee; Oh, Eok-Soo

    2016-03-01

    Despite the clinical ability of topical tacrolimus (FK506) to effectively promote repigmentation in vitiligo, the underlying mechanism through which FK506 regulates melanogenesis was previously unclear. We found that FK506 treatment increased the melanin contents (especially that of eumelanin) in both melanocytes and melanoma cells. This treatment did not affect the transcription levels of tyrosinase, suggesting that FK506 increases melanin synthesis by regulating cellular levels of tyrosinase. Interestingly, FK506 promoted melanosome maturation by increasing melanosomal pH (a marker of melanosome maturation), thereby enhancing the stability of melanosome-localized tyrosinase. In addition, FK506 enhanced UVB-mediated melanosome secretion, the uptake of melanosomes by HaCaT cells, and the transfer of melanosomes to keratinocytes co-cultured with melanocytes. Together, these findings suggest that FK506 contributes to melanin synthesis by regulating the maturation of melanosomes and their transfer to keratinocytes. This offers a novel regulatory mechanism through which FK506 and UVB can have a combined effect on melanogenesis.

  16. Formal and Informal Technology Transfer from Academia to Industry : Complementarity Effects and Innovation Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Grimpe, Christoph; Hussinger, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    Literature has identified formal and informal channels in university technology transfer. While formal technology transfer typically involves a legal contract on a patent or on collaborative research activities, informal transfer channels refer to personal contacts and hence to the tacit dimension of knowledge transfer. Research is, however, scarce regarding the interaction of formal and informal transfer mechanisms. In this paper, we analyze whether these activities are mutually reinforcing,...

  17. Origin-of-transfer sequences facilitate mobilisation of non-conjugative antimicrobial-resistance plasmids in Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Frances G.; Yui Eto, Karina; Murphy, Riley J. T.; Fairhurst, Heather M.; Coombs, Geoffrey W.; Grubb, Warren B.; Ramsay, Joshua P.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of hospital, community and livestock-associated infections and is increasingly resistant to multiple antimicrobials. A significant proportion of antimicrobial-resistance genes are plasmid-borne, but only a minority of S. aureus plasmids encode proteins required for conjugative transfer or Mob relaxase proteins required for mobilisation. The pWBG749 family of S. aureus conjugative plasmids can facilitate the horizontal transfer of diverse antimicrobial-resistance plasmids that lack Mob genes. Here we reveal that these mobilisable plasmids carry copies of the pWBG749 origin-of-transfer (oriT) sequence and that these oriT sequences facilitate mobilisation by pWBG749. Sequences resembling the pWBG749 oriT were identified on half of all sequenced S. aureus plasmids, including the most prevalent large antimicrobial-resistance/virulence-gene plasmids, pIB485, pMW2 and pUSA300HOUMR. oriT sequences formed five subfamilies with distinct inverted-repeat-2 (IR2) sequences. pWBG749-family plasmids encoding each IR2 were identified and pWBG749 mobilisation was found to be specific for plasmids carrying matching IR2 sequences. Specificity of mobilisation was conferred by a putative ribbon-helix-helix-protein gene smpO. Several plasmids carried 2–3 oriT variants and pWBG749-mediated recombination occurred between distinct oriT sites during mobilisation. These observations suggest this relaxase-in trans mechanism of mobilisation by pWBG749-family plasmids is a common mechanism of plasmid dissemination in S. aureus. PMID:26243776

  18. Voltammetry of ion transfer across a polarized room-temperature ionic liquid membrane facilitated by valinomycin: theoretical aspects and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmaier, Jan; Samec, Zdenek

    2009-08-01

    Cyclic voltammetry is used to investigate the transfer of alkali-metal cations, protons, and ammonium ions facilitated by the complex formation with valinomycin at the interface between an aqueous electrolyte solution and a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) membrane. The membrane is made of a thin (approximately 112 microm) microporous filter impregnated with an RTIL that is composed of tridodecylmethylammonium cations and tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate anions. An extension of the existing theory of voltammetry of ion transfer across polarized liquid membranes makes it possible to evaluate the standard ion-transfer potentials for the hydrophilic cations studied, as well as the stability constants (K(i)) of their 1:1 complexes with valinomycin, as log K(i) = 9.0 (H(+)), 11.1 (Li(+)), 12.8 (Na(+)), 17.2 (K(+)), 15.7 (Rb(+)), 15.1 (Cs(+)), and 14.7 (NH(4)(+)). These data point to the remarkably enhanced stability of the valinomycin complexes within RTIL, and to the enhanced selectivity of valinomycin for K(+) over all other univalent ions studied, compared to the conventional K(+) ion-selective liquid-membrane electrodes. Selective complex formation allows one to resolve voltammetric responses of K(+) and Na(+) in the presence of an excess of Mg(2+) or Ca(2+), which is demonstrated by determination of K(+) and Na(+) in the table and tap water samples.

  19. Touchscreen Facilitates Young Children’s Transfer of Learning to Tell Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuxing Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Young children are devoting increasing time to playing on handheld touchscreen devices (e.g., iPads. Though thousands of touchscreen apps are claimed to be educational, there is a lack of sufficient evidence examining the impact of touchscreens on children’s learning outcomes. In the present study, the two questions we focused on were (a whether using a touchscreen was helpful in teaching children to tell time, and (b to what extent young children could transfer what they had learned on the touchscreen to other media. A pre- and posttest design was adopted. After learning to read the time on the iPad touchscreen for 10 minutes, three groups of 5- to 6-year-old children (N = 65 were respectively tested with an iPad touchscreen, a toy clock or a drawing of a clock on paper. The results revealed that posttest scores in the iPad touchscreen test group were significantly higher than those at pretest, indicating that the touchscreen itself could provide support for young children’s learning. Similarly, regardless of being tested with a toy clock or paper drawing, children’s posttest performance was also better than pretest, suggesting that children could transfer what they had learned on an iPad touchscreen to other media. However, comparison among groups showed that children tested with the paper drawing underperformed those tested with the other two media. The theoretical and practical implications of the results, as well as limitations of the present study, are discussed.

  20. Transfer of information in an anomalous dispersion medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄超光; 张元仲

    2003-01-01

    The transfer of information and signal velocity in an anomalous dispersion medium are studied. We propose that the discontinuous points in the envelop and its derivatives of any order are the information carried by a pulse different from others. The signal velocity will not exceed the speed of the shift of these discontinuous points. We study the propagation of pulses with a triangle envelop and with the envelop made up by three pieces of quadratic curve in dilute, anomalous dispersion gas with double gain lines. The discontinuous points of the envelop, its first derivative, and its second derivative are shown to propagate with vacuum speed of light c in the medium. A criterion has been suggested to determine theoretically whether the distortion of a pulse can be ignored.

  1. Information Exchange via Surface Modified Resonance Energy Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Boström, Mathias; Huang, Dan; Ninham, Barry W; Sernelius, Bo E

    2013-01-01

    The theory is presented for resonance interaction between two atoms in an excited configuration: one atom, the "receptor" of information (i.e. energy), adsorbed on a phospholipid surface and the other atom, the "emitter" of information (i.e. energy), a long distance away. The dielectric function for a specific phospholipid membrane is obtained from density functional theory calculations. We present numerical results comparing the range and magnitude of non-specific Casimir-Polder interactions with the much more long-ranged, and highly specific, resonance interaction. A study of the resonance interaction with one or both atoms adsorbed on a phospholipid membrane surface reveals a possibility to have a cross over from attraction to repulsion or from repulsion to attraction at separations between receptor and emitter atoms exceeding several hundred {\\AA}ngstr\\"oms. The energy transfer and the observed transitions in the sign of the interaction energies near surfaces provide potential new ways to start recognitio...

  2. Information transfer by exosomes: A new frontier in hematologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyiadzis, Michael; Whiteside, Theresa L

    2015-09-01

    Exosomes are small (30-150 mm) vesicles secreted by all cell types and present in all body fluids. They are emerging as vehicles for delivery of membrane-tethered signaling molecules and membrane enclosed genes to target cells. Exosome-mediated information transfer allows for crosstalk of cells within the hematopoietic system and for interactions between hematopoietic cells and local or distant tissue cells. Exosomes carry physiological signals essential for health and participate in pathological processes, including malignant transformation. In hematologic malignancies, exosomes reprogram the bone marrow microenvironment, creating a niche for abnormal cells and favoring their expansion. The molecular and genetic mechanisms exosomes utilize to shuttle information between cells are currently being examined as are the potential roles exosomes play as biomarkers of disease or future therapeutic targets.

  3. Toward a quality guide to facilitate the transference of analytical methods from research to testing laboratories: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisetty, Krisnha; Gumede, Njabulo Joyfull; Escuder-Gilabert, Laura; Sagrado, Salvador

    2009-01-01

    At present, there is no single viewpoint that defines QA strategies in analytical chemistry. On the other hand, there are no unique protocols defining a set of analytical tasks and decision criteria to be performed during the method development phase (e.g., by a single research laboratory) in order to facilitate the transference to the testing laboratories intending to adapt, validate, and routinely use this method. This study proposes general criteria, a priori valid for any developed method, recommended as a provisional quality guide containing the minimum internal tasks necessary to publish new analytical method results. As an application, the selection of some basic internal quality tasks and the corresponding accepted criteria are adapted to a concrete case study: indirect differential pulse polarographic determination of nitrate in water samples according to European Commission requisites. Extra tasks to be performed by testing laboratories are also outlined.

  4. The international regulation of Informal Value Transfer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Ajay Shah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available After the 11th September 2001 attacks on the United States international attention quickly focused on the sources and methods of terrorist financing. Among the methods terrorists and other criminal actors use to transfer funds are Informal Value Transfer Systems (IVTS which operate either outside the formal financial sector, or through use of the formal financial sector, but without leaving a full record of the transaction. Though the vast majority of funds moved through IVTS are the earnings of migrant workers and immigrant communities, the lack of uniform worldwide regulation of IVTS provides ample opportunity for abuse and misuse. The international community primarily responded to IVTS concerns through the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering, which issued a series of recommendations and best practices for states in regulating IVTS operations. While these recommendations are a secure beginning to regulation of IVTS operating within ethnic communities, they fail to address the more modern forms of IVTS that have come about in the post-Cold War globalised world. Comprehensive recommendations governing all types of IVTS, as well as concerted international cooperation and coordination are necessary to address this global phenomenon.

  5. The international regulation of Informal Value Transfer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Ajay Shah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available After the 11th September 2001 attacks on the United States international attention quickly focused on the sources and methods of terrorist financing. Among the methods terrorists and other criminal actors use to transfer funds are Informal Value Transfer Systems (IVTS which operate either outside the formal financial sector, or through use of the formal financial sector, but without leaving a full record of the transaction. Though the vast majority of funds moved through IVTS are the earnings of migrant workers and immigrant communities, the lack of uniform worldwide regulation of IVTS provides ample opportunity for abuse and misuse. The international community primarily responded to IVTS concerns through the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering, which issued a series of recommendations and best practices for states in regulating IVTS operations. While these recommendations are a secure beginning to regulation of IVTS operating within ethnic communities, they fail to address the more modern forms of IVTS that have come about in the post-Cold War globalised world. Comprehensive recommendations governing all types of IVTS, as well as concerted international cooperation and coordination are necessary to address this global phenomenon.

  6. EXOSOMES AND TRANSFER OF (EPIGENETIC INFORMATION BY TUMOR CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Tchevkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we will introduce the current knowledge about exosomes – vesicles that are generated in the cells and released into the extracellular space. Exosomes are forming in the cell plasma membrane and represent the spherical shapes restricted by their membrane and contained the various biomolecules including nucleic acids, proteins, lipids etc. The intent interest to exosomes is based on their ability to horizontal transfer between the cells, to permeate into vascular system reaching the different tissues and to incorporate into the recipient cells. It was shown that exosome incorporation into the cells lead to remarkable changes in the recipient cells both in genomic level (via the integration of exosomal DNA into the host DNA and in epigenomic level (via the modulation of the content and/or activity of the signaling proteins, microRNA etc.. Undoubtedly, one of the most interesting and perspective achievements in the exosome study is the demonstration of exosome ability to provide the horizontal transfer of the genetic information from cell to cell – the fact supported in the different studies with the various cell models. Here, we will discuss the recent data regarding the main characteristics and properties of exosomes, the role of exosomes in the tumorigenesis including neoplastic transformation, metastasis, multi-drug resistance. The final part of the review involves the most growing area in the exosome study – the possible usage of exosomes in the cancer treatment, in particular – as the specific drug delivery system.

  7. Report on the expert forum on using information technology to facilitate uptake and impact of colorectal cancer screening guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewitch, Maida J; Jiang, Mengzhu; Barkun, Alan N; Armstrong, David; Manca, Donna; Rossos, Peter; Stein, Barry; Attendees, Meeting

    2012-12-01

    The present report summarizes the proceedings of the pan-Canadian Expert Forum on Using Information Technology to Facilitate Uptake and Impact of Colorectal Cancer Screening Guidelines, which was held in Montreal, Quebec, November 18 to 19, 2011. The meeting assembled a multidisciplinary group of family physicians, gastroenterologists, nurses, patients, foundation representatives, screening program administrators and researchers to discuss the development of a mechanism or strategy that would permit the collection of comparable data by all colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs, which would not only support the needs of each program but also provide a national perspective. The overarching theme of the meeting was 'designing a national approach to computerized electronic data collection and dissemination for CRC screening that would improve knowledge transfer across the continuum of preventive health care'. The forum encouraged presentations on clinical, research and technical topics. The meeting fostered valuable cross-disciplinary communication and delivered the message that it is essential to develop a national health informatics approach for CRC screening data collection and dissemination to support provincial CRC screening programs.

  8. Report on the Expert Forum on using Information Technology to Facilitate Uptake and Impact of Colorectal Cancer Screening Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maida J Sewitch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present report summarizes the proceedings of the pan-Canadian Expert Forum on Using Information Technology to Facilitate Uptake and Impact of Colorectal Cancer Screening Guidelines, which was held in Montreal, Quebec, November 18 to 19, 2011. The meeting assembled a multidisciplinary group of family physicians, gastroenterologists, nurses, patients, foundation representatives, screening program administrators and researchers to discuss the development of a mechanism or strategy that would permit the collection of comparable data by all colorectal cancer (CRC screening programs, which would not only support the needs of each program but also provide a national perspective. The overarching theme of the meeting was ‘designing a national approach to computerized electronic data collection and dissemination for CRC screening that would improve knowledge transfer across the continuum of preventive health care’. The forum encouraged presentations on clinical, research and technical topics. The meeting fostered valuable cross-disciplinary communication and delivered the message that it is essential to develop a national health informatics approach for CRC screening data collection and dissemination to support provincial CRC screening programs.

  9. Dynamical entanglement transfer for quantum-information networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternostro, Mauro; Son, W.; Kim, M. S.; Falci, Giuseppe; Palma, G. Massimo

    2004-08-01

    A key element in the architecture of a quantum-information processing network is a reliable physical interface between fields and qubits. We study a process of entanglement transfer engineering, where two remote qubits respectively interact with an entangled two-mode continuous-variable (CV) field. We quantify the entanglement induced in the qubit state at the expenses of the loss of entanglement in the CV system. We discuss the range of mixed entangled states which can be obtained with this setup. Furthermore, we suggest a protocol to determine the residual entangling power of the light fields inferring, thus, the entanglement left in the field modes which, after the interaction, are no longer in a Gaussian state. Two different setups are proposed: a cavity-QED system and an interface between superconducting qubits and field modes. We address in detail the practical difficulties inherent in these two proposals, showing that the latter is promising in many aspects.

  10. An Innovative Use of Information & Communication Technology (ICT in Trade Facilitation in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Rana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Directorate General of Foreign Trade, a department ofMinistry of Commerce and Industry, Govt. of India, isresponsible to formulate, regulate and implement the ForeignTrade Policy through its 36 Port Offices through India.: Thisis the case study of best e-governance project. This project ishighlighted in various e-governance seminars /workshops. Thisis the first govt. project in which ICT was implemented in 1998.It is soon equipped with Digital Signature and Electronic FundTransfer facility. The present study is an example of innovativeuse of Information and communication technology (ICT foron-line delivery. The present services in the DirectorateGeneral of Foreign Trade (DGFT: e-licensing, e-BRC, etendering,e-monitoring, e-meeting e-delivery, e-PRC, egrievancere-addressal etc. The web has been played adynamic role for reengineering and transformation of tradeprocesses for an efficient, cost effective and seamless tradefacilitation.

  11. Health information technology to facilitate communication involving health care providers, caregivers, and pediatric patients: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentles, Stephen James; Lokker, Cynthia; McKibbon, K Ann

    2010-06-18

    manual downloading of information) used to facilitate 15 categories of functions (eg, support, medication management, education, and monitoring). Numerous patient, caregiver, and health care relevant outcomes have been measured. Most outcomes concerned satisfaction, use, usability, feasibility, and resource use, although behavior changes and quality of life were also reported. Most studies (57 studies, 55%) were pilot phase, with a lesser proportion of development phase (24 studies, 23%) and evaluation phase (11 studies, 11%) studies. HIT interventions addressed several recurring themes in this review: establishing continuity of care, addressing time constraints, and bridging geographical barriers. HIT used in pediatric care involving caregivers has been implemented differently in a range of disease settings, with varying needs influencing the function, form and synchronicity of information transfer. Although some authors have followed a phased approach to development, evaluation and implementation, a greater emphasis on methodological standards such as the MRC guidance for complex interventions would produce more fruitful programs of development and more useful evaluations in the future. This review will be especially helpful to those deciding on areas where further development or research into HIT for this purpose may be warranted.

  12. 77 FR 3487 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Information Collection Activities: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... information collection requirement concerning Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station. This request for...: Title: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station. OMB Number: 1651-0096. Form Number: None....

  13. Topological quantum buses: coherent quantum information transfer between topological and conventional qubits

    CERN Document Server

    Bonderson, Parsa

    2010-01-01

    We propose computing bus devices that enable quantum information to be coherently transferred between topological and conventional qubits. We describe a concrete realization of such a topological quantum bus acting between a topological qubit in a Majorana wire network and a conventional semiconductor double quantum dot qubit. Specifically, this device measures the joint (fermion) parity of these two different qubits by using the Aharonov-Casher effect in conjunction with an ancilliary superconducting flux qubit that facilitates the measurement. Such a parity measurement, together with the ability to apply Hadamard gates to the two qubits, allows one to produce states in which the topological and conventional qubits are maximally entangled and to teleport quantum states between the topological and conventional quantum systems.

  14. Topological Quantum Buses: Coherent Quantum Information Transfer between Topological and Conventional Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonderson, Parsa; Lutchyn, Roman M.

    2011-04-01

    We propose computing bus devices that enable quantum information to be coherently transferred between topological and conventional qubits. We describe a concrete realization of such a topological quantum bus acting between a topological qubit in a Majorana wire network and a conventional semiconductor double quantum dot qubit. Specifically, this device measures the joint (fermion) parity of these two different qubits by using the Aharonov-Casher effect in conjunction with an ancilliary superconducting flux qubit that facilitates the measurement. Such a parity measurement, together with the ability to apply Hadamard gates to the two qubits, allows one to produce states in which the topological and conventional qubits are maximally entangled and to teleport quantum states between the topological and conventional quantum systems.

  15. A Systematic Process to Facilitate Evidence-Informed Decisionmaking Regarding Program Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laurie T; Farris, Coreen; Adamson, David M; Weinick, Robin M

    2014-01-01

    While the Department of Defense supports more than 200 psychological health and traumatic brain injury programs, it lacks an approach and process to systematically develop, track, and assess the performance of this portfolio of programs. Further, there is not yet a uniform approach to decisionmaking around program support and expansion of particularly promising, evidence-based programs. This lack of centralized oversight may result in the proliferation of untested programs that are developed without an evidence base; an inefficient use of resources; and added cost and administrative inefficiencies. RAND researchers developed a potential model and tools to support a centralized, systematic, and ongoing process to help in making decisions around continued program support, and by which expansion can be facilitated. This study includes two tools. The first is a Program Abstraction Form, which collects relevant background information from programs and asks explicitly about program effectiveness and the design of the program evaluation used to assess program effectiveness, as a poor evaluation design may lead to incorrect conclusions about the effectiveness of the program. The second is the RAND Program Expansion Tool, which provides a standardized summary of the quality and outcome of a program evaluation. The focus of these tools is on decisionmaking around program expansion, and does not preclude or address initial funding decisions of particularly promising new programs that may not yet have a solid evidence base.

  16. Tracking down the path of memory: eye scanpaths facilitate retrieval of visuospatial information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochynska, Agata; Laeng, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    Recent research points to a crucial role of eye fixations on the same spatial locations where an item appeared when learned, for the successful retrieval of stored information (e.g., Laeng et al. in Cognition 131:263-283, 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2014.01.003 ). However, evidence about whether the specific temporal sequence (i.e., scanpath) of these eye fixations is also relevant for the accuracy of memory remains unclear. In the current study, eye fixations were recorded while looking at a checkerboard-like pattern. In a recognition session (48 h later), animations were shown where each square that formed the pattern was presented one by one, either according to the same, idiosyncratic, temporal sequence in which they were originally viewed by each participant or in a shuffled sequence although the squares were, in both conditions, always in their correct positions. Afterward, participants judged whether they had seen the same pattern before or not. Showing the elements serially according to the original scanpath's sequence yielded a significantly better recognition performance than the shuffled condition. In a forced fixation condition, where the gaze was maintained on the center of the screen, the advantage of memory accuracy for same versus shuffled scanpaths disappeared. Concluding, gaze scanpaths (i.e., the order of fixations and not simply their positions) are functional to visual memory and physical reenacting of the original, embodied, perception can facilitate retrieval.

  17. Cortically-controlled population stochastic facilitation as a plausible substrate for guiding sensory transfer across the thalamic gateway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Béhuret

    Full Text Available The thalamus is the primary gateway that relays sensory information to the cerebral cortex. While a single recipient cortical cell receives the convergence of many principal relay cells of the thalamus, each thalamic cell in turn integrates a dense and distributed synaptic feedback from the cortex. During sensory processing, the influence of this functional loop remains largely ignored. Using dynamic-clamp techniques in thalamic slices in vitro, we combined theoretical and experimental approaches to implement a realistic hybrid retino-thalamo-cortical pathway mixing biological cells and simulated circuits. The synaptic bombardment of cortical origin was mimicked through the injection of a stochastic mixture of excitatory and inhibitory conductances, resulting in a gradable correlation level of afferent activity shared by thalamic cells. The study of the impact of the simulated cortical input on the global retinocortical signal transfer efficiency revealed a novel control mechanism resulting from the collective resonance of all thalamic relay neurons. We show here that the transfer efficiency of sensory input transmission depends on three key features: i the number of thalamocortical cells involved in the many-to-one convergence from thalamus to cortex, ii the statistics of the corticothalamic synaptic bombardment and iii the level of correlation imposed between converging thalamic relay cells. In particular, our results demonstrate counterintuitively that the retinocortical signal transfer efficiency increases when the level of correlation across thalamic cells decreases. This suggests that the transfer efficiency of relay cells could be selectively amplified when they become simultaneously desynchronized by the cortical feedback. When applied to the intact brain, this network regulation mechanism could direct an attentional focus to specific thalamic subassemblies and select the appropriate input lines to the cortex according to the descending

  18. Cortically-Controlled Population Stochastic Facilitation as a Plausible Substrate for Guiding Sensory Transfer across the Thalamic Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béhuret, Sébastien; Deleuze, Charlotte; Gomez, Leonel; Frégnac, Yves; Bal, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    The thalamus is the primary gateway that relays sensory information to the cerebral cortex. While a single recipient cortical cell receives the convergence of many principal relay cells of the thalamus, each thalamic cell in turn integrates a dense and distributed synaptic feedback from the cortex. During sensory processing, the influence of this functional loop remains largely ignored. Using dynamic-clamp techniques in thalamic slices in vitro, we combined theoretical and experimental approaches to implement a realistic hybrid retino-thalamo-cortical pathway mixing biological cells and simulated circuits. The synaptic bombardment of cortical origin was mimicked through the injection of a stochastic mixture of excitatory and inhibitory conductances, resulting in a gradable correlation level of afferent activity shared by thalamic cells. The study of the impact of the simulated cortical input on the global retinocortical signal transfer efficiency revealed a novel control mechanism resulting from the collective resonance of all thalamic relay neurons. We show here that the transfer efficiency of sensory input transmission depends on three key features: i) the number of thalamocortical cells involved in the many-to-one convergence from thalamus to cortex, ii) the statistics of the corticothalamic synaptic bombardment and iii) the level of correlation imposed between converging thalamic relay cells. In particular, our results demonstrate counterintuitively that the retinocortical signal transfer efficiency increases when the level of correlation across thalamic cells decreases. This suggests that the transfer efficiency of relay cells could be selectively amplified when they become simultaneously desynchronized by the cortical feedback. When applied to the intact brain, this network regulation mechanism could direct an attentional focus to specific thalamic subassemblies and select the appropriate input lines to the cortex according to the descending influence of

  19. Optimal information transfer in enzymatic networks: A field theoretic formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Himadri S.; Hinczewski, Michael; Thirumalai, D.

    2017-07-01

    Signaling in enzymatic networks is typically triggered by environmental fluctuations, resulting in a series of stochastic chemical reactions, leading to corruption of the signal by noise. For example, information flow is initiated by binding of extracellular ligands to receptors, which is transmitted through a cascade involving kinase-phosphatase stochastic chemical reactions. For a class of such networks, we develop a general field-theoretic approach to calculate the error in signal transmission as a function of an appropriate control variable. Application of the theory to a simple push-pull network, a module in the kinase-phosphatase cascade, recovers the exact results for error in signal transmission previously obtained using umbral calculus [Hinczewski and Thirumalai, Phys. Rev. X 4, 041017 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevX.4.041017]. We illustrate the generality of the theory by studying the minimal errors in noise reduction in a reaction cascade with two connected push-pull modules. Such a cascade behaves as an effective three-species network with a pseudointermediate. In this case, optimal information transfer, resulting in the smallest square of the error between the input and output, occurs with a time delay, which is given by the inverse of the decay rate of the pseudointermediate. Surprisingly, in these examples the minimum error computed using simulations that take nonlinearities and discrete nature of molecules into account coincides with the predictions of a linear theory. In contrast, there are substantial deviations between simulations and predictions of the linear theory in error in signal propagation in an enzymatic push-pull network for a certain range of parameters. Inclusion of second-order perturbative corrections shows that differences between simulations and theoretical predictions are minimized. Our study establishes that a field theoretic formulation of stochastic biological signaling offers a systematic way to understand error propagation in

  20. Evidence of horizontal transfer of non-autonomous Lep1 Helitrons facilitated by host-parasite interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuezhu; Gao, Jingkun; Li, Fei; Wang, Jianjun

    2014-05-30

    Horizontal transfer (HT) of transposable elements has been recognized to be a major force driving genomic variation and biological innovation of eukaryotic organisms. However, the mechanisms of HT in eukaryotes remain poorly appreciated. The non-autonomous Helitron family, Lep1, has been found to be widespread in lepidopteran species, and showed little interspecific sequence similarity of acquired sequences at 3' end, which makes Lep1 a good candidate for the study of HT. In this study, we describe the Lep1-like elements in multiple non-lepidopteran species, including two aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum and Aphis gossypii, two parasitoid wasps, Cotesia vestalis, and Copidosoma floridanum, one beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, as well as two bracoviruses in parasitoid wasps, and one intracellular microsporidia parasite, Nosema bombycis. The patchy distribution and high sequence similarity of Lep1-like elements among distantly related lineages as well as incongruence of Lep1-like elements and host phylogeny suggest the occurrence of HT. Remarkably, the acquired sequences of both NbLep1 from N. bombycis and CfLep1 from C. floridanum showed over 90% identity with their lepidopteran host Lep1. Thus, our study provides evidence of HT facilitated by host-parasite interactions. Furthermore, in the context of these data, we discuss the putative directions and vectors of HT of Lep1 Helitrons.

  1. Quantum state transfer via temporal kicking of information

    CERN Document Server

    Di Franco, C; Kim, M S

    2009-01-01

    We propose a strategy for perfect state transfer in spin chains based on the use of an unmodulated coupling Hamiltonian whose coefficients are explicitly time dependent. We show that, if specific and non-demanding conditions are satisfied by the temporal behavior of the coupling strengths, our model allows perfect state transfer. The paradigma put forward by our proposal holds the promises to set an alternative standard to the use of clever encoding and coupling-strength engineering for perfect state transfer.

  2. Embellishing Problem-Solving Examples with Deep Structure Information Facilitates Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Seung; Betts, Shawn; Anderson, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Appreciation of problem structure is critical to successful learning. Two experiments investigated effective ways of communicating problem structure in a computer-based learning environment and tested whether verbal instruction is necessary to specify solution steps, when deep structure is already embellished by instructional examples.…

  3. Information for Our Partners | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI TTC CRADA PAYMENT OPTIONS: Electronic Payments by Wire Transfer via Fedwire, Mail a check to the Institute or Center, or Automated Clearing House (ACH)/Electronic Funds Transfer (ETF) payments via Pay.gov (NCI ONLY). | [google6f4cd5334ac394ab.html

  4. Assessing the ability of current climate information to facilitate local climate services for the water sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Tsanis, Ioannis; Grillakis, Manolis; Jacob, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    In the frame of ECLISE EU FP6 project researchers, in close cooperation with local users of the water sector from the area of Crete, Greece, explored the ability of current climate information to develop and support local climate services water resources management and climate adaption policies. A wealth of climate modeling output ranging from event scale to decadal and centennial experiments, at temporal scales ranging from hourly to monthly, and at spatial scales from very high resolution regional climate models (2 km) to typical GCMs, were used in order to practically assess climate change impacts on water resources. Water resources availability issues analysed and facilitated within the project, focusing on estimates of the future water demands of the island, and comparing with seven "state of the art" CMIP5 simulations within COMBINE framework (under RCPs 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5) to estimate water resources availability, during 21st century. The ability of decadal GCM prediction experiments to reproduce basic hydrometeorological variables like precipitation and temperature for local impact studies, was also examined. Water availability for the whole island at basin scale until 2100 is estimated using the SAC-SMA rainfall-runoff model for a range of different scenarios of projected hydro-climatological regime, demand and supply potential. A robust signal of temperature increase and precipitation decrease is projected for all the pathways. Several messages could be extracted from this provider - user interaction such as the communication of basic concepts and uncertainties, user skepticism and feedback. The main user concern was the coarse spatial scale of climate information and in order to cope with this feedback a special case was framed in collaboration with the project modeling groups for demonstrating a high resolution climate modeling application of an extreme precipitation-flood event over the study area. This effort provided a realistic reproduction of the

  5. Parallel Information Transfer in a Multi-Node Quantum Information Processor

    CERN Document Server

    Borneman, Troy W; Cory, David G

    2011-01-01

    We describe a method for coupling disjoint quantum bits (qubits) in different local processing nodes of a distributed node quantum information processor. An effective channel for information transfer between nodes is obtained by moving the system into an interaction frame where all pairs of cross-node qubits are effectively coupled via an exchange interaction between actuator elements of each node. All control is achieved via actuator-only modulation, leading to fast implementations of a universal set of internode quantum gates. The method is expected to be nearly independent of actuator decoherence and may be made insensitive to experimental variations of system parameters by appropriate design of control sequences. We show, in particular, how the induced cross-node coupling channel may be used to swap the complete quantum states of the local processors in parallel.

  6. How can clinical practice guidelines be adapted to facilitate shared decision making? A qualitative key-informant study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijden, T.T. van der; Pieterse, A.H.; Koelewijn-van Loon, M.S.; Knaapen, L.; Legare, F.; Boivin, A.; Burgers, J.S.; Stiggelbout, A.M.; Faber, M.J.; Elwyn, G.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To explore how clinical practice guidelines can be adapted to facilitate shared decision making. METHODS: This was a qualitative key-informant study with group discussions and semi-structured interviews. First, 75 experts in guideline development or shared decision making participated in

  7. UreE-UreG complex facilitates nickel transfer and preactivates GTPase of UreG in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinming; Li, Hongyan; Lai, Tsz-Pui; Sun, Hongzhe

    2015-05-15

    The pathogenicity of Helicobacter pylori relies heavily on urease, which converts urea to ammonia to neutralize the stomach acid. Incorporation of Ni(2+) into the active site of urease requires a battery of chaperones. Both metallochaperones UreE and UreG play important roles in the urease activation. In this study, we demonstrate that, in the presence of GTP and Mg(2+), UreG binds Ni(2+) with an affinity (Kd) of ∼0.36 μm. The GTPase activity of Ni(2+)-UreG is stimulated by both K(+) (or NH4 (+)) and HCO3 (-) to a biologically relevant level, suggesting that K(+)/NH4 (+) and HCO3 (-) might serve as GTPase elements of UreG. We show that complexation of UreE and UreG results in two protein complexes, i.e. 2E-2G and 2E-G, with the former being formed only in the presence of both GTP and Mg(2+). Mutagenesis studies reveal that Arg-101 on UreE and Cys-66 on UreG are critical for stabilization of 2E-2G complex. Combined biophysical and bioassay studies show that the formation of 2E-2G complex not only facilitates nickel transfer from UreE to UreG, but also enhances the binding of GTP. This suggests that UreE might also serve as a structural scaffold for recruitment of GTP to UreG. Importantly, we demonstrate for the first time that UreE serves as a bridge to grasp Ni(2+) from HypA, subsequently donating it to UreG. The study expands our horizons on the molecular details of nickel translocation among metallochaperones UreE, UreG, and HypA, which further extends our knowledge on the urease maturation process.

  8. Information transfer model of natural processes: from the ideal gas law to the distance dependent redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Fielitz, P

    2009-01-01

    We consider a general information transfer model which comprises any natural process which is able to transfer information and which can be characterised by only two independent process variables. We further postulate that these independent process variables serve as source and destination of information during a natural process. To define information which is directly related to the process variables, we apply the definition of information originally formulated by Hartley. We demonstrate that the proposed information transfer model yields well known laws, which, as yet, have not been directly related to information theory, such as the ideal gas law, the radioactive decay law, the formation law of vacancies in single crystals, and Fick's first law. Further, for the propagation of photons from a point source the information transfer model shows that any detector device, if at rest relative to the point source, will measure a redshift relative to the photon wavelength which is emitted from the point source. Tha...

  9. 76 FR 35219 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Payment by Electronic Fund Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Payment by Electronic Fund Transfer AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD... transfer. Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether this collection of information is necessary... those who are to respond, through the use of appropriate technological collection techniques or...

  10. Small and Medium-Sized Information Technology Firms: Assessment of Non-Local Partnership Facilitators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findikoglu, Melike Nur

    2012-01-01

    A two-phased qualitative study was conducted to explore the facilitators of non-local (i.e. domestic or international) partnerships formed by small- and medium-sized firms (SME). Rooted in trust, proximity and dynamic capabilities lenses, the study focused on behaviors of SMEs performing in dynamic, competitive and highly interlinked industry, the…

  11. Facilitated IEP Meetings. PACER Center ACTion Information Sheets: PHP-c90

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    To help special education planning teams reach agreements, the Minnesota Department of Education, Compliance and Assistance, Alternative Dispute Resolution Services provide the option of facilitated IEP (Individualized Education Program) meetings. This option is available for IEP, IIIP (Individual Interagency Intervention Plan), and IFSP…

  12. Facilitated IEP Meetings. PACER Center ACTion Information Sheets: PHP-c90

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    To help special education planning teams reach agreements, the Minnesota Department of Education, Compliance and Assistance, Alternative Dispute Resolution Services provide the option of facilitated IEP (Individualized Education Program) meetings. This option is available for IEP, IIIP (Individual Interagency Intervention Plan), and IFSP…

  13. Formal and Informal Knowledge and Technology Transfer from Academia to Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Hussinger, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Literature has identified formal and informal channels in university knowledge and technology transfer (KTT). While formal KTT typically involves a legal contract on a patent or on collaborative research activities, informal transfer channels refer to personal contacts and hence to the tacit...... dimension of knowledge transfer. Research is, however, scarce regarding the interaction of formal and informal transfer mechanisms. In this paper, we analyze whether these activities are mutually reinforcing, i.e., complementary. Our analysis is based on a comprehensive data-set of more than 2,000 German...... manufacturing firms and confirms a complementary relationship between formal and informal KTT modes: using both transfer channels contributes to higher innovation performance. The management of the firm should therefore strive to maintain close informal relationships with universities to realize the full...

  14. A viscous solvent enables information transfer from gene-length nucleic acids in a model prebiotic replication cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Christine; Gállego, Isaac; Laughlin, Brandon; Grover, Martha A.; Hud, Nicholas V.

    2017-04-01

    Many hypotheses concerning the nature of early life assume that genetic information was once transferred through the template-directed synthesis of RNA, before the emergence of coded enzymes. However, attempts to demonstrate enzyme-free, template-directed synthesis of nucleic acids have been limited by 'strand inhibition', whereby transferring information from a template strand in the presence of its complementary strand is inhibited by the stability of the template duplex. Here, we use solvent viscosity to circumvent strand inhibition, demonstrating information transfer from a gene-length template (>300 nt) within a longer (545 bp or 3 kb) duplex. These results suggest that viscous environments on the prebiotic Earth, generated periodically by water evaporation, could have facilitated nucleic acid replication—particularly of long, structured sequences such as ribozymes. Our approach works with DNA and RNA, suggesting that viscosity-mediated replication is possible for a range of genetic polymers, perhaps even for informational polymers that may have preceded RNA.

  15. Transfer of genetic information between parasite and its host

    OpenAIRE

    Soukal, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is considered a rare evolutionary event. It can take place between unrelated organisms that coexist in an intimate symbiotic relationship. Such relationship have some parasites with its host. HGT between eukaryotic parasite and its host was identified in some holoparazitic and hemiparazitic plants, the most important human protozoan parasites, microsporidias, human blood-flukes, parasitoids and fruit flies.

  16. Facilitating access to biodiversity information: a survey of users' needs and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Miriam L E Steiner; Tenopir, Carol; Allard, Suzie; Frame, Michael T

    2014-03-01

    Biodiversity information is essential for understanding and managing the environment. However, identifying and providing the forms and types of biodiversity information most needed for research and decision-making is a significant challenge. While research needs and data gaps within particular topics or regions have received substantial attention, other information aspects such as data formats, sources, metadata, and information tools have received little. Focusing on the US southeast, a region of global biodiversity importance, this paper assesses the biodiversity information needs of environmental researchers, managers, and decision makers. Survey results of biodiversity information users' information needs, information-seeking behaviors and preferred information source attributes support previous conclusions that useful biodiversity information must be easily and quickly accessible, available in forms that allow integration and visualization and appropriately matched to users' needs. Survey results concerning additional information aspects suggest successful participation in both the creation and provision of biodiversity information include an increased focus on information search and other tools for data management, discovery, and description.

  17. Study protocol: Addressing evidence and context to facilitate transfer and uptake of consultation recording use in oncology: A knowledge translation implementation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruether J Dean

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The time period from diagnosis to the end of treatment is challenging for newly diagnosed cancer patients. Patients have a substantial need for information, decision aids, and psychosocial support. Recordings of initial oncology consultations improve information recall, reduce anxiety, enhance patient satisfaction with communication, and increase patients' perceptions that the essential aspects of their disease and treatment have been addressed during the consultation. Despite the research evidence supporting the provision of consultation recordings, uptake of this intervention into oncology practice has been slow. The primary aim of this project is to conduct an implementation study to explicate the contextual factors, including use of evidence, that facilitate and impede the transfer and uptake of consultation-recording use in a sample of patients newly diagnosed with breast or prostate cancer. Methods Sixteen oncologists from cancer centres in three Canadian cities will participate in this three-phase study. The preimplementation phase will be used to identify and address those factors that are fundamental to facilitating the smooth adoption and delivery of the intervention during the implementation phase. During the implementation phase, breast and prostate cancer patients will receive a recording of their initial oncology consultation to take home. Patient interviews will be conducted in the days following the consultation to gather feedback on the benefits of the intervention. Patients will complete the Digital Recording Use Semi-Structured Interview (DRUSSI and be invited to participate in focus groups in which their experiences with the consultation recording will be explored. Oncologists will receive a summary letter detailing the benefits voiced by their patients. The postimplementation phase includes a conceptual framework development meeting and a seven-point dissemination strategy. Discussion Consultation

  18. Teaching for Transfer: Reconciling the Framework with Disciplinary Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuglitsch, Rebecca Z.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the tension between information literacy as a generalizable skill and as a skill within the disciplines. The new ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education addresses many challenges facing the previous ACRL Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education, but the tension between disciplinary…

  19. Teaching for Transfer: Reconciling the Framework with Disciplinary Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuglitsch, Rebecca Z.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the tension between information literacy as a generalizable skill and as a skill within the disciplines. The new ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education addresses many challenges facing the previous ACRL Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education, but the tension between disciplinary…

  20. Are Clinical Trial Experiences Utilized?: A Differentiated Model of Medical Sites’ Information Transfer Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Marie; Schultz, Carsten; Getz, Kenneth A.;

    2015-01-01

    The collaboration with medical professionals in pharmaceutical clinical trials facilitates opportunities to gain valuable market information concerning product functionality issues, as well as issues related to market implementation and adoption. However, previous research on trial management lac...

