WorldWideScience

Sample records for facilitate student understanding

  1. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Students' Understanding of Electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    2002-01-01

    Constructs a teaching strategy to facilitate conceptual change in freshman students' understanding of electrochemistry. Provides students with the correct response along with alternative responses (teaching experiments), producing a conflicting situation that is conducive to an equilibration of their cognitive structures. Concludes that the…

  2. Understanding and Facilitating Student Bloggers: Towards a Blogging Activity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derntl, Michael

    Since instructors have started recognizing the potential of Web 2.0 integration in web-based courses, blogs have been used to provide students with means of virtual communication, contribution, collaboration and community building. In this paper we aim to take another step forward by presenting and analyzing the integration of student blogs in an undergraduate computer science course on software architecture and web technologies: we implemented an LMS extension that acted as a course blog portal by collecting and displaying feeds of externally hosted blogs and logging usage data. Data analysis reveals that students who perform better academically also tend to participate more actively in the course blogosphere. Subsequently, we propose a blogging activity model, which aims to reveal and explain relationships between blogging activity variables—including peer visits, commenting and posting—to achieve a better understanding of lively blog communities in courses.

  3. Understanding Facilitators and Barriers to the Selection of Dietetics as a major by African American students.

    OpenAIRE

    Felton, Teena M

    2007-01-01

    Understanding Facilitators And Barriers To The Selection of Dietetics As A Major By African-American Students Teena M. Felton (ABSTRACT) Less than 5% of registered dietitians are African-American individuals. Little has been done to investigate reasons for the paucity of African-American professionals in the dietetics field. The specific aim of this study was, therefore, to explore facilitators and barriers to the selection of dietetics as a major by African-American students. ...

  4. Using Metacognitive Strategies in Teaching to Facilitate Understanding of Light Concepts among Year 9 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagaba, Francis; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Won, Mihye

    2016-01-01

    Background: Enhancing students' metacognitive abilities will help to facilitate their understanding of science concepts. Purpose: The study was designed to conduct and evaluate the effectiveness of a repertoire of interventions aimed at enhancing secondary school students' metacognitive capabilities and their achievements in science. Sample: A…

  5. Analogy-Integrated e-Learning Module: Facilitating Students' Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The study deals with the development of an analogy-integrated e-learning module on Cellular Respiration, which is intended to facilitate conceptual understanding of students with different brain hemisphere dominance and learning styles. The module includes eight analogies originally conceptualized following the specific steps used to prepare…

  6. Analogy-Integrated e-Learning Module: Facilitating Students' Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The study deals with the development of an analogy-integrated e-learning module on Cellular Respiration, which is intended to facilitate conceptual understanding of students with different brain hemisphere dominance and learning styles. The module includes eight analogies originally conceptualized following the specific steps used to prepare…

  7. Understanding the importance of teachers in facilitating student success: Contemporary science, practice, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Shane R; Haddock, Aaron D

    2015-12-01

    Teacher quality has a vital influence on student success or failure. Thus, further research regarding teacher effectiveness, teacher evaluation, teacher well-being, and teacher contributions is essential to inform school psychologists and allied educational professionals who collaborate and consult with teachers to facilitate student success. In this special topic section of School Psychology Quarterly, a series of 6 articles further elucidate teachers' powerful contributions to student outcomes along with concrete, research-based ways for school psychologists to support and collaborate with teachers. The studies included in the special section describe how teacher support facilitates students' positive academic and social-emotional outcomes and how students' attitudes toward learning moderate the association between the classroom environment and students' academic achievement. Studies also report on the development and validation of self-report measures focused on both teacher subjective well-being and teachers' use of evidence-based practices. Finally, the articles included in the special topic section offer insights and ideas for refining teacher evaluation practices, understanding the factors contributing to program implementation fidelity, and improving prevention, early identification, and intervention efforts aimed at fostering school completion and positive youth development.

  8. Facilitating Understandings of Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Christine C.; Bush, Sara

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates some learning encounters for facilitating first graders' understanding of geometry. Describes some of children's approaches using Cuisenaire rods and teacher's intervening. Presents six problems involving various combinations of Cuisenaire rods and cubes. (YP)

  9. Kinetic versus Static Visuals for Facilitating College Students' Understanding of Organic Reaction Mechanisms in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldahmash, Abdulwali H.; Abraham, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Using animated computer-generated graphics to assist instruction has recently attracted the attention of educators and educational researchers. The specific focus of this study is to compare the influence of animated visuals with static visuals on college students' understanding of organic reaction mechanisms in chemistry. This study also focuses…

  10. Facilitating Students' Conceptual Understanding of Boiling Using a Four-Step Constructivist Teaching Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calik, Muammer

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work presented here was to devise an activity associated with factors affecting boiling points. The intervention used a four-step constructivist-based teaching strategy, which was subsequently evaluated by a cohort of students. Data collection consisted of application of a purpose designed questionnaire consisting of four open-ended…

  11. Understanding text as social practice: An exploration of the potential of systemic functional grammar to facilitate students' interpretation of media texts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Clarence-Fincham

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available It has frequently been claimed that Halliday's Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG is apowerful linguistic tool which facilitates analytical and interpretative skills and provides aflexible, yet structured set of analytical tools with which to interpret texts. With this claim asa backdrop, this article asks whether SFG is, in fact an appropriate analytical approach forunder-graduate students and whether it can facilitate their ability to analyse texts. Its contextis a second level course, Analysing Media Texts, offered at Natal University. Broadly framedby critical discourse analysis, it traces the development of a thirteen week module and,using student analyses for illustrative purposes, identifies pedagogical challenges anddifficulties that need to be confronted before any strong claims can be made. It is concludedthat, on the evidence of students' responses to texts analysed during this course, it is not yetpossible to make strong claims about the benefits of SFG. There is enough positiveevidence, however, to pursue the possibility that with innovative curriculum development andthe careful scaffolding and integration of concepts, SFG will be clearly shown to have anextremely important role to play.Daar is dikwels beweer dat Halliday se Sistemies-Funksionele Grammatika (SFG 'n kragtige linguistiese middel is wat analitiese en interpreterende vaardighede bevorder en 'n plooibare, dog gestruktureere stel analitiese gereedskap verskaf waarmee tekste gei"nterpreteer kan word. Met die bewering as agtergrond vra hierdie artikel of SFG inderdaad 'n toepas like analitiese benadering vir voorgraadse studente is en of dit hulle vermoe om tekste te ontleed, bevorder. Die konteks is 'n tweedejaarskursus, Analysing Media Texts, wat aan die Universiteit van Natal aangebied word. Breedweg omraam deur kritiese diskoersanalise, speur die artikel die ontwikkeling van 'n module van dertien weke na, met gebruik van studenteontledings ter illustrasie en identifiseer

  12. Facilitating Creativity in Science Students' through Teacher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Facilitating Creativity in Science Students' through Teacher Professional Development. ... and the creativity checklist (CCh) was the instrument used to collect data. ... The research questions were answered using mean while the hypotheses ...

  13. Reconceptualizing the Pedagogical Value of Student Facilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztok, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Sustained discourse is critical to the learning potential of online courses. And, while research has surfaced many factors that mediate interaction, it further suggests that sustained interaction remains elusive. In this paper, I propose that student facilitation may have an impact on the quality of facilitators' interactions following a week of…

  14. Calculus Students' Understanding of Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorko, Allison; Speer, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have documented difficulties that elementary school students have in understanding volume. Despite its importance in higher mathematics, we know little about college students' understanding of volume. This study investigated calculus students' understanding of volume. Clinical interview transcripts and written responses to volume…

  15. [How to understand and facilitate return to school of high school students treated for cancer: analysis of a sociology research-action project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Zoé

    2015-01-01

    Based on a sociology research-action project, this article analyses the specific issue of return to school of high school students with cancer. Three detailed cases, illustrating the global results of the study, are presented to highlight the academic trajectories of these students. This situation has a particular impact on juvenile sociability. Moreover, the education of these students does not comply with French educational standards and is very complex for professionals. Finally, social inequalities in education are reinforced by the experience of serious illness, as pedagogical negotiations are even more complex due to the fact that families are not familiar with school practices.

  16. FACILITATION AND EVALUATION OF STUDENTS LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekar K

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Various methods of teaching are lectures, seminars, tutorials, group discussions and demonstrations. Most of these methods involve only passive learning. Increased emphasis is being laid on students centred and integrated teaching. Both vertical and horizontal integrated teaching has been recommended by the medical council of India. The superiority of such novel methods over other existing methods in facilitating students learning has not been adequately assessed and hence the present study was undertaken. A 3 year study was performed in MBBS Phase -II students of 3 batches. Integrated teaching (seminar on various segments of a topic was carried out in 3 different ways to each batch of students. Batch 1: Subject experts (faculty delivered talk on segments of topic allotted. Batch 2: Randomly selected 7-10 students presented the topic (it was guided by faculty Batch 3: similar to batch 2 but here a pre-session test (validated MCQs was conducted. About 10 topics were covered in a year (same for all the batches and were announced 15days prior to the seminar for the students to prepare. The seminar was for 2 hrs and a post -session test was conducted using pre- validated MCQs to assess the learning outcome. Post-sessions score (mean ± SD of all batches was calculated and analyzed by ANOVA. There was a significant improvement in the performance of batch 3 as compared to other batches. Pre-session tests promote students participation in teaching learning activities and also facilitates the learning process and the outcome.

  17. Understanding the Working College Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Laura W.

    2010-01-01

    Working is now a fundamental responsibility for many undergraduates. But understanding how employment affects students' educational experiences is complicated by why students work. Many students must work to pay the costs of attending college. Some traditional-age students may use employment as a way to explore career options or earn spending…

  18. Understanding the Hispanic Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, John M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes cultural differences of Hispanic students in family structure, language, motivation, mysticism, machismo, touching, and time concepts which may lead to problems in the classroom. Suggests strategies teachers may employ to increase opportunities for positive school experiences for Hispanic students through recognition and acknowledgement…

  19. Understanding Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    Contemporary theories of academic motivation seek to explain students' behaviours in academic settings. While each theory seems to possess its own constructs and unique explanations, these theories are actually closely tied together. In this theoretical study of motivation, several theories of motivation were described and an underlying theme of…

  20. If a Student Takes Control: Facilitator's Tasks and Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väljataga, Terje

    This paper presents initial research results of an intervention into higher educational teaching and studying practices from facilitators‘ point of view. The intervention was implemented into an international Master’s level online course mediated by landscapes of social media tools and services. In this course more emphasis was put on a shift of control from a facilitator to a student or a group of students in the following aspects: setting up one’s study goals, choosing activities, selecting appropriate resources, including technology and defining one’s evaluation criteria. The initial analysis showed that the facilitators gained a lot in terms of understanding the benefits of exploiting social media tools and services for their teaching practices, perceiving a need of having a different role as well as the shortages and problems while being a facilitator in such a course.

  1. Students' understanding of quadratic equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Jonathan; Robles, Izraim; Martínez-Planell, Rafael

    2016-05-01

    Action-Process-Object-Schema theory (APOS) was applied to study student understanding of quadratic equations in one variable. This required proposing a detailed conjecture (called a genetic decomposition) of mental constructions students may do to understand quadratic equations. The genetic decomposition which was proposed can contribute to help students achieve an understanding of quadratic equations with improved interrelation of ideas and more flexible application of solution methods. Semi-structured interviews with eight beginning undergraduate students explored which of the mental constructions conjectured in the genetic decomposition students could do, and which they had difficulty doing. Two of the mental constructions that form part of the genetic decomposition are highlighted and corresponding further data were obtained from the written work of 121 undergraduate science and engineering students taking a multivariable calculus course. The results suggest the importance of explicitly considering these two highlighted mental constructions.

  2. Students' understandings of multiplication

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Multiplicative reasoning permeates many mathematical topics, for example fractions and functions. Hence there is consensus on the importance of acquiring multiplicative reasoning. Multiplication is typically introduced as repeated addition, but when it is extended to include multi-digits and decimals a more general view of multiplication is required. There are conflicting reports in previous research concerning students’ understandings of multiplication. For example, repeated addition has bee...

  3. Understanding Students' Beliefs about Probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konold, Clifford

    The concept of probability is not an easy concept for high school and college students to understand. This paper identifies and analyzes the students' alternative frameworks from the viewpoint of constructivism. There are various interpretations of probability through mathematical history: classical, frequentist, and subjectivist interpretation.…

  4. Explicit Argumentation Instruction to Facilitate Conceptual Understanding and Argumentation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Pinar Seda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Argumentation is accepted by many science educators as a major component of science education. Many studies have investigated students' conceptual understanding and their engagement in argumentative activities. However, studies conducted in the subject of chemistry are very rare. Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate the…

  5. Students' Progression in Understanding the Matter Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadenfeldt, Jan Christoph; Neumann, Knut; Bernholt, Sascha; Liu, Xiufeng; Parchmann, Ilka

    2016-01-01

    This study presents our attempt to elicit students' progression in understanding the matter concept. Past work has identified the big ideas about matter students need to understand, the many everyday understandings students hold about these ideas, and levels of understanding through which students progress in developing understanding of the big…

  6. Students' Understanding of Trigonometric Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Keith

    2005-01-01

    In this article students' understanding of trigonometric functions in the context of two college trigonometry courses is investigated. The first course was taught by a professor unaffiliated with the study in a lecture-based course, while the second was taught using an experimental instruction paradigm based on Gray and Tall's (1994) notion of…

  7. "You Might Say You're 9 Years Old but You're Actually 'B' Years Old Because You're Always Getting Older": Facilitating Young Students' Understanding of Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jodie

    2010-01-01

    Student transition from arithmetical understandings to algebraic reasoning is recognised as an important but complex process. An essential element of the transition is the development of a rich understanding of variables. Drawing on findings from a classroom-based study, this paper outlines the instructional tasks and pedagogical actions a teacher…

  8. Best practice in clinical facilitation of undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Judith; McMurray, Anne; Shaban, Ramon Z

    2016-09-01

    Clinical facilitation is critical to successful student clinical experience. The research reported in this paper used an interpretive case study to explore perspectives of clinical facilitators on what constitutes best practice in clinical facilitation of undergraduate nursing students. Eleven clinical facilitators from South East Queensland, Australia, participated in focus groups, interviews and a concept mapping exercise to gather their perspectives on best practice. The data gathered information regarding their prior and current experiences as registered nurses and facilitators, considering reasons they became clinical facilitators, their educational background and self-perceived adequacy of their knowledge for clinical facilitation. Analysis was through constant comparison. Findings of the study provided in-depth insight into the role of clinical facilitators, with best practice conceptualised via three main themes; 'assessing', 'learning to facilitate' and 'facilitating effectively'. While they felt there was some autonomy in the role, the clinical facilitators sought a closer liaison with academic staff and feedback about their performance, in particular their assessment of the students. Key strategies identified for improving best practice included educational support for the clinical facilitators, networking, and mentoring from more experienced clinical facilitators. When implemented, these strategies will help develop the clinical facilitators' skills and ensure quality clinical experiences for undergraduate nursing students.

  9. Assessing Facilitator Performance as an Influence on Student Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Scotty; May, David

    2011-01-01

    Growth in class size within the online environment has resulted in a facilitator model in which an instructor teaches the class with the assistance of facilitators who interact with students in smaller groups. This research sought to determine the effectiveness of a structured performance evaluation for facilitators and the correlation to student…

  10. Explicit argumentation instruction to facilitate conceptual understanding and argumentation skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda Cetin, Pinar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Argumentation is accepted by many science educators as a major component of science education. Many studies have investigated students' conceptual understanding and their engagement in argumentative activities. However, studies conducted in the subject of chemistry are very rare. Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate the effects of argumentation-based chemistry lessons on pre-service science teachers' understanding of reaction rate concepts, their quality of argumentation, and their consideration of specific reaction rate concepts in constructing an argument. Moreover, students' perceptions of argumentation lessons were explored. Sample: There were 116 participants (21 male and 95 female), who were pre-service first-grade science teachers from a public university. The participants were recruited from the two intact classes of a General Chemistry II course, both of which were taught by the same instructor. Design and methods: In the present study, non-equivalent control group design was used as a part of quasi-experimental design. The experimental group was taught using explicit argumentation activities, and the control group was instructed using traditional instruction. The data were collected using a reaction rate concept test, a pre-service teachers' survey, and the participants' perceptions of the argumentation lessons questionnaire. For the data analysis, the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, the Mann-Whitney U-test and qualitative techniques were used. Results: The results of the study indicated that an argumentation-based intervention caused significantly better acquisition of scientific reaction rate-related concepts and positively impacted the structure and complexity of pre-service teachers' argumentation. Moreover, the majority of the participants reported positive feelings toward argumentation activities. Conclusions: As students are encouraged to state and support their view in the chemistry classroom when studying reaction rate, it was

  11. Understanding Nursing Students' Stress: A Proposed Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatzky, Jo-Ann V.

    1998-01-01

    The Adaptation Nursing Model suggests that nursing students' level of adaptation to stress is influenced by their hardiness and use of social resources. Faculty can use the information to facilitate students' coping. (SK)

  12. Medical students' and facilitators' experiences of an Early Professional Contact course: Active and motivated students, strained facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsson Ronny

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today, medical students are introduced to patient contact, communication skills, and clinical examination in the preclinical years of the curriculum with the purpose of gaining clinical experience. These courses are often evaluated from the student perspective. Reports with an additional emphasis on the facilitator perspective are scarce. According to constructive alignment, an influential concept from research in higher education, the learning climate between students and teachers is also of great importance. In this paper, we approach the learning climate by studying both students' and facilitators' course experiences. In 2001, a new "Early Professional Contact" longitudinal strand through term 1–4, was introduced at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. General practitioners and hospital specialists were facilitators. The aim of this study was to assess and analyse students' and clinical facilitators' experiences of the Early Professional Contact course and to illuminate facilitators' working conditions. Methods Inspired by a Swedish adaptation of the Course Experience Questionnaire, an Early Professional Contact Questionnaire was constructed. In 2003, on the completion of the first longitudinal strand, a student and facilitator version was distributed to 86 students and 21 facilitators. In the analysis, both Chi-square and the Mann-Whitney tests were used. Results Sixty students (70% and 15 facilitators (71% completed the questionnaire. Both students and facilitators were satisfied with the course. Students reported gaining iiration for their future work as doctors along with increased confidence in meeting patients. They also reported increased motivation for biomedical studies. Differences in attitudes between facilitators and students were found. Facilitators experienced a greater workload, less reasonable demands and less support, than students. Conclusion In this project, a new Early

  13. Process Memos: Facilitating Dialogues about Writing between Students and Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Heather Macpherson; Cherry, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    We have created a new teaching tool--process memos--to improve student writing. Process memos are guided reflections submitted with scaffolded assignments that facilitate a written dialogue between students and instructors about the process of writing. Within these memos, students critically assess available teaching tools, discuss their writing…

  14. Medical Students as Facilitators for Laparoscopic Simulator Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Cathrine; Bjerrum, Flemming; Mahmood, Badar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Teaching basic clinical skills to student peers and residents by medical students has previously been shown effective. This study examines if medical students can facilitate laparoscopic procedural tasks to residents using a virtual reality simulator. METHODS: This was a retrospective...... practicing on a laparoscopic virtual reality simulator....

  15. Pausing the Classroom Lecture: The Use of Clickers to Facilitate Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jian-Jie; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Shadiev, Rustam; Chen, Ginn-Yein

    2017-01-01

    In a big classroom, it is not easy for instructors to be aware of whether or not all students are engaged in the lecture and who has difficulty understanding learning content. One way in which the engagement between instructor/lecturer and students in the classroom is via technology designed to facilitate this. A computer system, making use of…

  16. What Do They Understand? Using Technology to Facilitate Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitten, Carolyn; Jacobbe, Tim; Jacobbe, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Formative assessment is so important to inform teachers' planning. A discussion of the benefits of using technology to facilitate formative assessment explains how four primary school teachers adopted three different apps to make their formative assessment more meaningful and useful.

  17. Barriers to and Facilitators of Health for Latina Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Latina undergraduate students' barriers and facilitators of health are examined: Barriers to psychological health--separating from family, pressure to succeed, and racism; Barriers to physical health--lacking health insurance, and discomfort using campus sports facilities; and Facilitators of psychological health--membership in Latina student…

  18. Barriers to and Facilitators of Health for Latina Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Latina undergraduate students' barriers and facilitators of health are examined: Barriers to psychological health--separating from family, pressure to succeed, and racism; Barriers to physical health--lacking health insurance, and discomfort using campus sports facilities; and Facilitators of psychological health--membership in Latina student…

  19. Facilitating Support for Students with Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Yegan; Bhat, Christine Suniti

    2012-01-01

    The number of students with Asperger's Syndrome enrolled at tertiary institutions in the United States continues to increase. This can be attributed to: (a) the passage of legislations such as the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA); (b) revisions to the "Diagnostic and Statistical…

  20. Facilitating Support for Students with Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Yegan; Bhat, Christine Suniti

    2012-01-01

    The number of students with Asperger's Syndrome enrolled at tertiary institutions in the United States continues to increase. This can be attributed to: (a) the passage of legislations such as the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA); (b) revisions to the "Diagnostic and Statistical…

  1. A Study of How Classroom Dialogue Facilitates the Development of Geometric Spatial Concepts Related to Understanding the Cause of Moon Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, Sonya Ellouise; Wilhelm, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Research indicates that student understanding is either confirmed or reformed when given opportunities to share what they know. This study was conducted to answer the research question: Will classroom dialogue facilitate students' understanding of lunar concepts related to geometric spatial visualisation? Ninety-two middle school students engaged…

  2. Understanding Diversity in Millennial Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broido, Ellen M.

    2004-01-01

    The Millennial generation of college students has demographics and attitudes toward diversity issues different from their predecessors; this chapter explores those differences and their implications for student affairs work.

  3. Understanding Diversity in Millennial Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broido, Ellen M.

    2004-01-01

    The Millennial generation of college students has demographics and attitudes toward diversity issues different from their predecessors; this chapter explores those differences and their implications for student affairs work.

  4. Students as facilitators in a teacher training program: motivation for leadership roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Annette; van Diggele, Christie; Mellis, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Although students often partake in peer-teaching activities during medical school, they are rarely provided with formal training in teaching. We have previously described our teacher training (TT) program for medical students. The TT program is delivered face-to-face across two sessions. In order to alleviate academic teaching load required to run the course, and at the same time provide our final-year students with practical opportunities to develop their leadership skills, we engaged five senior students as co-facilitators alongside academic staff. By developing an understanding of our students' motivation to participate as facilitators, we may be able to promote an interest within leadership in teaching among other students. Our study sought to examine students' motivation to take part as facilitators in the TT program. Data were collected through a focus group session with the five student facilitators. Self-determination theory, which poses that there are three elements key to intrinsic motivation, including autonomy, competence, and relatedness, was used as a conceptual lens to identify and code recurrent themes in the data. Elements that motivated students to assist in facilitation included an opportunity to review and build on their knowledge and skills in teaching practices; the recognition and acknowledgement received from school staff and fellow students; the opportunity to develop these relationships; and a desire to increase their peer-teaching responsibilities. By actively involving our students in leadership practices, we were able to not only engage the students, but also develop our student community and contribute to the promotion of a culture of excellence in teaching within the hospital.

  5. Group work: Facilitating the learning of international and domestic undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Julie; Mitchell, Creina; Del Fabbro, Letitia

    2015-01-01

    Devising innovative strategies to address internationalization is a contemporary challenge for universities. A Participatory Action Research (PAR) project was undertaken to identify issues for international nursing students and their teachers. The findings identified group work as a teaching strategy potentially useful to facilitate international student learning. The educational intervention of structured group work was planned and implemented in one subject of a Nursing degree. Groups of four to five students were formed with one or two international students per group. Structural support was provided by the teacher until the student was learning independently, the traditional view of scaffolding. The group work also encouraged students to learn from one another, a contemporary understanding of scaffolding. Evaluation of the group work teaching strategy occurred via anonymous, self-completed student surveys. The student experience data were analysed using descriptive statistical techniques, and free text comments were analysed using content analysis. Over 85% of respondents positively rated the group work experience. Overwhelmingly, students reported that class discussions and sharing nursing experiences positively influenced their learning and facilitated exchange of knowledge about nursing issues from an international perspective. This evaluation of a structured group work process supports the use of group work in engaging students in learning, adding to our understanding of purposeful scaffolding as a pathway to enhance learning for both international and domestic students. By explicitly using group work within the curriculum, educators can promote student learning, a scholarly approach to teaching and internationalization of the curriculum.

  6. Emotion Talk: Helping Caregivers Facilitate Emotion Understanding and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Bonnie; Fujiki, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on two aspects of emotional intelligence, emotion understanding and emotion regulation. These abilities are important because of their impact on social communication and the way in which they influence a child's access to knowledge. Caregivers who engage their children in emotion talk may strengthen the ability of their…

  7. Older (but not younger) siblings facilitate false belief understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffman, T; Perner, J; Naito, M; Parkin, L; Clements, W A

    1998-01-01

    Results from 4 experiments and an analysis in which all data from 444 English and Japanese children are pooled show (a) a linear increase in understanding false belief with the number of older siblings, (b) no such effect for children younger than 3 years 2 months, (c) no helpful effect of younger siblings at any age (despite the large sample), (d) no effect of siblings' gender, and (e) no helpful effect of siblings on a task measuring children's understanding of how they know something. Discussion involves speculation about how older siblings may assist children (e.g., through pretend play and mental state language) and how different aspects of a theory of mind may develop through different means.

  8. The team builder: the role of nurses facilitating interprofessional student teams at a Swedish clinical training ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisabeth, Carlson; Ewa, Pilhammar; Christine, Wann-Hansson

    2011-09-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) is an educational strategy attracting increased interest as a method to train future health care professionals. One example of IPE is the clinical training ward, where students from different health care professions practice together. At these wards the students work in teams with the support of facilitators. The professional composition of the team of facilitators usually corresponds to that of the students. However, previous studies have revealed that nurse facilitators are often in the majority, responsible for student nurses' profession specific facilitation as well as interprofessional team orientated facilitation. The objective of this study was to describe how nurses act when facilitating interprofessional student teams at a clinical training ward. The research design was ethnography and data were collected through participant observations and interviews. The analysis revealed the four strategies used when facilitating teams of interprofessional students to enhance collaborative work and professional understanding. The nurse facilitator as a team builder is a new and exciting role for nurses taking on the responsibility of facilitating interprofessional student teams. Future research needs to explore how facilitating nurses balance profession specific and team oriented facilitating within the environment of an interprofessional learning context.

  9. A framework for understanding motivation in students

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to establish how for understanding student´s behavior especially motivation is required different theories where each one has a complement in another. It is developed a further analysis about the different theories about motivation and their impact in the education student environment, proposing at the end a model for evaluate the motivation process in students.

  10. A student-initiated and student-facilitated international health elective for preclinical medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirali Vora

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Global health education is becoming more important for developing well-rounded physicians and may encourage students toward a career in primary care. Many medical schools, however, lack adequate and structured opportunities for students beginning the curriculum. Methods: Second-year medical students initiated, designed, and facilitated a pass–fail international health elective, providing a curricular framework for preclinical medical students wishing to gain exposure to the clinical and cultural practices of a developing country. Results: All course participants (N=30 completed a post-travel questionnaire within one week of sharing their experiences. Screening reflection essays for common themes that fulfill university core competencies yielded specific global health learning outcomes, including analysis of health care determinants. Conclusion: Medical students successfully implemented a sustainable global health curriculum for preclinical student peers. Financial constraints, language, and organizational burdens limit student participation. In future, long-term studies should analyze career impact and benefits to the host country.

  11. Facilitating High School Students' Use of Multiple Representations to Describe and Explain Simple Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Treagust, David F.; Mocerino, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    This study involved the evaluation of the efficacy of a planned instructional program to facilitate understanding of the macroscopic, submicroscopic and symbolic representational systems when describing and explaining chemical reactions by sixty-five Grade 9 students in a Singapore secondary school. A two-tier multiple-choice diagnostic instrument…

  12. Facilitating Employees' and Students' Process towards Nascent Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietanen, Lenita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate a model for facilitating employees' and full-time, non-business students' entrepreneurial capabilities during their optional entrepreneurship studies at one Finnish Open University. Design/methodology/approach: The case study investigates the course in which transitions from employees or…

  13. Facilitating Employees' and Students' Process towards Nascent Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietanen, Lenita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate a model for facilitating employees' and full-time, non-business students' entrepreneurial capabilities during their optional entrepreneurship studies at one Finnish Open University. Design/methodology/approach: The case study investigates the course in which transitions from employees or…

  14. Picture this! Using photovoice to facilitate cultural competence in students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Shelby

    2013-01-01

    The use of digital images is a prevalent practice in today's society, especially in social media. Photovoice is a qualitative research methodology used to express the experiences of participants from a variety of populations. Photovoice can be utilized as a teaching and learning tool to facilitate cultural competence among undergraduate nursing students.

  15. Understanding Student Veterans in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    In this research report the author details a phenomenological study documenting identity development in student veterans making the transition from active military service to higher education. This study took place at a doctoral granting proprietary university with a significant veteran population and consisted of in-depth interviews. This…

  16. College students' understanding of parameters in algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Postelnicu, Valentina; Postelnicu, Florin

    2015-01-01

    International audience; A study was conducted with 26 college students with the purpose of gaining insight into students' conceptual understanding of parameters in algebra. Participants contributed to a whole-class discussion, solved problems with parameters, and identified the parameters in each problem. About one third of the students had difficulty identifying parameters. Even when successful at identifying parameters, students had great difficulty solving the problems with parameters. The...

  17. Through the eyes of the student: Best practices in clinical facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthathi, Immaculate S; Thurling, Catherine H; Armstrong, Susan J

    2017-08-28

    Clinical facilitation is an essential part of the undergraduate nursing curriculum. A number of studies address the issue of clinical facilitation in South Africa, but there remains a lack of knowledge and understanding regarding what students perceive as best practice in clinical facilitation of their learning. To determine what type of clinical facilitation undergraduate students believe should be offered by clinical facilitators (nurse educators, professional nurses and clinical preceptors) in the clinical area in order to best facilitate their learning. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study was conducted. Purposive sampling was performed to select nursing students from the second, third and fourth year of studies from a selected nursing education institution in Johannesburg. The sampling resulted in one focus group for each level of nursing, namely second, third and fourth year nursing students. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim, thematic data analysis was used and trustworthiness was ensured by applying credibility, dependability, confirmability and transferability. The data revealed that participants differentiated between best practices in clinical facilitation in the clinical skills laboratory and clinical learning environment. In the clinical skills laboratory, pre-contact preparation, demonstration technique and optimising group learning were identified as best practices. In the clinical learning environment, a need for standardisation of procedures in simulation and practice, the allocation and support for students also emerged. There is a need for all nurses involved in undergraduate nursing education to reflect on how they approach clinical facilitation, in both clinical skills laboratory and clinical learning environment. There is also a need to improve consistency in clinical practices between the nursing education institution and the clinical learning environment so as to support students' adaptation to clinical

  18. Western Australian school students' understanding of biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Are science educators providing secondary school students with the background to understand the science behind recent controversies such as the recently introduced compulsory labelling of genetically modified foods? Research from the UK suggests that many secondary school students do not understand the processes or implications of modern biotechnology. The situation in Australia is unclear. In this study, 1116 15-year-old students from eleven Western Australian schools were surveyed to determine their understanding of, and attitude towards, recent advances in modern biotechnology. The results indicate that approximately one third of students have little or no understanding of biotechnology. Many students over-estimate the use of biotechnology in our society by confusing current uses with possible future applications. The results provide a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the school science curriculum

  19. Students as Facilitators: An Evaluation of Student-Led Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a two year study evaluating student-led group work in the context of a clinical legal education module. The aim of the study was to shift the balance of control from tutor to student, by allowing students to take on the facilitator role in weekly meetings. The findings suggest that (a) students can successfully design and…

  20. Developing students' understanding of scientific modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Christine Virginia

    Teaching students to create and use scientific models as well as to understand their nature has become an increasingly important goal in science education. This thesis reports on the evaluation of the Model-Enhanced ThinkerTools curriculum, a ten and a half week physics curriculum designed to develop students' understanding of scientific modeling. In the curricular trials, eight classes of seventh grade students participated in model-oriented activities such as creating non-Newtonian computer microworlds to embody their conceptual models of force and motion, evaluating the accuracy and plausibility of their models, and reflecting on the nature of models. Analysis of pre- and post-curricular assessments as well as student research books, project reports, and in-depth interviews indicate that students had a significantly better understanding of the nature and utility of models after completing the Model-Enhanced ThinkerTools curriculum. Students also gained an understanding of a number of processes for developing and evaluating models. While interacting with the software and engaging in reflective discussions about the nature of models, students learned that models can include abstract representations and that models are useful for predicting events and testing ideas. Students also demonstrated sophisticated understanding of models in their interviews several months after the curriculum, particularly about the nature and. utility of models. Further, the curriculum developed students' conceptual models of force and motion as well as their inquiry skills and epistemological beliefs about the nature of scientific knowledge and learning. Correlations among the four pre/post curricular assessments suggest that modeling knowledge may play a role in the acquisition of the other types of knowledge. These results indicate that, while modeling knowledge may be difficult to develop, progress can be made by engaging students in generating and reflecting on the nature of models

  1. Arguments, Contradictions, Resistances, and Conceptual Change in Students' Understanding of Atomic Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor; Aguilera, Damarys; Maza, Arelys; Liendo, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a study aimed at facilitating freshman general chemistry students' understanding of atomic structure based on the work of Thomson, Rutherford, and Bohr. Hypothesizes that classroom discussions based on arguments/counterarguments of the heuristic principles on which these scientists based their atomic models can facilitate students'…

  2. Through the eyes of the student: Best practices in clinical facilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Immaculate S. Muthathi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical facilitation is an essential part of the undergraduate nursing curriculum. A number of studies address the issue of clinical facilitation in South Africa, but there remains a lack of knowledge and understanding regarding what students perceive as best practice in clinical facilitation of their learning.Objective: To determine what type of clinical facilitation undergraduate students believe should be offered by clinical facilitators (nurse educators, professional nurses and clinical preceptors in the clinical area in order to best facilitate their learning.Method: A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study was conducted. Purposive sampling was performed to select nursing students from the second, third and fourth year of studies from a selected nursing education institution in Johannesburg. The sampling resulted in one focus group for each level of nursing, namely second, third and fourth year nursing students. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim, thematic data analysis was used and trustworthiness was ensured by applying credibility, dependability, confirmability and transferability.Main findings: The data revealed that participants differentiated between best practices in clinical facilitation in the clinical skills laboratory and clinical learning environment. In the clinical skills laboratory, pre-contact preparation, demonstration technique and optimising group learning were identified as best practices. In the clinical learning environment, a need for standardisation of procedures in simulation and practice, the allocation and support for students also emerged.Conclusion: There is a need for all nurses involved in undergraduate nursing education to reflect on how they approach clinical facilitation, in both clinical skills laboratory and clinical learning environment. There is also a need to improve consistency in clinical practices between the nursing education institution and the

  3. Evaluation of Students' Conceptual Understanding of Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Irene Poh-Ai; Treagust, David; Kyeleve, Iorhemen J.; Oh, Peck-Yoke

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a two-tier diagnostic test for understanding malaria was developed and administered to 314 Bruneian students in Year 12 and in a nursing diploma course. The validity, reliability, difficulty level, discriminant indices, and reading ability of the test were examined and found to be acceptable in terms of measuring students'…

  4. Student Understanding of the Boltzmann Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trevor I.; Mountcastle, Donald B.; Thompson, John R.

    2015-01-01

    We present results of our investigation into student understanding of the physical significance and utility of the Boltzmann factor in several simple models. We identify various justifications, both correct and incorrect, that students use when answering written questions that require application of the Boltzmann factor. Results from written data…

  5. Understanding EFL Students' Errors in Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuket, Pimpisa Rattanadilok Na; Othman, Normah Binti

    2015-01-01

    Writing is the most difficult skill in English, so most EFL students tend to make errors in writing. In assisting the learners to successfully acquire writing skill, the analysis of errors and the understanding of their sources are necessary. This study attempts to explore the major sources of errors occurred in the writing of EFL students. It…

  6. Developing Students' Understanding of Exponents and Logarithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Keith

    In this paper, we describe instruction designed to teach students about exponents and logarithms and report a pilot study to test the effectiveness of this instruction. Based on the theoretical work of Dubinsky and Sfard, we postulate a set of mental constructions that a student could make to understand the concepts of exponents and logarithms. We…

  7. Understanding the Integral: Students' Symbolic Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers are currently investigating how calculus students understand the basic concepts of first-year calculus, including the integral. However, much is still unknown regarding the "cognitive resources" (i.e., stable cognitive units that can be accessed by an individual) that students hold and draw on when thinking about the integral. This…

  8. International Understanding Via Student Teaching Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeberg, Howard

    The Student Teaching Abroad (STA) program at Moorhead College is a coordinated effort to place qualified teacher education candidates in private international schools abroad. An assumption of STA is that international understanding will be increased through an exposure to other cultures; therefore student teachers are encouraged to live with local…

  9. Students' Understandings and Misconceptions of Algebraic Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowntree, Rebecca V.

    2009-01-01

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM] requires students in grades nine through 12 to be able to explain inequalities using mathematical relational symbols and be able to understand the meaning of inequalities and their solutions (NCTM, 2000). Studies have shown that not only middle and high school students have difficulties with…

  10. Understanding the Integral: Students' Symbolic Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers are currently investigating how calculus students understand the basic concepts of first-year calculus, including the integral. However, much is still unknown regarding the "cognitive resources" (i.e., stable cognitive units that can be accessed by an individual) that students hold and draw on when thinking about the integral. This…

  11. Improving Student Understanding of Spatial Ecology Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Robert, II; Alberts, Halley

    2015-01-01

    This activity is designed as a primer to teaching population dispersion analysis. The aim is to help improve students' spatial thinking and their understanding of how spatial statistic equations work. Students use simulated data to develop their own statistic and apply that equation to experimental behavioral data for Gambusia affinis (western…

  12. Evaluation of Students' Conceptual Understanding of Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Irene Poh-Ai; Treagust, David; Kyeleve, Iorhemen J.; Oh, Peck-Yoke

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a two-tier diagnostic test for understanding malaria was developed and administered to 314 Bruneian students in Year 12 and in a nursing diploma course. The validity, reliability, difficulty level, discriminant indices, and reading ability of the test were examined and found to be acceptable in terms of measuring students'…

  13. Improving Students' Understanding of Quantum Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Guangtian

    2016-01-01

    We describe the difficulties advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with quantum measurement. To reduce these difficulties, we have developed research-based learning tools such as the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) and peer instruction tools. A preliminary evaluation shows that these learning tools are effective in improving students' understanding of concepts related to quantum measurement.

