WorldWideScience

Sample records for facilitate research progress

  1. On novice facilitators doing research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Opportunities for novices to facilitate Problem Structuring Methods (PSMs) workshops are limited, especially because of a lack of access to real-world interventions and confidence in their capabilities. Novices are usually young academics building their careers through publishing. Publishing...... is challenging if facilitation and opportunities for data collection are limited. To address this challenge, this paper suggests autoethnography as a framework for addressing difficulties that novices face in conducting research and publishing on PSMs. This suggestion grows out of a literature study...... on autoethnography and PSMs combined with reflections on the author’s experience as a PSM novice and young academic. Autoethnography is presented as a means to enable access to real-world interventions, enhance novices’ confidence, and identify research and publishing opportunities. The author outlines strengths...

  2. Research progress of RNAi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹建

    2014-01-01

    the double stranded RNA into cell could cause homologous gene silencing, a phenomenon called RNA interference (RNA interference, RNAi). Research progress of RNA interference characteristics, in this paper, the mechanism of RNA interference technology, RNA interference and existing problems are summarized.

  3. Building research capital to facilitate research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Gill; Rein, Melanie

    2013-04-04

    The National Institute for Health Research, Research Design Service (NIHR RDS) was set up to increase the number and proportion of high quality applications for funding for applied and patient focused health and social care research. Access to specialist expertise and collaboration between researchers and health practitioners at the proposal development stage is crucial for high quality applied health research. In this essay we develop the concept of 'research capital' to describe the wide range of resources and expertise required to develop fundable research projects. It highlights the key role the RDS plays supporting researchers to broker relationships to access the requisite 'research capital'.

  4. Framework conditions facilitating paediatric clinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfarez Deborah

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of unlicensed and "off-label" medicines in children is widespread. Between 50-80% of the medicines currently administered to children have neither been tested nor authorized for their use in the paediatric population which represents approximately 25% of the whole European population. On 26 January 2007, entered into force the European Regulation of Paediatric Medicines. It aims at the quality of research into medicines for children but without subjecting the paediatric population to unnecessary clinical trial. This article addresses ethical and legal issues arising from the regulation and makes recommendations for the framework conditions facilitating the development of clinical research with children.

  5. Electronic health records to facilitate clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Martin R; Blomster, Juuso I; Curtis, Lesley H; Duclaux, Sylvie; Ford, Ian; Fritz, Fleur; Goldman, Samantha; Janmohamed, Salim; Kreuzer, Jörg; Leenay, Mark; Michel, Alexander; Ong, Seleen; Pell, Jill P; Southworth, Mary Ross; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Thoenes, Martin; Zannad, Faiez; Zalewski, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) provide opportunities to enhance patient care, embed performance measures in clinical practice, and facilitate clinical research. Concerns have been raised about the increasing recruitment challenges in trials, burdensome and obtrusive data collection, and uncertain generalizability of the results. Leveraging electronic health records to counterbalance these trends is an area of intense interest. The initial applications of electronic health records, as the primary data source is envisioned for observational studies, embedded pragmatic or post-marketing registry-based randomized studies, or comparative effectiveness studies. Advancing this approach to randomized clinical trials, electronic health records may potentially be used to assess study feasibility, to facilitate patient recruitment, and streamline data collection at baseline and follow-up. Ensuring data security and privacy, overcoming the challenges associated with linking diverse systems and maintaining infrastructure for repeat use of high quality data, are some of the challenges associated with using electronic health records in clinical research. Collaboration between academia, industry, regulatory bodies, policy makers, patients, and electronic health record vendors is critical for the greater use of electronic health records in clinical research. This manuscript identifies the key steps required to advance the role of electronic health records in cardiovascular clinical research.

  6. Annual Research Progress Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-30

    I. ASIMC I9 3. SAYS OF APORT mOWIRO arms"C RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY WORK UNT SUMARY D E60 91 1D-REA)3 7A8 66 7 10 01 TERMNATON NAAR) 14 01 30 40COlS...morphine anesthesia on myocardial function and metabolism during cyanosis in swine. Surg Forum 30: 221-223, 1979 79-072 WATSON , L.C., and R. GOMEZ

  7. Virtual Research Environments: The role of the facilitator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bowers, N

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This conference presentation discusses the authors' duties as the facilitators of the POL-SABINA Natural Products Virtual Research Environment. In summary, they facilitated the use and content population of the Natural Products Virtual Research...

  8. Alternative Fuels: Research Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chapter 1: Pollutant Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of Biofuels and Biofuel/Diesel Blends in Laminar and Turbulent Gas Jet Flames. R. N. Parthasarathy, S. R. Gollahalli Chapter 2: Sustainable Routes for The Production of Oxygenated High-Energy Density Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass. Juan A. Melero, Jose Iglesias, Gabriel Morales, Marta Paniagua Chapter 3: Optical Investigations of Alternative-Fuel Combustion in an HSDI Diesel Engine. T. Huelser, M. Jakob, G. Gruenefeld, P. Adomeit, S. Pischinger Chapter 4: An Insight into Biodiesel Physico-Chemical Properties and Exhaust Emissions Based on Statistical Elaboration of Experimental Data. Evangelos G. Giakoumis Chapter 5: Biodiesel: A Promising Alternative Energy Resource. A.E. Atabani Chapter 6: Alternative Fuels for Internal Combustion Engines: An Overview of the Current Research. Ahmed A. Taha, Tarek M. Abdel-Salam, Madhu Vellakal Chapter 7: Investigating the Hydrogen-Natural Gas Blends as a Fuel in Internal Combustion Engine. ?lker YILMAZ Chapter 8: Conversion of Bus Diesel Engine into LPG Gaseous Engine; Method and Experiments Validation. M. A. Jemni , G. Kantchev , Z. Driss , R. Saaidia , M. S. Abid Chapter 9: Predicting the Combustion Performance of Different Vegetable Oils-Derived Biodiesel Fuels. Qing Shu, ChangLin Yu Chapter 10: Production of Gasoline, Naphtha, Kerosene, Diesel, and Fuel Oil Range Fuels from Polypropylene and Polystyrene Waste Plastics Mixture by Two-Stage Catalytic Degradation using ZnO. Moinuddin Sarker, Mohammad Mamunor Rashid

  9. Research Progress of Isotope Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Department; of; Isotope

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive isotope is one of the origins of nonnuclear power technology.In the 12th Five Year Plan period,CIAE made breakthrough progresses on several important fields such as research and development of preparation of radioactive nuclides,preparation of radioactive source and study of radiopharmaceuticals relied on different financial support,successfully

  10. [Research progress on wetland ecotourism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Long; Lu, Lin

    2009-06-01

    Wetland is rich in biodiversity and cultural diversity, possessing higher tourism value and environmental education and community participation functions. Wetland ecotourism reflects the sustainable development of tourism economy and wetland protection, having received great concern from governments and scholars at home and abroad. This paper summarized the related theories and practices, discussed the research advances in wetland ecotourism from the aspects of significance, progress, contents, methods and results, and pointed out the important research fields in the future, aimed to accelerate the development of wetland ecotourism research and to provide reference about the resources exploitation, environment protection, and scientific administration of wetland and related scenic areas.

  11. Persistent Factors Facilitating Excellence in Research Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalpazidou Schmidt, Evanthia; Graversen, Ebbe Krogh

    2017-01-01

    The paper identifies robust and time-invariant features that characterise dynamic and innovative research environments. It takes as its point of departure the results of an empirical study conducted in 2002, which identified the common characteristics of 15 dynamic and innovative public research...... environments, and focusses on their development by revisiting the environments after more than a decade, hence mapping them in the current research landscape. Based on a model for studies of research environments, constructed and used in the Nordic countries, the paper maps elements internal as well...

  12. FDA Facilitates Research on Earlier Stages of Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Updates FDA Facilitates Research on Earlier Stages of Alzheimer's Disease Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... disease.” back to top New Paths for New Alzheimer’s Drugs FDA’s draft guidance aims to encourage research ...

  13. Multibranch Antarctic Seismic Data Library facilitates research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alan K.

    In 1991, investigators from 11 nations involved in Antarctic multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection research sought a way to keep the Antarctic Treaty's promise of open access to data, and in the process to encourage Earth-science research using seismic data. The Antarctic Seismic Data Library System for Cooperative Research (SDLS) was the solution, and is now a recommendation of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (ATCP). Today—at 12 branches spanning the world—researchers can access over 68,000 km of marine MCS data to use for cooperative research.More than 150,000 km of MCS data have been accumulated since 1976 by 13 countries on nearly 70 cruises. The majority of data now in the library cover the Ross Sea, Wilkes Land, and Prydz Bay sectors of the Antarctic margin, with smaller amounts from the Weddell Sea and the Antarctic Peninsula.

  14. Facilitating Coherence across Qualitative Research Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.; Duffy, Maureen; St. George, Sally; Wulff, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Bringing the various elements of qualitative research papers into coherent textual patterns presents challenges for authors and editors alike. Although individual sections such as presentation of the problem, review of the literature, methodology, results, and discussion may each be constructed in a sound logical and structural sense, the…

  15. Cloud Computing Technologies Facilitate Earth Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Under a Space Act Agreement, NASA partnered with Seattle-based Amazon Web Services to make the agency's climate and Earth science satellite data publicly available on the company's servers. Users can access the data for free, but they can also pay to use Amazon's computing services to analyze and visualize information using the same software available to NASA researchers.