  1. Transfer entropy coefficient: Quantifying level of information flow between financial time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yue; Shang, Pengjian

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a new coefficient is proposed with the objective of quantifying the level of information flow between financial time series. This transfer entropy coefficient, which provides an assessment on the multiscale information flow between measurements, is defined in terms of the transfer entropy method and the multiscale method. The implementation of this transfer entropy coefficient is illustrated with simulated time series and financial time series. Examples taken from simulated and financial data demonstrate that the dynamic mechanism of a complex system cannot be detected solely on the basis of transfer entropy of single scale.

  2. Inter-instrumental method transfer of chiral capillary electrophoretic methods using robustness test information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Bart; Borsuk, Agnieszka; Dejaegher, Bieke; Stiens, Johan; Mangelings, Debby; Vander Heyden, Yvan

    2014-08-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is an electrodriven separation technique that is often used for the separation of chiral molecules. Advantages of CE are its flexibility, low cost and efficiency. On the other hand, the precision and transfer of CE methods are well-known problems of the technique. Reasons for the more complicated method transfer are the more diverse instrumental differences, such as total capillary lengths and capillary cooling systems; and the higher response variability of CE methods compared to other techniques, such as liquid chromatography (HPLC). Therefore, a larger systematic change in peak resolutions, migration times and peak areas, with a loss of separation and efficiency may be seen when a CE method is transferred to another laboratory or another type of instrument. A swift and successful method transfer is required because development and routine use of analytical methods are usually not performed in the same laboratory and/or on the same type of equipment. The aim of our study was to develop transfer rules to facilitate CE method transfers between different laboratories and instruments. In our case study, three β-blockers were chirally separated and inter-instrumental transfers were performed. The first step of our study was to optimise the precision of the chiral CE method. Next, a robustness test was performed to identify the instrumental and experimental parameters that were most influencing the considered responses. The precision- and the robustness study results were used to adapt instrumental and/or method settings to improve the transfer between different instruments. Finally, the comparison of adapted and non-adapted transfers allowed deriving some rules to facilitate CE method transfers.

  3. Efficient Quantum Information Transfer Through a Uniform Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Verrucchi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Effective quantum-state and entanglement transfer can be obtained by inducing a coherent dynamics in quantum wires with homogeneous intrawire interactions. This goal is accomplished by optimally tuning the coupling between the wire endpoints and the two qubits there attached. A general procedure to determine such value is devised, and scaling laws between the optimal coupling and the length of the wire are found. The procedure is implemented in the case of a wire consisting of a spin-1/2 XY chain: results for the time dependence of the quantities which characterize quantum-state and entanglement transfer are found of extremely good quality also for very long wires. The present approach does not require engineered intrawire interactions nor a specific initial pulse shaping, and can be applied to a vast class of quantum channels.

  4. "Kaizen" and Technology Transfer Instructors as Work-based Learning Facilitators in Overseas Transplants: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsey, Barry; Fujiwara, Asahi

    2000-01-01

    A study of 240 instructors of kaizen (continuous quality improvement) and technology transfer in overseas assignments for Toyota found that commitment to work and corporate cultural values were significant. Instructors recognized the responsibility and challenges of communicating and transferring their know-how across cultures. (SK)

  5. "Kaizen" and Technology Transfer Instructors as Work-based Learning Facilitators in Overseas Transplants: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsey, Barry; Fujiwara, Asahi

    2000-01-01

    A study of 240 instructors of kaizen (continuous quality improvement) and technology transfer in overseas assignments for Toyota found that commitment to work and corporate cultural values were significant. Instructors recognized the responsibility and challenges of communicating and transferring their know-how across cultures. (SK)

  6. Communication, The Essence of Science Facilitating Information Exchange Among Librarians, Scientists, Engineers and Students

    CERN Document Server

    Garvey, W D

    1979-01-01

    Communication: The Essence of Science provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of scientific communication. This book focuses on those information-exchange activities that take place mainly among scientists actively involved on the research front. Organized into five chapters, this book begins with an overview of the psychologists' description of the communication structure of science. This text then examines the relationship among spanning, connecting, and integrating the various streams of activities involved in the production of information. Other chapters consider some of

  7. Professional Development on a Budget: Facilitating Learning Opportunities for Information Literacy Instructors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Shamchuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available How do you stay on top of evolving trends and changes to information literacy delivery, especially while coping with shrinking professional development allocations? This article details various in-house, professional development opportunities created for MacEwan University’s library staff. Low-cost, practical ideas are given to help jump-start a library's information literacy professional development offerings. Included are details about organizing an Information Literacy Community, internal Library Professional Development Days and an information literacy event open to local library professionals.

  8. Facilitators and barriers to informed choice in self-directed support for young people with disability in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Fraser

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this qualitative study was to explore the concept of 'informed choice' in the context of self-directed support (SDS) for young people with disability in transition from child to adult services. SDS is a major policy initiative introduced by the Scottish government to promote personalised services by redefining the relationship between the citizen and the state regarding social care supports. Informed choice is one of the underpinning principles of the Social Care (Self-directed Support) (Scotland) Act 2013. The theoretical approach to the research study was that of critical realism and, in particular, realistic evaluation. The research design used multiple qualitative methods involving secondary analysis of archived qualitative longitudinal interview data, and primary interviews with nine individuals, representing a wide range of stakeholders in Scotland. The study developed hypotheses concerning the facilitators and barriers to informed choice for young people with disability. Factors facilitating informed choice included supportive family and professional networks, advocacy, accessible information and experiential knowledge. Barriers to informed choice were seen to be low expectations, poor collaboration between child and adult services and bureaucratic organisational cultures. SDS is entering the implementation phase of the policy cycle in Scotland and this study will inform emerging policy, practice and future research into personalisation for young people with disability in transition. In particular, the findings point to the need to involve young people with disability at an early stage in choice-making, and to foster self-advocacy skills and supportive social networks. Informed choice for young people with disability needs to be seen as a process over time involving both information and emotions and both need to be supported to ensure successful transitions.

  9. Wikis to facilitate patient participation in developing information leaflets: first experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belt, T.H. van de; Faber, M.J.; Knijnenburg, J.M.; Duijnhoven, N.T.L. van; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although patients have gained a wealth of experienced based knowledge they are usually not involved in the development of patient information. We sought to determine the technical feasibility of wikis in generating dynamic patient information leaflets with participation from patients and

  10. Sourcebook of Temporal Factors Affecting Information Transfer from Visual Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    Valerie (1969) found that the periphery is poorer than central vision at this task also. 43 I ’ 0 LII •~8 L6 270 l90• V � Figure 8. Perimetric chart...optimum grating patterns: 3 c/deg for green (squares) and red (circles); 1 c/deg for the blue (triangles). Retinal luminance equals 10 td. Filled symbols...squares) and red (circles); 1.5 Hz for the blue (triangles). Filled symbols show comparable data points transferred from Figure 25. (From Kelly, 1974

  11. Informal Care and Inter-vivos Transfers: Results from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Edward C; Nicholas, Lauren H; Huang, Sean Sheng-Hsiu

    2013-05-01

    Informal care is the largest source of long-term care for elderly, surpassing home health care and nursing home care. By definition, informal care is unpaid. It remains a puzzle why so many adult children give freely of their time. Transfers of time to the older generation may be balanced by financial transfers going to the younger generation. This leads to the question of whether informal care and inter-vivos transfers are causally related. We analyze data from the 1999 and 2003 waves of National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women. We examine whether the elderly parents give more inter-vivos monetary transfers to adult children who provide informal care, by examining both the extensive and intensive margins of financial transfers and of informal care. We find statistically significant results that a child who provides informal care is more likely to receive inter-vivos transfers than a sibling who does not. If a child does provide care, there is no statistically significant effect on the amount of the transfer.

  12. Correlation, entropy, and information transfer in black hole radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Baocheng; Zhan, Mingsheng; You, Li

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of Hawking radiation, its consistency with quantum theory has been widely questioned. In the widely described picture, irrespective of what initial state a black hole starts with before collapsing, it eventually evolves into a thermal state of Hawking radiations after the black hole is exhausted. This scenario violates the principle of unitarity as required for quantum mechanics and leads to the acclaimed "information loss paradox". This paradox has become an obstacle or a reversed touchstone for any possible theory to unify the gravity and quantum mechanics. Based on the results from Hawking radiation as tunneling, we recently show that Hawking radiations can carry off all information about the collapsed matter in a black hole. After discovering the existence of information-carrying correlation, we show in great detail that entropy is conserved for Hawking radiation based on standard probability theory and statistics. We claim that information previously considered lost remains hidden ins...

  13. Receiving Providers' Perceptions on Information Transmission During Interfacility Transfers to General Pediatric Floors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Jennifer L; Romano, Patrick S; Kokroko, Jolene; Gu, Wendi; Okumura, Megumi J

    2017-06-01

    Pediatric patients can present to a medical facility and subsequently be transferred to a different hospital for definitive care. Interfacility transfers require a provider handoff across facilities, posing risks that may affect patient outcomes. The goal of this study was to describe the thoroughness of information transmission between providers during interfacility transfers, to describe perceived errors in care at the posttransfer facility, and to identify potential associations between thoroughness of information transmission and perceived errors in care. We performed an exploratory prospective cohort study on communication practices and patient outcomes during interfacility transfers to general pediatric floors. Data were collected from provider surveys and chart review. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize survey responses. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association of communication deficits with odds of having a perceived error in care. A total of 633 patient transfers were reviewed; 218 transport command physician surveys and 217 frontline provider surveys were completed. Transport command physicians reported higher proportions of key elements being included in the verbal handoff compared with frontline providers. The written key element transmitted with the lowest frequency was a summary document (65.2%), and 13% of transfers had at least 1 perceived error in care. Transfers with many deficits were associated with higher odds of having a perceived error in care. Information transmission during pediatric transfers is perceived to be inconsistently complete. Deficits in the verbal and written information transmission are associated with odds of having a perceived error in care. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. 77 FR 21579 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... a Container Station AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station... forms of information. Title: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station. OMB Number: 1651-0096....

  15. A rigorous formalism of information transfer between dynamical system components. I. Discrete mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, X. San; Kleeman, Richard

    2007-07-01

    We put the concept of information transfer on a rigorous footing and establish for it a formalism within the framework of discrete maps. The resulting transfer measure possesses a property of directionality or transfer asymmetry as emphasized by Schreiber [T. Schreiber, Measuring information transfer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 (2) (2000) 461]; it also verifies the transfer measure for two-dimensional systems, which was obtained by Liang and Kleeman [X.S. Liang, R. Kleeman, Information transfer between dynamical system components, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (24) (2005) 244101] through a different avenue. Connections to classical formalisms are explored and applications presented. We find that, in the context of the baker transformation, there is always information flowing from the stretching direction to the folding direction, while no transfer occurs in the opposite direction; we also find that, within the Hénon map system, the transfer from the quadratic component to the linear component is of a simple form as expected on physical grounds. This latter result is unique to our formalism.

  16. MIMO Cellular Networks with Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we introduce a mathematical approach for system-level analysis and optimization of densely deployed multiple-antenna cellular networks, where low-energy devices are capable of decoding information data and harvesting power simultaneously. The base stations are assumed to be deployed according to a Poisson point process and tools from stochastic geometry are exploited to quantify the trade-off in terms of information rate and harvested power. It is shown ...

  17. Information gathering, management and transfering for geospacial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Paulo; Correia, Anacleto; Teodoro, M. Filomena

    2017-07-01

    Information is a key subject in modern organization operations. The success of joint and combined operations with organizations partners depends on the accurate information and knowledge flow concerning the operations theatre: provision of resources, environment evolution, markets location, where and when an event occurred. As in the past and nowadays we cannot conceive modern operations without maps and geo-spatial information (GI). Information and knowledge management is fundamental to the success of organizational decisions in an uncertainty environment. The georeferenced information management is a process of knowledge management, it begins in the raw data and ends on generating knowledge. GI and intelligence systems allow us to integrate all other forms of intelligence and can be a main platform to process and display geo-spatial-time referenced events. Combining explicit knowledge with peoples know-how to generate a continuous learning cycle that supports real time decisions mitigates the influences of fog of everyday competition and provides the knowledge supremacy. Extending the preliminary analysis done in [1], this work applies the exploratory factor analysis to a questionnaire about the GI and intelligence management in an organization company allowing to identify future lines of action to improve information process sharing and exploration of all the potential of this important resource.

  18. VHA mental health information system: applying health information technology to monitor and facilitate implementation of VHA Uniform Mental Health Services Handbook requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafton, Jodie A; Greenberg, Greg; Harris, Alex H S; Tavakoli, Sara; Kearney, Lisa; McCarthy, John; Blow, Fredric; Hoff, Rani; Schohn, Mary

    2013-03-01

    To describe the design and deployment of health information technology to support implementation of mental health services policy requirements in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Using administrative and self-report survey data, we developed and fielded metrics regarding implementation of the requirements delineated in the VHA Uniform Mental Health Services Handbook. Finalized metrics were incorporated into 2 external facilitation-based quality improvement programs led by the VHA Mental Health Operations. To support these programs, tailored site-specific reports were generated. Metric development required close collaboration between program evaluators, policy makers and clinical leadership, and consideration of policy language and intent. Electronic reports supporting different purposes required distinct formatting and presentation features, despite their having similar general goals and using the same metrics. Health information technology can facilitate mental health policy implementation but must be integrated into a process of consensus building and close collaboration with policy makers, evaluators, and practitioners.

  19. Mechanisms of sodium and potassium ions transfer facili-tated by dibenzo-15-crown-5 across the water / 1,2-dichloro-ethane interface using micropipettes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The transfer of sodium and potassium ions facilitated by dibenzo-15-crown-5 (DB15C5) has been studied at the micro-water/1,2-dichloroethane (water/DCE) interface supported at the tip of a micropipette. Cyclic voltammetric measurements were performed in two limiting conditions: the bulk concentration of Na+ or K+ in the aqueous phase is much higher than that of DB15C5 in the organic phase (DB15C5 diffusion controlled process) and the reverse condition (metal ion diffusion controlled process). The mechanisms of the facilitated Na+ transfer by DB15C5 are both transfer by interfacial complexation (TIC) with 1∶1 stoichiometry under these two conditions, and the corresponding association constants were determined at log β1 = 8.97 ( 0.05 or log β1 = 8.63 ( 0.03. However, the transfers of K+ facilitated by DB15C5 show different behavior. In the former case it is a TIC process and its stoichiometry is 1∶2, whereas in the latter case two peaks during the forward scan were observed, the first of which was confirmed as the formation of K+(DB15C5)2 at the interface by a TIC mechanism, while the second one may be another TIC process with 1∶1 stoichiometry in the more positive potential. The relevant association constants calculated for the complexed ion, K+(DB15C5)2, in the organic phase in two cases, logβ2, are 13.64 ( 0.03 and 11.34 ( 0.24, respectively.

  20. 77 FR 34127 - Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Electronic Transfer Account...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Fiscal Service Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Electronic Transfer Account (ETA) Financial Agency Agreement AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and Request for comments. SUMMARY: The Financial Management Service, as part of its...

  1. 77 FR 71035 - Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... Fiscal Service Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) Market Research Study AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and Request for comments. SUMMARY: The Financial Management Service, as part of its continuing...

  2. Interface information transfer between non-matching, nonconforming interfaces using radial basis function interpolation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bogaers, Alfred EJ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we outline the use of radial basis function interpolation (RBF) to transfer information across non-matching and nonconforming interface meshes, with particular focus to partitioned fluid-structure interactions (FSI). In general...

  3. Second law of information thermodynamics with entanglement transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Hiroyasu

    2013-10-01

    We present an inequality which holds in the thermodynamical processes with measurement and feedback controls and uses only the Helmholtz free energy and the entanglement of formation: W(ext)≤-ΔF-k(B)TΔE(F). The quantity -ΔE(F), which is positive, expresses the amount of entanglement transfer from system S to probe P through the interaction U(SP) during the measurement. It is easier to achieve the upper bound in this inequality than in the Sagawa-Ueda inequality [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 080403 (2008)]. Our inequality has clear physical meaning: in the above thermodynamical processes, the work which we can extract from the thermodynamic system is greater than the upper bound in the conventional thermodynamics by the amount of the entanglement extracted by the measurement.

  4. Transfer of Timing Information from RGC to LGN Spike Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Malvin C.; Lowen, Steven B.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Kaplan, Ehud

    1998-03-01

    We have studied the firing patterns of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their target lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) cells. We find that clusters of spikes in the RGC neural firing pattern appear at the LGN output essentially unchanged, while isolated RGC firing events are more likely to be eliminated; thus the LGN action-potential sequence is therefore not merely a randomly deleted version of the RGC spike train. Employing information-theoretic techniques we developed for point processes,(B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. Lett.) 58, 2656--2659 (1987). we are able to estimate the information efficiency of the LGN neuronal output --- the proportion of the variation in the LGN firing pattern that carries information about its associated RGC input. A suitably modified integrate-and-fire neural model reproduces both the enhanced clustering in the LGN data (which accounts for the increased coefficient of variation) and the measured value of information efficiency, as well as mimicking the results of other observed statistical measures. Reliable information transmission therefore coexists with fractal fluctuations, which appear in RGC and LGN firing patterns.(M. C. Teich, C. Heneghan, S. B. Lowen, T. Ozaki, and E. Kaplan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A) 14, 529--546 (1997).

  5. Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Private integrated services network - Inter-exchange signalling protocol - Single step call transfer supplementary service

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Private integrated services network - Inter-exchange signalling protocol - Single step call transfer supplementary service

  6. Combining personal with social information facilitates host defences and explains why cuckoos should be secretive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorogood, Rose; Davies, Nicholas B.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals often vary defences in response to local predation or parasitism risk. But how should they assess threat levels when it pays their enemies to hide? For common cuckoo hosts, assessing parasitism risk is challenging: cuckoo eggs are mimetic and adult cuckoos are secretive and resemble hawks. Here, we show that egg rejection by reed warblers depends on combining personal and social information of local risk. We presented model cuckoos or controls at a pair’s own nest (personal information of an intruder) and/or on a neighbouring territory, to which they were attracted by broadcasts of alarm calls (social information). Rejection of an experimental egg was stimulated only when hosts were alerted by both social and personal information of cuckoos. However, pairs that rejected eggs were not more likely to mob a cuckoo. Therefore, while hosts can assess risk from the sight of a cuckoo, a cuckoo cannot gauge if her egg will be accepted from host mobbing. Our results reveal how hosts respond rapidly to local variation in parasitism, and why it pays cuckoos to be secretive, both to avoid alerting their targets and to limit the spread of social information in the local host neighbourhood. PMID:26794435

  7. A case report in health information exchange for inter-organizational patient transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J E; Malhotra, S; Kaushal, R

    2014-01-01

    To provide a case report of barriers and promoters to implementing a health information exchange (HIE) tool that supports patient transfers between hospitals and skilled nursing facilities. A multi-disciplinary team conducted semi-structured telephone and in-person interviews in a purposive sample of HIE organizational informants and providers in New York City who implemented HIE to share patient transfer information. The researchers conducted grounded theory analysis to identify themes of barriers and promoters and took steps to improve the trustworthiness of the results including vetting from a knowledgeable study participant. Between May and October 2011, researchers recruited 18 participants: informaticians, healthcare administrators, software engineers, and providers from a skilled nursing facility. Subjects perceived the HIE tool's development a success in that it brought together stakeholders who had traditionally not partnered for informatics work, and that they could successfully share patient transfer information between a hospital and a skilled nursing facility. Perceived barriers included lack of hospital stakeholder buy-in and misalignment with clinical workflows that inhibited use of HIE-based patient transfer data. Participants described barriers and promoters in themes related to organizational, technical, and user-oriented issues. The investigation revealed that stakeholders could develop and implement health information technology that technically enables clinicians in both hospitals and skilled nursing facilities to exchange real-time information in support of patient transfers. User level barriers, particularly in the emergency department, should give pause to developers and implementers who plan to use HIE in support of patient transfers. Participants' experiences demonstrate how stakeholders may succeed in developing and piloting an electronic transfer form that relies on HIE to aggregate, communicate, and display relevant patient transfer

  8. TIS (Technology Information System) A Focal Point for Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    R. A. Kawin, V. Kopytoff , S. K. McGrogan, L.G.O’Connell, G. Pavel, J. A. Schriebman, and J. E. Swanson, First DOEILLL Workshop on the Technical...Management Information System (TMIS), CONF-791258 (1979). 12. V. E. Hampel, W. S. Scott, L. E. Gallo, R. A. Kawin, V. Kopytoff , B. Mallon, S. K. McGrogan

  9. Reusing Information Management Services for Recommended Decadal Study Missions to Facilitate Aerosol and Cloud Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempler, Steve; Alcott, Gary; Lynnes, Chris; Leptoukh, Greg; Vollmer, Bruce; Berrick, Steve

    2008-01-01

    NASA Earth Sciences Division (ESD) has made great investments in the development and maintenance of data management systems and information technologies, to maximize the use of NASA generated Earth science data. With information management system infrastructure in place, mature and operational, very small delta costs are required to fully support data archival, processing, and data support services required by the recommended Decadal Study missions. This presentation describes the services and capabilities of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and the reusability for these future missions. The GES DISC has developed a series of modular, reusable data management components currently in use. They include data archive and distribution (Simple, Scalable, Script-based, Science [S4] Product Archive aka S4PA), data processing (S4 Processor for Measurements aka S4PM), data search (Mirador), data browse, visualization, and analysis (Giovanni), and data mining services. Information management system components are based on atmospheric scientist inputs. Large development and maintenance cost savings can be realized through their reuse in future missions.

  10. Facilitating the Collection and Dissemination of Information to Parents of Children in a Child Care Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Armas, Maria P.

    To improve conditions at a nonprofit day care center serving low-income, mainly non-English-speaking families, this practicum addressed the need of recently immigrated parents to increase their knowledge of child development and available community resources. A total of 52 Hispanic parents were given materials at an information distribution area…

  11. Systematic study of the transfer of amino acids across the water/1,2-dichloroethane interface facilitated by dibenzo-18-crown-6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Yong; YUAN; Yi; ZHANG; Meiqin; LI; Fei; SUN; Peng; GAO

    2004-01-01

    Facilitated ion transfer reactions of 20 amino acids with dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6) at the water/1,2-dichloroethane (W/DCE) interfaces supported at the tips of micro- and nano-pipets were investigated systematically using cyclic voltammetry. It was found that there were only 10 amino acids, that is, Leu, Val, Ile, Phe, Trp, Met, Ala, Gly, Cys, Gln (in brief), whose protonated forms as cations can give well-defined facilitated ion transfer voltammograms within the potential window, and the reaction pathway was proven to be consistent with the transfer by interfacial complexation/dissociation (TIC/TID) mechanisms. The association constants of DB 18C6 with different amino acids in the DCE (β0), and the kinetic parameters of reaction were evaluated based on the steady-state voltammetry of micro- or nano-pipets, respectively. The experimental results demonstrated that the selectivity of complexation of protonated amino acid by DB18C6 compared with that of alkali metal cations was low, which can be attributed to the vicinal effect arising from steric hindrance introduced by their side group and the steric bulk effect by lipophilic stabilization. Moreover, the association constants and the standard rate constants for different amino acids showed good correlations with their hydrophobicity (π), except Gly and Met, which inferred that the selectivity of such heterogeneous complex reaction for different amino acids with DB18C6, was not only affected by discrimination in binding these ions to the crown ether macro-cycle, but also significantly modified by the ion transfer Gibbs energy which was closely related to the structure of the transferred ions, protonated amino acids.

  12. Support-Free Transfer of Ultrasmooth Graphene Films Facilitated by Self-Assembled Monolayers for Electronic Devices and Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Huang, Ming; Tao, Li; Lee, Sun Hwa; Jang, A-Rang; Li, Bao-Wen; Shin, Hyeon Suk; Akinwande, Deji; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2016-01-26

    We explored a support-free method for transferring large area graphene films grown by chemical vapor deposition to various fluoric self-assembled monolayer (F-SAM) modified substrates including SiO2/Si wafers, polyethylene terephthalate films, and glass. This method yields clean, ultrasmooth, and high-quality graphene films for promising applications such as transparent, conductive, and flexible films due to the absence of residues and limited structural defects such as cracks. The F-SAM introduced in the transfer process can also lead to graphene transistors with enhanced field-effect mobility (up to 10,663 cm(2)/Vs) and resistance modulation (up to 12×) on a standard silicon dioxide dielectric. Clean graphene patterns can be realized by transfer of graphene onto only the F-SAM modified surfaces.

  13. Barriers and facilitators to health information exchange in low- and middleincome country settings: a systematic review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ather Akhlaq

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe ability to capture, exchange and use accurate information about patients and services is vital for building strong health systems, providing comprehensive and integrated patient care, managing public health risks and informing policies for public health and health financing. However, the organisational and technological systems necessary to achieve effective Health Information Exchange are lacking in many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC. Developing strategies for addressing this depends on understanding the barriers and facilitators to HIE at the individual, provider organisational, community, district, provincial and national levels. This systematic review aims to identify, critically appraise and synthesise the existing published evidence addressing these factors.ObjectiveTo assess what is known, from published / unpublished empirical studies, about barriers and facilitators to HIE in LMIC so as to identify issues that need to be addressed and approaches that can fruitfully be pursued in future improvement strategies.MethodsWe will conduct a systematic review to identify the empirical evidence base on the barriers and facilitators to HIE in LMIC.  Two reviewers will independently search 11 major international and national databases for published, unpublished and in-progress qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies published during 1990-July 2014 in any language. These searches of scientific databases will be supplemented by looking for eligible reports available online. The included studies will be independently critically appraised using the Mixed Method Appraisal Tool (MMAT, version 2011. Descriptive, narrative and interpretative synthesis of data will be undertaken.   Results These will be presented in a manuscript that will be published in the peer-reviewed literature. The protocol is registered with the International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO CRD 42014009826

  14. Stimulus size dependence of information transfer from retina to thalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Uglesich

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Relay cells in the mammalian lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN are driven primarily by single retinal ganglion cells (RGCs. However, an LGN cell responds typically to less than half of the spikes it receives from the RGC that drives it, and without retinal drive the LGN is silent (Kaplan and Shapley, 1984. Recent studies, which used stimuli restricted to the receptive field (RF center, show that despite the great loss of spikes, more than half of the information carried by the RGC discharge is typically preserved in the LGN discharge (Sincich et al., 2009, suggesting that the retinal spikes that are deleted by the LGN carry less information than those that are transmitted to the cortex. To determine how LGN relay neurons decide which retinal spikes to respond to, we recorded extracellularly from the cat LGN the LGN spikes together with the slow synaptic (‘S’ potentials that signal the firing of retinal spikes. We investigated the influence of the inhibitory surround of the LGN RF by stimulating the eyes with spots of various sizes, the largest of which covered the center and surround of the LGN relay cell’s RF. We found that for stimuli that activated mostly the RF center, each LGN spike delivered more information than the retinal spike, but this difference was reduced as stimulus size increased to cover the RF surround. To evaluate the optimality of the LGN editing of retinal spikes, we created artificial spike trains from the retinal ones by various deletion schemes. We found that single LGN cells transmitted less information than an optimal detector could.

  15. Quantifying and Assuring Information Transfer in Dynamic Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    Kumar, Estimating the state of a Markov chain over a noisy communication channel: A bound and an encoder. To appear in Proceedings of 49th IEEE...Transactions on Information Theory. 4. I-Hong Hou and P. R. Kumar, Queueing Systems with Hard Delay Constraints: A Framework andSolutions for Real-Time...J. Garcia-Haro, Z.J. Haas, A stochastic model for chain collisions of vehicles equipped with vehicular communications, accepted for publications in

  16. Facilitation of Human Resource Information Systems on Performance of Public Sector in Jordan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzi Hasan Altaany

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to provide an introductory presentation of the concept of human recourse information system in theoretical framework and to identify the degree of satisfaction of uses Human resource information systems in Jordan. A questionnaire was justified and developed by the researcher to measure the performance of employees based on previous studies was applied to (95 employees at public sector in Jordan. The study was using SPSS to analyses data. The results indicate that employees at public sector in Jordan there were a statistically significant relationship between the planning, recruitment, training and development, performance appraisal, compensation and incentives, and career planning and performance of employees. However the sample reported a significant in the seven hypotheses and accepted but the hypotheses (Ha1, Ha2 and Hb1 is rejected. The study have recommendations should gives more attention to focus on.

  17. Electron transfer dissociation facilitates the measurement of deuterium incorporation into selectively labeled peptides with single residue resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zehl, Martin; Rand, Kasper D; Jensen, Ole N;

    2008-01-01

    show in the present study that electron transfer dissociation in a 3D-quadrupole ion trap retains the site-specific solution-phase deuterium incorporation pattern and allows for localization of incorporated deuterium with single residue resolution. Furthermore, we exploit this finding to monitor how...... collisional activation induces proton mobility in a gaseous peptide ion at various levels of vibrational excitation....

  18. Cross-Linguistic Transfer of Morphological Awareness in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners: The Facilitating Effect of Cognate Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Gloria; Chen, Xi; Pasquarella, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Cross-language effects of Spanish derivational awareness on English vocabulary and reading comprehension were studied in Spanish-speaking English Language Learners (N = 90) in grades four and seven. The role of cognate vocabulary in cross-language transfer of derivational awareness was also examined. Multivariate path analyses controlling for age,…

  19. Cross-Linguistic Transfer of Morphological Awareness in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners: The Facilitating Effect of Cognate Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Gloria; Chen, Xi; Pasquarella, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Cross-language effects of Spanish derivational awareness on English vocabulary and reading comprehension were studied in Spanish-speaking English Language Learners (N = 90) in grades four and seven. The role of cognate vocabulary in cross-language transfer of derivational awareness was also examined. Multivariate path analyses controlling for age,…

  20. Bimodality in stable isotope composition facilitates the tracing of carbon transfer from macrophytes to higher trophic levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendonca, R.; Kosten, S.; Lacerot, G.; Mazzeo, N.; Roland, F.; Ometto, J.P.; Paz, A.; Bueno, O.C.; Gomes, A.C.M.M.; Scheffer, M.

    2013-01-01

    Even though the suitability of macrophytes to act as a carbon source to food webs has been questioned by some studies, some others indicate that macrophyte-derived carbon may play an important role in the trophic transfer of organic matter in the food web of shallow lakes. To evaluate the importance

  1. An E-Cash Based Implementation Model for Facilitating Anonymous Purchasing of Information Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Kim, K. H. (Kane); Kang, Myeong-Ho; Zhou, Tianran; Chung, Byung-Ho; Kim, Shin-Hyo; Lee, Seok-Joon

    The rapid growing of online purchasing of information products poses challenges of how to preserve the customer's privacy during the online transactions. The current widely used way of online shopping does not consider the customer's privacy protection. It exposes the customer's sensitive information unnecessarily. We propose a new five-party implementation model called 5PAPS that provides much enhanced protection of the customer's privacy. The model combines the advantages of the e-cash techniques, the mix technique, the anonymous-honoring merchant model, and the anonymity-protecting payment gateway model. It is aimed for protecting the customer's anonymity in all applicable aspects. Security and anonymity issues of the model have been analyzed. The results show that the model is robust against varieties of common attacks and the customer's anonymity can be protected even in the presence of some collusion among the parties involved in the transactions. Experimental prototyping of the essential parts yields partial validation of the practical nature of the 5PAPS model, and it has also produced reliable estimates of the storage and messaging volume requirements present in sizable purchasing systems.

  2. Dissociable parietal regions facilitate successful retrieval of recently learned and personally familiar information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Jeremy A; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; Shimamura, Arthur P

    2013-03-01

    In fMRI analyses, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is particularly active during the successful retrieval of episodic memory. To delineate the neural correlates of episodic retrieval more succinctly, we compared retrieval of recently learned spatial locations (photographs of buildings) with retrieval of previously familiar locations (photographs of familiar campus buildings). Episodic retrieval of recently learned locations activated a circumscribed region within the ventral PPC (anterior angular gyrus and adjacent regions in the supramarginal gyrus) as well as medial PPC regions (posterior cingulated gyrus and posterior precuneus). Retrieval of familiar locations activated more posterior regions in the ventral PPC (posterior angular gyrus, LOC) and more anterior regions in the medial PPC (anterior precuneus and retrosplenial cortex). These dissociable effects define more precisely PPC regions involved in the retrieval of recent, contextually bound information as opposed to regions involved in other processes, such as visual imagery, scene reconstruction, and self-referential processing.

  3. Information transfer through stochastic transmission of a linear combination of rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrnakis, Ioannis; Smirnakis, Stelios

    2013-09-01

    In this work, the Shannon information transfer rate due to the transmission of a linear combination of the firing rates of a number of afferent neurons is examined. The transmission of this linear combination (transfer statistic) takes place through a stochastic firing process, while a rate code is assumed. Constraints are imposed on the transmission process by the requirement that the coefficient of variation for the transfer statistic is small and by the relative variance of the individual terms in the calculation of the statistic. In the regime of no noise or signal correlations among the input neurons, simulations suggest that information transfer for fixed overall input is favored when there are few high-firing neurons, as opposed to more lower-firing neurons. Signal correlations among low-firing neurons can result in aggregates of high firing rates, improving in this way information transfer and calculational robustness. Under reasonable rate code assumptions, information transfer rates obtained are of the order 3 to 10 bit/sec.

  4. Barriers and facilitators to health information exchange in low- and middle-income country settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaq, Ather; McKinstry, Brian; Muhammad, Khalid Bin; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-11-01

    The exchange and use of health information can help healthcare professionals and policymakers make informed decisions on ways of improving patient and population health. Many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have however failed to embrace the approaches and technologies to facilitate health information exchange (HIE). We sought to understand the barriers and facilitators to the implementation and adoption of HIE in LMICs. Two reviewers independently searched 11 academic databases for published and on-going qualitative, quantitative and mixed-method studies and searched for unpublished work through the Google search engine. The searches covered the period from January 1990 to July 2014 and were not restricted by language. Eligible studies were independently, critically appraised and then thematically analysed. The searches yielded 5461 citations after de-duplication of results. Of these, 56 articles, three conference abstracts and four technical reports met the inclusion criteria. The lack of importance given to data in decision making, corruption and insecurity, lack of training and poor infrastructure were considered to be major challenges to implementing HIE, but strong leadership and clear policy direction coupled with the financial support to acquire essential technology, improve the communication network, and provide training for staff all helped to promote implementation. The body of work also highlighted how implementers of HIE needed to take into account local needs to ensure that stakeholders saw HIE as relevant and advantageous. HIE interventions implemented through leapfrog technologies such as telehealth/telemedicine and mHealth in Brazil, Kenya, and South Africa, provided successful examples of exchanging health information in LMICs despite limited resources and capability. It is important that implementation of HIE is aligned with national priorities and local needs.

  5. Short term synaptic depression improves information transfer in perceptual multistability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary P Kilpatrick

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Competitive neural networks are often used to model the dynamics of perceptual bistability. Switching between percepts can occur through fluctuations and/or a slow adaptive process. Here, we analyze switching statistics in competitive networks with short term synaptic depression and noise. We start by analyzing a ring model that yields spatially structured solutions and complement this with a study of a space-free network whose populations are coupled with mutual inhibition. Dominance times arising from depression driven switching can be approximated using a separation of timescales in the ring and space-free model. For purely noise-driven switching, we derive approximate energy functions to justify how dominance times are exponentially related to input strength. We also show that a combination of depression and noise generates realistic distributions of dominance times. Unimodal functions of dominance times are more easily told apart by sampling, so switches induced by synaptic depression induced provide more information about stimuli than noise-driven switching. Finally, we analyze a competitive network model of perceptual tristability, showing depression generates a history-dependence in dominance switching.

  6. What supports do health system organizations have in place to facilitate evidence-informed decision-making? a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Decisions regarding health systems are sometimes made without the input of timely and reliable evidence, leading to less than optimal health outcomes. Healthcare organizations can implement tools and infrastructures to support the use of research evidence to inform decision-making. Objectives The purpose of this study was to profile the supports and instruments (i.e., programs, interventions, instruments or tools) that healthcare organizations currently have in place and which ones were perceived to facilitate evidence-informed decision-making. Methods In-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with individuals in three different types of positions (i.e., a senior management team member, a library manager, and a ‘knowledge broker’) in three types of healthcare organizations (i.e., regional health authorities, hospitals and primary care practices) in two Canadian provinces (i.e., Ontario and Quebec). The interviews were taped, transcribed, and then analyzed thematically using NVivo 9 qualitative data analysis software. Results A total of 57 interviews were conducted in 25 organizations in Ontario and Quebec. The main findings suggest that, for the healthcare organizations that participated in this study, the following supports facilitate evidence-informed decision-making: facilitating roles that actively promote research use within the organization; establishing ties to researchers and opinion leaders outside the organization; a technical infrastructure that provides access to research evidence, such as databases; and provision and participation in training programs to enhance staff’s capacity building. Conclusions This study identified the need for having a receptive climate, which laid the foundation for the implementation of other tangible initiatives and supported the use of research in decision-making. This study adds to the literature on organizational efforts that can increase the use of research evidence in decision

  7. A novel information transferring approach for the classification of remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianqiang; Xu, Lizhong; Shen, Jie; Huang, Fengchen; Xu, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Traditional remote sensing images classification methods focused on using a large amount of labeled target data to train an efficient classification model. However, these approaches were generally based on the target data without considering a host of auxiliary data or the additional information of auxiliary data. If the valuable information from auxiliary data could be successfully transferred to the target data, the performance of the classification model would be improved. In addition, from the perspective of practical application, these valuable information from auxiliary data should be fully used. Therefore, in this paper, based on the transfer learning idea, we proposed a novel information transferring approach to improve the remote sensing images classification performance. The main rationale of this approach is that first, the information of the same areas associated with each pixel is modeled as the intra-class set, and the information of different areas associated with each pixel is modeled as the inter-class set, and then the obtained texture feature information of each area from auxiliary is transferred to the target data set such that the inter-class set is separated and intra-class set is gathered as far as possible. Experiments show that the proposed approach is effective and feasible.

  8. Backward transfer entropy: Informational measure for detecting hidden Markov models and its interpretations in thermodynamics, gambling and causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Sosuke

    2016-11-01

    The transfer entropy is a well-established measure of information flow, which quantifies directed influence between two stochastic time series and has been shown to be useful in a variety fields of science. Here we introduce the transfer entropy of the backward time series called the backward transfer entropy, and show that the backward transfer entropy quantifies how far it is from dynamics to a hidden Markov model. Furthermore, we discuss physical interpretations of the backward transfer entropy in completely different settings of thermodynamics for information processing and the gambling with side information. In both settings of thermodynamics and the gambling, the backward transfer entropy characterizes a possible loss of some benefit, where the conventional transfer entropy characterizes a possible benefit. Our result implies the deep connection between thermodynamics and the gambling in the presence of information flow, and that the backward transfer entropy would be useful as a novel measure of information flow in nonequilibrium thermodynamics, biochemical sciences, economics and statistics.

  9. FACILITATION OF BI-DIRECTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS IN PIGEONS USING A TRANSFER TASK AFTER TRAINING IN DISCRIMINATION OF OWN BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÉS GARCÍA

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out in which 10 pigeons were trained in a task of conditional discrimination of their ownbehavior. The birds learned that when the sample had consisted on responding to the left (right with two white keys,they should choose the red (green comparison to be reinforced. Once the animals had learned this task, they werepassed to a test phase. In short, 5 pigeons were trained in a positive transfer, where the sample was now the red (greenkey they had to choose the left (right comparison to obtain the reinforcer. On the contrary, the other 5 pigeons receiveda training of negative transfer, where the task consisted in that with a red (green sample they should choose the right(left comparison to be reinforced. The obtained data indicate that the performance of those subjects of the group inwhich there was coherence among the phases went superior to that of those subjects of the group where there was notthis coherence. The results are interpreted in connection with the importance that the discrimination of the ownbehavior has in the derivation of bidirectional relationships.