  14. Improving Student Understanding of Spatial Ecology Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Robert, II; Alberts, Halley

    2015-01-01

    This activity is designed as a primer to teaching population dispersion analysis. The aim is to help improve students' spatial thinking and their understanding of how spatial statistic equations work. Students use simulated data to develop their own statistic and apply that equation to experimental behavioral data for Gambusia affinis (western…

  15. Conceptual Learning: Enhancing Student Understanding of Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, Micah J.

    Students are leaving undergraduate science programs without the knowledge and skills they are expected to have. This is apparent in professional programs, such as medical and veterinary school, where students do not possess the critical thinking skills necessary to be successful. Physiology is a required discipline for these professional programs and often before, as a pre-requisite. Physiology classrooms are an excellent place to teach critical thinking skills because the content consists of integrated processes. Therefore, in one study, it was investigated whether focusing on physiological concepts improved student understanding of physiology in both a non-physiological science course, Invertebrate Zoology, and in an undergraduate physiology course. An educational intervention was used in Invertebrate Zoology, where students were exposed to human physiology concepts that were similar to comparative physiology concepts they had learned during the semester. A pre-/post-test was used to assess learning gains. In a second study, the use of multimedia file usage was correlated to student exam scores in a physiology course. This was done to see if providing additional study materials that focused on specific concepts improved student understanding, as assessed using exam scores. Overall these studies indicate that encouraging assimilation of new concepts that expand upon material from lecture may help students gain a more complete understanding of a concept. The integration of these concepts into pre-existing conceptual frameworks may serve to teach students valuable critical thinking skills such as evaluation of new ideas within their current understanding and synthesizing the new content with the existing information. Focusing on this type of conceptual learning may enable students to apply content knowledge and think through problems. Additionally, focusing on concepts may enable students to improve their understanding of material without being overwhelmed by

  16. Upper High School Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, Murat; Millar, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Although electromagnetism is an important component of upper secondary school physics syllabuses in many countries, there has been relatively little research on students' understanding of the topic. A written test consisting of 16 diagnostic questions was developed and used to survey the understanding of electromagnetism of upper secondary school…

  17. Determining Students' Conceptual Understanding Level of Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saricayir, Hakan; Ay, Selahattin; Comek, Arif; Cansiz, Gokhan; Uce, Musa

    2016-01-01

    Science students find heat, temperature, enthalpy and energy in chemical reactions to be some of the most difficult subjects. It is crucial to define their conceptual understanding level in these subjects so that educators can build upon this knowledge and introduce new thermodynamics concepts. This paper reports conceptual understanding levels of…

  18. Facilitating student occupational therapists' mastery of occupation-centred approaches for working with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copley, Jodie A; Rodger, Sylvia A; Graham, Fiona P; Hannay, Victoria A

    2011-02-01

    Student occupational therapists experience particular challenges in the learning and practicing of occupation-centred practice (OCP) techniques with children. This study aimed to identify factors that facilitate mastery of OCP from both students' and practice educators' perspectives. Nine student occupational therapists and two practice educators participated in three interviews at intervals across the students' fieldwork experiences. Observation and document review assisted data triangulation. Students experienced distinct turning points in their understanding and use of OCP after encountering challenges and then experiencing success. Factors that assisted students' mastery of OCP included modelling and practice opportunities; individualised, performance-specific debriefing; specific learning and teaching styles; and structured learning tools for observation and reporting. Key quality teaching and learning practices can be used by practice educators and universities to promote mastery of OCP approaches. Further opportunities for practice and guided reflection on OCP are needed.

  19. MODELLING OF FACILITATIVE EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT FOR STUDENTS WITH AUDITORY IMPERCEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. EFIMOVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the theoretical basis and practical recommendations for modelling the facilitative educationalenvironment for elementary school pupils with learning difficulties. It is shown that 80% of elementary school pupils with learning difficulties have problems related to auditory imperceptions. At the same time, the peripheral hearing of these students is usually normal. Auditory imperception has a negative impact on all types of educational activities, as educational material is mainly based on aural reception. The practical recommendations are aimed at changing the objective environment and the communicative strategies of all adults involved in educational activities of pupils in order to create conditions facilitating the aural reception of information by pupils. To create a facilitative environment, the following measures are proposed: improvement of the acoustic characteristics of the learning premises, the use of visual cues, change of the communicative strategies of adults, the use of special equipment in the classroom. The author suggests measures for creating the facilitating environment at home for children with aural imperceptions when they do their homework.

  20. Using Visualisations in Secondary School Physics Teaching and Learning: Evaluating the Efficacy of an Instructional Program to Facilitate Understanding of Gas and Liquid Pressure Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Elisabeth Yian Yian; Treagust, David F.; Koh, Thiam Seng; Phang, Wei Lian; Ng, Shuh Lit; Sim, Gary; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2012-01-01

    An instructional program using four simulation applets was used to facilitate understanding of gas and liquid pressure concepts among twenty-two students in a Year 9 class from an independent secondary school in Singapore. A comparison group consisting of twenty-two students was taught using traditional didactic, chalk-and-talk instruction.…

  1. Bourdieu's Game of Life: Using Simulation to Facilitate Understanding of Complex Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Lauren Miller

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduate students often struggle with understanding the theories of Bourdieu, but they are essential for understanding how power and privilege are reproduced in society. Revealing students' complicity in this system is a powerful teaching moment, but it is often difficult to make the lesson and advanced theory accessible without triggering…

  2. Bourdieu's Game of Life: Using Simulation to Facilitate Understanding of Complex Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Lauren Miller

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduate students often struggle with understanding the theories of Bourdieu, but they are essential for understanding how power and privilege are reproduced in society. Revealing students' complicity in this system is a powerful teaching moment, but it is often difficult to make the lesson and advanced theory accessible without triggering…

  3. University student conceptual resources for understanding energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Hannah C.; Goodhew, Lisa M.; Robertson, Amy D.

    2016-06-01

    We report some of the common, prevalent conceptual resources that students used to reason about energy, based on our analysis of written responses to questions given to 807 introductory physics students. These resources include, for example, associating forms of energy with indicators, relating forces and energy, and representing energy quantitatively. This research responds to a need for large-scale, resources-oriented research on students' conceptual understanding and has the potential to support the development of an underexplored dimension of pedagogical content knowledge-knowledge of student resources for understanding energy. Our aim is to promote instructor take-up of the resources theory of knowledge, and we suggest a number of ways in which instructors might capitalize on the resources we report.

  4. A Cultural-Historical Model to Understand and Facilitate Children's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pui Ling

    2015-01-01

    Parents and educators strive to help their children to develop optimally. Given the diversity of values and practices among dynamic modern populations it is important to understand all the dimensions that affect the development of children in their communities. A cultural-historical lens facilitates such a holistic understanding. Taking this lens,…

  5. Student understanding of the Boltzmann factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trevor I.; Mountcastle, Donald B.; Thompson, John R.

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] We present results of our investigation into student understanding of the physical significance and utility of the Boltzmann factor in several simple models. We identify various justifications, both correct and incorrect, that students use when answering written questions that require application of the Boltzmann factor. Results from written data as well as teaching interviews suggest that many students can neither recognize situations in which the Boltzmann factor is applicable nor articulate the physical significance of the Boltzmann factor as an expression for multiplicity, a fundamental quantity of statistical mechanics. The specific student difficulties seen in the written data led us to develop a guided-inquiry tutorial activity, centered around the derivation of the Boltzmann factor, for use in undergraduate statistical mechanics courses. We report on the development process of our tutorial, including data from teaching interviews and classroom observations of student discussions about the Boltzmann factor and its derivation during the tutorial development process. This additional information informed modifications that improved students' abilities to complete the tutorial during the allowed class time without sacrificing the effectiveness as we have measured it. These data also show an increase in students' appreciation of the origin and significance of the Boltzmann factor during the student discussions. Our findings provide evidence that working in groups to better understand the physical origins of the canonical probability distribution helps students gain a better understanding of when the Boltzmann factor is applicable and how to use it appropriately in answering relevant questions.

  6. Investigating the Effectiveness of a POE-Based Teaching Activity on Students' Understanding of Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costu, Bayram; Ayas, Alipasa; Niaz, Mansoor

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the development of a Predict-Observe-Explain, POE-based teaching strategy to facilitate conceptual change and its effectiveness on student understanding of condensation. The sample consisted of 52 first-year students in primary science education department. Students' ideas were elicited using a test consisting of five probe…

  7. Facilitating dental student reflections: using mentor groups to discuss clinical experiences and personal development

    OpenAIRE

    Koole, Sebastiaan; Christiaens, Véronique; Cosyn, Jan; De Bruyn, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Despite the consensus on the importance of reflection for dental professionals, a lack of understanding remains about how students and clinicians should develop their ability to reflect. The aim of this study was to investigate dental students’ and mentors’ perceptions of mentor groups as an instructional method to facilitate students’ reflection in terms of the strategy’s learning potential, role of the mentor, group dynamics, and feasibility. At Ghent University in Belgium, third- and fourt...

  8. Students' Understanding of Stern Gerlach Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Guangtian

    2016-01-01

    The Stern Gerlach experiment has played a central role in the discovery of spin angular momentum and it has also played a pivotal role in elucidating foundational issues in quantum mechanics. Here, we discuss investigation of students' difficulties related to the Stern Gerlach experiment by giving written tests and interviewing advanced undergraduate and graduate students in quantum mechanics. We also discuss preliminary data that suggest that the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) related to the Stern Gerlach experiment is helpful in improving students' understanding of these concepts.

  9. Student understanding of the Boltzmann factor

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Trevor I; Thompson, John R

    2015-01-01

    We present results of our investigation into student understanding of the physical significance and utility of the Boltzmann factor in several simple models. We identify various justifications, both correct and incorrect, that students use when answering written questions that require application of the Boltzmann factor. Results from written data as well as teaching interviews suggest that many students can neither recognize situations in which the Boltzmann factor is applicable, nor articulate the physical significance of the Boltzmann factor as an expression for multiplicity, a fundamental quantity of statistical mechanics. The specific student difficulties seen in the written data led us to develop a guided-inquiry tutorial activity, centered around the derivation of the Boltzmann factor, for use in undergraduate statistical mechanics courses. We report on the development process of our tutorial, including data from teaching interviews and classroom observations on student discussions about the Boltzmann f...

  10. University Students' Understanding of Chemical Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasulu, Bellam; Subramaniam, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored undergraduate students' understanding of the chemistry topic of thermodynamics using a 4-tier diagnostic instrument, comprising 30 questions, and follow-up interviews. An additional objective of the study was to assess the utility of the 4-tier instrument for use in studies on alternative conceptions (ACs) as there has been no…

  11. University Students' Understanding of Chemical Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasulu, Bellam; Subramaniam, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored undergraduate students' understanding of the chemistry topic of thermodynamics using a 4-tier diagnostic instrument, comprising 30 questions, and follow-up interviews. An additional objective of the study was to assess the utility of the 4-tier instrument for use in studies on alternative conceptions (ACs) as there has been no…

  12. Can goal-free problems facilitating students' flexible thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulidya, Sity Rahmy; Hasanah, Rusi Ulfa; Retnowati, Endah

    2017-08-01

    Problem solving is the key of doing and also learning mathematics. It takes also the fundamental role of developing mathematical knowledge. Responding to the current reform movement in mathematics, students are expected to learn to be a flexible thinker. The ability to think flexible is challenged by the globalisation, hence influence mathematics education. A flexible thinking includes ability to apply knowledge in different contexts rather than simply use it in similar context when it is studied. Arguably problem solving activities can contribute to the development of the ability to apply skills to unfamiliar situations. Accordingly, an appropriate classroom instructional strategy must be developed. A cognitive load theory suggests that by reducing extraneous cognitive load during learning could enhance transfer learning. A goal-free problem strategy that is developed based in cognitive load theory have been showed to be effective for transfer learning. This strategy enables students to learn a large numbers of problem solving moves from a mathematics problem. The instruction in a goal-free problem directs students to `calculate as many solution as you can' rather than to calculate a single given goal. Many experiment research evident goal-free problem enhance learning. This literature review will discuss evidence goal-free problem facilitate students to solve problems flexibly and thus enhance their problem solving skills, including how its implication in the classroom.

  13. Barriers and facilitators to bicycle commuting amoung college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolas Olekszechen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Confronted with the current challenge of urban mobility, the bicycle has been presented as an alternative to individual transportation. Studies on this topic have mainly identified the individual factors involved in the choosing of this mean of transportation, sometimes putting the environmental factors in second plan, and neglecting the person-environment implications of the bicycle use a mean of transportation. This article aimed to identify, through environmental psychology, the barrier and facilitators in the use of the bicycle among college students in the city of Florianópolis-SC. Eighteen college students (twelve men and eight woman answered a semistructured interview. The data was organized into two categories of four subcategories each, based on the categorical-content analysis. The results indicated as barriers the Environment factors, social conjuncture, and political and personal factors. Among the facilitators, the time, practicality, motorized system, and personal factors were indicated as main characteristics. The results show a need to comprehend the use of bicycles as a mean of transportation in a contextualized way and as part of a public policy in effect. Furthermore, this study emphasizes the existence of an interpersonal dimension of traffic, which requires from its participants a sharing posture, rather than a competitive one.

  14. Understanding the art of feminist pedagogy: facilitating interpersonal skills learning for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Emma

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore feminist pedagogy integrated with facilitation skills. A pedagogy project was undertaken with students participating in the BSc (Hons) Nursing programme, whereby a module, "Interpersonal Skills for Nurses" was developed for 72 year 1 students. A feminist pedagogy involves employing the powers of diversity to create an environment where all students' voices are heard. It values the power of sharing to create a community of learners in which teachers and students share their talents, skills and abilities to enhance the learning of all (Chinn, 2001). An end of semester evaluation provided feedback which indicated this was a valuable module to teach year 1 student nurses. It highlighted that student nurses found the topic both interesting and relevant and felt it was taught in a way that promoted their personal development and identity as a nurse.

  15. University Students' Understanding of Electromagnetic Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisasola, Jenaro; Almudi, Jose M.; Zuza, Kristina

    2013-11-01

    This study examined engineering and physical science students' understanding of the electromagnetic induction (EMI) phenomena. It is assumed that significant knowledge of the EMI theory is a basic prerequisite when students have to think about electromagnetic phenomena. To analyse students' conceptions, we have taken into account the fact that individuals build mental representations to help them understand how a physical system works. Individuals use these representations to explain reality, depending on the context and the contents involved. Therefore, we have designed a questionnaire with an emphasis on explanations and an interview, so as to analyse students' reasoning. We found that most of the students failed to distinguish between macroscopic levels described in terms of fields and microscopic levels described in terms of the actions of fields. It is concluded that although the questionnaire and interviews involved a limited range of phenomena, the identified explanations fall into three main categories that can provide information for curriculum development by identifying the strengths and weaknesses of students' conceptions.

  16. The Effect of Concept Mapping on Student Understanding and Correlation with Student Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, William G.

    This study investigated the use of concept mapping as a pedagogical strategy to promote change in the learning styles of pre-nursing students. Students' individual learning styles revealed two subsets of students; those who demonstrated a learning style that favors abstract conceptualization and those who demonstrated a learning style that favors concrete experience. Students in the experimental groups performed concept mapping activities designed to facilitate an integrative understanding of interactions between various organ systems of the body while the control group received a traditional didactic instruction without performing concept mapping activities. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected in order to measure differences in student achievement. Analysis of the quantitative data revealed no significant change in the learning styles of students in either the control or experimental groups. Learning style groups were analyzed qualitatively for recurring or emergent themes that students identified as facilitating their learning. An analysis of qualitative data revealed that most students in the pre-nursing program were able to identify concepts within the class based upon visual cues, and a majority of these students exhibited the learning style of abstract conceptualization. As the laboratory experience for the course involves an examination of the anatomical structures of the human body, a visual identification of these structures seemed to be the most logical method to measure students' ability to identify anatomical structures.

  17. Understanding intercultural transitions of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Aneta L; Mansour, Nasser; Fisher, Ros

    2015-02-28

    The aim of this research was to explore the transition of medical students to an international branch campus of a medical university established in Bahrain. In order to gain insights into this transition, we explored two culturally diverse systems of learning of the university and the local schools in Bahrain, using Communities of Practice as a lens for understanding transitions. Focus groups were conducted with secondary school teachers and first year medical students. Additionally, semi-structured interviews were conducted with university lecturers. The findings suggest that, while Communities of Practice have been influential in contextualising transitions to university, this model does not seem to help us to fully understand intercultural transitions to the case-study university. The research emphasises that more attention should be given to learner individual agency within this theory as a framework for understanding transitions. It also challenges approaches within medical education that attempt to standardise systems of learning through acquisition of established practices.

  18. Students' different understandings of class diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boustedt, Jonas

    2012-03-01

    The software industry needs well-trained software designers and one important aspect of software design is the ability to model software designs visually and understand what visual models represent. However, previous research indicates that software design is a difficult task to many students. This article reports empirical findings from a phenomenographic investigation on how students understand class diagrams, Unified Modeling Language (UML) symbols, and relations to object-oriented (OO) concepts. The informants were 20 Computer Science students from four different universities in Sweden. The results show qualitatively different ways to understand and describe UML class diagrams and the "diamond symbols" representing aggregation and composition. The purpose of class diagrams was understood in a varied way, from describing it as a documentation to a more advanced view related to communication. The descriptions of class diagrams varied from seeing them as a specification of classes to a more advanced view, where they were described to show hierarchic structures of classes and relations. The diamond symbols were seen as "relations" and a more advanced way was seeing the white and the black diamonds as different symbols for aggregation and composition. As a consequence of the results, it is recommended that UML should be adopted in courses. It is briefly indicated how the phenomenographic results in combination with variation theory can be used by teachers to enhance students' possibilities to reach advanced understanding of phenomena related to UML class diagrams. Moreover, it is recommended that teachers should put more effort in assessing skills in proper usage of the basic symbols and models and students should be provided with opportunities to practise collaborative design, e.g. using whiteboards.

  19. Facilitating the development of agency in first-year students. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem van Schoor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Open distance learning (ODL requires students to take control of their study processes from the beginning in order to achieve study success. To achieve control, first-year students have to understand what agency requires of them and they have to know what to do to exercise agency. An online program was  developed at the University of South Africa (Unisa to facilitate the development of agency in first-year students and a pilot program was conducted with a group of students who had failed an Economics I course to test the program. The data indicated that time management in a variety of contexts was the major debilitating factor for participants. Feedback from the users indicated that they were generally positive about the program structure and contents, as well as their experience in using it. 

  20. University Students' Understanding of Chemical Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasulu, Bellam; Subramaniam, R.

    2013-03-01

    This study explored undergraduate students' understanding of the chemistry topic of thermodynamics using a 4-tier diagnostic instrument, comprising 30 questions, and follow-up interviews. An additional objective of the study was to assess the utility of the 4-tier instrument for use in studies on alternative conceptions (ACs) as there has been no study done on it since its introduction in the literature in the year 2010. A total of 296 students majoring in Chemistry at a university in Singapore participated in this study-88 students in the preliminary study, 102 students in the pilot study and 106 students in the main study. This article reports on the results obtained with students in the main study; their age ranges from 20 to 22 years. Comprising answer and reason tiers plus associated confidence ratings, the 4-tier diagnostic instrument enabled the eliciting of 34 ACs harbored by the undergraduates as well as the strengths of these ACs. Of concern to note is that even for questions which were answered correctly, the mean confidence was not very high. The results of this study reiterate the point that thermodynamics is a topic fraught with conceptual difficulties and ACs. Based on the results from this study, the potential of the 4-tier test for AC studies is further underscored. Some implications of the study are discussed.

  1. An evaluation of a framework for facilitating and assessing physiotherapy students' reflection on practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaghy, Marie; Morss, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Reflective practice is promoted in the health care professions as a developmental process leading to competent and effective practice, although the link between reflection and enhancement of physiotherapy practice remains speculative and conjectural. This article provides evidence that reflection can influence developing practice based on the evaluation of a reflective framework for students on clinical placement. The evaluation explored, in depth, students' experiences and perceptions of its benefits and limitations. Thematic analysis of response data from five focus groups (n = 43) representing three student cohorts resolved significant outcomes-related themes: personal insight, linking reflection to the physiotherapy process, and learning and personal change. Process-related themes focused on strengths and weaknesses of the framework and associated issues. Evidence supports the effectiveness of the framework in facilitating reflection and in linking reflection to higher order cognitive processes such as gaining new insights and understandings, facilitation of systematic enquiry, problem solving, and decision making. Feedback from students indicated that the experience was meaningful and valuable in preparation for practice because they were guided to question themselves and could see the relevance and value of that for their practice. We recommend that educators consider this approach to facilitating reflection in physiotherapy undergraduate education.

  2. Investigating student understanding of quantum entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Kohnle, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Quantum entanglement is a central concept of quantum theory for multiple particles. Entanglement played an important role in the development of the foundations of the theory and makes possible modern applications in quantum information technology. As part of the QuVis Quantum Mechanics Visualization Project, we developed an interactive simulation "Entanglement: The nature of quantum correlations" using two-particle entangled spin states. We investigated student understanding of entanglement at the introductory and advanced undergraduate levels by collecting student activity and post-test responses using two versions of the simulation and carrying out a small number of student interviews. Common incorrect ideas found include statements that all entangled states must be maximally entangled (i.e. show perfect correlations or anticorrelations along all common measurement axes), that the spins of particles in a product state must have definite values (cannot be in a superposition state with respect to spin) and di...

  3. Using Authentic Data to Facilitate Comparative Planetology & Student-led Classroom Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Paige; Runco, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This session will engage participants in a hands-on activity that uses stunning NASA imagery from space to help participants gain an understanding of how scientists use Earth to gain a better understanding of other planetary bodies in the solar system. Participants will make observations, develop identification criteria, and use evidence to justify inferences made about processes sculpting the surface of different planetary worlds. Participants will also "build" a comparative planetology feature wall that will facilitate a comparative view of major geologic processes and features across the inner solar system. This session will highlight additional comparative planetology activities and demonstrate how the use of authentic data and imagery can help facilitate student-led research in the classroom, helping teachers address the Next Generation Science Standards.

  4. Empowering the crowd: faculty discourse strategies for facilitating student reasoning in large lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaree, Dedra

    2012-02-01

    Oregon State University (OSU) has restructured its introductory calculus-based sequence including reformed curriculum modeled after the Interactive Science Learning Environment (ISLE). ISLE is driven by an experimental cycle roughly summarized as: observe phenomena, find patterns and devise explanations, test explanations, develop a model, apply the model to new observations. In implementing ISLE at OSU we have chosen to focus on student scientific reasoning, specifically student ability to develop and test models, make explicit judgments on how to approach open-ended tasks, and take an authoritative role in knowledge development. In order to achieve these goals, the lecture course heavily utilizes social engagement. During large-lecture group work, emphasis is placed on facilitating student discourse about issues such as what systems to choose or how to define an open-ended problem. Instructional strategies are aimed at building off the group discourse to create a full-class community where knowledge is developed through collaboration with peers. We are achieving these goals along with an increase in measured student conceptual knowledge and traditional problem solving abilities, and no loss of content coverage. It is an ongoing effort to understand ``best'' instructional strategies and to facilitate new faculty when they teach the curriculum. Our research has focused on understanding how to facilitate activities that promote this form of discourse. We have quantitative analysis of engagement based on video data, qualitative analysis of dialogue from audio data, classroom observations by an external researcher, and survey data. In this session we share a subset of what we have learned about how to engage students in scientific reasoning discourse during large lecture, both at the group-work and full-class level.

  5. Amazingly resilient Indigenous people! Using transformative learning to facilitate positive student engagement with sensitive material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Debra; Power, Tamara; Sherwood, Juanita; Geia, Lynore

    2013-12-01

    If health professionals are to effectively contribute to improving the health of Indigenous people, understanding of the historical, political, and social disadvantage that has lead to health disparity is essential. This paper describes a teaching and learning experience in which four Australian Indigenous academics in collaboration with a non-Indigenous colleague delivered an intensive workshop for masters level post-graduate students. Drawing upon the paedagogy of Transformative Learning, the objectives of the day included facilitating students to explore their existing understandings of Indigenous people, the impact of ongoing colonisation, the diversity of Australia's Indigenous people, and developing respect for alternative worldviews. Drawing on a range of resources including personal stories, autobiography, film and interactive sessions, students were challenged intellectually and emotionally by the content. Students experienced the workshop as a significant educational event, and described feeling transformed by the content, better informed, more appreciative of other worldviews and Indigenous resilience and better equipped to contribute in a more meaningful way to improving the quality of health care for Indigenous people. Where this workshop differs from other Indigenous classes was in the involvement of an Indigenous teaching team. Rather than a lone academic who can often feel vulnerable teaching a large cohort of non-Indigenous students, an Indigenous teaching team reinforced Indigenous authority and created an emotionally and culturally safe space within which students were allowed to confront and explore difficult truths. Findings support the value of multiple teaching strategies underpinned by the theory of transformational learning, and the potential benefits of facilitating emotional as well as intellectual student engagement when presenting sensitive material.

  6. Facilitators and inhibitors in developing professional values in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafakhah, Mahnaz; Molazem, Zahra; Khademi, Mojgan; Sharif, Farkhondeh

    2016-09-22

    Values are the basis of nursing practice, especially in making decisions about complicated ethical issues. Despite their key role in nursing, little information exists on the factors affecting their development and manifestation in nursing students. This study identifies and describes the facilitators and inhibitors of the development and manifestation of professional values based on the experiences of nursing students and instructors and nurses. Data were collected through 29 semi-structured interviews and two focus group interviews in 2013-2015 and were analyzed using the conventional content analysis method of Elo and Kyngäs. In total, 18 nursing undergraduates, five nursing instructors, and five nurses from Shiraz University of Medical Sciences and one of the teaching hospitals in Shiraz were selected through purposive sampling. The research was approved by the Ethics Committee of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences and the teaching hospital examined. The findings consisted of two categories: personal and environmental factors. Personal factors consisted of the two subcategories of personal stimuli (work experience and past relationships, inner beliefs and acting on values, belief in God and a divine worldview) and personal inhibitors (the lack of professional motivation and enthusiasm, negative emotions). Environmental factors consisted of the two subcategories of environmental stimuli (cooperation, order and discipline) and environmental inhibitors (unfavorable work environment, society's negative attitude toward nursing, the violation of rights). Given the impact of personal and environmental factors on the development and manifestation of professional values in nursing students, it is upon the education authorities to take account of them in their planning, and nursing managers are also recommended to further address these factors in their development of a proper work environment, provision of standard facilities and removal of barriers. © The Author

  7. Improving Students' Conceptual Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect Using Theory-Based Learning Materials that Promote Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinfried, Sibylle; Aeschbacher, Urs; Rottermann, Benno

    2012-01-01

    Students' everyday ideas of the greenhouse effect are difficult to change. Environmental education faces the challenge of developing instructional settings that foster students' conceptual understanding concept of the greenhouse effect in order to understand global warming. To facilitate students' conceptual development with regard to the…

  8. Understanding Female Students' Physics Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    While the gender gap in physics participation is a known problem, practical strategies that may improve the situation are not well understood. As physics education researchers, we draw on evidence to help inform us of what may or may not be working. To this end, physics identity has proven to be a useful framework for understanding and predicting participation in physics. Drawing on data from national surveys of college students, case studies in physics classes, and surveys of undergraduate women in physics, we identify strategies that are predictive of female students' physics identity development from their high school and undergraduate physics experiences. These findings will be discussed as well as future directions for using this research to increase the recruitment of women to physics-related careers. NSF Grant # 1431846.

  9. Situational Analysis of Physical Therapist Clinical Instructors' Facilitation of Students' Emerging Embodiment of Movement in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, Kyle; Barcinas, Susan J

    2017-02-15

    Physical therapists improve the functional ability of patients after injury and disease. A unique component of their practice is the ability to use the movement of their own bodies to affect change in their patients. This has been recognized as a distinctive attribute of expert physical therapists. The purpose of this qualitative situational analysis study was to examine how physical therapist clinical instructors perceive and facilitate their students' emerging integration of movement in practice. Data collection and analysis was guided by Dall'Alba's theoretical framework for understanding professional ways of being. Data were analyzed using coding and mapping strategies consistent with Clarke's situational analysis techniques. The study included five physical therapist clinical instructors and their respective five physical therapist students. Data were collected during beginning, midterm, and final weeks of the students' clinical internships using participant interviews, observation, and document analysis. Coded data were summarized using situational analysis mapping strategies, resulting in 11 maps. These maps were further analyzed and reduced to five thematic behaviors the clinical instructor enacts as he or she helps facilitate the use of the students' movement in practice: These behaviors are: adapt, prepare, enhance, connect, and develop. The five behaviors are useful when considered as a trajectory of development. This study marks the first description of how physical therapist clinical instructors develop students' use of movement in practice and how to enact behaviors important in students' continued professional development. Findings are important as clinical instructors and academic programs consider how best to prepare students to use movement and develop their skills early in practice.

  10. How student teachers understand African philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsephe M. Letseka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The question ‘What constitutes African philosophy?’ was first raised with the publication of Placide Tempels’s seminal work Bantu philosophy in 1959. Tempels’s book inevitably elicited considerable critical response from African philosophers, which culminated in a wide range of publications such as Wiredu’s (1980 Philosophy and an African culture, Hountondji’s (1983 African philosophy: Myth and reality, Oruka’s (1990 Sage philosophy: Indigenous thinkers and modern debate on African philosophy, Shutte’s (1993 Philosophy for Africa, Masolo’s (1994 African philosophy in search of identity and Gyekye’s (1995 An essay of African philosophical thought: The Akan conceptual scheme. It has been over 60 years since the publication of Temples’s book and there continues to be serious debate about African philosophy. This article sought to contribute to the debate on the various conceptions of African philosophy, but with a focus on the challenges of teaching African philosophy to Philosophy of Education students at an open distance learning institution in South Africa. This article discussed the tendency amongst undergraduate Philosophy of Education students to conflate and reduce African philosophy to African cultures and traditions, and to the notion of ubuntu, and sought to understand the reasons for students’ inclination to treat African philosophy in this way. It examined students’ background knowledge of African philosophy, their critical thinking skills and whether their official study materials are selected and packaged in a manner that, in fact, adds to the challenges they face. Finally, the article explored the ways in which Philosophy of Education lecturers can adapt their pedagogy to provide students with a better understanding of African philosophy.

  11. Academic status of deaf and hard-of-hearing students in public schools: student, home, and service facilitators and detractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Susanne; Antia, Shirin D; Kreimeyer, Kathryn H

    2008-01-01

    We examined facilitators and detractors of academic success of 25 deaf or hard-of-hearing (DHH) students selected from a pool of 187 students attending general education classes and enrolled in a study of academic progress. Interviews with their teachers of DHH, general education teachers, principals, parents, interpreters, and students themselves were analyzed for child, family, and school facilitators and detractors of academic status. Facilitators included student self-advocacy and motivation, high family and school expectations, families' ability to help with homework, and good communication between professionals. Detractors included additional disabilities and poor family-school communication. A comparison of above- and below-average students revealed no single distinguishing facilitator or detractor. Each above-average student had many facilitators, whereas each below-average student had several significant detractors.

  12. An Active Learning Exercise to Facilitate Understanding of Nephron Function: Anatomy and Physiology of Renal Transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J.

    2016-01-01

    Renal transport is a central mechanism underlying electrolyte homeostasis, acid base balance and other essential functions of the kidneys in human physiology. Thus, knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the nephron is essential for the understanding of kidney function in health and disease. However, students find this content difficult to…

  13. Model Building to Facilitate Understanding of Holliday Junction and Heteroduplex Formation, and Holliday Junction Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajah, Geeta; Selvarajah, Susila

    2016-01-01

    Students frequently expressed difficulty in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in chromosomal recombination. Therefore, we explored alternative methods for presenting the two concepts of the double-strand break model: Holliday junction and heteroduplex formation, and Holliday junction resolution. In addition to a lecture and…

  14. An Active Learning Exercise to Facilitate Understanding of Nephron Function: Anatomy and Physiology of Renal Transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J.

    2016-01-01

    Renal transport is a central mechanism underlying electrolyte homeostasis, acid base balance and other essential functions of the kidneys in human physiology. Thus, knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the nephron is essential for the understanding of kidney function in health and disease. However, students find this content difficult to…

  15. Facilitating evaluations of innovative, competence-based assessments: creating understanding and involving multiple stakeholders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulikers, J.T.M.; Baartman, L.; Biemans, H.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Schools are held more responsible for evaluating, quality assuring and improving their student assessments. Teachers’ lack of understanding of new, competence-based assessments as well as the lack of key stakeholders’ involvement, hamper effective and efficient self-evaluations by teachers of innova

  16. Understanding the facilitators and barriers of antiretroviral adherence in Peru: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabello Robinson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antiretroviral scale-up is increasing in resource-constrained settings. To date, few studies have explored the barriers and facilitators of adherence to ART in these settings. Facilitators and barriers of antiretroviral adherence in Peru are not completely understood. Methods At two clinics that serve a large number of HIV-positive individuals in Lima, Peru, 31 in-depth interviews were carried out in 2006 with adult HIV-positive individuals receiving ART. Purposive sampling was used to recruit the participants. Interviews were transcribed and coded using two Spanish-speaking researchers and a content analysis approach to identify themes in the data. Results Among the participants, 28/31 (90% were male, 25/31 (81% were self-identified as mestizo, and 19/31 (61% had an education above high school. The most frequently discussed barriers to adherence included side effects, simply forgetting, inconvenience, dietary requirements, being away from home, and fear of disclosure/stigma. The most frequently discussed facilitators to adherence included having a fixed routine, understanding the need for compliance, seeing positive results, treatment knowledge, and faith in treatment. Conclusions Overall, these findings were similar to the facilitators and challenges experienced by individuals on ART in other resource constrained settings. Further treatment support tools and networks should be developed to decrease the challenges of ART adherence for HIV-positive individuals in Lima, Peru.

  17. Emiratii High School Students' Understandings of Stoichiometry and the Influence of Metacognition on Their Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, Abdullateef H.; Al Naqabi, Ali K.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate Emiratii high school students' understandings of stoichiometry, their use of metacognitive strategies, and the influence of students' use of metacognitive strategies on their understandings of stoichiometry. Two instruments were used in this study, the first to measure students' understandings of…

  18. Emiratii High School Students' Understandings of Stoichiometry and the Influence of Metacognition on Their Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, Abdullateef H.; Al Naqabi, Ali K.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate Emiratii high school students' understandings of stoichiometry, their use of metacognitive strategies, and the influence of students' use of metacognitive strategies on their understandings of stoichiometry. Two instruments were used in this study, the first to measure students' understandings of…

  19. Your word is my command: Oxytocin facilitates the understanding of appeal in verbal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfundmair, Michaela; Lamprecht, Franziska; von Wedemeyer, Florentine M; Frey, Dieter

    2016-11-01

    The hormone oxytocin is known to facilitate positive communication behaviors. In the current study, we aimed to examine how it affects the interpretation of verbal information during communication. We predicted oxytocin to promote the understanding of the socially most effortful dimension of appeal. After intranasal administration of oxytocin or a placebo, participants responded to a "four-ear communication" questionnaire. Results revealed that participants under oxytocin not only chose the dimension of appeal as first choice significantly more often than participants under placebo but also preferred it over most of the other dimensions of interpretation. The findings add to our knowledge of oxytocin as a facilitator of social approach and indicate how oxytocin might work in communicative settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Co-created Facilitation and Perspective Plurality to Foster Mutual Understandings of Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Robb

    2014-01-01

    for absent others, 4) a table top tool kits for discussing business relationship issues and 5) a number of bespoke interactive sculpture-like artifacts for provoking insights concerning business dilemmas. Analysis of the cases reveals an underlying theme of breakdowns or ruptures as central to facilitating......This paper identifies a key mechanism and its constituent qualities, for facilitating mutual understandings of risk. The focus of participatory workshops has expanded towards addressing broader questions of strategy, business models and other organizational and inter-organisational issues...... drawing together the following experimentation with industrialists in innovation workshops and interactive interventions in artistic cultural venues: 1) a large revolving door sculpture – Blender. 2) a series of interventions utilising audiovisual transmissions to enable one person to act as a proxy...

  1. Evaluating the Factors that Facilitate a Deep Understanding of Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Burmeister

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available Ideally the product of tertiary informatic study is more than a qualification, it is a rewarding experience of learning in a discipline area. It should build a desire for a deeper understanding and lead to fruitful research both personally and for the benefit of the wider community. This paper asks: 'What are the factors that lead to this type of quality (deep learning in data analysis?' In the study reported in this paper, students whose general approach to learning was achieving or surface oriented adopted a deep approach when the context encouraged it. An overseas study found a decline in deep learning at this stage of a tertiary program; the contention of this paper is that the opposite of this expected outcome was achieved due to the enhanced learning environment. Though only 15.1% of students involved in this study were deep learners, the data analysis instructional context resulted in 38.8% of students achieving deep learning outcomes. Other factors discovered that contributed to deep learning outcomes were an increase in the intrinsic motivation of students to study the domain area; their prior knowledge of informatics; assessment that sought an integrated, developed yet comprehensive understanding of analytical concepts and processes; and, their learning preferences. The preferences of deep learning students are analyzed in comparison to another such study of professionals in informatics, examining commonalties and differences between this and the wider professional study.