  16. Microfinance as a method of facilitating research in emergency medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Peter; Brabrand, Mikkel; Folkestad, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Microgrants are a novel concept where small grants are used to facilitate research. The concept might have a place in developing emergency medicine research, especially in countries where emergency medicine is not established or in new areas of research. Two examples of the beneficial effects of ...

  17. Developing International Standards for Meteorological Balloon to Facilitate Industrial Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Yizhi

    2011-01-01

    Meteorological balloon is made of natural rubber latex with a special process.On natural conditions,it carries the air sounding instrument into the high air to detect the meteorological elements in the air.As a means of delivery used in the aerological sounding,it is widely used in the meteorological,sailing,aeronautical,aerospace and other fields,and plays an extremely important role in the weather report,disaster prevention,disaster relief,guaranteeing ships and aircrafts to leave ports safely,and scientific research in relevant spaces,etc.Especially,the role of meteorological balloons is not ignorable in the forecast of extremely adverse weather frequently occurring around the world in recent years.

  18. Microfinance as a method of facilitating research in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, Peter; Brabrand, Mikkel; Folkestad, Lars

    2010-04-22

    Microgrants are a novel concept where small grants are used to facilitate research. The concept might have a place in developing emergency medicine research, especially in countries where emergency medicine is not established or in new areas of research. Two examples of the beneficial effects of microgrants in emergency medicine research are described. Emergency medicine interest groups and foundations should consider setting up microgrant schemes.

  19. Microgrants - a method of facilitating research in emergency medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Peter; Brabrand, Mikkel; Folkestad, Lars

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Microgrants is a novel concept where small grants are used to facilitate research. The concept might have a place in developing emergency medicine research, especially in countries where emergency medicine in not established or in new areas of research. Two examples of the beneficial...... effects of microgrants in emergency medicine research are described. Emergency medicine interest groups and foundations should consider setting up microgrant schemes....

  20. Enhancement of synaptic facilitation during the progression of kindling epilepsy by amygdala stimulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, S; Hirayama, K; Murata, R

    1993-08-01

    1. A quantitative analysis of facilitation during the kindling stimulation to the amygdala was conducted by measuring the area between the excitatory potential and the baseline in the averaged tetanic response recorded at the entorhinal cortex. The changes in facilitation were then compared with the development of electrographic afterdischarges (AD) and behavioral seizures in response to successive kindling stimulations. 2. Kindling train pulses (n = 99 or 100; duration: 0.5 ms; frequency: 10 Hz; intensity: AD threshold) were applied to conscious rats until at least one generalized seizure occurred or until 13 stimuli were delivered. 3. Facilitation of the entorhinal responses by kindling stimulation first occurred in the monosynaptic excitatory component and was then followed by a progressive increase in the polysynaptic component that was manifested as the later negative peaks. A clear progressive enhancement was observed in the facilitation by successive kindling stimulations, which also induced prolongation of the AD duration and progression of the seizure stages, indicating that activity-dependent enhancement of facilitation (EF) occurred during the progression of kindling epilepsy. 4. Quantitative analysis revealed that the EF that occurred with the progression of seizure stages was statistically significant (P < 0.001, Friedman test). The AD duration (r = 0.89) and the long-term potentiation (r = 0.85) of the entorhinal responses by single test amygdala stimuli showed a very good linear relation to the EF.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Participant-centric initiatives: Tools to facilitate engagement in research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Anderson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical genomic research faces increasing challenges in establishing participant privacy and consent processes that facilitate meaningful choice and communication capacity for longitudinal and secondary research uses. There are an evolving range of participant-centric initiatives that combine web-based informatics tools with new models of engagement and research collaboration. These emerging initiatives may become valuable approaches to support large-scale and longitudinal research studies. We highlight and discuss four types of emerging initiatives for engaging and sustaining participation in research.

  2. The role of the nurse research facilitator in building research capacity in the clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamerson, Patricia A; Vermeersch, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    With little guidance in the literature regarding best practices, clinical institutions have used different organizational models to meet the challenges of building research capacity. This article provides recommendations regarding the most productive models based on review of historical clinical research facilitation models and the results of a survey regarding extant models conducted among research facilitators who were members of the Midwest Nursing Research Society.

  3. Research progress in advanced melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Cong; Shen, Jiayu

    2017-07-01

    Melanoma is a malignant tumor with high rate of metastasis and poor prognosis. How melanoma develops and how to treat it will continue to be a hot topic. This review briefly summarizes the mechanism of melanoma development and the latest progress in its treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Progress in front propagation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Joaquim; Pujol, Toni

    2008-08-01

    We review the progress in the field of front propagation in recent years. We survey many physical, biophysical and cross-disciplinary applications, including reduced-variable models of combustion flames, Reid's paradox of rapid forest range expansions, the European colonization of North America during the 19th century, the Neolithic transition in Europe from 13 000 to 5000 years ago, the description of subsistence boundaries, the formation of cultural boundaries, the spread of genetic mutations, theory and experiments on virus infections, models of cancer tumors, etc. Recent theoretical advances are unified in a single framework, encompassing very diverse systems such as those with biased random walks, distributed delays, sequential reaction and dispersion, cohabitation models, age structure and systems with several interacting species. Directions for future progress are outlined.

  5. Ethical use of social media to facilitate qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunnay, Belinda; Borlagdan, Joseph; McNaughton, Darlene; Ward, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, qualitative health researchers might consider using social media to facilitate communication with participants. Ambiguity surrounding the potential risks intrinsic to social media could hinder ethical conduct and discourage use of this innovative method. We used some core principles of traditional human research ethics, that is, respect, integrity, and beneficence, to design our photo elicitation research that explored the social influences of drinking alcohol among 34 underage women in metropolitan South Australia. Facebook aided our communication with participants, including correspondence ranging from recruitment to feeding back results and sharing research data. This article outlines the ethical issues we encountered when using Facebook to interact with participants and provides guidance to researchers planning to incorporate social media as a tool in their qualitative studies. In particular, we raise the issues of privacy and confidentiality as contemporary risks associated with research using social media.

  6. FIRE (facilitating implementation of research evidence: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seers Kate

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research evidence underpins best practice, but is not always used in healthcare. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS framework suggests that the nature of evidence, the context in which it is used, and whether those trying to use evidence are helped (or facilitated affect the use of evidence. Urinary incontinence has a major effect on quality of life of older people, has a high prevalence, and is a key priority within European health and social care policy. Improving continence care has the potential to improve the quality of life for older people and reduce the costs associated with providing incontinence aids. Objectives This study aims to advance understanding about the contribution facilitation can make to implementing research findings into practice via: extending current knowledge of facilitation as a process for translating research evidence into practice; evaluating the feasibility, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of two different models of facilitation in promoting the uptake of research evidence on continence management; assessing the impact of contextual factors on the processes and outcomes of implementation; and implementing a pro-active knowledge transfer and dissemination strategy to diffuse study findings to a wide policy and practice community. Setting and sample Four European countries, each with six long-term nursing care sites (total 24 sites for people aged 60 years and over with documented urinary incontinence Methods and design Pragmatic randomised controlled trial with three arms (standard dissemination and two different programmes of facilitation, with embedded process and economic evaluation. The primary outcome is compliance with the continence recommendations. Secondary outcomes include proportion of residents with incontinence, incidence of incontinence-related dermatitis, urinary tract infections, and quality of life. Outcomes are assessed at baseline

  7. Basic Research and Progress against Pediatric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infographic about the importance of basic research for making progress against childhood cancers. Shows the milestones that led to development and approval of dinutuximab (Unituxin®) to treat neuroblastoma, a cancer seen mainly in children.

  8. Sharing Research Models: Using Software Engineering Practices for Facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Stephanie P; Solano, Eric; Cantor, Susanna; Cooley, Philip C; Wagener, Diane K

    2011-03-01

    Increasingly, researchers are turning to computational models to understand the interplay of important variables on systems' behaviors. Although researchers may develop models that meet the needs of their investigation, application limitations-such as nonintuitive user interface features and data input specifications-may limit the sharing of these tools with other research groups. By removing these barriers, other research groups that perform related work can leverage these work products to expedite their own investigations. The use of software engineering practices can enable managed application production and shared research artifacts among multiple research groups by promoting consistent models, reducing redundant effort, encouraging rigorous peer review, and facilitating research collaborations that are supported by a common toolset. This report discusses three established software engineering practices- the iterative software development process, object-oriented methodology, and Unified Modeling Language-and the applicability of these practices to computational model development. Our efforts to modify the MIDAS TranStat application to make it more user-friendly are presented as an example of how computational models that are based on research and developed using software engineering practices can benefit a broader audience of researchers.