  10. Increased Power in Sediment Microbial Fuel Cell: Facilitated Mass Transfer via a Water-Layer Anode Embedded in Sediment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Seok Lee

    Full Text Available We report a methodology for enhancing the mass transfer at the anode electrode of sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs, by employing a fabric baffle to create a separate water-layer for installing the anode electrode in sediment. The maximum power in an SMFC with the anode installed in the separate water-layer (SMFC-wFB was improved by factor of 6.6 compared to an SMFC having the anode embedded in the sediment (SMFC-woFB. The maximum current density in the SMFC-wFB was also 3.9 times higher (220.46 mA/m2 than for the SMFC-woFB. We found that the increased performance in the SMFC-wFB was due to the improved mass transfer rate of organic matter obtained by employing the water-layer during anode installation in the sediment layer. Acetate injection tests revealed that the SMFC-wFB could be applied to natural water bodies in which there is frequent organic contamination, based on the acetate flux from the cathode to the anode.

  11. Transfer and distortion of atmospheric information in the satellite temperature retrieval problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, O. E.

    1981-01-01

    A systematic approach to investigating the transfer of basic ambient temperature information and its distortion by satellite systems and subsequent analysis algorithms is discussed. The retrieval analysis cycle is derived, the variance spectrum of information is examined as it takes different forms in that process, and the quality and quantity of information existing at each stop is compared with the initial ambient temperature information. Temperature retrieval algorithms can smooth, add, or further distort information, depending on how stable the algorithm is, and how heavily influenced by a priori data.

  12. Survey on the information network for environmental technology transfer; Kankyo gijutsu iten joho network chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    In order to promote the interchange of environmental technologies mainly with developing countries (APEC countries), the concrete survey on construction of the information network for technology transfer was carried out. The useful information about environmental technologies for developing countries are not the latest Japanese information but actual field information in practical use which have been developed on the basis of constant improvements. Developing countries want clean technologies with less environmental burden, and difficult-to-obtain information for small and medium-sized businesses. Data were thus collected mainly in the Chubu district, and the information system was composed of an Internet server and in-house LAN. The system featured by easy retrieval and maintenance of the database was adopted. In addition, Internet connection environment and information needs in developing countries were surveyed. Expansion of the database and information supply, and constant addition of fresh information by continuous maintenance are essential in the future. 6 figs.

  13. Quantum information transfer with nitrogen-vacancy centers coupled to a whispering-gallery microresonator

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Pengbo

    2010-01-01

    We propose an efficient scheme for the realization of quantum information transfer and entanglement with nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers coupled to a high-Q microspherical resonator. We show that, based on the effective dipole-dipole interaction between the NV centers mediated by the whispering-gallery mode (WGM), quantum information can be transferred between the NV centers through Raman transitions combined with laser fields. This protocol may open up promising possibilities for quantum communications with the solid state cavity QED system.

  14. Possible Realization of Cluster States and Quantum Information Transfer in Cavity QED via Raman Transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Zhi-Ming; LI Wei-Bin

    2007-01-01

    We present a scheme to generate cluster states with many atoms in cavity QED via Raman transition. In this scheme, no transfer of quantum information between the atoms and cavities is required, the cavity fields are only virtually excited and thus the cavity decay is suppressed during the generation of cluster states. The atoms are always populated in the two ground states. Therefore, the scheme is insensitive to the atomic spontaneous emission and cavity decay. We also show how to transfer quantum information from one atom to another.

  15. Entropy-based analysis and bioinformatics-inspired integration of global economic information transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Gunn; An, Sungbae; Kwon, Young-Kyun; Yoon, Sungroh

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of information transfer in the global economic network helps to understand the current environment and the outlook of an economy. Most approaches on global networks extract information transfer based mainly on a single variable. This paper establishes an entirely new bioinformatics-inspired approach to integrating information transfer derived from multiple variables and develops an international economic network accordingly. In the proposed methodology, we first construct the transfer entropies (TEs) between various intra- and inter-country pairs of economic time series variables, test their significances, and then use a weighted sum approach to aggregate information captured in each TE. Through a simulation study, the new method is shown to deliver better information integration compared to existing integration methods in that it can be applied even when intra-country variables are correlated. Empirical investigation with the real world data reveals that Western countries are more influential in the global economic network and that Japan has become less influential following the Asian currency crisis.

  16. Entropy-based analysis and bioinformatics-inspired integration of global economic information transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkyu Kim

    Full Text Available The assessment of information transfer in the global economic network helps to understand the current environment and the outlook of an economy. Most approaches on global networks extract information transfer based mainly on a single variable. This paper establishes an entirely new bioinformatics-inspired approach to integrating information transfer derived from multiple variables and develops an international economic network accordingly. In the proposed methodology, we first construct the transfer entropies (TEs between various intra- and inter-country pairs of economic time series variables, test their significances, and then use a weighted sum approach to aggregate information captured in each TE. Through a simulation study, the new method is shown to deliver better information integration compared to existing integration methods in that it can be applied even when intra-country variables are correlated. Empirical investigation with the real world data reveals that Western countries are more influential in the global economic network and that Japan has become less influential following the Asian currency crisis.

  17. Information, the decision forum, and third-party effects in water transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Susan Christopher; Ingram, Helen M.

    1988-04-01

    Transfers of water from irrigation to municipal and industrial uses are seen as a low-cost approach to the water supply problems of western cities. Rural areas of origin protest that market transfers ignore indirect economic, political, social, fiscal, and environmental effects of changes in water use. The capacity of five different water transfer institutions: the market, courts, legislature, special purpose districts, and administrative agencies, to develop and weigh information about indirect and nonuser impacts is analyzed and compared. All five forums are found to have biases regarding the type of information used. Markets process information on direct economic costs and benefits well but ignore third-party costs; legislative bodies are sensitive to information about indirect and nonuser impacts but distort information on direct benefits and costs; neither the judiciary nor the water agency is likely to consider community and social impacts of water transfers. Special districts could consider both direct and indirect values but are often controlled by a leadership elite, pursuing narrow goals with minimum membership participation. The appropriate forum for decision making depends upon our priorities among values and on the values that are at stake in particular issues.

  18. Identification of a Stelar-Localized Transport Protein That Facilitates Root-to-Shoot Transfer of Chloride in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo

    2015-12-11

    Under saline conditions, higher plants restrict the accumulation of chloride ions (Cl–) in the shoot by regulating their transfer from the root symplast into the xylem-associated apoplast. To identify molecular mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon, we undertook a transcriptional screen of salt stressed Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots. Microarrays, quantitative RT-PCR, and promoter-GUS fusions identified a candidate gene involved in Cl– xylem loading from the Nitrate transporter 1/Peptide Transporter family (NPF2.4). This gene was highly expressed in the root stele compared to the cortex, and its expression decreased after exposure to NaCl or abscisic acid. NPF2.4 fused to fluorescent proteins, expressed either transiently or stably, was targeted to the plasma membrane. Electrophysiological analysis of NPF2.4 in Xenopus laevis oocytes suggested that NPF2.4 catalyzed passive Cl– efflux out of cells and was much less permeable to NO3−. Shoot Cl– accumulation was decreased following NPF2.4 artificial microRNA knockdown, whereas it was increased by overexpression of NPF2.4. Taken together, these results suggest that NPF2.4 is involved in long-distance transport of Cl– in plants, playing a role in the loading and the regulation of Cl– loading into the xylem of Arabidopsis roots during salinity stress.

  19. Information concerning multidrug-resistant bacterial colonization or infection in the medical transfer letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, A; Laporte, S; Faure, S; Tiv, M; Chavanet, P; Belpois-Duchamp, C; Astruc, K; Aho-Glélé, L S

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the proportion of transfer letters that contained information relative to infection or colonization by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria and factors associated with the presence of that information. Patients for whom at least one of these selected MDR bacteria (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, or MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was isolated during their hospitalization and who were transferred to another health care facility between 2009 and 2012 were included. Information of the MDR bacterium and the mention of isolation precautions were evaluated in the electronic medical record. Information (mention of MDR bacterium or isolation precaution) was present in 57% [52; 65] of records. Full information (genus and species, concept of MDR bacterium and mention of isolation precaution) was found in 20% [16; 25]. The presence of a dedicated item in the standard medical discharge letter was associated with more frequent information. Less information was retrieved with P. aeruginosa cases than with the other 2 MDR bacteria. The presence of the information has improved, but it is still insufficiently reported. Measures to improve information are needed. Indeed, information on MDR bacterial colonization or infection is the first step for isolation precautions. An item could be added to all standard medical discharge letters. An item could also be added to the indicators used to assess quality and safety in healthcare facilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Expanding the transfer entropy to identify information circuits in complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramaglia, S; Wu, Guo-Rong; Pellicoro, M; Marinazzo, D

    2012-12-01

    We propose a formal expansion of the transfer entropy to put in evidence irreducible sets of variables which provide information for the future state of each assigned target. Multiplets characterized by a large contribution to the expansion are associated to the informational circuits present in the system, with an informational character which can be associated to the sign of the contribution. For the sake of computational complexity, we adopt the assumption of Gaussianity and use the corresponding exact formula for the conditional mutual information. We report the application of the proposed methodology on two electroencephalography (EEG) data sets.

  1. Information Transfer between Generations Linked to Biodiversity in Rock-Paper-Scissors Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Bose

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological processes, such as reproduction, mobility, and interaction between species, play important roles in the maintenance of biodiversity. Classically, the cyclic dominance of species has been modelled using the nonhierarchical interactions among competing species, represented by the “Rock-Paper-Scissors” (RPS game. Here we propose a cascaded channel model for analyzing the existence of biodiversity in the RPS game. The transition between successive generations is modelled as communication of information over a noisy communication channel. The rate of transfer of information over successive generations is studied using mutual information and it is found that “greedy” information transfer between successive generations may lead to conditions for extinction. This generalized framework can be used to study biodiversity in any number of interacting species, ecosystems with unequal rates for different species, and also competitive networks.

  2. From School to Work and from Work to School: Information Environments and Transferring Information Literacy Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This study, based in a Scottish secondary school, aimed to examine the views of students who were completing work experience, on their information literacy practices, and the differences they found between the school and workplace information environments while on work experience. The views of guidance teachers were also explored.…

  3. Social learning within and across species: information transfer in mouse-eared bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarin, T. M. A.; Borissov, I.; Page, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    ). Additionally, we opportunistically retested one individual that we recaptured from the wild 1 year after initial learning and found long-term memory of the trained association. Our study adds to the understanding of learning, information transfer, and long-term memory in wild-living animals....

  4. 75 FR 43536 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Permit To Transfer Containers to a Container Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Containers to a Container Station AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Permit to Transfer Containers to a Container Station. This is a proposed extension of an information collection that was previously...

  5. Deproteinized bone with VEGF gene transfer to facilitate the repair of early avascular necrosis of femoral head of rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Kai; HUANG Wei; AN Hong; JIANG Dian-ming; SHU Yong; HAN Zhi-min

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore a new method for early avascular necrosis of femoral head (AVNFH) therapy.Methods: Sixty-nine AVNFH New Zealand adult rabbits were randomly divided into three groups with equal number. In Group A, deproteinized bone (DPB) that absorbed with recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1-hVEGF165 was implanted into the drilled tunnel of necrotic femoral head. In Group B, only DPB was implanted. In Group C, only tunnel was drilled without DPB or plasmid implanted. Femoral head specimens were obtained at postoperative 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 weeks. The expression of VEGF165 and collagen I was detected by immunohistochemistry. Bone formation was detected generally by X-ray. Angiogenesis and the repair of the femoral head were observed histologically.Results: The expression of VEGF 165 could be detected 2 weeks after implantation in Group A, but it was not observed in other groups. The result of collagen I expression had a significantly difference 2, 4 and 8 weeks after operation in Group A from those in other groups (P<0.01).X-ray results indicated that there was more bone formation in Group A than in other groups. The regenerated capillary vessels staining result of necrotic femoral head in Group A was significantly different from those in other groups at postoperative 2 and 4 weeks (P<0.01).Conclusions: Transfection ofhVEGF165 gene enhances local angiogenesis and DPB-VEGF compound improves the repair of necrotic femoral head. Deproteinized bone grafting with VEGF gene transfer provides a potential method for the treatment of osteonecrosis.

  6. Are We Being Informed Correctly During the Patient Transfer to the Intensive Care Units?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Münire Babayiğit

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to demonstrate to what extent do the right information in patients’ inter-hospital transfers due to the intensive care indications Material and Method: In this study, 38 patients who applied to our general intensive care unit (ICU from the other hospitals were included. The demographic data of patients, declarations before ICU admission and diagnosis after admission, the reason and accuracy of the transfer, the overall stay time and the treatments in ICU were recorded. Results: Of all the patients, 17 of them (44.7% were male and 21 of them (55.3% were female. Of the people who informed the patients 50% were research assistants, 34.2% of them were medical specialists and 15.8% were paramedics. The most common causes of transfer were found to be invasive hemodynamic monitoring (52.6%, mechanical ventilation (36.8% and the need for dialysis (10.5%. As the patients were evaluated after admission to ICU, the 71.1% of the information about patients was found to be incomplete and/or misleading. The most common health problems that found to be not reported during acceptance were chronic systemic diseases (25.8%, emergent cardiac pathologies (16.1%, malignancy (12.9%, active infection (12.9%, psychiatric disorders (12.9% and neurological deficiencies (%9,7. Conclusion: This study revealed that the most of the patient transfers were made improperly with incomplete or misleading information and without the tertiary care ICU indication. In order to use ICU effectively, we believe that an efficient system which provides correct information should be used during inter-hospital patient transfer.

  7. Information transfer: what do decision makers want and need from researchers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Law Mary

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The purpose of this study was to undertake a systematic assessment of the need for research-based information by decision-makers working in community-based organizations. It is part of a more comprehensive knowledge transfer and exchange strategy that seeks to understand both the content required and the format/methods by which such information should be presented. Methods This was a cross-sectional telephone survey. Questions covered current practices, research use, and demographic information, as well as preferences for receiving research information. Three types of organizations participated: Children's Treatment Centres of Ontario (CTCs; Ontario Community Care Access Centres (CCACs; and District Health Councils (DHCs. The analysis used descriptive statistics and analyses of variance (ANOVA to describe and explore variations across organizations. Results The participation rate was 70%. The highest perception of barriers to the use of research information was reported by the CCAC respondents, followed by CTCs and DHCs. The CTCs and DHCs reported greater use of research evidence in planning decisions as compared to the CCACs. Four sources of information transfer were consistently identified. These were websites, health-related research journals, electronic mail, and conferences and workshops. Preferred formats for receiving information were executive summaries, abstracts, and original articles. Conclusion There were a number of similarities across organization type with respect to perceived barriers to research transfer, as well as the types of activities the organizations engaged in to promote research use in decision-making. These findings support the importance of developing interactive, collaborative knowledge transfer strategies, as well as the need to foster relationships with health care decision-makers, practitioners and policymakers.

  8. The dynamic of information-driven coordination phenomena: a transfer entropy analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Borge-Holthoefer, Javier; Gonçalves, Bruno; González-Bailón, Sandra; Arenas, Alex; Moreno, Yamir; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Data from social media are providing unprecedented opportunities to investigate the processes that rule the dynamics of collective social phenomena. Here, we consider an information theoretical approach to define and measure the temporal and structural signatures typical of collective social events as they arise and gain prominence. We use the symbolic transfer entropy analysis of micro-blogging time series to extract directed networks of influence among geolocalized sub-units in social systems. This methodology captures the emergence of system-level dynamics close to the onset of socially relevant collective phenomena. The framework is validated against a detailed empirical analysis of five case studies. In particular, we identify a change in the characteristic time-scale of the information transfer that flags the onset of information-driven collective phenomena. Furthermore, our approach identifies an order-disorder transition in the directed network of influence between social sub-units. In the absence of ...

  9. Moving Frames of Reference, Relativity and Invariance in Transfer Entropy and Information Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T. Lizier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new interpretation of a local framework for informationdynamics, including the transfer entropy, by defining a moving frame of reference for theobserver of dynamics in lattice systems. This formulation is inspired by the idea ofinvestigating “relativistic” effects on observing the dynamics of information - in particular,we investigate a Galilean transformation of the lattice system data. In applying thisinterpretation to elementary cellular automata, we demonstrate that using a moving frameof reference certainly alters the observed spatiotemporal measurements of informationdynamics, yet still returns meaningful results in this context. We find that, as expected,an observer will report coherent spatiotemporal structures that are moving in their frame asinformation transfer, and structures that are stationary in their frame as information storage.Crucially, the extent to which the shifted frame of reference alters the results dependson whether the shift of frame retains, adds or removes relevant information regarding thesource-destination interaction.

  10. Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer for MIMO Amplify-and-Forward Relay Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2016-01-06

    In this paper, we investigate the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) for the two-hop Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Amplify-and-Forward (AF) relay communication systems with the multiantenna energy harvesting relay. We derive the optimal source and relay covariance matrices to characterize the achievable region between the sourcedestination rate and the harvested energy at the relay, namely Rate-Energy (R-E) region. In this context, we consider the ideal scenario where the energy harvester (EH) receiver and the information decoder (ID) receiver at the relay can simultaneously decode the information and harvest the energy at the relay. Then, we consider more practical schemes which are the power splitting (PS) and the time switching (TS) which separate the EH and ID transfer over the power domain and the time domain, respectively.

  11. Hospital to Post-Acute Care Facility Transfers: Identifying Targets for Information Exchange Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christine D; Cumbler, Ethan; Honigman, Benjamin; Burke, Robert E; Boxer, Rebecca S; Levy, Cari; Coleman, Eric A; Wald, Heidi L

    2017-01-01

    Information exchange is critical to high-quality care transitions from hospitals to post-acute care (PAC) facilities. We conducted a survey to evaluate the completeness and timeliness of information transfer and communication between a tertiary-care academic hospital and its related PAC facilities. This was a cross-sectional Web-based 36-question survey of 110 PAC clinicians and staff representing 31 PAC facilities conducted between October and December 2013. We received responses from 71 of 110 individuals representing 29 of 31 facilities (65% and 94% response rates). We collapsed 4-point Likert responses into dichotomous variables to reflect completeness (sufficient vs insufficient) and timeliness (timely vs not timely) for information transfer and communication. Among respondents, 32% reported insufficient information about discharge medical conditions and management plan, and 83% reported at least occasionally encountering problems directly related to inadequate information from the hospital. Hospital clinician contact information was the most common insufficient domain. With respect to timeliness, 86% of respondents desired receipt of a discharge summary on or before the day of discharge, but only 58% reported receiving the summary within this time frame. Through free-text responses, several participants expressed the need for paper prescriptions for controlled pain medications to be sent with patients at the time of transfer. Staff and clinicians at PAC facilities perceive substantial deficits in content and timeliness of information exchange between the hospital and facilities. Such deficits are particularly relevant in the context of the increasing prevalence of bundled payments for care across settings as well as forthcoming readmissions penalties for PAC facilities. Targets identified for quality improvement include structuring discharge summary information to include information identified as deficient by respondents, completion of discharge summaries

  12. Somatic cell nuclear transfer in Oregon: expanding the pluripotent space and informing research ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Geoffrey P; DeWitt, Natalie D

    2013-12-01

    In May, Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU) announced the successful derivation, by the Mitalipov laboratory, of embryonic stem cells by somatic cell nuclear transfer. This experiment was recognized as a "formidable technical feat" and potentially a key step toward developing cell-based therapies. The OHSU report is also an example of how a scientific breakthrough can inform research ethics. This article suggests ways that nuclear transfer embryonic stem cell lines may contribute to research ethics by adding rigor to studies addressing pressing research questions important to the development of cell-based therapies.

  13. Information transfer with rate-modulated Poisson processes: a simple model for nonstationary stochastic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goychuk, I

    2001-08-01

    Stochastic resonance in a simple model of information transfer is studied for sensory neurons and ensembles of ion channels. An exact expression for the information gain is obtained for the Poisson process with the signal-modulated spiking rate. This result allows one to generalize the conventional stochastic resonance (SR) problem (with periodic input signal) to the arbitrary signals of finite duration (nonstationary SR). Moreover, in the case of a periodic signal, the rate of information gain is compared with the conventional signal-to-noise ratio. The paper establishes the general nonequivalence between both measures notwithstanding their apparent similarity in the limit of weak signals.

  14. Information transfer with rate-modulated Poisson processes: A simple model for nonstationary stochastic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goychuk, Igor

    2001-08-01

    Stochastic resonance in a simple model of information transfer is studied for sensory neurons and ensembles of ion channels. An exact expression for the information gain is obtained for the Poisson process with the signal-modulated spiking rate. This result allows one to generalize the conventional stochastic resonance (SR) problem (with periodic input signal) to the arbitrary signals of finite duration (nonstationary SR). Moreover, in the case of a periodic signal, the rate of information gain is compared with the conventional signal-to-noise ratio. The paper establishes the general nonequivalence between both measures notwithstanding their apparent similarity in the limit of weak signals.

  15. Public information influences sperm transfer to females in sailfin molly males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöbel, Sabine; Witte, Klaudia

    2013-01-01

    In animals, including humans, the social environment can serve as a public information network in which individuals can gather public information about the quality of potential mates by observing conspecifics during sexual interactions. The observing individual itself is also a part of this information network. When recognized by the observed conspecifics as an audience, his/her presence could influence the sexual interaction between those individuals, because the observer might be considered as a potential mate or competitor. One of the most challenging questions in sexual selection to date is how the use of public information in the context of mate choice is linked to the fitness of individuals. Here, we could show that public information influences mate-choice behaviour in sailfin molly males, Poecilia latipinna, and influences the amount of sperm males transfer to a female partner. In the presence of an audience male, males spent less time with the previously preferred, larger of two females and significantly more time with the previously non-preferred, smaller female. When males could physically interact with a female and were faced with an audience male, three audience females or no audience, males transferred significantly more sperm to a female partner in the presence of an audience male than with female audience or no audience and spent less time courting his female partner. This is the first study showing that public information use turns into fitness investment, which is the crucial factor to understand the role of public information in the dynamic processes in sexual selection.

  16. The dynamics of information-driven coordination phenomena: A transfer entropy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borge-Holthoefer, Javier; Perra, Nicola; Gonçalves, Bruno; González-Bailón, Sandra; Arenas, Alex; Moreno, Yamir; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Data from social media provide unprecedented opportunities to investigate the processes that govern the dynamics of collective social phenomena. We consider an information theoretical approach to define and measure the temporal and structural signatures typical of collective social events as they arise and gain prominence. We use the symbolic transfer entropy analysis of microblogging time series to extract directed networks of influence among geolocalized subunits in social systems. This methodology captures the emergence of system-level dynamics close to the onset of socially relevant collective phenomena. The framework is validated against a detailed empirical analysis of five case studies. In particular, we identify a change in the characteristic time scale of the information transfer that flags the onset of information-driven collective phenomena. Furthermore, our approach identifies an order-disorder transition in the directed network of influence between social subunits. In the absence of clear exogenous driving, social collective phenomena can be represented as endogenously driven structural transitions of the information transfer network. This study provides results that can help define models and predictive algorithms for the analysis of societal events based on open source data.

  17. Improved Max-Log-MAP Turbo Decoding by Maximization of Mutual Information Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimi Hamid Reza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for low-cost and low-power decoder chips has resulted in renewed interest in low-complexity decoding algorithms. In this paper, a novel theoretical framework for improving the performance of turbo decoding schemes that use the max-log-MAP algorithm is proposed. This framework is based on the concept of maximizing the transfer of mutual information between the component decoders. The improvements in performance can be achieved by using optimized iteration-dependent correction weights to scale the a priori information at the input of each component decoder. A method for the offline computation of the correction weights is derived. It is shown that a performance which approaches that of a turbo decoder using the optimum MAP algorithm can be achieved, while maintaining the advantages of low complexity and insensitivity to input scaling inherent in the max-log-MAP algorithm. The resulting improvements in convergence of the turbo decoding process and the expedited transfer of mutual information between the component decoders are illustrated via extrinsic information transfer (EXIT charts.

  18. A review of Wireless Information and Power Transfer in Multiuser OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the resource allocation algorithm design for multiuser orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM downlink systems with simultaneous wireless information and power transfer. The algorithm design is formulated as a non-convex optimization problem for maximizing the energy efficiency of data transmission (bit/Joule delivered to the users. In particular, the problem formulation takes into account the minimum required system data rate, heterogeneous minimum required power transfers to the users, and the circuit power consumption. Subsequently, by exploiting the method of timesharing and the properties of nonlinear fractional programming, the considered non-convex optimization problem is solved using an efficient iterative resource allocation algorithm. Recently, simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT becomes appealing by essentially providing a perpetual energy source for the wireless networks. For the TDMA-based information transmission, we employ TS at the receivers; for the OFDMA-based information transmission, we employ PS at the receivers. Under the above two scenarios, we address the problem of maximizing the weighted sum-rate over all users by varying the time/frequency power allocation and either TS or PS ratio, subject to a minimum harvested energy constraint on each user as well as a peak and/or total transmission power constraint.

  19. Short term synaptic depression imposes a frequency dependent filter on synaptic information transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Robert; Rubin, Jonathan; Doiron, Brent

    2012-01-01

    Depletion of synaptic neurotransmitter vesicles induces a form of short term depression in synapses throughout the nervous system. This plasticity affects how synapses filter presynaptic spike trains. The filtering properties of short term depression are often studied using a deterministic synapse model that predicts the mean synaptic response to a presynaptic spike train, but ignores variability introduced by the probabilistic nature of vesicle release and stochasticity in synaptic recovery time. We show that this additional variability has important consequences for the synaptic filtering of presynaptic information. In particular, a synapse model with stochastic vesicle dynamics suppresses information encoded at lower frequencies more than information encoded at higher frequencies, while a model that ignores this stochasticity transfers information encoded at any frequency equally well. This distinction between the two models persists even when large numbers of synaptic contacts are considered. Our study provides strong evidence that the stochastic nature neurotransmitter vesicle dynamics must be considered when analyzing the information flow across a synapse.

  20. Quantum Information Transfer in Circuit QED with Landau-Zener Tunneling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun-Wang; WU Chun-Wang; DAI Hong-Yi

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme to implement quantum information transfer between Cooper-pair boxes (CPBs) in a circuit quantum electrodynamic (QED) system with Landau-Zener tunneling. The system consists of two CPB qubits and a one-dimensional transmission line resonator (TLR). By analytically solving the eigenequation and numerically calculating the transition probability, the results show the quantum state transfer from one qubit to another via a fast adiabatic passage. The coupling mechanism is robust against decoherence effects.%@@ We propose a scheme to implement quantum information transfer between Cooper-pair boxes(CPBs)in a circuit quantum electrodynamic(QED)system with Landau-Zener tunneling.The system consists of two CPB qubits and a one-dimensional transmission line resonator(TLR).By analytically solving the eigenequation and numeri-cally calculating the transition probability,the results show the quantum state transfer from one qubit to another via a fast adiabatic passage.The coupling mechanism is robust against decoherence effects.

  1. Spectral Transfer Learning using Information Geometry for a User-Independent Brain-Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Roy Waytowich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in signal processing and machine learning techniques have enabled the application of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI technologies to fields such as medicine, industry and recreation. However, BCIs still suffer from the requirement of frequent calibration sessions due to the intra- and inter- individual variability of brain-signals, which makes calibration suppression through transfer learning an area of increasing interest for the development of practical BCI systems. In this paper, we present an unsupervised transfer method (spectral transfer using information geometry, STIG, which ranks and combines unlabeled predictions from an ensemble of information geometry classifiers built on data from individual training subjects. The STIG method is validated in both offline and real-time feedback analysis during a rapid serial visual presentation task (RSVP. For detection of single-trial, event-related potentials (ERPs, the proposed method can significantly outperform existing calibration-free techniques as well as outperform traditional within-subject calibration techniques when limited data is available. This method demonstrates that unsupervised transfer learning for single-trial detection in ERP-based BCIs can be achieved without the requirement of costly training data, representing a step-forward in the overall goal of achieving a practical user-independent BCI system.

  2. A novel estimator for the rate of information transfer by continuous signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouni Takalo

    Full Text Available The information transfer rate provides an objective and rigorous way to quantify how much information is being transmitted through a communications channel whose input and output consist of time-varying signals. However, current estimators of information content in continuous signals are typically based on assumptions about the system's linearity and signal statistics, or they require prohibitive amounts of data. Here we present a novel information rate estimator without these limitations that is also optimized for computational efficiency. We validate the method with a simulated Gaussian information channel and demonstrate its performance with two example applications. Information transfer between the input and output signals of a nonlinear system is analyzed using a sensory receptor neuron as the model system. Then, a climate data set is analyzed to demonstrate that the method can be applied to a system based on two outputs generated by interrelated random processes. These analyses also demonstrate that the new method offers consistent performance in situations where classical methods fail. In addition to these examples, the method is applicable to a wide range of continuous time series commonly observed in the natural sciences, economics and engineering.

  3. Information transfer via implicit encoding with delay time modulation in a time-delay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kye, Won-Ho, E-mail: whkye@kipo.go.kr [Korean Intellectual Property Office, Government Complex Daejeon Building 4, 189, Cheongsa-ro, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-20

    A new encoding scheme for information transfer with modulated delay time in a time-delay system is proposed. In the scheme, the message is implicitly encoded into the modulated delay time. The information transfer rate as a function of encoding redundancy in various noise scales is presented and it is analyzed that the implicit encoding scheme (IES) has stronger resistance against channel noise than the explicit encoding scheme (EES). In addition, its advantages in terms of secure communication and feasible applications are discussed. -- Highlights: ► We propose new encoding scheme with delay time modulation. ► The message is implicitly encoded with modulated delay time. ► The proposed scheme shows stronger resistance against channel noise.

  4. QoE-based transmission strategies for multi-user wireless information and power transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehun Jung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One solution to the problem of supplying energy to wireless networks is wireless power transfer. One such technology–electromagnetic radiation enabled wireless power transfer–will change traditional wireless networks. In this paper, we investigate a transmission strategy for multi-user wireless information and power transfer. We consider a multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO channel that includes one base station (BS and two user terminals (UT consisting of one energy harvesting (EH receiver and one information decoding (ID receiver. Our system provides transmission strategies that can be executed and implemented in practical scenarios. The paper then analyzes the rate–energy (R–E pair of our strategies and compares them to those of the theoretical optimal strategy. We furthermore propose a QoE-based mode selection algorithm by mapping the R–E pair to the utility functions.

  5. Quantum information transfer with superconducting flux qubits coupled to a resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chui-Ping

    2010-01-01

    We propose a way for implementing quantum information transfer with two superconducting flux qubits, by coupling them to a resonator. This proposal does not require adjustment of the level spacings or uniformity in the device parameters. Moreover, neither adiabatic passage nor a second-order detuning is needed by this proposal, thus the operation can be performed much faster when compared with the previous proposals.

  6. Informal value transfer systems and criminal organizations: A study into so-called underground banking networks

    OpenAIRE

    Passas, N.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a preliminary study into what is commonly called 'underground banking systems'. As the conventional banking industry is increasingly being regulated many fear that criminal organizations may turn to alternatives, such as underground banking systems - or informal value transfer systems (IVTS). The methods for this project consistes in a combination of archival, legal and historical analyses with unstructered interviews with regulators, law enforcement agent...

  7. A review of Wireless Information and Power Transfer in Multiuser OFDM Systems

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We study the resource allocation algorithm design for multiuser orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) downlink systems with simultaneous wireless information and power transfer. The algorithm design is formulated as a non-convex optimization problem for maximizing the energy efficiency of data transmission (bit/Joule delivered to the users). In particular, the problem formulation takes into account the minimum required system data rate, heterogeneous minimum required p...

  8. Application of Smart Antenna Technologies in Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Zhiguo; Zhong, Caijun; Ng, Derrick Wing Kwan; Peng, Mugen; Suraweera, Himal A.; Schober, Robert; Poor, H. Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) is a promising solution to increase the lifetime of wireless nodes and hence alleviate the energy bottleneck of energy constrained wireless networks. As an alternative to conventional energy harvesting techniques, SWIPT relies on the use of radio frequency signals, and is expected to bring some fundamental changes to the design of wireless communication networks. This article focuses on the application of advanced smart antenna tech...

  9. Efficient Cross-Modal Transfer of Shape Information in Visual and Haptic Object Categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Gaissert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Categorization has traditionally been studied in the visual domain with only a few studies focusing on the abilities of the haptic system in object categorization. During the first years of development, however, touch and vision are closely coupled in the exploratory procedures used by the infant to gather information about objects. Here, we investigate how well shape information can be transferred between those two modalities in a categorization task. Our stimuli consisted of amoeba-like objects that were parametrically morphed in well-defined steps. Participants explored the objects in a categorization task either visually or haptically. Interestingly, both modalities led to similar categorization behavior suggesting that similar shape processing might occur in vision and haptics. Next, participants received training on specific categories in one of the two modalities. As would be expected, training increased performance in the trained modality; however, we also found significant transfer of training to the other, untrained modality after only relatively few training trials. Taken together, our results demonstrate that complex shape information can be transferred efficiently across the two modalities, which speaks in favor of multisensory, higher-level representations of shape.

  10. Failures in communication and information transfer across the surgical care pathway: interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Kamal; Arora, Sonal; Vats, Amit; Wong, Helen W; Sevdalis, Nick; Vincent, Charles; Moorthy, Krishna

    2012-10-01

    Effective communication is imperative to safe surgical practice. Previous studies have typically focused upon the operating theatre. This study aimed to explore the communication and information transfer failures across the entire surgical care pathway. Using a qualitative approach, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 members of the multidisciplinary team (seven surgeons, five anaesthetists and six nurses) in an acute National Health Service trust. Participants' views regarding information transfer and communication failures at each phase of care, their causes, effects and potential interventions were explored. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and submitted to emergent theme analysis. Sampling ceased when categorical and theoretical saturation was achieved. Preoperatively, lack of communication between anaesthetists and surgeons was the most common problem (13/18 participants). Incomplete handover from the ward to theatre (12/18) and theatre to recovery (15/18) were other key problems. Work environment, lack of protocols and primitive forms of information transfer were reported as the most common cause of failures. Participants reported that these failures led to increased morbidity and mortality. Healthcare staff were strongly supportive of the view that standardisation and systematisation of communication processes was essential to improve patient safety. This study suggests communication failures occur across the entire continuum of care and the participants opined that it could have a potentially serious impact on patient safety. This data can be used to plan interventions targeted at the entire surgical pathway so as to improve the quality of care at all stages of the patient's journey.

  11. Efficient scheme for entangled states and quantum information transfer with trapped atoms in a resonator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Peng-Bo; Li Fu-Li

    2011-01-01

    A protocol is proposed to generate atomic entangled states and implement quantum information transfer in a cavity quantum electrodynamics system. It utilizes Raman transitions or stimulated Raman adiabatic passages between two systems to entangle the ground states of two three-state A-type atoms trapped in a single mode cavity. It does not need the measurements on cavity field nor atomic detection and can be implemented in a deterministic fashion. Since the present protocol is insensitive to both cavity decay and atomic spontaneous emission,it may have some interesting applications in quantum information processing.

  12. TRANSFER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “Chemistry Department, Kenyatta University, P. 0. Box 43844 ... harvester (X) [L 2] in a manner consistent with the following Forster equation for long range energy transfer [3-7]. .... sensitive foods, chemical reactors and essences. Recently we ...

  13. Facilitating medical information search using Google Glass connected to a content-based medical image retrieval system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Antoine; Schaer, Roger; Markonis, Dimitrios; Muller, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Wearable computing devices are starting to change the way users interact with computers and the Internet. Among them, Google Glass includes a small screen located in front of the right eye, a camera filming in front of the user and a small computing unit. Google Glass has the advantage to provide online services while allowing the user to perform tasks with his/her hands. These augmented glasses uncover many useful applications, also in the medical domain. For example, Google Glass can easily provide video conference between medical doctors to discuss a live case. Using these glasses can also facilitate medical information search by allowing the access of a large amount of annotated medical cases during a consultation in a non-disruptive fashion for medical staff. In this paper, we developed a Google Glass application able to take a photo and send it to a medical image retrieval system along with keywords in order to retrieve similar cases. As a preliminary assessment of the usability of the application, we tested the application under three conditions (images of the skin; printed CT scans and MRI images; and CT and MRI images acquired directly from an LCD screen) to explore whether using Google Glass affects the accuracy of the results returned by the medical image retrieval system. The preliminary results show that despite minor problems due to the relative stability of the Google Glass, images can be sent to and processed by the medical image retrieval system and similar images are returned to the user, potentially helping in the decision making process.

  14. Quantifying information transfer by protein domains: Analysis of the Fyn SH2 domain structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenaerts, Tom; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Stricher, Francois

    2008-01-01

    that directly relates protein structural dynamics to information exchange between functional sites is still lacking. Results: Here we introduce a method to analyze protein dynamics within the framework of information theory and show that signal transduction within proteins can be considered as a particular...... distal communication is achieved. We illustrate the approach by analyzing information transfer by the SH2 domain of Fyn tyrosine kinase, obtained from Monte Carlo dynamics simulations. Our analysis reveals that the Fyn SH2 domain forms a noisy communication channel that couples residues located...... by crossing the core of the SH2 domain. Conclusion: As a result, our method provides a means to directly map the exchange of biological information on the structure of protein domains, making it clear how binding triggers conformational changes in the protein structure. As such it provides a structural road...

  15. Quantifying Information Flow between Two Chaotic Semiconductor Lasers Using Symbolic Transfer Entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Nian-Qiang; PAN Wei; YAN Lian-Shan; LUO Bin; XU Ming-Feng; TANG Yi-Long

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic transfer entropy (STE) is employed to quantify the dominant direction of information flow between two chaotic-semiconductor-laser time series.The information flow in unidirectionally and bidirectionally coupled systems was analyzed systematically.Numerical results show that the dependence relationship can be revealed if there exists any coupling between two chaotic semiconductor lasers.More importantly,in both unsynchronized and good synchronization regimes,the STE can be used to quantify the direction of information flow between the lasers,although the former case leads to a better identification.The results thus establish STE as an effective tool for quantifying the direction of information flow between chaotic-laser-based systems.

  16. Wireless Information and Power Transfer: Architecture Design and Rate-Energy Tradeoff

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Xun; Ho, Chin Keong

    2012-01-01

    Simultaneous information and power transfer over the wireless channels potentially offers great convenience to mobile users. Yet practical receiver designs impose technical constraints on its hardware realization, as practical circuits for harvesting energy from radio signals are not yet able to decode the carried information directly. To make theoretical progress, we propose a general receiver operation, namely, dynamic power splitting (DPS), which splits the received signal with adjustable power for energy harvesting and for information decoding. Moreover, we propose two types of practical receiver architectures, namely, separated versus integrated information and energy receivers. The integrated receiver integrates the front-end components of the separated receiver, thus achieving a smaller form factor. The rateenergy tradeoff for these two architectures are characterized by a so-called rate-energy (R-E) region. Numerical results show that the R-E region of the integrated receiver is superior to that of th...

  17. Out-of-hours palliative care provided by GP co-operatives: availability, content and effect of transferred information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deliens Luc

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Out-of-hours GP care in England, Denmark and the Netherlands has been reorganised and is now provided by large scale GP co-operatives. Adequate transfer of information is necessary in order to assure continuity of care, which is of major importance in palliative care. We conducted a study to assess the availability, content and effect of information transferred to the GP co-operatives. Methods Cross-sectional exploratory study of all palliative care phone calls during a period of one year to a GP co-operative. Results The total number of phone calls about patients who needed palliative care was 0.75% of all calls to the GP co-operative. Information was transferred by GPs on 25.5% of palliative care patient calls, and on 12% of palliative care patient calls from residential care homes. For terminally ill patients the number of information transfers increased to 28.9%. When information was transferred, the content consisted mainly of clinical data. Information about the diagnosis and current problems was transferred in more than 90% of cases, information about the patient's wishes in 45% and information about the patient's psychosocial situation in 30.5% of cases. A home visit was made after 53% of the palliative care calls. When information was transferred, fewer patients were referred to a hospital. Conclusion GPs frequently fail to transfer information about their palliative care patients to the GP co-operatives. Locums working at the GP co-operative are thus required to provide palliative care in complex situations without receiving adequate information GPs should be encouraged and trained to make this information available to the GP co-operatives.

  18. Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer for MIMO Amplify-and-Forward Relay Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2016-03-28

    © 2015 IEEE. In this paper, we investigate two-hop Multiple- Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Amplify-and-Forward (AF) relay communication systems with simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) at the multi-antenna energy harvesting relay. We derive the optimal source and relay covariance matrices to characterize the achievable region between the source-destination rate and the harvested energy at the relay, namely Rate-Energy (R-E) region. In this context, we consider the ideal scenario where the energy harvester (EH) receiver and the information decoder (ID) receiver at the relay can simultaneously decode the information and harvest the energy at the relay. This scheme provides an outer bound for the achievable R-E region since practical energy harvesting circuits are not yet able to harvest the energy and decode the information simultaneously. Then, we consider more practical schemes which are the power splitting (PS) and the time switching (TS) proposed in [1] and which separate the EH and ID transfer over the power domain and the time domain, respectively. In our study, we derive the boundary of the achievable R- E region and we show the effect of the source transmit power, the relay transmit power and the position of the relay between the source and the destination on the achievable R-E region for the ideal scenario and the two practical schemes.