  2. The Promise of Social Perspective Taking to Facilitate Teacher-Student Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlbach, Hunter; Brinkworth, Maureen E.; Harris, Anna D.

    2011-01-01

    Quality teacher-student relationships are linked with numerous valued student outcomes. Yet, questions remain about how to best facilitate these relationships. Social perspective taking--the process of discerning others' thoughts, feelings, and motivations--is critical to relationships; yet, its promise as a facilitator of teacher-student…

  3. Student Solutions Manual to accompany Understanding Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Karen; Laws, Priscilla W.; Redish, Edward F.; Cooney, Patrick J.; Christman, J. Richard

    2004-05-01

    Work more effectively and check solutions as you go along with the text! This Student Solutions Manual is designed for use with Cummings' Understanding Physics. Its primary purpose is to show readers by example how to solve various types of problems given at the end of each chapter in the text. Most of the solutions start from definitions or fundamental relationships and the final equation is derived. This technique highlights the fundamentals and at the same time gives readers the opportunity to review the mathematical steps required to obtain a solution. The mere plugging of numbers into equations derived in the text is avoided for the most part. Readers will learn to examine any assumptions that are made in setting up and solving each problem. Using an interactive strategy, Understanding Physics provides a hands-on introduction to the fundamentals of physics. Built on the foundations of Halliday, Resnick, and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics, 6th Edition, this text represents the latest methods in physics instruction. Incorporating new approaches based on Physics Education Research (PER), this text is designed for courses that use computer-based laboratory tools, and promote Activity Based Physics in lectures, labs, and recitations.

  4. Understanding transport by the major facilitator superfamily (MFS): structures pave the way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quistgaard, Esben M; Löw, Christian; Guettou, Fatma; Nordlund, Pär

    2016-02-01

    Members of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of transport proteins are essential for the movement of a wide range of substrates across biomembranes. As this transport requires a series of conformational changes, structures of MFS transporters captured in different conformational states are needed to decipher the transport mechanism. Recently, a large number of MFS transporter structures have been determined, which has provided us with an unprecedented opportunity to understand general aspects of the transport mechanism. We propose an updated model for the conformational cycle of MFS transporters, the 'clamp-and-switch model', and discuss the role of so-called 'gating residues' and the substrate in modulating these conformational changes.

  5. Using Podcasting to Facilitate Student Learning: A Constructivist Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng'ambi, Dick; Lombe, Annette

    2012-01-01

    The paper employs two case studies to develop an approach for using podcasts to enhance student learning. The case studies involve two cohorts of postgraduate students enrolled on a blended course, over two years. In both cases, the institutional learning management system was used as a server to host the podcasts, giving students discretion on…

  6. Clinical expectations: what facilitators expect from ESL students on clinical placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, Caroline; Rogan, Fran

    2012-03-01

    Many nursing students for whom English is a second language (ESL) face challenges related to communication on clinical placement and although clinical facilitators are not usually trained language assessors, they are often in a position of needing to assess ESL students' clinical language performance. Little is known, however, about the particular areas of clinical performance facilitators focus on when they are assessing ESL students. This paper discusses the results of a study of facilitators' written assessment comments about the clinical performance of a small group of ESL nursing students over a two and a half year period. These comments were documented on students' clinical assessment forms at the end of each placement. The results provide a more detailed insight into facilitators' expectations of students' language performance and the particular challenges faced by ESL students and indicate that facilitators have clear expectations of ESL students regarding communication, learning styles and professional demeanour. These findings may help both ESL students and their facilitators better prepare for clinical placement.

  7. Metacognition and the facilitation of conceptual and status change in students' concepts of ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Lisa M.

    Over a decade ago the Conceptual Change Model (CCM) was introduced as an explanation of the science learning process. Central to this model is the assertion that knowledge is constructed when students restructure or replace existing conceptions. The model predicts that conceptual change will not occur without corresponding changes in the status of new and existing conceptions. While the CCM is extensively cited in the literature, little work has been done on clarifying whether a teaching strategy which requires students to reveal and reflect upon the status of their conceptions significantly impacts the nature and process of science learning. In response, this study explored the relationship between metacognitive teaching strategies, status, and conceptual change during a three month unit on ecology. Working collaboratively, the researcher and a seventh grade classroom teacher developed an ecology unit designed to facilitate conceptual change and reveal status-related interactions. Case studies of two classrooms were developed. Both classrooms received instruction based on the conceptual change model, but only one classroom's instructional format included a metacognitive element in which the student was encouraged to reveal and reflect upon the status of his or her conceptions--how they know what they know. Three significant findings were revealed in the results. One, the quality of classroom discourse in the metacognitive class was altered. By developing in students the ability to explicitly consider and talk about the condition of their own conceptions, students began to understand the value of critically investigating ideas before incorporating them into their knowledge structures. Two, while there was no statistically significant difference observed in the level of conceptual understanding across treatment groups, there was a significant difference observed on the scores of the delayed ecology post-assessment. While the students in the metacognitive class did

  8. Generalizing Levels of Students' Understandings about Conductivity: A SOLO Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhan, Greg

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a developmental sequence for students' understandings about conductivity. From written responses, a number of levels of understanding were identified and holistic descriptions of the increasingly complex way students explain conductivity are presented. Identifying distinct differences in student work samples is consistent…

  9. Students' Understandings of Human Organs and Organ Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Michael J.; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2001-01-01

    Discusses students' understandings of their own internal structure. Analysis shows the extent to which student understanding increases with age and the degree to which students know more about some organs and organ systems than others. Gender differences in the drawings were generally not large and there were some intriguing differences in the…

  10. The Language of Information Literacy: Do Students Understand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Gayle; Cadena, Cara; Bravender, Patricia; Kierkus, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    To effectively access and use the resources of the academic library and to become information-literate, students must understand the language of information literacy. This study analyzes undergraduate students' understanding of fourteen commonly used information-literacy terms. It was found that some of the terms least understood by students are…

  11. Using Extra Credit to Facilitate Extra Learning in Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muztaba Fuad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Giving students extra credit work is a hotly debated pedagogical issue. This paper shares experience of using extra credit quizzes to push students to think critically and beyond the boundaries. This particular type of quizzes are not announced before and presented to students as a surprise quiz. A certain percentage of the grade earned in these quizzes was included in student’s final grade calculations. With a well-developed model of questions, quiz structure and grade calculation, the presented model of extra credit eliminates negativity related to extra credit work and also motivates students into course work. Our findings showed that by relieving students from the mental pressure of test taking and by making those tests/quizzes as extra credit; students actually performs better in solving harder problems and eventually learns more of the advanced course topics.

  12. Do learning portfolios facilitate lifelong learning in students?

    OpenAIRE

    Nylund, Kamilla

    2015-01-01

    Background: The context of academic learning is changing, providing challenges to support student learning and to strengthen regulatory skills. Previous research on portfolios indicates promising findings for student learning. However, due to the rapid development in this field, with no systematic reviews performed since 2009, this review was considered important. The review is a starting point for a scholarly work aiming to improve student learning in a master’s program. The aim of this stud...

  13. Peeling the Onion: Student Teacher's Conceptions of Literary Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Maj Asplund; Fulop, Marta; Marton, Ference

    2001-01-01

    Studied the theories student teachers held about literary understanding through interviews with 25 Hungarian and 8 Swedish student teachers. Categories of theories captured a substantial portion of the variation in how literary understanding can be seen. Three central aspects of human understanding, variation, discernment, and simultaneity, could…

  14. The Effectiveness of Adopting E-Readers to Facilitate EFL Students' Process-Based Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hui-Chun; Young, Shelley Shwu-Ching

    2015-01-01

    English as Foreign Language (EFL) students face additional difficulties for academic writing largely due to their level of language competency. An appropriate structural process of writing can help students develop their academic writing skills. This study explored the use of the e-readers to facilitate EFL students' process-based academic…

  15. The Effectiveness of Adopting E-Readers to Facilitate EFL Students' Process-Based Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hui-Chun; Young, Shelley Shwu-Ching

    2015-01-01

    English as Foreign Language (EFL) students face additional difficulties for academic writing largely due to their level of language competency. An appropriate structural process of writing can help students develop their academic writing skills. This study explored the use of the e-readers to facilitate EFL students' process-based academic…

  16. Classroom Response Systems Facilitate Student Accountability, Readiness, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sara J.; Crandall, Jason; Vogler, Jane S.; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    In three experiments using crossover designs, we investigated the effects of Classroom Response Systems (CRS) when presenting multiple-choice questions in real classrooms. In Experiment 1, students either used CRS for bonus points or simply saw the questions. There were no differences on a unit exam. In Experiment 2, students were told prior to a…

  17. U-Pace: Facilitating Academic Success for All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Diane M.; Fleming, Raymond; Pedrick, Laura E.; Ports, Katie A.; Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica L.; Helion, Alicia M.; Swain, Rodney A.

    2011-01-01

    Because the transition to a knowledge-based economy requires an educated workforce, colleges and universities have made retention of students--particularly those who are academically underprepared--an institutional priority. College completion leads to economic and social advancement for students and is also critical to the nation's economic and…

  18. Facilitating Students' Career Development in Psychology Courses: A Portfolio Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Judith E.; Pines, Harvey A.; Bechtel, Kate M.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the use of a career exploration portfolio in an Industrial/Organizational psychology course (n = 22) to address students' career needs and to develop academic competencies. Students independently completed a series of assignments outside of class, which led to the construction of a personalized career development portfolio. Evaluations…

  19. Facebook: Facilitating Social Access and Language Acquisition for International Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kent; Ranta, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Many international students come to Canada to improve their English language proficiency and develop friendships with Canadians and other international students. However, gaining access to host nationals (i.e., Canadians) is not an easy task for most English as a second language (ESL) learners. Factors such as language proficiency may hamper…

  20. Facilitating Student Engagement: Social Responsibility and Freshmen Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Lindsey N.; MacCartney, Danielle; Miller, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Human rights education is advanced as a method for promoting social responsibility, with an emphasis on promoting ideals of "global citizenship" among undergraduate students. At the same time, the practice of learning communities is widespread on college campuses for retaining freshmen and promoting student success. However, there is…

  1. Understanding Student Computational Thinking with Computational Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Aiken, John M; Douglas, Scott S; Burk, John B; Scanlon, Erin M; Thoms, Brian D; Schatz, Michael F

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the National Research Council's framework for next generation science standards highlighted "computational thinking" as one of its "fundamental practices". Students taking a physics course that employed the Arizona State University's Modeling Instruction curriculum were taught to construct computational models of physical systems. Student computational thinking was assessed using a proctored programming assignment, written essay, and a series of think-aloud interviews, where the students produced and discussed a computational model of a baseball in motion via a high-level programming environment (VPython). Roughly a third of the students in the study were successful in completing the programming assignment. Student success on this assessment was tied to how students synthesized their knowledge of physics and computation. On the essay and interview assessments, students displayed unique views of the relationship between force and motion; those who spoke of this relationship in causal (rather than obs...

  2. Facilitation: A Novel Way to Improve Students' Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine Olesen; Madsen, Lene Møller

    2013-01-01

    In this article we analyze a project that used facilitation techniques, which are known from training in industry, to improve the study environment at a public research university in Denmark. In 2009, the project was initiated in one graduate program; and it has subsequently been modified and ins...

  3. Facilitation: a novel way to improve students' well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller

    2013-01-01

    In this article we analyze a project that used facilitation techniques, which are known from training in industry, to improve the study environment at a public research university in Denmark. In 2009, the project was initiated in one graduate program; and it has subsequently been modified and ins...

  4. Facilitating high quality student practice in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Molly

    2001-07-01

    "Practice makes perfect, but only if you do it right." Typical physics students practice extensively through the large quantities of homework they do. But research in introductory physics instruction shows that despite this practice, students often do not learn much in introductory physics. Students often do not focus their practice on the skills (such as concept interpretation, and generating a physical representation of a problem) that they need in order to solve physics problems flexibly and reliably. They often focus their practice instead on simply getting an answer. By omitting practice of important skills, it is likely that those skills will not be learned. This paper identifies communication difficulties between students and between students and instructors as important sources of barriers to achieving high-quality student practice. Some strategies to address communication difficulties in the context of small group in-class problem solving are proposed. A classroom peer-collaborative structure, Supervised Practice, that implements these strategies is described, and the impact of the classroom design on the quality of student practice is investigated.

  5. What can we learn from facilitator and student perceptions of facilitation skills and roles in the first year of a problem-based learning curriculum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLean Michelle

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The small group tutorial is a cornerstone of problem-based learning. By implication, the role of the facilitator is of pivotal importance. The present investigation canvassed perceptions of facilitators with differing levels of experience regarding their roles and duties in the tutorial. Methods In January 2002, one year after problem-based learning implementation at the Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, facilitators with the following experience were canvassed: trained and about to facilitate, facilitated once only and facilitated more than one six-week theme. Student comments regarding facilitator skills were obtained from a 2001 course survey. Results While facilitators generally agreed that the three-day training workshop provided sufficient insight into the facilitation process, they become more comfortable with increasing experience. Many facilitators experienced difficulty not providing content expertise. Again, this improved with increasing experience. Most facilitators saw students as colleagues. They agreed that they should be role models, but were less enthusiastic about being mentors. Students were critical of facilitators who were not up to date with curriculum implementation or who appeared disinterested. While facilitator responses suggest that there was considerable intrinsic motivation, this might in fact not be the case. Conclusions Even if they had facilitated on all six themes, facilitators could still be considered as novices. Faculty support is therefore critical for the first few years of problem-based learning, particularly for those who had facilitated once only. Since student and facilitator expectations in the small group tutorial may differ, roles and duties of facilitators must be explicit for both parties from the outset.

  6. Assessing and Improving Student Organizations: Resources for Facilitators CD-ROM. The Assessing and Improving Student Organization (AISO) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolfi, Tricia; Ruben, Brent D.

    2010-01-01

    This companion to the "Guide for Students" and "Student Workbook" includes the complete set of PowerPoint slides, a PDF of the Facilitator's Guide in PPT (PowerPoint) slide show format, and PDFs of all scoring sheets, handouts and project planning guides needed for the AISO (Assessing and Improving Student Organization) process. The Assessing and…

  7. Mathematics education graduate students' understanding of trigonometric ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiǧit Koyunkaya, Melike

    2016-10-01

    This study describes mathematics education graduate students' understanding of relationships between sine and cosine of two base angles in a right triangle. To explore students' understanding of these relationships, an elaboration of Skemp's views of instrumental and relational understanding using Tall and Vinner's concept image and concept definition was developed. Nine students volunteered to complete three paper and pencil tasks designed to elicit evidence of understanding and three students among these nine students volunteered for semi-structured interviews. As a result of fine-grained analysis of the students' responses to the tasks, the evidence of concept image and concept definition as well as instrumental and relational understanding of trigonometric ratios was found. The unit circle and a right triangle were identified as students' concept images, and the mnemonic was determined as their concept definition for trigonometry, specifically for trigonometric ratios. It is also suggested that students had instrumental understanding of trigonometric ratios while they were less flexible to act on trigonometric ratio tasks and had limited relational understanding. Additionally, the results indicate that graduate students' understanding of the concept of angle mediated their understanding of trigonometry, specifically trigonometric ratios.

  8. Nursing students' perceptions of the qualities of a clinical facilitator that enhance learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Linda; Broadbent, Julie

    2017-01-01

    There is a wealth of research investigating the role of the clinical facilitator and the student experience of clinical education. However, there is a paucity of recent research reviewing the students' perspectives of facilitators' qualities that influence their learning. This paper explores undergraduate nursing students' perceptions of the qualities of a clinical facilitator that enhanced their learning. The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. A total of 452 third year nursing students at one Australian University were invited to participate. A total of 43 students completed the survey and were analysed; thus, the response rate was 9.7%. Results of the study indicate that nursing students perceive availability, approachability and feedback from the clinical facilitator to be highly influential to their learning in the clinical setting. The relational interdependence of these is discussed. Clinical facilitators have an important role in student learning. The findings of this study can be used in the development of clinical facilitator models, guidelines and in continuing education.

  9. Why Volunteer? Understanding Motivations for Student Volunteering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Clare

    2010-01-01

    The profile of volunteering in English Higher Education (HE) has been enhanced in recent years through various initiatives that have not only funded activities, but have sought to expand the range of volunteering opportunities available to students and recognise the contribution that volunteering can make to students' employability. This expansion…

  10. University Student Conceptual Resources for Understanding Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Hannah C.; Goodhew, Lisa M.; Robertson, Amy D.

    2016-01-01

    We report some of the common, prevalent conceptual resources that students used to reason about energy, based on our analysis of written responses to questions given to 807 introductory physics students. These resources include, for example, associating forms of energy with indicators, relating forces and energy, and representing energy…

  11. Students' Understanding of the Definite Integral Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serhan, Derar

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated students' procedural and conceptual knowledge of the definite integral. Twenty-five students enrolled in one section of an undergraduate Calculus II class participated in this study. Data were collected from a test that was conducted during the fourth week of the semester. The test aimed at collecting information about the…

  12. Understanding Management Students' Reflective Practice through Blogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Gihan; Koh, Joyce Hwee Ling

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses the results of a study on the use of blogging to encourage students to engage in the making of theory-practice linkages and critical thinking within the context of a graduate management course. Sixty-five students participated in collaborative blogging for a period of five weeks. The transcripts of these blogs were analyzed…

  13. Learning in friendship groups: developing students' conceptual understanding through social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Carl; Howard, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The role that student friendship groups play in learning was investigated here. Employing a critical realist design, two focus groups on undergraduates were conducted to explore their experience of studying. Data from the "case-by-case" analysis suggested student-to-student friendships produced social contexts which facilitated conceptual understanding through discussion, explanation, and application to "real life" contemporary issues. However, the students did not conceive this as a learning experience or suggest the function of their friendships involved learning. These data therefore challenge the perspective that student groups in higher education are formed and regulated for the primary function of learning. Given these findings, further research is needed to assess the role student friendships play in developing disciplinary conceptual understanding.

  14. Student Wonderings: Scaffolding Student Understanding within Student-Centred Inquiry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on scaffolding that is situated within a research project that examined the ways mathematical thinking emerged from student-centred inquiry. The project utilised qualitative methods to investigate a case study of a year-10 class (14-15-year-olds), at a new purpose-built secondary school designed to facilitate inquiry learning.…

  15. Understanding your student: Using the VARK model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I J Prithishkumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Students have different preferences in the assimilation and processing of information. The VARK learning style model introduced by Fleming includes a questionnaire that identifies a person′s sensory modality preference in learning. This model classifies students into four different learning modes; visual (V, aural (A, read/write (R, and kinesthetic (K. Materials and Methods: The 16-point multiple choice VARK questionnaire version 7.1 was distributed to first year undergraduate medical students after obtaining permission for use.Results: Seventy-nine students (86.8% were multimodal in their learning preference, and 12 students (13.8% were unimodal. The highest unimodal preference was K-7.7%. Surprisingly, there were no visual unimodal learners. The commonest learning preference was the bimodal category, of which the highest percentage was seen in the AK (33% and AR (16.5% category. The most common trimodal preference was ARK (8.9%. The total individual scores in each category were V-371, A-588, R/W-432, and K-581; auditory and kinesthetic being the highest preference. Visual mode had the lowest overall score. There was no significant difference in preference between the sexes. Conclusion: Students possess a wide diversity in learning preferences. This necessitates teachers to effectively deliver according to the needs of the student. Multiple modalities of information presentation are necessary to keep the attention and motivation of our students requiring a shift from the traditional large-group teacher-centric lecture method to an interactive, student-centric multimodal approach.

  16. Prop Demonstrations in Biology Lectures Facilitate Student Learning and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Tamari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Science students can benefit from visual aids. In biology lectures, visual aids are usually limited to tables, figures, and PowerPoint presentations. In this IRB-approved study, we examined the effectiveness of the use of five prop demonstrations, three of which are at the intersection of biology and chemistry, in three community college biology courses. We hypothesized that students’ performance on test questions is enhanced by the use of prop demonstrations. Consistent with our hypothesis, we showed that students learn more effectively and perform better on questions that relate to demonstrations than on questions related to lessons that do not have a demonstration component.

  17. Characterizing Students' Understandings of Mathematical Proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Eric J.; Elliott, Rebekah L.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the characteristics of students' responses in terms of mathematical sophistication demonstrated that might be expected as they engage in a rich mathematical task that requires them to justify their solutions. (ASK)

  18. Protecting Student Records and Facilitating Education Research: A Workshop Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    Designed to protect the privacy of individual student test scores, grades, and other education records, the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) of 1974 places limits the access of educational researches, and slows research not only in education but also in related fields, such as child welfare and health. Recent trends have converged…

  19. Facilitating Improved Writing among Students through Directed Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Joanne M.; Kite, Stacey L.

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes to scant empirical investigation of peer critique of writing among heterogeneously grouped native and nonnative speakers of English, now commonplace in higher education. This mixed-methods study investigated the use of directed peer review to improve writing among graduate students, the majority of whom were nonnative…

  20. SUCCESS@Seneca: Facilitating Student and Staff Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Steve; Decandia, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    SUCCESS@Seneca has teamed up with the General Arts and Science programs at Seneca's Newnham campus. The design of an integrated service delivery model addresses numerous student success and retention related activities by providing the essential connection between academics and college resources. The program focuses on the promotion and support of…

  1. Training Programs That Facilitate Lasting Change in Student Academic Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Brad

    2014-01-01

    A range of evidence suggests that changing a person's pattern of behaviour is extremely difficult, with past behaviour being one of the strongest predictors of future behaviour. This is particularly evident in the university setting where students tend to use the same academic processes they have used throughout their schooling despite any…

  2. Facilitating Students' Attitude in the Concept of Heat Energy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    help of a resource person. They are real ... Students learn better and faster when they are taught with adequate visual aids ... poor academic performance in Physics examination. Hence ... Physics Attitude Scale (PAS) was the instrument used for data ... psychologists and two Physics experts ascertained the validity of PAS.

  3. Facilitating Student Learning through Contextualization. CCRC Brief. Number 53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Skills in reading, writing, and mathematics are key to academic learning but are conventionally taught separately from the discipline areas to which they must be applied. For example, students may be taught writing skills in the morning in an English course and then be expected to apply them to writing an essay in a history class in the afternoon.…

  4. Answering the Call: Facilitating Responsive Services for Students Experiencing Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothaus, Tim; Lorelle, Sonya; Anderson, Kie; Knight, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    After a review of the literature elucidating the status quo for students experiencing homelessness, this article shares the results of a mixed methods study. With a phenomenological qualitative emphasis, the mixed methods study explored the perceptions of parents and children experiencing homelessness regarding their academic needs and the…

  5. Student Teachers' Levels of Understanding and Model of Understanding about Newton's Laws of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam-Arslan, Aysegul; Devecioglu, Yasemin

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the level of student teachers' understandings of Newton's laws of motion and relating these levels to identify student teachers' models of understanding. An achievement test composed of two parts comprising 12 open ended questions was constructed and given to 45 pre-service classroom teachers. The first part…

  6. Improving Students' Understanding of Electricity and Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Electricity and magnetism are important topics in physics. Research shows that students have many common difficulties in understanding concepts related to electricity and magnetism. However, research to improve students' understanding of electricity and magnetism is limited compared to introductory mechanics. This thesis explores issues…

  7. The Conceptual Understanding of Sound by Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Tiffany A.; Hilson, Margilee P.; Hobson, Sally M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the study presented here was to understand and describe the misconceptions of students with visual impairments about sound and instructional techniques that may help them to develop a scientific understanding. Methods: Semistructured interview-centered pre-and posttests were used to identify the students' conceptual…

  8. Improving Students' Understanding of Electricity and Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Electricity and magnetism are important topics in physics. Research shows that students have many common difficulties in understanding concepts related to electricity and magnetism. However, research to improve students' understanding of electricity and magnetism is limited compared to introductory mechanics. This thesis explores issues…

  9. Introductory College Chemistry Students' Understanding of Stoichiometry: Connections between Conceptual and Computational Understandings and Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfer, Adam J.; Lederman, Norman G.

    Many studies of college chemistry students have found a gap between students' success in solving computational chemistry problems and their success in solving conceptual chemistry problems. This paper examines college students' understanding of the concept of stoichiometry, the particulate nature of matter, and chemistry problem solving. This…

  10. Standing in the Hallway Improves Students' Understanding of Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Timothy J.; Haubner, Richard R.; Bodle, James H.

    2013-01-01

    To help beginning psychology students understand how they are influenced by social pressures to conform, we developed a demonstration designed to elicit their conformity to a small group of students standing in the hallway before class. Results showed the demonstration increased students' recognition of their own tendency to conform, knowledge of…

  11. Standing in the Hallway Improves Students' Understanding of Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Timothy J.; Haubner, Richard R.; Bodle, James H.

    2013-01-01

    To help beginning psychology students understand how they are influenced by social pressures to conform, we developed a demonstration designed to elicit their conformity to a small group of students standing in the hallway before class. Results showed the demonstration increased students' recognition of their own tendency to conform, knowledge of…

  12. High School Students' Representations and Understandings of Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ying; Brizuela, Bárbara M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the representations and understandings of electric fields expressed by Chinese high school students 15 to 16 years old who have not received high school level physics instruction. The physics education research literature has reported students' conceptions of electric fields post-instruction as indicated by students'…

  13. Science Sampler: Enhancing Student Understanding of Physical and Chemical Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Julie; White, Sandra; Suter, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Students within the Findlay, Ohio, City School District, as well as students across the country, struggle with understanding physical and chemical changes. Therefore, in this article, the authors suggest some standards-based activities to clarify misconceptions and provide formative assessments to measure your students' progress as they determine…

  14. First-Year University Students' Understanding of Rate of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuidenhout, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Explores first-year students' understanding of fundamental calculus concepts using written tests and interviews. Analysis of the written and verbal responses to the test items revealed significant misconceptions on which students' mathematical activities were based. Describes some of those misconceptions and errors relating to students'…

  15. Playing "Sherlock Holmes": Enhancing Students' Understanding of Prejudice and Stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junn, Ellen N.; Grier, Leslie K.; Behrens, Debra P.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an experiential classroom exercise that was designed to help students understand stereotyping and prejudice. The instructor read behavioral and psychological descriptions, asked students to imagine they were Sherlock Holmes, and identify classmates to whom the descriptions might apply. States that students of color reported more benefits…

  16. Playing "Sherlock Holmes": Enhancing Students' Understanding of Prejudice and Stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junn, Ellen N.; Grier, Leslie K.; Behrens, Debra P.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an experiential classroom exercise that was designed to help students understand stereotyping and prejudice. The instructor read behavioral and psychological descriptions, asked students to imagine they were Sherlock Holmes, and identify classmates to whom the descriptions might apply. States that students of color reported more benefits…

  17. Understanding adolescent student perceptions of science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Ellen Kress

    This study used the Relevance of Science Education (ROSE) survey (Sjoberg & Schreiner, 2004) to examine topics of interest and perspectives of secondary science students in a large school district in the southwestern U.S. A situated learning perspective was used to frame the project. The research questions of this study focused on (a) perceptions students have about themselves and their science classroom and how these beliefs may influence their participation in the community of practice of science; (b) consideration of how a future science classroom where the curriculum is framed by the Next Generation Science Standards might foster students' beliefs and perceptions about science education and their legitimate peripheral participation in the community of practice of science; and (c) reflecting on their school science interests and perspectives, what can be inferred about students' identities as future scientists or STEM field professionals? Data were collected from 515 second year science students during a 4-week period in May of 2012 using a Web-based survey. Data were disaggregated by gender and ethnicity and analyzed descriptively and by statistical comparison between groups. Findings for Research Question 1 indicated that boys and girls showed statistically significant differences in scientific topics of interest. There were no statistical differences between ethnic groups although. For Research Question 2, it was determined that participants reported an increase in their interest when they deemed the context of the content to be personally relevant. Results for Research Question 3 showed that participants do not see themselves as youthful scientists or as becoming scientists. While participants value the importance of science in their lives and think all students should take science, they do not aspire to careers in science. Based on this study, a need for potential future work has been identified in three areas: (a) exploration of the perspectives and

  18. How Well do Canadian Distance Education Students Understand Plagiarism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Ann Kier

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This project ascertains how well students taking online, distance education courses at a Canadian university recognize plagiarised material and how well they paraphrase. It also assesses the types of errors made. Slightly more than half of 420 psychology students correctly selected plagiarised phrases from four multiple choice questions. Only a minority was able to rewrite a phrase properly in their own words. A more diverse sample of university students also had difficulty recognizing plagiarised passages from multiple choice options. The poor ability of students to identify plagiarised passages may suggest poor understanding of the concept. Students may benefit from training to improve their understanding of plagiarism.

  19. Surveying Students' Understanding of Quantum Mechanics

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    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    Development of conceptual multiple-choice tests related to a particular physics topic is important for designing research-based learning tools to reduce the difficulties. We explore the difficulties that the advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with non-relativistic quantum mechanics of one particle in one spatial dimension. We developed a research-based conceptual multiple-choice survey that targets these issues to obtain information about the common difficulties and administered it to more than a hundred students from seven different institutions. The issues targeted in the survey include the set of possible wavefunctions, bound and scattering states, quantum measurement, expectation values, the role of the Hamiltonian, time-dependence of wavefunction and time-dependence of expectation value. We find that the advanced undergraduate and graduate students have many common difficulties with these concepts and that research-based tutorials and peer-instruction tools can significantly reduce these d...

  20. Perception of content and non-content expert facilitators of PBL according to students' performance levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Noor Akmal Shareela; Alias, Ekram; Arifin, Khaizurin Tajul; Damanhuri, Mohd Hanafi A; Karim, Norwahidah Abd; Aan, Goon Jo

    2015-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centred learning system that involves multidisciplinary fields focused on problem solving. Facilitators of PBL are not necessarily content experts but little is known on how this concept has affected the outcomes of PBL sessions in learning Medical Biochemistry. We aimed to evaluate the impact of having the content expert as a facilitator in conducting PBL. A total of 150 first and second year medical students from the University Kebangsaan Malaysia were interviewed with a validated set of questions to acquire their views on the roles of facilitators in PBL in learning Medical Biochemistry. Their achievement were evaluated through their essay marks derived from various PBL packages. All respondents agreed that PBL sessions associated with Medical Biochemistry are best appreciated when conducted by a content-expert facilitator. Their exam marks reflected well on their perception. PBL sessions related to Medical Biochemistry is best facilitated by Biochemistry lecturers as the content experts.

  1. Student Perceptions of Independent versus Facilitated Small Group Learning Approaches to Compressed Medical Anatomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Alexander; Leddy, John J.; Mindra, Sean; Matthew Hughes, J. D.; El-Bialy, Safaa; Ramnanan, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare student perceptions regarding two, small group learning approaches to compressed (46.5 prosection-based laboratory hours), integrated anatomy education at the University of Ottawa medical program. In the facilitated active learning (FAL) approach, tutors engage students and are expected to enable and…

  2. A Generational Approach to Understanding Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomes, Michael D.; DeBard, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This chapter establishes the conceptual framework for understanding the Millennial generation by presenting a theoretical model of generational succession that demonstrates the value of studying how the values of one generation interact with and are influenced by others.

  3. Toward Understanding Business Student Professional Development Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Gary; Blessley, Misty; Kunkle, Matthew; Schirmer, Michael; Regan, Laureen

    2017-01-01

    Professional development engagement (PDE) is defined as the level of perceived undergraduate engagement in professional development activities. An 11-item measure of PDE exhibited a good reliability. Using a complete data sample of 467 graduating business undergraduates, four variable sets (student background or precollege variables,…

  4. Assessing Students' Understanding of Fraction Multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Chepina; Guarino, Jody; Beltramini, Jennie; Cole, Shelbi; Farmer, Alicia; Gray, Kristin; Saxby, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors describe a project during which they unpacked fraction standards, created rigorous tasks and lesson plans, and developed formative and summative assessments to analyze students' thinking about fraction multiplication. The purpose of this article is to (1) illustrate a process that can be replicated by educators…

  5. Student understanding of Symmetry and Gauss' law

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    Helping students learn why Gauss' law can or cannot be easily applied to determine the strength of the electric field at various points for a particular charge distribution, and then helping them learn to determine the shape of the Gaussian surfaces if sufficient symmetry exists can develop their reasoning and problem solving skills. We investigate the difficulties that students in calculus-based introductory physics courses have with the concepts of symmetry, electric field and electric flux that are pivotal to Gauss' law of electricity. Determination of the electric field using Gauss' law requires discerning the symmetry of a particular charge distribution and being able to predict the direction of the electric field everywhere if a high symmetry exists. It requires a good grasp of how to add the electric field vectors using the principle of superposition, and the concepts of area vector and electric flux. We administered free response and multiple-choice questions and conducted interviews with individual s...

  6. Student understanding of electric and magnetic fields in materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchem, Savannah L.; Zohrabi Alaee, Dina; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2017-09-01

    We discuss the clusters of resources that emerge when upper-division students write about electromagnetic fields in linear materials. The data analyzed for this paper come from students' written tests in an upper-division electricity and magnetism course. We examine how these clusters change with time and context. The evidence shows that students benefit from activating resources related to the internal structure of the atom when thinking about electric fields and their effect on materials. We argue that facilitating activation of certain resources by the instructor in the classroom can affect the plasticity of those resources in the student, making them more solid and easily activated. We find that the wording of the questions posed to students affects which resources are activated, and that students often fill in resources to link known phenomena to phenomena described by the question when lacking detailed mental models.

  7. Using Group Drawings Activities to Facilitate the Understanding of Systemic Aspects of Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arantes do Amaral, João Alberto; Hess, Aurélio; Gonçalves, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    ) Making drawings in groups promotes knowledge sharing among team members; 3) Making drawings in group fosters creativity and communication between students; 4) Drawing in groups reduces the students’ boredom, makes the lecture more dynamic and interesting; 5) Drawing in groups reinforces bonds between...... students. Our systems analysis suggests that group drawing improves student participation in classroom activities, strengthens bonds between students, and enhances learning....

  8. Understanding and Affecting Student Reasoning About Sound Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmann, M C; Redish, E F; Wittmann, Michael C.; Steinberg, Richard N.; Redish, Edward F.

    2002-01-01

    Student learning of sound waves can be helped through the creation of group-learning classroom materials whose development and design rely on explicit investigations into student understanding. We describe reasoning in terms of sets of resources, i.e. grouped building blocks of thinking that are commonly used in many different settings. Students in our university physics classes often used sets of resources that were different from the ones we wish them to use. By designing curriculum materials that ask students to think about the physics from a different view, we bring about improvement in student understanding of sound waves. Our curriculum modifications are specific to our own classes, but our description of student learning is more generally useful for teachers. We describe how students can use multiple sets of resources in their thinking, and raise questions that should be considered by both instructors and researchers.

  9. Orchestrating student discourse opportunities and listening for conceptual understandings in high school science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinard, Melissa Grass

    Scientific communities have established social mechanisms for proposing explanations, questioning evidence, and validating claims. Opportunities like these are often not a given in science classrooms (Vellom, Anderson, & Palincsar, 1993) even though the National Science Education Standards (NSES, 1996) state that a scientifically literate person should be able to "engage intelligently in public discourse and debate about important issues in science and technology" (National Research Council [NRC], 1996). Research further documents that students' science conceptions undergo little modification with the traditional teaching experienced in many high school science classrooms (Duit, 2003, Dykstra, 2005). This case study is an examination of the discourse that occurred as four high school physics students collaborated on solutions to three physics lab problems during which the students made predictions and experimentally generated data to support their predictions. The discourse patterns were initially examined for instances of concept negotiations. Selected instances were further examined using Toulmin's (2003) pattern for characterizing argumentation in order to understand the students' scientific reasoning strategies and to document the role of collaboration in facilitating conceptual modifications and changes. Audio recordings of the students' conversations during the labs, written problems turned in to the teacher, interviews of the students, and observations and field notes taken during student collaboration were used to document and describe the students' challenges and successes encountered during their collaborative work. The findings of the study indicate that collaboration engaged the students and generated two types of productive science discourse: concept negotiations and procedure negotiations. Further analysis of the conceptual and procedure negotiations revealed that the students viewed science as sensible and plausible but not as a tool they could

  10. Perceived facilitators of and barriers to healthful eating among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alicia C; Sykes, Lesley; Matthews, June; Martin, Noelle; Leipert, Beverly

    2010-01-01

    Photovoice, an innovative qualitative research method in health care, has not been used to its full potential in nutrition/dietetics. We explored the use of Photovoice to determine perceived facilitators of and barriers to healthful eating among university students. The study included 28 students enrolled in a 2008 introductory nutrition class. The students participated in a camera orientation session to review ethics and privacy issues. They took photographs and selected two for discussion in a focus group moderated by a graduate student who used a semi-structured facilitation guide. Researchers coded the transcripts, analyzed the pictures and students' written comments about the project, and ensured data trustworthiness through credibility, dependability, confirmability, and transferability of data and methods. Six major themes emerged as facilitators and/or barriers: environment, nutrition knowledge, convenience foods, time, media influence, and food cost. More than one-third of the students thought the study "stimulated their critical thinking." They felt more empowered in sharing their perceptions and "getting their voices heard." Photovoice was a useful, "motivating," and "engaging" method for research on nutrition knowledge and dietary patterns of university students. Registered dietitians and other health professionals may benefit from the use of the Photovoice method when they are working with students.