  9. Progress of cellular dedifferentiation research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hu-xian; HU Da-hai; JIA Chi-yu; FU Xiao-bing

    2006-01-01

    Differentiation, the stepwise specialization of cells, and transdifferentiation, the apparent switching of one cell type into another, capture much of the stem cell spotlight. But dedifferentiation, the developmental reversal of a cell before it reinvents itself, is an important process too. In multicellular organisms, cellular dedifferentiation is the major process underlying totipotency, regeneration and formation of new stem cell lineages. In humans,dedifferentiation is often associated with carcinogenesis.The study of cellular dedifferentiation in animals,particularly early events related to cell fate-switch and determination, is limited by the lack of a suitable,convenient experimental system. The classic example of dedifferentiation is limb and tail regeneration in urodele amphibians, such as salamanders. Recently, several investigators have shown that certain mammalian cell types can be induced to dedifferentiate to progenitor cells when stimulated with the appropriate signals or materials. These discoveries open the possibility that researchers might enhance the endogenous regenerative capacity of mammals by inducing cellular dedifferentiation in vivo.

  10. Fuel plantation research. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbs, J.

    1977-08-01

    Research in chemical induction of lightwood is summarized. Four large-scale proof of concept studies have been installed that test five paraquat treatments on a total of 71,228 trees. This wood will be used in actual pulp mill and extraction plant runs to determine oleoresin recovery and possible processing problems. Nearly 3,000 wood samples have been collected to ascertain duration of treatment effects. Results of complementary studies are also reported; most of these are concerned with optimization of paraquat application techniques and the effect of species differences on these methods. A large study was installed to field screen selected insecticides for insect pest control in lightwood operations, and interim results are presented. Dowco 214 (Reldon) proved to be an adequate substitute for BHC and 0.5% concentrations were as effective as 1%. Ten northern and seven western conifer species were tested for their reaction to paraquat treatment. All members of genus Pinus showed appreciable resin soaking but other coniferous genera did not. Feasibility of oleoresin substitution for petrochemicals was investigated.

  11. Facilitating biomedical researchers' interrogation of electronic health record data: Ideas from outside of biomedical informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Gregory W; Matsoukas, Konstantina; Cimino, James J; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-04-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) are a vital data resource for research uses, including cohort identification, phenotyping, pharmacovigilance, and public health surveillance. To realize the promise of EHR data for accelerating clinical research, it is imperative to enable efficient and autonomous EHR data interrogation by end users such as biomedical researchers. This paper surveys state-of-art approaches and key methodological considerations to this purpose. We adapted a previously published conceptual framework for interactive information retrieval, which defines three entities: user, channel, and source, by elaborating on channels for query formulation in the context of facilitating end users to interrogate EHR data. We show the current progress in biomedical informatics mainly lies in support for query execution and information modeling, primarily due to emphases on infrastructure development for data integration and data access via self-service query tools, but has neglected user support needed during iteratively query formulation processes, which can be costly and error-prone. In contrast, the information science literature has offered elaborate theories and methods for user modeling and query formulation support. The two bodies of literature are complementary, implying opportunities for cross-disciplinary idea exchange. On this basis, we outline the directions for future informatics research to improve our understanding of user needs and requirements for facilitating autonomous interrogation of EHR data by biomedical researchers. We suggest that cross-disciplinary translational research between biomedical informatics and information science can benefit our research in facilitating efficient data access in life sciences.

  12. Research progress of solid polymer electrolyte facilitated transport membranes for olefin/paraffin separation%基于促进传递机理的烯烃/烷烃分离用固体聚合物电解质膜的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雁北; 任吉中; 李晖; 邓麦村

    2012-01-01

    对膜法烯烃/烷烃分离技术的现状进行了总结,论述了膜法促进传递分离烯烃/烷烃的机理、研究进展及存在的问题,分析了固体聚合物电解质膜对烯烃/烷烃分离性能的影响因素,探讨了固体聚合物电解质中高分子材料和烯烃载体对膜性能的影响,阐述了烯烃载体Ag+的中毒及再生过程和烯烃渗透的时间依赖性.%The research status of solid polymer electrolyte membranes for olefin/paraffin separation is reviewed. The olefin/paraffin separation mechanism, research progress and current problems of facilitated transport membrane are described clearly. The influence of solid polymer electrolyte membrane on the performance of oiefin/paraffin separation is analyzed, the polymeric membrane materials and olefin carriers for solid polymer electrolyte membranes are discussed. Finally, the poisoning/regeneration mechanisms of carrier sliver salt and the olefin time-dependent permeation are also discussed.

  13. Research progresses shed light on superconductivity mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The spring of 2008 saw substantial breakthroughs in superconductivity research. Four groups of physicists, one after another, achieved remarkable progresses in the study of iron-based materials after the breakthrough made by H. Hosono's group in Japan, providing renewed insights into the fundamental mechanism of high-temperature superconductivity (HTSC), a perplexing enigma on the frontier of condensed matter physics.

  14. TbRGG2 facilitates kinetoplastid RNA editing initiation and progression past intrinsic pause sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, Michelle L; Presnyak, Vladimir; Fisk, John C; Foda, Bardees M; Read, Laurie K

    2010-11-01

    TbRGG2 is an essential kinetoplastid RNA editing accessory factor that acts specifically on pan-edited RNAs. To understand the mechanism of TbRGG2 action, we undertook an in-depth analysis of edited RNA populations in TbRGG2 knockdown cells and an in vitro examination of the biochemical activities of the protein. We demonstrate that TbRGG2 down-regulation more severely impacts editing at the 5' ends of pan-edited RNAs than at their 3' ends. The initiation of editing is reduced to some extent in TbRGG2 knockdown cells. In addition, TbRGG2 plays a post-initiation role as editing becomes stalled in TbRGG2-depleted cells, resulting in an overall decrease in the 3' to 5' progression of editing. Detailed analyses of edited RNAs from wild-type and TbRGG2-depleted cells reveal that TbRGG2 facilitates progression of editing past intrinsic pause sites that often correspond to the 3' ends of cognate guide RNAs (gRNAs). In addition, noncanonically edited junction regions are either absent or significantly shortened in TbRGG2-depleted cells, consistent with impaired gRNA transitions. Sequence analysis further suggests that TbRGG2 facilitates complete utilization of certain gRNAs. In vitro RNA annealing and in vivo RNA unwinding assays demonstrate that TbRGG2 can modulate RNA-RNA interactions. Collectively, these data are consistent with a model in which TbRGG2 facilitates initiation and 3' to 5' progression of editing through its ability to affect gRNA utilization, both during the transition between specific gRNAs and during usage of certain gRNAs.

  15. PROGRESS IN QUATERNARY AEOLIAN ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Rui-jie; CHEN Yuan; HASI Eerdun; YUE Xing-ling

    2005-01-01

    Quaternary aeolian environment researches were mainly conducted by analyzing the information carri-ers, extracting valuable evidences about aeolian environment changes, so to presume and reconstruct paleoenviron-ments. This paper formulated progress in Quaternary aeolian environment research using dune-morphological records,sedimentological records and bio-fossils records, as well as advances about chronology; presented that people shouldpay more attention to further synthetic study of multi-types of records including dune morphology, size, formationtime, sediment supply, and their relations with wind regime in future, especially the research on dating method.

  16. [Landscape classification: research progress and development trend].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fa-Chao; Liu, Li-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Landscape classification is the basis of the researches on landscape structure, process, and function, and also, the prerequisite for landscape evaluation, planning, protection, and management, directly affecting the precision and practicability of landscape research. This paper reviewed the research progress on the landscape classification system, theory, and methodology, and summarized the key problems and deficiencies of current researches. Some major landscape classification systems, e. g. , LANMAP and MUFIC, were introduced and discussed. It was suggested that a qualitative and quantitative comprehensive classification based on the ideology of functional structure shape and on the integral consideration of landscape classification utility, landscape function, landscape structure, physiogeographical factors, and human disturbance intensity should be the major research directions in the future. The integration of mapping, 3S technology, quantitative mathematics modeling, computer artificial intelligence, and professional knowledge to enhance the precision of landscape classification would be the key issues and the development trend in the researches of landscape classification.

  17. Prognosis Research Strategy (PROGRESS 2: prognostic factor research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D Riley

    Full Text Available Prognostic factor research aims to identify factors associated with subsequent clinical outcome in people with a particular disease or health condition. In this article, the second in the PROGRESS series, the authors discuss the role of prognostic factors in current clinical practice, randomised trials, and developing new interventions, and explain why and how prognostic factor research should be improved.

  18. Research progress of posterior cortical atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-jun PENG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Posterior cotical atrophy (PCA is a kind of progressive dementia with main clinical manifestations of visual dysfunction as the starting symptom and associated with progressive cognitive disorder. The histopathology and imaging of PCA show visual dysfunction, neuritic plaques (NPs and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs, which are the same as those in Alzheimer's disease (AD. Researches also showed that mutation of presenilin-1 (PS-1 gene and apolipoprotein E (ApoE genotype may participate in the occurrence and development of PCA. Parieto-occipital lobe atrophy, hypoperfusion and/or glucose metabolism reduction in the right posterior cerebrum can be seen in PCA. Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs may improve the symptoms and postpone the progression of illness. No unified diagnostic criteria will reduce the comparability between different studies. Reasonable usage of the diagnostic criteria of PCA will be helpful in classifying and differentiating this disease. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.06.011

  19. Facilitating mental health research for patients, clinicians and researchers: a mixed-method study

    OpenAIRE

    Robotham, D; Waterman, S; Oduola, S; Papoulias, C; Craig, T.; Wykes, T.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Research registers using Consent for Contact (C4C) can facilitate recruitment into mental health research studies, allowing investigators to contact patients based on clinical records information. We investigated whether such a register was useful for mental health research, seeking the perspectives of patients and research investigators.SETTING AND DESIGN: In 2012, a C4C register was developed in a large secondary mental health provider within the UK; almost 9000 patients have jo...