  19. Public information influences sperm transfer to females in sailfin molly males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Nöbel

    Full Text Available In animals, including humans, the social environment can serve as a public information network in which individuals can gather public information about the quality of potential mates by observing conspecifics during sexual interactions. The observing individual itself is also a part of this information network. When recognized by the observed conspecifics as an audience, his/her presence could influence the sexual interaction between those individuals, because the observer might be considered as a potential mate or competitor. One of the most challenging questions in sexual selection to date is how the use of public information in the context of mate choice is linked to the fitness of individuals. Here, we could show that public information influences mate-choice behaviour in sailfin molly males, Poecilia latipinna, and influences the amount of sperm males transfer to a female partner. In the presence of an audience male, males spent less time with the previously preferred, larger of two females and significantly more time with the previously non-preferred, smaller female. When males could physically interact with a female and were faced with an audience male, three audience females or no audience, males transferred significantly more sperm to a female partner in the presence of an audience male than with female audience or no audience and spent less time courting his female partner. This is the first study showing that public information use turns into fitness investment, which is the crucial factor to understand the role of public information in the dynamic processes in sexual selection.

  20. Design and analysis of power supply and information transfer to three-axis gyroscope stabilizer platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyanin Lev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on problems of the engineering implementation of 3-axis gyrostabilizer of the camera for orthophotography performed from light and ultralight aircrafts. The functional diagram of gyrostabilizer is characterized by a lighter ball-bearing having a large inner diameter used for the platform suspension on its internal (vertical axis. The problem is to transfer the supply voltage to the platform and the electric signals to and from the platform. Design solutions concerning the power supply and information transfer are supported by the experimental techniques suggested in this paper, namely: the use of the rolling contact; three-phase gyro motor power supply replaced by that from the single-phase network; signal transmission from the precession angle sensor using the air transformer; current and voltage frequency division; DC mode selection for the torquer. The results obtained prove the efficiency of the suggested design solutions.

  1. Information transfer through a signaling module with feedback: a perturbative approach

    CERN Document Server

    Aquino, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Signal transduction in biological cells is effected by signaling pathways that typically include multiple feedback loops. Here we analyze information transfer through a prototypical signaling module with biochemical feedback. The module switches stochastically between an inactive and active state; the input to the module governs the activation rate while the output (i.e., the product concentration) perturbs the inactivation rate. Using a novel perturbative approach, we compute the rate with which information about the input is gained from observation of the output. We obtain an explicit analytical result valid to first order in feedback strength and to second order in the strength of input. The total information gained during an extended time interval is found to depend on the feedback strength only through the total number of activation/inactivation events.

  2. Inter-basin water transfer-supply model and risk analysis with consideration of rainfall forecast information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a new inter-basin water transfer-supply and risk assessment model with consideration of rainfall forecast information. Firstly, based on the current state of reservoir and rainfall forecast information from the global forecast system (GFS), the actual diversion amount can be determined according to the inter-basin water transfer rules with the decision tree method; secondly, the reservoir supply operation system is used to distribute water resource of the inter-basin water transfer reservoir; finally, the integrated risk assessment model is built by selecting the reliability of water transfer, the reliability (water shortage risk), the resiliency and the vulnerability of water supply as risk analysis indexes. The case study shows that the inter-basin water transfer-supply model with rainfall forecast information considered can reduce the comprehensive risk and improve the utilization efficiency of water resource, as compared with conventional and optimal water distribution models.

  3. Awareness Training Transfer and Information Security Content Development for Healthcare Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Ghazvini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Health Record (EHR becomes increasingly pervasive and the need to safeguard EHR becomes more vital for healthcare organizations. Human error is known as the biggest threat to information security in Electronic Health Systems that can be minimized through awareness training programs. There are various techniques available for awareness of information security. However, research is scant regarding effective information security awareness delivery methods. It is essential that effective awareness training delivery method is selected, designed, and executed to ensure the appropriate protection of organizational assets. This study adapts Holton’s transfer of training model to develop a framework for effective information security awareness training program. The framework provides guidelines for organizations to select an effective delivery method based on the organizations’ needs and success factor, and to create information security content from a selected healthcare’s internal information security policy and related international standards. Organizations should make continual efforts to ensure that content of policy is effectively communicated to the employees.

  4. The study on knowledge transferring incentive for information system requirement development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yang [School of Economics and Business Administration, Chongqing University (China)

    2015-03-10

    Information system requirement development is a process of users’ knowledge sharing and transferring. However the tacit requirements developing is a main problem during requirement development process, for the reason of difficult to encoding, express, and communicate. Knowledge fusion and corporate effort is needed to finding tacit requirements. Under this background, our paper try to find out the rule of effort dynamic evolutionary of software developer and user by building an evolutionary game model on the condition of incentive system. And in addition this paper provides an in depth discussion at the end of this paper.

  5. Roles of Course Facilitators, Learners, and Technology in the Flow of Information of a cMOOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrypnyk, Oleksandra; Joksimovic, Srec´ko; Kovanovic, Vitomir; Gas?evic, Dragan; Dawson, Shane

    2015-01-01

    Distributed Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are based on the premise that online learning occurs through a network of interconnected learners. The teachers' role in distributed courses extends to forming such a network by facilitating communication that connects learners and their separate personal learning environments scattered around the…

  6. Supporting Accomplished Facilitation: Examining the Use of Sppreciative Inquiry to Inform the Development of Learning Resources for Medical Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Paul; Freeth, Della; Berridge, Emma Jane

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the use of appreciative inquiry (AI) to guide development of web-based learning resources for medical educators who facilitate simulation-based learning experiences for doctors-in-training. AI can be viewed as a positive form of action research, which seeks to avoid deficit-based analyses and solutions, and commonly associated…

  7. The responsibility of the translator by the intercultural transference of information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Tosun

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available If we look at the translator as a expert who transfers only to the source-linguistic text information in the target text, our definition is not enough to understand this complicated process. The translator transfers the texts of a culture of a language in another culture of another language. The translator should exactly know the culture of the target language, and produce his translation purpose-oriented after the expectations of this culture. The text types offer the translator the possibility in which way he can understand the sourcetext and translate into the targettext. Without knowing with which purposes and which receiver's circle he translates, every discussion is vain and not translation-scientific. A translation hangs together always with the connection of a text. Without text there is no translation.The subject of our article is a discussion in Turkey about a translation. It is about a translation in the Turkish. It is about a source-linguistic text which tells about the remedial customer of Sebastian Kneipp. This book was violently criticized in Turkey as a translation. It is maintained that this translation manipulates the original text, and wrong transfers. But there is no translator and no translation.

  8. Short term synaptic depression imposes a frequency dependent filter on synaptic information transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rosenbaum

    Full Text Available Depletion of synaptic neurotransmitter vesicles induces a form of short term depression in synapses throughout the nervous system. This plasticity affects how synapses filter presynaptic spike trains. The filtering properties of short term depression are often studied using a deterministic synapse model that predicts the mean synaptic response to a presynaptic spike train, but ignores variability introduced by the probabilistic nature of vesicle release and stochasticity in synaptic recovery time. We show that this additional variability has important consequences for the synaptic filtering of presynaptic information. In particular, a synapse model with stochastic vesicle dynamics suppresses information encoded at lower frequencies more than information encoded at higher frequencies, while a model that ignores this stochasticity transfers information encoded at any frequency equally well. This distinction between the two models persists even when large numbers of synaptic contacts are considered. Our study provides strong evidence that the stochastic nature neurotransmitter vesicle dynamics must be considered when analyzing the information flow across a synapse.

  9. Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer Mechanism in Interference Alignment Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahui Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT mechanism in an interference alignment (IA relay system, in which source nodes send wireless information and energy simultaneously to relay nodes, and relay nodes forward the received signal to destination nodes powered by harvested energy. To manage interference and utilize interference as energy source, two-SWIPT receiver is designed, namely, power splitting (PS, and antennas switching (AS has been considered for relay system. The performance of AS- and PS-based IA relay systems is considered, as is a new energy cooperation (ECop scheme that is proposed to improve system performance. Numerical results are provided to evaluate the performance of all schemes and it is shown from the simulations that the performance of proposed ECop outperformed both AS and PS.

  10. Study of information hiding algorithm based on GHM and color transfer theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Shuai; MU De-jun; ZHANG Tao; HU Wei

    2009-01-01

    Taking the feature that the energy of the image would gather and spread on four components (LL2, LH2, HL2 and HH2) in the sub-image atfer first-order GHM multi-wavelet-transform. And by using the color control ability oflαβ color space in color transfer theory (CTT), an information hiding algorithm based on GHM-CTT is proposed. In this way, the robust parameters are embedded in the LL2, the hidden information is set in LH2 and HL2 with RAID4, and fragile sign is set in HH2. The consistence between the embedded data bits' order and the embedded code of the sub-image is improved by using the chaotic mapping and the genetic algorithm. Experimental results indicate that the GHM-CTT can increase the imperceptibility by 15.72% averagely and robustness by 18.89% at least.

  11. Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer for Decode-and-Forward MIMO Relay Communication Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) for a decode-and-forward (DF) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay system where the relay is an energy harvesting node. We consider the ideal scenario where both the energy harvesting (EH) receiver and information decoding (ID) receiver at the relay have access to the whole received signal and its energy. The relay harvests the energy while receiving the signal from the source and uses the harvested power to forward the signal to the destination. We obtain the optimal precoders at the source and the relay to maximize the achievable throughput rate of the overall link. In the numerical results, the effect of the transmit power at the source and the position of the relay between the source and the destination on the maximum achievable rate are investigated. © 2015 IEEE.

  12. A transparent and transferable framework for tracking quality information in large datasets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek E Smith

    Full Text Available The ability to evaluate the validity of data is essential to any investigation, and manual "eyes on" assessments of data quality have dominated in the past. Yet, as the size of collected data continues to increase, so does the effort required to assess their quality. This challenge is of particular concern for networks that automate their data collection, and has resulted in the automation of many quality assurance and quality control analyses. Unfortunately, the interpretation of the resulting data quality flags can become quite challenging with large data sets. We have developed a framework to summarize data quality information and facilitate interpretation by the user. Our framework consists of first compiling data quality information and then presenting it through 2 separate mechanisms; a quality report and a quality summary. The quality report presents the results of specific quality analyses as they relate to individual observations, while the quality summary takes a spatial or temporal aggregate of each quality analysis and provides a summary of the results. Included in the quality summary is a final quality flag, which further condenses data quality information to assess whether a data product is valid or not. This framework has the added flexibility to allow "eyes on" information on data quality to be incorporated for many data types. Furthermore, this framework can aid problem tracking and resolution, should sensor or system malfunctions arise.

  13. Performance Evaluation of Linear Turbo-Receivers Using Analytical Extrinsic Information Transfer Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Szczeciński

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Turbo-receivers reduce the effect of the interference-limited propagation channels through the iterative exchange of information between the front-end receiver and the channel decoder. Such an iterative (turbo process is difficult to describe in a closed form so the performance evaluation is often done by means of extensive numerical simulations. Analytical methods for performance evaluation have also been proposed in the literature, based on Gaussian approximation of the output of the linear signal combiner. In this paper, we propose to use mutual information to parameterize the logarithmic-likelihood ratios (LLRs at the input/output of the decoder, casting our approach into the framework of extrinsic information transfer (EXIT analysis. We find the EXIT functions of the front-end (FE receiver analytically, that is, using solely the information about the channel state. This is done, decomposing the FE receiver into elementary blocks described independently. Our method gives an insight into the principle of functioning of the linear turbo-receivers, allows for an accurate calculation of the expected bit error rate in each iteration, and is more flexible than the one previously used in the literature, allowing us to analyze the performance for various FE structures. We compare the proposed analytical method with the results of simulated data transmission in case of multiple antennas transceivers.

  14. An Optimal Transmission Strategy for Joint Wireless Information and Energy Transfer in MIMO Relay Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingcheng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimal resource allocation strategy for MIMO relay system is considered in simultaneous wireless information and energy transfer network, where two users with multiple antennas communicate with each other assisted by an energy harvesting MIMO relay that gathers energy from the received signal by applying time switching scheme and forwards the received signal by using the harvesting energy. It is focused on the precoder design and resource allocation strategies for the system to allocate the resources among the nodes in decode-and-forward (DF mode. Specifically, optimal precoder design and energy transfer strategy in MIMO relay channel are firstly proposed. Then, we formulate the resource allocation optimization problem. The closed-form solutions for the time and power allocation are derived. It is revealed that the solution can flexibly allocate the resource for the MIMO relay channel to maximize the sum rate of the system. Simulation results demonstrated that the performance of the proposed algorithm outperforms the traditional fixed method.

  15. Challenges of Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Education and Technology Transfer in a Fast Developing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, F.; Chen, L.-C.

    2014-04-01

    During the past decade, Taiwan has experienced an unusual and fast growing in the industry of mapping, remote sensing, spatial information and related markets. A successful space program and dozens of advanced airborne and ground-based remote sensing instruments as well as mobile mapping systems have been implemented and put into operation to support the vast demands of geospatial data acquisition. Moreover, in addition to the government agencies and research institutes, there are also tens of companies in the private sector providing geo-spatial data and services. However, the fast developing industry is also posing a great challenge to the education sector in Taiwan, especially the higher education for geo-spatial information. Facing this fast developing industry, the demands of skilled professionals and new technologies in order to address diversified needs are indubitably high. Consequently, while delighting in the expanding and prospering benefitted from the fast growing industry, how to fulfill these demands has become a challenge for the remote sensing and spatial information disciplines in the higher education institutes in Taiwan. This paper provides a brief insight into the status of the remote sensing and spatial information industry in Taiwan as well as the challenges of the education and technology transfer to support the increasing demands and to ensure the continuous development of the industry. In addition to the report of the current status of the remote sensing and spatial information related courses and programs in the colleges and universities, current and potential threatening issues and possible resolutions are also discussed in different points of view.

  16. Information transfer in a TEM corrected for spherical and chromatic aberration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, M; Hartel, P; Müller, H; Uhlemann, S; Zach, J

    2010-08-01

    For the transmission electron aberration-corrected microscope (TEAM) initiative of five U.S. Department of Energy laboratories in the United States, a correction system for the simultaneous compensation of the primary axial aberrations, the spherical aberration Cs, and the chromatic aberration Cc has been developed and successfully installed. The performance of the resulting Cc /Cs-corrected TEAM instrument has been investigated thoroughly. A significant improvement of the linear contrast transfer can be demonstrated. The information about the instrument one obtains using Young's fringe method is compared for uncorrected, Cs-corrected, and Cc /Cs-corrected instruments. The experimental results agree well with simulations. The conclusions might be useful to others in understanding the process of image formation in a Cc /Cs-corrected transmission electron microscope.

  17. 48 CFR 52.232-35 - Designation of Office for Government Receipt of Electronic Funds Transfer Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Contractor Registration, the Government has designated the office cited in paragraph (c) of this clause as... information to the payment office, or any other office than that designated in paragraph (c). The Government... Government Receipt of Electronic Funds Transfer Information. 52.232-35 Section 52.232-35 Federal Acquisition...

  18. Information technology as a facilitator of suppliers’ collaborative communication, network governance and relationship longevity in supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Chinomona

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing awareness about the paramount importance of information technology within business in the context of large businesses. However, research about the investigation of the role of information technology resources in fostering collaborative communication, network governance and relationship longevity in the small and medium enterprise sector has remained scant. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the influence of information technology on collaborative communication, network governance and relationship longevity in Zimbabwe’s SME sector. Five research hypotheses were posited and sample data from 162 small and medium enterprise suppliers were collected and used to empirically test the hypotheses. The results of this study showed that information technology resources positively influenced small and medium enterprise suppliers’ collaborative communication, network governance and consequential relationship longevity with their buyers in a significant way. Overall, the current study findings provided tentative support to the proposition that information technology resources, collaborative communication and network governance should be recognised as significant antecedents for improved relationship longevity between suppliers and their buyers in the SME setting. Therefore, managers in the small and medium enterprise sector and small and medium enterprise owners need to pay attention to both collaborative communication and network governance in order to optimise information technology resource impact on their relationship longevity with their business counterparts. Limitations and future research directions were also indicated.

  19. Sensory modulation and trauma-informed-care knowledge transfer and translation in mental health services in Victoria: Evaluation of a statewide train-the-trainer intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvedy, Samantha; Maguire, Tessa; Furness, Trentham; McKenna, Brian

    2017-07-01

    Sensory modulation (SM) and trauma-informed-care (TIC) are therapeutic strategies which can help avoid incidents of aggression and thus reduce the use of restrictive interventions in mental health settings. In order to educate mental health nurses and allied health professionals in these strategies, a train-the-trainer intervention was developed and delivered to 19 area mental health services as a statewide, government funded program. This descriptive qualitative study evaluated the effectiveness of the intervention to: a) transfer knowledge; and, b) translate knowledge into practice. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with senior staff (n = 21); focus group discussions with trainees (n = 10); and, a paired in-depth interview with master trainers (n = 2). In total, 170 trainees attended two day train-the-trainer sessions. Many trainees were not in education roles. Most services facilitated further knowledge transfer to end-user clinicians, though training materials were often adapted. End-users' responses to SM/TIC training were generally positive to the training, but some were resistant to the change in practice. Limited anecdotal evidence of translation of SM/TIC into practice was provided. Ongoing support is required to maintain a focus on SM and TIC, sustain and encourage further knowledge transfer and translation, and assess the impact on consumer and staff health outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Facilitated alkali ion transfer at the water 1,2-dichloroethane interphase Ab-initio calculations concerning alkaline metal cation - 1,10-phenanthroline complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, C; Baruzzi, A M; Leiva, E P M

    1997-01-01

    A series of calculations on the energetics of complexation of alkaline metals with 1,10-phenanthroline are presented. It is an experimental fact that the ordering of the free energy of transfer across the water - 1,2-dichloroethane interphase is governed by the charge / size ratio of the diferent cations; the larger cations showing the lower free energy of transfer. This ordering of the free energies of transfer is reverted in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline in the organic phase. We have devised a thermodynamic cycle for the transfer process and by means of ab-initio calculations have drawn the conclusion that in the presence of phen the free energy of transfer is governed by the stability of the PHEN/M $^{+}$complex, which explains the observed tendency from a theoretical point of view.

  1. Developing and pre-testing a decision board to facilitate informed choice about delivery approach in uncomplicated pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Stephen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of caesarean sections is increasing worldwide, yet medical literature informing women with uncomplicated pregnancies about relative risks and benefits of elective caesarean section (CS compared with vaginal delivery (VD remains scarce. A decision board may address this gap, providing systematic evidence-based information so that patients can more fully understand their treatment options. The objective of our study was to design and pre-test a decision board to guide clinical discussions and enhance informed decision-making related to delivery approach (CS or VD in uncomplicated pregnancy. Methods Development of the decision board involved two preliminary studies to determine women's preferred mode of risk presentation and a systematic literature review for the most comprehensive presentation of medical risks at the time (VD and CS. Forty women were recruited to pre-test the tool. Eligible subjects were of childbearing age (18-40 years but were not pregnant in order to avoid raising the expectation among pregnant women that CS was a universally available birth option. Women selected their preferred delivery approach and completed the Decisional Conflict Scale to measure decisional uncertainty before and after reviewing the decision board. They also answered open-ended questions reflecting what they had learned, whether or not the information had helped them to choose between birth methods, and additional information that should be included. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse sample characteristics and women's choice of delivery approach pre/post decision board. Change in decisional conflict was measured using Wilcoxon's sign rank test for each of the three subscales. Results The majority of women reported that they had learned something new (n = 37, 92% and that the tool had helped them make a hypothetical choice between delivery approaches (n = 34, 85%. Women wanted more information about neonatal risks and

  2. Perceived barriers and facilitators to increasing physical activity among people with musculoskeletal disorders: a qualitative investigation to inform intervention development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPhail SM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Steven M McPhail,1,2 Mandy Schippers,1,2 Alison L Marshall,1 Monique Waite,1,2 Pim Kuipers2,3 1Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation and School of Public Health and Social Work, Queensland University of Technology, 2Centre for Functioning and Health Research, Metro South Health, 3Griffith Health Institute and School of Human Services and Social Work, Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Purpose: Musculoskeletal conditions can impair people’s ability to undertake physical activity as they age. The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate perceived barriers and facilitators to undertaking physical activity reported by patients accessing ambulatory hospital clinics for musculoskeletal disorders.Patients and methods: A questionnaire with open-ended items was administered to patients (n=217, 73.3% of 296 eligible from three clinics providing ambulatory services for nonsurgical treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. The survey included questions to capture the clinical and demographic characteristics of the sample. It also comprised two open-ended questions requiring qualitative responses. The first asked the participant to describe factors that made physical activity more difficult, and the second asked which factors made it easier for them to be physically active. Participants’ responses to the two open-ended questions were read, coded, and thematically analyzed independently by two researchers, with a third researcher available to arbitrate any unresolved disagreement. Results: The mean (standard deviation age of participants was 53 (15 years; n=113 (52.1% were male. A total of 112 (51.6% participants reported having three or more health conditions; n=140 (64.5% were classified as overweight or obese. Five overarching themes describing perceived barriers for undertaking physical activity were “health conditions”, “time restrictions”, “poor physical condition”, “emotional, social, and psychological

  3. Simultaneous wireless information and power transfer for spectrum sharing in cognitive radio communication systems

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2016-07-26

    In this paper, we consider the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer for the spectrum sharing (SS) in cognitive radio (CR) systems with a multi-antenna energy harvesting (EH) primary receiver (PR). The PR uses the antenna switching (AS) technique that assigns a subset of the PR\\'s antennas to harvest the energy from the radio frequency (RF) signals sent by the secondary transmitter (ST), and assigns the rest of the PR\\'s antennas to decode the information data. In this context, the primary network allows the secondary network to use the spectrum as long as the interference induced by the secondary transmitter (ST)\\'s signals is beneficial for the energy harvesting process at the PR side. The objective of this work is to show that the spectrum sharing is beneficial for both the SR and PR sides and leads to a win-win situation. To illustrate the incentive of the spectrum sharing cognitive system, we evaluate the mutual outage probability (MOP) introduced in [1] which declares an outage event if the PR or the secondary receiver (SR) is in an outage. Through the simulation results, we show that the performance of our system in terms of the MOP is always better than the performance of the system in the absence of ST and improves as the ST-PR interference increases. © 2016 IEEE.

  4. Face adaptation effects: Reviewing the impact of adapting information, time, and transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo eStrobach

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to adapt is essential to live and survive in an ever-changing environment such as the human ecosystem. Here we review the literature on adaptation effects of face stimuli to give an overview of existing findings in this area, highlight gaps in its research literature, initiate new directions in face adaptation research and help to design future adaptation studies. Furthermore, this review should lead to better understanding of the processing characteristics as well as the mental representations of face-relevant information. The review systematises studies at a behavioral level in respect of a framework which includes 3 dimensions representing the major characteristics of studies in this field of research. These dimensions comprise (1 the specificity of adapting face information, e.g. identity, gender or age aspects of the material to be adapted to, (2 aspects of timing (e.g., the sustainability of adaptation effects, and (3 transfer relations between face images presented during adaptation and adaptation tests (e.g., images of the same or different identities. The review concludes with options for how to combine findings across different dimensions to demonstrate the relevance of our framework for future studies.

  5. Face adaptation effects: reviewing the impact of adapting information, time, and transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2013-01-01

    The ability to adapt is essential to live and survive in an ever-changing environment such as the human ecosystem. Here we review the literature on adaptation effects of face stimuli to give an overview of existing findings in this area, highlight gaps in its research literature, initiate new directions in face adaptation research, and help to design future adaptation studies. Furthermore, this review should lead to better understanding of the processing characteristics as well as the mental representations of face-relevant information. The review systematizes studies at a behavioral level in respect of a framework which includes three dimensions representing the major characteristics of studies in this field of research. These dimensions comprise (1) the specificity of adapting face information, e.g., identity, gender, or age aspects of the material to be adapted to (2) aspects of timing (e.g., the sustainability of adaptation effects) and (3) transfer relations between face images presented during adaptation and adaptation tests (e.g., images of the same or different identities). The review concludes with options for how to combine findings across different dimensions to demonstrate the relevance of our framework for future studies.

  6. CONCEPTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF A SYSTEM USED TO ORGANIZE AND FACILITATE ACCESS TO ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION AND ITS USE IN AREAS CONTAMINATED BY INDUSTRIAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Côrtes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In São Paulo State (Brazil coastal area, for several years, a chemical industry discharged, without any sort of environmental control, a blend of industrial waste formed by Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs. Judicial suits forced the company to identify and limit such deposits in order to perform environmental recovery work. Project were developed demanding preparation and handling of a large amount of documents, satellite images, aerial photographs, maps and videos with the increase of the information and knowledge management issues. This condition became even more critical as the projects started to become cross-disciplinary, involving a growing number of experts, many of them established in different cities. Those circumstances led to the generation of an Environmental Information System (BASGEO enabling organization and facilitation of access to such documents while increasing information safety. This work shows the development of this system and the difficulties related to environmental documents management and handling.

  7. Intact emotion facilitation for nonsocial stimuli in autism: is amygdala impairment in autism specific for social information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Mikle; Ozonoff, Sally; Suchy, Yana; Kesner, Raymond P; McMahon, William M; Lainhart, Janet E

    2008-01-01

    Atypical amygdala development may play a key role in the emergence of social disability and other symptoms of autism (Baron-Cohen et al., 2000; Schultz, 2005). The mechanisms by which this may occur have received little attention, however, and most support from behavioral and imaging studies has been concerned with socially relevant stimuli such as faces. Given the complexity of amygdala function and its known role in many other emotional tasks, we examined whether individuals with autism would demonstrate impaired performance on several tasks that have been shown to require activation of the amygdala but that do not have any explicit social meaning. Relative to a typical comparison group matched for age and IQ, our sample of 37 adolescents and adults with autism (mean age=19.7 years) demonstrated equivalent facilitation for perception and learning of emotionally relevant stimuli. On each of four tasks, there were significant main effects of emotion condition on performance for both groups. Future research regarding atypical amygdala function and emotion processing in autism should consider whether the response to nonsocial emotion factors (including negative valence or high arousal) may be intact, despite difficulties in responding to socially relevant stimuli.

  8. Romanian Higher Education as a Facilitator of Romania's Continued Formal and Informal Integration in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salajan, Florin D.; Chiper, Sorina

    2013-01-01

    This article conducts an exploration of Romania's European integration process through higher education. It contends that integration occurs at "formal" and "informal levels" through institutional norms and human agency, respectively. Through theoretical and empirical analysis, the authors discuss the modalities through which…

  9. Open Access to Knowledge Resources in Science and Technology : The Role of Digital Reference Service to Facilitate Accessing Scholarly Information

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The present paper discusses the importance, objectives and major developments in open access initiatives. It further examines the specific use of digital information services including the digital reference service. The paper also highlights the various steps taken in this direction at the Central Library of IIT Madras.

  10. How Design Experiments Can Inform a Rethinking of Transfer and Vice Versa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    Proposes that the theoretical assumptions underlying a researcher's model of transfer affect how design decisions are made. Discusses limitations with the two most common approaches to transfer in design experiments, exploring how design experiments can challenge the basic assumptions underlying transfer models, and illustrating this point by…

  11. The transferability of information and communication technology skills from university to the workplace: a qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bembridge, Elizabeth; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Jeong, Sarah Yeun-Sim

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents the findings from a study that explored whether the information and communication technology (ICT) skills nurses acquired at university are relevant and transferable to contemporary practice environments. Whilst universities have attempted to integrate information and communication technology into nursing curricula it is not known whether the skills developed for educational purposes are relevant or transferable to clinical contexts. A qualitative descriptive study was used to explore the perspectives of a small group of new graduate nurses working in a regional/semi-metropolitan healthcare facility in New South Wales, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were used and the data thematically analysed. The themes that emerged from the study are presented in accordance with the conceptual framework and structured under the three headings of pre-transfer, transition and post-transfer. The transferability of information and communication technology skills from university to the workplace is impacted by a range of educational, individual, organisational and contextual factors. Access to adequate ICT and the necessary training opportunities influences new graduates' work satisfaction and their future employment decisions. The ability to effectively use information and communication technology was viewed as essential to the provision of quality patient care. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Parenting Across the Social Ecology Facilitated by Information and Communications Technology: Implications for Research and Educational Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K. Walker

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To inform parenting research and aid educators seeking to deliver programs that support effective parenting, this study explored types of information and communications technology (ICT used to fulfill childrearing goals. Mothers’ (N = 1,804 reports of ICT activity frequency were examined from data collected from an online survey. Results suggest that mothers’ ICT use for parenting is less frequent than general use in adulthood. Mothers employ ICT to fulfill parenting goals within and across five domains of the parenting social ecology: (a parent development, (b parent-child relationships, (c child development, (d, family development, and (e culture and community. Several types of ICT activities may strengthen parenting in a single domain, and a single ICT activity may help fulfill multiple domains. Implications for research and for promoting and selecting ICT for effective parent learning and education design are discussed.

  13. Adapting the human-computer interface for reading literacy and computer skill to facilitate collection of information directly from patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobach, David F; Arbanas, Jennifer M; Mishra, Dharani D; Campbell, Marci; Wildemuth, Barbara M

    2004-01-01

    Clinical information collected directly from patients is critical to the practice of medicine. Past efforts to collect this information using computers have had limited utility because these efforts required users to be facile with the computerized information collecting system. In this paper we describe the design, development, and function of a computer system that uses recent technology to overcome the limitations of previous computer-based data collection tools by adapting the human-computer interface to the native language, reading literacy, and computer skills of the user. Specifically, our system uses a numerical representation of question content, multimedia, and touch screen technology to adapt the computer interface to the native language, reading literacy, and computer literacy of the user. In addition, the system supports health literacy needs throughout the data collection session and provides contextually relevant disease-specific education to users based on their responses to the questions. The system has been successfully used in an academically affiliated family medicine clinic and in an indigent adult medicine clinic.

  14. Information transfer of 25.5 nm-1 in a 1-MV field-emission transmission electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Yoshio; Onai, Toshio; Kasai, Hiroto; Shinada, Hiroyuki; Osakabe, Nobuyuki; Tonomura, Akira

    2016-08-01

    Information transfer of a 1-MV field-emission transmission electron microscope (TEM) was improved by reducing mechanical vibrations and improving the stability of an acceleration voltage. The resulting mechanical stability was estimated from lattice fringes with an obtained spacing of 19.6 pm under achromatic conditions. This value corresponds to a vibration amplitude of power supply. As a result, 39.2-pm-spacing linear lattice fringes were obtained under chromatic conditions. This indicates that 25.5 nm(-1) information transfer was accomplished in the 1 MV field-emission TEM.

  15. JUICE: a data management system that facilitates the analysis of large volumes of information in an EST project workflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez Veronica

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed sequence tag (EST analyses provide a rapid and economical means to identify candidate genes that may be involved in a particular biological process. These ESTs are useful in many Functional Genomics studies. However, the large quantity and complexity of the data generated during an EST sequencing project can make the analysis of this information a daunting task. Results In an attempt to make this task friendlier, we have developed JUICE, an open source data management system (Apache + PHP + MySQL on Linux, which enables the user to easily upload, organize, visualize and search the different types of data generated in an EST project pipeline. In contrast to other systems, the JUICE data management system allows a branched pipeline to be established, modified and expanded, during the course of an EST project. The web interfaces and tools in JUICE enable the users to visualize the information in a graphical, user-friendly manner. The user may browse or search for sequences and/or sequence information within all the branches of the pipeline. The user can search using terms associated with the sequence name, annotation or other characteristics stored in JUICE and associated with sequences or sequence groups. Groups of sequences can be created by the user, stored in a clipboard and/or downloaded for further analyses. Different user profiles restrict the access of each user depending upon their role in the project. The user may have access exclusively to visualize sequence information, access to annotate sequences and sequence information, or administrative access. Conclusion JUICE is an open source data management system that has been developed to aid users in organizing and analyzing the large amount of data generated in an EST Project workflow. JUICE has been used in one of the first functional genomics projects in Chile, entitled "Functional Genomics in nectarines: Platform to potentiate the competitiveness of Chile in

  16. JUICE: a data management system that facilitates the analysis of large volumes of information in an EST project workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Mariano; Silva, Herman; Saba, Juan; Guziolowski, Carito; Vizoso, Paula; Martinez, Veronica; Maldonado, Jonathan; Morales, Andrea; Caroca, Rodrigo; Cambiazo, Veronica; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; Gonzalez, Mauricio; Orellana, Ariel; Retamales, Julio; Meisel, Lee A

    2006-11-23

    Expressed sequence tag (EST) analyses provide a rapid and economical means to identify candidate genes that may be involved in a particular biological process. These ESTs are useful in many Functional Genomics studies. However, the large quantity and complexity of the data generated during an EST sequencing project can make the analysis of this information a daunting task. In an attempt to make this task friendlier, we have developed JUICE, an open source data management system (Apache + PHP + MySQL on Linux), which enables the user to easily upload, organize, visualize and search the different types of data generated in an EST project pipeline. In contrast to other systems, the JUICE data management system allows a branched pipeline to be established, modified and expanded, during the course of an EST project. The web interfaces and tools in JUICE enable the users to visualize the information in a graphical, user-friendly manner. The user may browse or search for sequences and/or sequence information within all the branches of the pipeline. The user can search using terms associated with the sequence name, annotation or other characteristics stored in JUICE and associated with sequences or sequence groups. Groups of sequences can be created by the user, stored in a clipboard and/or downloaded for further analyses. Different user profiles restrict the access of each user depending upon their role in the project. The user may have access exclusively to visualize sequence information, access to annotate sequences and sequence information, or administrative access. JUICE is an open source data management system that has been developed to aid users in organizing and analyzing the large amount of data generated in an EST Project workflow. JUICE has been used in one of the first functional genomics projects in Chile, entitled "Functional Genomics in nectarines: Platform to potentiate the competitiveness of Chile in fruit exportation". However, due to its ability to

  17. Where do HIV-infected adolescents go after transfer? – Tracking transition/transfer of HIV-infected adolescents using linkage of cohort data to a health information system platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Ann Davies

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Linking cohort data to health information system data allowed efficient assessment of post-transfer outcomes. Although >80% of adolescents transferred successfully with nearly 85% of them retained for 3 years post-transfer, the decline in the proportion virologically suppressed and poorer outcomes in older adolescents are concerns.​

  18. Developing a Cloud-Based Online Geospatial Information Sharing and Geoprocessing Platform to Facilitate Collaborative Education and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z. L.; Cao, J.; Hu, K.; Gui, Z. P.; Wu, H. Y.; You, L.

    2016-06-01

    Efficient online discovering and applying geospatial information resources (GIRs) is critical in Earth Science domain as while for cross-disciplinary applications. However, to achieve it is challenging due to the heterogeneity, complexity and privacy of online GIRs. In this article, GeoSquare, a collaborative online geospatial information sharing and geoprocessing platform, was developed to tackle this problem. Specifically, (1) GIRs registration and multi-view query functions allow users to publish and discover GIRs more effectively. (2) Online geoprocessing and real-time execution status checking help users process data and conduct analysis without pre-installation of cumbersome professional tools on their own machines. (3) A service chain orchestration function enables domain experts to contribute and share their domain knowledge with community members through workflow modeling. (4) User inventory management allows registered users to collect and manage their own GIRs, monitor their execution status, and track their own geoprocessing histories. Besides, to enhance the flexibility and capacity of GeoSquare, distributed storage and cloud computing technologies are employed. To support interactive teaching and training, GeoSquare adopts the rich internet application (RIA) technology to create user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). Results show that GeoSquare can integrate and foster collaboration between dispersed GIRs, computing resources and people. Subsequently, educators and researchers can share and exchange resources in an efficient and harmonious way.

  19. Energy Efficiency Maximization for WSNs with Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongyan; Zhang, Yongqiang; Guo, Songtao; Yang, Yuanyuan; Ji, Luyue

    2017-08-18

    Recently, the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) technique has been regarded as a promising approach to enhance performance of wireless sensor networks with limited energy supply. However, from a green communication perspective, energy efficiency optimization for SWIPT system design has not been investigated in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (WRSNs). In this paper, we consider the tradeoffs between energy efficiency and three factors including spectral efficiency, the transmit power and outage target rate for two different modes, i.e., power splitting (PS) and time switching modes (TS), at the receiver. Moreover, we formulate the energy efficiency maximization problem subject to the constraints of minimum Quality of Service (QoS), minimum harvested energy and maximum transmission power as non-convex optimization problem. In particular, we focus on optimizing power control and power allocation policy in PS and TS modes to maximize energy efficiency of data transmission. For PS and TS modes, we propose the corresponding algorithm to characterize a non-convex optimization problem that takes into account the circuit power consumption and the harvested energy. By exploiting nonlinear fractional programming and Lagrangian dual decomposition, we propose suboptimal iterative algorithms to obtain the solutions of non-convex optimization problems. Furthermore, we derive the outage probability and effective throughput from the scenarios that the transmitter does not or partially know the channel state information (CSI) of the receiver. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed optimal iterative algorithm can achieve optimal solutions within a small number of iterations and various tradeoffs between energy efficiency and spectral efficiency, transmit power and outage target rate, respectively.

  20. Quantum superarrivals and information transfer through a time-varying boundary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A S Majumdar; Dipankar Home

    2002-08-01

    The time-dependent Schrödinger equation is solved numerically for the case of a Gaussian wave packet incident on a time-varying potential barrier. The time evolving reflection and transmission probabilities of the wave packet are computed for several different time-dependent boundary conditions obtained by reducing or increasing the height of the potential barrier. We show that in the case when the barrier height is reduced to zero, a time interval is found during which the reflection probability is larger (superarrivals) compared to the unperturbed case. We further show that the transmission probability exhibits superarrivals when the barrier is raised from zero to a finite value of its height. Superarrivals could be understood by ascribing the features of a real physical field to the Schrödinger wave function which acts as a carrier through which a disturbance, resulting from the boundary condition being perturbed, propagates from the barrier to the detectors measuring reflected and transmitted probabilities. The speed of propagation of this effect depends upon the rate of reducing or raising the barrier height, thus suggesting an application for secure information transfer using superarrivals.

  1. Matching tutors and students: effective strategies for information transfer between circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesileanu, Tiberiu; Balasubramanian, Vijay; Olveczky, Bence

    Many neural circuits transfer learned information to downstream circuits: hippocampal-dependent memories are consolidated into long-term memories elsewhere; motor cortex is essential for skill learning but dispensable for execution; anterior forebrain pathway (AFP) in songbirds drives short-term improvements in song that are later consolidated in pre-motor area RA. We show how to match instructive signals from tutor circuits to synaptic plasticity rules in student circuits to achieve effective two-stage learning. We focus on learning sequential patterns where a timebase is transformed into motor commands by connectivity with a `student' area. If the sign of the synaptic change is given by the magnitude of tutor input, a good teaching strategy uses a strong (weak) tutor signal if student output is below (above) its target. If instead timing of tutor input relative to the timebase determines the sign of synaptic modifications, a good instructive signal accumulates the errors in student output as the motor program progresses. We demonstrate song learning in a biologically-plausible model of the songbird circuit given diverse plasticity rules interpolating between those described above. The model also reproduces qualitative firing statistics of RA neurons in juveniles and adults. Also affiliated to CUNY - Graduate Center.