  11. Identifying Barriers and Facilitators to Future Nurse Faculty Careers for DNP Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Di; Bednash, Geraldine D

    Increasing the pool of doctorally educated nurses pursuing faculty careers is imperative in the development of the nurse faculty workforce. This cross-sectional study aims to identify barriers and facilitators to academic careers for doctor of nursing practice (DNP) students. One thousand five hundred DNP students were randomly selected from nursing schools across the country to participate in our survey, and a 56.9% response rate was achieved. The study found that 32% of respondents planned to pursue faculty careers after graduating. Students with postgraduation plans for academic careers, nonacademic careers, and undecided careers did not show distinct differences in demographic and academic characteristics, except that students who planned to pursue academic careers were more likely to have full-time and part-time faculty status. However, students in the 3 groups perceived facilitators and barriers to academic careers differently. The most influential facilitators were interest in teaching and an appreciation of the impact of nursing research on patient care, and the most considered barriers were poor financial compensation and a negative perception of academia. In terms of academic preparation, a large percentage of DNP students who planned to pursue a faculty career reported that they were not confident in teaching informatics. These findings are also consistent for DNP students who were not a faculty member. The impact of DNP education appeared to have a small, although positive, impact on students' decisions to pursue academic careers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Assessment of Students and Teachers' Understanding of Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huann-shyang; Cheng, Hsiu-ju; Lawrenz, Frances

    2000-01-01

    Describes a study of high school students' and chemistry teachers' understanding of the gas laws which focused on the application of scientific concepts in practical situations instead of mathematical calculations in theoretical situations. (Contains 13 references.) (WRM)

  13. Student understanding of electric and magnetic fields in materials

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchem, Savannah L; Sayre, Eleanor C

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the clusters of resources that emerge when upper-division students enrolled in an upper-division electricity and magnetism course write about fields in linear materials. We examine how these clusters change with time and context. The evidence shows that students benefit from activating resources related to the internal structure of the atom when thinking about electric fields and their effect on materials. We argue that facilitating activation of certain resources by the instructor in the classroom can affect the plasticity of those resources in the student, making them more solid and easily activated. We find that the wording of the questions posed to students affects which resources are activated, and that students often fill in resources to link known phenomena to phenomena described by the question when lacking detailed mental models.

  14. Enhancing Dental Students' Understanding of Poverty Through Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampiris, Lewis N; White, Alex; Sams, Lattice D; White, Tiffany; Weintraub, Jane A

    2017-09-01

    Dental students should develop an understanding of the barriers to and frustrations with accessing dental care and maintaining optimal oral health experienced by persons with limited resources rather than blaming the patient or caregiver. Developing this understanding may be aided by helping students learn about the lives of underserved and vulnerable patients they will encounter not only in extramural rotations, but throughout their careers. The aim of this study was to determine if dental students' understanding of daily challenges faced by families with low income changed as a result of a poverty simulation. In 2015 and 2016, an experiential poverty simulation was used to prepare third-year dental students at one U.S. dental school for their upcoming required community-based rotations. In 2015, United Way staff conducted the simulation using the Missouri Community Action Poverty Simulation (CAPS); in 2016, faculty members trained in CAPS conducted the simulation using a modified version of the tool. In the simulation, students were assigned to family units experiencing various types of hardship and were given specific identities for role-playing. A retrospective pretest and a posttest were used to assess change in levels of student understanding after the simulation. Students assessed their level of understanding in five domains: financial pressures, difficult choices, difficulties in improving one's situation, emotional stressors, and impact of community resources for those living in poverty. The survey response rates in 2015 and 2016 were 86% and 74%, respectively. For each of the five domains, students' understanding increased from 58% to 74% per domain. The majority reported that the exercise was very valuable or somewhat valuable (74% in 2015, 88% in 2016). This study found that a poverty simulation was effective in raising dental students' understanding of the challenges faced by low-income families. It also discovered that framing the issues in the

  15. High School Students' Understandings and Representations of the Electric Field

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Ying

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the understandings and representations of the electric field expressed by Chinese high school students ages 15 to 16 who have not yet received high school-level physics instruction. The literature has reported students' ideas of the electric field post-instruction as indicated by their performance on textbook-style questionnaires. However, by relying on measures such as questionnaires, previous research has inadequately captured the thinking process that led students to answer questions in the ways that they did. The present study portrays the beginning of this process by closely examining students' understandings pre-instruction. The participants in this study were asked to engage in a lesson that included informal group tasks that involved playing a Web-based hockey game that replicated an electric field and drawing comic strips that used charges as characters. The lesson was videotaped, students' work was collected, and three students were interviewed afterward to ascertain more det...

  16. Assessing and improving student understanding of quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We developed a survey to probe student understanding of quantum mechanics concepts at the beginning of graduate instruction. The survey was administered to 202 graduate students in physics enrolled in first-year quantum mechanics courses from seven different universities at the beginning of the first semester. We also conducted one-on-one interviews with fifteen graduate students or advanced undergraduate students who had just finished a course in which all the content on the survey was covered. We find that students share universal difficulties about fundamental quantum mechanics concepts. The difficulties are often due to over-generalization of concepts learned in one context to other contexts where they are not directly applicable and difficulty in making sense of the abstract quantitative formalism of quantum mechanics. Instructional strategies that focus on improving student understanding of these concepts should take into account these difficulties. The results from this study can sensitize instructors ...

  17. Development of Object-understanding Among Students in the Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholm, Morten

    This paper describes a on-going empirical study, inspired by phenomenography, aiming at understanding how students from the humanities learn the concepts of objects and object-orientation during a programming course.  ......This paper describes a on-going empirical study, inspired by phenomenography, aiming at understanding how students from the humanities learn the concepts of objects and object-orientation during a programming course.  ...

  18. A Look into Students' Retention of Acquired Nature of Science Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khishfe, Rola

    2015-07-01

    Having the learning and retention of science content and skills as a goal of scientific literacy, it is significant to study the issue of retention as it relates to teaching and learning about nature of science (NOS). Then, the purpose of this study was to investigate the development of NOS understandings of students, and the retention of these understandings four months after being acquired through explicit reflective instruction in relation to two contexts. Participants were 24 tenth-grade students at a private high school in a city in the Middle East. Explicit NOS instruction was addressed within a six-week unit about genetic engineering. Three NOS aspects were integrated and dispersed across the unit. A questionnaire, together with semi-structured interviews, was administered as pre-, post-, and delayed post-test to assess the retention of participants' NOS understandings. The questionnaire had two open-ended scenarios addressing controversial socioscientific issues about genetically modified food and water fluoridation. Results showed that most students improved their naïve understandings of NOS in relation to the two contexts following the six-week unit with the explicit NOS instruction. However, these newly acquired NOS understandings were not retained by all students four months after instruction. Many of the students reverted back to their earlier naïve understandings. Conclusions about the factors facilitating the process of retention as the orientation to meaningful learning and the prolonged exposure to the domain were discussed in relation to practical implications in the classroom.

  19. Helping Secondary School Students Develop a Conceptual Understanding of Refraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmann, Scott; Anderson, Charles W.; Boeckman, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Using real-world examples, ray diagrams, and a cognitive apprenticeship cycle, this paper focuses on developing students' conceptual (not mathematical) understanding of refraction. Refraction can be a difficult concept for students to comprehend if they do not have well-designed opportunities to practice explaining situations where reflection and…

  20. Understanding Retention in US Graduate Programs by Student Nationality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crede, Erin; Borrego, Maura

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the differences in selected retention constructs by student nationality in US graduate programs. Surveys administered at four universities across the United States during fall 2010 resulted in responses from 685 PhD students from six international regions. Using univariate ANOVA, responses were…

  1. Understanding Students' Choice of Electives and Its Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Ding Hooi; Lee, Christina Kwai Choi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the attributes which influence students' selection of electives as part of their university degree programme. Marketing students at a public university in Malaysia participated in the research. Conjoint analysis was used to understand the trade-offs between three attributes when selecting elective subjects.…

  2. Using Narrative Inquiry to Understand Persistently Disciplined Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy-Lewis, Brianna L.; Murphy, Amy S.; Grosland, Tanetha J.

    2016-01-01

    Educators' persistent disciplining of a small group of students positions them as "frequent flyers." This identity prevents educators from developing an understanding that could enable them to reengage these students. Using the methodology of interpretive biography positioned within narrative inquiry and using a Gestalt-based analysis,…

  3. Viewing a Poem as Argument: Helping Students Understand Contemporary Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sara

    2008-01-01

    When high school honors students were put off by contemporary poetry, the author engaged them by analyzing the poem as an "argument." Using the Toulmin model to establish a warrant, advance a claim, and locate details to support that claim, students were able, by treating a poem as an argument, to increase their understanding of the…

  4. Characterizing Student Mathematics Teachers' Levels of Understanding in Spherical Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Bulent; Baki, Adnan

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an exploratory study aimed at the identification of students' levels of understanding in spherical geometry as van Hiele did for Euclidean geometry. To do this, we developed and implemented a spherical geometry course for student mathematics teachers. Six structured, "task-based interviews" were held with eight student…

  5. Student Support in Higher Education: Understandings, Implications and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, Brendan

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to offer a critical examination of the notion of student support in higher education in the UK. It compares some of the key ways in which student support is understood across the sector and contrasts a humanistic view with understandings driven more by instrumental and therapeutic concerns. The possible risks and effects that…

  6. Understanding and Affecting Student Reasoning about Sound Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Michael C.; Steinberg, Richard N.; Redish, Edward F.

    2003-01-01

    Explains the design and development of curriculum materials that ask students to think about physics from a different view. These group-learning classroom materials specifically aim to bring about improvement of student understanding of sound waves. (Contains 29 references.) (Author/SOE)

  7. Student Understanding of Time Dependence in Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emigh, Paul J.; Passante, Gina; Shaffer, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    The time evolution of quantum states is arguably one of the more difficult ideas in quantum mechanics. In this article, we report on results from an investigation of student understanding of this topic after lecture instruction. We demonstrate specific problems that students have in applying time dependence to quantum systems and in recognizing…

  8. Secondary Students' Understanding of Basic Ideas of Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadi, Kyriaki; Halkia, Krystallia

    2012-01-01

    A major topic that has marked "modern physics" is the theory of special relativity (TSR). The present work focuses on the possibility of teaching the basic ideas of the TSR to students at the upper secondary level in such a way that they are able to understand and learn the ideas. Its aim is to investigate students' learning processes towards the…

  9. Promoting Conceptual Change in First Year Students' Understanding of Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costu, Bayram; Ayas, Alipasa; Niaz, Mansoor

    2010-01-01

    We constructed the PDEODE (Predict-Discuss-Explain-Observe-Discuss-Explain) teaching strategy, a variant of the classical POE (Predict-Observe-Explain) activity, to promote conceptual change, and investigated its effectiveness on student understanding of the evaporation concept. The sample consisted of 52 first year students in a primary science…

  10. Student Understanding of Time Dependence in Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emigh, Paul J.; Passante, Gina; Shaffer, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    The time evolution of quantum states is arguably one of the more difficult ideas in quantum mechanics. In this article, we report on results from an investigation of student understanding of this topic after lecture instruction. We demonstrate specific problems that students have in applying time dependence to quantum systems and in recognizing…

  11. Secondary Students' Understanding of Basic Ideas of Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadi, Kyriaki; Halkia, Krystallia

    2012-01-01

    A major topic that has marked "modern physics" is the theory of special relativity (TSR). The present work focuses on the possibility of teaching the basic ideas of the TSR to students at the upper secondary level in such a way that they are able to understand and learn the ideas. Its aim is to investigate students' learning processes towards the…

  12. How Students Combine Resources to Build Understanding of Complex Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    The field of Physics Education Research (PER) seeks to investigate how students learn physics and how instructors can help students learn more effectively. The process by which learners create understanding about a complex physics concept is an active area of research. My study explores this process, using solar cells as the context. To understand…

  13. Assessing Undergraduate Students' Conceptual Understanding and Confidence of Electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppavirta, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    The study examines how students' conceptual understanding changes from high confidence with incorrect conceptions to high confidence with correct conceptions when reasoning about electromagnetics. The Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism test is weighted with students' self-rated confidence on each item in order to infer how strongly…

  14. Students' Understanding of Conditional Probability on Entering University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaburn, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of conditional probability is essential for students of inferential statistics as it is used in Null Hypothesis Tests. Conditional probability is also used in Bayes' theorem, in the interpretation of medical screening tests and in quality control procedures. This study examines the understanding of conditional probability of…

  15. How Do Students Acquire an Understanding of Logarithmic Concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulqueeny, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    The use of logarithms, an important tool for calculus and beyond, has been reduced to symbol manipulation without understanding in most entry-level college algebra courses. The primary aim of this research, therefore, was to investigate college students' understanding of logarithmic concepts through the use of a series of instructional tasks…

  16. Assessing Elementary Science Methods Students' Understanding about Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Julie L.; Lindgren, Joan; Bleicher, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change, referred to as climate change in this paper, has become an important planetary issue, and given that K-12 students have numerous alternative conceptions or lack of prior knowledge, it is critical that teachers have an understanding of the fundamental science underlying climate change. Teachers need to understand the natural…

  17. Understanding Students' Use and Value of Technology for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Karley; Bennett, Sue; Lockyer, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant research in the field of educational technology, there is still much we do not fully understand about students' experiences with technology. This article proposes that research in the field of educational technology would benefit from a sociological framing that pays attention to the understandings and lives of learners. Within…

  18. Students' Energy Understanding Across Biology, Chemistry, and Physics Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, S. T.; Neumann, K.; Bernholt, S.; Harms, U.

    2017-07-01

    Energy is considered both as a disciplinary core idea and as a concept cutting across science disciplines. Most previous approaches studied progressing energy understanding in specific disciplinary contexts, while disregarding the relation of understanding across them. Hence, this study provides a systematic analysis of cross-disciplinary energy learning. On the basis of a cross-sectional study with n = 742 students from grades 6, 8, and 10, we analyze students' progression in understanding energy across biology, chemistry, and physics contexts. The study is guided by three hypothetical scenarios that describe how the connection between energy understanding in the three disciplinary contexts changes across grade levels. These scenarios are compared using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The results suggest that, from grade 6 to grade 10, energy understanding in the three disciplinary contexts is highly interrelated, thus indicating a parallel progression of energy understanding in the three disciplinary contexts. In our study, students from grade 6 onwards appeared to have few problems to apply one energy understanding across the three disciplinary contexts. These findings were unexpected, as previous research concluded that students likely face difficulties in connecting energy learning across disciplinary boundaries. Potential reasons for these results and the characteristics of the observed cross-disciplinary energy understanding are discussed in the light of earlier findings and implications for future research, and the teaching of energy as a core idea and a crosscutting concept are addressed.

  19. Take care of well-being: how facilitators and engagement predict performance of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M. Martínez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The interest in developing a high quality educational system requires constant research of the variables involved in the teaching-learning process. Among these variables, social and academic facilitators are important because there is empirical evidence about their positive relationship with engagement, commitment, self-efficacy, happiness and satisfaction in the academic context. Moreover, the psychological well-being of university students (i.e., engagement showed to positively affect future academic success. In line, the aim of this study is twofold. First, the relevance of social and university academic facilitators was analyzed depending on the faculty of belonging. Second, the effect of social (e.g., Good relationship with classmates and academic facilitators (e.g., Updated website with new information and easily accessible as well as academic engagement on academic performance (i.e., GPA was tested. The sample consisted of 965 University students. The ANOVAs’ results showed the existence of statistically significant differences in social and university academic facilitators among the different faculties.  Regression analyses demonstrated that social (but not university’s facilitators and academic engagement were positively related to academic performance. Additionally, the interaction between social facilitators and academic engagement was positively related to academic performance.  The effect was also significant when controlling for gender and faculty. The identification of different facilitators allows to develop different activities depending on the faculty, as well as leading to the optimization of teaching-learning process. Moreover, academic facilitators do not affect academic performance. From a practical view, it means that specific interventions can be implemented during the course so that students’ social facilitators and engagement increase.

  20. Diagnosing Students' Understanding of the Nature of Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolin, Sarah; Krüger, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    Students' understanding of models in science has been subject to a number of investigations. The instruments the researchers used are suitable for educational research but, due to their complexity, cannot be employed directly by teachers. This article presents forced choice (FC) tasks, which, assembled as a diagnostic instrument, are supposed to measure students' understanding of the nature of models efficiently, while being sensitive enough to detect differences between individuals. In order to evaluate if the diagnostic instrument is suitable for its intended use, we propose an approach that complies with the demand to integrate students' responses to the tasks into the validation process. Evidence for validity was gathered based on relations to other variables and on students' response processes. Students' understanding of the nature of models was assessed using three methods: FC tasks, open-ended tasks and interviews (N = 448). Furthermore, concurrent think-aloud protocols (N = 30) were performed. The results suggest that the method and the age of the students have an effect on their understanding of the nature of models. A good understanding of the FC tasks as well as a convergence in the findings across the three methods was documented for grades eleven and twelve. This indicates that teachers can use the diagnostic instrument for an efficient and, at the same time, valid diagnosis for this group. Finally, the findings of this article may provide a possible explanation for alternative findings from previous studies as a result of specific methods that were used.

  1. Diagnosing Students' Understanding of the Nature of Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolin, Sarah; Krüger, Dirk

    2017-10-01

    Students' understanding of models in science has been subject to a number of investigations. The instruments the researchers used are suitable for educational research but, due to their complexity, cannot be employed directly by teachers. This article presents forced choice (FC) tasks, which, assembled as a diagnostic instrument, are supposed to measure students' understanding of the nature of models efficiently, while being sensitive enough to detect differences between individuals. In order to evaluate if the diagnostic instrument is suitable for its intended use, we propose an approach that complies with the demand to integrate students' responses to the tasks into the validation process. Evidence for validity was gathered based on relations to other variables and on students' response processes. Students' understanding of the nature of models was assessed using three methods: FC tasks, open-ended tasks and interviews ( N = 448). Furthermore, concurrent think-aloud protocols ( N = 30) were performed. The results suggest that the method and the age of the students have an effect on their understanding of the nature of models. A good understanding of the FC tasks as well as a convergence in the findings across the three methods was documented for grades eleven and twelve. This indicates that teachers can use the diagnostic instrument for an efficient and, at the same time, valid diagnosis for this group. Finally, the findings of this article may provide a possible explanation for alternative findings from previous studies as a result of specific methods that were used.

  2. Characterizing student mathematics teachers' levels of understanding in spherical geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Bulent; Baki, Adnan

    2010-12-01

    This article presents an exploratory study aimed at the identification of students' levels of understanding in spherical geometry as van Hiele did for Euclidean geometry. To do this, we developed and implemented a spherical geometry course for student mathematics teachers. Six structured, task-based interviews were held with eight student mathematics teachers at particular times through the course to determine the spherical geometry learning levels. After identifying the properties of spherical geometry levels, we developed Understandings in Spherical Geometry Test to test whether or not the levels form hierarchy, and 58 student mathematics teachers took the test. The outcomes seemed to support our theoretical perspective that there are some understanding levels in spherical geometry that progress through a hierarchical order as van Hiele levels in Euclidean geometry.

  3. The Effect of Software Facilitated Communication on Student Outcomes in Online Classes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart S. Gold

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This research project examined the question of the relationship between the frequency and method of software-facilitated communication employed and the student outcomes achieved in online university courses. This question directly addressed the issues of 1 the increasing focus by businesses on maximizing their employees’ educational outcomes and leveraging the corporation’s investment and 2 identifying Management Information Systems that support improved student outcomes. The research project was comprised of three related research studies, a preliminary proof of concept, a large-scale study and a validation study to provide a further measure of reliability and validity. The three studies combined incorporated data from 116 online courses and over 1700 students. The results indicate that there is a statistically significant relationship between the method of software-facilitated communication utilized (basic or advanced and the student final exam grade. The results of the research project indicated that the use of advanced software facilitated communication features, which provide an environment that fosters more sophisticated and feature rich interaction, is important in terms of determining student outcomes. It is not sufficient to create online interaction; rather it is the inherent quality of that interaction which is important in determining student outcomes.

  4. Lecturers' experiences of facilitating guided group reflection with pre-registration BSc Nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Carthy, Jane; Cassidy, Irene; Tuohy, Dympna

    2013-01-01

    The development of reflective practitioners is integral to undergraduate nursing degree programmes. This study reports on lecturers' experiences of facilitating guided group reflection with pre-registration BSc Nursing students.The research purposively sampled lecturers (n=7) working in a department of nursing and midwifery at a third level institute in Ireland, all of whom were registered nurses. Using a qualitative research approach, data was collected through audio-taped semi-structured individual interviews. The data were thematically analysed using guidelines developed by Braun and Clarke (2006). Tripartite researcher discussion and further analysis of these initial individual analyses led to consensus regarding the three themes arising from the study. These were: Being a facilitator; Facilitating reflective learning and Creating structure. The discussion centred on: having knowledge and experience to effectively facilitate guided group reflection; the influence of the facilitator's personal philosophy on reflection and adult learning on group facilitation; and finally concerns regarding professional responsibility in response to students' reflective practice accounts.

  5. Predictors of scientific understanding of middle school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strate, Joshua Matthew

    The purpose of this study was to determine if middle school student scientific understanding could be predicted by the variables: standardized 5th grade score in science, standardized 5th grade score in mathematics, standardized 5th grade score in reading, student attitude towards science, socioeconomic status, gender, and ethnicity. The areas of the comprehensive literature review were trends in science learning and teaching, research in the K-12 science education arena, what factors have influenced K-12 science education, scientific understanding, what research has been done on K-12 scientific understanding, and what factors have influenced science understanding in the K-12 arenas. Based on the results of the literature review, the researcher of this study examined a sample of middle school 8th grade students. An Attitude Towards Science Survey (SATS) Simpson & Oliver (1990) and a Survey of Scientific Understandings (Klapper, DeLucia, & Trent, 1993) were administered to these 116 middle school 8th grade students drawn from a total population of 1109 who attend this middle school in a typical county in Florida during the 2010- 2011 school year. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to test each sub-hypothesis and to provide a model that attempted to predict student scientific understanding. Seven null sub-hypotheses were formed to determine if there were significant relationships between student scientific understanding and the abovementioned variables. The results of the tests of the seven null sub-hypotheses showed that the sub-hypothesis that involved socioeconomic status was rejected, which indicated that the socioeconomic status of a family does influence the level of scientific understanding of a student. Low SES students performed lower on the scientific understanding survey, on average, than high SES students. This study can be a source of information for teachers in low-income schools by recognizing potential areas of concern for low

  6. Do Different Goal-Setting Conditions Facilitate Students' Ability to Regulate Their Learning of Complex Science Topics with RiverWeb?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Roger; Ragan, Susan; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Pritchett, Stacy

    This study examined the role of different goal setting instructional interventions in facilitating high school students' regulation of their conceptual understanding of ecological systems while using a Web-based water quality simulation environment. Building on the information processing theory of self-regulated learning (SRL) of P. Winne and…

  7. A Qualitative Inquiry into Nursing Students' Experience of Facilitating Reflection in Clinical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Shahnaz; Haghani, Fariba; Yamani, Nikoo; Najafi Kalyani, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aim. Reflection is known as a skill that is central to nursing students' professional development. Due to the importance and the role of reflection in clinical areas of nursing, it is important to know how to achieve it. However, nursing trainers face the challenge of how to help their students to improve reflection in clinical settings. The aim of this study was to investigate the nursing students' experiences of facilitating reflection during clinical practice. This qualitative study was conducted by qualitative content analysis approach. Twenty nursing students during the second to eighth semester of their educational program were selected for participation using purposive sampling. Data were collected through in-depth semistructured interviews. The interview was transcribed verbatim, and qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. From the data analysis, four main themes were extracted. Motivation to reflect, complex experiences, efficient trainer, and effective relations were four main themes obtained from study that, in interaction with each other, had facilitating roles in students' reflective process on experiences. The findings revealed that the nursing students' reflection in clinical settings is effective in personal and professional level. Reflection of nursing students depends on motivational and educational factors and these factors increase the quality of care in patients. Furthermore, nursing educators need to create nurturing climate as well as supporting reflective behaviors of nursing students.

  8. Mechanisms influencing student understanding on an outdoor guided field trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskey, Nourah Al-Rashid

    Field trips are a basic and important, yet often overlooked part of the student experience. They provide the opportunity to integrate real world knowledge with classroom learning and student previous personal experiences. Outdoor guided field trips leave students with an increased understanding, awareness and interest and in science. However, the benefits of this experience are ambiguous at best (Falk and Balling, 1982; Falk and Dierking, 1992; Kisiel, 2006.) Students on an outdoor guided field trip to a local nature park experienced a significant increase in their understanding of the rock cycle. The changes in the pre-field trip test and the post-field trip test as well as their answers in interviews showed a profound change in the students' understanding and in their interest in the subject matter. The use of the "student's voice" (Bamberger and Tal, 2008) was the motivation for data analysis. By using the students' voice, I was able to determine the mechanisms that might influence their understanding of a subject. The central concepts emerging from the data were: the outdoor setting; the students' interest; the social interaction. From these central concepts, a conceptual model was developed. The outdoor setting allows for the freedom to explore, touch, smell and movement. This, in turn, leads to an increased interest in subject matter. As the students are exploring, they are enjoying themselves and become more open to learning. Interest leads to a desire to learn (Dewey, 1975). In addition to allowing the freedom to explore and move, the outdoor setting creates the condition for social interaction. The students talk to each other as they walk; they have in-depth discourse regarding the subject matter---with the teachers, each other and with the guides. The guides have an extremely important role in the students' learning. The more successful guides not only act as experts, but also adjust to the students' needs and act or speak accordingly. The

  9. Teachers' Perspectives and Suggestions for Improving Teacher Education to Facilitate Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkenhoker, Dina L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study is to give teachers a voice to express their self-efficacy beliefs, their opinions about the content and the effectiveness of their teacher preparation programs to facilitate student learning, and to hear their suggestions for improving teacher education to enable future educators to…

  10. Conditions That Facilitate Music Learning among Students with Special Needs: A Mixed-Methods Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrity, Kevin W.; Hourigan, Ryan M.; Horton, Patrick W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to identify and define the conditions that facilitate learning in music among students with special needs. Children with special needs met once a week for 10 consecutive weeks and received instruction in primarily music as well as the other arts. The children completed pre- and posttest evaluations that…

  11. Effective Developmental Math Instructional Practices That Facilitate Learning and Academic Success of Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Pamela Hilson

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative study was to discover instructional practices used by developmental math instructors that facilitate learning and academic success of students in developmental math courses at select community colleges in Alabama in order to generate improved instructional practices in the developmental education field. Emergent data…

  12. The Use of Blended Learning to Facilitate Critical Thinking in Entry Level Occupational Therapy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Eva L.

    2009-01-01

    The popularity of using online instruction (both in blended and complete distance learning) in higher education settings is increasing (Appana, 2008; Newton, 2006; Oh, 2006). Occupational therapy educators are using blended learning methods under the assumption that this learning platform will facilitate in their students the required level of…

  13. The Effect of Varied Visual Cueing Strategies in Facilitating Student Achievement on Different Educational Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Thomas; Dwyer, Francis M.

    The effectiveness of elaborate visual cueing and reduced step size (i.e., increasing the number of visual cues) in facilitating student achievement on different instructional tasks was examined. The hypothesis proposed that instructional treatments utilizing reduced step size and elaborate visual cueing alone and in combination would be superior…

  14. The Use of Blended Learning to Facilitate Critical Thinking in Entry Level Occupational Therapy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Eva L.

    2009-01-01

    The popularity of using online instruction (both in blended and complete distance learning) in higher education settings is increasing (Appana, 2008; Newton, 2006; Oh, 2006). Occupational therapy educators are using blended learning methods under the assumption that this learning platform will facilitate in their students the required level of…

  15. Project LMA: Learning Media Assessment of Students with Visual Impairments. Facilitator's Manual and Participant Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Alan J.; Holbrook, M. Cay

    This document is comprised of the facilitator's manual and the participant's workbook for a 1- or 2-day workshop for inservice and preservice teachers on the process of learning media assessment (LMA) for students with visual impairments. The manual and workbook are intended for use in a complete program that also includes videotapes and…

  16. New Simulation Methods to Facilitate Achieving a Mechanistic Understanding of Basic Pharmacology Principles in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Anita; Lam, Tai Ning; Hunt, C. Anthony

    2008-01-01

    We present a simulation tool to aid the study of basic pharmacology principles. By taking advantage of the properties of agent-based modeling, the tool facilitates taking a mechanistic approach to learning basic concepts, in contrast to the traditional empirical methods. Pharmacodynamics is a particular aspect of pharmacology that can benefit from…

  17. Third Graders' Understanding of Air Concepts Facilitated by the iPod Inquiry Teaching Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-san

    2016-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to determine the learning performance of the air concept unit for third graders in a primary school facilitated by the iPod inquiry teaching method. This study adopts a quasi-experimental method. Participants were third graders in a primary school in New Taipei city. The experimental group consisted of 53…

  18. High school students' representations and understandings of electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ying; Brizuela, Bárbara M.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the representations and understandings of electric fields expressed by Chinese high school students 15 to 16 years old who have not received high school level physics instruction. The physics education research literature has reported students' conceptions of electric fields postinstruction as indicated by students' performance on textbook-style questions. It has, however, inadequately captured student ideas expressed in other situations yet informative to educational research. In this study, we explore students' ideas of electric fields preinstruction as shown by students' representations produced in open-ended activities. 92 participant students completed a worksheet that involved drawing comic strips about electric charges as characters of a cartoon series. Three students who had spontaneously produced arrow diagrams were interviewed individually after class. We identified nine ideas related to electric fields that these three students spontaneously leveraged in the comic strip activity. In this paper, we describe in detail each idea and its situated context. As most research in the literature has understood students as having relatively fixed conceptions and mostly identified divergences in those conceptions from canonical targets, this study shows students' reasoning to be more variable in particular moments, and that variability includes common sense resources that can be productive for learning about electric fields.

  19. Native American Students' Understanding of Geologic Time Scale: 4th-8th Grade Ojibwe Students' Understanding of Earth's Geologic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Younkyeong; Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Geologic time scale is a very important concept for understanding long-term earth system events such as climate change. This study examines forty-three 4th-8th grade Native American--particularly Ojibwe tribe--students' understanding of relative ordering and absolute time of Earth's significant geological and biological events. This study also…

  20. Student understanding of rotational and rolling motion concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Rimoldini, L G; Rimoldini, Lorenzo G.; Singh, Chandralekha

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the common difficulties that students have with concepts related to rotational and rolling motion covered in the introductory physics courses. We compared the performance of calculus- and algebra-based introductory physics students with physics juniors who had learned rotational and rolling motion concepts in an intermediate level mechanics course. Interviews were conducted with six physics juniors and ten introductory students using demonstration-based tasks. We also administered free-response and multiple-choice questions to a large number of students enrolled in introductory physics courses, and interviewed six additional introductory students on the test questions (during the test design phase). All students showed similar difficulties regardless of their background, and higher mathematical sophistication did not seem to help acquire a deeper understanding. We found that some difficulties were due to related difficulties with linear motion, while others were tied specifically to the more i...

  1. SOFTICE: Facilitating both Adoption of Linux Undergraduate Operating Systems Laboratories and Students' Immersion in Kernel Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Gaspar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how Linux clustering and virtual machine technologies can improve undergraduate students' hands-on experience in operating systems laboratories. Like similar projects, SOFTICE relies on User Mode Linux (UML to provide students with privileged access to a Linux system without creating security breaches on the hosting network. We extend such approaches in two aspects. First, we propose to facilitate adoption of Linux-based laboratories by using a load-balancing cluster made of recycled classroom PCs to remotely serve access to virtual machines. Secondly, we propose a new approach for students to interact with the kernel code.

  2. SOFTICE: Facilitating both Adoption of Linux Undergraduate Operating Systems Laboratories and Students' Immersion in Kernel Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Gaspar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how Linux clustering and virtual machine technologies can improve undergraduate students' hands-on experience in operating systems laboratories. Like similar projects, SOFTICE relies on User Mode Linux (UML to provide students with privileged access to a Linux system without creating security breaches on the hosting network. We extend such approaches in two aspects. First, we propose to facilitate adoption of Linux-based laboratories by using a load-balancing cluster made of recycled classroom PCs to remotely serve access to virtual machines. Secondly, we propose a new approach for students to interact with the kernel code.

  3. Irish Medical Students Understanding of the Intern Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouda, P; Kitt, K; Evans, D S; Goggin, D; McGrath, D; Last, J; Hennessy, M; Arnett, R; O'Flynn, S; Dunne, F; O'Donovan, D

    2016-04-11

    Upon completion of medical school in Ireland, graduates must make the transition to becoming interns. The transition into the intern year may be described as challenging as graduates assume clinical responsibilities. Historically, a survey of interns in 1996 found that 91% felt unprepared for their role. However, recent surveys in 2012 have demonstrated that this is changing with preparedness rates reaching 52%. This can be partially explained by multiple initiatives at the local and national level. Our study aimed evaluate medical student understanding of the intern year and associated factors. An online, cross-sectional survey was sent out to all Irish medical students in 2013 and included questions regarding their understanding of the intern year. Two thousand, two hundred and forty-eight students responded, with 1,224 (55.4%) of students agreeing or strongly agreeing that they had a good understanding of what the intern year entails. This rose to 485 (73.7%) among senior medical students. Of junior medical students, 260 (42.8%) indicated they understood what the intern year, compared to 479 (48.7%) of intermediate medical students. Initiatives to continue improving preparedness for the intern year are essential in ensuring a smooth and less stressful transition into the medical workforce.

  4. Strategies for sustaining quality in PBL facilitation for large student cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Louise; Papinczak, Tracey

    2013-10-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) has been used to scaffold and support student learning in many Australian medical programs, with the role of the facilitator in the process considered crucial to the overall educational experience of students. With the increasing size of student cohorts and in an environment of financial constraint, it is important to develop quality control procedures to maintain an effective and efficient PBL program and a stable tutor workforce. This paper reports on organisational practices and faculty development opportunities used to sustain facilitation quality in a large cohort PBL program. Seven strategies are proposed, built around a sound professional development program, and a suite of tactics for recruitment of, and ongoing support for, PBL tutors.

  5. Facilitating students' application of the integral and the area under the curve concepts in physics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dong-Hai

    This research project investigates the difficulties students encounter when solving physics problems involving the integral and the area under the curve concepts and the strategies to facilitate students learning to solve those types of problems. The research contexts of this project are calculus-based physics courses covering mechanics and electromagnetism. In phase I of the project, individual teaching/learning interviews were conducted with 20 students in mechanics and 15 students from the same cohort in electromagnetism. The students were asked to solve problems on several topics of mechanics and electromagnetism. These problems involved calculating physical quantities (e.g. velocity, acceleration, work, electric field, electric resistance, electric current) by integrating or finding the area under the curve of functions of related quantities (e.g. position, velocity, force, charge density, resistivity, current density). Verbal hints were provided when students made an error or were unable to proceed. A total number of 140 one-hour interviews were conducted in this phase, which provided insights into students' difficulties when solving the problems involving the integral and the area under the curve concepts and the hints to help students overcome those difficulties. In phase II of the project, tutorials were created to facilitate students' learning to solve physics problems involving the integral and the area under the curve concepts. Each tutorial consisted of a set of exercises and a protocol that incorporated the helpful hints to target the difficulties that students expressed in phase I of the project. Focus group learning interviews were conducted to test the effectiveness of the tutorials in comparison with standard learning materials (i.e. textbook problems and solutions). Overall results indicated that students learning with our tutorials outperformed students learning with standard materials in applying the integral and the area under the curve

  6. How do medical educators design a curriculum that facilitates student learning about professionalism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langendyk, Vicki; Mason, Glenn; Wang, Shaoyu

    2016-02-04

    This study analyses the ways in which curriculum reform facilitated student learning about professionalism. Design-based research provided the structure for an iterative approach to curriculum change which we undertook over a 3 year period. The learning environment of the Personal and Professional Development Theme (PPD) was analysed through the sociocultural lens of Activity Theory. Lave and Wenger's and Mezirow's learning theories informed curriculum reform to support student development of a patient-centred and critically reflective professional identity. The renewed pedagogical outcomes were aligned with curriculum content, learning and teaching processes and assessment, and intense staff education was undertaken. We analysed qualitative data from tutor interviews and free-response student surveys to evaluate the impact of curriculum reform. Students' and tutors' reflections on learning in PPD converged on two principle themes--'Developing a philosophy of medicine' and 'Becoming an ethical doctor'--which corresponded to the overarching PPD theme aims of communicative learning. Students and tutors emphasised the importance of the unique learning environment of PPD tutorials for nurturing personal development and the positive impact of the renewed assessment programme on learning. A theory-led approach to curriculum reform resulted in student engagement in the PPD curriculum and facilitated a change in student perspective about the epistemological foundation of medicine.

  7. Grade six students' understanding of the nature of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Donald Brian

    The goal of scientific literacy requires that students develop an understanding of the nature of science to assist them in the reasoned acquisition of science concepts and in their future role as citizens in a participatory democracy. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the range of positions that grade six students hold with respect to the nature of science and to investigate whether gender or prior science education was related to students' views of the nature of science. Two grade six classes participated in this study. One class was from a school involved in a long-term elementary science curriculum project. The science curriculum at this school involved constructivist epistemology and pedagogy and a realist ontology. The curriculum stressed hands-on, open-ended activities and the development of science process skills. Students were frequently involved in creating and testing explanations for physical phenomena. The second class was from a matched school that had a traditional science program. Results of the study indicated that students hold a wider range of views of the nature of science than previously documented. Student positions ranged from having almost no understanding of the nature of science to those expressing positions regarding the nature of science that were more developed than previous studies had documented. Despite the range of views documented, all subjects held realist views of scientific knowledge. Contrary to the literature, some students were able to evaluate a scientific theory in light of empirical evidence that they had generated. Results also indicated that students from the project school displayed more advanced views of the nature of science than their matched peers. However, not all students benefited equally from their experiences. No gender differences were found with respect to students' understanding of the nature of science.

  8. The Use of a Student Group Log to Facilitate Student and Teacher Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenders, Fer

    2016-01-01

    In 21st century education students should have ample opportunities to collaborate on authentic problems. Many teachers however find it difficult to make the transfer from teacher to student-centered education. Giving students autonomy can be disquieting to teachers, as they fear to lose control of student learning. Teachers in a teacher…

  9. Facilitating Student Success for Entering California Community College Students: How One Institution Can Make an Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Esau; Simon, Merril A.