  20. Barriers to and Facilitators of Research Utilization among Iranian Nurses: a Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Abbas; Emami Zeydi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Research utilization (RU), is an important strategy to promote the quality of patient care. The aim of this study was to present a comprehensive literature review describing barriers and facilitators of RU among Iranian nurses. Methods: Literature review was undertaken using the international databases including Pub Med/Medline, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. Also, Persian electronic databases such as Magiran, SID and Iran Medex were searched up to May 2014. The search was limited to articles in the English and Persian languages that evaluate the barriers or facilitators of RU among Iranian nurses. Results: A total of 11 articles were in the final dataset. The most important barriers to RU among Iranian nurses were related to the organization factors such as inadequate facilities; insufficient time on the job, lack of authority, physician cooperation, and administrative support. The most frequent facilitators of RU were education in enhancing nurses knowledge and skills in research evaluation, support from knowledgeable nursing colleagues and nursing faculty in the clinical setting, access to an expert committee for clinical appraisal, improving skills in English language and searching for articles, sufficient economic resources to carry out research, and having access to more facilities such as internet. Conclusion: Iranian nurses encounter with the same difficulties as to other countries regarding RU; while setting related barriers were the predominant obstacles to RU among them. Therefore, health managers are expected to plan appropriate strategies to smooth the progress of RU by nurses in their practice. PMID:25717456

  1. Research progress on the Kelly game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang

    2010-08-01

    The growth-optimal portfolio optimization strategy has been investigated in many ways since firstly pioneered by Kelly. This paper firstly introduces the research progress of this so-called Kelly game. Based on the original Kelly game the optimality is shortly proofed. Especially generalized research is introduced such as the relation between M-V approach and the Kelly approach, the question of diversification, the influence of transaction fees and limited information, etc. Then the application of Kelly strategy is discussed with some conclusions.

  2. [Ear keloid and clinical research progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guangyuan; Zhu, Jiang

    2014-04-01

    Keloid refers to the damaged skin due to excessive fibroblast proliferation. Ear is one predilection site. The pathogenesis of ear keloid is not very clear, and the treatment is also varied. Surgery, postoperative radiotherapy and laser treatment, steroid hormones, pressure therapy are the basic treatment methods. Integrated application of a variety of treatments, classification research and new materials using revealed the prospect for the treatment of the disease. This thesis reviews literature about ear keloid in recent 10 years, and introduces this disease and clinical research progress.

  3. [Progress on the research of lactose intolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Sai, X Y

    2016-02-01

    Our group generalized the research development of lactose intolerance, both internationally and nationally. We systematically reviewed the pathogenesis, genetic polymorphisms of lactase deficiency, relevant progress of diagnostic methods and treatment. Through this systematic review, we undedrstood that there were insufficient research efforts made on understanding the epidemiological feature of lactose intolerance in this country. Relevant genetic mutations of people were also not clear, neither the development of simple and effective diagnosis method made. We should continue to extensively and deeply carry out the study regarding methods for early prevention and intervention on lactose intolerance.

  4. Role of "external facilitation" in implementation of research findings: a qualitative evaluation of facilitation experiences in the Veterans Health Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagedorn Hildi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facilitation has been identified in the literature as a potentially key component of successful implementation. It has not, however, either been well-defined or well-studied. Significant questions remain about the operational definition of facilitation and about the relationship of facilitation to other interventions, especially to other change agent roles when used in multi-faceted implementation projects. Researchers who are part of the Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI are actively exploring various approaches and processes, including facilitation, to enable implementation of best practices in the Veterans Health Administration health care system – the largest integrated healthcare system in the United States. This paper describes a systematic, retrospective evaluation of implementation-related facilitation experiences within QUERI, a quality improvement program developed by the US Department of Veterans Affairs. Methods A post-hoc evaluation was conducted through a series of semi-structured interviews to examine the concept of facilitation across several multi-site QUERI implementation studies. The interview process is based on a technique developed in the field of education, which systematically enhances learning through experience by stimulating recall and reflection regarding past complex activities. An iterative content analysis approach relative to a set of conceptually-based interview questions was used for data analysis. Findings Findings suggest that facilitation, within an implementation study initiated by a central change agency, is a deliberate and valued process of interactive problem solving and support that occurs in the context of a recognized need for improvement and a supportive interpersonal relationship. Facilitation was described primarily as a distinct role with a number of potentially crucial behaviors and activities. Data further suggest that external facilitators were likely to use

  5. GUI to Facilitate Research on Biological Damage from Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Frances A.; Ponomarev, Artem Lvovich

    2010-01-01

    A graphical-user-interface (GUI) computer program has been developed to facilitate research on the damage caused by highly energetic particles and photons impinging on living organisms. The program brings together, into one computational workspace, computer codes that have been developed over the years, plus codes that will be developed during the foreseeable future, to address diverse aspects of radiation damage. These include codes that implement radiation-track models, codes for biophysical models of breakage of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by radiation, pattern-recognition programs for extracting quantitative information from biological assays, and image-processing programs that aid visualization of DNA breaks. The radiation-track models are based on transport models of interactions of radiation with matter and solution of the Boltzmann transport equation by use of both theoretical and numerical models. The biophysical models of breakage of DNA by radiation include biopolymer coarse-grained and atomistic models of DNA, stochastic- process models of deposition of energy, and Markov-based probabilistic models of placement of double-strand breaks in DNA. The program is designed for use in the NT, 95, 98, 2000, ME, and XP variants of the Windows operating system.

  6. Progress in Research of Chinese Wetland Parks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yichuan; LI Dongsheng; WANG Shanshan

    2008-01-01

    There has been a rapid development in the construction of wetland parks in China in recent years. This paper discussed the progress in the research of Chinese wetland parks that covered the aspects of wetland resources, landscape and enviroment. The function of wetland parks, the evaluation of landscape and the exploiting of resources; the landscape concept and landscape planning and design; the plant environment, the water environment and the recreation environment were all reviewed. The research of Chinese wetland parks started later but developed rapidly, having remarkable achievements in practice and functional studies, and there are still some shortcomings in the researches to be improved. At last, the key points which should be researched urgently in the future were discussed.

  7. 20 YEARS OF PROGRESS IN MALARIA RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kevin Baird

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2 Detachment (NAMRU, in collaboration with National Institute of Health Research and Development (NIHRD and many other Indonesian government agencies and universities, has conducted studies of malaria throughout Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Kalimantan, Flores, Timor, and Irian Jaya. Most studies have characterized the disease epidemiologically by defining the parasitologic distribution of the disease in the population, and by defining the entomologic parameters of local transmission. Studies of patterns of resistance to antimalarials have also been done at many field sites. Several studies on the clinical management of malaria occurred in Rumah Sakit Umum Propinsi in Jayapura. In addition to these studies which impact upon local public health planning policy, immunologic studies routinely occurred in support of the global effort to develop a vaccine against malaria. This report summarizes the progress made in these areas of research during the first 20 years of NAMRU in Indonesia.

  8. Research progress on squeeze casting in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yuanyuan; Zhang Weiwen; Zhao Haidong; You Dongdong; Zhang Datong; Shao Ming; Zhang Wen

    2014-01-01

    Squeeze casting is a technology with short route, high efficiency and precise forming, possessing features of casting and plastic processing. It is widely used to produce high performance metallic structural parts. As energy conservation and environmental protection concerns have risen, lightweight and high performance metal parts are urgently needed, which accelerated the development of squeeze casting technology over the past two decades in China. In this paper, research progress on squeeze casting aloys, typical parts manufacturing and development of squeeze casting equipment in China are introduced. The future trend and development priorities of squeeze casting are discussed.

  9. Research progress on Helicobacter pyloriouter membrane protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-He Shao; Hua Wang; Shun-Gen Chai; Li-Mei Liu

    2005-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H pylori), one of the most common bacterial pathogens on human beings, colonizes the gastric mucosa. In its 95 paralogous gene families, there is a large outer membrane protein (OMP) family. It includes 32 members. These OMP are important for the diagnosis, protective immunity, pathogenicity of H pylori and so on. They are significantly associated with high H pylori density,the damage of gastric mucosa, high mucosal IL-8 levels and severe neutrophil infiltration. We introduce their research progress on pathogenicity.