  2. MaGelLAn 1.0: a software to facilitate quantitative and population genetic analysis of maternal inheritance by combination of molecular and pedigree information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristov, Strahil; Brajkovic, Vladimir; Cubric-Curik, Vlatka; Michieli, Ivan; Curik, Ino

    2016-09-10

    Identification of genes or even nucleotides that are responsible for quantitative and adaptive trait variation is a difficult task due to the complex interdependence between a large number of genetic and environmental factors. The polymorphism of the mitogenome is one of the factors that can contribute to quantitative trait variation. However, the effects of the mitogenome have not been comprehensively studied, since large numbers of mitogenome sequences and recorded phenotypes are required to reach the adequate power of analysis. Current research in our group focuses on acquiring the necessary mitochondria sequence information and analysing its influence on the phenotype of a quantitative trait. To facilitate these tasks we have produced software for processing pedigrees that is optimised for maternal lineage analysis. We present MaGelLAn 1.0 (maternal genealogy lineage analyser), a suite of four Python scripts (modules) that is designed to facilitate the analysis of the impact of mitogenome polymorphism on quantitative trait variation by combining molecular and pedigree information. MaGelLAn 1.0 is primarily used to: (1) optimise the sampling strategy for molecular analyses; (2) identify and correct pedigree inconsistencies; and (3) identify maternal lineages and assign the corresponding mitogenome sequences to all individuals in the pedigree, this information being used as input to any of the standard software for quantitative genetic (association) analysis. In addition, MaGelLAn 1.0 allows computing the mitogenome (maternal) effective population sizes and probability of mitogenome (maternal) identity that are useful for conservation management of small populations. MaGelLAn is the first tool for pedigree analysis that focuses on quantitative genetic analyses of mitogenome data. It is conceived with the purpose to significantly reduce the effort in handling and preparing large pedigrees for processing the information linked to maternal lines. The software source

  3. An enhancement of the role-based access control model to facilitate information access management in context of team collaboration and workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Xuan Hung; Doll, Terry; Barbosu, Monica; Luque, Amneris; Wang, Dongwen

    2012-12-01

    Although information access control models have been developed and applied to various applications, few of the previous works have addressed the issue of managing information access in the combined context of team collaboration and workflow. To facilitate this requirement, we have enhanced the Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) model through formulating universal constraints, defining bridging entities and contributing attributes, extending access permissions to include workflow contexts, synthesizing a role-based access delegation model to target on specific objects, and developing domain ontologies as instantiations of the general model to particular applications. We have successfully applied this model to the New York State HIV Clinical Education Initiative (CEI) project to address the specific needs of information management in collaborative processes. An initial evaluation has shown this model achieved a high level of agreement with an existing system when applied to 4576 cases (kappa=0.801). Comparing to a reference standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the enhanced RBAC model were at the level of 97-100%. These results indicate that the enhanced RBAC model can be effectively used for information access management in context of team collaboration and workflow to coordinate clinical education programs. Future research is required to incrementally develop additional types of universal constraints, to further investigate how the workflow context and access delegation can be enriched to support the various needs on information access management in collaborative processes, and to examine the generalizability of the enhanced RBAC model for other applications in clinical education, biomedical research, and patient care.

  4. User-Centered Design, Experience, and Usability of an Electronic Consent User Interface to Facilitate Informed Decision-Making in a HIV Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, S Raquel

    2017-05-05

    Health information exchange is the electronic accessibility and transferability of patient medical records across various healthcare settings and providers. In some states, patients have to formally give consent to allow their medical records to be electronically shared. The purpose of this study was to apply a novel user-centered, multistep, multiframework approach to design and test an electronic consent user interface, so patients with HIV can make more informed decisions about electronically sharing their health information. This study consisted of two steps. Step 1 was a cross-sectional, descriptive, qualitative study that used user-centric design interviews to create the user interface. This informed Step 2. Step 2 consisted of a one group posttest to examine perceptions of usefulness, ease of use, preference, and comprehension of a health information exchange electronic consent user interface. More than half of the study population had college experience, but challenges remained with overall comprehension regarding consent. The user interface was not independently successful, suggesting that in addition to an electronic consent user interface, human interaction may also be necessary to address the complexities associated with consenting to electronically share medical records. Comprehension is key factor in the ability to make informed decisions.

  5. [Transfer and sharing of public health knowledge: reflections on the components of a national information system in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambon, Linda; Alla, François

    2013-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly necessary, in France, to develop a more efficient public health policy and define research in terms of the perspective of its use for public decisions and clinical practice. One possible solution consists of knowledge transfer and sharing based on a continuous exchange and interaction process between scientists and potential users of research data - field workers and health policy decision-makers. Such a process would involve collaboration with users to help them apply the evidence produced by research as well as the mobilization of research scientists to develop research more adapted to needs. This article defines the goals of development of knowledge transfer in the French setting. The conceptual bases are defined and four strategic axes and their operational modalities are developed. This proposal also integrates all of the public authorities concerned: promote knowledge transfer; reinforce observation and diffusion of evidence and its usability; promote the development of more adapted public health research by facilitating research scientist /research data user relationships; assist the various parties in the exchange and sharing of knowledge. Apart from improving the efficiency of health policies, the development of knowledge transfer and sharing would also strengthen the credibility of certain intervention strategies, especially in the field of prevention, by designing evidence-based strategies.

  6. The Colorectal cancer disease-specific transcriptome may facilitate the discovery of more biologically and clinically relevant information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proutski Vitali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, there are no clinically reliable predictive markers of response to the current treatment regimens for advanced colorectal cancer. The aim of the current study was to compare and assess the power of transcriptional profiling using a generic microarray and a disease-specific transcriptome-based microarray. We also examined the biological and clinical relevance of the disease-specific transcriptome. Methods DNA microarray profiling was carried out on isogenic sensitive and 5-FU-resistant HCT116 colorectal cancer cell lines using the Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus2.0 array and the Almac Diagnostics Colorectal cancer disease specific Research tool. In addition, DNA microarray profiling was also carried out on pre-treatment metastatic colorectal cancer biopsies using the colorectal cancer disease specific Research tool. The two microarray platforms were compared based on detection of probesets and biological information. Results The results demonstrated that the disease-specific transcriptome-based microarray was able to out-perform the generic genomic-based microarray on a number of levels including detection of transcripts and pathway analysis. In addition, the disease-specific microarray contains a high percentage of antisense transcripts and further analysis demonstrated that a number of these exist in sense:antisense pairs. Comparison between cell line models and metastatic CRC patient biopsies further demonstrated that a number of the identified sense:antisense pairs were also detected in CRC patient biopsies, suggesting potential clinical relevance. Conclusions Analysis from our in vitro and clinical experiments has demonstrated that many transcripts exist in sense:antisense pairs including IGF2BP2, which may have a direct regulatory function in the context of colorectal cancer. While the functional relevance of the antisense transcripts has been established by many studies, their functional role is currently unclear

  7. Using peer discussion facilitated by clicker questions in an informal education setting: enhancing farmer learning of science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle K Smith

    Full Text Available Blueberry growers in Maine attend annual Cooperative Extension presentations given by university faculty members. These presentations cover topics, such as, how to prevent plant disease and monitor for insect pests. In 2012, in order to make the sessions more interactive and promote learning, clicker questions and peer discussion were incorporated into the presentations. Similar to what has been shown at the undergraduate level, after peer discussion, more blueberry growers gave correct answers to multiple-choice questions than when answering independently. Furthermore, because blueberry growers are characterized by diverse levels of education, experience in the field etc., we were able to determine whether demographic factors were associated with changes in performance after peer discussion. Taken together, our results suggest that clicker questions and peer discussion work equally well with adults from a variety of demographic backgrounds without disadvantaging a subset of the population and provide an important learning opportunity to the least formally educated members. Our results also indicate that clicker questions with peer discussion were viewed as a positive addition to university-related informal science education sessions.

  8. Using peer discussion facilitated by clicker questions in an informal education setting: enhancing farmer learning of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michelle K; Annis, Seanna L; Kaplan, Jennifer J; Drummond, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Blueberry growers in Maine attend annual Cooperative Extension presentations given by university faculty members. These presentations cover topics, such as, how to prevent plant disease and monitor for insect pests. In 2012, in order to make the sessions more interactive and promote learning, clicker questions and peer discussion were incorporated into the presentations. Similar to what has been shown at the undergraduate level, after peer discussion, more blueberry growers gave correct answers to multiple-choice questions than when answering independently. Furthermore, because blueberry growers are characterized by diverse levels of education, experience in the field etc., we were able to determine whether demographic factors were associated with changes in performance after peer discussion. Taken together, our results suggest that clicker questions and peer discussion work equally well with adults from a variety of demographic backgrounds without disadvantaging a subset of the population and provide an important learning opportunity to the least formally educated members. Our results also indicate that clicker questions with peer discussion were viewed as a positive addition to university-related informal science education sessions.

  9. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 30: The electronic transfer of information and aerospace knowledge diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Bishop, Ann P.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Increasing reliance on and investment in information technology and electronic networking systems presupposes that computing and information technology will play a major role in the diffusion of aerospace knowledge. Little is known, however, about actual information technology needs, uses, and problems within the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. The authors state that the potential contributions of information technology to increased productivity and competitiveness will be diminished unless empirically derived knowledge regarding the information-seeking behavior of the members of the social system - those who are producing, transferring, and using scientific and technical information - is incorporated into a new technology policy framework. Research into the use of information technology and electronic networks by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists, collected as part of a research project designed to study aerospace knowledge diffusion, is presented in support of this assertion.

  10. Barriers, facilitators and views about next steps to implementing supports for evidence-informed decision-making in health systems: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen, Moriah E; Léon, Grégory; Bouchard, Gisèle; Ouimet, Mathieu; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Lavis, John N

    2014-12-05

    Mobilizing research evidence for daily decision-making is challenging for health system decision-makers. In a previous qualitative paper, we showed the current mix of supports that Canadian health-care organizations have in place and the ones that are perceived to be helpful to facilitate the use of research evidence in health system decision-making. Factors influencing the implementation of such supports remain poorly described in the literature. Identifying the barriers to and facilitators of different interventions is essential for implementation of effective, context-specific, supports for evidence-informed decision-making (EIDM) in health systems. The purpose of this study was to identify (a) barriers and facilitators to implementing supports for EIDM in Canadian health-care organizations, (b) views about emerging development of supports for EIDM, and (c) views about the priorities to bridge the gaps in the current mix of supports that these organizations have in place. This qualitative study was conducted in three types of health-care organizations (regional health authorities, hospitals, and primary care practices) in two Canadian provinces (Ontario and Quebec). Fifty-seven in-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with senior managers, library managers, and knowledge brokers from health-care organizations that have already undertaken strategic initiatives in knowledge translation. The interviews were taped, transcribed, and then analyzed thematically using NVivo 9 qualitative data analysis software. Limited resources (i.e., money or staff), time constraints, and negative attitudes (or resistance) toward change were the most frequently identified barriers to implementing supports for EIDM. Genuine interest from health system decision-makers, notably their willingness to invest money and resources and to create a knowledge translation culture over time in health-care organizations, was the most frequently identified facilitator to

  11. Interactive 3D Visualization of the Great Lakes of the World (GLOW) as a Tool to Facilitate Informal Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yikilmaz, M.; Harwood, C. L.; Hsi, S.; Kellogg, L. H.; Kreylos, O.; McDermott, J.; Pellett, B.; Schladow, G.; Segale, H. M.; Yalowitz, S.

    2013-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) visualization is a powerful research tool that has been used to investigate complex scientific problems in various fields. It allows researchers to explore and understand processes and features that are not directly observable and help with building of new models. It has been shown that 3D visualization creates a more engaging environment for public audiences. Interactive 3D visualization can allow individuals to explore scientific concepts on their own. We present an NSF funded project developed in collaboration with UC Davis KeckCAVES, UC Davis Tahoe Environmental Research Center, ECHO Lake Aquarium & Science Center, and Lawrence Hall of Science. The Great Lakes of the World (GLOW) project aims to build interactive 3D visualization of some of the major lakes and reservoirs of the world to enhance public awareness and increase understanding and stewardship of freshwater lake ecosystems, habitats, and earth science processes. The project includes a collection of publicly available satellite imagery and digital elevation models at various resolutions for the 20 major lakes of the world as well as the bathymetry data for the 12 lakes. It also includes the vector based 'Global Lakes and Wetlands Database (GLWD)' by the World Wildlife Foundation (WWF) and the Center for Environmental System Research University of Kassel, Germany and the CIA World DataBank II data sets to show wetlands and water reservoirs at global scale. We use a custom virtual globe (Crusta) developed at the UC Davis KeckCAVES. Crusta is designed to specifically allow for visualization and mapping of features in very high spatial resolution (learn about the lake and watershed processes as well as geologic processes (e.g. faulting, landslide, glacial, volcanic) that have shaped these lakes. With the advances in 3D imaging technology, the hardware is becoming more affordable and accessible. Affordable 3D projectors, monitors and TVs will allow schools and informal science centers

  12. Client-vendor knowledge transfer mechanisms in the context of information systems outsourcing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smuts, H

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available transfer mechanisms, this paper focuses on the management of knowledge in a client-vendor knowledge transfer context. By considering the ways in which knowledge can be created and exploited for inter-organisational client-vendor situations, benefit may...

  13. Sources and Information on the Scope and Impact of Reverse Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBard, Christine M.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews documents submitted to the ERIC database over the past decade demonstrating the complexity of issues arising from diversification of the transfer-student population. Enumerates some primary concerns regarding reverse transfer students: defining the population, understanding its demographics, tracking student progress, responding to unique…

  14. The Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP Federation): Facilitating Partnerships that Work to Bring Earth Science Data into Educational Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freuder, R.; Ledley, T. S.; Dahlman, L.

    2004-12-01

    The Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP Federation, http://www.esipfed.org) formed seven years ago and now with 77 member organizations is working to "increase the quality and value of Earth science products and services .for the benefit of the ESIP Federation's stakeholder communities." Education (both formal and informal) is a huge audience that we serve. Partnerships formed by members within the ESIP Federation have created bridges that close the gap between Earth science data collection and research and the effective use of that Earth science data to explore concepts in Earth system science by the educational community. The Earth Exploration Toolbook is one of those successful collaborations. The Earth Exploration Toolbook (EET, http://serc.carleton.edu/eet) grew out of a need of the educational community (articulated by the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE) community) to have better access to Earth science data and data analysis tools and help in effectively using them with students. It is a collection of web-accessible chapters, each featuring step-by-step instructions on how to use an Earth science dataset and data analysis tool to investigate an issue or concept in Earth system science. Each chapter also provides the teacher information on the outcome of the activity, grade level, standards addressed, learning goals, time required, and ideas for exploring further. The individual ESIP Federation partners alone could not create the EET. However, the ESIP Federation facilitated the partnering of members, drawing from data providers, researchers and education tool developers, to create the EET. Interest in the EET has grown since it went live with five chapters in July 2003. There are currently seven chapters with another six soon to be released. Monthly online seminars in which over a hundred educators have participated have given very positive feedback. Post workshop surveys from our telecon-online workshops indicate that

  15. Assisted Living Facilities, This file contains the name, address, contact and some licensing information for the Assisted Living Facilites for the State of Maryland., Published in 2010, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Assisted Living Facilities dataset current as of 2010. This file contains the name, address, contact and some licensing information for the Assisted Living Facilites...

  16. Understanding barriers and facilitators to the use of Clinical Information Systems for intensive care units and Anesthesia Record Keeping: A rapid ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Jason J; Plew, William R; Speir, Ross C; Herout, Jennifer; Wilck, Nancy R; Ryan, Dale Marie; Cullen, Theresa A; Scott, Jean M; Beene, Murielle S; Phillips, Toni

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluated the current use of commercial-off-the-shelf Clinical Information Systems (CIS) for intensive care units (ICUs) and Anesthesia Record Keeping (ARK) for operating rooms and post-anesthesia care recovery settings at three Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). Clinicians and administrative staff use these applications at bedside workstations, in operating rooms, at nursing stations, in physician's rooms, and in other various settings. The intention of a CIS or an ARK system is to facilitate creation of electronic records of data, assessments, and procedures from multiple medical devices. The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Office of the Chief of Nursing Informatics sought to understand usage barriers and facilitators to optimize these systems in the future. Therefore, a human factors study was carried out to observe the CIS and ARK systems in use at three VAMCs in order to identify best practices and suggested improvements to currently implemented CIS and ARK systems. We conducted a rapid ethnographic study of clinical end-users interacting with the CIS and ARK systems in the critical care and anesthesia care areas in each of three geographically distributed VAMCs. Two observers recorded interactions and/or interview responses from 88 CIS and ARK end-users. We coded and sorted into logical categories field notes from 69 shadowed participants. The team transcribed and combined data from key informant interviews with 19 additional participants with the observation data. We then integrated findings across observations into meaningful patterns and abstracted the data into themes, which translated directly to barriers to effective adoption and optimization of the CIS and ARK systems. Effective optimization of the CIS and ARK systems was impeded by: (1) integration issues with other software systems; (2) poor usability; (3) software challenges; (4) hardware challenges; (5) training concerns; (6) unclear roles and lack of coordination among

  17. Client-vendor knowledge transfer mechanisms in the context of information systems outsourcing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smuts, H

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available High levels of shared knowledge can positively influence outsourcing performance and the combination of processes designed to transfer explicit and tacit knowledge, has the most influence on the level of shared knowledge. Some organisations...

  18. The co-evolution of multiply-informed dispersal: information transfer across landscapes from neighbors and immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis S. Chaine

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Dispersal plays a key role in natural systems by shaping spatial population and evolutionary dynamics. Dispersal has been largely treated as a population process with little attention to individual decisions and the influence of information use on the fitness benefits of dispersal despite clear empirical evidence that dispersal behavior varies among individuals. While information on local density is common, more controversial is the notion that indirect information use can easily evolve. We used an individual-based model to ask under what conditions indirect information use in dispersal will evolve. We modeled indirect information provided by immigrant arrival into a population which should be linked to overall metapopulation density. We also modeled direct information use of density which directly impacts fitness. We show that immigrant-dependent dispersal evolves and does so even when density dependent information is available. Use of two sources of information also provides benefits at the metapopulation level by reducing extinction risk and prolonging the persistence of populations. Our results suggest that use of indirect information in dispersal can evolve under conservative conditions and thus could be widespread.

  19. The enhanced information flow from visual cortex to frontal area facilitates SSVEP response: evidence from model-driven and data-driven causality analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fali; Tian, Yin; Zhang, Yangsong; Qiu, Kan; Tian, Chunyang; Jing, Wei; Liu, Tiejun; Xia, Yang; Guo, Daqing; Yao, Dezhong; Xu, Peng

    2015-10-01

    The neural mechanism of steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) is still not clearly understood. Especially, only certain frequency stimuli can evoke SSVEP. Our previous network study reveals that 8 Hz stimulus that can evoke strong SSVEP response shows the enhanced linkage strength between frontal and visual cortex. To further probe the directed information flow between the two cortex areas for various frequency stimuli, this paper develops a causality analysis based on the inversion of double columns model using particle swarm optimization (PSO) to characterize the directed information flow between visual and frontal cortices with the intracranial rat electroencephalograph (EEG). The estimated model parameters demonstrate that the 8 Hz stimulus shows the enhanced directional information flow from visual cortex to frontal lobe facilitates SSVEP response, which may account for the strong SSVEP response for 8 Hz stimulus. Furthermore, the similar finding is replicated by data-driven causality analysis. The inversion of neural mass model proposed in this study may be helpful to provide the new causality analysis to link the physiological model and the observed datasets in neuroscience and clinical researches.

  20. The enhanced information flow from visual cortex to frontal area facilitates SSVEP response: evidence from model-driven and data-driven causality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fali; Tian, Yin; Zhang, Yangsong; Qiu, Kan; Tian, Chunyang; Jing, Wei; Liu, Tiejun; Xia, Yang; Guo, Daqing; Yao, Dezhong; Xu, Peng

    2015-10-05

    The neural mechanism of steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) is still not clearly understood. Especially, only certain frequency stimuli can evoke SSVEP. Our previous network study reveals that 8 Hz stimulus that can evoke strong SSVEP response shows the enhanced linkage strength between frontal and visual cortex. To further probe the directed information flow between the two cortex areas for various frequency stimuli, this paper develops a causality analysis based on the inversion of double columns model using particle swarm optimization (PSO) to characterize the directed information flow between visual and frontal cortices with the intracranial rat electroencephalograph (EEG). The estimated model parameters demonstrate that the 8 Hz stimulus shows the enhanced directional information flow from visual cortex to frontal lobe facilitates SSVEP response, which may account for the strong SSVEP response for 8 Hz stimulus. Furthermore, the similar finding is replicated by data-driven causality analysis. The inversion of neural mass model proposed in this study may be helpful to provide the new causality analysis to link the physiological model and the observed datasets in neuroscience and clinical researches.

  1. The enhanced information flow from visual cortex to frontal area facilitates SSVEP response: evidence from model-driven and data-driven causality analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fali; Tian, Yin; Zhang, Yangsong; Qiu, Kan; Tian, Chunyang; Jing, Wei; Liu, Tiejun; Xia, Yang; Guo, Daqing; Yao, Dezhong; Xu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The neural mechanism of steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) is still not clearly understood. Especially, only certain frequency stimuli can evoke SSVEP. Our previous network study reveals that 8 Hz stimulus that can evoke strong SSVEP response shows the enhanced linkage strength between frontal and visual cortex. To further probe the directed information flow between the two cortex areas for various frequency stimuli, this paper develops a causality analysis based on the inversion of double columns model using particle swarm optimization (PSO) to characterize the directed information flow between visual and frontal cortices with the intracranial rat electroencephalograph (EEG). The estimated model parameters demonstrate that the 8 Hz stimulus shows the enhanced directional information flow from visual cortex to frontal lobe facilitates SSVEP response, which may account for the strong SSVEP response for 8 Hz stimulus. Furthermore, the similar finding is replicated by data-driven causality analysis. The inversion of neural mass model proposed in this study may be helpful to provide the new causality analysis to link the physiological model and the observed datasets in neuroscience and clinical researches. PMID:26434769

  2. Adoptive Transfer of Treg Cells Combined with Mesenchymal Stem Cells Facilitates Repopulation of Endogenous Treg Cells in a Murine Acute GVHD Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Sol; Lim, Jung-Yeon; Im, Keon-Il; Kim, Nayoun; Nam, Young-Sun; Jeon, Young-Woo; Cho, Seok-Goo

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic effects of combined cell therapy with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and regulatory T cells (Treg cells) have recently been studied in acute graft-versus-host-disease (aGVHD) models. However, the underlying, seemingly synergistic mechanism behind combined cell therapy has not been determined. We investigated the origin of Foxp3+ Treg cells and interleukin 17 (IL-17+) cells in recipients following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) to identify the immunological effects of combined cell therapy. Treg cells were generated from eGFP-expressing C57BL/6 mice (Tregegfp cells) to distinguish the transferred Treg cells; recipients were then examined at different time points after BMT. Systemic infusion of MSCs and Treg cells improved survival and GVHD scores, effectively downregulating pro-inflammatory Th×and Th17 cells. These therapeutic effects of combined cell therapy resulted in an increased Foxp3+ Treg cell population. Compared to single cell therapy, adoptively transferred Tregegfp cells only showed prolonged survival in the combined cell therapy group on day 21 after allogeneic BMT. In addition, Foxp3+ Treg cells, generated endogenously from recipients, significantly increased. Significantly higher levels of Tregegfp cells were also detected in aGVHD target organs in the combined cell therapy group compared to the Treg cells group. Thus, our data indicate that MSCs may induce the long-term survival of transferred Treg cells, particularly in aGVHD target organs, and may increase the repopulation of endogenous Treg cells in recipients after BMT. Together, these results support the potential of combined cell therapy using MSCs and Treg cells for preventing aGVHD.

  3. Type 3 Fimbriae Encoded on Plasmids Are Expressed from a Unique Promoter without Affecting Host Motility, Facilitating an Exceptional Phenotype That Enhances Conjugal Plasmid Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke; Riber, Leise; Kot, Witold; Basfeld, Alrun; Burmølle, Mette; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the transmission of genetic material to a recipient that is not the progeny of the donor, is fundamental in bacterial evolution. HGT is often mediated by mobile genetic elements such as conjugative plasmids, which may be in conflict with the chromosomal elements of the genome because they are independent replicons that may petition their own evolutionary strategy. Here we study differences between type 3 fimbriae encoded on wild type plasmids and in chromosomes. Using known and newly characterized plasmids we show that the expression of type 3 fimbriae encoded on plasmids is systematically different, as MrkH, a c-di-GMP dependent transcriptional activator is not needed for strong expression of the fimbriae. MrkH is required for expression of type 3 fimbriae of the Klebsiella pneumoniae chromosome, wherefrom the fimbriae operon (mrkABCDF) of plasmids is believed to have originated. We find that mrkABCDFs of plasmids are highly expressed via a unique promoter that differs from the original Klebsiella promoter resulting in fundamental behavioral consequences. Plasmid associated mrkABCDFs did not influence the swimming behavior of the host, that hereby acquired an exceptional phenotype being able to both actively swim (planktonic behavior) and express biofilm associated fimbriae (sessile behavior). We show that this exceptional phenotype enhances the conjugal transfer of the plasmid. PMID:27627107

  4. Is BDNF sufficient for information transfer between microglia and dorsal horn neurons during the onset of central sensitization?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Peripheral nerve injury activates spinal microglia. This leads to enduring changes in the properties of dorsal horn neurons that initiate central sensitization and the onset of neuropathic pain. Although a variety of neuropeptides, cytokines, chemokines and neurotransmitters have been implicated at various points in this process, it is possible that much of the information transfer between activated microglia and neurons, at least in this context, may be explicable in terms of the ac...

  5. InformedTogether: Usability Evaluation of a Web-Based Decision Aid to Facilitate Shared Advance Care Planning for Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhler, Lauren M; Pérez Figueroa, Rafael E; Dickson, Mark; McCullagh, Lauren; Kushniruk, Andre; Monkman, Helen; Witteman, Holly O; Hajizadeh, Negin

    2015-02-25

    Advance care planning may help patients receive treatments that better align with their goals for care. We developed a Web-based decision aid called InformedTogether to facilitate shared advance care planning between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and their doctors. Our objective was to assess the usability of the InformedTogether decision aid, including whether users could interact with the decision aid to engage in tasks required for shared decision making, whether users found the decision aid acceptable, and implications for redesign. We conducted an observational study with 15 patients and 8 doctors at two ethnically and socioeconomically diverse outpatient clinics. Data included quantitative and qualitative observations of patients and doctors using the decision aid on tablet or laptop computers and data from semistructured interviews. Patients were shown the decision aid by a researcher acting as the doctor. Pulmonary doctors were observed using the decision aid independently and asked to think aloud (ie, verbalize their thoughts). A thematic analysis was implemented to explore key issues related to decision aid usability. Although patients and doctors found InformedTogether acceptable and would recommend that doctors use the decision aid with COPD patients, many patients had difficulty understanding the icon arrays that were used to communicate estimated prognoses and could not articulate the definitions of the two treatment choices-Full Code and Do Not Resuscitate (DNR). Minor usability problems regarding content, links, layout, and consistency were also identified and corresponding recommendations were outlined. In particular, participants suggested including more information about potential changes in quality of life resulting from the alternative advance directives. Some doctor participants thought the decision aid was too long and some thought it may cause nervousness among patients due to the topic area. A decision aid for shared

  6. Methods, systems, and apparatus for storage, transfer and/or control of information via matter wave dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard Hau, Lene (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Methods, systems and apparatus for generating atomic traps, and for storing, controlling and transferring information between first and second spatially separated phase-coherent objects, or using a single phase-coherent object. For plural objects, both phase-coherent objects have a macroscopic occupation of a particular quantum state by identical bosons or identical BCS-paired fermions. The information may be optical information, and the phase-coherent object(s) may be Bose-Einstein condensates, superfluids, or superconductors. The information is stored in the first phase-coherent object at a first storage time and recovered from the second phase-coherent object, or the same first phase-coherent object, at a second revival time. In one example, an integrated silicon wafer-based optical buffer includes an electrolytic atom source to provide the phase-coherent object(s), a nanoscale atomic trap for the phase-coherent object(s), and semiconductor-based optical sources to cool the phase-coherent object(s) and provide coupling fields for storage and transfer of optical information.

  7. Faculty Consulting in Natural Sciences and Engineering: Between Formal and Informal Knowledge Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Nabil; Landry, Rejean; Halilem, Norrin

    2013-01-01

    Academic consulting is a form of knowledge and technology transfer largely under-documented and under-studied that raises ethical and resources allocation issues. Based on a survey of 2,590 Canadian researchers in engineering and natural sciences, this paper explores three forms of academic consulting: (1) paid consulting; (2) unpaid consulting…

  8. Informal Care and the Division of End-of-Life Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meta

    2006-01-01

    Unmarried parents in the AHEAD study derive the majority of their long-term care hours from their children, and child caregivers are generally unpaid. This paper examines the extent to which the division of end-of-life transfers compensates caregiving children. In a model of siblings' altruistic contribution of care to a shared parent, the…

  9. Faculty Consulting in Natural Sciences and Engineering: Between Formal and Informal Knowledge Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Nabil; Landry, Rejean; Halilem, Norrin

    2013-01-01

    Academic consulting is a form of knowledge and technology transfer largely under-documented and under-studied that raises ethical and resources allocation issues. Based on a survey of 2,590 Canadian researchers in engineering and natural sciences, this paper explores three forms of academic consulting: (1) paid consulting; (2) unpaid consulting…

  10. Does Information Improve the Health Behavior of Adults Targeted by a Conditional Transfer Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitabile, Ciro

    2012-01-01

    We use data from the evaluation sample of Mexico's Food Assistance Program (PAL) to study whether including the attendance at health and nutrition classes among the requirements for receiving a transfer affects the health behavior of adults living in localities targeted by the program. The experimental trial has four different treatment types,…

  11. 75 FR 26268 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Permit To Transfer Containers to a Container Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Containers to a Container Station AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... concerning the: Permit to Transfer Containers to a Container Station. This request for comment is being made... Containers to a Container Station. OMB Number: 1651-0049. Form Number: None. Abstract: This...

  12. Transferring Information from Faculty Development to Classroom Practice: A Mixed-Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Matthew P.; Skubik-Peplaski, Camille; Burkett, Barry

    2017-01-01

    Professional learning communities (PLCs) are an effective way for faculty to learn about pedagogical topics and tactics. However, less is known about how effective they are at changing the teaching practices of the faculty participants and ultimately student learning. This article describes a mixed-method study of such a transfer of knowledge. In…

  13. Information transfer and synchronization among the scales of climate variability: clues for understanding anomalies and extreme events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palus, Milan

    2017-04-01

    Deeper understanding of complex dynamics of the Earth atmosphere and climate is inevitable for sustainable development, mitigation and adaptation strategies for global change and for prediction of and resilience against extreme events. Traditional (linear) approaches cannot explain or even detect nonlinear interactions of dynamical processes evolving on multiple spatial and temporal scales. Combination of nonlinear dynamics and information theory explains synchronization as a process of adjustment of information rates [1] and causal relations (à la Granger) as information transfer [2]. Information born in dynamical complexity or information transferred among systems on a way to synchronization might appear as an abstract quantity, however, information transfer is tied to a transfer of mass and energy, as demonstrated in a recent study using directed (causal) climate networks [2]. Recently, an information transfer across scales of atmospheric dynamics has been observed [3]. In particular, a climate oscillation with the period around 7-8 years has been identified as a factor influencing variability of surface air temperature (SAT) on shorter time scales. Its influence on the amplitude of the SAT annual cycle was estimated in the range 0.7-1.4 °C and the effect on the overall variability of the SAT anomalies (SATA) leads to the changes 1.5-1.7 °C in the annual SATA means. The strongest effect of the 7-8 year cycle was observed in the winter SATA means where it reaches 4-5 °C in central European station and reanalysis data [4]. In the dynamics of El Niño-Southern Oscillation, three principal time scales have been identified: the annual cycle (AC), the quasibiennial (QB) mode(s) and the low-frequency (LF) variability. An intricate causal network of information flows among these modes helps to understand the occurrence of extreme El Niño events, characterized by synchronization of the QB modes and AC, and modulation of the QB amplitude by the LF mode. The latter

  14. Synthesis of nickel oxides nanoparticles on glassy carbon as an electron transfer facilitator for horseradish peroxidase: Direct electron transfer and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Ali [Medical Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, P.O. Box 14155-6451 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Drug and Food Control, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bayandori Moghaddam, Abdolmajid, E-mail: bayandori@khayam.ut.ac.ir [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research Center, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemzad, Mahmood [Department of Energy, Materials and Energy Research Center, P.O. Box 14155-4777, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dinarvand, Rassoul [Medical Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, P.O. Box 14155-6451 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Badraghi, Jalil [Research Institute of Applied Sciences (ACECR), Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-06-01

    In this study, horseradish peroxidase/nickel oxides nanoparticles/glassy carbon (HRP/NiO NPs/GC) electrode was prepared by first applying nickel oxides nanoparticles on glassy carbon surface and then horseradish peroxidase immobilized on the NiO NPs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used as a diagnostic tools to identify the synthesized NiO NPs. Immobilized HRP showed an electrochemical redox behavior pertained to HRP(Fe(III)-Fe(II)) by direct electron transfer between protein and nanoparticles with a formal potential (E{sup 0'}) of - 55.5 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl and 141.5 mV vs. NHE) in 50 mM phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The anodic charge transfer coefficient ({alpha}) and heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k{sub s}) were 0.42 and 0.75 s{sup -1}, respectively. Biocatalytic activity of HRP/NiO NPs/GC electrode for reduction of hydrogen peroxide and application to hydrogen peroxide determination was exemplified.

  15. The use of a policy dialogue to facilitate evidence-informed policy development for improved access to care: the case of the Winnipeg Central Intake Service (WCIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damani, Zaheed; MacKean, Gail; Bohm, Eric; DeMone, Brie; Wright, Brock; Noseworthy, Tom; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna; Marshall, Deborah A

    2016-10-18

    Policy dialogues are critical for developing responsive, effective, sustainable, evidence-informed policy. Our multidisciplinary team, including researchers, physicians and senior decision-makers, comprehensively evaluated The Winnipeg Central Intake Service, a single-entry model in Winnipeg, Manitoba, to improve patient access to hip/knee replacement surgery. We used the evaluation findings to develop five evidence-informed policy directions to help improve access to scheduled clinical services across Manitoba. Using guiding principles of public participation processes, we hosted a policy roundtable meeting to engage stakeholders and use their input to refine the policy directions. Here, we report on the use and input of a policy roundtable meeting and its role in contributing to the development of evidence-informed policy. Our evidence-informed policy directions focused on formal measurement/monitoring of quality, central intake as a preferred model for service delivery, provincial scope, transparent processes/performance indicators, and patient choice of provider. We held a policy roundtable meeting and used outcomes of facilitated discussions to refine these directions. Individuals from our team and six stakeholder groups across Manitoba participated (n = 44), including patients, family physicians, orthopaedic surgeons, surgical office assistants, Winnipeg Central Intake team, and administrators/managers. We developed evaluation forms to assess the meeting process, and collected decision-maker partners' perspectives on the value of the policy roundtable meeting and use of policy directions to improve access to scheduled clinical services after the meeting, and again 15 months later. We analyzed roundtable and evaluation data using thematic analysis to identify key themes. Four key findings emerged. First, participants supported all policy directions, with revisions and key implementation considerations identified. Second, participants felt the policy roundtable

  16. Prolonged applied potential to anode facilitate selective enrichment of bio-electrochemically active Proteobacteria for mediating electron transfer: microbial dynamics and bio-catalytic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannaiah Goud, R; Mohan, S Venkata

    2013-06-01

    Prolonged application of poised potential to anode was evaluated to understand the influence of applied potentials [500 mV (E500); 1000 mV (E1000); 2000 mV (E2000)] on bio-electrogenic activity of microbial fuel cell (MFC) and the resulting dynamics in microbial community in comparison to control operation. E1000 system documented higher electrogenic activity (309 mW/m(2)) followed by E500 (143 mW/m(2)), E2000 (112 mW/m(2)) and control (65 mW/m(2)) operations. The improved power output at optimum applied potential (1000mV) might be attributed to the enrichment of electrochemically active bacteria majorly belonging to the phylum Proteobacteria with less extent of Firmicutes which helped in effective electron (mediated) transfer through release of exogenous shuttlers. Improved bio-electrogenic activity due to enrichment at 1000mV applied potential also correlated well with the observed cyctochrome-c peaks on the voltamatogram, lower ion ohmic losses and bio-electro kinetic analysis. Electric-shock at higher applied potential (E2000) resulted in the survival of less number of microbial species leading to lower electrogenesis.

  17. Facilitating leadership team communication

    OpenAIRE

    Hedman, Eerika

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand and describe how to facilitate competent communication in leadership teamwork. Grounded in the premises of social constructionism and informed by such theoretical frameworks as coordinated management of meaning theory (CMM), dialogic organization development (OD), systemic-constructionist leadership, communication competence, and reflexivity, this study seeks to produce further insights into understanding leadership team communicati...

  18. Acute Sleep Deprivation Induces a Local Brain Transfer Information Increase in the Frontal Cortex in a Widespread Decrease Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan F. Alonso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation (SD has adverse effects on mental and physical health, affecting the cognitive abilities and emotional states. Specifically, cognitive functions and alertness are known to decrease after SD. The aim of this work was to identify the directional information transfer after SD on scalp EEG signals using transfer entropy (TE. Using a robust methodology based on EEG recordings of 18 volunteers deprived from sleep for 36 h, TE and spectral analysis were performed to characterize EEG data acquired every 2 h. Correlation between connectivity measures and subjective somnolence was assessed. In general, TE showed medium- and long-range significant decreases originated at the occipital areas and directed towards different regions, which could be interpreted as the transfer of predictive information from parieto-occipital activity to the rest of the head. Simultaneously, short-range increases were obtained for the frontal areas, following a consistent and robust time course with significant maps after 20 h of sleep deprivation. Changes during sleep deprivation in brain network were measured effectively by TE, which showed increased local connectivity and diminished global integration. TE is an objective measure that could be used as a potential measure of sleep pressure and somnolence with the additional property of directed relationships.

  19. Acute Sleep Deprivation Induces a Local Brain Transfer Information Increase in the Frontal Cortex in a Widespread Decrease Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Joan F.; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miguel A.; Alcalá, Marta; Antonijoan, Rosa M.; Giménez, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has adverse effects on mental and physical health, affecting the cognitive abilities and emotional states. Specifically, cognitive functions and alertness are known to decrease after SD. The aim of this work was to identify the directional information transfer after SD on scalp EEG signals using transfer entropy (TE). Using a robust methodology based on EEG recordings of 18 volunteers deprived from sleep for 36 h, TE and spectral analysis were performed to characterize EEG data acquired every 2 h. Correlation between connectivity measures and subjective somnolence was assessed. In general, TE showed medium- and long-range significant decreases originated at the occipital areas and directed towards different regions, which could be interpreted as the transfer of predictive information from parieto-occipital activity to the rest of the head. Simultaneously, short-range increases were obtained for the frontal areas, following a consistent and robust time course with significant maps after 20 h of sleep deprivation. Changes during sleep deprivation in brain network were measured effectively by TE, which showed increased local connectivity and diminished global integration. TE is an objective measure that could be used as a potential measure of sleep pressure and somnolence with the additional property of directed relationships. PMID:27089346

  20. Acute Sleep Deprivation Induces a Local Brain Transfer Information Increase in the Frontal Cortex in a Widespread Decrease Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Joan F; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miguel A; Alcalá, Marta; Antonijoan, Rosa M; Giménez, Sandra

    2016-04-14

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has adverse effects on mental and physical health, affecting the cognitive abilities and emotional states. Specifically, cognitive functions and alertness are known to decrease after SD. The aim of this work was to identify the directional information transfer after SD on scalp EEG signals using transfer entropy (TE). Using a robust methodology based on EEG recordings of 18 volunteers deprived from sleep for 36 h, TE and spectral analysis were performed to characterize EEG data acquired every 2 h. Correlation between connectivity measures and subjective somnolence was assessed. In general, TE showed medium- and long-range significant decreases originated at the occipital areas and directed towards different regions, which could be interpreted as the transfer of predictive information from parieto-occipital activity to the rest of the head. Simultaneously, short-range increases were obtained for the frontal areas, following a consistent and robust time course with significant maps after 20 h of sleep deprivation. Changes during sleep deprivation in brain network were measured effectively by TE, which showed increased local connectivity and diminished global integration. TE is an objective measure that could be used as a potential measure of sleep pressure and somnolence with the additional property of directed relationships.

  1. Facilitating Learning at Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib; Elsborg, Steen

    2011-01-01

    and facilitate a variety of simple learning techniques at thirty one- and two-day conferences of up to 300 participants each. We present ten of these techniques and data evaluating them. We conclude that if conference organizers allocate a fraction of the total conference time to facilitated processes......The typical conference consists of a series of PowerPoint presentations that tend to render participants passive. Students of learning have long abandoned the transfer model that underlies such one-way communication. We propose an al-ternative theory of conferences that sees them as a forum...... for learning, mutual inspiration and human flourishing. We offer five design principles that specify how conferences may engage participants more and hence increase their learning. In the research-and-development effort reported here, our team collaborated with conference organizers in Denmark to introduce...