    As the need to serve a broader and larger population of students at the community college level increases, the rate of student success is decreasing at many institutions. There is a greater need to deliver in-class and co-curricular experiences that satisfy the students currently entering college. The Student Success Project at Santa Monica…

  10. READINESS FOR BLENDED LEARNING: UNDERSTANDING ATTITUDE OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Meng Tang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Information technology (IT has provided new means for learning delivery outside of conventional classrooms. Leveraging on IT, blended learning is an approach which takes advantage of the best that both the classroom and online learning can provide. To help institutions of higher learning (IHLs improve their understanding of how students view blended learning and formulate a strategy to successfully implement blended learning, the main objective of this paper is to examine how the attitude of students towards different learning aspects could influence their readiness for blended learning. We conceptualized six learning aspects in a research model and then collected responses from 201 full-time undergraduate students to validate the model. Analyses revealed three key findings. First, the use of technology in education was not a hindrance to the students. Second, blended learning adaptability, which was modelled as a second-order formative construct and formed by four first-order reflective constructs—attitude towards online learning, study management, online interaction, and learning flexibility—had a positive relationship with student readiness for blended learning. Third, attitude towards classroom learning had a negative relationship with student readiness for blended learning. An understanding of student attitude towards different learning aspects can be critical in the assessment of student readiness for blended learning, which is a prerequisite for successful implementation of blended learning.

  11. Understanding genetics: Analysis of secondary students' conceptual status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Chi-Yan; Treagust, David F.

    2007-02-01

    This article explores the conceptual change of students in Grades 10 and 12 in three Australian senior high schools when the teachers included computer multimedia to a greater or lesser extent in their teaching of a genetics course. The study, underpinned by a multidimensional conceptual-change framework, used an interpretive approach and a case-based design with multiple data collection methods. Over 4-8 weeks, the students learned genetics in classroom lessons that included BioLogica activities, which feature multiple representations. Results of the online tests and interview tasks revealed that most students improved their understanding of genetics as evidenced in the development of genetics reasoning. However, using Thorley's (1990) status analysis categories, a cross-case analysis of the gene conceptions of 9 of the 26 students interviewed indicated that only 4 students' postinstructional conceptions were intelligible-plausible-fruitful. Students' conceptual change was consistent with classroom teaching and learning. Findings suggested that multiple representations supported conceptual understanding of genetics but not in all students. It was also shown that status can be a viable hallmark enabling researchers to identify students' conceptual change that would otherwise be less accessible. Thorley's method for analyzing conceptual status is discussed.

  12. Creating meaningful learning experiences: Understanding students' perspectives of engineering design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleong, Richard James Chung Mun

    There is a societal need for design education to prepare holistic engineers with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes to innovate and compete globally. Design skills are paramount to the espoused values of higher education, as institutions of higher learning strive to develop in students the cognitive abilities of critical thinking, problem solving, and creativity. To meet these interests from industry and academia, it is important to advance the teaching and learning of engineering design. This research aims to understand how engineering students learn and think about design, as a way for engineering educators to optimize instructional practice and curriculum development. Qualitative research methodology was used to investigate the meaning that engineering students' ascribe to engineering design. The recruitment of participants and corresponding collection of data occurred in two phases using two different data collection techniques. The first phase involved the distribution of a one-time online questionnaire to all first year, third year, and fourth year undergraduate engineering students at three Canadian Universities. After the questionnaire, students were asked if they would be willing to participate in the second phase of data collection consisting of a personal interview. A total of ten students participated in interviews. Qualitative data analysis procedures were conducted on students' responses from the questionnaire and interviews. The data analysis process consisted of two phases: a descriptive phase to code and categorize the data, followed by an interpretative phase to generate further meaning and relationships. The research findings present a conceptual understanding of students' descriptions about engineering design, structured within two educational orientations: a learning studies orientation and a curriculum studies orientation. The learning studies orientation captured three themes of students' understanding of engineering design: awareness

  13. The Role of Computer Modeling in Enhancing Students' Conceptual Understanding of Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ornek

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate how the use of the computer simulations program VPython facilitated students’ conceptual understanding of fundamental physical principles and in constructing new knowledge of physics. We focused on students in a calculus-based introductory physics course, based on the Matter and Interactions curriculum of Chabay & Sherwood (2002 at a large state engineering and science university in the USA. A major emphasis of this course was on computer modeling by using VPython to write pro¬grams simulating physical systems. We conducted multiple student interviews, as well as an open-ended exit survey, to find out student views on how creating their own simulations to enhanced-conceptual understanding of physics and in constructing new knowledge of phys¬ics. The results varied in relation to the phases when the interviews were conducted. At the beginning of the course, students viewed the simulation program as a burden. However, dur¬ing the course, students stated that it promoted their knowledge and better conceptual understanding of physical phenomena. We deduce that VPython computer simulations can improve students’ conceptual understanding of fundamental physical concepts and promote construction of new knowledge in physics, once they overcome the initial learning curve associated with the VPython software package.

  14. Students' Understanding of the Addition of Angular Momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We describe the difficulties advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with concepts related to the addition of angular momentum. We also describe the development and implementation of a research-based learning tool, a Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT), to reduce these difficulties. The preliminary evaluation shows that the QuILT on the addition of angular momentum is helpful in improving students' understanding of these concepts.

  15. Student Response Systems and Facilitating the Large Lecture Basic Communication Course: Assessing Engagement and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Katherine J.

    2013-01-01

    Instructors of large lecture classes face a variety of challenges, including student engagement and participation. With budget cuts and increasing class sizes, more schools may turn to large lecture/lab formats for the basic communication course (Stanley & Porter, 2002); instructors must understand how these classes engage students. One viable…

  16. The First Year of College: Understanding Student Persistence in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Marina Calvet

    This research study aimed to expand our understanding of the factors that influence student persistence in engineering. The unique experiences of engineering students were examined as they transitioned into and navigated their first year of college at a public research university in California. Most students provided similar responses with respect to the way they experienced the transition to college and social life. There was, however, wide student response variation regarding their experience of academic life and academic policies, as well as in their level of pre-college academic preparation and financial circumstances. One key finding was that students' experiences during the first year of college varied widely based on the extent to which they had acquired organizational and learning skills prior to college. The study used a mixed methods approach. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through an online survey and one-on-one interviews conducted with freshman students near the end of their first year of college. The theoretical foundations of this study included Astin's Theory of Student Involvement and Tinto's Theory of Student Departure. The design of the study was guided by these theories which emphasize the critical importance of student involvement with the academic and social aspects of college during the first year of college.

  17. Assessment of polytechnic students' understanding of basic algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokmin, Nur Azlina Mohamed; Masood, Mona

    2015-12-01

    It is important for engineering students to excel in algebra. Previous studies show that the algebraic fraction is a subtopic of algebra that was found to be the most challenging for engineering students. This study is done with 191 first semester engineering students who have enrolled in engineering programs in Malaysian polytechnic. The respondents are divided into Group 1 (Distinction) and Group 2 (Credit) based on their Mathematics SPM result. A computer application is developed for this study to assess student information and understanding of the algebraic fraction topic. The result is analyzed using SPSS and Microsoft Excel. The test results show that there are significant differences between Group 1 and Group 2 and that most of the students scored below the minimum requirement.

  18. Student understanding of calculus within physics and mathematics classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Warren; Thompson, John

    2010-03-01

    The earliest results in Physics Education Research demonstrated the challenges facing students in understanding the graphical interpretations of slope, derivative, and area under curves in the context of kinematics. As part of ongoing research on mathematical challenges that may underlie documented physics difficulties, we developed and administered a brief survey on single- and multivariable calculus concepts to students within physics and mathematics classrooms at both the introductory and advanced levels. Initial findings among students in multivariable calculus show that as many as one in five students encounter some type of difficulty when asked to rank the slopes at five different points along a single path. We will present further data on the extent to which students in a first semester calculus course and an introductory calculus-based physics course encounter similar challenges.

  19. The Effect of a Teacher Professional Development in Facilitating Students' Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Afzal S.; Watt, Anthony P.

    2010-01-01

    The Iranian educational system would benefit from major refinement in order to better develop the creativity of children. The extension of teachers' understanding of creativity is one of the main factors in facilitating change. A theory and practice based professional development program was designed, therefore, to assist teachers to acquire…

  20. The 3M Project: Using Technology to Facilitate Greater Cultural Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Heidi J.; Tseng, Kevin S.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses how Montessori teachers create authentic and meaningful experiences for older students in the modern technological age while fostering the sensitive stages of imagination and exploration of the world around them. Maria Montessori observed that children learn to read and write through their spontaneous, independent behavior.…

  1. A Framework for Understanding Physics Students' Computational Modeling Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunk, Brandon Robert

    With the growing push to include computational modeling in the physics classroom, we are faced with the need to better understand students' computational modeling practices. While existing research on programming comprehension explores how novices and experts generate programming algorithms, little of this discusses how domain content knowledge, and physics knowledge in particular, can influence students' programming practices. In an effort to better understand this issue, I have developed a framework for modeling these practices based on a resource stance towards student knowledge. A resource framework models knowledge as the activation of vast networks of elements called "resources." Much like neurons in the brain, resources that become active can trigger cascading events of activation throughout the broader network. This model emphasizes the connectivity between knowledge elements and provides a description of students' knowledge base. Together with resources resources, the concepts of "epistemic games" and "frames" provide a means for addressing the interaction between content knowledge and practices. Although this framework has generally been limited to describing conceptual and mathematical understanding, it also provides a means for addressing students' programming practices. In this dissertation, I will demonstrate this facet of a resource framework as well as fill in an important missing piece: a set of epistemic games that can describe students' computational modeling strategies. The development of this theoretical framework emerged from the analysis of video data of students generating computational models during the laboratory component of a Matter & Interactions: Modern Mechanics course. Student participants across two semesters were recorded as they worked in groups to fix pre-written computational models that were initially missing key lines of code. Analysis of this video data showed that the students' programming practices were highly influenced by

  2. Facilitating Active Engagement of the University Student in a Large-Group Setting Using Group Work Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, Gemma K.; Mahon, Catherine; Lillis, Seamus

    2017-01-01

    It is envisaged that small-group exercises as part of a large-group session would facilitate not only group work exercises (a valuable employability skill), but also peer learning. In this article, such a strategy to facilitate the active engagement of the student in a large-group setting was explored. The production of student-led resources was…

  3. The use of a student group log to facilitate student and teacher learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenders, Fer

    2016-01-01

    In 21st century education students should have ample opportunities to collaborate on authentic problems. Many teachers however find it difficult to make the transfer from teacher to student-centered education. Giving students autonomy can be disquieting to teachers, as they fear to lose control of s

  4. Facilitating conceptual change in students’ understanding of concepts related to pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Gulbin; Sezgin Selcuk, Gamze

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the effects of three different types of methods of learning physics (conceptual change-based, real life context-based and traditional learning) on high school physics students in the 11th grade in terms of conceptual change they achieved in learning about the various topics (pressure exerted by solids, pressure in stagnant liquids and gases, buoyancy, Bernoulli’s principle). In this study, a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental method with nonequivalent control group, involving a 3 (group) × 2 (time) factorial design was used. Study group 1 were given the conceptual change texts on the mentioned subjects, study group 2 were offered a teaching approach based on real life context-based learning, whereas the control group was taught in the traditional style. Data for the research were collected with the ‘pressure conceptual test’. As a result of research, the number of misconceptions had been reduced or shifted altogether in all three groups. After the instruction, it was seen that none of the students formed new misconceptions. It was found that the most positive change could be seen in the conceptual change text group followed by context-based and lastly traditional. The fact that none of the students formed new misconceptions is important, particularly since research such as the following shows that conceptual change is tenuous and inconsistent, taking time to shift in a sustained manner.

  5. A Model for Exploring Student Understandings of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Anna; Taylor, David; Johnston, Carol

    2014-01-01

    A clear understanding of how students view plagiarism is needed if the extensive efforts devoted to helping them engage in high-quality scholarship are to be worthwhile. There are a variety of views on this topic, but theoretical models to integrate the literature, take account of international differences and guide practitioners are limited.…

  6. Student teachers' understanding and acceptance of evolution and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    Art. # 1079, 9 pages, doi: 10.15700/saje.v35n2a1079. Student teachers' ... Keywords: acceptance; beliefs; evolution; nature of science; understanding ..... are at least two years of study in disciplines related ..... Predictions are that knowledge of.

  7. High School Students' Understanding of Projectile Motion Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilber, Refik; Karaman, Ibrahim; Duzgun, Bahattin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of conceptual change-based instruction and traditionally designed physics instruction on students' understanding of projectile motion concepts. Misconceptions related to projectile motion concepts were determined by related literature on this subject. Accordingly, the Projectile Motion…

  8. The Importance of Introductory Statistics Students Understanding Appropriate Sampling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menil, Violeta C.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the author discusses the meaning of sampling, the reasons for sampling, the Central Limit Theorem, and the different techniques of sampling. Practical and relevant examples are given to make the appropriate sampling techniques understandable to students of Introductory Statistics courses. With a thorough knowledge of sampling…

  9. Enhancing Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Students' Misconceptions in Learning Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naah, Basil Mugaga

    2015-01-01

    Preservice teachers enrolled in a modified introductory chemistry course used an instructional rubric to improve and evaluate their understanding of students' misconceptions in learning various chemistry concepts. A sample of 79 preservice teachers first explored the state science standards to identify chemistry misconceptions associated with the…

  10. An Experiment of Student Understanding of Accruals versus Cash Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Lopez, Jose Eduardo; Nichols, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    The concepts of both accrual accounting and cash basis accounting need to be thoroughly understood by accounting graduates as they enter the workplace. In making decisions, both managers and investors often may need to make adjustments from one basis to the other. But do students really understand these concepts? This study uses an experimental…

  11. A New Conceptual Model for Understanding International Students' College Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfattal, Eyad

    2016-01-01

    This study concerns the theory and practice of international marketing in higher education with the purpose of exploring a conceptual model for understanding international students' needs in the context of a four-year college in the United States. A transcendental phenomenological design was employed to investigate the essence of international…

  12. A Model for Exploring Student Understandings of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Anna; Taylor, David; Johnston, Carol

    2014-01-01

    A clear understanding of how students view plagiarism is needed if the extensive efforts devoted to helping them engage in high-quality scholarship are to be worthwhile. There are a variety of views on this topic, but theoretical models to integrate the literature, take account of international differences and guide practitioners are limited.…

  13. Empowering Andrea to Help Year 5 Students Construct Fraction Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baturo, Annette R

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a glimpse into the positive effect on student learning as a result of empowering a classroom teacher of 20 years (Andrea) with subject matter knowledge relevant to developing fraction understanding. Having a facility with fractions is essential for life skills in any society, whether metricated or non-metricated, and yet…

  14. Student Understanding of Gravity in Introductory College Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kathryn E.; Willoughby, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-four free-response questions were developed to explore introductory college astronomy students' understanding of gravity in a variety of contexts, including in and around Earth, throughout the solar system, and in hypothetical situations. Questions were separated into three questionnaires, each of which was given to a section of…

  15. Using Story to Help Student Understanding of Gas Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Rick; Stinner, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Students tend to have a poor understanding of the concept of gas pressure. Usually, gas pressure is taught in terms of the various formulaic gas laws. The development of the concept of gas pressure according to the early Greeks did not include the concept of a vacuum. It was not for another 2000 years that Torricelli proposed that a vacuum can…

  16. Students' Understanding of Boiling Points and Intermolecular Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen; Kaufmann, Birgit; Treagust, David F.

    2009-01-01

    In introductory chemistry courses students are presented with the model that matter is composed of particles, and that weak forces of attraction exist between them. This model is used to interpret phenomena such as solubility and melting points, and aids in understanding the changes in states of matter as opposed to chemical reactions. We…

  17. University Students' Understanding of Chemical Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasulu, Bellam; Subramaniam, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored undergraduate students' understanding of the chemistry topic of thermodynamics using a 4-tier diagnostic instrument, comprising 30 questions, and follow-up interviews. An additional objective of the study was to assess the utility of the 4-tier instrument for use in studies on alternative conceptions (ACs) as there has…

  18. Understanding Chinese international college and university students' physical activity behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Yan

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Understanding factors that influence PA among Chinese international students is an important step in the process of promoting their long-term health and wellbeing. Designing program that address the identified key factors may help colleges and universities achieve this goal.

  19. Enhancing Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Students' Misconceptions in Learning Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naah, Basil Mugaga

    2015-01-01

    Preservice teachers enrolled in a modified introductory chemistry course used an instructional rubric to improve and evaluate their understanding of students' misconceptions in learning various chemistry concepts. A sample of 79 preservice teachers first explored the state science standards to identify chemistry misconceptions associated with the…

  20. Using Critical Discourse Analysis to Understand Student Resistance to Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, D. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Diversity is a word used by many people with different meanings and interpretations. The differences in the way we understand and use the word "diversity" pose unique challenges for those who do social justice education. Students and educators may not share the same definition, connotation, or beliefs related to the idea of diversity.…

  1. Student Understanding of Liquid-Vapor Phase Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Andrew; Campbell, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Student understanding of the equilibrium coexistence of a liquid and its vapor was the subject of an extended investigation. Written assessment questions were administered to undergraduates enrolled in introductory physics and chemistry courses. Responses have been analyzed to document conceptual and reasoning difficulties in sufficient detail to…

  2. Student Understanding of Gravity in Introductory College Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kathryn E.; Willoughby, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-four free-response questions were developed to explore introductory college astronomy students' understanding of gravity in a variety of contexts, including in and around Earth, throughout the solar system, and in hypothetical situations. Questions were separated into three questionnaires, each of which was given to a section of…

  3. Mapping What Young Students Understand and Value Regarding Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manni, Annika; Sporre, Karin; Ottander, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study carried out to investigate how 10-12 year old Swedish students understand and value the issue of sustainable development. The responses from open-ended questions in a questionnaire have been analyzed through a content analysis based on a phenomenographic approach. The results show that there are…

  4. How Much Do They Understand? Lectures, Students and Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Denise; Kirkpatrick, Andy

    2000-01-01

    Studied the nature and extent of problems in comprehension of lectures experienced by 198 college students from non-English speaking backgrounds at a British university. Slightly fewer than 1 in 10 was able to understand the content and intent of lectures very well, and almost 25% had not understood the lectures at all. (SLD)

  5. University Students' Understanding of Thermal Physics in Everyday Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Helen; Sharma, Manjula Devi

    2012-01-01

    Thermal physics is in the realm of everyday experience, underlies current environmental concerns, and underpins studies in sciences, health and engineering. In the state of NSW in Australia, the coverage of thermal topics in high school is minimal, and, hence, so is the conceptual understanding of students. This study takes a new approach at…

  6. Students' Developing Understanding of Water in Environmental Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covitt, Beth A.; Gunckel, Kristin L.; Anderson, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    The authors developed a framework of empirically grounded curricular goals for water-science literacy and documented the challenges that students face in achieving these goals. Water-related environmental science literacy requires an understanding of connected natural and human-engineered systems at multiple scales ranging from atomic-molecular…

  7. Three Concepts or One? Students' Understanding of Basic Limit Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Plaza, José Antonio; Simpson, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    In many mathematics curricula, the notion of limit is introduced three times: the limit of a sequence, the limit of a function at a point and the limit of a function at infinity. Despite the use of very similar symbols, few connections between these notions are made explicitly and few papers in the large literature on student understanding of…

  8. Understanding Students with Diabetes: Implications for the Physical Education Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petray, Clayre; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Provides physical educators with an understanding of diabetes, noting important considerations when teaching physical education to students with diabetes. Discusses four aspects of the issue (overview; common questions and answers concerning the control of diabetes; balancing insulin, food intake, and physical activity; and implications for…

  9. Students' Understanding of Boiling Points and Intermolecular Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen; Kaufmann, Birgit; Treagust, David F.

    2009-01-01

    In introductory chemistry courses students are presented with the model that matter is composed of particles, and that weak forces of attraction exist between them. This model is used to interpret phenomena such as solubility and melting points, and aids in understanding the changes in states of matter as opposed to chemical reactions. We…

  10. Diagnostic Appraisal of Grade 12 Students' Understanding of Reaction Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yaw Kai; Subramaniam, R.

    2016-01-01

    The study explored grade 12 students' understanding of reaction kinetics, a topic which has not been extensively explored in the chemistry education literature at this level. A 3-tier diagnostic instrument with 11 questions was developed--this format is of very recent origin and has been the subject of only a handful of studies. The findings…

  11. A Novel Technology to Investigate Students' Understandings of Enzyme Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2012-01-01

    Digital pen-and-paper technology, although marketed commercially as a bridge between old and new note-taking capabilities, synchronizes the collection of both written and audio data. This manuscript describes how this technology was used to improve data collection in research regarding students' learning, specifically their understanding of…

  12. A phenomenographic study of registered nurses' understanding of their role in student learning--an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Jillian

    2006-11-01

    Students may be 'buddied' with registered nurses during their clinical experience since the designated clinical facilitator cannot be available for each student at all times. Little is known about the way registered nurses understand this informal role. The rationale for this study was to gain an insight of the variation of understanding registered nurses have of their role with students, and explored the qualitatively different ways registered nurses perceive their role with students on clinical experience and the implications of this understanding for student learning. A phenomenographic approach was used to identify the variation of understanding and meaning of the role of the registered nurse with students on clinical practice from the perspective of the registered nurse. Phenomenography is a field of descriptive research concerned with the variation in ways people experience and understand similar phenomena. A purposive sample of 30 registered nurses from 15 public and private hospitals in central and south eastern Queensland, Australia. Individual semi-structured interviews from a final sample of 28 interviews were analysed to identify Categories of Description. Eight variations of understanding registered nurses have of their informal role with students were identified. The registered nurses' understanding varies from a focus that is 'student-centred', to 'completion of workload-centred', to 'registered nurse control', to a preference for no contact with students. As a consequence some students may have positive learning experiences while others will have limited learning opportunities. The research highlights the varied ways registered nurses understand their role with students that may promote or impede the quality of student learning and development to meet professional competency standards. Formal recognition of the complexity of the registered nurse role by health care agencies and tertiary education providers is essential to ensure registered nurses

  13. Criteria and levels of understanding the students of educational material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reznik S.N.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Аnalysed and grounded the criteria of students' understanding of educational material (ability to expose essence of question, explain to him by another man, ability to draw a conclusion, paraphrase, to plan one's own way, to retell the «words» educational material, ability to illustrate by his own example and pictures, etc.. In accordance with them four levels of understanding are fixed - high, middle, low and very low. The most widespread criteria of understanding are selected: adequacy, plenitude (volume, depth, clearness, validity.

  14. Assessing and Improving Student Understanding of Tree-Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, Tyler A.

    Evolution is the unifying theory of biology. The importance of understanding evolution by those who study the origins, diversification and diversity life cannot be overstated. Because of its importance, in addition to a scientific study of evolution, many researchers have spent time studying the acceptance and the teaching of evolution. Phylogenetic Systematics is the field of study developed to understand the evolutionary history of organisms, traits, and genes. Tree-thinking is the term by which we identify concepts related to the evolutionary history of organisms. It is vital that those who undertake a study of biology be able to understand and interpret what information these phylogenies are meant to convey. In this project, we evaluated the current impact a traditional study of biology has on the misconceptions students hold by assessing tree-thinking in freshman biology students to those nearing the end of their studies. We found that the impact of studying biology was varied with some misconceptions changing significantly while others persisted. Despite the importance of tree-thinking no appropriately developed concept inventory exists to measure student understanding of these important concepts. We developed a concept inventory capable of filling this important need and provide evidence to support its use among undergraduate students. Finally, we developed and modified activities as well as courses based on best practices to improve teaching and learning of tree-thinking and organismal diversity. We accomplished this by focusing on two key questions. First, how do we best introduce students to tree-thinking and second does tree-thinking as a course theme enhance student understanding of not only tree-thinking but also organismal diversity. We found important evidence suggesting that introducing students to tree-thinking via building evolutionary trees was less successful than introducing the concept via tree interpretation and may have in fact introduced or

  15. Facilitating student learning about ergonomics and healthy computing skills via participatory ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Sahika Vatan; Sommerich, Carolyn M

    2009-01-01

    In general, K-12 students have little opportunity to control feedback from the various factors in their educational environments. However, leading theories of human-system interaction suggest participants in a system will perform better if they have some degree of control over their interaction with the design of the system's features. In an effort to provide an added degree of control to students in one high school while also attempting to address concerns about computer use-related musculoskeletal discomfort in students, an experiment was conducted with the goal of identifying effective means through which students could learn about healthy computing. One group of students (n=8) participated in a knowledge discovery process facilitated by an ergonomist, a second group of students (n=6) participated in a training session conducted by the first group of students, and a third group served as controls (n=7). Results of a comparison of scores for pre- and post-intervention surveys that tested students' abilities to recognize problematic computer use conditions and make appropriate recommendations for change showed an increase for the first and second groups, and no increase in the control group. Another positive sign from the first group was their sustained participation, on their own time, in the learning process over the course of several weeks. Pros and cons of the learning methods are discussed.

  16. Discussing underrepresentation as a means to facilitating female students' physics identity development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Robynne M.; Hazari, Zahra

    2016-12-01

    Despite the fact that approximately half of high school physics students are female, only 21% of physics bachelor's degrees are awarded to women. In a previous study, drawn from a national survey of college students in introductory English courses, five factors commonly proposed to positively impact female students' choice of a physical science career were tested using multivariate matching methods. The only factor found to have a positive effect was the explicit discussion of the underrepresentation of women in physics. In order to explore this further, a case study of the classes of one teacher reported to discuss the underrepresentation of women was conducted. Two classroom underrepresentation discussions were recorded, students and teacher were interviewed, and relevant student work was collected. Analyzing the case study data using a figured worlds framework, we found that discussing the underrepresentation of women in science explicitly creates an opportunity for students' figured worlds of professional and school science to change, and facilitates challenging their own implicit assumptions about how the world functions. Subsequently, the norms in students' figured worlds may change or become less rigid allowing for a new openness to physics identity development amongst female students.

  17. A Case-Conference Exercise to Facilitate Understanding of Paradigms in Abnormal Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafosse, Jose M.; Zinser, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    In this article we describe an in-class case-conference exercise designed to enhance the teaching of paradigms in abnormal psychology courses. The primary pedagogical goals are to increase awareness of how paradigms are applied in real-life settings; better distinguish between paradigms; and recognize how paradigms influence understanding of…

  18. A Case-Conference Exercise to Facilitate Understanding of Paradigms in Abnormal Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafosse, Jose M.; Zinser, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    In this article we describe an in-class case-conference exercise designed to enhance the teaching of paradigms in abnormal psychology courses. The primary pedagogical goals are to increase awareness of how paradigms are applied in real-life settings; better distinguish between paradigms; and recognize how paradigms influence understanding of…

  19. Professional Development Aligned with AP Chemistry Curriculum: Promoting Science Practices and Facilitating Enduring Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Deborah G.; Yezierski, Ellen J.

    2014-01-01

    The recent revisions to the advanced placement (AP) chemistry curriculum promote deep conceptual understanding of chemistry content over more rote memorization of facts and algorithmic problem solving. For many teachers, this will mean moving away from traditional worksheets and verification lab activities that they have used to address the vast…

  20. Promoting the Understanding of Photosynthesis Among Elementary School Student Teachers Through Text Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Södervik, Ilona; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Vilppu, Henna

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate elementary school pre-service teachers' understanding of photosynthesis and to examine if a refutational text can support understanding of photosynthesis better than a non-refutational text. A total of 91 elementary school pre-service teachers read either a refutational or a non-refutational text concerning photosynthesis and then answered open-ended questions. Our results indicate that there are critical problems associated with student teachers learning about the process of photosynthesis, even after it has been systematically taught in teacher education. However, the results positively indicate that refutational science texts seem to foster effective conceptual change among student teachers. The results interestingly showed that students who read a refutational text improved their systemic and factual understanding of photosynthesis more than did those who read a non-refutational text. Especially students who had naïve prior understanding regarding photosynthesis benefitted more from a refutational text. Thus, a refutational text may act as an effective facilitator of conceptual change. These results have implications for teacher education, where conceptual mastery of the most important science phenomena, such as photosynthesis, should be achieved. A refutational text is an easy and effective way to support conceptual change in higher education. Thus, this study highlights the importance of domain-specific science education in teacher programmes.

  1. Student understanding of symmetry and Gauss's law of electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the difficulties that students in calculus-based introductory physics courses have with the concepts of symmetry, electric field, and electric flux which are important for applying Gauss's law. The determination of the electric field using Gauss's law requires determining the symmetry of a particular charge distribution and predicting the direction of the electric field everywhere if a high symmetry exists. Effective application of Gauss's law implicitly requires understanding the principle of superposition for electric fields. Helping students learn when Gauss's law can be readily applied to determine the strength of the electric field, and then helping them learn to determine the appropriate shape of Gaussian surfaces if sufficient symmetry exists, can help develop their reasoning and problem-solving skills. We administered free-response and multiple-choice questions and conducted interviews with individual students using a think-aloud protocol to elucidate the difficulties that students have...

  2. Surveying students' understanding of quantum mechanics in one spatial dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Guangtian

    2016-01-01

    We explore the difficulties that advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with non-relativistic quantum mechanics of a single particle in one spatial dimension. To investigate these difficulties we developed a conceptual survey and administered it to more than 200 students at 10 institutions. The issues targeted in the survey include the set of possible wavefunctions, bound and scattering states, quantum measurement, expectation values, the role of the Hamiltonian, and the time-dependence of the wavefunction and expectation values. We find that undergraduate and graduate students have many common difficulties with these concepts and that research-based tutorials and peer-instruction tools can significantly reduce these difficulties. The findings also suggest that graduate quantum mechanics courses may not be effective at helping students to develop a better conceptual understanding of these topics, partly because such courses mainly focus on quantitative assessments.

  3. Helping secondary school students develop a conceptual understanding of refraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmann, Scott; Anderson, Charles W.; Boeckman, Heather

    2016-07-01

    Using real-world examples, ray diagrams, and a cognitive apprenticeship cycle, this paper focuses on developing students’ conceptual (not mathematical) understanding of refraction. Refraction can be a difficult concept for students to comprehend if they do not have well-designed opportunities to practice explaining situations where reflection and refraction occur. The use of ray diagrams can be useful in (a) the teacher modelling a correct explanation to a situation where refraction occurs and (b) for students to create as they practice other examples. This paper includes eight examples of increasing complexity that use a cognitive apprenticeship cycle approach to scaffold student learning. The first examples (rock fish, floating penny) are shown and a solution is modeled using a ray diagram. Three more examples (bent pencil, dropping an item in water, sunrise/sunset) are presented for students to practice, with each becoming more sophisticated. Three assessment exercises are then provided (two dots, three coins, broken tube).

  4. Student understanding of time dependence in quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emigh, Paul J.; Passante, Gina; Shaffer, Peter S.

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] The time evolution of quantum states is arguably one of the more difficult ideas in quantum mechanics. In this article, we report on results from an investigation of student understanding of this topic after lecture instruction. We demonstrate specific problems that students have in applying time dependence to quantum systems and in recognizing the key role of the energy eigenbasis in determining the time dependence of wave functions. Through analysis of student responses to a set of four interrelated tasks, we categorize some of the difficulties that underlie common errors. The conceptual and reasoning difficulties that have been identified are illustrated through student responses to four sets of questions administered at different points in a junior-level course on quantum mechanics. Evidence is also given that the problems persist throughout undergraduate instruction and into the graduate level.

  5. Curriculum development through understanding the student nurse experience of suicide intervention education--A phenomenographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Inga; Webster, Brian J; Tee, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    Suicide remains a global public health issue and a major governmental concern. The World Health Organisation argues for continued investment in education for front-line professionals, with a particular focus on nurses, to address the rising suicide levels. Considering this rate, it could be argued that suicide has impacted on the lives of many, including the student nurse population. Understanding the psychological impact, and influence on learning, whilst developing suicide intervention knowledge is crucial. However, little is known of the student experience in this complex and challenging area of skills development. This phenomenographic study examines the experiences of second year Bachelor of Nursing (mental health) students who participated in the Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training (ASIST). Experiences were illuminated through two focus groups, Experiences were distilled and categorised through hierarchically relationships to construct a group experiential field to illustrate understandings of the impact this approach has on learning Students found ASIST to be emotionally challenging yet an extremely positive experience through bonding, peer learning, and class cohesion. The supportive workshop facilitation was essential allowing for full immersion into role simulation thus developing student confidence. Appropriate pedagogy and student support must be considered whilst developing suicide intervention in the pre-registration curricula.

  6. Understanding barriers and facilitators to healthy eating and physical activity from patients either before and after knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Christine A; Ledford, Gwendolyn; Chang, Rowland W; Cameron, Kenzie A

    2017-05-05

    , having a personal commitment to activity and tracking activity levels. Barriers that may interfere with healthy eating behaviors and knee arthroplasty rehabilitation include the desire for high-fat/high-calorie foods, overeating and mood; whereas planning and portion control may help to facilitate healthy eating. Understanding barriers and facilitators to healthy eating and physical activity can help guide rehabilitation professionals with their discussions on weight management with patients who had or are contemplating knee arthroplasty.

  7. Engaging Students Through Classroom Connection Webinars to Improve Their Understanding of the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Paige V.; Achilles, Cherie

    2013-01-01

    Planetary exploration missions to other worlds, like Mars, can generate a lot of excitement and wonder for the public. The Mars Science Laboratory Mission is one of the latest planetary missions that has intrigued the public perhaps more than most. How can scientists and educational specialists capitalize on the allure of this mission and involve students and teachers in a way that not only shares the story of the mission, but actively engages classrooms with scientists and improves their understanding of the science? The Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program [1], facilitated by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate Education Program at the NASA Johnson Space Center achieves this by facilitating MSL mission focused classroom connection webinars. Five MSL-focused webinars facilitated through EEAB during the 2012 fall semester engaged almost 3000 students and teachers. Involved STEM experts/role models helped translate the science behind the Mars Science Laboratory mission in a comprehensive, exciting, and engaging manner. These virtual events captured participants attention while increasing their science awareness and understanding of the MSL mission.

  8. Understanding Barriers and Facilitators to Healthy Eating and Active Living in Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Seguin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Studies demonstrate that people’s food and physical activity (PA environments influence behavior, yet research examining this in rural communities is limited. Methods. Focus groups of 8–15 women were conducted in rural communities in seven US states. Questions were designed to identify factors within residents’ food and PA environments they felt helped or hindered them from eating healthfully and being physically active. Results. Participants were aged 30–84 years; mean (SD = 61 (14 (N=95. On average, communities had fewer than 5,000 residents. Limited time, social norms, and distances from or lack of exercise facilities were common PA barriers. Facilitators for PA included social support, dog walking, and availability of affordable facilities. Healthy eating barriers included the perception that healthy foods were too expensive; calorically dense large portion sizes served at family meals; and frequency of eating foods away from home, which were perceived as generally unhealthy. Healthy eating supports included culture/value around local food gathering (e.g., hunting and gardening and preservation (e.g., canning and smoking. Friends and family were frequently identified as key influencers of eating and PA behavior. Conclusions. Targeting both social and built environment factors, particularly those unique to rural locales, may enhance support for healthy eating and PA behavior change interventions.

  9. Do students use and understand free-body diagrams?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rosengrant

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Physics education literature recommends using multiple representations to help students understand concepts and solve problems. However, there is little research concerning why students use the representations and whether those who use them are more successful. This study addresses these questions using free-body diagrams (diagrammatic representations used in problems involving forces as a type of representation. We conducted a two-year quantitative and qualitative study of students’ use of free-body diagrams while solving physics problems. We found that when students are in a course that consistently emphasizes the use of free-body diagrams, the majority of them do use diagrams on their own to help solve exam problems even when they receive no credit for drawing the diagrams. We also found that students who draw diagrams correctly are significantly more successful in obtaining the right answer for the problem. Lastly, we interviewed students to uncover their reasons for using free-body diagrams. We found that high achieving students used the diagrams to help solve the problems and as a tool to evaluate their work while low achieving students only used representations as aids in the problem-solving process.

  10. Understandings of Graduate Students on Nature of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Serdar Koksal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowing about nature of science (NOS and its products is a basic requirement of all graduate students and researchers due to being both members of society and experts on different scientific disciplines. As the first step, determining NOS understandings of graduate students has importance to go further in developing current situation. Therefore, this study aimed to determine NOS understandings of graduate students from different disciplines. The study included seven graduate students who were enrolled in universities as researchers. As the data collection way, face-to-face interview was utilized. The data of the study was analyzed by assigning the participants to four categories; expert, naive, mixed and not applicable. The results showed that majority of the participants were expert on social and cultural embeddedness of science and role of creativity and imagination in science while majority of the participants were naive on the aspects of “hierarchy between theories and laws”. Majority of them had mixed understandings on the aspects of existence of only one method in science, subjectivity, tentativeness. Interestingly, all of the participants were naive in terms of definition of science. The results and implications of the study will be discussed.

  11. Understanding Disparities in Service Seeking Following Forcible Versus Drug- or Alcohol-Facilitated/Incapacitated Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; Zinzow, Heidi M; Badour, Christal L; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Resnick, Heidi S

    2016-09-01

    Victims of drug- or alcohol-facilitated/incapacitated rape (DAFR/IR) are substantially less likely to seek medical, rape crisis, or police services compared with victims of forcible rape (FR); however, reasons for these disparities are poorly understood. The current study examined explanatory mechanisms in the pathway from rape type (FR vs. DAFR/IR) to disparities in post-rape service seeking (medical, rape crisis, criminal justice). Participants were 445 adult women from a nationally representative household probability sample who had experienced FR, DAFR/IR, or both since age 14. Personal characteristics (age, race, income, prior rape history), rape characteristics (fear, injury, loss of consciousness), and post-rape acknowledgment, medical concerns, and service seeking were collected. An indirect effects model using bootstrapped standard errors was estimated to examine pathways from rape type to service seeking. DAFR/IR-only victims were less likely to seek services compared with FR victims despite similar post-rape medical concerns. FR victims were more likely to report fear during the rape and a prior rape history, and to acknowledge the incident as rape; each of these characteristics was positively associated with service seeking. However, only prior rape history and acknowledgment served as indirect paths to service seeking; acknowledgment was the strongest predictor of service seeking. Diminished acknowledgment of the incident as rape may be especially important to explaining why DAFR/IR victims are less likely than FR victims to seek services. Public service campaigns designed to increase awareness of rape definitions, particularly around DAFR/IR, are important to reducing disparities in rape-related service seeking.