  10. Progress in Malassezia Research in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Young; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom

    2015-01-01

    Yeasts of the genus Malassezia are part of the normal flora of human skin. However, they are also associated with various skin diseases. Since the introduction of Malassezia to the Korean Dermatologic Society two decades ago, remarkable progress has been made in our knowledge of this genus. In this paper, we review recent developments in Malassezia research, including taxonomy and methods for species identification, recent genome analyses, Malassezia species distribution in healthy conditions and in specific skin diseases, trials investigating the mechanisms underlying Malassezia-related diseases, as well as therapeutic options. This review will enhance our understanding of Malassezia yeasts and related skin diseases in Korea. PMID:26719632

  11. Research progress in SAW filter banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Shi-tang

    2005-01-01

    SAW (Surface Acoustic Wave) filter bank is a single input, single or multi-output device consisting of multi-SAW-filters with input interconnection network or switch circuits, and can be divided into two categories: channelizer (multi-output) and switchable (programmable, single output). The former is mainly used in military channelized receiver for spectrum analysis;the latter has wide application in frequency synthesizer and frequency-hopping radar and communication system receiver as anti-jamming filter, and has been widely used in various military electronic equipments ever since the 1970s.Research abroad was done mainly by Americans, few documents on related work done by Japan and Russia are available. Domestic research started in the 1980s, mainly by No. 26 Research Institute, China Electronics Technology Group Co., Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 23 and No. 25 Research Institute, China Spaceflight Tech. Group Co. This paper first briefly introduces Chinese and foreign research on SAW filter banks;then discusses research progress in device design, the input interconnection network or switch circuit and miniaturization;and ends in a brief perspective of developing trends in future.

  12. [Research progress on biochar carbon sequestration technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Xiang; Zheng, Hao; Li, Feng-Min; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2013-08-01

    Biochar is a fine-grained and porous material, which is produced by pyrolyzing biomass under anaerobic or oxygen-limiting condition. Due to the aromatic structure, it is resistant to the biotic and abiotic degradation which makes biochar production a promising carbon sequestration technology, and it has attracted widespread attention. Factors including biochar production, biochar stability in soil and the response of plant growth and soil organic carbon to the biochar addition can influence the carbon sequestration potential of biochar. Through exploring the mechanisms of biochar carbon sequestration, the influence of these factors was studied. Furthermore, the research progress of carbon sequestration potential and its economic viability were examined. Finally, aiming at the knowledge gaps in the influencing factors as well as the relationship between these factors, some further research needs were proposed for better application of biochar in China.

  13. Inherent phenotypic plasticity facilitates progression of head and neck cancer: Endotheliod characteristics enable angiogenesis and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Meng, E-mail: tong.59@osu.edu [Division of Oral Pathology and Radiology, The Ohio State University College of Dentistry, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Han, Byungdo B.; Holpuch, Andrew S.; Pei, Ping; He, Lingli; Mallery, Susan R. [Division of Oral Pathology and Radiology, The Ohio State University College of Dentistry, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The presence of the EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition), EndMT (endothelial-mesenchymal transition) and VM (vasculogenic mimicry) demonstrates the multidirectional extent of phenotypic plasticity in cancers. Previous findings demonstrating the crosstalk between head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) imply that HNSCC cells share some functional commonalities with endothelial cells. Our current results reveal that cultured HNSCC cells not only possess endothelial-specific markers, but also display endotheliod functional features including low density lipoprotein uptake, formation of tube-like structures on Matrigel and growth state responsiveness to VEGF and endostatin. HNSCC cell subpopulations are also highly responsive to transforming growth factor-β1 and express its auxiliary receptor, endoglin. Furthermore, the endotheliod characteristics observed in vitro recapitulate phenotypic features observed in human HNSCC tumors. Conversely, cultured normal human oral keratinocytes and intact or ulcerated human oral epithelia do not express comparable endotheliod characteristics, which imply that assumption of endotheliod features is restricted to transformed keratinocytes. In addition, this phenotypic state reciprocity facilitates HNSCC progression by increasing production of factors that are concurrently pro-proliferative and pro-angiogenic, conserving cell energy stores by LDL internalization and enhancing cell mobility. Finally, recognition of this endotheliod phenotypic transition provides a solid rationale to evaluate the antitumorigenic potential of therapeutic agents formerly regarded as exclusively angiostatic in scope. - Highlights: ► HNSCC tumor cells express endothelial specific markers VE-cadherin, CD31 and vimentin. ► Similarly, cultured HNSCC cells retain expression of these markers. ► HNSCC cells demonstrate functional endotheliod characteristics i.e. AcLDL uptake. ► HNSCC cell

  14. Progress and Prospect of Functional Rice Researches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid development of economy and the increase of people's living standards, functional foods are being gradually embraced by consumers and have a great growth potential. Rice is the main staple food in China. It plays an important role in promoting people's health and in improving public nutrition, and therefore there is an ever-increasing consumer demand for rice for its functional quality. This study introduces the concept of functional rice and summarizes the current research progress on this topic and the application of breeding strategies including traditional breeding, induced mutagenesis, molecular marker-assisted selection and transgenic engineering in the research of a new generation of functional rice that posses health benefits, therapeutic values, bioreactor properties, and other unique functions. We then point out the prospect of functional rice from the point of view of social development, germplasm innovation,breeding of functional rice by biological technology and the test of active material related functional rice. We conclude that developing and marketing of functional rice is becoming a subject of great importance for research and is to be the focus of research in future.

  15. Recent Progress on Spherical Torus Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Masayuki [PPPL; Kaita, Robert [PPPL

    2014-01-01

    The spherical torus or spherical tokamak (ST) is a member of the tokamak family with its aspect ratio (A = R0/a) reduced to A ~ 1.5, well below the normal tokamak operating range of A ≥ 2.5. As the aspect ratio is reduced, the ideal tokamak beta β (radio of plasma to magnetic pressure) stability limit increases rapidly, approximately as β ~ 1/A. The plasma current it can sustain for a given edge safety factor q-95 also increases rapidly. Because of the above, as well as the natural elongation κ, which makes its plasma shape appear spherical, the ST configuration can yield exceptionally high tokamak performance in a compact geometry. Due to its compactness and high performance, the ST configuration has various near term applications, including a compact fusion neutron source with low tritium consumption, in addition to its longer term goal of attractive fusion energy power source. Since the start of the two megaampere class ST facilities in 2000, National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) in the US and Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) in UK, active ST research has been conducted worldwide. More than sixteen ST research facilities operating during this period have achieved remarkable advances in all of fusion science areas, involving fundamental fusion energy science as well as innovation. These results suggest exciting future prospects for ST research both near term and longer term. The present paper reviews the scientific progress made by the worldwide ST research community during this new mega-ampere-ST era.

  16. Facilitating Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals through Open Scientific Data and Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; Levy, M. A.; de Sherbinin, A. M.; Fischer, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) represent an unprecedented international commitment to a shared future encompassing sustainable management of the planet and significant improvement in the human condition around the world. The scientific community has both an ethical responsibility and substantial self-interest—as residents of this planet—to help the world community to better understand the complex, interlinked behavior of human and environmental systems and to elucidate pathways to achieve long-term sustainability. Critical to making progress towards the SDGs is the open availability of timely, reliable, usable, and well integrated data and indicators relevant to all SDGs and associated targets. Such data and indicators will not only be valuable in monitoring and evaluation of progress, but also in developing policies and making decisions on environmental and societal issues affecting sustainability from local to global scales. The open availability of such data and indicators can help motivate performance, promote accountability, and facilitate cooperation. A range of scientific, technical, organizational, political, and resource challenges need to be addressed in developing a coherent SDG monitoring and indicator framework. For example, assembling and integrating diverse data on consistent spatial and temporal scales across the relevant natural, social, health, and engineering sciences pose both scientific and technical difficulties, and may require new ways to interlink and organize existing cyberinfrastructure, reconcile different data policy regimes, and fund integration efforts. New information technologies promise more timely and efficient ways of collecting many types of data, but may also raise privacy, control, and equity issues. Scientific review processes to ensure data quality need to be coordinated with the types of quality control and review employed by national statistical agencies for trusted economic and social statistics. Although

  17. Bridging research and practice through the Nursing Research Facilitator Program in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamondon, Katrina; Ronquillo, Charlene; Axen, Linda; Black, Agnes; Cummings, Lynn; Chakraborty, Bubli

    2013-12-01

    As Canadian health systems transform to meet changing needs, grounding nursing practice in evidence remains an essential goal for providing safe, high-quality care. nursing research facilitators (NRFs) are strengthening the use of evidence in nursing practice across the province of British Columbia. NRFs are nurses with a research background, whose work is focused on supporting people within health systems to use and do research in their practice and decision-making. Since this role was established in 2009, NRFs have provided facilitative support to over 50 funded research projects, led numerous workshops and journal clubs, and conducted more than 600 research-related consultations. In this paper, we discuss the role and offer exemplars of creative ways in which NRFs are strengthening nurses' engagement in doing and using research by developing capacity for research and evidence-informed practice, building meaningful partnerships and cultivating a culture of curiosity among nurses and other healthcare providers. We reflect on factors contributing to the success of this role and some of the challenges of integration. The paper concludes with a comment on the strategic value of the role.

  18. Progress of research on pterygial pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Yun Jin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pterygium is one of the most common ocular surface diseases. Its exact etiology and pathogenesis are not completely understood. At present, it is considered that its occurrence and development is the result of many factors.Current studies have indicated that the occurrence of pterygium is closely related to the environmental factors.Long time exposure to sunlight,dust, pollen and other long-term chronic stimulation are the main incentive factors.Various factors have caused limbal barrier dysfunction, induced the level of a variety of growth factors and inflammatory factors increased, so that the conjunctival tissue degenerate and proliferate to the cornea in the formation of pterygium. In this paper, the research progress of the pathogenesis of pterygium is reviewed.