  2. The utah beacon experience: integrating quality improvement, health information technology, and practice facilitation to improve diabetes outcomes in small health care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennison, Janet; Rajeev, Deepthi; Woolsey, Sarah; Black, Jeff; Oostema, Steven J; North, Christie

    2014-01-01

    The Utah Improving Care through Connectivity and Collaboration (IC3) Beacon community (2010-2013) was spearheaded by HealthInsight, a nonprofit, community-based organization. One of the main objectives of IC(3) was to improve health care provided to patients with diabetes in three Utah counties, collaborating with 21 independent smaller clinics and two large health care enterprises. This paper will focus on the use of health information technology (HIT) and practice facilitation to develop and implement new care processes to improve clinic workflow and ultimately improve patients' diabetes outcomes at 21 participating smaller, independent clinics. Early in the project, we learned that most of the 21 clinics did not have the resources needed to successfully implement quality improvement (QI) initiatives. IC(3) helped clinics effectively use data generated from their electronic health records (EHRs) to design and implement interventions to improve patients' diabetes outcomes. This close coupling of HIT, expert practice facilitation, and Learning Collaboratives was found to be especially valuable in clinics with limited resources. Through this process we learned that (1) an extensive readiness assessment improved clinic retention, (2) clinic champions were important for a successful collaboration, and (3) current EHR systems have limited functionality to assist in QI initiatives. In general, smaller, independent clinics lack knowledge and experience with QI and have limited HIT experience to improve patient care using electronic clinical data. Additionally, future projects like IC(3) Beacon will be instrumental in changing clinic culture so that QI is integrated into routine workflow. Our efforts led to significant changes in how practice staff optimized their EHRs to manage and improve diabetes care, while establishing the framework for sustainability. Some of the IC(3) Beacon practices are currently smoothly transitioning to new models of care such as Patient

  3. Facilitating nurses’ knowledge of the utilisation of reflexology in adults with chronic diseases to enable informed health education during comprehensive nursing care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa van der Walt

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An integrative literature review of identified scientific evidence, published from January 2000 to December 2008, of the utilisation of reflexology as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM modalities to promote well-being and quality of life in adults with chronic diseases was done to facilitate nurses to give informed health education during comprehensive nursing care to patients with chronic diseases. Selected accessible databases were searched purposefully for research articles (N = 1171. Pre-set inclusion criteria were applied during the study selection process. The methodological study quality was reviewed and appraised with appropriate tools from the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP and the American Dietetic Association’s (ADA Evidence analysis manual (n = 21. Evidence extraction, analysis and synthesis of studies (n = 18 were done through the evidence class rating and level of strength as prescribed in the manuals of ADA and CASP. Findings indicate statistically significant reduction in the frequency of seizures in patients with intractable epilepsy, an improvement of sensory and urinary symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis and clinically significant reduction of anxiety and pain in patients with cancer and fibromyalgia syndrome. These findings can be utilised by nurses to inform patients with these chronic diseases about alternative ways of treatment.

    Opsomming

    ‘n Geïntegreerde literatuur oorsig van ge-identifiseerde wetenskaplike bewyse, gepubliseer vanaf Januarie 2000 tot Desember 2008, was gedoen oor die gebruik van refleksologie as aanvullende en alternatiewe behandelingsmodalitieit om welsyn en lewenskwaliteit te bevorder by volwassenes met kroniese siekte om verpleegkundiges te fasiliteer om ingeligte gesondheidsvoorligting te gee gedurende omvattende verpleegsorg aan pasiente met kroniese siektes. Geselekteerde toeganklike databasisse was

  4. Extracellular Vesicles: Satellites of Information Transfer in Cancer and Stem Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrochers, Laura M; Antonyak, Marc A; Cerione, Richard A

    2016-05-23

    The generation and shedding of extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles (MVs), by cells has emerged as a form of intercellular communication with important roles in several physiological processes and diseases such as cancer. These membrane-enclosed packets can transfer specific proteins, RNA transcripts, microRNAs, and even DNA to target cells, thereby altering their function. Despite the exponential growth of the EV field, a great deal remains unclear about the mechanisms that regulate exosome and MV biogenesis, as well as about how to isolate different classes of EVs and how to best take advantage of them for clinical applications.

  5. The Deceptively Simple N170 Reflects Network Information Processing Mechanisms Involving Visual Feature Coding and Transfer Across Hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Robin A. A.; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Gross, Joachim; Panzeri, Stefano; van Rijsbergen, Nicola J.; Rousselet, Guillaume A.; Schyns, Philippe G.

    2016-01-01

    A key to understanding visual cognition is to determine “where”, “when”, and “how” brain responses reflect the processing of the specific visual features that modulate categorization behavior—the “what”. The N170 is the earliest Event-Related Potential (ERP) that preferentially responds to faces. Here, we demonstrate that a paradigmatic shift is necessary to interpret the N170 as the product of an information processing network that dynamically codes and transfers face features across hemispheres, rather than as a local stimulus-driven event. Reverse-correlation methods coupled with information-theoretic analyses revealed that visibility of the eyes influences face detection behavior. The N170 initially reflects coding of the behaviorally relevant eye contralateral to the sensor, followed by a causal communication of the other eye from the other hemisphere. These findings demonstrate that the deceptively simple N170 ERP hides a complex network information processing mechanism involving initial coding and subsequent cross-hemispheric transfer of visual features. PMID:27550865

  6. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 9: Information intermediaries and the transfer of aerospace Scientific and Technical Information (STI): A report from the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eveland, J. D.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    From the NASA/DOD survey data, there can be no way of inferring what strategy for knowledge transfer is best; indeed, given the fact that the respondents were all presumably well qualified professionals, the data tend to call into serious question the idea that any one model might meet the needs of more than a distinct minority of possible users. The evidence to date appears to reinforce the concept that different information environments take many different shapes, and interact with each other and with formal data transmission sources in many different and equally valuable ways. Any overall strategy for improving the effectiveness and efficiency of scientific and technical information sharing must take this divergence into account, and work toward the creation of systems that reinforce true interactive knowledge utilization rather than simply disseminating data.

  7. The Role of Very Low-Reynolds Hydrodynamics on the Transfer of Information Among Active Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosis, Alessandro; Ubertini, Francesco; Ubertini, Stefano; Succi, Sauro

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the role of hydrodynamic interactions on the decision-making and leader-identification processes within a group of fifty small-size active individuals, immersed in a viscous fluid at very low Reynolds number, {R}e {˜ }10^{-2}. A fraction of the individuals is informed about the spatial location of the target, and moves accordingly along a privileged trajectory. The rest of the group has no access to this information, but may draw indirect benefit by following the trajectory of the informed individuals, through a process of leader-identification. Such process responds to simple behavioral rules ("social" interactions) discussed previously in the literature (Krause and Ruxton in Living in groups, 2002). The above scenario is enriched with two mechanical ingredients: the presence of an obstacle, preventing the informed individuals from following a straight trajectory to the target and hydrodynamic interactions with the surrounding fluid. It is found that hydrodynamic interactions are particularly effective in steering the uninformed individuals towards the target under neutral conditions, i.e. whenever the fraction of informed individuals is around 50 %. At lower fractions, only the informed individuals manage to reach the target, regardless of hydrodynamic interactions. Likewise, at higher fractions, all individuals reach the target, independently of hydrodynamic effects. This shows that, while hydrodynamics is subdominant under most circumstances, it may nonetheless take on a strategic role whenever the informed and uninformed individuals become comparable in number.

  8. The calcium sensor synaptotagmin 7 is required for synaptic facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Skyler L; Turecek, Josef; Belinsky, Justine E; Regehr, Wade G

    2016-01-01

    It has been known for more than 70 years that synaptic strength is dynamically regulated in a use-dependent manner. At synapses with a low initial release probability, closely spaced presynaptic action potentials can result in facilitation, a short-term form of enhancement in which each subsequent action potential evokes greater neurotransmitter release. Facilitation can enhance neurotransmitter release considerably and can profoundly influence information transfer across synapses, but the underlying mechanism remains a mystery. One proposed mechanism is that a specialized calcium sensor for facilitation transiently increases the probability of release, and this sensor is distinct from the fast sensors that mediate rapid neurotransmitter release. Yet such a sensor has never been identified, and its very existence has been disputed. Here we show that synaptotagmin 7 (Syt7) is a calcium sensor that is required for facilitation at several central synapses. In Syt7-knockout mice, facilitation is eliminated even though the initial probability of release and the presynaptic residual calcium signals are unaltered. Expression of wild-type Syt7 in presynaptic neurons restored facilitation, whereas expression of a mutated Syt7 with a calcium-insensitive C2A domain did not. By revealing the role of Syt7 in synaptic facilitation, these results resolve a longstanding debate about a widespread form of short-term plasticity, and will enable future studies that may lead to a deeper understanding of the functional importance of facilitation.

  9. Transcallosal transfer of information and functional asymmetry of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka, Anna; Tacikowski, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    The corpus callosum is the largest commissure in the brain and acts as a "bridge" of nerve fibres connecting the two cerebral hemispheres. It plays a crucial role in interhemispheric integration and is responsible for normal communication and cooperation between the two hemispheres. Evolutionary pressures guiding brain size are accompanied by reduced interhemispheric and enhanced intrahemispheric connectivity. Some lines of evidence suggest that the speed of transcallosal conduction is limited in large brains (e.g., in humans), thus favouring intrahemispheric processing and brain lateralisation. Patterns of directional symmetry/asymmetry of transcallosal transfer time may be related to the degree of brain lateralisation. Neural network modelling and electrophysiological studies on interhemispheric transmission provide data supporting this supposition.

  10. The use of aerosol formation, flammability, and explosion information for heat-transfer fluid selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Kiran; Rogers, William J; Mannan, M Sam

    2003-11-14

    The devastating consequences of aerosol/mist explosions have been widely documented, and there are currently efforts to understand the mechanisms of formation and explosion of aerosols. Heat-transfer fluids (HTFs) are particularly susceptible to these hazards, because they are utilized under high pressures and below their flash points, making them more prone to leaking as aerosols. In fact, there is a critical need during design stages for a perception of explosion risks associated with the selection of HTFs. This paper discusses a novel scheme to integrate the knowledge of HTF aerosol formation from leaks in process equipment into the selection of HTFs during the design process. Hazards of aerosols formed from leaks are classified qualitatively using process pressure and droplet sizes.

  11. Oxidized/reduced graphene nanoribbons facilitate charge transfer to the Fe(CN)63-/Fe(CN)64- redox couple and towards oxygen reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Fábio; Maia, Gilberto

    2015-03-01

    center, while GNR2 resembles stacked ribbons, each ~16 nm wide, with points of structural damage and points of four-ribbon connection measuring 60 nm or wider, sufficiently catalytic for the oxygen reduction reaction to occur, unlike the other modified electrodes investigated in acidic, 0.1 M KH2PO4 (pH 7.0), and 0.1 M KOH solutions (HV results). Transmission electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis were employed to characterize the MWCNTs, GONRs, and GNRs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The ESI contains figures, equations, discussion, tables concerning supplementary results, and references. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01123j

  12. Quantum origin of quantum jumps: Breaking of unitary symmetry induced by information transfer in the transition from quantum to classical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Wojciech Hubert

    2007-11-01

    Measurements transfer information about a system to the apparatus and then, further on, to observers and (often inadvertently) to the environment. I show that even imperfect copying essential in such situations restricts possible unperturbed outcomes to an orthogonal subset of all possible states of the system, thus breaking the unitary symmetry of its Hilbert space implied by the quantum superposition principle. Preferred outcome states emerge as a result. They provide a framework for “wave-packet collapse,” designating terminal points of quantum jumps and defining the measured observable by specifying its eigenstates. In quantum Darwinism, they are the progenitors of multiple copies spread throughout the environment—the fittest quantum states that not only survive decoherence, but subvert the environment into carrying information about them—into becoming a witness.

  13. Noise enhancement of information transfer in crayfish mechanoreceptors by stochastic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, John K.; Wilkens, Lon; Pantazelou, Eleni; Moss, Frank

    1993-09-01

    IN linear information theory, electrical engineering and neurobiology, random noise has traditionally been viewed as a detriment to information transmission. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a nonlinear, statistical dynamics whereby information flow in a multistate system is enhanced by the presence of optimized, random noise1 4. A major consequence of SR for signal reception is that it makes possible substantial improvements in the detection of weak periodic signals. Although SR has recently been demonstrated in several artificial physical systems5,6, it may also occur naturally, and an intriguing possibility is that biological systems have evolved the capability to exploit SR by optimizing endogenous sources of noise. Sensory systems are an obvious place to look for SR, as they excel at detecting weak signals in a noisy environment. Here we demonstrate SR using external noise applied to crayfish mechanoreceptor cells. Our results show that individual neurons can provide a physiological substrate for SR in sensory systems.

  14. Processing irrelevant location information: practice and transfer effects in a Simon task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan B Welch

    Full Text Available How humans produce cognitively driven fine motor movements is a question of fundamental importance in how we interact with the world around us. For example, we are exposed to a constant stream of information and we must select the information that is most relevant by which to guide our actions. In the present study, we employed a well-known behavioral assay called the Simon task to better understand how humans are able to learn to filter out irrelevant information. We trained subjects for four days with a visual stimulus presented, alternately, in central and lateral locations. Subjects responded with one hand moving a joystick in either the left or right direction. They were instructed to ignore the irrelevant location information and respond based on color (e.g. red to the right and green to the left. On the fifth day, an additional testing session was conducted where the task changed and the subjects had to respond by shape (e.g. triangle to the right and rectangle to the left. They were instructed to ignore the color and location, and respond based solely on the task relevant shape. We found that the magnitude of the Simon effect decreases with training, however it returns in the first few trials after a break. Furthermore, task-defined associations between response direction and color did not significantly affect the Simon effect based on shape, and no significant associative learning from the specific stimulus-response features was found for the centrally located stimuli. We discuss how these results are consistent with a model involving route suppression/gating of the irrelevant location information. Much of the learning seems to be driven by subjects learning to suppress irrelevant location information, however, this seems to be an active inhibition process that requires a few trials of experience to engage.

  15. Long-Range Reduced Predictive Information Transfers of Autistic Youths in EEG Sensor-Space During Face Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem, Ali; Hossein-Zadeh, Gholam-Ali; Khorrami, Anahita

    2016-03-01

    The majority of previous functional/effective connectivity studies conducted on the autistic patients converged to the underconnectivity theory of ASD: "long-range underconnectivity and sometimes short-rang overconnectivity". However, to the best of our knowledge the total (linear and nonlinear) predictive information transfers (PITs) of autistic patients have not been investigated yet. Also, EEG data have rarely been used for exploring the information processing deficits in autistic subjects. This study is aimed at comparing the total (linear and nonlinear) PITs of autistic and typically developing healthy youths during human face processing by using EEG data. The ERPs of 12 autistic youths and 19 age-matched healthy control (HC) subjects were recorded while they were watching upright and inverted human face images. The PITs among EEG channels were quantified using two measures separately: transfer entropy with self-prediction optimality (TESPO), and modified transfer entropy with self-prediction optimality (MTESPO). Afterwards, the directed differential connectivity graphs (dDCGs) were constructed to characterize the significant changes in the estimated PITs of autistic subjects compared with HC ones. By using both TESPO and MTESPO, long-range reduction of PITs of ASD group during face processing was revealed (particularly from frontal channels to right temporal channels). Also, it seemed the orientation of face images (upright or upside down) did not modulate the binary pattern of PIT-based dDCGs, significantly. Moreover, compared with TESPO, the results of MTESPO were more compatible with the underconnectivity theory of ASD in the sense that MTESPO showed no long-range increase in PIT. It is also noteworthy that to the best of our knowledge it is the first time that a version of MTE is applied for patients (here ASD) and it is also its first use for EEG data analysis.

  16. How to start a V2 declarative clause: Transfer of syntax vs. information structure in L2 German

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Bohnacker

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses V2 word order and information structure in Swedish, German and non-native German. Concentrating on the clause-initial position of V2 declaratives, the ‘prefield’, we investigate the extent of L1 transfer in a closely related L2. The prefield anchors the clause in discourse, and although almost any type of element can occur in this position, naturalistic text corpora of native Swedish and native German show distinct language-specific patterns. Certain types of elements are more common than others in clause-initial position, and their frequencies in Swedish differ substantially from German (subjects, fronted objects, certain adverbs. Nonnative cross-sectional production data from Swedish learners of German at beginner, intermediate and advanced levels are compared with native control data, matched for age and genre (Bohnacker 2005, 2006, Rosén 2006. The learners’ V2 syntax is largely targetlike, but their beginnings of sentences are unidiomatic. They have problems with the language-specific linguistic means that have an impact on information structure: They overapply the Swedish principle of “rheme later” in their L2 German, indicating L1 transfer at the interface of syntax and discourse pragmatics, especially for structures that are frequent in the L1 (subject-initial and expletive-initial clauses, and constructions with så (‘so’ and object det (‘it/that’.

  17. A Study of Trends in the Demand for Information Transfer. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, R. W.; And Others

    The scope of the research reported here is summarized as follows: (1) consider items of information that could conceivably be transmitted electrically or electronically, (2) concentrate on domestic U.S. rather than international traffic, (3) concentrate on point-to-point service, (4) consider data collection and broadcasting services only as they…

  18. Informal value transfer systems and criminal organizations : A study into so-called underground banking networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passas, N.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a preliminary study into what is commonly called 'underground banking systems'. As the conventional banking industry is increasingly being regulated many fear that criminal organizations may turn to alternatives, such as underground banking systems - or informal

  19. Guide to Sources: Colleges & Universities, Graduate Programs, Transfer Information, Financial Aid. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Bryan

    This library guide lists some of the more useful sources of information about colleges and universities that are available in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine. The 99 items cited are listed in four categories: (1) colleges and universities, including general, graduate, and foreign programs; (2) preparation for admission exams; (3)…

  20. Informal value transfer systems and criminal organizations : A study into so-called underground banking networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passas, N.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a preliminary study into what is commonly called 'underground banking systems'. As the conventional banking industry is increasingly being regulated many fear that criminal organizations may turn to alternatives, such as underground banking systems - or informal

  1. Transfer-of-Training Effects in Processing Instruction: The Role of Form-Related Explicit Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Justin P.; DeMil, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the effects of processing instruction (PI), structured input (SI), and form-related explicit information (FREI) on a primary target form (i.e., third-person Spanish accusative clitics) and on a secondary form (i.e., third-person Spanish dative clitics). Participants included 151 adult learners enrolled in a beginning-level…

  2. Cross-talk and information transfer in mammalian and bacterial signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanthe M Lyons

    Full Text Available In mammalian and bacterial cells simple phosphorylation circuits play an important role in signaling. Bacteria have hundreds of two-component signaling systems that involve phosphotransfer between a receptor and a response regulator. In mammalian cells a similar pathway is the TGF-beta pathway, where extracellular TGF-beta ligands activate cell surface receptors that phosphorylate Smad proteins, which in turn activate many genes. In TGF-beta signaling the multiplicity of ligands begs the question as to whether cells can distinguish signals coming from different ligands, but transduced through a small set of Smads. Here we use information theory with stochastic simulations of networks to address this question. We find that when signals are transduced through only one Smad, the cell cannot distinguish between different levels of the external ligands. Increasing the number of Smads from one to two significantly improves information transmission as well as the ability to discriminate between ligands. Surprisingly, both total information transmitted and the capacity to discriminate between ligands are quite insensitive to high levels of cross-talk between the two Smads. Robustness against cross-talk requires that the average amplitude of the signals are large. We find that smaller systems, as exemplified by some two-component systems in bacteria, are significantly much less robust against cross-talk. For such system sizes phosphotransfer is also less robust against cross-talk than phosphorylation. This suggests that mammalian signal transduction can tolerate a high amount of cross-talk without degrading information content. This may have played a role in the evolution of new functionalities from small mutations in signaling pathways, allowed for the development of cross-regulation and led to increased overall robustness due to redundancy in signaling pathways. On the other hand the lack of cross-regulation observed in many bacterial two

  3. Cross-Talk and Information Transfer in Mammalian and Bacterial Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Samanthe M.; Prasad, Ashok

    2012-01-01

    In mammalian and bacterial cells simple phosphorylation circuits play an important role in signaling. Bacteria have hundreds of two-component signaling systems that involve phosphotransfer between a receptor and a response regulator. In mammalian cells a similar pathway is the TGF-beta pathway, where extracellular TGF-beta ligands activate cell surface receptors that phosphorylate Smad proteins, which in turn activate many genes. In TGF-beta signaling the multiplicity of ligands begs the question as to whether cells can distinguish signals coming from different ligands, but transduced through a small set of Smads. Here we use information theory with stochastic simulations of networks to address this question. We find that when signals are transduced through only one Smad, the cell cannot distinguish between different levels of the external ligands. Increasing the number of Smads from one to two significantly improves information transmission as well as the ability to discriminate between ligands. Surprisingly, both total information transmitted and the capacity to discriminate between ligands are quite insensitive to high levels of cross-talk between the two Smads. Robustness against cross-talk requires that the average amplitude of the signals are large. We find that smaller systems, as exemplified by some two-component systems in bacteria, are significantly much less robust against cross-talk. For such system sizes phosphotransfer is also less robust against cross-talk than phosphorylation. This suggests that mammalian signal transduction can tolerate a high amount of cross-talk without degrading information content. This may have played a role in the evolution of new functionalities from small mutations in signaling pathways, allowed for the development of cross-regulation and led to increased overall robustness due to redundancy in signaling pathways. On the other hand the lack of cross-regulation observed in many bacterial two-component systems may partly be

  4. Three-dimensional preoperative planning software and a novel information transfer technology improve glenoid component positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Joseph; Baker, Justin; Rodriguez, Eric; Brems, John; Ricchetti, Eric; Mesiha, Mena; Bryan, Jason

    2014-05-07

    We hypothesized that a novel surgical method, in which three-dimensional (3-D) preoperative planning software is generated to create a patient-specific surgical model that is used with a reusable and adjustable tool, could substantially improve the positioning accuracy of the glenoid guide pin used in total shoulder arthroplasty. We tested this method using bone models from patients with shoulder pathology and compared the results with those achieved using surgical methods representing the current standard of care. Three surgeons with a variety of surgical experience placed a guide pin in nine bone models from patients with a variety of glenohumeral arthritis severity using (1) standard instrumentation alone, (2) standard instrumentation and 3-D preoperative surgical planning, and (3) the reusable transfer device and 3-D preoperative surgical planning. A postoperative 3-D computed tomography scan of the bone model was made and registered to the preoperative plan, and the differences between the actual and planned pin locations and trajectories were measured. Use of the standard instrumentation combined with 3-D preoperative planning software improved guide pin positioning compared with standard instrumentation and preoperative planning using 2-D imaging. The accuracy of pin positioning increased by 4.5° ± 1.0° in version (p < 0.001), 3.3° ± 1.3° in inclination (p = 0.013), and 0.4 ± 0.2 mm in location (p = 0.042). Use of the adjustable and reusable device and the 3-D software improved pin positioning by a further 3.7° ± 0.9° in version, 8.1° ± 1.2° in inclination, and 1.2 ± 0.2 mm in location (p < 0.001 for all) compared with standard instrumentation and the 3-D software; the improvement compared with use of standard instrumentation with 2-D imaging was 8.2° ± 0.9° in version, 11.4° ± 1.2° in inclination, and 1.7 ± 0.2 mm in location (p < 0.001 for all). Use of 3-D preoperative planning and use of the patient-specific bone model and transfer

  5. Investigating dynamical information transfer in the brain following a TMS pulse: Insights from structural architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, Enrico; Van Mierlo, Pieter; Marinazzo, Daniele; Laureys, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used for more than 20 years to investigate connectivity and plasticity in the human cortex. By combining TMS with high-density electroencephalography (hd-EEG), one can stimulate any cortical area and measure the effects produced by this perturbation in the rest of the cerebral cortex. The purpose of this paper is to investigate changes of information flow in the brain after TMS from a functional and structural perspective, using multimodal modeling of source reconstructed TMS/hd-EEG recordings and DTI tractography. We prove how brain dynamics induced by TMS is constrained and driven by its structure, at different spatial and temporal scales, especially when considering cross-frequency interactions. These results shed light on the function-structure organization of the brain network at the global level, and on the huge variety of information contained in it.

  6. Singing in the rain forest: how a tropical bird song transfers information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Mathevon

    Full Text Available How information transmission processes between individuals are shaped by natural selection is a key question for the understanding of the evolution of acoustic communication systems. Environmental acoustics predict that signal structure will differ depending on general features of the habitat. Social features, like individual spacing and mating behavior, may also be important for the design of communication. Here we present the first experimental study investigating how a tropical rainforest bird, the white-browed warbler Basileuterus leucoblepharus, extracts various information from a received song: species-specific identity, individual identity and location of the sender. Species-specific information is encoded in a resistant acoustic feature and is thus a public signal helping males to reach a wide audience. Conversely, individual identity is supported by song features susceptible to propagation: this private signal is reserved for neighbors. Finally, the receivers can locate the singers by using propagation-induced song modifications. Thus, this communication system is well matched to the acoustic constraints of the rain forest and to the ecological requirements of the species. Our results emphasize that, in a constraining acoustic environment, the efficiency of a sound communication system results from a coding/decoding process particularly well tuned to the acoustic properties of this environment.

  7. Resonant charge transfer in low-energy ion scattering: Information depth in the reionization regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primetzhofer, D; Spitz, M; Taglauer, E; Bauer, P

    2011-11-01

    Time-Of-Flight Low-energy ion scattering (TOF-LEIS) experiments were performed for He(+) ions scattered from Cu(100) and Cu(0.5)Au(0.5)(100). Probabilities for resonant neutralization and reionization in close collisions were deduced in a wide energy range. To learn about the information depth in LEIS, in a next step ion spectra were analyzed for polycrystalline Cu samples. The relative yield of backscattered projectiles, which have undergone distinct charge exchange processes, was calculated. Results indicate a strong contribution to the ion yield that origins from particles reionized in a close collision in deeper layers when experiments are performed at energies where reionization is prominent. The surface sensitivity of the ion signal at different energies is quantified. Based on these results, the total ion spectrum was quantitatively modelled by two consistent, but different approaches.

  8. Noise-assisted information transfer in crayfish mechanoreceptors: stochastic resonance in a neuronal receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, John K.; Wilkens, Lon A.; Moss, Frank

    1993-11-01

    Adding random noise to a weak periodic signal can enhance the flow of information through certain nonlinear physical systems, via a process known as stochastic resonance (SR). We have used crayfish mechanoreceptor cells to investigate the possibility that SR can be induced in neurophysiological systems. Various signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurements were derived from the action potentials (spikes) of single receptor cells stimulated with weak periodic signals. Spike noise was controlled by one of two methods: (1) adding external noise to the stimulus, or (2) altering internal noise sources by changing the temperature of the cell. In external noise experiments, an optimal noise level can be identified at which the SNR is maximized. In internal noise experiments, although the SNR increases with increasing noise, no SNR maximum has been observed. These results demonstrate that SR can be induced in single neurons, and suggest that neuronal systems may also be capable of exploiting SR.

  9. Transfer Learning for SSVEP Electroencephalography Based Brain–Computer Interfaces Using Learn++.NSE and Mutual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Sybeldon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain–Computer Interfaces (BCI using Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEP are sometimes used by injured patients seeking to use a computer. Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA is seen as state-of-the-art for SSVEP BCI systems. However, this assumes that the user has full control over their covert attention, which may not be the case. This introduces high calibration requirements when using other machine learning techniques. These may be circumvented by using transfer learning to utilize data from other participants. This paper proposes a combination of ensemble learning via Learn++ for Nonstationary Environments (Learn++.NSEand similarity measures such as mutual information to identify ensembles of pre-existing data that result in higher classification. Results show that this approach performed worse than CCA in participants with typical SSVEP responses, but outperformed CCA in participants whose SSVEP responses violated CCA assumptions. This indicates that similarity measures and Learn++.NSE can introduce a transfer learning mechanism to bring SSVEP system accessibility to users unable to control their covert attention.

  10. Scheme for realizing quantum computation and quantum information transfer with superconducting qubits coupling to a 1D transmission line resonator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Zhen-Gang; Chen Xiong-Wen; Zhu Xi-Xiang; Song Ke-Hui

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a simple scheme for realizing one-qubit and two-qubit quantum gates as well as multiqubit entanglement based on dc-SQUID charge qubits through the control of their coupling to a ID transmission line resonator (TLR). The TLR behaves effectively as a quantum data-bus mode of a harmonic oscillator, which has several practical advantages including strong coupling strength, reproducibility, immunity to 1// noise, and suppressed spontaneous emission. In this protocol, the data-bus does not need to stay adiabatically in its ground state, which results in not only fast quantum operation, but also high-fidelity quantum information processing. Also, it elaborates the transfer process with the 1D transmission line.

  11. Transfer your ideas to society!

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Science and technology labs are the ideal places for developing innovative solutions. However, inventors sometimes don’t realize that their ideas can find an application in industry, which can in turn have a technical and economic impact on society. Some researchers may think that disclosing an invention is a time-consuming process which is worth doing only in very special cases. But one thing is certain: it is always worth informing the Knowledge and Technology Transfer group, as they will give you the correct advice and support. Don’t be afraid of the paperwork… it can be highly rewarding!   Why should researchers at CERN bother to disclose their inventions to the Knowledge and Technology Transfer Group first? “Because when inventors do so, a process to transfer the technology to industry is set in motion” explains Henning Huuse, Patent Portfolio Manager in the KTT Group. To facilitate this transfer, patent protection can be a useful tool. &...

  12. The Research on Transfer Mechanism of E-Commerce Initial Trust Facilitated by Online Brand Community’ s Technology Trust%在线品牌社区中技术信任促进电子商务初始信任的转移机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢康; 杨文君; 肖静华

    2016-01-01

    Trust is an important factor to affect the development of e-commerce. Based on trust transfer theory, this paper explores the influential mechanism of online brand community’ s technology trust on e-commerce initial trust. We use an online survey to collect data from community members who haven’ t trading experience and test hypotheses by structural equation modeling. Results show that the facilitating mechanism of trust transfer in e-commerce is as follows:technology trust facilitates online interpersonal trust among consumers by facilitating information sharing and knowledge learning among virtual community members, which eventually affects consumers ’ trust in vendors or VC service providers. Particularly, helpfulness has the most significant effect on information sharing and knowledge learning; information sharing is the most significant factor to cognition-based trust;knowledge learning has the most significant effect on affect-based trust. The findings confirm that online shopping community ’ s technology trust can facilitate the formation of Seller’ s initial trust, and provide a new path for e-commerce enterprise to achieve rapid development.%信任是影响电子商务发展的重要因素。本研究基于信任转移理论,构建了在线品牌社区中技术信任对电子商务初始信任的作用机制模型。通过对社区中尚未购买产品的成员进行网络问卷调查,利用结构方程模型对研究假设进行检验。结果表明电商初始信任转移的促进机制如下:技术信任通过促进社区成员间的信息共享和知识学习进而促进消费者之间的网络人际信任,最终影响消费者对社区提供商或商家的信任。其中技术有用性对信息共享和知识学习的影响最为显著,信息共享对认知信任的影响最为显著,知识学习对情感信任的影响最为显著。这些发现证实了在线品牌社区中的技术信任可以促进商家初始信任的形成

  13. Interhemispheric transfer of kinesthetic information and line bisection task performance in patient with callosal agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makashvili, M; Chichinadze, K; Domianidze, T

    2009-09-01

    Patient G.J., male, 7 yrs, with callosal agenesis, was found perfectly able to cross-replicate hand postures in right-to left and left-to-right directions. Bimanual coordination as well as touch localization and intermanual matching were performed without errors. He failed to name 2 out of 8 objects, palpated with the left hand. At the age of 13 patient performed like normal controls in line bisection task, was successful in intermanual replication of hand postures and intermanual matching while failed to name 8 out of 12 familiar objects palpated with the left hand. G.J.'s case does not support idea about bilateral presentation of language centers and development of compensatory ipsilateral afferents in patients with callosal agenesis. Presence of anterior and interictal commissures in G.J. did not contribute to the exchange of information between sensory areas of the right hemisphere and language centers of the left half brain. However, normal intermanual matching and replication of hand postures, as well as high level of line bisection task performance suggests, that anterior and/or intertectal commissure could contribute to the functional integration of sensory areas of the two hemispheres.

  14. Local disalignment can promote coherent collective motion through rapid information transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Meschede, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    When particles move at a constant speed and have the tendency to align their directions of motion, ordered large scale movement can emerge despite significant levels of noise. Many variants of this model of self-propelled particles have been studied to explain the coherent motion of groups of birds, fish or microbes. Here, we generalize the exactly aligning collision rule of the classical model of self-propelled particles to the case where particles after the collision tend to move in slightly different directions away from each other, as characterized by a collision angle $\\alpha$. We map out the resulting phase diagram and find that, in sufficiently dense systems, small disalignment can lead to higher global alignment of particle movement directions. We show that in this dense regime, global alignment is accompanied by a grid-like spatial structure which allows information to rapidly percolate accross the system by a "domino" effect. Our results elucidate the relevance of disalignment for the emergence of c...

  15. Electronic Transfer of Information and Its Impact on Aerospace and Defence Research and Development. Proceedings of the Technical Information Panel Specialists’ Meeting Held in Brussels, Belgium on 17th-19th October 1989 Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    advanced information technologies impact the production, transfer and use of cientific and technical information as well as the communication and...Japan Information Center of Science and Technology (JICST) is one of the largest hosts and document supply centres in the world. The JICST file on science ...which there is a lasting indetendept record for the pttricise of tratrsferring information or knowledge between human Weings". A dcicuntent delivery

  16. Facilitering som styringsredskab

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Karen Overgaard

    2006-01-01

    #This thesis surveys facilitation as a new tool of steering within the public sector in Denmark. It is explored how facilitation is articulated and practiced among facilitators from the public, private and voluntary sector. Furthermore, the facilitator’s challenges by using facilitation are examined. The thesis is based on the presumption that facilitation is articulated by rationalities, which influence how facilitation is practiced and performed. Also, a facilitator is seen as a performer a...

  17. Ipsilateral inhibition and contralateral facilitation of simple reaction time to non-foveal visual targets from non-informative visual cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassinari, G; Biscaldi, M; Marzi, C A; Berlucchi, G

    1989-05-01

    Orienting to an extrafoveal light cue without foveating it induces a temporary inhibition of responses to subsequent targets presented in the same visual hemifield, as evinced from the fact that reaction time (RT) to targets ipsilateral to the cue relative to fixation is longer than RT to targets contralateral to the cue. This study has tested the hypothesis that ipsilateral RT inhibition is associated with contralateral RT facilitation by attempting to divide the difference between ipsilateral and contralateral RTs into costs and benefits. A neutral condition suited to this purpose should involve a cue that does not require a lateral orientation. Such neutral condition was provided by measuring RT to lateralized light targets following a central overhead auditory cue (experiment 1) or a foveal visual cue (experiment 2). In both experiments RT in the neutral condition was intermediate between ipsilateral and contralateral RTs, and the differences reaches significance in the second experiment. Benefits over the neutral condition measured in the contralateral condition were thus associated with costs in the ipsilateral condition. These results suggest that a reciprocal antagonism between opposite turning tendencies underlies the organization of covert orienting. They also agree with general multi-channel theories of selective attention according to which the facilitation of given channels is an obligatory accompaniment of the inhibition of other competing channels and vice versa.

  18. Facilitating Learning in Multidisciplinary Groups with Transactive CSCL Scripts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noroozi, O.; Teasley, S.D.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Weinberger, A.; Mulder, M.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge sharing and transfer are essential for learning in groups, especially when group members have different disciplinary expertise and collaborate online. Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) environments have been designed to facilitate transactive knowledge sharing and transfer i

  19. Modelling sensory limitation: the role of tree selection, memory and information transfer in bats' roost searching strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruczyński, Ireneusz; Bartoń, Kamil A

    2012-01-01

    Sensory limitation plays an important role in the evolution of animal behaviour. Animals have to find objects of interest (e.g. food, shelters, predators). When sensory abilities are strongly limited, animals adjust their behaviour to maximize chances for success. Bats are nocturnal, live in complex environments, are capable of flight and must confront numerous perceptual challenges (e.g. limited sensory range, interfering clutter echoes). This makes them an excellent model for studying the role of compensating behaviours to decrease costs of finding resources. Cavity roosting bats are especially interesting because the availability of tree cavities is often limited, and their quality is vital for bats during the breeding season. From a bat's sensory point of view, cavities are difficult to detect and finding them requires time and energy. However, tree cavities are also long lasting, allowing information transfer among conspecifics. Here, we use a simple simulation model to explore the benefits of tree selection, memory and eavesdropping (compensation behaviours) to searches for tree cavities by bats with short and long perception range. Our model suggests that memory and correct discrimination of tree suitability are the basic strategies decreasing the cost of roost finding, whereas perceptual range plays a minor role in this process. Additionally, eavesdropping constitutes a buffer that reduces the costs of finding new resources (such as roosts), especially when they occur in low density. We conclude that natural selection may promote different strategies of roost finding in relation to habitat conditions and cognitive skills of animals.

  20. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Cyborg: Establishing a Functional Information Transfer Pathway from Human Brain to Cockroach Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangye; Zhang, Dingguo

    2016-01-01

    An all-chain-wireless brain-to-brain system (BTBS), which enabled motion control of a cyborg cockroach via human brain, was developed in this work. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) was used in this system for recognizing human motion intention and an optimization algorithm was proposed in SSVEP to improve online performance of the BCI. The cyborg cockroach was developed by surgically integrating a portable microstimulator that could generate invasive electrical nerve stimulation. Through Bluetooth communication, specific electrical pulse trains could be triggered from the microstimulator by BCI commands and were sent through the antenna nerve to stimulate the brain of cockroach. Serial experiments were designed and conducted to test overall performance of the BTBS with six human subjects and three cockroaches. The experimental results showed that the online classification accuracy of three-mode BCI increased from 72.86% to 78.56% by 5.70% using the optimization algorithm and the mean response accuracy of the cyborgs using this system reached 89.5%. Moreover, the results also showed that the cyborg could be navigated by the human brain to complete walking along an S-shape track with the success rate of about 20%, suggesting the proposed BTBS established a feasible functional information transfer pathway from the human brain to the cockroach brain.

  1. Modelling sensory limitation: the role of tree selection, memory and information transfer in bats' roost searching strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Ruczyński

    Full Text Available Sensory limitation plays an important role in the evolution of animal behaviour. Animals have to find objects of interest (e.g. food, shelters, predators. When sensory abilities are strongly limited, animals adjust their behaviour to maximize chances for success. Bats are nocturnal, live in complex environments, are capable of flight and must confront numerous perceptual challenges (e.g. limited sensory range, interfering clutter echoes. This makes them an excellent model for studying the role of compensating behaviours to decrease costs of finding resources. Cavity roosting bats are especially interesting because the availability of tree cavities is often limited, and their quality is vital for bats during the breeding season. From a bat's sensory point of view, cavities are difficult to detect and finding them requires time and energy. However, tree cavities are also long lasting, allowing information transfer among conspecifics. Here, we use a simple simulation model to explore the benefits of tree selection, memory and eavesdropping (compensation behaviours to searches for tree cavities by bats with short and long perception range. Our model suggests that memory and correct discrimination of tree suitability are the basic strategies decreasing the cost of roost finding, whereas perceptual range plays a minor role in this process. Additionally, eavesdropping constitutes a buffer that reduces the costs of finding new resources (such as roosts, especially when they occur in low density. We conclude that natural selection may promote different strategies of roost finding in relation to habitat conditions and cognitive skills of animals.

  2. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Cyborg: Establishing a Functional Information Transfer Pathway from Human Brain to Cockroach Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangye Li

    Full Text Available An all-chain-wireless brain-to-brain system (BTBS, which enabled motion control of a cyborg cockroach via human brain, was developed in this work. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP based brain-computer interface (BCI was used in this system for recognizing human motion intention and an optimization algorithm was proposed in SSVEP to improve online performance of the BCI. The cyborg cockroach was developed by surgically integrating a portable microstimulator that could generate invasive electrical nerve stimulation. Through Bluetooth communication, specific electrical pulse trains could be triggered from the microstimulator by BCI commands and were sent through the antenna nerve to stimulate the brain of cockroach. Serial experiments were designed and conducted to test overall performance of the BTBS with six human subjects and three cockroaches. The experimental results showed that the online classification accuracy of three-mode BCI increased from 72.86% to 78.56% by 5.70% using the optimization algorithm and the mean response accuracy of the cyborgs using this system reached 89.5%. Moreover, the results also showed that the cyborg could be navigated by the human brain to complete walking along an S-shape track with the success rate of about 20%, suggesting the proposed BTBS established a feasible functional information transfer pathway from the human brain to the cockroach brain.