  12. Evolution in students' understanding of thermal physics with increasing complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbeheim, Elon; Safran, Samuel A.; Livne, Shelly; Yerushalmi, Edit

    2013-12-01

    We analyze the development in students’ understanding of fundamental principles in the context of learning a current interdisciplinary research topic—soft matter—that was adapted to the level of high school students. The topic was introduced in a program for interested 11th grade high school students majoring in chemistry and/or physics, in an off-school setting. Soft matter was presented in a gradual increase in the degree of complexity of the phenomena as well as in the level of the quantitative analysis. We describe the evolution in students’ use of fundamental thermodynamics principles to reason about phase separation—a phenomenon that is ubiquitous in soft matter. In particular, we examine the impact of the use of free energy analysis, a common approach in soft matter, on the understanding of the fundamental principles of thermodynamics. The study used diagnostic questions and classroom observations to gauge the student’s learning. In order to gain insight on the aspects that shape the understanding of the basic principles, we focus on the responses and explanations of two case-study students who represent two trends of evolution in conceptual understanding in the group. We analyze changes in the two case studies’ management of conceptual resources used in their analysis of phase separation, and suggest how their prior knowledge and epistemological framing (a combination of their personal tendencies and their prior exposure to different learning styles) affect their conceptual evolution. Finally, we propose strategies to improve the instruction of these concepts.

  13. How does sport psychology actually improve athletic performance? A framework to facilitate athletes' and coaches' understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Chris J

    2010-09-01

    The popularity of sport psychology, both as an academic discipline and an applied practice, has grown substantially over the past two decades. Few within the realm of competitive athletics would argue with the importance of being mentally prepared prior to an athletic competition as well as the need to maintain that particular mindset during a competitive contest. Nevertheless, recent research has shown that many athletes, coaches, and sporting administrators are still quite reluctant to seek out the services of a qualified sport psychologist, even if they believe it could help. One of the primary reasons for this hesitation appears to be a lack of understanding about the process and the mechanisms by which these mental skills affect performance. Unlike the "harder sciences" of sport physiology and biochemistry where athletes can see the tangible results in themselves or other athletes (e.g., he or she lifted weights, developed larger muscles, and is now stronger/faster as a result), the unfamiliar and often esoteric nature of sport psychology appears to be impeding a large number of athletes from soliciting these important services. As such, the purpose of this article is to provide the reader with a simple framework depicting how mental skills training translates into improved within-competition performance. This framework is intended to help bridge the general "understanding gap" that is currently being reported by a large number of athletes and coaches, while also helping sport psychology practitioners sell their valuable services to individual athletes and teams.

  14. Student Veteran perceptions of facilitators and barriers to achieving academic goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Sonya B; Rosen, Jay; Himmerich, Sara; Myers, Ursula S; Davis, Brittany; Browne, Kendall C; Piland, Neill

    2015-01-01

    According to recent estimates, over 1 million Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) Veterans are utilizing the post-9/11 GI Bill to pursue higher education. Data collected by the Department of Defense suggests that greater than 17% of returning Veterans may suffer from mental and physical health disorders, which can negatively affect school performance. The current study explored student Veterans' perceived facilitators and barriers to achieving academic goals. Thirty-one student Veterans completed self-report measures and interviews. Results suggested that Veterans that were reporting problems or symptoms in one mental or physical health domain were likely to be reporting symptoms or problems in others as well. The interview data were coded, and three overarching themes related to barriers and facilitators emerged: person features (e.g., discipline and determination, symptoms and stressors), institutional structure (i.e., what schools and the Department of Veterans Affairs do that was perceived to help or hinder student Veteran success), and policy concerns (i.e., how the structure of the GI Bill affects student Veteran school experience). Results from this research indicate the need for larger studies and program development efforts aimed at enhancing academic outcomes for Veterans.

  15. The Use of a Virtual Online Debating Platform to Facilitate Student Discussion of Potentially Polarising Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Paul D; Tzioumis, Vicky; Degeling, Chris; Johnson, Jane; Brown, Robert; Sands, Mike; Starling, Melissa J; Phillips, Clive J C

    2017-09-02

    The merits of students exchanging views through the so-called human continuum exercise (HCE) are well established. The current article describes the creation of the virtual human continuum (VHC), an online platform that facilitates the same teaching exercise. It also reports feedback on the VHC from veterinary science students (n = 38). First-year Doctor of Veterinary Medicine students at the University of Sydney, Australia, trialed the platform and provided feedback. Most students agreed or strongly agreed that the VHC offered: a non-threatening environment for discussing emotive and challenging issues; and an opportunity to see how other people form ideas. It also made them think about how to express their ideas and make arguments; and left them feeling more comfortable about expressing their views using it than they would discussing ideas face-to-face (98%, 84%, 79% and 76%, respectively). All respondents agreed or strongly agreed that the VHC encouraged them to consider other opinions. These data suggest that the transition of the HCE to an online platform facilitates dialogue on difficult ethical issues in a supportive environment.

  16. Toward understanding writing to learn in physics: Investigating student writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaree, Dedra

    It is received wisdom that writing in a discipline helps students learn the discipline, and millions of dollars have been committed at many universities to supporting such writing. We show that evidence for effectiveness is anecdotal, and that little data-based material informs these prejudices. This thesis begins the process of scientific study of writing in the discipline, in specific, in physics, and creates means to judge whether such writing is effective. The studies culminating in this thesis are an aggressive start to addressing these complex questions. Writing is often promoted as an activity that, when put into classrooms in specific disciplines, not only helps students learn to write in the methods of that discipline but also helps students learn content knowledge. Students at the Ohio State University are being asked to write more in introductory courses, and the Engineering schools want their students to have more writing skills for the job market. Combined with the desire of many educators to have students be able to explain the course content knowledge clearly, it would seem that writing activities would be important and useful in physics courses. However, the question of whether writing helps learning or whether students learn writing within a non-English classroom helps learning in the discipline are open to debate, and data are needed before such claims can be made. This thesis presents several studies aimed at understanding the correlation of writing and content, and tracking and characterizing student writing behaviors to see how they are impacted by writing in physics courses. It consists of four parts: summer and autumn 2005 focus on writing in introductory physics labs with and without explicit instruction, while winter and spring 2006 focus on tracking and analyzing student writing and revising behavior in Physics by Inquiry (PbI). With these related projects, we establish three main results. First, there is a need for quantitative studies of

  17. Assisting nurses to facilitate student and new graduate learning in practice settings: what 'support' do nurses at the bedside need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Amanda; Eaton, Emma

    2013-05-01

    The behaviours of nurses in the community of practice that new graduates and students participate directly contribute to learning. These behaviours are becoming more important with increasing numbers of students and graduates learning in health care contexts. Nurses, whether they assume the role of preceptor, buddy or mentor are pivotal in identifying appropriate learning opportunities for students and graduates, and assimilating these learners into the team. As nurses at the bedside have a designated caseload they need to be supported to perform this important role while delivering health care. The literature reports a number of constraints for nurses when facilitating the learning of others, namely, inadequate preparation about how to foster learning in this context, poor planning at the ward level, lack of reward or recognition for the role, lack of understanding about the specific learning needs of students and new graduates. This discussion paper provides direction for leadership and management teams to effectively support nurses who assume the role of preceptor, buddy or mentor to assist others' learning in the workplace. The recommendations suggest management teams provide for adequate preparation of nurses, effective planning of workload and organisation of work in the clinical area, and mechanisms for timely and specific feedback to maintain nurses interest and motivation in performing the role. Furthermore, senior leadership personnel need to establish a culture where the value of teaching and learning in practice is recognised and fostered by the entire team.

  18. Cognitive analysis as a way to understand students' problem-solving process in BODMAS rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, Ting Su; Kiong, Paul Lau Ngee; Manaf, Badron bin; Hamdan, Anniza Binti; Khium, Chen Chee

    2017-04-01

    Students tend to make lots of careless mistake during the process of mathematics solving. To facilitate effective learning, educators have to understand which cognitive processes are used by students and how these processes help them to solve problems. This paper is only aimed to determine the common errors in mathematics by pre-diploma students that took Intensive Mathematics I (MAT037) in UiTM Sarawak. Then, concentrate on the errors did by the students on the topic of BODMAS rule and the mental processes corresponding to these errors that been developed by students. One class of pre-diploma students taking MAT037 taught by the researchers was selected because they performed poorly in SPM mathematics. It is inevitable that they finished secondary education with many misconceptions in mathematics. The solution scripts for all the tutorials of the participants were collected. This study was predominately qualitative and the solution scripts were content analyzed to identify the common errors committed by the participants, and to generate possible mental processes to these errors. Selected students were interviewed by the researchers during the progress. BODMAS rule could be further divided into Numerical Simplification and Powers Simplification. Furthermore, the erroneous processes could be attributed to categories of Basic Arithmetic Rules, Negative Numbers and Powers.

  19. Exploring educational interventions to facilitate health professional students' professionally safe online presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Marcus A; Hawken, Susan; MacDonald, Joanna; McKimm, Judy; Brown, Menna; Moriarty, Helen; Gasquoine, Sue; Chan, Kwong; Hilder, Jo; Wilkinson, Tim

    2017-09-01

    To establish the most effective approach and type of educational intervention for health professional students, to enable them to maintain a professionally safe online presence. This was a qualitative, multinational, multi-institutional, multiprofessional study. Practical considerations (availability of participants) led us to use a combination of focus groups and individual interviews, strengthening our findings by triangulating our method of data collection. The study gathered data from 57 nursing, medical and paramedical students across four sites in three countries (Aotearoa/New Zealand, Australia and Wales). A content analysis was conducted to clarify how and why students used Facebook and what strategies they thought might be useful to ensure professional usage. A series of emergent codes were examined and a thematic analysis undertaken from which key themes were crystallized. The results illuminated the ways in which students use social networking sites (SNS). The three key themes to emerge from the data analysis were negotiating identities, distancing and risks. Students expressed the wish to have material about professional safety on SNS taught to them by authoritative figures to explain "the rules" as well as by peers to assist with practicalities. Our interactive research method demonstrated the transformative capacity of the students working in groups. Our study supports the need for an educational intervention to assist health professional students to navigate SNS safely and in a manner appropriate to their future roles as health professionals. Because health professional students develop their professional identity throughout their training, we suggest that the most appropriate intervention incorporate small group interactive sessions from those in authority, and from peers, combined with group work that facilitates and enhances the students' development of a professional identity.

  20. Using a Wiki-Based Collaborative Process Writing Pedagogy to Facilitate Collaborative Writing among Chinese Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuanxi; Chu, Samuel Kai Wah; Ki, Wing Wah; Woo, Matsuko

    2012-01-01

    This case study explored collaborative writing in Chinese among 59 primary four Chinese students using a "Wiki-based Collaborative Process Writing Pedagogy" (WCPWP) in Shenzhen, China. It aimed mainly to design and orchestrate a WCPWP in order to facilitate students' Chinese writing. It investigated students' collaborative writing process and…

  1. Students' understanding of density: A cognitive linguistics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southey, Philip; Allie, Saalih; Demaree, Dedra

    2013-01-01

    Density is an important, multifaceted concept that occurs at many levels of physics education. Previous research has shown that a primary instantiation of the concept, mass density, is not well understood by high school or university students. This study seeks to determine how students understand the broad concept of density, and whether particular aspects of their understanding are helpful in structuring the concept of charge density. Qualitative data were gathered in the form of questionnaires distributed to 172 freshmen comprising three different academic groups. Broad, open ended questions prompted for responses involving free writing and drawn diagrams. The data were analysed by an approach suggested by Grounded Theory. Using the theoretical lens of Conceptual Metaphor Theory, six underlying (foothold) concepts were identified in terms of which density was conceptualised: `filled container'; `packing'; `weight/heaviness'; `intensive property'; `floating/sinking'; `impenetrability/solidity'. The foothold concept of `packing' proved to be the most productive for conceptualising `charge density'.

  2. Investigating student understanding of operational-amplifier circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Christos P.; Tombras, George S.; Van De Bogart, Kevin L.; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.

    2015-12-01

    The research reported in this article represents a systematic, multi-year investigation of student understanding of the behavior of basic operational-amplifier (op-amp) circuits. The participants in this study were undergraduates enrolled in upper-division physics courses on analog electronics at three different institutions, as well as undergraduates in introductory and upper-division electrical engineering courses at one of the institutions. The findings indicate that many students complete these courses without developing a functional understanding of the behavior of op-amp circuits. This article describes the most prevalent conceptual and reasoning difficulties identified (typically after lecture and hands-on laboratory experience) as well as several implications for electronics instruction that have emerged from this investigation.

  3. Understanding the Impact of an Apprenticeship-Based Scientific Research Program on High School Students' Understanding of Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydeniz, Mehmet; Baksa, Kristen; Skinner, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the impact of an apprenticeship program on high school students' understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry. Data related to seventeen students' understanding of science and scientific inquiry were collected through open-ended questionnaires. Findings suggest that although engagement in authentic…

  4. Understanding the Impact of an Apprenticeship-Based Scientific Research Program on High School Students' Understanding of Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydeniz, Mehmet; Baksa, Kristen; Skinner, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the impact of an apprenticeship program on high school students' understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry. Data related to seventeen students' understanding of science and scientific inquiry were collected through open-ended questionnaires. Findings suggest that although engagement in authentic…

  5. Secondary School Students' Understanding of Science and Their Socioscientific Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian

    2016-06-01

    Research in socioscientific issue (SSI)-based interventions is relatively new (Sadler in Journal of Research in Science Teaching 41:513-536, 2004; Zeidler et al. in Journal of Research in Science Teaching 46:74-101, 2009), and there is a need for understanding more about the effects of SSI-based learning environments (Sadler in Journal of Research in Science Teaching 41:513-536, 2004). Lee and Witz (International Journal of Science Education 31:931-960, 2009) highlighted the need for detailed case studies that would focus on how students respond to teachers' practices of teaching SSI. This study presents case studies that investigated the development of secondary school students' science understanding and their socioscientific reasoning within SSI-based learning environments. A multiple case study with embedded units of analysis was implemented for this research because of the contextual differences for each case. The findings of the study revealed that students' understanding of science, including scientific method, social and cultural influences on science, and scientific bias, was strongly influenced by their experiences in SSI-based learning environments. Furthermore, multidimensional SSI-based science classes resulted in students having multiple reasoning modes, such as ethical and economic reasoning, compared to data-driven SSI-based science classes. In addition to portraying how participants presented complexity, perspectives, inquiry, and skepticism as aspects of socioscientific reasoning (Sadler et al. in Research in Science Education 37:371-391, 2007), this study proposes the inclusion of three additional aspects for the socioscientific reasoning theoretical construct: (1) identification of social domains affecting the SSI, (2) using cost and benefit analysis for evaluation of claims, and (3) understanding that SSIs and scientific studies around them are context-bound.

  6. Secondary School Students' Understanding of Science and Their Socioscientific Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian

    2017-08-01

    Research in socioscientific issue (SSI)-based interventions is relatively new (Sadler in Journal of Research in Science Teaching 41:513-536, 2004; Zeidler et al. in Journal of Research in Science Teaching 46:74-101, 2009), and there is a need for understanding more about the effects of SSI-based learning environments (Sadler in Journal of Research in Science Teaching 41:513-536, 2004). Lee and Witz (International Journal of Science Education 31:931-960, 2009) highlighted the need for detailed case studies that would focus on how students respond to teachers' practices of teaching SSI. This study presents case studies that investigated the development of secondary school students' science understanding and their socioscientific reasoning within SSI-based learning environments. A multiple case study with embedded units of analysis was implemented for this research because of the contextual differences for each case. The findings of the study revealed that students' understanding of science, including scientific method, social and cultural influences on science, and scientific bias, was strongly influenced by their experiences in SSI-based learning environments. Furthermore, multidimensional SSI-based science classes resulted in students having multiple reasoning modes, such as ethical and economic reasoning, compared to data-driven SSI-based science classes. In addition to portraying how participants presented complexity, perspectives, inquiry, and skepticism as aspects of socioscientific reasoning (Sadler et al. in Research in Science Education 37:371-391, 2007), this study proposes the inclusion of three additional aspects for the socioscientific reasoning theoretical construct: (1) identification of social domains affecting the SSI, (2) using cost and benefit analysis for evaluation of claims, and (3) understanding that SSIs and scientific studies around them are context-bound.

  7. Promoting Middle School Students' Understandings of Molecular Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Ravit Golan; Freidenreich, Hava Bresler; Chinn, Clark A.; Bausch, Andrew

    2011-03-01

    Genetics is the cornerstone of modern biology and understanding genetics is a critical aspect of scientific literacy. Research has shown, however, that many high school graduates lack fundamental understandings in genetics necessary to make informed decisions or to participate in public debates over emerging technologies in molecular genetics. Currently, much of genetics instruction occurs at the high school level. However, recent policy reports suggest that we may need to begin introducing aspects of core concepts in earlier grades and to successively develop students' understandings of these concepts in subsequent grades. Given the paucity of research about genetics learning at the middle school level, we know very little about what students in earlier grades are capable of reasoning about in this domain. In this paper, we discuss a research study aimed at fostering deeper understandings of molecular genetics at the middle school level. As part of the research we designed a two-week model-based inquiry unit implemented in two 7th grade classrooms ( N = 135). We describe our instructional design and report results based on analysis of pre/post assessments and written artifacts of the unit. Our findings suggest that middle school students can develop: (a) a view of genes as productive instructions for proteins, (b) an understanding of the role of proteins in mediating genetic effects, and (c) can use this knowledge to reason about a novel genetic phenomena. However, there were significant differences in the learning gains in both classrooms and we provide speculative explanations of what may have caused these differences.

  8. Development of a Student-Centered Instrument to Assess Middle School Students' Conceptual Understanding of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshach, Haim

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development and field test of the Sound Concept Inventory Instrument (SCII), designed to measure middle school students' concepts of sound. The instrument was designed based on known students' difficulties in understanding sound and the history of science related to sound and focuses on two main aspects of sound: sound…

  9. Facilitating mathematics learning for students with upper extremity disabilities using touch-input system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kup-Sze; Chan, Tak-Yin

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using tablet device as user interface for students with upper extremity disabilities to input mathematics efficiently into computer. A touch-input system using tablet device as user interface was proposed to assist these students to write mathematics. User-switchable and context-specific keyboard layouts were designed to streamline the input process. The system could be integrated with conventional computer systems only with minor software setup. A two-week pre-post test study involving five participants was conducted to evaluate the performance of the system and collect user feedback. The mathematics input efficiency of the participants was found to improve during the experiment sessions. In particular, their performance in entering trigonometric expressions by using the touch-input system was significantly better than that by using conventional mathematics editing software with keyboard and mouse. The participants rated the touch-input system positively and were confident that they could operate at ease with more practice. The proposed touch-input system provides a convenient way for the students with hand impairment to write mathematics and has the potential to facilitate their mathematics learning. Implications for Rehabilitation Students with upper extremity disabilities often face barriers to learning mathematics which is largely based on handwriting. Conventional computer user interfaces are inefficient for them to input mathematics into computer. A touch-input system with context-specific and user-switchable keyboard layouts was designed to improve the efficiency of mathematics input. Experimental results and user feedback suggested that the system has the potential to facilitate mathematics learning for the students.

  10. Understanding in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sierpinska, Anna

    1994-01-01

    The concept of understanding in mathematics with regard to mathematics education is considered in this volume, the main problem for mathematics teachers being how to facilitate their students'' understanding of the mathematics being taught.

  11. Students' Understanding of Chemical Formulae: A review of empirical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Vahide; Bernholt, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    The fluent use of the chemical language is a major tool for successfully passing chemistry courses at school or university as well as for working as a chemist, since chemical formulae are both a descriptive and a heuristic tool. However, numerous studies have revealed remarkable difficulties of students with chemical formulae both at school and at university. Although analysed for decades, current studies and practical experiences indicate that the misinterpretation of symbolic representations by students is still an ongoing problem. This review intends not only to summarize but also to categorize students' problems and difficulties when dealing with chemical formulae as reported in empirical studies. For this purpose, two categories of descriptive character were deduced from the empirical data: the type of chemical formulae and the operational activities that were required in the tasks of the studies. All in all, 38 articles were analysed on the basis of these categories. Students' problems and difficulties are then reflected based on three main problem areas: language-based problems, problems due to conceptual understanding, and problems due to inadequate selection and interpretation of formulae. These three areas call for a broader perspective in the interpretation of students' problems and thus lead to a discussion of implications for further research and changes in teaching practice.

  12. Perceived barriers and facilitators for an academic career in geriatrics: medical students' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Maureen A; Black, Michelle; Depp, Colin A; Iglewicz, Alana; Reichstadt, Jennifer; Palinkas, Lawrence; Jeste, Dilip V

    2015-06-01

    There is a growing concern about a shortage of physician scientists. This problem is particularly severe in certain subspecialties such as geriatrics in general and geriatric psychiatry in particular. This study sought to obtain medical students' perspectives on barriers and facilitators toward pursuing a career in academics and/or in geriatric psychiatry or geriatic medicine. The study surveyed 27 first-year medical students from six US medical schools, who had demonstrated a clear interest in academic geriatrics by completing a mentored summer research training program in geriatric medicine or geriatric psychiatry, funded by the National Institute on Aging. The survey included open-ended and close-ended questions about likely career choice and factors affecting it. Sixty percent of students reported they were likely to pursue an academic career, 44 % a career in geriatric psychiatry or geriatic medicine, and only 36 % a career in academic geriatrics. The most frequently perceived barriers were a lack of knowledge about academic careers and lack of exposure to geriatrics, financial concerns due to loan debts and low compensation, and negative impressions of research and of working with older adults. Facilitators included positive experiences with or positive impressions of research and research mentors and of older adults, and the growing demand for geriatric care. Attracting capable and motivated medical students to academic careers in fields such as geriatric psychiatry or geriatic medicine should be a priority in seeking to expand the number of physician scientists and to add to the health-care workforce in underserved subspecialty areas. Necessary approaches should include opportunities to work in academic settings; availability of sustained and dedicated mentorship; early, consistent, and positive exposure to older adults; and financial incentives.

  13. Using career nurse mentors to support minority nursing students and facilitate their transition to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banister, Gaurdia; Bowen-Brady, Helene M; Winfrey, Marion E

    2014-01-01

    The Clinical Leadership Collaborative for Diversity in Nursing was developed through an academe-service partnership focused on supporting minority nursing students and facilitating transition to practice. A key program element is mentoring. Students are paired with an experienced, minority clinical nurse or nurse leader from one of the partnering agencies, who helps guide the student throughout the junior and senior year of school and first year of employment. The mentoring component was evaluated through surveys in which mentors and mentees rated one another and offered open-ended comments on the program's impact. Aspects of mentees rated highest by mentors include manner (courteous and professional), ability to communicate and get along with others, preparation for meetings, and fully utilizing their time with mentors. Aspects of mentors rated highest by mentees include warmth, encouragement, and willingness to listen; enthusiasm for nursing and how they sparked the mentee's interest; and clarity regarding expectations for mentees and how they pushed mentees to achieve high standards. In the open-ended comments, mentees consistently identified mentoring as the program's strongest component. Sixty-four minority students have participated to date with a zero rate of attrition and very low job turnover among graduates.

  14. Middle School Students' Understandings About Anthropogenic Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, B. W.

    2013-12-01

    they discussed the validation of their beliefs. That is, we argue that the unit, and the emphases contained within the unit, resulted in the "epistemic scaffolding" of their ideas, to the extent that they shifted from arguing from anecdotes to arguing based on other types of data, especially from line graphs. Additionally, we found that students' understandings of climate change were tied to their ontological constructions of the subject matter, i.e., many perceived climate change as just another environmentally sensitive issue such as littering and pollution, and were therefore limited in their ability to understand anthropogenic climate change in the vast and robust sense meant by current scientific consensus. Given these known difficulties, it is critical to explore further research of this sort in order to better understand what students are actually thinking, and how that thinking is prone to change, modification, or not. Subsequently, K-12 strategies might be better designed, if that is indeed a priority of US/Western society.

  15. E-learning support for student's understanding of electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Michael; Sendrup, Linda; Sparsø, Jens

    2008-01-01

    To enhance active learning and understanding of analogue and digital electronics the use of e-learning techniques will be investigated. In a redesigned course combining introductory analogue and digital electronics, students will be motivated to prepare for lectures and exercises by providing...... access to interactive simulations. Some exercises will furthermore be carried out first as simulations of electrical circuits and then with physical components, i.e. as design-build exercises. A number of didactic problems in learning electricity and electronics are discussed....

  16. Students' attitudes towards the introduction of a Personal and Professional Development portfolio: potential barriers and facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleland Jennifer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Portfolios, widely used in undergraduate and postgraduate medicine, have variable purposes, formats and success. A recent systematic review summarised factors necessary for successful portfolio introduction but there are no studies investigating the views of students inexperienced in portfolio use towards portfolio learning. This study's aim was to survey student views about a prospective Professional and Personal Development (PPD portfolio. Methods This was a qualitative, focus group study. All focus groups were taped and transcribed verbatim, and anonymised. The transcripts were analysed inductively, using framework analysis. Results Four focus groups were carried out with 32 undergraduate medical students naïve in portfolio use. Three themes relevant to portfolio introduction emerged. The first theme was the need for clear information and support for portfolio introduction, and anxieties about how this could be supported effectively. The second was that students had negative views about reflective learning and whether this could be taught and assessed, believing formal assessment could foster socially acceptable content. The third was that participants revealed little understanding of reflective learning and its potential benefits. Rather portfolios were seen as useful for concrete purposes (e.g., job applications not intrinsic benefits. Conclusion Undergraduate medical students without experience of portfolios are anxious about portfolio introduction. They require support in developing reflective learning skills. Care must be taken to ensure students do not see portfolios as merely yet another assessment hurdle.

  17. Facilitators and barriers to success among ethnic minority students enrolled in a predominately white baccalaureate nursing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charlene B; Williams-Jones, Pamela; Lewis-Trabeaux, Shirleen; Mitchell, Denise

    2012-07-01

    This study identified facilitators and barriers to academic success among ethnic minority students enrolled in a BSN program. The following research questions were asked: What factors (a) facilitate academic performance; (b) are barriers to academic performance; (c) influence the college experience and academic success; (d) within the nursing department, influence academic success; (e) What is the impact of socialization on academic performance; (f) What were facilitators of academic success identified among study participants; and, (g) Which facilitators, identified by subjects, were most common among those participants? A retrospective-descriptive study design consisted of a sample of all minority students who were enrolled in clinical at a baccalaureate nursing program between 2005 and the fall of 2010. Bandura's theory on self-efficacy was used. Loftus and Duty's Survey of Factors Influencing Student Retention and Academic Success was adapted. Data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0 with ANOVA to determine if a significant difference in responses existed.

  18. Understanding the experiences of a group of Yemeni students in an ESL science class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradi, Gihan

    American classrooms are experiencing an influx of diverse language speaking students while for science educators the study of EBL students' learning in science classrooms is a relatively new field (Lee & Buxton, 2010). At the same time there is a growing emphasis on the importance of science practices (NGSS). This poses significant challenges for science educators who are enacting science curriculum that supports all students' learning. Supporting EBL students' academic achievement is significant because literacy is important for students' access to economic and social benefits that come with science literacy (Atwater, 1996). The purpose of this study was to examine the socio-linguistic challenges that a specific group of EBL students (Yemeni) faced and the extent to which such challenges affected their academic performance in science. These challenges are related to linguistic and cultural interactions, which can lead to conflicts between student and school, thereby interfering with the effectiveness of their education. This study also examined these students' and their science teacher's perspectives on strategies that can be used to facilitate their language acquisition during science class and help them become active participants in the school and classroom communities. The study used a qualitative interpretive research methodology and involved four Arab-American EBL students (two males and two females) from Yemen, who had been in the US for different periods of time. The amount of time these students had been in the US was important to examine differences in their acculturation and challenges they faced. Similarly, the use of female and male student participants was important to understand the impact of gender in the lived experiences of these students. The results of the study indicated that all the participants struggled with linguistic, social, and cultural aspects of their life in an American high school. These in turn led to a sense of being different

  19. Measurements of student understanding on complex scientific reasoning problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Alisa Sau-Lin

    While there has been much discussion of cognitive processes underlying effective scientific teaching, less is known about the response nature of assessments targeting processes of scientific reasoning specific to biology content. This study used multiple-choice (m-c) and short-answer essay student responses to evaluate progress in high-order reasoning skills. In a pilot investigation of student responses on a non-content-based test of scientific thinking, it was found that some students showed a pre-post gain on the m-c test version while showing no gain on a short-answer essay version of the same questions. This result led to a subsequent research project focused on differences between alternate versions of tests of scientific reasoning. Using m-c and written responses from biology tests targeted toward the skills of (1) reasoning with a model and (2) designing controlled experiments, test score frequencies, factor analysis, and regression models were analyzed to explore test format differences. Understanding the format differences in tests is important for the development of practical ways to identify student gains in scientific reasoning. The overall results suggested test format differences. Factor analysis revealed three interpretable factors---m-c format, genetics content, and model-based reasoning. Frequency distributions on the m-c and open explanation portions of the hybrid items revealed that many students answered the m-c portion of an item correctly but gave inadequate explanations. In other instances students answered the m-c portion incorrectly yet demonstrated sufficient explanation or answered the m-c correctly and also provided poor explanations. When trying to fit test score predictors for non-associated student measures---VSAT, MSAT, high school grade point average, or final course grade---the test scores accounted for close to zero percent of the variance. Overall, these results point to the importance of using multiple methods of testing and of

  20. The Impact of Facilitated Communication on the Educational Lives of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Four Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This action qualitative study with a case research design investigated the impact of facilitated communication (FC) on the educational lives of high school students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The effect of FC on nonverbal students and schools' reactions to FC were also examined. The results from the four case studies indicate that FC…

  1. Clients becoming teachers: Speech-language pathology students' understanding of rehabilitation following clinical practicum in a rehabilitation setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attrill, Stacie; Gunn, Simon

    2010-04-01

    There has been limited research investigating the conceptual development of rehabilitation in speech-language pathology (SLP) students. The aim of this study was to describe SLP students' understanding of rehabilitation following completion of a clinical practicum in a rehabilitation setting. This study was conducted using a qualitative approach according to grounded theory methodology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 SLP students who had completed a practicum in a rehabilitation setting. Interview data analysis revealed the emergence of five axial categories. Clients becoming teachers was identified as the core category, as the notion that clients were fundamental to students' understanding of rehabilitation occurred reliably throughout the data and related to all other categories. A theoretical model was proposed that demonstrated successive levels of support to students in the acquisition of their understanding of rehabilitation on practicum. Students' understanding of rehabilitation was derived from client-related interactions and factors experienced on practicum in rehabilitation settings. Rehabilitation practicum provided students with a rich and complex learning environment that may facilitate the development of the "core skills" identified for rehabilitation practice.

  2. Developing Reading Comprehension Modules to Facilitate Reading Comprehension among Malaysian Secondary School ESL Students

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    Muhammad Javed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to develop a set of 6 Reading Comprehension Modules (RCMs for Malaysian ESL teachers to facilitate different reading abilities of ESL students effectively. Different skill categories were selected for developing the RCMs. This article describes how and why diverse texts of varying length were adopted and adapted from various authentic sources for ESL students having different reading abilities/bands. It also discusses how literal, reorganisation, and inferential questions were constructed appropriately based on the texts selected in the RCMs. Five experienced content/language experts validated the RCMs while eighty ESL students selected through purposive sampling from a secondary school from Penang, Malaysia participated in the pilot study for determining the reliability of the RCMs. The results of the pilot study revealed that the participants improved their scores gradually. Kuder and Richardson Formula 20 (KR-20 was employed to determine the internal consistency of the RCMs. The calculated values of RCMs ranged between 0.804 and 0.923 that indicate high reliability. The RCMs were standardised through a rigorous developmental process by using the Pebble in the Pond Model (Merril, 2002. We hope that the standardised RCMs would act as indicators for the ESL teachers to enhance ESL students’ performance in reading comprehension

  3. The facilitation of social-emotional understanding and social interaction in high-functioning children with autism: intervention outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauminger, Nirit

    2002-08-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 7-month cognitive behavioral intervention for the facilitation of the social-emotional understanding and social interaction of 15 high-functioning children (8 to 17 years old) with autism. Intervention focused on teaching interpersonal problem solving, affective knowledge, and social interaction. Preintervention and postintervention measures included observations of social interaction, measures of problem solving and of emotion understanding, and teacher-rated social skills. Results demonstrated progress in three areas of intervention. Children were more likely to initiate positive social interaction with peers after treatment; in particular, they improved eye contact and their ability to share experiences with peers and to show interest in peers. In problem solving after treatment, children provided more relevant solutions and fewer nonsocial solutions to different social situations. In emotional knowledge, after treatment, children provided more examples of complex emotions, supplied more specific rather then general examples, and included an audience more often in the different emotions. Children also obtained higher teacher-rated social skills scores in assertion and cooperation after treatment. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of the effectiveness of the current model of intervention for high-functioning children with autism.

  4. Assessing Freshman Engineering Students' Understanding of Ethical Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henslee, Amber M; Murray, Susan L; Olbricht, Gayla R; Ludlow, Douglas K; Hays, Malcolm E; Nelson, Hannah M

    2017-02-01

    Academic dishonesty, including cheating and plagiarism, is on the rise in colleges, particularly among engineering students. While students decide to engage in these behaviors for many different reasons, academic integrity training can help improve their understanding of ethical decision making. The two studies outlined in this paper assess the effectiveness of an online module in increasing academic integrity among first semester engineering students. Study 1 tested the effectiveness of an academic honesty tutorial by using a between groups design with a Time 1- and Time 2-test. An academic honesty quiz assessed participants' knowledge at both time points. Study 2, which incorporated an improved version of the module and quiz, utilized a between groups design with three assessment time points. The additional Time 3-test allowed researchers to test for retention of information. Results were analyzed using ANCOVA and t tests. In Study 1, the experimental group exhibited significant improvement on the plagiarism items, but not the total score. However, at Time 2 there was no significant difference between groups after controlling for Time 1 scores. In Study 2, between- and within-group analyses suggest there was a significant improvement in total scores, but not plagiarism scores, after exposure to the tutorial. Overall, the academic integrity module impacted participants as evidenced by changes in total score and on specific plagiarism items. Although future implementation of the tutorial and quiz would benefit from modifications to reduce ceiling effects and improve assessment of knowledge, the results suggest such tutorial may be one valuable element in a systems approach to improving the academic integrity of engineering students.

  5. Problematizing a general physics class: Understanding student engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaid, Mark Randall

    This research paper describes the problems in democratizing a high school physics course and the disparate engagement students during class activities that promote scientific inquiry. Results from the Learning Orientation Questionnaire (Martinez, 2000) guide the participant observations and semi-formal interviews. Approximately 60% of the participants self-report a "resistant" or "conforming" approach to learning science; they expect to receive science knowledge from the teacher, and their engagement is influenced by affective and conative factors. These surface learners exhibit second order thinking (Kegan, 1994), do not understand abstract science concepts, and learn best from structured inquiry. To sustain engagement, conforming learners require motivational and instructional discourse from their teacher and peers. Resisting learners do not value learning and do not engage in most science class activities. The "performing" learners are able to deal with abstractions and can see relationships between lessons and activities, but they do not usually self-reflect or think critically (they are between Kegan's second order and third order thinking). They may select a deeper learning strategy if they value the knowledge for a future goal; however, they are oriented toward assessment and rely on the science teacher as an authority. They are influenced by affective and conative factors during structured and guided inquiry-based teaching, and benefit from motivational discourse and sustain engagement if they are interested in the topic. The transforming learners are more independent, self-assessing and self-directed. These students are third order thinkers (Kegan, 1994) who hold a sophisticated epistemology that includes critical thinking and reflection. These students select deep learning strategies without regard to affective and conative factors. They value instructional discourse from the teacher, but prefer less structured inquiry activities. Although specific

  6. Promoting Intercultural Understanding among School Students through an English Language Based Reading Programme

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    Manjet Kaur Mehar Singh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Malaysian intercultural society is typified by three major ethnic groups mainly Malays, Chinese and Indians.  Although education system is the best tool for these three major ethnic groups to work together, contemporary research reveals that there is still lack of intercultural embedding education context and national schools are seen as breeding grounds of racial polarisation.  In Malaysian context, there is a gap in research that focuses on the design of a proper intercultural reading framework for national integration and such initiatives are viable through schools.  The main objective of this conceptual paper is to introduce the English Language Intercultural Reading Programme (ELIRP in secondary schools to promote intercultural understanding among secondary school students.  The proposed framework will facilitate the acquisition of intercultural inputs without being constrained by ideological, political, or psychological demands.  This article will focus on elucidating how ELIRP could affect cognitive (knowledge and behavioural transformations to intercultural perceptions harboured by selected Form 4 students of 20 national schools in Malaysia. Keywords: behavior, knowledge, intercultural reading framework, intercultural understanding, English Language Intercultural Reading Programme, secondary school students

  7. Development of a student-centered instrument to assess middle school students' conceptual understanding of sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshach, Haim

    2014-06-01

    This article describes the development and field test of the Sound Concept Inventory Instrument (SCII), designed to measure middle school students' concepts of sound. The instrument was designed based on known students' difficulties in understanding sound and the history of science related to sound and focuses on two main aspects of sound: sound has material properties, and sound has process properties. The final SCII consists of 71 statements that respondents rate as either true or false and also indicate their confidence on a five-point scale. Administration to 355 middle school students resulted in a Cronbach alpha of 0.906, suggesting a high reliability. In addition, the average percentage of students' answers to statements that associate sound with material properties is significantly higher than the average percentage of statements associating sound with process properties (p <0.001). The SCII is a valid and reliable tool that can be used to determine students' conceptions of sound.