  19. Research progress of cerebral small vessel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-dong JIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral small vessel disease refers to a group of pathological processes with various etiologies that affect small arteries, arterioles, venules, and capillaries of the brain. Recently, the researches of cerebral small vessel disease have got initial progressions, and a definite diagnosis of this disease is comfirmed by biopsy. Given the pathological material is difficult to obtain, clinicians should pay more attention to the imaging features and clinical manifestations. Correct understanding of imaging and clinical manifestations contributes to the early identification of cerebral small vessel disease. Herein, an overview is provided on the present status, common imaging features, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and treatment of cerebral small vessel disease. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.02.003

  20. [Research progress of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A-Mei; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2013-02-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON; MIM 535000) is one of the most common mitochondrial diseases, with a clinical manifestation of painless, acute or sub-acute bilateral visual loss in young adults leading to blindness and central scotoma. Over 95% of LHON patients were caused by one of three primary mtDNA mutations (m.11778G>A, m.3460G>A and m.14484T>C). Incomplete penetrance and gender bias are two riddles of this disease. Here we summarized recent research progress of LHON, with a focus on the molecular pathogenic mechanisms, clinical features, in vitro experiments and animal models, and prevention and treatment of LHON. In particular, we presented the main findings and challenges in our recent efforts to decipher genetic susceptibility and mechanism of LHON in Chinese patients.

  1. [Research progress and trend on grassland agroecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jizhou; Li, Xianglin; Hou, Fujiang

    2002-08-01

    The connotation, progress, research frontiers and developmental trend of grassland agroecology are discussed in this paper. The interface theory, structure and function, coupling and discordance, and health assessment of grassland agroecosystems were recognized as the four research frontiers of the discipline. There exist three primary interfaces in a grassland agroecosystem, i.e., vegetation-site, grassland-animal and production-management. Research into a series of the ecological processes that occurred at these interfaces is the key to revealing the features of the system behavior. There are four sections in a grassland agroecosystem, i.e., pre-plant, plant, animal and post-biotic sections. System coupling and discordance are the two important concepts to describe interactions among the production sections. System coupling among the sections can lead to system improvement by exerting the potential of system capacity. Health of an ecosystem is a reflection of its structure and function, and health assessment is a measurement of its orderliness and service value.

  2. Using Mixed Methods to Facilitate Complex, Multiphased Health Research

    OpenAIRE

    Tina Strudsholm; Lynn M. Meadows; Ardene Robinson Vollman; Thurston, Wilfreda E.; Rita Henderson

    2016-01-01

    From conceptualization to application and evaluation, research is conducted in a context of increasing complexity of disciplines, goals, communities, and partnerships. Researchers often are challenged to demonstrate the rigor of their methods and results to audiences with diverse backgrounds and disciplinary expertise. This article illustrates the benefits of using mixed methods approaches in research designed to address issues in complex research projects. It outlines the implementation of a...

  3. Conducting research in clinical psychology practice: Barriers, facilitators, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirsten V; Thew, Graham R

    2017-09-01

    The combination of clinical psychologists' therapeutic expertise and research training means that they are in an ideal position to be conducting high-quality research projects. However, despite these skills and the documented benefits of research to services and service users, research activity in practice remains low. This article aims to give an overview of the advantages of, and difficulties in conducting research in clinical practice. We reviewed the relevant literature on barriers to research and reflected on our clinical and research experiences in a range of contexts to offer practical recommendations. We considered factors involved in the planning, sourcing support, implementation, and dissemination phases of research, and outline suggestions to improve the feasibility of research projects in post-qualification roles. We suggest that research leadership is particularly important within clinical psychology to ensure the profession's continued visibility and influence within health settings. Clinical implications Emerging evidence suggests that clinical settings that foster research are associated with better patient outcomes. Suggestions to increase the feasibility of research projects in clinical settings are detailed. Limitations The present recommendations are drawn from the authors' practical experience and may need adaptation to individual practitioners' settings. This study does not attempt to assess the efficacy of the strategies suggested. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  4. Research progress in liver tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Guan, Zheng; Ye, Jun-Song; Yin, Yan-Feng; Stoltz, Jean-François; de Isla, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment for patients with end-stage liver diseases (ESLD). However, it is hampered by shortage of liver donor. Liver tissue engineering, aiming at fabricating new livers in vitro, provides a potential resolution for donor shortage. Three elements need to be considered in liver tissue engineering: seeding cell resources, scaffolds and bioreactors. Studies have shown potential cell sources as hepatocytes, hepatic cell line, mesenchymal stem cells and others. They need scaffolds with perfect biocompatiblity, suitable micro-structure and appropriate degradation rate, which are essential charateristics for cell attachment, proliferation and secretion in forming extracellular matrix. The most promising scaffolds in research include decellularized whole liver, collagens and biocompatible plastic. The development and function of cells in scaffold need a microenvironment which can provide them with oxygen, nutrition, growth factors, et al. Bioreactor is expected to fulfill these requirements by mimicking the living condition in vivo. Although there is great progress in these three domains, a large gap stays still between their researches and applications. Herein, we summarized the recent development in these three major fields which are indispensable in liver tissue engineering.

  5. Research progress in traumatic brain penumbra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Kai; Liu Baiyun; Ma Jun

    2014-01-01

    Objective Following traumatic brain injury (TBI),brain tissue that surrounding the regional primary lesion is known as traumatic penumbra; this region may undergo secondary injury and is considered to have the potential to recover.This review aimed to reveal the existence and significance of traumatic penumbra by analyzing all relevant studies concerning basic pathologic changes and brain imaging after TBI.Data sources We collected all relevant studies about TBI and traumatic penumbra in Medline (1995 to June 2013) and ISI (1997 to March 2013),evaluated their quality and relevance,then extracted and synthesized the information.Study selection We included all relevant studies concerning TBI and traumatic penumbra (there was no limitation of research design and article language) and excluded the duplicated articles.Results The crucial pathological changes after TBI include cerebral blood flow change,cerebral edema,blood-brain barrier damage,cell apoptosis and necrosis.Besides,traditional imaging method cannot characterize the consequences of CBF reduction at an early stage and provides limited insights into the underlying pathophysiology.While advanced imaging technique,such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and positron emission tomography (PET),may provide better characterization of such pathophysiology.Conclusions The future of traumatic brain lesions depends to a large extent on the evolution of the penumbra.Therefore,understanding the formation and pathophysiologic process of the traumatic penumbra and its imaging research progress is of great significant for early clinical determination and timely brain rescue.

  6. Experimental Research Progress of the VASIMR Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, J. P.; Díaz, F. R. Chang; Jacobson, V. T.; McCaskill, G. E.; Winter, D. S.

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory (ASPL) of NASA's Johnson Space Center is performing research on a Variable Specific Impulse MagnetoPlasma Rocket (VASIMR). The VASIMR is a high power, radio frequency (RF) driven magnetoplasma rocket, capable of very high exhaust velocities, > 100 km/s. In addition, its unique architecture allows in- flight mission-optimization of thrust and specific impulse to enhance performance and reduce trip time. A NASA-led research team involving industry, academia and government facilities is pursuing the development of this concept in the United States. The ASPL's experimental research focuses on three major areas: helicon plasma production, ion cyclotron resonant acceleration (ICRA) and plasma expansion in a magnetic nozzle. The VASIMR experiment (VX-10) performs experimental research that demonstrates the thruster concept at a total RF power on the order of 10 kW. A flexible four- magnet system, with a 1.3 Tesla maximum magnetic field strength, is computer controlled to study axial magnetic field profile shape effects. Power generated at 10 - 50 MHz with about 5 kW is used to perform helicon plasma source development. A 3 MHz RF transmitter capable of 100 kW is available for ICRA experiments. The primary diagnostics are: gas mass flow controllers, RF input power, Langmuir probes, Mach probe, retarding potential analyzers (RPA), microwave interferometer, neutral pressure measurements and plasma light emission. In addition, many thermocouples are attached inside the vacuum chamber to measure heat loads around the plasma discharge. Helicon research so far has been done with hydrogen, deuterium, helium, nitrogen, argon, xenon and mixtures of these gases. Optimization studies have been performed with the magnetic field axial profile shape, gas flow rate, gas tube geometry and RF frequency. The highest performing discharges are found with a high magnetic field choke downstream of the helicon antenna. Upwards of a 40% gas utilization is

  7. Protecting Student Records and Facilitating Education Research: A Workshop Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    Designed to protect the privacy of individual student test scores, grades, and other education records, the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) of 1974 places limits the access of educational researches, and slows research not only in education but also in related fields, such as child welfare and health. Recent trends have converged…

  8. Research progress in China's Lop Nur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhibao; Lv, Ping; Qian, Guangqiang; Xia, Xuncheng; Zhao, Yuanje; Mu, Guijin

    2012-02-01

    China's Lop Nur is one of the world's largest playas, and is located in the driest part of Central Asia. Scientific explorations by Chinese and foreign researchers have been continuously conducted there since the mid- to late 1800 s, and much progress has been made, but many issues remain hotly debated. Particularly intense debate focuses on the formation, environmental evolution, drying date of the Lop Nur lake, and cause of the helical salt crusts recently revealed by remote-sensing images. In this paper, we review the status of this research to provide insights that can inform studies in other arid zones that resemble the Lop Nur. The Lop Nur depression is a secondary unit of the Tarim Block, controlled by faults and fractures formed by the Himalayan orogeny, but various competing explanations have been proposed for how these geological structures gave rise to the depression. The depression's formation date also remains unclear. Several boreholes have been created to reconstruct the environmental evolution at different time scales since the Quaternary, and deposition rates of lake sediments, especially since the Late Pleistocene, have averaged less than 1 mm annually. The drying date of the Lop Nur lake is also debated. The helical salt crust structures appear to have formed as the lake shrank, but how and when they formed is unclear. Huge potash reserves have been found, and large-scale potash fertilizer production has begun, but the origin of these deposits is debated. Understanding the factors causing environmental evolution in this region is a central issue that will help us to clarify these and other debated issues.