  3. Present Status of Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer Network%同步无线能量与信息传输网络研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周静; 杨东

    2016-01-01

    随着越来越多的人投入到无线能量传输技术的研究,无线能量传输已经可以无限延长无线通信网络的生命周期,即使在比较恶劣的环境下也可以得到有效的利用。而无线传输也已经渗入到我们日常生活的各个方面,包括我们现在使用的手机、宽带等。在本文中,我们对无线能量和无线信息两者的同步传输技术进行了论述,同时对同步无线能量和信息传输技术的发展现状,三种比较常见的同步无线能量和信息传输系统模型以及同步无线能量与信息传输构架进行了阐述,最后提出了现在同步无线能量与信息传输技术所存在的一些问题。%With more and more people devoting into the research of wireless energy transfer, wireless energy transfer can prolong the lifetime of the wireless communication networks, although under a relatively hostile environment also can be effectively utilized. And wireless information transfer has penetrated into every aspects of our daily life, including mobile phones, broadband, etc, which we usually use in daily life. In this article, we carry out a review of simultaneous wireless information and power transfer technology, and explain the development status of simultaneous wireless information and power transfer technology, three kinds of common simultaneous wireless information and power transfer system models and the framework of simultaneous wireless information and power transfer, finally, we put forward some problems of simultaneous wireless information and power transfer technology.

  4. A Geo-Label for Geo-Referenced Information as a Service for Data Users and a Tool for Facilitating Societal Benefits of Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plag, H.-P.

    2012-04-01

    Geo-referenced information is increasingly important for many scientific and societal applications. The availability of reliable and applicable spatial data and information is fundamental for addressing pressing problems such as food, water, and energy security; disaster risk reduction; climate change; environmental quality; pandemics; economic crises and wars; population migration; and, in a general sense, sustainability. Today, more than 70% of societal activities in developed countries depend directly or indirectly on geo-referenced information. The rapid development of analysis tools, such as Geographic Information Systems and web-based tools for viewing, accessing, and analyzing of geo-referenced information, and the growing abundance of openly available Earth observations (e.g., through the Global Earth Observation System of Systems, GEOSS) likely will increase the dependency of science and society on geo-referenced information. Increasingly, the tools allow the combination of data sets from various sources. Improvements of interoperability, promoted particularly by GEOSS, will strengthen this trend and lead to more tools for the combinations of data from different sources. What is currently lacking is a service-oriented infrastructure helping to ensure that data quality and applicability are not compromised through modifications and combinations. Most geo-referenced information comes without sufficient information on quality and applicability. The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) has embarked on establishing a so-called GEO Label that would provide easy-to-understand, globally available information on aspects of quality, user rating, relevance, and fit-for-usage of the products and services accessible through GEOSS (with the responsibility for the concept development delegated to Work Plan Task ID-03). In designing a service-oriented architecture that could support a GEO Label, it is important to understand the impact of the goals for the label on the

  5. 21 CFR 1306.25 - Transfer between pharmacies of prescription information for Schedules III, IV, and V controlled...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer between pharmacies of prescription... Substances Listed in Schedules III, IV, and V § 1306.25 Transfer between pharmacies of prescription... between pharmacies on a one time basis only. However, pharmacies electronically sharing a real-time,...

  6. What Is Technology Transfer? | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Technology Transfer Center (TTC) facilitates partnerships between NIH research laboratories and external partners. With a team of technology transfer specialists, NCI TTC guides interactions from discovery to patenting, as well as from collaboration and invention development to licensing.

  7. What Is Technology Transfer? | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Technology Transfer Center (TTC) facilitates partnerships between NIH research laboratories and external partners. With a team of technology transfer specialists, NCI TTC guides interactions from discovery to patenting, as well as from collaboration and invention development to licensing.

  8. Information Communication Technology in the Form of an Expert System Shell as a Cognitive Tool to Facilitate Higher-Order Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Gary W.; Knoetze, Johan G.

    2014-01-01

    Information communication technology is capable of contributing supplementary teaching and learning strategies that can be used to address various educational challenges faced by higher education. Students who enter South African higher education institutions are often academically under-prepared and have not developed the cognitive skills…

  9. Information Communication Technology in the Form of an Expert System Shell as a Cognitive Tool to Facilitate Higher-Order Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Gary W.; Knoetze, Johan G.

    2014-01-01

    Information communication technology is capable of contributing supplementary teaching and learning strategies that can be used to address various educational challenges faced by higher education. Students who enter South African higher education institutions are often academically under-prepared and have not developed the cognitive skills…

  10. Space benefits: The secondary application of aerospace technology in other sectors of the economy. [(information dissemination and technology transfer from NASA programs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Space Benefits is a publication that has been prepared for the NASA Technology Utilization Office by the Denver Research Institute's Program for Transfer Research and Impact Studies, to provide the Agency with accurate, convenient, and integrated resource information on the transfer of aerospace technology to other sectors of the U.S. economy. The technological innovations derived from NASA space programs and their current applications in the following areas are considered: (1) manufacturing consumer products, (2) manufacturing capital goods, (3) new consumer products and retailing, (4) electric utilities, (5) environmental quality, (6) food production and processing, (7) government, (8) petroleum and gas, (9) construction, (10) law enforcement, and (11) highway transportation.

  11. KT Training: Introduction to knowledge transfer tools | 7 October

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Target population: All CERN staff and fellows Prerequisites: None Objectives: Get an overview of different forms of knowledge transfer Learn about available tools to: • Facilitate knowledge and technology transfer • Securing ownership and recognition for knowledge and technology Understand what services and support are available to the CERN community from the KT group Content: Why CERN engages in knowledge and technology transfer Modes of knowledge transfer and the general workflow of a knowledge transfer project Introduction to intellectual property with a focus on patents Overview of contracts for knowledge transfer and the basic structure and content of a typical contract Entrepreneurship and available support for starting a company Examples of knowledge transfer projects at CERN For more information, see the Training catalogue.

  12. Interaction Patterns and Facilitation of Peer Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Marvin E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Data show that giving information to members of a group is more important in determining the perception by others that the person is facilitating group performance. Asking for information and opinions is more important in actual facilitation of group learning. Social-emotional support becomes important after initial phases of group interaction.…

  13. Informal workers and access to healthcare: a qualitative study of facilitators and barriers to accessing healthcare for beer promoters in the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychareun, Vanphanom; Vongxay, Viengnakhone; Thammavongsa, Vassana; Thongmyxay, Souksamone; Phummavongsa, Phouthong; Durham, Jo

    2016-04-18

    Informal workers often face considerable risks and vulnerabilities as a consequence of their work and employment conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the interplay between the experience of informal work and access to health, using as an example, female beer promoters employed in the informal economy, in the Lao People's Democratic Republic. In-depth interviews were undertaken with 24 female beer promoters working in beer shops, restaurants and entertainment venues in Vientiane City. The recruitment strategy of snowball sampling was used. Interviews explored the beer promoter's experience of the organization of work, perceived healthcare needs, access to healthcare and insurance, and health seeking practices. The data was analysed thematically and subsequently using Bourdieu's concepts of habitus, capital and field. Most of the beer promoters included in the study were 18 years of age, single, had worked as beer promoters for more than one year and just over half were working to support their higher education. The beer promoters demonstrated a holistic view of health, also viewing good health as contributing to being beautiful - an important attribute in their work. Many reported that their work conditions, including the noisy environment, exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke, long hours on their feet and sexual harassment negatively affected their physical and mental health. Only four participants had any form of health insurance with access to healthcare constrained by individual characteristics, health system factors and the conditions of their informal employment. Drawing on the work of Bourdieu, the study shows how both employment and illness are linked to habitus embodied in everyday practices, access to capital and the position the female beer promoters hold in the social hierarchy in the field of employment.

  14. The role of support groups in facilitating families in coping with a genetic condition and in discussion of genetic risk information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumridge, Gillian; Metcalfe, Alison; Coad, Jane; Gill, Paramjit

    2012-09-01

      Giving children and young people information about genetic conditions and associated risk has been shown to be important to their identity, coping and decision making. Parents, however, find talking to their children difficult, and support from health professionals is often not available to them.   To explore the role of support groups in family coping, and in assisting parents' communication about risk with children in families affected by an inherited genetic condition.   Semi-structured interviews analysed using grounded theory and informed by models focusing on aspects of family communication.   Affected and unaffected children and their parents, from families affected by one of six genetic conditions, that represent different patterns of inheritance, and variations in age of onset, life expectancy and impact on families.   Parents often sought support they did not receive elsewhere from support groups. They identified benefits, but also potential disadvantages to this involvement. These related to the specific condition and also whether groups were run solely by parents or had professional input. Support groups rarely helped directly with family communication, but attendance often stimulated family discussion, and they provided information that improved parents' confidence in discussing the condition.   Support groups should be seen only as additional to the support offered by health and social care professionals. An increased understanding of the role of support groups in assisting families with genetic conditions has been highlighted, but further work is needed to explore more fully how this may be made more sustainable and far-reaching. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. The Informed Guide to Climate Data Sets, a web-based community resource to facilitate the discussion and selection of appropriate datasets for Earth System Model Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, D. P.; Deser, C.; Shea, D.

    2011-12-01

    When comparing CMIP5 model output to observations, researchers will be faced with a bewildering array of choices. Considering just a few of the different products available for commonly analyzed climate variables, for reanalysis there are at least half a dozen different products, for sea ice concentrations there are NASA Team or Bootstrap versions, for sea surface temperatures there are HadISST or NOAA ERSST data, and for precipitation there are CMAP and GPCP data sets. While many data centers exist to host data, there is little centralized guidance on discovering and choosing appropriate climate data sets for the task at hand. Common strategies like googling "sea ice data" yield results that at best are substantially incomplete. Anecdotal evidence suggests that individual researchers often base their selections on non-scientific criteria-either the data are in a convenient format that the user is comfortable with, a co-worker has the data handy on her local server, or a mentor discourages or recommends the use of particular products for legacy or other non-objective reasons. Sometimes these casual recommendations are sound, but they are not accessible to the broader community or adequately captured in the peer-reviewed literature. These issues are addressed by the establishment of a web-based Informed Guide with the specific goals to (1) Evaluate and assess selected climate datasets and (2) Provide expert user guidance on the strengths and limitations of selected climate datasets. The Informed Guide is based at NCAR's Climate and Global Dynamics Division, Climate Analysis Section and is funded by NSF. The Informed Guide is an interactive website that welcomes participation from the broad scientific community and is scalable to grow as participation increases. In this presentation, we will present the website, discuss how you can participate, and address the broader issues about its role in the evaluation of CMIP5 and other climate model simulations. A link to the

  16. Learning facilitating leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne

    2016-01-01

    in teaching facilitation and the literature. These types of skills are most effectively acquired by combining conceptual lectures, classroom exercises and the facilitation of groups in a real-life context. The paper also reflects certain ‘shadow sides’ related to facilitation observed by the students...

  17. Analysing policy transfer: perspectives for operational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissell, K; Lee, K; Freeman, R

    2011-09-01

    Policy transfer occurs regularly. In essence, a strategy developed elsewhere is taken up and applied in another policy context. Yet what precisely is policy transfer and, more importantly, under what conditions does it occur? This paper describes policy transfer and addresses three main questions, exploring what perspectives of policy transfer might contribute to operational research (OR) efforts. First, what facilitates the transfer of OR results into policy and practice? Second, what facilitates effective lesson-drawing about OR results and processes between and within countries? And third, what would increase the amount of OR being carried out by low- and middle-income countries and used to inform policy and practice at local and global levels? Mexico's adoption and adaptation of the DOTS strategy is used here as an example of policy transfer. Policy transfer is relevant to all countries, levels and arenas of people, institutions and organisations involved in health. With a more systematic analysis of learning and policy processes, OR policy and practice outcomes could be improved at all levels, from local to global. Policy transfer offers theory and concepts for analysing OR from a new perspective. The present paper proposes a model of the policy transfer process for qualitative research use. Comprehensive policy transfer research, given its length, complexity and need for qualitative researchers, should not be envisaged for all OR projects. All OR projects could, however, incorporate some concepts and practical tools inspired from this model. This should help to plan, evaluate and improve OR processes and the resulting changes in policy and practice.

  18. Fluorescent Molecules as Transceiver Nanoantennas: The First Practical and High-Rate Information Transfer over a Nanoscale Communication Channel based on FRET

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Kuscu; Alper Kiraz; Akan, Ozgur B.

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent Molecules as Transceiver Nanoantennas: The First Practical and High-Rate Information Transfer over a Nanoscale Communication Channel based on FRET Murat Kuscu1, Alper Kiraz2 & Ozgur B. Akan1 1Next-generation andWireless Communications Laboratory (NWCL), Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Koc University, Istanbul, 34450, Turkey, 2Optofluidics and Nano-Optics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Koc University, Istanbul, 34450, Turke...

  19. 76 FR 56005 - List of Office of Thrift Supervision Information Collections Transferred to the Office of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    .... Advanced Capital Adequacy Framework. 1550-0118 Transfer Agency Registration and 1557-0298 1557-0124... Capital Adequacy Framework 1557-0294 1557-0239. Regulatory Reporting Requirements. 1550-0121 Survey of... Guidance: Supervisory 1557-0292 1557-0242. Review of Capital Adequacy (Pillar 2) Related to...

  20. Radionuclide transfer. Radionuklid Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The research project described here had the aim to obtain further information on the transfer of nuclides during pregnancy and lactation. The tests were carried out in mini-pigs and rats receiving unchanging doses of radionuclides with the food. The following findings were revealed for the elements examined: Fe, Se, Cs and Zn were characterized by very high transfer levels in the mother, infant and foetus. A substantial uptake by the mother alone was observed for Co, Ag and Mn. The uptake by the foetus and infant here was 1 to 10 times lower. A preferential concentration in certain tissues was seen for Sr and Tc; the thyroid levels of Tc were about equally high in mothers and infants, while Sr showed less accumulation in the maternal bone. The lanthanide group of substances (Ce, Eu and Gd as well as Y and Ru) were only taken up to a very limited extent. The uptake of the examined radionuclides (Fe, Co, Ag, Ce) with the food ingested was found here to be ten times greater in rats as compared to mini-pigs. This showed that great caution must be observed, if the behaviour of radionuclides in man is extrapolated from relevant data obtained in rodents. (orig./MG)

  1. Transfer Timing

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    sim present Simulation Presentation Interactive Media Element This IME is used in the Computer Communications and Networks class offered in the Graduate School of Operations and Information Sciences. This introductory computer networking course provides the theory and principles of networking and communications protocols. This IME is used to help students understand data transfer options. CS3502 Computer Communications and Networks

  2. Learning facilitating leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper explains how engineering students at a Danish university acquired the necessary skills to become emergent facilitators of organisational development. The implications of this approach are discussed and related to relevant viewpoints and findings in the literature. The methodology deplo....... By connecting the literature, the authors’ and engineering students’ reflections on facilitator skills, this paper adds value to existing academic and practical discussions on learning facilitating leadership....

  3. Visual explorer facilitator's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Palus, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    Grounded in research and practice, the Visual Explorer™ Facilitator's Guide provides a method for supporting collaborative, creative conversations about complex issues through the power of images. The guide is available as a component in the Visual Explorer Facilitator's Letter-sized Set, Visual Explorer Facilitator's Post card-sized Set, Visual Explorer Playing Card-sized Set, and is also available as a stand-alone title for purchase to assist multiple tool users in an organization.

  4. Information gathering, management and transferring for geospatial intelligence - A conceptual approach to create a spatial data infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Paulo; Correia, Anacleto; Teodoro, M. Filomena

    2017-06-01

    Since long ago, information is a key factor for military organizations. In military context the success of joint and combined operations depends on the accurate information and knowledge flow concerning the operational theatre: provision of resources, environment evolution, targets' location, where and when an event will occur. Modern military operations cannot be conceive without maps and geospatial information. Staffs and forces on the field request large volume of information during the planning and execution process, horizontal and vertical geospatial information integration is critical for decision cycle. Information and knowledge management are fundamental to clarify an environment full of uncertainty. Geospatial information (GI) management rises as a branch of information and knowledge management, responsible for the conversion process from raw data collect by human or electronic sensors to knowledge. Geospatial information and intelligence systems allow us to integrate all other forms of intelligence and act as a main platform to process and display geospatial-time referenced events. Combining explicit knowledge with person know-how to generate a continuous learning cycle that supports real time decisions, mitigates the influences of fog of war and provides the knowledge supremacy. This paper presents the analysis done after applying a questionnaire and interviews about the GI and intelligence management in a military organization. The study intended to identify the stakeholder's requirements for a military spatial data infrastructure as well as the requirements for a future software system development.

  5. An examination of electronic file transfer between host and microcomputers for the AMPMODNET/AIMNET (Army Material Plan Modernization Network/Acquisition Information Management Network) classified network environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hake, K.A.

    1990-11-01

    This report presents the results of investigation and testing conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Project Manager -- Acquisition Information Management (PM-AIM), and the United States Army Materiel Command Headquarters (HQ-AMC). It concerns the establishment of file transfer capabilities on the Army Materiel Plan Modernization (AMPMOD) classified computer system. The discussion provides a general context for micro-to-mainframe connectivity and focuses specifically upon two possible solutions for file transfer capabilities. The second section of this report contains a statement of the problem to be examined, a brief description of the institutional setting of the investigation, and a concise declaration of purpose. The third section lays a conceptual foundation for micro-to-mainframe connectivity and provides a more detailed description of the AMPMOD computing environment. It gives emphasis to the generalized International Business Machines, Inc. (IBM) standard of connectivity because of the predominance of this vendor in the AMPMOD computing environment. The fourth section discusses two test cases as possible solutions for file transfer. The first solution used is the IBM 3270 Control Program telecommunications and terminal emulation software. A version of this software was available on all the IBM Tempest Personal Computer 3s. The second solution used is Distributed Office Support System host electronic mail software with Personal Services/Personal Computer microcomputer e-mail software running with IBM 3270 Workstation Program for terminal emulation. Test conditions and results are presented for both test cases. The fifth section provides a summary of findings for the two possible solutions tested for AMPMOD file transfer. The report concludes with observations on current AMPMOD understanding of file transfer and includes recommendations for future consideration by the sponsor.

  6. Principles of data management facilitating information sharing

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Data is a valuable corporate asset and its effective management can be vital to success. This professional guide covers all the key areas of data management, including database development and corporate data modelling. The new edition covers web technology and its relation to databases and includes material on the management of master data.

  7. The challenges of facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika

    and at the same time make closures in order to secure progress in the process? The analysis draws upon theoretical perspectives on deliberative democracy and facilitation. Whereas, the scholarly literature on deliberative democracy is rich in describing potential outcomes and criteria for deliberative processes...... hours transcriptions of three table deliberations; questionnaires of 91 participants, 2 focus group interviews with participants and facilitators....

  8. Training facilitators and supervisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Louise Binow; O Connor, Maja; Krogh, Kristian;

    At the Master’s program in Medicine at Aarhus University, Denmark, we have developed a faculty development program for facilitators and supervisors in 4 progressing student modules in communication, cooperation, and leadership. 1) A course for module 1 and 3 facilitators inspired by the apprentic...

  9. New Setting, Same Skill: Teaching Geography Students to Transfer Information Literacy Skills from Familiar to Unfamiliar Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Caleb; Laxman, Kumar; Lai, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Existing research shows that high school students do not possess information literacy skills adequate to function in a high-tech society that relies so heavily on information. If students are taught these skills, they struggle to apply them. This small-scale intervention focused on helping Geography students at a low-socioeconomic high school in…

  10. On and off the beaten path: How individuals broker knowledge through formal and informal networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Aalbers (Rick); W.A. Dolfsma (Wilfred); O.R. Koppius (Otto)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractAlthough informal networks are often emphasized as facilitating knowledge transfer, we use network data obtained from a multi-unit high-tech firm to show that the formal network also significantly contributes to inter-unit knowledge transfer. Individuals centrally placed in a network are

  11. Quantum information transfer and entanglement with SQUID qubits in cavity QED: a dark-state scheme with tolerance for nonuniform device parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chui-Ping; Chu, Shih-I; Han, Siyuan

    2004-03-19

    We investigate the experimental feasibility of realizing quantum information transfer (QIT) and entanglement with SQUID qubits in a microwave cavity via dark states. Realistic system parameters are presented. Our results show that QIT and entanglement with two-SQUID qubits can be achieved with a high fidelity. The present scheme is tolerant to device parameter nonuniformity. We also show that the strong coupling limit can be achieved with SQUID qubits in a microwave cavity. Thus, cavity-SQUID systems provide a new way for production of nonclassical microwave source and quantum communication.

  12. Visual information transfer. 1: Assessment of specific information needs. 2: The effects of degraded motion feedback. 3: Parameters of appropriate instrument scanning behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, J. R., Jr.; Kirby, R. H.; Coates, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    Pilot and flight crew assessment of visually displayed information is examined as well as the effects of degraded and uncorrected motion feedback, and instrument scanning efficiency by the pilot. Computerized flight simulation and appropriate physiological measurements are used to collect data for standardization.

  13. Information

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, L David

    1991-01-01

    This volume thoroughly covers the sub-field of information, and is one of the first in a series which synthesizes the research literature on major concepts in the field of communication. Each concise volume includes a research definition (concept explication) and presents a state-of-the-art analysis of theory and empirical findings related to the concept. After defining the word `information', the author contrasts non-linear and reflexive ideas about human communication with linear perspectives. Information is equated with uncertainty. The result presents a pattern for the process of conceptua

  14. Which patients and where: a qualitative study of patient transfers from community hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosk, Emily A; Veinot, Tiffany; Iwashyna, Theodore J

    2011-06-01

    Interhospital transfer of patients is a routine part of the care at community hospitals, but the current process may lead to suboptimal patient outcomes. A microlevel analysis of the processes of patient transfer has not earlier been carried out. We conducted semistructured qualitative interviews with care providers at 3 purposively sampled community hospitals to describe patient transfer mechanisms, focusing on perceptions of transfers and transfer candidates, choice of transfer destination, and perceived process. We interviewed physicians, nurses, and care technicians from emergency departments and intensive care units at the hospitals, and analyzed the resultant transcripts by content analysis. Appropriate triage and the transfer of patients was a highly valued skill at the community hospitals. On the basis of participant accounts, the transfer process had 4 components: (1) Identifying transfer-eligible patients; (2) Identifying a destination hospital; (3) Negotiating the transfer; and (4) Accomplishing the transfer. There were common challenges at each component across hospitals. Protocolization of care was perceived to substantially facilitate transfers. Informal arrangements played a key role in the identification of the receiving hospital, but patient preferences and hospital quality were not discussed as important in decision making. The process of arranging a patient transfer placed a significant burden on the staff of community hospitals. The patient transfer process is often cumbersome, varies by condition, and may not be focused on optimizing patient outcomes. Development of a more fluid transfer infrastructure may aid in implementing policies such as selective referral and regionalization.

  15. Bringing Down the Barriers to Information Transfer (L’Abaissement des Barrieres s’Opposant au Transfert de l’Information)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    Informacion 51 Inteligencia Artificial hi Expert Systems 17128 18 Information System 11861 Artificial Intelligence 16 Base Donnee 4209 Decision...practicalities of applying these new, powerful technologies, their successes and failures. Topics addressed included Artificial Intelligence, CD ROM...remains is to discover the screen was in direct sunlight and they did not Unknown unknowns and eliminate them. make use of the artificial lighting which

  16. Report on the survey in fiscal 1998. Survey on an environment technology transfer information network; 1998 nendo hokokusho. Kankyo gijutsu iten joho network chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This paper describes a survey on an environment technology transfer information network. Based on the achievements obtained by the surveys in fiscal 1995 and 1996, the ICETT has participated as one organization constituting the APEC environment technology exchange virtual center, and begun providing information since April 1997. As the environment technology information, those items actually employed by factories and operation sites in Japan are put into a data base, and into a home page including training information centering around those contained in the data base, and examples of works done by local governments for prevention of pollution. Furthermore in fiscal 1997, a simulation software for a model process has been developed. Fiscal 1998 strengthened the data base for environment preservation technology information, investigated environment preserving model companies and summarized them including even their management aspect. Investigations were carried out in developing countries on application of cleaner technologies. Gaps far exceeding anticipation exist in every field between these developing countries and Japan. Environment protection measures applied and succeeded in the developing countries as the means to narrow the gaps were collected, and compiled as the specific examples. (NEDO)

  17. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 42: An analysis of the transfer of Scientific and Technical Information (STI) in the US aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Hecht, Laura F.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. aerospace industry has a long history of federal support for research related to its needs. Since the establishment of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) in 1915, the federal government has provided continuous research support related to flight and aircraft design. This research has contributed to the international preeminence of the U.S. aerospace industry. In this paper, we present a sociological analysis of aerospace engineers and scientists and how their attitudes and behaviors impact the flow of scientific and technical information (STI). We use a constructivist framework to explain the spotty dissemination of federally funded aerospace research. Our research is aimed towards providing federal policymakers with a clearer understanding of how and when federally funded aerospace research is used. This understanding will help policymakers design improved information transfer systems that will aid the competitiveness of the U.S. aerospace industry.

  18. Facilitating Understandings of Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Christine C.; Bush, Sara

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates some learning encounters for facilitating first graders' understanding of geometry. Describes some of children's approaches using Cuisenaire rods and teacher's intervening. Presents six problems involving various combinations of Cuisenaire rods and cubes. (YP)

  19. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    Abstract This paper argues that knowledge sharing can be conceptualized as different situations of exchange in which individuals relate to each other in different ways, involving different rules, norms and traditions of reciprocity regulating the exchange. The main challenge for facilitating...... and the intermediaries regulating the exchange, and facilitating knowledge sharing should therefore be viewed as a continuum of practices under the influence of opportunistic behaviour, obedience or organizational citizenship behaviour. Keywords: Knowledge sharing, motivation, organizational settings, situations...

  20. Web measurement - a tool to achieve reliable information on custody transfer measurement systems in pipeline operations; Web medicao - uma ferramenta de consolidacao de informacoes sobre sistemas de medicao para transferencia de custodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cid, Eliane Areas; Freitas, Surama de Oliveitra [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Ferreira, Ana Luisa Auler da Silva; Dias, Gerson Vieira [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The prompt and organized information about measurement systems is essential for custody transfer in the pipeline transportation business. This organized information can serve as a basis for operational, maintenance and commercial groups in pipeline transportation companies. This information can also help management in planning future improvements in hardware for custody transfer measurements. In nation-wide companies, like TRANSPETRO, information about custody transfer measurement systems, if not organized, will be scattered geographically and organizationally. In organizing this kind of information, distributed systems have a big advantage, with information maintained by operational groups and centralized in the headquarters of the company. This paper describes the implementation of a system for consolidating and updating company information about custody transfer measurement systems for liquid and gas. The system has been implemented on the Intranet, allowing initial data entry in a distributed way, and a centralized validation by the headquarters engineering group. The new methodology has sharply increased the reliability in the information of custody transfer measurement systems in the company. (author)

  1. Extracellular vesicle-mediated transfer of genetic information between the hematopoietic system and the brain in response to inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Ridder

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms behind how the immune system signals to the brain in response to systemic inflammation are not fully understood. Transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase specifically in the hematopoietic lineage in a Cre reporter background display recombination and marker gene expression in Purkinje neurons. Here we show that reportergene expression in neurons is caused by intercellular transfer of functional Cre recombinase messenger RNA from immune cells into neurons in the absence of cell fusion. In vitro purified secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs from blood cells contain Cre mRNA, which induces recombination in neurons when injected into the brain. Although Cre-mediated recombination events in the brain occur very rarely in healthy animals, their number increases considerably in different injury models, particularly under inflammatory conditions, and extend beyond Purkinje neurons to other neuronal populations in cortex, hippocampus, and substantia nigra. Recombined Purkinje neurons differ in their miRNA profile from their nonrecombined counterparts, indicating physiological significance. These observations reveal the existence of a previously unrecognized mechanism to communicate RNA-based signals between the hematopoietic system and various organs, including the brain, in response to inflammation.

  2. Information transfer among widely spaced individuals: latrines as a basis for communication networks in the swift fox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darden, Safi-Kirstine; Steffensen, Lise K.; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    contour) of a pair's home-range when compared with outside the core and in areas of a pair's home-range that overlapped with neighbouring individuals when compared with those areas that did not overlap with neighbours. These were also the two areas where latrines were most likely to reoccur in the next...... consecutive breeding season. Furthermore, latrines in the exclusive part of a pair's home-range core and latrines in edge area overlap zones had the highest frequency of visits as determined by the rate of faecal depositions. Our interpretation of these results is that latrines possibly have a dual function....... That is, they function in territory defence in the exclusive areas of a pair's core and as centres for information exchange in the outer areas of a pair's home-range that overlap with neighbouring foxes. We discuss the possible information content of latrines and the possibility of latrines forming...

  3. Consistent wind Facilitates Vection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Ogawa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether a consistent haptic cue suggesting forward self-motion facilitated vection. We used a fan with no blades (Dyson, AM01 providing a wind of constant strength and direction (wind speed was 6.37 m/s to the subjects' faces with the visual stimuli visible through the fan. We used an optic flow of expansion or contraction created by positioning 16,000 dots at random inside a simulated cube (length 20 m, and moving the observer's viewpoint to simulate forward or backward self-motion of 16 m/s. we tested three conditions for fan operation, which were normal operation, normal operation with the fan reversed (ie, no wind, and no operation (no wind and no sound. Vection was facilitated by the wind (shorter latency, longer duration and larger magnitude values with the expansion stimuli. The fan noise did not facilitate vection. The wind neither facilitated nor inhibited vection with the contraction stimuli, perhaps because a headwind is not consistent with backward self-motion. We speculate that the consistency between multi modalities is a key factor in facilitating vection.

  4. Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nanette R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this summer's work was to attempt to enhance Technology Application Group (TAG) ability to measure the outcomes of its efforts to transfer NASA technology. By reviewing existing literature, by explaining the economic principles involved in evaluating the economic impact of technology transfer, and by investigating the LaRC processes our William & Mary team has been able to lead this important discussion. In reviewing the existing literature, we identified many of the metrics that are currently being used in the area of technology transfer. Learning about the LaRC technology transfer processes and the metrics currently used to track the transfer process enabled us to compare other R&D facilities to LaRC. We discuss and diagram impacts of technology transfer in the short run and the long run. Significantly, it serves as the basis for analysis and provides guidance in thinking about what the measurement objectives ought to be. By focusing on the SBIR Program, valuable information regarding the strengths and weaknesses of this LaRC program are to be gained. A survey was developed to ask probing questions regarding SBIR contractors' experience with the program. Specifically we are interested in finding out whether the SBIR Program is accomplishing its mission, if the SBIR companies are providing the needed innovations specified by NASA and to what extent those innovations have led to commercial success. We also developed a survey to ask COTR's, who are NASA employees acting as technical advisors to the SBIR contractors, the same type of questions, evaluating the successes and problems with the SBIR Program as they see it. This survey was developed to be implemented interactively on computer. It is our hope that the statistical and econometric studies that can be done on the data collected from all of these sources will provide insight regarding the direction to take in developing systematic evaluations of programs like the SBIR Program so that they can

  5. Transfer in Second Language Learning Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉琳

    2008-01-01

    Transfer is the carryover of the previous linguistic knowledge to the subsequent target language learning. Positive transfer facilitates while negative one impedes the acquisition of a second language. Therefore teachers and learners can enhance their efficiency by taking advantage of positive transfer and minimizing negative transfer or interference of their native languages.

  6. Stochastic facilitation in the brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Lawrence M.; Greenwood, Priscilla E.

    2016-05-01

    We describe the context for three unsolved problems of noise in the brain as well as provide some new results relevant to one of them. The problems are: are neural oscillations better described as noisy limit cycles or as noise-driven quasicycles, does noise facilitate synchronization and information transmission in the brain, and do noise-driven spatial patterns (quasipatterns) coexist with noise-driven quasicycles in the brain? We provide a few new results indicating that, in models at least, spatial quasipatterns of quasicycles can occur, and resemble patterns observed in other areas, such as predator-prey systems and chemical reactions.

  7. Double-Resonance Facilitated Decomposion of Emission Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ryota; Ishikawa, Haruki

    2016-06-01

    Emission spectra provide us with rich information about the excited-state processes such as proton-transfer, charge-transfer and so on. In the cases that more than one excited states are involved, emission spectra from different excited states sometimes overlap and a decomposition of the overlapped spectra is desired. One of the methods to perform a decomposition is a time-resolved fluorescence technique. It uses a difference in time evolutions of components involved. However, in the gas-phase, a concentration of the sample is frequently too small to carry out this method. On the other hand, double-resonance technique is a very powerful tool to discriminate or identify a common species in the spectra in the gas-phase. Thus, in the present study, we applied the double-resonance technique to resolve the overlapped emission spectra. When transient IR absorption spectra of the excited state are available, we can label the population of the certain species by the IR excitation with a proper selection of the IR wavenumbers. Thus, we can obtain the emission spectra of labeled species by subtracting the emission spectra with IR labeling from that without IR. In the present study, we chose the charge-transfer emission spectra of cyanophenyldisilane (CPDS) as a test system. One of us reported that two charge-transfer (CT) states are involved in the intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) process of CPDS-water cluster and recorded the transient IR spectra. As expected, we have succeeded in resolving the CT emission spectra of CPDS-water cluster by the double resonance facilitated decomposion technique. In the present paper, we will report the details of the experimental scheme and the results of the decomposition of the emission spectra. H. Ishikawa, et al., Chem. Phys. Phys. Chem., 9, 117 (2007).

  8. Fluorescent Molecules as Transceiver Nanoantennas: The First Practical and High-Rate Information Transfer over a Nanoscale Communication Channel based on FRET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuscu, Murat; Kiraz, Alper; Akan, Ozgur B.

    2015-01-01

    Nanocommunications via Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) is a promising means of realising collaboration between photoactive nanomachines to implement advanced nanotechnology applications. The method is based on exchange of energy levels between fluorescent molecules by the FRET phenomenon which intrinsically provides a virtual nanocommunication link. In this work, further to the extensive theoretical studies, we demonstrate the first information transfer through a FRET-based nanocommunication channel. We implement a digital communication system combining macroscale transceiver instruments and a bulk solution of fluorophore nanoantennas. The performance of the FRET-based Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output (MIMO) nanocommunication channel between closely located mobile nanoantennas in the sample solution is evaluated in terms of Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and Bit Error Rate (BER) obtained for the transmission rates of 50 kbps, 150 kbps and 250 kbps. The results of the performance evaluation are very promising for the development of high-rate and reliable molecular communication networks at nanoscale.

  9. Role of interproblem learning in interocular transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, C L; Levinson, D M; Hottmann, T J; Moore, D R

    1980-04-01

    The learning of a pattern discrimination may be divided into two components, one specific to the pattern task and another general to it and other tasks. The purpose of these experiments was to assess the degree to which these different components transfer interocularly, as well as to determine the effects of variations in prior acquisition on interocular transfer. In the first experiment, 28 albino rats were assigned to four equal groups that permitted assessment of the influences, on acquisition or interocular transfer of a pattern discrimination, of prior ipsi-ocular, contra-ocular, or sequential binocular training on a black-white task. Interocular savings were reduced by a factor of three when the black-white task (the general component) was acquired priorly, but there was no difference between the effects of prior contra-ocular training on black-white or pattern on subsequent monocular acquisition of the pattern task. Thus, all interocular transfer might be due to the general component. The second experiment, a partial replication, was performed to clarify whether information specific to the pattern task transferred interocularly. Again, interocular savings were reduced by a factor of three after prior black-white training. However, monocular acquisition of the pattern task facilitated subsequent contra-ocular learning of that same task more so than did prior monocular acquisition of a black-white task, indicating that some contribution is made to interocular savings by the information specific to the pattern task.

  10. Facilitation skills for trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cilliers

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop the facilitation skills of trainers. Facilitation is defined form the Person-Centered approach, as providing an opportunity for the trainee to experience personal growth and learning. A facilitation skills workshop was presented to 40 trainers, focussing on enhancing selfactualisation, its intra and inter personal characteristics, and attending and responding behaviour. Measurement with the Personal Orientation Inventory and Carkhuff scales, indicate enhanced cognitive, affective and conative sensitivity and interpersonal skills. A post-interview indicates the trainers experienced empowerment in dealing with the providing of opportunities for growth amongst trainees, in all kinds of training situations. Recommendations are made to enhance facilitation development amongst trainers. Opsomming Hierdie navorsing poog om die fasiliteringsvaardighede van opieiers te ontwikkel. Fasilitering word gedefinieer vanuit die Persoonsgesentreerde benadering as die beskikbaarstelling van 'n geleentheid om persoonlike groei en leer te ervaar. 'n Fasiliteringsvaardighede werkswinkel is aangebied vir 40 opieiers, met die fokus op die stimulering van selfaktualisering, die intra en interpersoonlike kenmerke daarvan, en aandagskenk- en responderings- gedrag. Meting met die Persoonlike Orientasievraelys en die Carkhuff skale, dui op n toename in kognitiewe, affektiewe en konatiewe sensitiwiteit en interpersoonlike vaardighede. n Post-onderhoud dui op die opleier se ervaarde bemagtiging in die beskikbaarstelling van groeigeleenthede vir opleidelinge, in all tipe opleidingsituasies. Aanbevelings word gemaak om die ontwikkeling van fasiliteringsvaardighede by opleiers te verhoog.

  11. From Teaching to Facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Graaff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    A shift from teaching to learning is characteristic of the introduction of Problem Based Learning (PBL) in an existing school. As a consequence the teaching staff has to be trained in skills like facilitating group work and writing cases. Most importantly a change in thinking about teaching...

  12. Facilitation of Adult Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Taking an autobiographical approach, I tell the story of my experiences facilitating adult development, in a polytechnic and as a management consultant. I relate these to a developmental framework of Modes of Being and Learning that I created and elaborated with colleagues. I connect this picture with a number of related models, theories,…

  13. Facilitation skills for nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Cilliers

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the pcrson-centered approach, facilitation in this study was conceptualised as providing opportunities for personal growth in the patient, and operationalised in a skills workshop for 40 nurses from different hospitals in Gauteng. The first objective was to evaluate the workshop and the second to ascertain its effect on the participant’s experienced performance. A combined quantitative and qualitative research design was used. The quantitative measurement (Personal Orientation Inventory, Carkhuff scales indicated that the workshop stimulated self-actualisation in terms of intrapersonal awareness, and the interpersonal skills of respect, realness, concreteness, empathy, as well as in terms of attending and responding behaviour. The qualitative measurement (a semi-structured interview indicated that the participants were able to empower patients to find their own answers to difficult personal questions. The alternative hypothesis was accepted, namely that this workshop in facilitations skills significantly enhanced the intra- and interpersonal characteristics associated with self-actualisation and the facilitation of growth in patients. The findings highlighted the difference between the two roles of instructor and facilitator, and recommendations to this effect were formulated.

  14. Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    There are unstructured abstracts (no more than 256 words) and structured abstracts (no more than 480). The specific requirements for structured abstracts are as follows:An informative, structured abstracts of no more than 4-80 words should accompany each manuscript. Abstracts for original contributions should be structured into the following sections. AIM (no more than 20 words): Only the purpose should be included. Please write the aim as the form of "To investigate/ study/..."; MATERIALS AND METHODS (no more than 140 words); RESULTS (no more than 294 words): You should present P values where appropnate and must provide relevant data to illustrate how they were obtained, e.g. 6.92 ± 3.86 vs 3.61 ± 1.67, P< 0.001; CONCLUSION (no more than 26 words).

  15. Transfer of Physical and Hydraulic Properties Databases to the Hanford Environmental Information System - PNNL Remediation Decision Support Project, Task 1, Activity 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Middleton, Lisa A.

    2009-03-31

    This report documents the requirements for transferring physical and hydraulic property data compiled by PNNL into the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The Remediation Decision Support (RDS) Project is managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to support Hanford Site waste management and remedial action decisions by the U.S. Department of Energy and one of their current site contractors - CH2M-Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). The objective of Task 1, Activity 6 of the RDS project is to compile all available physical and hydraulic property data for sediments from the Hanford Site, to port these data into the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS), and to make the data web-accessible to anyone on the Hanford Local Area Network via the so-called Virtual Library.1 These physical and hydraulic property data are used to estimate parameters for analytical and numerical flow and transport models that are used for site risk assessments and evaluation of remedial action alternatives. In past years efforts were made by RDS project staff to compile all available physical and hydraulic property data for Hanford sediments and to transfer these data into SoilVision{reg_sign}, a commercial geotechnical software package designed for storing, analyzing, and manipulating soils data. Although SoilVision{reg_sign} has proven to be useful, its access and use restrictions have been recognized as a limitation to the effective use of the physical and hydraulic property databases by the broader group of potential users involved in Hanford waste site issues. In order to make these data more widely available and useable, a decision was made to port them to HEIS and to make them web-accessible via a Virtual Library module. In FY08 the original objectives of this activity on the RDS project were to: (1) ensure traceability and defensibility of all physical and hydraulic property data currently residing in the SoilVision{reg_sign} database

  16. Facilitating a generic communication interface to distributed energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Bro; Hauksson, Einar Bragi; Andersen, Peter Bach

    2010-01-01

    As the power system evolves into a smarter and more flexible state, so must the communication technologies that support it. A key requirement for facilitating the distributed production of future grids is that communication and information are standardized to ensure interoperability. The IEC 61850...... standard, which was originally aimed at substation automation, has been expanded to cover the monitoring and control of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs). By having a consistent and well-defined data model the standard enables a DER aggregator, such as a Virtual Power Plant (VPP), in communicating...... with a broad array of DERs. If the data model of IEC 61850 is combined with a set of contemporary web protocols, it can result in a major shift in how DERs can be accessed and coordinated. This paper describes how IEC 61850 can benefit from the REpresentational State Transfer (REST) service concept and how...