  8. The Question of Racism: How to Understand the Violent Attacks on Indian Students in Australia?

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    Michiel Baas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For the past ten years I have been involved in research on the topic of Indian student-migrants in Australia. What started in India in 2004 with the ostensibly simple questions why there was such a surge in Indian students’ enrolments in Australia, turned into a study which had the question of migration at the heart of its investigation. Realising that the majority of Indian students based their decision for Australia on the relatively easy pathway the country offered towards permanent residency my research focused on understanding how such trajectories from students to migrants took shape. However, as I argued in Imagined Mobility (Anthem Press, 2010, while the propensity to apply for PR may be high, permanently residing in Australia was often not the objective. Instead many Indian students saw a PR as facilitating the start of transnational existence. In this paper I will draw upon a vast collection of newspaper articles as well as ethnographic material collected over this period in order to produce a personalised account of how I, as an academic researcher, observed the discourse about Indian students in Australia ‘migrate’ from them being welcome international students and would-be migrants to unwelcome profiteers whose place in Australian cities was highly contested. Questions I will focus on are: how did the violent attacks and subsequent debate about their racist nature impact the lives and trajectories of Indian student-migrants as starting transnationals; how did they themselves reflect on these attacks especially in relation to them now being ‘permanent residents’; and finally, what role do ‘Indian students’ continue to play in Australia’s skilled migration debate?

  9. Improving Student Understanding of Geological Rates via Chronotopographic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linneman, S. R.; Clark, D. H.; Buly, P.

    2010-12-01

    We are investigating the value of incorporating chronotopographic analysis into undergraduate geology courses using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to improve student understanding of the rates and styles of geomorphic processes. Repeat high-resolution TLS surveys can track the evolution of active landscapes, including sites of active faulting, glaciation, landslides, fluvial systems and coastal dynamics. We hypothesize that geology students who collect and analyze such positional data for local active landscapes will develop a better sense of the critical (and non-steady) geomorphic processes affecting landscape change and develop a greater interest in pursuing opportunities for geology field work. We have collected baseline TLS scans of actively evolving landscapes identified in cooperation with land-use agencies. The project team is developing inquiry activities for each site and assessing their impact. For example, our faculty partners at 2-year colleges are interested in rapid retreat of coastal bluffs near their campuses. In this situation, TLS will be part of a laboratory activity in which students compare historic air photos to predict areas of the most active long-term bluff retreat; join their instructor to collect TLS data at the site (replicating the baseline scan); sketch outcrops in the field and suggest areas of the site for higher resolution scanning; and in the following class compare their predictions to the deformation maps that are the output of the repeated TLS scans. A brief two question assessment instrument was developed to address both the content and attitudinal targets. It was given WWU Geomorphology classes in 3 sequential quarters of the 2009/2010 academic year, 2 which did not work with the TLS technology (pre treatment) and one that did participate in the redesigned activities (post treatment). Additionally focus group interviews were conducted with the post students so they could verbalize their experience with the TLS. The content

  10. Probing Student Understanding of Scientific Thinking in the Context of Introductory Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Richard N.; Cormier, Sebastien; Fernandez, Adiel

    2009-01-01

    Common forms of testing of student understanding of science content can be misleading about their understanding of the nature of scientific thinking. Observational astronomy integrated with related ideas of force and motion is a rich context to explore the correlation between student content knowledge and student understanding of the scientific…

  11. Why Don't Our Students Respond? Understanding Declining Participation in Survey Research among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschepikow, William K.

    2012-01-01

    Declining response rates among college students threaten the effectiveness of survey research at institutions of higher education. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the conditions that promote participation in survey research among this population. The researcher identified three themes through this study. First, participants…

  12. Why Don't Our Students Respond? Understanding Declining Participation in Survey Research among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschepikow, William K.

    2012-01-01

    Declining response rates among college students threaten the effectiveness of survey research at institutions of higher education. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the conditions that promote participation in survey research among this population. The researcher identified three themes through this study. First, participants…

  13. Different Students, Same Difference? A Comparison of UK and International Students' Understandings of "Effective Teaching"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, Brendan; Bailey, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have seen a considerable growth in the numbers of international students coming to study in the UK. In an attempt to identify the extent to which differences in understandings and expectations of "effective teaching practice" might impede their successful integration into academic life, the following article offers a…

  14. Crafting an International Study of Students' Conceptual Understanding of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Stephanie; Bretones, P. S.; McKinnon, D.; Schleigh, S.; Slater, T. F.; Astronomy, Center; Education Research, Physics

    2013-01-01

    Large international investigations into the learning of science, such as the TIMSS and PISA studies, have been enlightening with regard to effective instructional practices. Data from these studies revealed weaknesses and promising practices within nations' educational systems, with evidence to suggest that these studies have led to international reforms in science education. However, these reforms have focused on the general characteristics of teaching and learning across all sciences. While extraordinarily useful, these studies have provided limited insight for any given content domain. To date, there has been no systematic effort to measure individual's conceptual astronomy understanding across the globe. This paper describes our motivations for a coordinated, multinational study of astronomy understanding. First, reformed education is based upon knowing the preexisting knowledge state of our students. The data from this study will be used to assist international astronomy education and public outreach (EPO) professionals in their efforts to improve practices across global settings. Second, while the US astronomy EPO community has a long history of activity, research has established that many practices are ineffective in the face of robust misconceptions (e.g.: seasons). Within an international sample we hope to find subpopulations that do not conform to our existing knowledge of student misconceptions, leading us to cultural or educational practices that hint at alternative, effective means of instruction. Finally, it is our hope that this first venture into large-scale disciplinary collaboration will help us to craft a set of common languages and practices, building capacity and leading toward long-term cooperation across the international EPO community. This project is sponsored and managed by the Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research (CAPER), in collaboration with members of the International Astronomical Union-Commission 46. We are actively

  15. Longitudinal study of student conceptual understanding in electricity and magnetism

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    S. J. Pollock

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the long-term effect of student-centered instruction at the freshman level on juniors’ performance on a conceptual survey of Electricity and Magnetism (E&M. We measured student performance on a research-based conceptual instrument—the Brief Electricity & Magnetism Assessment (BEMA–over a period of 8 semesters (2004–2007. Concurrently, we introduced the University of Washington's Tutorials in Introductory Physics as part of our standard freshman curriculum. Freshmen took the BEMA before and after this Tutorial-based introductory course, and juniors took it after completion of their traditional junior-level E&M I and E&M II courses. We find that, on average, individual BEMA scores do not change significantly after completion of the introductory course—neither from the freshman to the junior year, nor from upper-division E&M I to E&M II. However, we find that juniors who had completed a non-Tutorial freshman course scored significantly lower on the (post-upper-division BEMA than those who had completed the reformed freshman course—indicating a long-term positive impact of freshman Tutorials on conceptual understanding.

  16. The Co-Creation of Caring Student-Teacher Relationships: Does Teacher Understanding Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Kristy S.; Miness, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the role of high school students' perceptions of teacher understanding in the development of caring student-teacher relationships. Whereas past research has embedded understanding as a facet of care, this research distinguishes between care and understanding to examine whether and how understanding is necessary for care.…

  17. Facilitating access to prenatal care through an interprofessional student-run free clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhausen, Kathleen; Joshi, Deepa; Quirk, Sarah; Miller, Robert; Fowler, Michael; Schorn, Mavis N

    2015-01-01

    Addressing the persistent challenge of inadequate prenatal care requires innovative solutions. Student-run free health centers are poised to rise to this challenge. The Shade Tree Clinic Early Pregnancy Program, jointly operated by university medical and nursing programs, functions as an ongoing access-to-care portal for pregnant women without health insurance. The clinic is run by medical students and nurse-midwifery students and uses a service-based learning model that allows students to work and learn in supervised, interprofessional teams while providing evidence-based prenatal care. All data reported in this paper were obtained from a retrospective chart review of women served by the prenatal clinic. These data are descriptive in nature, and include the patient demographics and services provided by the clinic to 152 women between the years of 2010-2013. During this time period, the clinic served a demographically diverse clientele. Approximately half lacked documentation of legal immigration status. The majority of women seeking care were in their first trimester of pregnancy and had previously given birth. Several women had medical or obstetric complications that required timely referral to specialist care; and many women received treatment for infection and other primary care concerns. Shade Tree Clinic provides the basic components of prenatal care and assists women with other medical needs. Women also receive help when applying for and accessing public maternity insurance, and the clinic facilitates entry to any necessary specialist care while that insurance is processed. In many cases, necessary and time-sensitive care would be delayed if Shade Tree Clinic's prenatal services were not available. In addition, the clinic presents a valuable opportunity for interprofessional socialization, increased respect, and improved collaboration between students in different but complementary professions, which is an important experience while we move to meet national

  18. International student complaint behaviour: Understanding how East-Asian business and management students respond to dissatisfaction during their university experience

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, David; Coates, Nigel

    2011-01-01

    The higher education sector is characterised by intense global competition for international students. This is driving universities to place greater priority on the student experience and, in particular, student satisfaction and retention. However, an under-researched area is student complaint behaviour. By understanding how students react to poor experiences; the likely impact on the learning and teaching experience, satisfaction ratings and ultimately international student recruitment can b...

  19. Using a Team Structure for Student-Assisted Facilitation of Laboratories in an Introductory Allied Health Microbiology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jesse Sanchez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available As many instructors have noted, it is challenging to lead a successful microbiology laboratory, especially for students without sufficient prerequisite training such as in pre-allied health/nursing classes. In the community college setting, this is compounded by the lack of adequate resources, especially teaching assistants or others, to help individual students during a laboratory experience. In addition, there is much transition in the student population of the college so asking students who have completed a class to help in this setting is often impractical. To modify our system to allow students to more easily ask questions and get feedback, we designed a student facilitator system. This system allowed each student to be a leader of the team for a particular laboratory experience. Each student was individually trained to be supportive of the team as a whole. This program is useful in that it can be applied to any class-based laboratory setting to provide better student team interactions than if there were no facilitator.

  20. Understanding the influences on self-confidence among first-year undergraduate nursing students in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesser-Smyth, Patricia A; Long, Tony

    2013-01-01

    To report a mixed-methods study of the development of self-confidence in Irish nursing students undertaking the first year of an undergraduate nursing programme. Self-confidence underpins nurses' competence to carry out care effectively, yet there is little empirical evidence of how this attribute is fostered in pre-registration preparation. There is an assumption, however, that self-confidence develops independently and spontaneously. A sequential, mixed methods three-phase design was used. The design involved pretest and posttest measurements of self-confidence, focus group interviews, a student self-evaluation questionnaire and analysis of the relevant curriculum content. Data were collected between September 2007-April 2008 and sampling was from three cohorts of students at three different Institutes of Technology in Ireland. Data collection matched the nature of the data, including descriptive, non-inferential statistics and qualitative content analysis. There was considerable variation in the amount and nature of theoretical preparation. Factors in clinical practice exerted the most influence. Self-confidence fluctuated during the first clinical placement and as students' self-confidence developed, simultaneously, motivation towards academic achievement increased. Conversely, self-confidence was quickly eroded by poor preceptor attitudes, lack of communication, and feeling undervalued. The development of self-confidence is complex and multi-factorial. This study offers further understanding of facilitators and barriers that may be relevant elsewhere in promoting student nurses' developing self-confidence. The development of self-confidence must be recognized as a central tenet for the design and delivery of undergraduate programmes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Participation in clinical supervision (PACS): an evaluation of student nurse clinical supervision facilitated by mental health service users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maplethorpe, Fran; Dixon, Julie; Rush, Brenda

    2014-03-01

    This paper discusses an innovative learning approach in which people having experience of mental health services facilitated humanistic clinical supervision with groups of student nurses in the classroom. A four-day course of preparation for the role of supervisor is described and the results of subsequent clinical supervision sessions are analysed. Seven service users who had previous experience of teaching students in the classroom and fifty students on a Diploma/BSc in mental health nursing course participated in the project, which was evaluated through focus groups. The results indicated that the service user supervisors appreciated the skills they had gained on the course and felt that they were more appropriate than lecturers to facilitate clinical supervision sessions. Some students expressed initial uncertainty about the appropriateness of service users as supervisors but as changes to the pedagogical process of supervision were made and the supervisors gained more experience and confidence, students expressed greater satisfaction. The authors conclude that clinical supervision facilitated by service users who have preparation and continual support can add considerable value to the learning experience of student nurses.

  2. Energy Crunch: Facilitating Students' Understanding of Eco-Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolosi, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Recreation administrators have had to evolve their approach to managing areas and facilities as both financial and environmental resources have become more limited. One way that administrators have attempted to meet such challenges is through strategies that are more environmentally sustainable. The following article addresses the importance of…

  3. First-Year University Science and Engineering Students' Understanding of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Shelley

    2007-01-01

    This paper is a case study of first-year science and engineering students' understandings of plagiarism. Students were surveyed for their views on scenarios illustrating instances of plagiarism in the context of the academic work and assessment of science and engineering students. The aim was to explore their understandings of plagiarism and their…

  4. Teacher's Understanding, Perceptions, and Experiences of Students in Foster Care: A Forgotten Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Davis, Darneika

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine elementary teacher's understanding, perceptions, and experiences of working with students in foster care. The researcher examined whether teachers are informed about students in foster care, determined teacher's understanding of the foster care system, and how their students are affected. The results…

  5. Developing Intercultural Understanding for Study Abroad: Students' and Teachers' Perspectives on Pre-Departure Intercultural Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, P.; Bavieri, L.; Ganassin, S.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on students' and teachers' perspectives on a programme designed to develop Erasmus students' intercultural understanding prior to going abroad. We aimed to understand how students and their teachers perceived pre-departure materials in promoting their awareness of key concepts related to interculturality (e.g., essentialism,…

  6. First-Year University Science and Engineering Students' Understanding of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Shelley

    2007-01-01

    This paper is a case study of first-year science and engineering students' understandings of plagiarism. Students were surveyed for their views on scenarios illustrating instances of plagiarism in the context of the academic work and assessment of science and engineering students. The aim was to explore their understandings of plagiarism and their…

  7. Developing Critical Understanding in HRM Students: Using Innovative Teaching Methods to Encourage Deep Approaches to Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Michael J. R.; Reddy, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on developing critical understanding in human resource management (HRM) students in Aston Business School, UK. The paper reveals that innovative teaching methods encourage deep approaches to study, an indicator of students reaching their own understanding of material and ideas. This improves student employability…

  8. Introductory Psychology: How Student Experiences Relate to Their Understanding of Psychological Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Thomas; Richardson, Deborah; Hammock, Georgina

    2017-01-01

    Many students who declare a psychology major are unaware that they are studying a scientific discipline, precipitating a need for exercises and experiences that help students understand the scientific nature of the discipline. The present study explores aspects of an introductory psychology class that may contribute to students' understanding of…

  9. An interactive web-based learning unit to facilitate and improve intrapartum nursing care of nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdprasert, Sailom; Pruksacheva, Tassanee; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

    2011-07-01

    First clinical exposures are stressful situations for nursing students, especially, when practicing on the labour ward. The purpose of this study was to develop intrapartum nursing care web-based learning to facilitate students' acquisition of conceptual knowledge and performance skills. This web-based learning unit integrated the 5E-model and information technology with the lecture content. Eighty four nursing students were recruited in the study. The control group received traditional teaching, while the experimental group was supplemented with the web-based learning unit on intrapartum nursing care. The results showed that the students in the experimental group had significant higher scores in conceptual knowledge and performance skill. The students also had significant lower scores in ignorance - related stress when compared to those of the control group. The students supplemented with the web-based course showed a strong positive attitude toward the new learning method.

  10. A democratic and student-centred approach to facilitating teamwork learning among first-year engineering students: a learning and teaching case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missingham, Dorothy; Matthews, Robert

    2014-07-01

    This work examines an innovative and evolving approach to facilitating teamwork learning in a generic first-year mechanical engineering course. Principles of inclusive, student-active and democratic pedagogy were utilised to engage students on both the social and personal planes. Learner opportunities to facilitate, direct and lead the learning direction were emphasised. This emphasis encouraged a rich learning process and motivated students dismissive of the need to examine their communication skills and those who initially perceived the topic as a personal intrusion. Through a sharing of curriculum decisions, a climate of trust, ownership and shared value arose. Students chose from a range of tools across personality-type indicators, learning style indicators and hierarchies of human needs, to assist their capacity to express and discuss engineering designs and concepts. Peer teaching and collaborative exercises were incorporated to provide an authentic learning context and to further the student's sense of ownership.

  11. How Doctoral Students and Graduates Describe Facilitating Experiences and Strategies for Their Thesis Writing Learning Process: A Qualitative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odena, Oscar; Burgess, Hilary

    2017-01-01

    This study considered the sources of facilitating experiences and strategies for thesis writing from doctoral students and graduates (N = 30). The sample was balanced between science and social science knowledge areas, with equal numbers of English as Second Language (ESL) participants in both groups. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were used…

  12. Who Can Help Working Students? The Impact of Graduate School Involvement and Social Support on School-Work Facilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyland, Rebecca L.; Winkel, Doan E.; Lester, Scott W.; Hanson-Rasmussen, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    A significant number of employees attend graduate school, and the impact of the student role may be substantial and valuable to the work-life literature. In this study the authors examine whether psychological involvement in graduate school increases school-work facilitation. Further, they suggest that employers and graduate schools can provide…

  13. How Doctoral Students and Graduates Describe Facilitating Experiences and Strategies for Their Thesis Writing Learning Process: A Qualitative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odena, Oscar; Burgess, Hilary

    2017-01-01

    This study considered the sources of facilitating experiences and strategies for thesis writing from doctoral students and graduates (N = 30). The sample was balanced between science and social science knowledge areas, with equal numbers of English as Second Language (ESL) participants in both groups. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were used…

  14. University student understanding of cancer: analysis of ethnic group variances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estaville, Lawrence; Trad, Megan; Martinez, Gloria

    2012-06-01

    Traditional university and college students ages 18-24 are traversing an important period in their lives in which behavioral intervention is critical in reducing their risk of cancer in later years. The study's purpose was to determine the perceptions and level of knowledge about cancer of white, Hispanic, and black university students (n=958). Sources of student information about cancer were also identified. The survey results showed all students know very little about cancer and their perceptions of cancer are bad with many students thinking that cancer and death are synonymous. We also discovered university students do not discuss cancer often in their classrooms nor with their family or friends. Moreover, university students are unlikely to perform monthly or even yearly self-examinations for breast or testicular cancers; black students have the lowest rate of self-examinations.

  15. Reading and Writing Transactions: Improving Students' Understanding of Minority Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Demetrice A.

    Elements from literary, composition, and reader-response theory can be successfully combined in teaching an African-American literature class to college students of the dominant culture. Helping students to decode texts is of primary importance, best done by introducing students to the cultural codes used by minority writers to shape their themes.…

  16. What They Say, What They Do -- Understanding Students' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perger, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown students can identify practices considered appropriate for achieving when learning mathematics (Kershner & Pointon, 2000; McCullum, Hargreaves & Gripps, 2000). Yet, if you listen to students talking about the practices they consider important to succeed, and then observe the same students working in their mathematics…

  17. Student Understanding of Taylor Series Expansions in Statistical Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trevor I.; Thompson, John R.; Mountcastle, Donald B.

    2013-01-01

    One goal of physics instruction is to have students learn to make physical meaning of specific mathematical expressions, concepts, and procedures in different physical settings. As part of research investigating student learning in statistical physics, we are developing curriculum materials that guide students through a derivation of the Boltzmann…

  18. "Argument!" Helping Students Understand What Essay Writing Is About

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Argumentation is a key requirement of the essay, which is the most common genre that students have to write. However, how argumentation is realised in disciplinary writing is often poorly understood by academic tutors, and therefore not adequately taught to students. This paper presents research into undergraduate students' concepts of argument…

  19. CBM with Goal Setting: Impacting Students' Understanding of Reading Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Kristine D.

    2005-01-01

    This pilot study investigated if goal setting with curriculum-based measurement (CBM) was effective in increasing student awareness of goal knowledge and if students could set realistic daily reading goals. Nineteen 6th and 7th grade students with learning disabilities participated in a goal setting treatment group or a control group. During the…

  20. Linear Algebra Revisited: An Attempt to Understand Students' Conceptual Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Sandra; Henderson, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    This article looks at some of the conceptual difficulties that students have in a linear algebra course. An overview of previous research in this area is given, and the various theories that have been espoused regarding the reasons that students find linear algebra so difficult are discussed. Student responses to two questions testing the ability…

  1. Assessing Students' Understandings of Biological Models and Their Use in Science to Evaluate a Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünkorn, Juliane; Upmeier zu Belzen, Annette; Krüger, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Research in the field of students' understandings of models and their use in science describes different frameworks concerning these understandings. Currently, there is no conjoint framework that combines these structures and so far, no investigation has focused on whether it reflects students' understandings sufficiently (empirical evaluation).…

  2. Physical Models Have Gender-Specific Effects on Student Understanding of Protein Structure-Function Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes-Lorman, Robin M.; Harris, Michelle A.; Chang, Wesley S.; Dent, Erik W.; Nordheim, Erik V.; Franzen, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how basic structural units influence function is identified as a foundational/core concept for undergraduate biological and biochemical literacy. It is essential for students to understand this concept at all size scales, but it is often more difficult for students to understand structure-function relationships at the molecular…

  3. How nursing leadership and management interventions could facilitate the effective use of ICT by student nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmer, Marian

    2007-03-01

    . These reasons include lack of time for Information and Communications Technology activities by both students and the qualified nurses and some staff with poor Information and Communications Technology skills. This situation is compounded by insufficient computer hardware; lack of information about the essence and value of Information and Communications Technology; perception of the direct relevance of Information and Communications Technology activities to patient care; software materials not adequate for purpose and lack of comprehensive budget and financial recognition for student's engagement with Information and Communications Technology. 'Smile and the whole world smile with you'. This old saying has a lot of truth in it. Applied to Information and Communications Technology skills development and use by student nurses we are confronted with an uncomfortable reality of many qualified nurses who themselves are not comfortable or proficient with the use of Information and Communications Technology. Some do not see the essential need for Information and Communications Technology and its direct relevance to improving patient care, nor is this always supported by the current software and systems. Willmer argued that the achievement of effective implementation of the National Health Service National Programme for Information and Technology requires efficient change management and leading people skills, and an understanding of National Health Service culture. In this article the case is made that evidence-based management and leadership interventions are a feasible approach for a sustained implementation of Information and Communications Technology use and skills development by student nurses.

  4. Improving Students' Conceptual Understanding of Conductors and Insulators

    CERN Document Server

    Bilak, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    We examine the difficulties that introductory physics students, undergraduate physics majors, and physics graduate students have with concepts related to conductors and insulators covered in introductory physics by giving written tests and interviewing a subset of students. We find that even graduate students have serious difficulties with these concepts. We develop tutorials related to these topics and evaluate their effectiveness by comparing the performance on written pre-/post-tests and interviews of students who received traditional instruction vs. those who learned using tutorials.

  5. Understanding the Environmental Elements in Religious Student Organizations through Sharon Parks' Mentoring Community Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, David Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Students are coming to colleges and universities for spiritual fulfillment and have turned to religious student organizations (i.e. Campus Crusade for Christ, Newman Centers, Muslim Student Association, Hillel, etc.) to attain guidance and support. To better understand the spiritual environment religious student organizations have in place, many…

  6. Initial Understanding of Vector Concepts among Students in Introductory Physics Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Loan; Meltzer, David E.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates physics students' understanding of vector addition, magnitude, and direction for problems presented in graphical form. Indicates that many students retained significant conceptual difficulties regarding vector methods that are heavily employed throughout the physics curriculum. (Author/KHR)

  7. Rotation placements help students' understanding of intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Lisa

    2011-07-01

    It is vital that children's nursing students are fit for practice when they qualify and are able to meet various essential skills as defined by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC). To gain the knowledge and skills required, students need placements in areas where high dependency and potentially intensive care are delivered. Efforts to maximise the number of students experiencing intensive care as a placement have led to the development of the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) rotation, increasing placements on the PICU from 5 to 40 per cent of the student cohort per year. The lecturer practitioner organises the rotation, providing credible links between university and practice areas, while supporting students and staff in offering a high-quality placement experience. Students say the rotation offers a positive insight into PICU nursing, helping them develop knowledge and skills in a technical area and creating an interest in this specialty.

  8. UNDERSTANDING STUDENT ENGAGEMENT WITH SCHOOL: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel ROBU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing amount of literature on student engagement with school. There is a large agreement on the predictive role that individual differences in student engagement with school plays in relation to a wide range of educational outcomes and to general adjustment. Numerous empirical studies have attempted to explain how individual characteristics of students (e.g., gender, academic motivation, school-related self-efficacy etc., family environment (e.g., parent social support, aspirations of parents concerning the adolescents’ school trajectory or quality of adolescent-parents relationship, and the school/classroom climate (e.g., social support from teachers and peers, autonomy granted to students, quality of instructional practices etc. impact student engagement with school and the academic achievement/performance. This paper summarizes the existing literature on antecedents and positive outcomes of student engagement with school. The implications for educational practice and policy makers are discussed.

  9. Guided Inquiry Facilitated Blended Learning to Improve Metacognitive and Learning Outcome of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwono, H.; Susanti, S.; Lestari, U.

    2017-04-01

    The learning activities that involve the students to learn actively is one of the characteristics of a qualified education. The learning strategy that involves students’ active learning is guided inquiry. Learning problems today are growing metacognitive skills and cognitive learning outcomes. It is the research and development of learning module by using 4D models of Thiagarajan. The first phase is Define, which analyses the problems and needs required by the prior preparation of the module. The second phase is Design, which formulates learning design and devices to obtain the initial draft of learning modules. The third stage is Develop, which is developing and writing module, module validation, product testing, revision, and the resulting an end-product results module development. The fourth stage is Disseminate, which is disseminating of the valid products. Modules were validated by education experts, practitioners, subject matter experts, and expert of online media. The results of the validation module indicated that the module was valid and could be used in teaching and learning. In the validation phase of testing methods, we used experiments to know the difference of metacognitive skills and learning outcomes between the control group and experimental group. The experimental design was a one group pretest-posttest design. The results of the data analysis showed that the modules could enhance metacognitive skills and learning outcomes. The advantages of this module is as follows, 1) module is accompanied by a video link on a website that contains practical activities that are appropriate to Curriculum 2013, 2) module is accompanied by a video link on a website that contains about manual laboratory activities that will be used in the classroom face-to-face, so that students are ready when doing laboratory activities, 3) this module can be online through chat to increase students’ understanding. The disadvantages of this module are the material presented in

  10. Peer review in design: Understanding the impact of collaboration on the review process and student perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Mahender Arjun

    A cornerstone of design and design education is frequent situated feedback. With increasing class sizes, and shrinking financial and human resources, providing rich feedback to students becomes increasingly difficult. In the field of writing, web-based peer review--the process of utilizing equal status learners within a class to provide feedback to each other on their work using networked computing systems--has been shown to be a reliable and valid source of feedback in addition to improving student learning. Designers communicate in myriad ways, using the many languages of design and combining visual and descriptive information. This complex discourse of design intent makes peer reviews by design students ambiguous and often not helpful to the receivers of this feedback. Furthermore, engaging students in the review process itself is often difficult. Teams can complement individual diversity and may assist novice designers collectively resolve complex task. However, teams often incur production losses and may be impacted by individual biases. In the current work, we look at utilizing a collaborative team of reviewers, working collectively and synchronously, in generating web based peer reviews in a sophomore engineering design class. Students participated in a cross-over design, conducting peer reviews as individuals and collaborative teams in parallel sequences. Raters coded the feedback generated on the basis of their appropriateness and accuracy. Self-report surveys and passive observation of teams conducting reviews captured student opinion on the process, its value, and the contrasting experience they had conducting team and individual reviews. We found team reviews generated better quality feedback in comparison to individual reviews. Furthermore, students preferred conducting reviews in teams, finding the process 'fun' and engaging. We observed several learning benefits of using collaboration in reviewing including improved understanding of the assessment

  11. Helping Students Understand Intersectionality: Reflections from a Dialogue Project in Residential Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claros, Sharon Chia; Garcia, Gina A.; Johnston-Guerrero, Marc P.; Mata, Christine

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors share insights from a dialogue project focused on intersectionality within a residential life setting and discuss additional strategies for helping students understand intersectionality.

  12. Students' Understanding of Primary and Secondary Protein Structure: Drawing Secondary Protein Structure Reveals Student Understanding Better than Simple Recognition of Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harle, Marissa; Towns, Marcy H.

    2013-01-01

    The interdisciplinary nature of biochemistry courses requires students to use both chemistry and biology knowledge to understand biochemical concepts. Research that has focused on external representations in biochemistry has uncovered student difficulties in comprehending and interpreting external representations in addition to a fragmented…

  13. Understanding Student Voices about Assessment: Links to Learning and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, James H.; Turner, Amanda B.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examined elementary and middle school students' perceptions of assessment. Individual interviews were conducted with 64 students, with questions focused on their emotional reactions and thinking about classroom and large-scale assessment as related to goal orientation, self-regulation, attributions, and self-efficacy.…

  14. Genre Effects on Higher Education Students' Text Reading for Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Hazel; Hallam, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-two graduate students in education at a British university read, answered written questions, and then discussed four text extracts from different genres (literary, theoretical, research, and statistical). Results of this study and a follow-up survey of 39 similar students suggested that text genre is a major factor in perceived difficulty…

  15. Understanding Student Attitudes toward Bible Reading: A Philippine Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baring, Rito V.

    2008-01-01

    Reflecting from the Philippine experience, this article explores an emerging picture that characterizes contemporary Bible reading attitudes of college students. Six new attitude factor definitions are developed following the development of the Bible Reading (BR) attitude scale for college students constructed by this author in a separate study.…

  16. The "Core Principles" of Physiology: What Should Students Understand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Joel; Modell, Harold; McFarland, Jenny; Cliff, William

    2009-01-01

    The explosion of knowledge in all of the biological sciences, and specifically in physiology, has created a growing problem for educators. There is more to know than students can possibly learn. Thus, difficult choices have to be made about what we expect students to master. One approach to making the needed decisions is to consider those "core…

  17. Assessing Student Understanding and Learning in Constructivist Study Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, John B.; And Others

    Teachers College of Columbia University (New York) and the Dalton School, an independent school in New York City, have collaborated on the Dalton Technology Project and its "Archaeotype" program which presents students with a graphic simulation of an archeological site. Students simulate digging up the artifacts, use reference sources to…

  18. Understanding Student Use of Differentials in Physics Integration Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dehui; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on students' use of the mathematical concept of differentials in physics problem solving. For instance, in electrostatics, students need to set up an integral to find the electric field due to a charged bar, an activity that involves the application of mathematical differentials (e.g., "dr," "dq"). In…

  19. Mining Concept Maps to Understand University Students' Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jin Soung; Cho, Moon-Heum

    2012-01-01

    Concept maps, visual representations of knowledge, are used in an educational context as a way to represent students' knowledge, and identify mental models of students; however there is a limitation of using concept mapping due to its difficulty to evaluate the concept maps. A concept map has a complex structure which is composed of concepts and…

  20. Simple Activities to Improve Students' Understanding of Microscopic Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpuz, Edgar de Guzman; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    We are currently on the verge of several breakthroughs in nanoscience and technology, and we need to prepare our citizenry to be scientifically literate about the microscopic world. Previous research shows that students' mental models of friction at the atomic level are significantly influenced by their macroscopic ideas. Most students see…

  1. Understanding Student Use of Differentials in Physics Integration Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dehui; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on students' use of the mathematical concept of differentials in physics problem solving. For instance, in electrostatics, students need to set up an integral to find the electric field due to a charged bar, an activity that involves the application of mathematical differentials (e.g., "dr," "dq"). In this…

  2. Students' Understanding of Alkyl Halide Reactions in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ramirez de Arellano, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Organic chemistry is an essential subject for many undergraduate students completing degrees in science, engineering, and pre-professional programs. However, students often struggle with the concepts and skills required to successfully solve organic chemistry exercises. Since alkyl halides are traditionally the first functional group that is…

  3. Understanding Alternative Education: A Mixed Methods Examination of Student Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Susan Glassett; Daniels, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Alternative education plays a critical role in the opportunity gap that persists in the US public education system. However, there has been little research on alternative schools. Scaffolded by a theoretical framework constructed from critical theory, self-determination theory (SDT) and student voice, this research examined how well students in…

  4. Boomers, Gen-Xers, and Millennials: Understanding the "New Students."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblinger, Diana

    2003-01-01

    Describes characteristics of the "new" college student, who may be an adult learner from the Baby Boomer era, a high school member of the "Millennial" generation, or a "Gen-Xer." Explores the learning styles of each type of student and discusses the importance of technology to each group. (SLD)

  5. Prospective Primary Teachers' Noticing of Students' Understanding of Pattern Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejo, María Luz; Zapatera, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to characterize profiles of the teaching competence "noticing students' mathematical thinking" in the context of the pattern generalization. Prospective primary teachers were asked to describe and interpret the answers of three primary students to three linear pattern generalization problems. Five profiles for…

  6. Using Student Interviews to Understand Theories of Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanich, Laurie B.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction and development of a course assignment that uses student interviews as an instructional tool to bridge the gap between theory and practice in a graduate educational psychology course. The first part of the article describes the student interview assignment used to examine theories of motivation. The second…

  7. How Student Teachers Understand Distance Force Interactions in Different Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariotoglou, Petros; Spyrtou, Anna; Tselfes, Vassilis

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe empirical research on the recording of primary school and preschool student teacher conceptions of the concept of distant force interactions in different contexts related to the school curriculum for this subject. For this objective to be achieved, we undertook ten semi-structured interviews with student teachers. Based…

  8. High School Students' Understanding of the Function Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinsky, Ed; Wilson, Robin T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a study of part of the Algebra Project's program for underrepresented high school students from the lowest quartile of academic achievement, social and economic status. The study focuses on students' learning the concept of function. The curriculum and pedagogy are part of an innovative, experimental approach designed and implemented…

  9. Students' Understanding of Alkyl Halide Reactions in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ramirez de Arellano, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Organic chemistry is an essential subject for many undergraduate students completing degrees in science, engineering, and pre-professional programs. However, students often struggle with the concepts and skills required to successfully solve organic chemistry exercises. Since alkyl halides are traditionally the first functional group that is…

  10. Understanding Students' Experiences of Statistics in a Service Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sue

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we explore issues surrounding university students' experiences of statistics drawing on data related to learning statistics as a compulsory component of psychology. Over 250 students completed a written survey which included questions on their attitudes to learning statistics and their conceptions of statistics. Results indicated…

  11. Understanding Student Recruitment in Mainland China: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, John A.; Wong, Isabella Y. S.

    2010-01-01

    While China continues to be perhaps the most important student recruitment region for many leading international universities, changes in this market, resulting in more regional mobility of students, are fast becoming apparent. This, the increasing penetration and efforts of the traditional recruiting institutions and the entry of new universities…

  12. High School Students' Understanding of the Human Body System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Dodick, Jeff; Tripto, Jaklin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 120 tenth-grade students from 8 schools were examined to determine the extent of their ability to perceive the human body as a system after completing the first stage in their biology curriculum--"The human body, emphasizing homeostasis". The students' systems thinking was analyzed according to the STH thinking model, which roughly…

  13. Understanding Student Self-Disclosure Typology through Blogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Vernon B., Jr.; Harper, Erika J.

    2006-01-01

    Significant research indicates that student self-disclosure plays an important role in the learning experience and producing positive learning outcomes. Blogging is an increasingly popular web tool that can potentially aid educators by encouraging student self-disclosure. Both content analysis and focus groups were used to assess whether student…

  14. Concepts First, Jargon Second Improves Student Articulation of Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Lisa; Barker, Megan K.; Wieman, Carl

    2016-01-01

    In this experiment, students in a large undergraduate biology course were first exposed to the concepts without new technical vocabulary ("jargon") in a pre-class reading assignment. Their learning of the concepts and jargon was compared with that of an equivalent group of students in another section of the same course, whose pre-class…

  15. How Well Do Canadian Distance Education Students Understand Plagiarism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier, Cheryl Ann

    2014-01-01

    This project ascertains how well students taking online, distance education courses at a Canadian university recognize plagiarised material and how well they paraphrase. It also assesses the types of errors made. Slightly more than half of 420 psychology students correctly selected plagiarised phrases from four multiple choice questions. Only a…

  16. Understanding Student Internet Rights Begins with the First Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Megan M.

    1999-01-01

    Suggests the rights of high school students to access and use their schools' Internet resources are confusing and complicated. Discusses authorized user policies, freedom of expression, and the Internet as a library. Concludes that until the Supreme Court establishes a legal precedent, students, parents, administrators, and teachers are left the…

  17. Understanding Student Recruitment in Mainland China: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, John A.; Wong, Isabella Y. S.

    2010-01-01

    While China continues to be perhaps the most important student recruitment region for many leading international universities, changes in this market, resulting in more regional mobility of students, are fast becoming apparent. This, the increasing penetration and efforts of the traditional recruiting institutions and the entry of new universities…

  18. Understanding the Characteristics of Effective Professors: The Student's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thorsten; Reppel, Alexander; Voss, Roediger

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly, higher education institutions are realising that higher education could be regarded as a business-like service industry and they are beginning to focus more on meeting or even exceeding the needs of their students. Recent research findings suggest that the factors that create student satisfaction with teaching ("teaching…

  19. Annotation of Articles from Scientific American and Student Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, John, II

    1976-01-01

    Reports on a study in which high school biology students were divided into two groups: one read "Scientific American" articles and the other group read annotated "Scientific American" articles. Although there was no significant difference between means on an achievement measure of the groups, the author reports that students preferred the…

  20. Effect of a Science Diagram on Primary Students' Understanding About Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Christine

    2016-12-01

    The research investigated the effect of a science diagram on primary students' conceptual understanding about magnets. Lack of research involving students of primary age means that little is known about the potential of science diagrams to help them understand abstract concepts such as magnetism. Task-based interviews were conducted individually with 19 year 3 and year 5 students from a single school. Data captured students' prior ideas about magnets and changes in their understanding in response to a diagram as the only intervention. Results revealed a variety of outcomes—conceptual understanding was enhanced, reduced, simultaneously enhanced and reduced or not changed. Particular diagram features constrained students' learning for some students. The study confirms the individual nature of primary students' learning and has implications for teachers about instructional methods using science diagrams.