  9. Using Mixed Methods to Facilitate Complex, Multiphased Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Strudsholm

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available From conceptualization to application and evaluation, research is conducted in a context of increasing complexity of disciplines, goals, communities, and partnerships. Researchers often are challenged to demonstrate the rigor of their methods and results to audiences with diverse backgrounds and disciplinary expertise. This article illustrates the benefits of using mixed methods approaches in research designed to address issues in complex research projects. It outlines the implementation of a private, public, and academic partnership, where scientific merit of methods and results was a critical foundation to the development of public policy. The overall goal of the Public Health Leadership Competencies Project (the Project was to identify public health leadership competencies that could apply to public health practice across the country. This research demonstrates how mixed methods research in public health might be of perceived benefit to complex projects. The Project included challenges and opportunities through multiple phases of data collection and participation of members from each of the seven disciplines in public health (i.e., public health dentists, physicians, dietitians, and nurses, as well as epidemiologists, health promoters, and environmental health inspectors. The discussion addresses challenges of a national project, the complex organizational framework within which we were directed to work, and the lessons associated with using multiple sources of data.

  10. Facilitating Metacognitive Talk: A Research and Learning Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Kate; Higgins, Steve

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a research tool which aims to gather data about pupils' views of learning and teaching, with a particular focus on their thinking about their learning (metacognition). The approach has proved to be an adaptable and effective technique to examine different learning contexts from the pupils' perspective, while also acting as an…

  11. A Learning Progressions Approach to Early Algebra Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonger, Nicole L.; Stephens, Ana; Blanton, Maria; Knuth, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We detail a learning progressions approach to early algebra research and how existing work around learning progressions and trajectories in mathematics and science education has informed our development of a four-component theoretical framework consisting of: a curricular progression of learning goals across big algebraic ideas; an instructional…

  12. Workshop on Survey Methods in Education Research: Facilitator's Guide and Resources. REL 2017-214

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, Jill; Redford, Jeremy; Bhatt, Monica P.

    2017-01-01

    This Workshop on Survey Methods in Education Research tool consists of a facilitator guide and workshop handouts. The toolkit is intended for use by state or district education leaders and others who want to conduct training on developing and administering surveys. The facilitator guide provides materials related to various phases of the survey…

  13. Patuxent Research Center 1986 Progress Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines the status of various research projects happening at the Patuxent Research Refuge and its research centers as of 1986. The report also provides...

  14. Urban tourism research : Recent progress and current paradoxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashworth, Gregory; Page, Stephen J.

    Urban tourism has remained a consistent theme in the expansion of tourism research since the 1980s and several seminal papers (e.g. Ashworth, 1989, 2003) have reviewed the state of research and its progress towards a greater recognition. This Progress in Tourism Management review article moves our

  15. Urban tourism research : Recent progress and current paradoxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashworth, Gregory; Page, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Urban tourism has remained a consistent theme in the expansion of tourism research since the 1980s and several seminal papers (e.g. Ashworth, 1989, 2003) have reviewed the state of research and its progress towards a greater recognition. This Progress in Tourism Management review article moves our u

  16. Annual Research Progress Report. Fiscal Year 1984,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    treated hypothyroidism secondary to 131, treatment for Graves’ disease X 2. She has congenital macular degeneration OS. In November 1983 the patient...visual rehabilitation . 5. To eventually establish this as a routine procedure in the military medical armamentarium of ophthalmic care. PROGRESS (82 10

  17. Barriers to and facilitators of research utilization: a survey of registered nurses in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ping Wang

    Full Text Available AIMS: This survey aims to describe the perception of barriers to and facilitators of research utilization by registered nurses in Sichuan province, China, and to explore the factors influencing the perceptions of the barriers to and facilitators of research utilization. METHODS: A cross sectional survey design and a double cluster sampling method were adopted. A total of 590 registered nurses from 3 tertiary level hospitals in Sichuan province, China, were recruited in a period from September 2006 to January 2007. A modified BARRUERS Scale and a Facilitators Scale were used. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, rank transformation test, and multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Barriers related to the setting subscale were more influential than barriers related to other subscales. The lack of authority was ranked as the top greatest barrier (15.7%, followed by the lack of time (13.4% and language barrier (15.0%. Additional barriers identified were the reluctance of patients to research utilization, the lack of funding, and the lack of legal protection. The top three greatest facilitators were enhancing managerial support (36.9%, advancing education to increase knowledge base (21.1%, and increasing time for reviewing and implementing (17.5%, while cooperation of patients to research utilization, establishing a panel to evaluate researches, and funding were listed as additional facilitators. Hospital, educational background, research experience, and knowledge on evidence-based nursing were the factors influencing perceptions of the barriers and facilitators. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses in China are facing a number of significant barriers in research utilization. Enhancing managerial support might be the most promising facilitator, given Chinese traditional culture and existing health care system. Hospital, educational background, research experience and knowledge on evidence-based nursing should be taken into account to promote research

  18. Research progress on osteoarthritis treatment mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao-Gu, Yun; Chen, Jian; Meng, Zhu-Long; Ge, Wan-Yu; Bian, Yang-Yang; Cheng, Shao-Wen; Xing, Chen-Kun; Yao, Jiang-Ling; Fu, Jian; Peng, Lei

    2017-09-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common disease and is frequently encountered in the older population; the incidence rises sharply with age. It is estimated that more than 360 million people suffer from OA. However, the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis remains unclear, and we cannot effectively prevent the progression of OA. The aim of this review was to explore the molecular markers and signaling pathways that induce chondrocyte apoptosis in OA. We searched, using the key words osteoarthritis, chondrocyte apoptosis, autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, molecular targets, and biomarkers, in PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar from 1994 to 2017. We also reviewed the signaling pathways and molecular markers associated with chondrocyte apoptosis and approaches aimed at inhibiting the apoptosis-inducing mechanism to at least delay the progression of cartilage degeneration in OA. This article provides an overview of targeted therapies and the related signaling pathways in OA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Research progress of vasculopathy in portal hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Li; Zhen Yang

    2005-01-01

    Portal hypertension, one of the vascular diseases, not only has lesions in liver, but also changes in vascular structures and functions of extrahepatic portal system, systemic system and pulmonary circulation. The pathological changes of vasculopathy in portal hypertension include remodeling of arterialized visceral veins, intimal injury of visceral veins and destruction of contractile structure in visceral arterial wall. The mechanisms of vasculopathy in portal hypertension may be attributed to the changes of hemodynamics in portal system, immune response, gene modulation, vasoactive substances, and intrahepatic blood flow resistance. Portal hypertension can cause visceral hyperdynamic circulation, and the development and progression of visceral vasculopathy,while visceral vasculopathy can promote the development and progression of portal hypertension and visceral hyperdynamic circulation in turn. The aforementioned three factors interact in the pathogenesis of hepatic cirrhosisinduced portal hypertension and are involved in hemorrhage due to varicose vein rupture.

  20. [Progress in epigenetic research on Alzheimer disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nannan; Wei, Yang; Xu, Qian; Tang, Beisha

    2016-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder, which features mainly with memory impairment as the initial symptom of progressive loss of cognitive function. Its main pathological changes include senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The pathogenesis of AD is still unclear, though it may be connected with aging, genetic factors and environmental factors. Among these, aging and environmental factors can be modified by epigenetics. In this paper, advances in the study of epigenetic mechanisms related to the pathogenesis of AD are reviewed.

  1. [Research progress on malaria vector control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guo-Ding; Cao, Jun; Zhou, Hua-Yun; Gao, Qi

    2013-06-01

    Vector control plays a crucial role in the stages of malaria control and elimination. Currently, it mainly relies on the chemical control methods for adult mosquitoes in malaria endemic areas, however, it is undergoing the serious threat by insecticide resistance. In recent years, the transgenic technologies of malaria vectors have made a great progress in the laboratory. This paper reviews the challenges of the traditional methods and the rapid developed genetic modified technology in the application of vector control.