  17. Short-term dynamics of causal information transfer in thalamocortical networks during natural inputs and microstimulation for somatosensory neuroprosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulugeta eSemework

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recording the activity of large populations of neurons requires new methods to analyze and use the large volumes of time series data thus created. Fast and clear methods for finding functional connectivity are an important step towards the goal of understanding neural processing. This problem presents itself readily in somatosensory neuroprosthesis (SSNP research, which uses microstimulation (MiSt to activate neural tissue to mimic natural stimuli, and has the capacity to potentiate, depotentiate, or even destroy functional connections. As the aim of SSNP engineering is artificially creating neural responses that resemble those observed during natural inputs, a central goal is describing the influence of MiSt on activity structure among groups of neurons, and how this structure may be altered to affect perception or behavior. In this paper, we demonstrate the concept of Granger causality, combined with maximum likelihood methods, applied to neural signals recorded before, during, and after natural and electrical stimulation. We show how these analyses can be used to evaluate the changing interactions in the thalamocortical somatosensory system in response to repeated perturbation. Using LFPs recorded from the ventral posterolateral thalamus (VPL and somatosensory cortex (S1 in anesthetized rats, we estimated pair-wise functional interactions between functional microdomains. The preliminary results demonstrate input-dependent modulations in the direction and strength of information flow during and after application of MiSt. Cortico-cortical interactions during cortical MiSt and baseline conditions showed the largest causal influence differences, while there was no statistically significant difference between pre- and post-stimulation baseline causal activities. These functional connectivity changes agree with physiologically accepted communication patterns through the network, and their particular parameters have implications for both

  18. Short-term dynamics of causal information transfer in thalamocortical networks during natural inputs and microstimulation for somatosensory neuroprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semework, Mulugeta; DiStasio, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Recording the activity of large populations of neurons requires new methods to analyze and use the large volumes of time series data thus created. Fast and clear methods for finding functional connectivity are an important step toward the goal of understanding neural processing. This problem presents itself readily in somatosensory neuroprosthesis (SSNP) research, which uses microstimulation (MiSt) to activate neural tissue to mimic natural stimuli, and has the capacity to potentiate, depotentiate, or even destroy functional connections. As the aim of SSNP engineering is artificially creating neural responses that resemble those observed during natural inputs, a central goal is describing the influence of MiSt on activity structure among groups of neurons, and how this structure may be altered to affect perception or behavior. In this paper, we demonstrate the concept of Granger causality, combined with maximum likelihood methods, applied to neural signals recorded before, during, and after natural and electrical stimulation. We show how these analyses can be used to evaluate the changing interactions in the thalamocortical somatosensory system in response to repeated perturbation. Using LFPs recorded from the ventral posterolateral thalamus (VPL) and somatosensory cortex (S1) in anesthetized rats, we estimated pair-wise functional interactions between functional microdomains. The preliminary results demonstrate input-dependent modulations in the direction and strength of information flow during and after application of MiSt. Cortico-cortical interactions during cortical MiSt and baseline conditions showed the largest causal influence differences, while there was no statistically significant difference between pre- and post-stimulation baseline causal activities. These functional connectivity changes agree with physiologically accepted communication patterns through the network, and their particular parameters have implications for both rehabilitation and brain

  19. Mindfulness for group facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Krohn, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that mindfulness techniques can be used for enhancing the outcome of group performance. The word mindfulness has different connotations in the academic literature. Broadly speaking there is ‘mindfulness without meditation’ or ‘Western’ mindfulness which involves active...... thinking and ‘Eastern’ mindfulness which refers to an open, accepting state of mind, as intended with Buddhist-inspired techniques such as meditation. In this paper, we are interested in the latter type of mindfulness and demonstrate how Eastern mindfulness techniques can be used as a tool for facilitation....... A brief introduction to the physiology and philosophy of Eastern mindfulness constitutes the basis for the arguments of the effect of mindfulness techniques. The use of mindfulness techniques for group facilitation is novel as it changes the focus from individuals’ mindfulness practice...

  20. Program Facilitates Distributed Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    KNET computer program facilitates distribution of computing between UNIX-compatible local host computer and remote host computer, which may or may not be UNIX-compatible. Capable of automatic remote log-in. User communicates interactively with remote host computer. Data output from remote host computer directed to local screen, to local file, and/or to local process. Conversely, data input from keyboard, local file, or local process directed to remote host computer. Written in ANSI standard C language.

  1. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This paper argues that knowledge sharing can be conceptualized as different situations of exchange in which individuals relate to each other in different ways, involving different rules, norms and traditions of reciprocity regulating the exchange. The main challenge for facilitating knowledge sharing is to ensure that the exchange is seen as equitable for the parties involved, and by viewing the problems of knowledge sharing as motivational problems situated in different organization...

  2. Reduction in database search space by utilization of amino acid composition information from electron transfer dissociation and higher-energy collisional dissociation mass spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Thomas A; Kryuchkov, Fedor; Kjeldsen, Frank

    2012-08-07

    With high-mass accuracy and consecutively obtained electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), reliable (≥97%) and sensitive fragment ions have been extracted for identification of specific amino acid residues in peptide sequences. The analytical benefit of these specific amino acid composition (AAC) ions is to restrict the database search space and provide identification of peptides with higher confidence and reduced false negative rates. The 6706 uniquely identified peptide sequences determined with a conservative Mascot score of >30 were used to characterize the AAC ions. The loss of amino acid side chains (small neutral losses, SNLs) from the charge reduced peptide radical cations was studied using ETD. Complementary AAC information from HCD spectra was provided by immonium ions. From the ETD/HCD mass spectra, 5162 and 6720 reliable SNLs and immonium ions were successfully extracted, respectively. Automated application of the AAC information during database searching resulted in an average 3.5-fold higher confidence level of peptide identification. In addition, 4% and 28% more peptides were identified above the significance level in a standard and extended search space, respectively.

  3. TASQC Quantum Key Transfer Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-04

    Securely transferring timing information in the electrical grid is a critical component of securing the nation's infrastructure from cyber attacks. One solution to this problem is to use quantum information to securely transfer the timing information across sites. This software provides such an infrastructure using a standard Java webserver that pulls the quantum information from associated hardware.

  4. Facilitative root interactions in intercrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Jensen, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    Facilitation takes place when plants ameliorate the environment of their neighbours, and increase their growth and survival. Facilitation occurs in natural ecosystems as well as in agroecosystems. We discuss examples of facilitative root interactions in intercropped agroecosystems; including...... intensified cropping systems using chemical and mechanical inputs also show that facilitative interactions definitely can be of significance. It is concluded that a better understanding of the mechanisms behind facilitative interactions may allow us to benefit more from these phenomena in agriculture...

  5. Facilitation as a teaching strategy : experiences of facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Lekalakala-Mokgele

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in nursing education involve the move from traditional teaching approaches that are teacher-centred to facilitation, a student centred approach. The studentcentred approach is based on a philosophy of teaching and learning that puts the learner on centre-stage. The aim of this study was to identify the challenges of facilitators of learning using facilitation as a teaching method and recommend strategies for their (facilitators development and support. A qualitative, explorative and contextual design was used. Four (4 universities in South Africa which utilize facilitation as a teaching/ learning process were identified and the facilitators were selected to be the sample of the study. The main question posed during in-depth group interviews was: How do you experience facilitation as a teaching/learning method?. Facilitators indicated different experiences and emotions when they first had to facilitate learning. All of them indicated that it was difficult to facilitate at the beginning as they were trained to lecture and that no format for facilitation was available. They experienced frustrations and anxieties as a result. The lack of knowledge of facilitation instilled fear in them. However they indicated that facilitation had many benefits for them and for the students. Amongst the ones mentioned were personal and professional growth. Challenges mentioned were the fear that they waste time and that they do not cover the content. It is therefore important that facilitation be included in the training of nurse educators.

  6. Gas turbine heat transfer and cooling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Je-Chin; Ekkad, Srinath

    2012-01-01

    FundamentalsNeed for Turbine Blade CoolingTurbine-Cooling TechnologyTurbine Heat Transfer and Cooling IssuesStructure of the BookReview Articles and Book Chapters on Turbine Cooling and Heat TransferNew Information from 2000 to 2010ReferencesTurbine Heat TransferIntroductionTurbine-Stage Heat TransferCascade Vane Heat-Transfer ExperimentsCascade Blade Heat TransferAirfoil Endwall Heat TransferTurbine Rotor Blade Tip Heat TransferLeading-Edge Region Heat TransferFlat-Surface Heat TransferNew Information from 2000 to 20102.10 ClosureReferencesTurbine Film CoolingIntroductionFilm Cooling on Rotat

  7. 15-month-olds' transfer of learning between touch screen and real-world displays: language cues and cognitive loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, Elizabeth; Gerhardstein, Peter; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Barr, Rachel

    2013-02-01

    Infants have difficulty transferring information between 2D and 3D sources. The current study extends Zack, Barr, Gerhardstein, Dickerson & Meltzoff's (2009) touch screen imitation task to examine whether the addition of specific language cues significantly facilitates 15-month-olds' transfer of learning between touch screens and real-world 3D objects. The addition of two kinds of linguistic cues (object label plus verb or nonsense name) did not elevate action imitation significantly above levels observed when such language cues were not used. Language cues hindered infants' performance in the 3D→2D direction of transfer, but only for the object label plus verb condition. The lack of a facilitative effect of language is discussed in terms of competing cognitive loads imposed by conjointly transferring information across dimensions and processing linguistic cues in an action imitation task at this age.

  8. 15-Month-Olds’ Transfer of Learning between Touch Screen and Real-World Displays: Language Cues and Cognitive Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, Elizabeth; Gerhardstein, Peter; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Barr, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Infants have difficulty transferring information between 2D and 3D sources. The current study extends Zack et al.’s (2009) touch screen imitation task to examine whether the addition of specific language cues significantly facilitates 15-month-olds’ transfer of learning between touch screens and real-world 3D objects. The addition of two kinds of linguistic cues (object label plus verb or nonsense name) did not elevate action imitation significantly above levels observed when such language cues were not used. Language cues hindered infants’ performance in the 3D→2D direction of transfer, but only for the object label plus verb condition. The lack of a facilitative effect of language is discussed in terms of competing cognitive loads imposed by conjointly transferring information across dimensions and processing linguistic cues in an action imitation task at this age. PMID:23121508

  9. Essence: Facilitating Software Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2008-01-01

      This paper suggests ways to facilitate creativity and innovation in software development. The paper applies four perspectives – Product, Project, Process, and People –to identify an outlook for software innovation. The paper then describes a new facility–Software Innovation Research Lab (SIRL......) – and a new method concept for software innovation – Essence – based on views, modes, and team roles. Finally, the paper reports from an early experiment using SIRL and Essence and identifies further research....

  10. Policy Transfer Among Regional-Level Organizations: Insights from Source Water Protection in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Loë, R C; Murray, D; Michaels, S; Plummer, R

    2016-07-01

    Organizations at the local and regional scales often face the challenge of developing policy mechanisms rapidly and concurrently, whether in response to expanding mandates, newly identified threats, or changes in the political environment. In the Canadian Province of Ontario, rapid, concurrent policy development was considered desirable by 19 regional organizations tasked with developing policies for protection of drinking water sources under very tight and highly prescribed mandates. An explicit policy transfer approach was used by these organizations. Policy transfer refers to using knowledge of policies, programs, and institutions in one context in the development of policies, programs, and institutions in another. This paper assesses three online mechanisms developed to facilitate policy transfer for source water protection in Ontario. Insights are based on a survey of policy planners from the 19 regional organizations who used the three policy transfer tools, supplemented by an analysis of three policies created and transferred among the 19 regional source water protection organizations. Policy planners in the study indicated they had used policy transfer to develop source protection policies for their regions-a finding confirmed by analysis of the text of policies. While the online policy transfer tools clearly facilitated systematic policy transfer, participants still preferred informal, direct exchanges with their peers in other regions over the use of the internet-based policy transfer mechanisms created on their behalf.

  11. Policy Transfer Among Regional-Level Organizations: Insights from Source Water Protection in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Loë, R. C.; Murray, D.; Michaels, S.; Plummer, R.

    2016-07-01

    Organizations at the local and regional scales often face the challenge of developing policy mechanisms rapidly and concurrently, whether in response to expanding mandates, newly identified threats, or changes in the political environment. In the Canadian Province of Ontario, rapid, concurrent policy development was considered desirable by 19 regional organizations tasked with developing policies for protection of drinking water sources under very tight and highly prescribed mandates. An explicit policy transfer approach was used by these organizations. Policy transfer refers to using knowledge of policies, programs, and institutions in one context in the development of policies, programs, and institutions in another. This paper assesses three online mechanisms developed to facilitate policy transfer for source water protection in Ontario. Insights are based on a survey of policy planners from the 19 regional organizations who used the three policy transfer tools, supplemented by an analysis of three policies created and transferred among the 19 regional source water protection organizations. Policy planners in the study indicated they had used policy transfer to develop source protection policies for their regions—a finding confirmed by analysis of the text of policies. While the online policy transfer tools clearly facilitated systematic policy transfer, participants still preferred informal, direct exchanges with their peers in other regions over the use of the internet-based policy transfer mechanisms created on their behalf.

  12. Improving the transition of care in patients transferred through the ochsner medical center transfer center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amedee, Ronald G; Maronge, Genevieve F; Pinsky, William W

    2012-01-01

    Patient transfers from other hospitals within the Ochsner Health System to the main campus are coordinated through a Transfer Center that was established in fall 2008. We analyzed the transfer process to assess distinct opportunities to enhance the overall transition of patient care. We surveyed internal medicine residents and nocturnists to determine their satisfaction with transfers in terms of safety, efficiency, and usefulness of information provided at the time of transfer. After a kaizen event at which complementary goals for the institution and members of the study team were recognized and implemented, we resurveyed the group to evaluate improvement in the transfer process. The preintervention average satisfaction score was 1.18 (SD=0.46), while the postintervention score was 3.7 (SD=1.01). A t test showed a significant difference in the average scores between the preintervention and postintervention surveys (Pkaizen event), data were collected that facilitated fewer and higher quality handoffs that were performed in less time. In addition, the process resulted in increased awareness of the value of resident participation in institutional quality improvement projects.

  13. In Light of Visual Arts – A knowledge transfer partnership project as experiential learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-hoi Lai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge transfer between universities and the commercial sector is becoming more prevalent, and different processes have been adopted to facilitate the transfer of knowledge. The ‘In Light of Visual Arts’ project aimed to facilitate knowledge exchange in relation to an innovative concept, the ‘eco-philosophy of light’, between the lighting industry and the arts and cultural sector through an Informal Learning approach. Young visual artists, light designers and lighting technicians were encouraged to explore and exchange experiences in the areas of visual communication, art appreciation and art archiving to create practical lighting solutions. This project offers a feasible framework for the enhancement of artistic training through knowledge sharing, for the benefit of the participants themselves and, in turn, academia, industry and the community. Keywords: informal learning, experiential learning, knowledge transfer, art education, interdisciplinary study

  14. Best practice in clinical facilitation of undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Judith; McMurray, Anne; Shaban, Ramon Z

    2016-09-01

    Clinical facilitation is critical to successful student clinical experience. The research reported in this paper used an interpretive case study to explore perspectives of clinical facilitators on what constitutes best practice in clinical facilitation of undergraduate nursing students. Eleven clinical facilitators from South East Queensland, Australia, participated in focus groups, interviews and a concept mapping exercise to gather their perspectives on best practice. The data gathered information regarding their prior and current experiences as registered nurses and facilitators, considering reasons they became clinical facilitators, their educational background and self-perceived adequacy of their knowledge for clinical facilitation. Analysis was through constant comparison. Findings of the study provided in-depth insight into the role of clinical facilitators, with best practice conceptualised via three main themes; 'assessing', 'learning to facilitate' and 'facilitating effectively'. While they felt there was some autonomy in the role, the clinical facilitators sought a closer liaison with academic staff and feedback about their performance, in particular their assessment of the students. Key strategies identified for improving best practice included educational support for the clinical facilitators, networking, and mentoring from more experienced clinical facilitators. When implemented, these strategies will help develop the clinical facilitators' skills and ensure quality clinical experiences for undergraduate nursing students.

  15. Status Report on Transfer of Physical and Hydraulic Properties Databases to the Hanford Environmental Information System - PNNL Remediation Decision Support Project, Task 1, Activity 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Middleton, Lisa A.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2009-06-30

    This document provides a status report on efforts to transfer physical and hydraulic property data from PNNL to CHPRC for incorporation into HEIS. The Remediation Decision Support (RDS) Project is managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to support Hanford Site waste management and remedial action decisions by the U.S. Department of Energy and their contractors. The objective of Task 1, Activity 6 of the RDS project is to compile all available physical and hydraulic property data for sediments from the Hanford Site, to port these data into the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS), and to make the data web-accessible to anyone on the Hanford Local Area Network via the so-called Virtual Library. These physical and hydraulic property data are used to estimate parameters for analytical and numerical flow and transport models that are used for site risk assessments and evaluation of remedial action alternatives. In past years efforts were made by RDS project staff to compile all available physical and hydraulic property data for Hanford sediments and to transfer these data into SoilVision{reg_sign}, a commercial geotechnical software package designed for storing, analyzing, and manipulating soils data. Although SoilVision{reg_sign} has proven to be useful, its access and use restrictions have been recognized as a limitation to the effective use of the physical and hydraulic property databases by the broader group of potential users involved in Hanford waste site issues. In order to make these data more widely available and useable, a decision was made to port them to HEIS and to make them web-accessible via a Virtual Library module. In FY08 the original objectives of this activity on the RDS project were to: (1) ensure traceability and defensibility of all physical and hydraulic property data currently residing in the SoilVision{reg_sign} database maintained by PNNL, (2) transfer the physical and hydraulic property data from the Microsoft

  16. HIDDEN WEBPAGE INFORMATION EXTRACTION ALGORITHM USING DOM STATE TRANSFER%基于DO M状态转换的隐网页信息抽取算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房勇; 李银胜

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of dynamic JavaScript containing in webpages leads to most of the webpage contents being invisible to traditional webpage crawlers.Therefore we proposed a DOM state transfer-based hidden webpage information extraction algorithm.The algorithm incrementally constructs the DOM state transfer machine and uses DOM nodes and their click events as the inputting events of transfer machine.For the transfer paths which can result in the variation of object nodes,recursive search will be done;By the playback of click path it automatically completes contents grasping of the object nodes;By covering the prototype of audiomonitor method it obtains all the clickable nodes in DOM tree as the candidate nodes.The algorithm employs RTDM algorithm and self-defined filter to compress DOM state space in order to shrink the search space,and carries out heuristic search by defining the distance between candidate nodes in DOM tree and object nodes as the h marking.Experiment demonstrated that the algorithm studied has excellent performance,it achieved 89.48% accuracy in hidden webpage content extraction,and could be used in the fields of automatic webpage test and webpage crawler,etc.%由于网页大量包含动态JavaScript脚本,造成大部分网页内容对传统的网页爬虫不可见。为此,提出一种基于DOM状态转换的隐网页信息抽取算法。该算法增量地构建DOM状态转换机,以DOM节点及其点击事件作为状态机的输入事件。对能够引起目标节点变化的转换路径进行递归搜索;通过重放点击路径,自动完成目标节点的内容抓取;通过覆盖监听器方法原型,获取DOM树中所有可点击的节点作为候选节点。该算法应用RTDM算法和自定义过滤器来对DOM状态空间进行压缩,以缩减搜索空间,定义DOM树中候选节点到目标节点的距离作为h打分,进行启发式搜索。实验表明,所研究算法性能优良,对隐网页

  17. Multiscale photosynthetic exciton transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Ringsmuth, A K; Stace, T M; 10.1038/nphys2332

    2012-01-01

    Photosynthetic light harvesting provides a natural blueprint for bioengineered and biomimetic solar energy and light detection technologies. Recent evidence suggests some individual light harvesting protein complexes (LHCs) and LHC subunits efficiently transfer excitons towards chemical reaction centers (RCs) via an interplay between excitonic quantum coherence, resonant protein vibrations, and thermal decoherence. The role of coherence in vivo is unclear however, where excitons are transferred through multi-LHC/RC aggregates over distances typically large compared with intra-LHC scales. Here we assess the possibility of long-range coherent transfer in a simple chromophore network with disordered site and transfer coupling energies. Through renormalization we find that, surprisingly, decoherence is diminished at larger scales, and long-range coherence is facilitated by chromophoric clustering. Conversely, static disorder in the site energies grows with length scale, forcing localization. Our results suggest s...

  18. 基于SQUIDs和腔场相互作用传送量子信息的方案%Quantum information transfer with superconducting quantum interference device qubits in cavity QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴韬; 何娟; 倪致祥

    2009-01-01

    本文提出了一个基于SQUIDs和腔场的大失谐相互作用传送量子信息的方案,此方案可以直接地、百分之百地实现量子信息的传送.该方案中腔场和SQUIDs系统之间没有量子信息的传递,腔场只是虚激发,这样对腔的品质因子的要求大大的降低了.同时也可以在SQUIDs之间建立传送量子信息的量子网络.%We propose a scheme for transferring Quantum information via superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) qubits and cavity field interaction with a large detuning.In the scheme,no quantum information is transferred between the SQUIDs and the cavities,the cavity-fields are only virtually excited,thus the requirement on the quality factor of the cavities is greatly relaxed.In addition,in the scheme the quantum information can be directly transferred with a successful probability of 100% in a simple manner.And meanwhile we can establish a network for transferring quantum information between SQUID qubits.

  19. Informal knowledge transfer in the period before formal health education programmes: case studies of mass media coverage of HIV and SIDS in England and Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashayan Nora

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How advances in knowledge lead via behaviour change to better health is not well understood. Here we report two case studies: a rapid reduction in HIV transmission in homosexual men and a decline in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS that took place in the period before the relevant national education programmes commenced, respectively, in 1986 and 1991. The role of newspapers in transferring knowledge relevant to reducing the risk of AIDS and SIDS is assessed. Methods HIV Searches were made of The Times (1981–1985, Gay News (1981–1984 and, for the key period of April to June 1983, of eight newspapers with the highest readership. Information on transmission route and educational messages were abstracted and analysed. SIDS Searches were made of The Times and the Guardian (1985–1991, The Sun (selected periods only, 1988–1991 and selected nursing journals published in England and Wales. Information on sleeping position and educational messages were abstracted and analysed. Results HIV Forty-five out of 50 articles identified in newspapers described homosexuals as an at risk group. Sexual transmission of AIDS was, however, covered poorly, with only 7 (14% articles referring explicitly to sexual transmission. Only seven articles (14% associated risk with promiscuity. None of the articles were specific about changes in behaviour that could be expected to reduce risk. Gay periodicals did not include specific advice on reducing the number of partners until early 1984. SIDS Out of 165 relevant articles in The Times and 84 in the Guardian, 7 were published before 1991 and associated risk with sleeping position. The reviewed nursing journals reflected a pervasive sense of uncertainty about the link between SIDS and sleeping position. Conclusion Presumptively receptive audiences responded rapidly to new knowledge on how changes in personal behaviour might reduce risk, even though the 'signals' were not strong and were transmitted

  20. Expert and novice facilitated modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical study based on action research in which expert and novice facilitators in facilitated modelling workshops are compared. There is limited empirical research analysing the differences between expert and novice facilitators. Aiming to address this gap we study...

  1. Nanoparticle Facilitated Extracellular Electron Transfer in Microbial Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-13

    tances.19 Nanoscale materials and devices, such as metal /semi- conductor nanoparticles, nanowires, and carbon nanotubes, have been widely exploited...redox centers. In addition, dissimilatory intermembrane and intramembrane reduction of metals into nanoparticles has been well-documented29,30...different length scales. Biomineralized iron sulfide was employed for the current studies because of the importance of sulfur-mediated electron

  2. Facilitated Energy Transfer in Hierarchically-Ordered Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-12

    moieties.3 Kawa and Fréchet encapsulated lanthanide ions with carboxylate-focused poly(aryl ether) dendrons for potential use in optical signal...complexes possess a complex generational dependence on europium emission. Molecular modeling and NMR and absorption spectroscopies are employed to...generations of poly(benzyl aryl ether) attachments. The dendrons are similar to those used by Kawa and Fréchet5 in their construction of lanthanide

  3. Program Facilitates CMMI Appraisals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetser, Wesley

    2005-01-01

    A computer program has been written to facilitate appraisals according to the methodology of Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). [CMMI is a government/industry standard, maintained by the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, for objectively assessing the engineering capability and maturity of an organization (especially, an organization that produces software)]. The program assists in preparation for a CMMI appraisal by providing drop-down lists suggesting required artifacts or evidence. It identifies process areas for which similar evidence is required and includes a copy feature that reduces or eliminates repetitive data entry. It generates reports to show the entire framework for reference, the appraisal artifacts to determine readiness for an appraisal, and lists of interviewees and questions to ask them during the appraisal. During an appraisal, the program provides screens for entering observations and ratings, and reviewing evidence provided thus far. Findings concerning strengths and weaknesses can be exported for use in a report or a graphical presentation. The program generates a chart showing capability level ratings of the organization. A context-sensitive Windows help system enables a novice to use the program and learn about the CMMI appraisal process.

  4. Facilitating post traumatic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Helen

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst negative responses to traumatic injury have been well documented in the literature, there is a small but growing body of work that identifies posttraumatic growth as a salient feature of this experience. We contribute to this discourse by reporting on the experiences of 13 individuals who were traumatically injured, had undergone extensive rehabilitation and were discharged from formal care. All participants were injured through involvement in a motor vehicle accident, with the exception of one, who was injured through falling off the roof of a house. Methods In this qualitative study, we used an audio-taped in-depth interview with each participant as the means of data collection. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically to determine the participants' unique perspectives on the experience of recovery from traumatic injury. In reporting the findings, all participants' were given a pseudonym to assure their anonymity. Results Most participants indicated that their involvement in a traumatic occurrence was a springboard for growth that enabled them to develop new perspectives on life and living. Conclusion There are a number of contributions that health providers may make to the recovery of individuals who have been traumatically injured to assist them to develop new views of vulnerability and strength, make changes in relationships, and facilitate philosophical, physical and spiritual growth.

  5. Facilitating post traumatic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, de Sales; Cox, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Background Whilst negative responses to traumatic injury have been well documented in the literature, there is a small but growing body of work that identifies posttraumatic growth as a salient feature of this experience. We contribute to this discourse by reporting on the experiences of 13 individuals who were traumatically injured, had undergone extensive rehabilitation and were discharged from formal care. All participants were injured through involvement in a motor vehicle accident, with the exception of one, who was injured through falling off the roof of a house. Methods In this qualitative study, we used an audio-taped in-depth interview with each participant as the means of data collection. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically to determine the participants' unique perspectives on the experience of recovery from traumatic injury. In reporting the findings, all participants' were given a pseudonym to assure their anonymity. Results Most participants indicated that their involvement in a traumatic occurrence was a springboard for growth that enabled them to develop new perspectives on life and living. Conclusion There are a number of contributions that health providers may make to the recovery of individuals who have been traumatically injured to assist them to develop new views of vulnerability and strength, make changes in relationships, and facilitate philosophical, physical and spiritual growth. PMID:15248894

  6. Transfer and adoption of advanced information technology solutions in resource-poor environments: the case of telemedicine systems adoption in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kifle, Mengistu; Payton, Fay Cobb; Mbarika, Victor; Meso, Peter

    2010-04-01

    The study of the adoption of information technology (IT) by individuals has taken two approaches, one emphasizing rationalistic goal-oriented behavior and the other focusing on poignant forces that influence an individual's reaction to a new IT. These approaches are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Individuals' acceptance and subsequent usage of a new IT is predicated on both. Additionally, the tendency in past studies has been to examine either the rational or the poignant factors in the context of a "resource-rich" environment-one in which there is an abundance of IT, adequate infrastructure, and a high level of acculturation to technology solutions. Consequently, there is a clear need for the examination of these factors in resource-poor environments, where assumptions on technology abundance and technology culturation do not hold. We empirically test a model that explains the intention of physicians in a resource-poor environment (epitomized by rural Ethiopia) to adopt telemedicine systems. This model integrates the rational factors driving goal-oriented behavior with the poignant/emotive factors that are an innate part of each adopter's reaction to the new technology. We use the model to expose salient contextual factors that explain the acceptance behavior of individuals toward complex information and communications technology (ICT) solutions and implications of these on the management of technology transfer initiatives in a resource-poor environment. The model is parsimonious, yet explains 28% of the variance in the intention to adopt telemedicine systems and 58% in perceived ease of use. The theoretical and practical implications of this model are discussed. Namely, Sub-Saharan African, in general, and Ethiopian culture, in particular, plays an integral role in the adoption of ICT solutions. Organizational positions and roles among physicians, clinical professionals, and superiors stand to impact the adoption of telemedicine and other healthcare

  7. Information transfer across the scales of climate variability: The effect of the 7-8 year cycle on the annual and interannual scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palus, Milan; Jajcay, Nikola; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Kravtsov, Sergey; Tsonis, Anastasios

    2016-04-01

    Complexity of the climate system stems not only from the fact that it is variable over a huge range of spatial and temporal scales, but also from the nonlinear character of the climate system that leads to interactions of dynamics across scales. The dynamical processes on large time scales influence variability on shorter time scales. This nonlinear phenomenon of cross-scale causal interactions can be observed due to the recently introduced methodology [1] which starts with a wavelet decomposition of a multi-scale signal into quasi-oscillatory modes of a limited bandwidth, described using their instantaneous phases and amplitudes. Then their statistical associations are tested in order to search for interactions across time scales. An information-theoretic formulation of the generalized, nonlinear Granger causality [2] uncovers causal influence and information transfer from large-scale modes of climate variability with characteristic time scales from years to almost a decade to regional temperature variability on short time scales. In analyses of air temperature records from various European locations, a quasioscillatory phenomenon with the period around 7-8 years has been identified as the factor influencing variability of surface air temperature (SAT) on shorter time scales. Its influence on the amplitude of the SAT annual cycle was estimated in the range 0.7-1.4 °C and the effect on the overall variability of the SAT anomalies (SATA) leads to the changes 1.5-1.7 °C in the annual SATA means. The strongest effect of the 7-8 year cycle was observed in the winter SATA means where it reaches 4-5 °C in central European station and reanalysis data [3]. This study is supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic within the Program KONTAKT II, Project No. LH14001. [1] M. Palus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 078702 (2014) [2] M. Palus, M. Vejmelka, Phys. Rev. E 75, 056211 (2007) [3] N. Jajcay, J. Hlinka, S. Kravtsov, A. A. Tsonis, M. Palus, Time

  8. Technology transfer 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This document, Technology Transfer 94, is intended to communicate that there are many opportunities available to US industry and academic institutions to work with DOE and its laboratories and facilities in the vital activity of improving technology transfer to meet national needs. It has seven major sections: Introduction, Technology Transfer Activities, Access to Laboratories and Facilities, Laboratories and Facilities, DOE Office, Technologies, and an Index. Technology Transfer Activities highlights DOE`s recent developments in technology transfer and describes plans for the future. Access to Laboratories and Facilities describes the many avenues for cooperative interaction between DOE laboratories or facilities and industry, academia, and other government agencies. Laboratories and Facilities profiles the DOE laboratories and facilities involved in technology transfer and presents information on their missions, programs, expertise, facilities, and equipment, along with data on whom to contact for additional information on technology transfer. DOE Offices summarizes the major research and development programs within DOE. It also contains information on how to access DOE scientific and technical information. Technologies provides descriptions of some of the new technologies developed at DOE laboratories and facilities.

  9. 国防专利技术转移信息不对称及对策研究%Causes and Countermeasures of Information Asymmetry in Defense Patent Technology Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武剑; 郑绍钰

    2016-01-01

    转移主体双方信息不对称是制约国防专利技术向民用领域转移的主要障碍.在分析国防专利技术转移信息不对称表现的基础上,剖析其背后的原因,并从转移相配套的解密机制、信息平台业务拓展以及审批与评价机制的建立完善等方面针对性地提出解决对策.%The information asymmetry of transfer of both entities poses a major restriction for the transfer of national defense patented technology to civil applications.Based on the analysis on the in-formation asymmetry of main entities of national defense patented technology transfer,the paper ana-lyzes the reasons behind and brings out countermeasures of transfer of corresponding decryption mechanism,expansion of information platform business and the establishment and completion of ap-proval and evaluation mechanism.

  10. Hybridization may facilitate in situ survival of endemic species through periods of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Matthias; Gruenheit, Nicole; Steel, Mike; Voelckel, Claudia; Deusch, Oliver; Heenan, Peter B.; McLenachan, Patricia A.; Kardailsky, Olga; Leigh, Jessica W.; Lockhart, Peter J.

    2013-12-01

    Predicting survival and extinction scenarios for climate change requires an understanding of the present day ecological characteristics of species and future available habitats, but also the adaptive potential of species to cope with environmental change. Hybridization is one mechanism that could facilitate this. Here we report statistical evidence that the transfer of genetic information through hybridization is a feature of species from the plant genus Pachycladon that survived the Last Glacial Maximum in geographically separated alpine refugia in New Zealand's South Island. We show that transferred glucosinolate hydrolysis genes also exhibit evidence of intra-locus recombination. Such gene exchange and recombination has the potential to alter the chemical defence in the offspring of hybridizing species. We use a mathematical model to show that when hybridization increases the adaptive potential of species, future biodiversity will be best protected by preserving closely related species that hybridize rather than by conserving distantly related species that are genetically isolated.

  11. On knowledge transfer management as a learning process for ad hoc teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliescu, D.

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge management represents an emerging domain becoming more and more important. Concepts like knowledge codification and personalisation, knowledge life-cycle, social and technological dimensions, knowledge transfer and learning management are integral parts. Focus goes here in the process of knowledge transfer for the case of ad hoc teams. The social dimension of knowledge transfer plays an important role. No single individual actors involved in the process, but a collective one, representing the organisation. It is critically important for knowledge to be managed from the life-cycle point of view. A complex communication network needs to be in place to supports the process of knowledge transfer. Two particular concepts, the bridge tie and transactive memory, would eventually enhance the communication. The paper focuses on an informational communication platform supporting the collaborative work on knowledge transfer. The platform facilitates the creation of a topic language to be used in knowledge modelling, storage and reuse, by the ad hoc teams.

  12. Cellular transfer and AFM imaging of cancer cells using Bioimprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melville DOS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A technique for permanently capturing a replica impression of biological cells has been developed to facilitate analysis using nanometer resolution imaging tools, namely the atomic force microscope (AFM. The method, termed Bioimprint™, creates a permanent cell 'footprint' in a non-biohazardous Poly (dimethylsiloxane (PDMS polymer composite. The transfer of nanometer scale biological information is presented as an alternative imaging technique at a resolution beyond that of optical microscopy. By transferring cell topology into a rigid medium more suited for AFM imaging, many of the limitations associated with scanning of biological specimens can be overcome. Potential for this technique is demonstrated by analyzing Bioimprint™ replicas created from human endometrial cancer cells. The high resolution transfer of this process is further detailed by imaging membrane morphological structures consistent with exocytosis. The integration of soft lithography to replicate biological materials presents an enhanced method for the study of biological systems at the nanoscale.

  13. Spatial part-set cuing facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Matthew R; Parasiuk, Yuri; Salgado-Benz, Jennifer; Crocco, Megan

    2016-07-01

    Cole, Reysen, and Kelley [2013. Part-set cuing facilitation for spatial information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 39, 1615-1620] reported robust part-set cuing facilitation for spatial information using snap circuits (a colour-coded electronics kit designed for children to create rudimentary circuit boards). In contrast, Drinkwater, Dagnall, and Parker [2006. Effects of part-set cuing on experienced and novice chess players' reconstruction of a typical chess midgame position. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 102(3), 645-653] and Watkins, Schwartz, and Lane [1984. Does part-set cuing test for memory organization? Evidence from reconstructions of chess positions. Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie, 38(3), 498-503] showed no influence of part-set cuing for spatial information when using chess boards. One key difference between the two procedures was that the snap circuit stimuli were explicitly connected to one another, whereas chess pieces were not. Two experiments examined the effects of connection type (connected vs. unconnected) and cue type (cued vs. uncued) on memory for spatial information. Using chess boards (Experiment 1) and snap circuits (Experiment 2), part-set cuing facilitation only occurred when the stimuli were explicitly connected; there was no influence of cuing with unconnected stimuli. These results are potentially consistent with the retrieval strategy disruption hypothesis, as well as the two- and three-mechanism accounts of part-set cuing.

  14. Heat and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Baehr, Hans Dieter

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive textbook provides a solid foundation of knowledge on the principles of heat and mass transfer and shows how to solve problems by applying modern methods. The basic theory is developed systematically, exploring in detail the solution methods to all important problems.   The thoroughly revised 3rd edition includes an introduction to the numerical solution of Finite Elements. A new section on heat and mass transfer in porous media has also been added.   The book will be useful not only to upper-level and graduate students, but also to practicing scientists and engineers, offering a firm understanding of the principles of heat and mass transfer, and showing how to solve problems by applying modern methods. Many completed examples and numerous exercises with solutions facilitate learning and understanding, and an appendix includes data on key properties of important substances.

  15. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2014-01-01

    Against a background of rather mixed evidence about transfer pricing practices in multinational enterprises (MNEs) and varying attitudes on the part of tax authorities, this paper explores how multiple aims in transfer pricing can be pursued across four different transfer pricing regimes. A MNE h...

  16. Pragmatic Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Gabriele

    1992-01-01

    Attempting to clarify the concept of pragmatic transfer, this article proposes as a basic distinction Leech/Thomas' dichotomy of sociopragmatics versus pragmalinguistics, presenting evidence for transfer at both levels. Issues discussed include pragmatic universals in speech act realization, conditions for pragmatic transfer, communicative…

  17. Facilitating phenomenological interviewing by means of reflexology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ross

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show how reflexology could facilitate phenomenological interviewing by probing the lifeworld of individual participants. It presents a hybrid study of phenomenological interviewing and reflexology as a holistic method of health care. In this sense, it is an interparadigmatic study, since it rests on the interface of Western and Oriental thought. This article reports on seven cases which were included in the qualitative, empirical investigation. During the sessions, reflexological readings served as impetus for inquiry into the experiences of the participants, as congestions on reflex points and along meridians were interpreted in terms of physical organs and functions. These readings were related to corresponding emotions as accepted within the reflexology paradigm. It was, however, up to the participants to inform the researcher of events and/or circumstances that caused the emotions. Thus, nonverbal data communicated information that facilitated verbal exchange concerning the life-world of each individual participant.

  18. Three Voices: Researching How Somatic Education Informs Contemporary Dance Technique Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Sylvie; Long, Warwick; Lord, Madeleine

    2002-01-01

    Examined how the Feldenkrais Method of somatic education informed a series of contemporary technique classes in a professional setting in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Collaborative research findings highlighted three themes: transfer of learning, movement awareness facilitation, and construction of the dancing bodies. This study works toward a shift…

  19. Three Voices: Researching How Somatic Education Informs Contemporary Dance Technique Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Sylvie; Long, Warwick; Lord, Madeleine

    2002-01-01

    Examined how the Feldenkrais Method of somatic education informed a series of contemporary technique classes in a professional setting in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Collaborative research findings highlighted three themes: transfer of learning, movement awareness facilitation, and construction of the dancing bodies. This study works toward a shift…

  20. Insulin facilitates transport of macromolecules and nutrients to muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N J; Hilsted, J

    1993-01-01

    , systolic blood pressure and plasma noradrenaline. These changes were absent or attenuated in diabetic patients (without neuropathy) after an oral glucose load. These responses were normalized by insulin infusion. Our results suggest that insulin facilitates the transfer of macromolecules and nutrients from...