  1. Understanding Student Pathways in Context-rich Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Antonenko, P D; Kumsaikaew, P; Marathe, R R; Niederhauser, D S; Ogilvie, C A; Ryan, S M; Antonenko, Pavlo D.; Jackman, John; Kumsaikaew, Piyamart; Marathe, Rahul R.; Niederhauser, Dale S.; Ryan, Sarah M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the extent to which students' problem-solving behaviors change as a result of working on multi-faceted, context-rich problems. During the semester, groups of two to three students work on several problems that require more than one concept and hence cannot be readily solved with simple plug-and-chug strategies. The problems are presented to students in a data-rich, online problem-solving environment that tracks which information items are selected by students as they attempt to solve the problem. The students also complete a variety of tasks, such as entering their qualitative analysis into an online form. Students are not constrained to complete these tasks in any order. As they gain more experience in solving multifaceted physics problems, the student groups show some progression towards expert-like behavior: earlier qualitative analysis and more selective requests for information. However, there is room for more improvement as approximately half of the groups still complete the...

  2. Improving Student Understanding of Coulomb's Law and Gauss's Law

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the development and evaluation of five research-based tutorials on Coulomb's law, superposition, symmetry and Gauss's Law to help students in the calculus-based introductory physics courses learn these concepts. We discuss the performance of students on the pre-/post-tests given before and after the tutorials in three calculus-based introductory physics courses. We also discuss the performance of students who used the tutorials and those who did not use it on a multiple-choice test which employs concepts covered in the tutorials.

  3. Understanding the challenges to facilitating active learning in the resident conferences: a qualitative study of internal medicine faculty and resident perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam P. Sawatsky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the Next Accreditation System, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education outlines milestones for medical knowledge and requires regular didactic sessions in residency training. There are many challenges to facilitating active learning in resident conferences, and we need to better understand resident learning preferences and faculty perspectives on facilitating active learning. The goal of this study was to identify challenges to facilitating active learning in resident conferences, both through identifying specific implementation barriers and identifying differences in perspective between faculty and residents on effective teaching and learning strategies. Methods: The investigators invited core residency faculty to participate in focus groups. The investigators used a semistructured guide to facilitate discussion about learning preferences and teaching perspectives in the conference setting and used an ‘editing approach’ within a grounded theory framework to qualitative analysis to code the transcripts and analyze the results. Data were compared to previously collected data from seven resident focus groups. Results: Three focus groups with 20 core faculty were conducted. We identified three domains pertaining to facilitating active learning in resident conferences: barriers to facilitating active learning formats, similarities and differences in faculty and resident learning preferences, and divergence between faculty and resident opinions about effective teaching strategies. Faculty identified several setting, faculty, and resident barriers to facilitating active learning in resident conferences. When compared to residents, faculty expressed similar learning preferences; the main differences were in motivations for conference attendance and type of content. Resident preferences and faculty perspectives differed on the amount of information appropriate for lecture and the role of active participation in

  4. Understanding gaps between student and staff perceptions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    analysis of more formal knowledge discourses typical of traditional university fields. .... writing and presentation of knowledge required of students, critical thought, ..... settings, but with a strong focus on scientific methodology, reasoning and ...

  5. Assessing Understanding of Biological Processes: Elucidating Students' Models of Meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindfield, Ann C.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a meiosis reasoning problem that provides direct access to students' current models of chromosomes and meiosis. Also included in the article are tips for classroom implementation and a summary of the solution evaluation. (ZWH)

  6. Understanding the student veterans' college experience: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Timothy; Badger, Karen; McCuddy, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Students with active duty military experience are a unique and growing population on college campuses in the United States. This study explores student veterans' perceptions of their transition to and experience in higher education. This mixed methods study used a sample of 10 active military and reserve component student veterans to explore their perceptions of their personal strengths, challenges, factors impacting participation in university resource programs, and suggestions for ideal resources to support their academic success. Content analysis yielded primary themes such as the strength of self-discipline, the challenge of social interactions, and the desire for programs that connect student-veterans and assist with social integration. Implications for education, retention, and transition from active duty are discussed.

  7. Assessing Understanding of Biological Processes: Elucidating Students' Models of Meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindfield, Ann C.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a meiosis reasoning problem that provides direct access to students' current models of chromosomes and meiosis. Also included in the article are tips for classroom implementation and a summary of the solution evaluation. (ZWH)

  8. Enhancing Students' Understanding of Scientific Equipment: Smartphones in the Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Countryman, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    One of the oft-cited qualities sought after in a potential future engineering employee is an analytical mind that is "continually examining things." In one sense this examination is discouraged in an instructional laboratory employing opaque black box data collection devices. Smartphones can be used to gather such data but also - by their very nature- have the capability of removing the veil of opacity so as to allow students to examine their operation at a very fundamental level. By taking advantage of a smartphone's visualization capabilities one can elucidate core aspects of its operation equally or perhaps better than a mechanical model might. Through purposeful app and curricular design based on student feedback, we avoid this commonly perceived pitfall of electronic devices and encourage student examination of one such device, the student's own smartphone.

  9. Investigating Student Understanding of Quantum Mechanics Spontaneous Models of Conductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmann, M C; Redish, E F; Wittmann, Michael C.; Steinberg, Richard N.; Redish, Edward F.

    2002-01-01

    Students are taught several models of conductivity, both at the introductory and the advanced level. From early macroscopic models of current flow in circuits, through the discussion of microscopic particle descriptions of electrons flowing in an atomic lattice, to the development of microscopic non-localized band diagram descriptions in advanced physics courses, they need to be able to distinguish between commonly used, though sometimes contradictory, physical models. In investigations of student reasoning about models of conduction, we find that students often are unable to account for the existence of free electrons in a conductor and create models that lead to incorrect predictions and responses contradictory to expert descriptions of the physics. We have used these findings as a guide to creating curriculum materials that we show can be effective helping students to apply the different conduction models more effectively.

  10. Emotion understanding, interpersonal competencies and loneliness among students

    OpenAIRE

    Moroń Marcin

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the associations of emotion understanding, interpersonal competencies, loneliness and correlated variables (perceived social support, quality of social networks). Two conceptual models of relations were tested. In the first model it was hypothesized that interpersonal competencies mediate relations between emotion understanding and loneliness, perceived social support and quality of social networks. In the second model emotion understanding was tested as a moderator of rela...

  11. The nature of the problem: the intentional design of problems to facilitate different levels of student learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, M; Donovan, A

    1998-08-01

    This paper explores the deliberate design of 'problem' situations within a 3-year problem-based nursing degree conducted at Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland, Australia. It examines problem situations within the first and third years of the course to illustrate the issues involved in designing material that enables students to achieve the curriculum aims. Although the problem situations are designed from the same health care setting, the discussion highlights how concepts and issues can be addressed in different ways depending on the desired student outcomes. The paper outlines and examines the nature of student learning and the clinical reasoning process used by students in making decisions that closely mirror those made as registered nurses in order to facilitate the achievement of clients' health goals.

  12. CONSTRUCTION OF DIDACTIC MODEL OF MEMBRANE AND EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX TO FACILITATE THE TEACHING/LEARNING BY BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES STUDENTS AT UFRN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V.S. Medeiros et al

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work was developed in the course of MOLECULAR DIVERSITY, required curricular component for the courses of Biological Sciences at UFRN. This course intends to encourage the study of the chemical structure and function of biomolecules using lectures and practical classes. Looking at the evaluations from previous semesters, it became evident that the subjects of the membrane and extracellular matrix were not being learned in a meaningful way. We also noticed lack of motivation from students due to difficulties in understanding molecules, weakening the teaching/learning process. Given this situation, our work aimed to encourage students to construct the constituent molecules of the membrane and extracellular matrix and assemble these structures, in order to understand molecular interactions, improve understanding of the subject and facilitate the learning process. This was accomplished through a monitoring project with the help of monitors. The proposed methodology consisted of separating the class into groups, where each would be responsible for making and exposing the other students to one of the molecules (Membrane Lipids, integrins, fibronectin, collagen, elastin, laminin, hyaluronic acid, and then discussing these molecules’ structural characteristics and interactions. The students could use various types of materials like cardboard, colored pens and polystyrene. The molecules were presented to the class, and the groups had set up the membrane and the matrix indicating the location of molecules and their possible interactions. All groups created their molecules according to given specifications. They created didactic and colorful molecules and positively interacted with all other groups during the assembly of the membrane and extracellular matrix; they also discussed molecules functions and interactions. We noticed during presentations and evaluation a strong performance in the subjects in question, as well as the construction of a

  13. The Influence of Toy Design Activities on Middle School Students' Understanding of the Engineering Design Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ninger; Pereira, Nielsen L.; George, Tarun Thomas; Alperovich, Jeffrey; Booth, Joran; Chandrasegaran, Senthil; Tew, Jeffrey David; Kulkarni, Devadatta M.; Ramani, Karthik

    2017-10-01

    The societal demand for inspiring and engaging science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) students and preparing our workforce for the emerging creative economy has necessitated developing students' self-efficacy and understanding of engineering design processes from as early as elementary school levels. Hands-on engineering design activities have shown the potential to promote middle school students' self-efficacy and understanding of engineering design processes. However, traditional classrooms often lack hands-on engineering design experiences, leaving students unprepared to solve real-world design problems. In this study, we introduce the framework of a toy design workshop and investigate the influence of the workshop activities on students' understanding of and self-efficacy beliefs in engineering design. Using a mixed method approach, we conducted quantitative analyses to show changes in students' engineering design self-efficacy and qualitative analyses to identify students' understanding of the engineering design processes. Findings show that among the 24 participants, there is a significant increase in students' self-efficacy beliefs after attending the workshop. We also identified major themes such as design goals and prototyping in students' understanding of engineering design processes. This research provides insights into the key elements of middle school students' engineering design learning and the benefits of engaging middle school students in hands-on toy design workshops.

  14. The Influence of Toy Design Activities on Middle School Students' Understanding of the Engineering Design Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ninger; Pereira, Nielsen L.; George, Tarun Thomas; Alperovich, Jeffrey; Booth, Joran; Chandrasegaran, Senthil; Tew, Jeffrey David; Kulkarni, Devadatta M.; Ramani, Karthik

    2017-05-01

    The societal demand for inspiring and engaging science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) students and preparing our workforce for the emerging creative economy has necessitated developing students' self-efficacy and understanding of engineering design processes from as early as elementary school levels. Hands-on engineering design activities have shown the potential to promote middle school students' self-efficacy and understanding of engineering design processes. However, traditional classrooms often lack hands-on engineering design experiences, leaving students unprepared to solve real-world design problems. In this study, we introduce the framework of a toy design workshop and investigate the influence of the workshop activities on students' understanding of and self-efficacy beliefs in engineering design. Using a mixed method approach, we conducted quantitative analyses to show changes in students' engineering design self-efficacy and qualitative analyses to identify students' understanding of the engineering design processes. Findings show that among the 24 participants, there is a significant increase in students' self-efficacy beliefs after attending the workshop. We also identified major themes such as design goals and prototyping in students' understanding of engineering design processes. This research provides insights into the key elements of middle school students' engineering design learning and the benefits of engaging middle school students in hands-on toy design workshops.

  15. Understanding and changing human behaviour—antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate modification of provider and consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Ashok J. Tamhankar

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses: 1) Situations where human behaviour is involved in relation to antibiotics, focusing on providers and consumers; 2) Theories about human behaviour and factors influencing behaviour in relation to antibiotics; 3) How behaviour in relation to antibiotics can change; and, 4) Antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate changes in human behaviour as regards antibiotics. Influencing human behaviour in relation to antibiotics is a complex process which includes factor...

  16. College Students' Knowledge and Beliefs: A Survey of Global Understanding. The Final Report of the Global Understanding Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Thomas S.; And Others

    The development, administration, and evaluation of a national survey to determine college students' understanding of world affairs are described in 12 articles that focus on survey measures, procedures, and results. Stephen F. Klein and Sheila M. Ager describe the issues examined by an assessment committee, their choice of an issues framework for…

  17. High School Students' Understandings of Diffusion Concepts in Relation to Their Levels of Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, A. Louis; Settlage, John

    The concept of diffusion may seem easy enough for many teachers to understand, but when and what do students really understand about diffusion and osmosis? In order to answer these two questions, 116 students (46.6% in the tenth grade, 30.2% in the eleventh grade, and 23.2% in the twelfth grade) enrolled in biology classes were administered tests…

  18. The Effects of Poverty Simulation, an Experiential Learning Modality, on Students' Understanding of Life in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandsburger, Etty; Duncan-Daston, Rana; Akerson, Emily; Dillon, Tom

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the impact of the Poverty Simulation Project, an experiential learning modality, on students' understanding of life in poverty. A total of 101 students representing 5 undergraduate majors in the College of Health and Human Services completed measures of critical thinking, understanding of others, and the active learning…

  19. University Students' Understanding of the Concepts Empirical, Theoretical, Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtonen, Mari

    2015-01-01

    University research education in many disciplines is frequently confronted by problems with students' weak level of understanding of research concepts. A mind map technique was used to investigate how students understand central methodological concepts of empirical, theoretical, qualitative and quantitative. The main hypothesis was that some…

  20. Clusters of Concepts in Molecular Genetics: A Study of Swedish Upper Secondary Science Students' Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, Niklas; Wahlberg, Sara

    2013-01-01

    To understand genetics, students need to be able to explain and draw connections between a large number of concepts. The purpose of the study reported herein was to explore the way upper secondary science students reason about concepts in molecular genetics in order to understand protein synthesis. Data were collected by group interviews. Concept…

  1. Student Understanding of Light as an Electromagnetic Wave: Relating the Formalism to Physical Phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Bradley S.; Heron, Paula R. L.; Vokos, Stamatis; McDermott, Lillian C.

    1999-01-01

    Some serious difficulties that students have in understanding physical optics may be due in part to a lack of understanding of light as an electromagnetic wave. Describes the development and use of tutorials designed to address students' conceptual difficulties. (Contains over 15 references.) (Author/WRM)

  2. Students' Meaningful Learning Orientation and Their Meaningful Understandings of Meiosis and Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Ann Liberatore

    This 1-week study explored the extent to which high school students (n=140) acquired meaningful understanding of selected biological topics (meiosis and the Punnett square method) and the relationship between these topics. This study: (1) examined "mental modeling" as a technique for measuring students' meaningful understanding of the…

  3. Students' Understanding of Mathematical Expressions in Physical Chemistry Contexts: An Analysis Using Sherin's Symbolic Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Nicole; Towns, Marcy

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduate physical chemistry courses require students to be proficient in calculus in order to develop an understanding of thermodynamics concepts. Here we present the findings of a study that examines student understanding of mathematical expressions, including partial derivative expressions, in two undergraduate physical chemistry courses.…

  4. Clusters of Concepts in Molecular Genetics: A Study of Swedish Upper Secondary Science Students' Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, Niklas; Wahlberg, Sara

    2013-01-01

    To understand genetics, students need to be able to explain and draw connections between a large number of concepts. The purpose of the study reported herein was to explore the way upper secondary science students reason about concepts in molecular genetics in order to understand protein synthesis. Data were collected by group interviews. Concept…

  5. Understanding the Effectiveness of Rubrics from the Students' Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soiferman, L. Karen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to gain an understanding of how students viewed the marking rubrics that they were expected to follow in the course ARTS 1110 Introduction to University. The research questions were "Can first-year students taking the Arts 1110 Introduction to University course articulate their understanding of the marking rubric?…

  6. Chinese Grade Eight Students' Understanding about the Concept of Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing

    2017-01-01

    China is one of the world's biggest greenhouse gas emitters. Chinese students' awareness and understanding about global warming have a significant impact on the future of mankind. This study, as an initial research of this kind in Mainland China, uses clinical interviews to survey 37 grade eight students on their understanding about global…

  7. Students' Experiences and Perceptions of In-Depth Approaches in Teaching and Understanding Subject Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Kyriaki

    2012-01-01

    Students' experiences and perceptions of good teaching and understanding in literature and physics during one school year were investigated through in-depth interviews with students in eight Greek high school classes in the first, second and third grade. The pedagogical quality of in-depth teaching and understanding of subject matter, as described…

  8. University Students' Understanding of the Concepts Empirical, Theoretical, Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtonen, Mari

    2015-01-01

    University research education in many disciplines is frequently confronted by problems with students' weak level of understanding of research concepts. A mind map technique was used to investigate how students understand central methodological concepts of empirical, theoretical, qualitative and quantitative. The main hypothesis was that some…

  9. Chinese Grade Eight Students' Understanding about the Concept of Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing

    2017-01-01

    China is one of the world's biggest greenhouse gas emitters. Chinese students' awareness and understanding about global warming have a significant impact on the future of mankind. This study, as an initial research of this kind in Mainland China, uses clinical interviews to survey 37 grade eight students on their understanding about global…

  10. Effect of a Science Diagram on Primary Students' Understanding about Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The research investigated the effect of a science diagram on primary students' conceptual understanding about magnets. Lack of research involving students of primary age means that little is known about the potential of science diagrams to help them understand abstract concepts such as magnetism. Task-based interviews were conducted individually…

  11. Students' Understanding of Mathematical Expressions in Physical Chemistry Contexts: An Analysis Using Sherin's Symbolic Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Nicole; Towns, Marcy

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduate physical chemistry courses require students to be proficient in calculus in order to develop an understanding of thermodynamics concepts. Here we present the findings of a study that examines student understanding of mathematical expressions, including partial derivative expressions, in two undergraduate physical chemistry courses.…

  12. Measuring Student Teachers' Understandings and Self-Awareness of Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Understanding sustainability is important, as people need to cope with issues associated with over-population and over-consumption. Education is seen as a key strategy to assist with the development of people's understandings of this complex concept, which could then lead to them being able to make more sustainable lifestyle decisions. In order to…

  13. Measuring Student Teachers' Understandings and Self-Awareness of Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Understanding sustainability is important, as people need to cope with issues associated with over-population and over-consumption. Education is seen as a key strategy to assist with the development of people's understandings of this complex concept, which could then lead to them being able to make more sustainable lifestyle decisions. In order to…

  14. Marketing/Sales Students' Understanding of What Counts as Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshower, Leon; Gupta, Ashok K.

    2009-01-01

    Improper sales revenue recognition is the single largest issue contributing to financial restatements. Understanding and applying the rules of sales revenue recognition is not just an accounting problem; it is a marketing problem, too. Thus, it is important that the sales force has a basic understanding of the rules of sales recognition and be…

  15. Emotion understanding, interpersonal competencies and loneliness among students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moroń Marcin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the associations of emotion understanding, interpersonal competencies, loneliness and correlated variables (perceived social support, quality of social networks. Two conceptual models of relations were tested. In the first model it was hypothesized that interpersonal competencies mediate relations between emotion understanding and loneliness, perceived social support and quality of social networks. In the second model emotion understanding was tested as a moderator of relationships between interpersonal competencies and loneliness, perceived social support and quality of social networks. Study 1 (n = 221 provided only a weak confirmation of the mediatory model, restricted to men. Study 2 (n = 206, employing different measures of emotion understanding and loneliness, confirmed weakly both the mediatory and moderatory models. In both studies a direct negative correlation between emotion understanding and loneliness was not confirmed.

  16. Using Student e-Portfolios to Facilitate Learning Objective Achievements in an Outcome-Based University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubaishat, Abdallah; Lansari, Azzedine

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers define e-portfolios as a digital collection of students' work accomplished throughout their time of studies in an academic program (Buzzetto-More, 2006; Love, McKean and Gathercoal, 2004; Paulson, Paulson, & Meyer, 1991; Siemens, 2004). E-portfolios can be a rich resource for students and faculty. Students learn to identify…

  17. Welcoming Students Who Are Deaf-Blind into Typical Classrooms: Facilitating School Participation, Learning, and Friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, Norris G., Ed.; Romer, Lyle T., Ed.

    This collection of 18 papers focuses on the inclusion of students who are deaf-blind in regular classrooms. Papers include: (1) "Inclusion of Students Who Are Deaf-Blind: What Does the Future Hold?" (Lori Goetz); (2) "A History of Federal Support for Students with Deaf-Blindness" (R. Paul Thompson and Charles W. Freeman); (3)…

  18. Effect of Varied Computer Based Presentation Sequences on Facilitating Student Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonen, Ann; Dwyer, Francis M.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of visual illustrations in computer-based education, the effect of order of visual presentation, and whether screen design affects students' use of graphics and text. Results indicate that order of presentation and choice of review did not influence student achievement; however, when given a choice, students selected the…

  19. Investigating Student Understanding of Physics Concepts and the Underlying Calculus Concepts in Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John; Christensen, Warren; Mountcastle, Donald

    2010-03-01

    In work on student understanding of concepts in advanced thermal physics, we are exploring student understanding of the mathematics required for productive reasoning about the physics. By analysis of student use of mathematics in responses to conceptual physics questions, as well as analogous math questions stripped of physical meaning, we find evidence that students often enter upper-level physics courses lacking the assumed prerequisite mathematics knowledge and/or the ability to apply it productively in a physics context. Our focus is in two main areas: interpretation of P-V diagrams, requiring an understanding of integration, and material properties and the Maxwell relations, involving partial differentiation. We have also assessed these mathematical concepts among students in multivariable calculus. Calculus results support the findings among physics students: some observed difficulties are not just with transfer of math knowledge to physics contexts, but seem to have origins in the understanding of the math concepts themselves.

  20. Students' Performance in Investigative Activity and Their Understanding of Activity Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Alessandro Damasio Trani; Borges, A. Tarciso; Justi, Rosaria

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the students' understanding of the aims of an investigative activity and their performance when conducting it. One hundred and eighty-one year nine students from a public middle school in Brazil took part in the study. Students working in pairs were asked to investigate two problems using a…

  1. A Simple Classroom Teaching Technique to Help Students Understand Michaelis-Menten Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Steven W.; Hill, Brent J. F.; Moran, William M.

    2006-01-01

    A new, simple classroom technique helps cell biology students understand principles of Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics. A student mimics the enzyme and the student's hand represents the enzyme's active site. The catalytic event is the transfer of marbles (substrate molecules) by hand from one plastic container to another. As predicted, increases…

  2. What's in a Domain: Understanding How Students Approach Questioning in History and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Lindsay Blau; Rabinowitz, Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    How students ask questions as they learn has implications for understanding, retention, and problem solving. The current research investigates the influence of domain, age, and previous experience with content on the ways students approach questioning across history and science texts. In 3 experiments, 3rd-, 8th-, and 10th-grade students in large…

  3. What's in a Domain: Understanding How Students Approach Questioning in History and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Lindsay Blau; Rabinowitz, Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    How students ask questions as they learn has implications for understanding, retention, and problem solving. The current research investigates the influence of domain, age, and previous experience with content on the ways students approach questioning across history and science texts. In 3 experiments, 3rd-, 8th-, and 10th-grade students in large…

  4. What's in a Domain: Understanding How Students Approach Questioning in History and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Lindsay Blau

    2013-01-01

    During their education, students are presented with information across a variety of academic domains. How students ask questions as they learn has implications for understanding, retention, and problem solving. The current research investigates the influence of age and prior knowledge on the ways students approach questioning across history and…

  5. Understanding Student Engagement in Online Learning Environments: The Role of Reflexivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Peter; Everington, Lucy; Kelm, Kathleen; Reid, Iain; Watkins, Francine

    2017-01-01

    It is important to develop understanding of what underpins the engagement of students in online learning environments. This article reports on a multiple case study that explored student engagement in a set of postgraduate degrees offered on a fully online basis. The study was based on a theorization of student engagement as the exercise of…

  6. How Heavy Is My Rock? An Exploration of Students' Understanding of the Measurement of Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Michael

    2013-01-01

    New Zealand and Australian curricula require students to learn about weight/mass for at least six years. However, little research identifies what should be taught. This study reports cognitive interviews with 17 Year 9 students who were asked "how heavy is my rock?" Only one student demonstrated some understanding of how to use analogue…

  7. The Effect of Modeling and Visualization Resources on Student Understanding of Physical Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jilll A.; Castillo, Adam J.; Cardenas, M. Bayani

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of modeling and visualization resources on upper-division, undergraduate and graduate students' performance on an open-ended assessment of their understanding of physical hydrology. The students were enrolled in one of five sections of a physical hydrology course. In two of the sections, students completed homework…

  8. Multicultural and Cross-Cultural Narrative Inquiry into Understanding Immigrant Students' Educational Experience in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillion, JoAnn

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential of narrative inquiry to contribute to an understanding of immigrant students' educational experience. Research on immigrant students' education is reviewed and the need for detailed examination of these students' experiences in schools, such as is done in a narrative inquiry, is demonstrated.…

  9. Hitting Reply: A Qualitative Study to Understand Student Decisions to Respond to Online Discussion Postings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Diane D.; Storberg-Walker, Julia; Stone, Sophia J.

    2008-01-01

    Providing tools for dialogue exchange does not ensure that students will respond to team mate postings or that online groups will grow in cohesiveness. Students decide whether or not to reply, and it is increasingly important to understand how students make these decisions due to the increase in distance education, millenials, and asynchronous…

  10. General Chemistry Students' Understanding of Climate Change and the Chemistry Related to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versprille, Ashley N.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2015-01-01

    While much is known about secondary students' perspectives of climate change, rather less is known about undergraduate students' perspectives. The purpose of this study is to investigate general chemistry students' understanding of the chemistry underlying climate change. Findings that emerged from the analysis of the 24 interviews indicate that…

  11. Understanding Student Engagement in Online Learning Environments: The Role of Reflexivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Peter; Everington, Lucy; Kelm, Kathleen; Reid, Iain; Watkins, Francine

    2017-01-01

    It is important to develop understanding of what underpins the engagement of students in online learning environments. This article reports on a multiple case study that explored student engagement in a set of postgraduate degrees offered on a fully online basis. The study was based on a theorization of student engagement as the exercise of…

  12. Understanding of Words and Symbols by Chemistry University Students in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladušic, Roko; Bucat, Robert; Ožic, Mia

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a study conducted in Croatia on students' understanding of scientific words and representations, as well as everyday words used in chemistry teaching. A total of 82 undergraduate chemistry students and 36 pre-service chemistry teachers from the Faculty of Science, University of Split, were involved. Students' understanding…

  13. Current as the Key Concept of Taiwanese Students' Understandings of Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Hsing; Chen, Hsueh-Yu; Chou, Ching-Yang; Lain, Kuen-Der

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the results of a nationwide survey of Taiwanese high schools students' understandings about electric circuits. The study involved two stratified random samples consisting of 7,145 students in Grades 8 and 9, and 2,857 students in Grade 11, accounting for about 2.3% of the total enrolment in the corresponding…

  14. Students' Perceived Understanding Mediates the Effects of Teacher Clarity and Nonverbal Immediacy on Learner Empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Amber N.; Schrodt, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study examined students' perceived understanding as a mediator of the relationship between student perceptions of teacher clarity, nonverbal immediacy cues, and learner empowerment (i.e., meaningfulness, competence, and impact). Participants included 261 undergraduate students who completed survey instruments. Results of structural equation…

  15. The Role of Precollege Data in Assessing and Understanding Student Engagement in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James S.; Kennedy, Marianne; Ben-Avie, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Research studies show that high school experiences, engagement, and academic achievement, as well as entering expectations and attitudes, are important predictors of student success. Therefore, to better understand first-year student engagement, it makes sense to consider the backgrounds and precollege characteristics of entering college students.…

  16. A Simple Classroom Teaching Technique to Help Students Understand Michaelis-Menten Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Steven W.; Hill, Brent J. F.; Moran, William M.

    2006-01-01

    A new, simple classroom technique helps cell biology students understand principles of Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics. A student mimics the enzyme and the student's hand represents the enzyme's active site. The catalytic event is the transfer of marbles (substrate molecules) by hand from one plastic container to another. As predicted, increases…

  17. Students' Perceived Understanding Mediates the Effects of Teacher Clarity and Nonverbal Immediacy on Learner Empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Amber N.; Schrodt, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study examined students' perceived understanding as a mediator of the relationship between student perceptions of teacher clarity, nonverbal immediacy cues, and learner empowerment (i.e., meaningfulness, competence, and impact). Participants included 261 undergraduate students who completed survey instruments. Results of structural equation…

  18. The Effect of Modeling and Visualization Resources on Student Understanding of Physical Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jilll A.; Castillo, Adam J.; Cardenas, M. Bayani

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of modeling and visualization resources on upper-division, undergraduate and graduate students' performance on an open-ended assessment of their understanding of physical hydrology. The students were enrolled in one of five sections of a physical hydrology course. In two of the sections, students completed homework…

  19. Student Understanding of Time in Special Relativity: Simultaneity and Reference Frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Shaffer, Peter S.; Vokos, Stamatis

    2001-01-01

    Reports on an investigation of students' understanding of the concept of time in special relativity. Discusses a series of research tasks to illustrate how student reasoning of fundamental concepts of relativity was probed. Indicates that after standard instruction, students have serious difficulties with the relativity of simultaneity and the…

  20. Effect of Conceptual Change Approach on Students' Understanding of Reaction Rate Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingir, Sevgi; Geban, Omer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of conceptual change text oriented instruction compared to traditional instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of reaction rate concepts. 45 students from two classes of the same teacher in a public high school participated in this study. Students in the experimental group…

  1. Using digital technologies to enhance chemistry students' understanding and representational skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton, Annette

    Abstract Chemistry students need to understand chemistry on molecular, symbolic and macroscopic levels. Students find it difficult to use representations on these three levels to interpret and explain data. One approach is to encourage students to use writing-to-learn strategies in inquiry settings...

  2. Hitting Reply: A Qualitative Study to Understand Student Decisions to Respond to Online Discussion Postings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Diane D.; Storberg-Walker, Julia; Stone, Sophia J.

    2008-01-01

    Providing tools for dialogue exchange does not ensure that students will respond to team mate postings or that online groups will grow in cohesiveness. Students decide whether or not to reply, and it is increasingly important to understand how students make these decisions due to the increase in distance education, millenials, and asynchronous…

  3. General Chemistry Students' Understanding of Climate Change and the Chemistry Related to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versprille, Ashley N.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2015-01-01

    While much is known about secondary students' perspectives of climate change, rather less is known about undergraduate students' perspectives. The purpose of this study is to investigate general chemistry students' understanding of the chemistry underlying climate change. Findings that emerged from the analysis of the 24 interviews indicate that…

  4. Understanding Student Mobility in the B.C. Public Post-Secondary System. Highlights from the Student Transitions Project: Post-Secondary Student Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This annual newsletter summarizes the work of the Post-secondary Student Mobility (PSM) Subcommittee of the Student Transitions Project (STP) . In an effort to better understand student mobility in the B.C. public post-secondary system, the Student Transitions Project continues to describe and quantify the numerous education pathways of students…

  5. Standing out while fitting in: How business students understand and practice personal branding

    OpenAIRE

    Tikkanen, Miina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study is to provide understanding on the phenomenon of personal branding in the context of Finnish business students. More specifically, the research looks into how the business students understand the phenomenon on four different aspects: what personal branding is, why it is practiced, where it is practiced and how it is practiced. The latter is still divided into two sub-topics: how business students practice personal branding, and how they think it...

  6. Do first-year university students understand the language of mathematics?

    OpenAIRE

    Sastre Vázquez, Patricia; D'Andrea, Rodolfo; Villacampa Esteve, Yolanda; Navarro González, Francisco José

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the project is to determine if the understanding of the language of Mathematics of students starting university is propitious to the development of an appropriate cognitive structure. The objective of this current work was to analyse the ability of first-year university students to translate the registers of verbal or written expressions and their representations to the registers of algebraic language. Results indicate that students do not understand the basic elements of the langu...

  7. Treating student contributions as displays of understanding in group supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The analyses this paper reports come from ongoing research into the interactive establishment of local social order in an educational setting (Day & Kjærbeck 2008, Day & Kjærbeck, in preparation). In focus for this paper are a particular sort of activity in the setting, 'group supervision', whereby...... students working in 'project groups' are to meet with their 'supervisor' to discuss the group's ongoing project, and a particular set of interactive phenomena, namely students' displays of comprehension directed toward the supervisor following his or evaluation of their work. This work is in line...

  8. Understanding the Greenhouse Effect by Embodiment - Analysing and Using Students' and Scientists' Conceptual Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebert, Kai; Gropengießer, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, science education studies have reported that there are very different understandings among students of science regarding the key aspects of climate change. We used the cognitive linguistic framework of experientialism to shed new light on this valuable pool of studies to identify the conceptual resources of understanding climate change. In our study, we interviewed 35 secondary school students on their understanding of the greenhouse effect and analysed the conceptions of climate scientists as drawn from textbooks and research reports. We analysed all data by metaphor analysis and qualitative content analysis to gain insight into students' and scientists' resources for understanding. In our analysis, we found that students and scientists refer to the same schemata to understand the greenhouse effect. We categorised their conceptions into three different principles the conceptions are based on: warming by more input, warming by less output, and warming by a new equilibrium. By interrelating students' and scientists' conceptions, we identified the students' learning demand: First, our students were afforded with experiences regarding the interactions of electromagnetic radiation and CO2. Second, our students reflected about the experience-based schemata they use as source domains for metaphorical understanding of the greenhouse effect. By uncovering the-mostly unconscious-deployed schemata, we gave students access to their source domains. We implemented these teaching guidelines in interventions and evaluated them in teaching experiments to develop evidence-based and theory-guided learning activities on the greenhouse effect.

  9. School students' knowledge and understanding of the Global Solar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Global Solar Ultraviolet Index (UVI) is a health communication tool used to ... and questions aimed at probing their understanding of this measure. ... knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. ..... advice was related to the scale at a later stage.

  10. Emotion understanding, interpersonal competencies and loneliness among students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcin Moroń

    2014-01-01

    .... In the second model emotion understanding was tested as a moderator of relationships between interpersonal competencies and loneliness, perceived social support and quality of social networks. Study 1 (n = 221...

  11. Academic Buoyancy: Towards an Understanding of Students' Everyday Academic Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Marsh, Herbert W.

    2008-01-01

    Academic buoyancy is developed as a construct reflecting everyday academic resilience within a positive psychology context and is defined as students' ability to successfully deal with academic setbacks and challenges that are typical of the ordinary course of school life (e.g., poor grades, competing deadlines, exam pressure, difficult…

  12. Probing Students' Understanding of Some Conceptual Themes in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Atanu; Kumar, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    This work is an attempt to see how physics undergraduates view the basic ideas of general relativity when they are exposed to the topic in a standard introductory course. Since the subject is conceptually and technically difficult, we adopted a "case studies" approach, focusing in depth on about six students who had just finished a one semester…

  13. Student Understanding and Learning from an Interpretation Construction Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, John B.; And Others

    This study is a key concept in making design more fruitful in education. It is proposed that what students are doing when they construct knowledge is studying. For several years, Teachers College, Columbia University and the Dalton School (an independent school in New York City), have been collaborating on the Dalton Technology Project. The goal…

  14. Understanding Students' Emotional Reactions to Entrepreneurship Education: A Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sally; Underwood, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to focus on approaches that acknowledge and make explicit the role of emotion in the entrepreneurship education classroom. As entrepreneurship educators, the authors are aware of the affective impacts that entrepreneurship education has on the students and the authors continuously reflect on and support the…

  15. Understanding Patterns of Commitment: Student Motivation for Community Service Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan R.; Hill, Kathleen E.

    2003-01-01

    This constructivist study investigated college student perceptions of their motivations to participate in community service in high school and college. Data from interviews were analyzed using a grounded theory approach and revealed that patterns of commitment are mediated by early socialization experiences, the influence of peers, and by how…

  16. Understanding Unearned Privilege: An Experiential Activity for Counseling Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Katrina; Lusk, Aisha; Miller, Laura Christina; Dodier, Oscar Esteban; Salazar, Ana M.

    2012-01-01

    The Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development stresses the importance of counselors to develop multicultural competencies that include attitudes, knowledge, and skills. Counselor educators face the challenge of helping their students develop multicultural counseling competence including an awareness of unearned privilege. This…

  17. Understanding of Allusions Possessed by Ninth-Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mary Marjorie Southard

    In this investigation, 270 ninth-grade students at Jefferson Junior High School in Columbia, Missouri, were tested to determine how well they comprehended the meanings of allusions in their required reading materials. Test results were compared with other objective data from school records to discern the extent to which the factors of sex,…

  18. Independent Learning Modules Enhance Student Performance and Understanding of Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, Maria A.; Dom, Aaron M.; Buchanan, James T., Jr.; Williams, Alison R.; Efaw, Morgan L.; Richardson, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    Didactic lessons are only one part of the multimodal teaching strategies used in gross anatomy courses today. Increased emphasis is placed on providing more opportunities for students to develop lifelong learning and critical thinking skills during medical training. In a pilot program designed to promote more engaged and independent learning in…

  19. Understanding Western Students: Motivations and Benefits for Studying in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Alexander S.; Allison, Jessica; Ma, Jian Hong

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, there has been a rise in the number of Western students who are studying in China. Governments in China, and in other Western nations are expanding relations because China is currently developing world-class higher education institutions (Hennock, 2012). The present study explores motivations, deterrents and benefits of…

  20. Understanding the Heritage Language Student: Proficiency and Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    Given the ever-growing number of Spanish heritage learners in both universities and colleges, the need has continued to grow for the development of placement exams that accurately measure language ability, are simple to evaluate, and are easy to administer to large numbers of students. This article analyzes the implementation of a placement exam…