  2. Research Progress on Multimode Interference Switches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Qing; SHENG Zhi-rui; JIANG Xiao-qing; WANG Ming-hua

    2005-01-01

    Optical switches are key components for constructing optical communication networks, so it is necessary to design optical switches and optical switch arrays with high performance and low cost. As one type of optical switches, the multimode interference(MMI) switches have received considerable attention due to their unique merits. The structures and operation principles of various types of MMI switches are introduced,and the recent progresses of MMI switches are also discussed.

  3. Progress of nuclear safety research. 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anoda, Yoshinari; Sasajima, Hideo; Nishiyama, Yutaka (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-10-01

    JAERI is conducting nuclear safety research primarily at the Nuclear Safety Research Center in close cooperation with the related departments in accordance with the Long Term Plan for Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy or the Safety Research Annual Plan issued by the Japanese government. The safety research at JAERI concerns the engineering safety of nuclear power plants and nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and radioactive waste management as well as advanced technology for safety improvement or assessment. Also, JAERI has conducted international collaboration to share the information on common global issues of nuclear safety. This report summarizes the nuclear safety research activities of JAERI from April 1999 through March 2001. (author)

  4. Clinical nurse educators' perceptions of research utilization: barriers and facilitators to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Rosemary J; O'Leary-Kelley, Colleen

    2009-01-01

    Translation of research to practice remains a challenge. The educator, as a role model and change agent, is strategically placed to facilitate staff development and organizational change, thereby helping to close the gap from research to practice. Understanding barriers to research utilization may facilitate the application of evidence-based practice. [corrected] In this study, the BARRIERS scale was used to assess perceptions of research utilization in a convenience sample of 122 clinical nurse educators in California. Greatest barriers were organizational and nurse characteristics, including lack of authority to change, insufficient time, and limited research knowledge and awareness. Educators from Magnet hospitals and educators with advanced degrees perceived the organization as less of a barrier. Strategies to facilitate and implement change are discussed.

  5. [Research progress of BDNF and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Hui; An, Shu-Cheng; Xu, Chang

    2011-06-01

    BDNF is widespread existed in CNS and PNS, because of its function in nerve regeneration and restoration, more and more researches focused on the effect of BDNF on neural plasticity in the development of depression and the mechanisms of antidepressant. This article review the basic results and the research trends on BDNF and depression at present, more researches about the interactions of BDNF and proBDNF, BDNF and other transmitters and their receptors should be expected.

  6. Progress and pitfalls in Shigella vaccine research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Eileen M.; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Fasano, Alessio; Kotloff, Karen L.; Levine, Myron M.

    2013-01-01

    Renewed awareness of the significant morbidity and mortality that Shigella causes among young children in developing countries combined with technological innovations in vaccinology has led to the development of novel vaccine strategies in the past five years. Along with advancement of classical vaccines in clinical trials and new sophisticated measurements of immunological responses, much new data has been produced lending promise to the potential for production of safe and effective Shigella vaccines. Herein we review the recent progress in Shigella vaccine development within the framework of persistent obstacles. PMID:23419287

  7. Research progress of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-hua GU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is no epidemiological data of frontotemporal dementia (FTD in China. The application of updated diagnostic criteria, publishing of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD consensus in China, development of multimodal imaging and biomarkers promote the clinical understanding on behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD. There is still no drugs treating FTD approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Multidisciplinary intervention may delay the progression of bvFTD. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.07.006

  8. [Otolith microchemistry of tuna species: research progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guo-ping

    2011-08-01

    Microchemistry analysis of trace elements and isotopes in fishes' calcified substances is an emerging approach to analyze the population structure, life history, and migration environmental history of fishes. With the increasing improvement of the researches and applications of otolith microchemistry, this approach has been a good tool for studying the ecology of tuna species. Currently, the research contents of tuna species' otolith microchemistry mainly include trace elements and isotopes, and the former is the emphasis and hotspot in applied research, playing a vital role in the researches of population partitioning, natal origin, migration environmental history, and life history of tuna species, especially bluefin tuna. However, most of the researches are focusing on the variation of otolith's Sr/Ca ratio, and there is no final conclusion on the relationships between the fractionation of isotopes C and O in otolith and the temperature. For the sake of exploiting the huge value of otolith microchemistry, it would be necessary to strengthen the researches on the deposition mechanisms of trace elements in otolith, and to analyze the spatio-temporal variations of various trace elements in otolith by comprehensive research methods.

  9. [Recent researching progress of Lepidium meyenii (Maca)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-yan; Zhao, Hai-yu; Si, Nan; Wang, Hong-jie; Gian, Bao-lin

    2015-12-01

    Maca as one of the star products in the international health care market in recent years, had a wide range of application value and promoted to all over the world. However, the basic research of Maca was not deep, lack of systematic and clear efficacy studies. Market products hype its aphrodisiac effect, which greatly impact more systematic in-depth research and exploration. Therefore, this paper briefly summarizes advance research in recent years including the status quo of the resources, growth cultivation, phytochemical, pharmacological effect and other aspects, which can provide reference for rational development and utilization of Maca.

  10. Setting a research agenda for progressive multiple sclerosis: the International Collaborative on Progressive MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert J; Thompson, Alan; Baker, David; Baneke, Peer; Brown, Doug; Browne, Paul; Chandraratna, Dhia; Ciccarelli, Olga; Coetzee, Timothy; Comi, Giancarlo; Feinstein, Anthony; Kapoor, Raj; Lee, Karen; Salvetti, Marco; Sharrock, Kersten; Toosy, Ahmed; Zaratin, Paola; Zuidwijk, Kim

    2012-11-01

    Despite significant progress in the development of therapies for relapsing MS, progressive MS remains comparatively disappointing. Our objective, in this paper, is to review the current challenges in developing therapies for progressive MS and identify key priority areas for research. A collaborative was convened by volunteer and staff leaders from several MS societies with the mission to expedite the development of effective disease-modifying and symptom management therapies for progressive forms of multiple sclerosis. Through a series of scientific and strategic planning meetings, the collaborative identified and developed new perspectives on five key priority areas for research: experimental models, identification and validation of targets and repurposing opportunities, proof-of-concept clinical trial strategies, clinical outcome measures, and symptom management and rehabilitation. Our conclusions, tackling the impediments in developing therapies for progressive MS will require an integrated, multi-disciplinary approach to enable effective translation of research into therapies for progressive MS. Engagement of the MS research community through an international effort is needed to address and fund these research priorities with the ultimate goal of expediting the development of disease-modifying and symptom-relief treatments for progressive MS.

  11. Educational Policy Research: Progress, Puzzles, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Murnane

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses three topics. The first concerns the reasons that American education, which served the United States so well for the first three-quarters of the twentieth century, is not adequate today, and is especially not successful in providing disadvantaged children with the skills they need to escape poverty. The second concerns lessons from policy analyses about the efficacy of alternative approaches to improving American education, especially the education of its most disadvantaged children. I will make the case that research provides encouraging evidence on several policy approaches. At the same time, the research reveals puzzles that I believe we need to take seriously in thinking about future research to inform the design of the next round of policies. Finally, I suggest some directions for policy research that come from taking seriously puzzles in the evidence.

  12. Clinical research progress of tuberculous meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-yun MA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous meningitis is an infectious disease of central nervous system caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It mainly invades into brain meninges and parenchyma, and may spread to the spinal cord and spinal meninges. The disability rate and mortality rate of this disease are very high. In recent years, incidence of tuberculosis increased significantly due to the increase of drug-resistant tuberculosis cases, population mobility, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS epidemic and other factors. Tuberculosis is still a worldwide serious threat to human life and health, especially in the underdeveloped and developing countries. China is the world's largest developing country with large population, so tuberculosis prevention and control is still a quite severe problem. In this paper, the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, treatment progress of tuberculous meningitis were reviewed systematically. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.08.004

  13. Researches toward potassium channels on tumor progressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zheng; Yang, Qian; You, Qidong

    2009-01-01

    As trans-membrane proteins located in cytoplasm and organelle membrane, potassium (K(+)) channels are generally divided into four super-families: voltage-gated K(+) channels (K(v)), Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (K(Ca)), inwardly rectifying K(+) channels (K(ir)) and two-pore domain K(+) channels (K(2P)). Since dysfunctions of K(+) channels would induce many diseases, various studies toward their functions in physiologic and pathologic process have been extensively launched. This review focuses on the recent advances of K(+) channels in tumor progression, including the brief introduction of K(+) channels, the role of K(+) channels in tumor cells, the possible mechanism of action at cellular level, and the possible application of K(+) channel modulators in cancer chemotherapy.

  14. Research progress of diagnostic transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei HUANG

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a non-invasive and painless neuroelectrophysiological examination technology. TMS-motor evoked potential (TMS-MEP is widely used to assess motor cortex excitability and conduction of descending corticobulbar tract and corticospinal tract. Recently, deeper understanding on principles of magnetic stimulation and diversification of stimulation coil and pattern has greatly expanded the application of TMS in clinical diagnosis. Moreover, MEP operation procedures are becoming more scientific and standardized. This paper reviews the progress of conventional diagnostic TMS pattern, several special stimulation patterns and the combined application of TMS, electroencephalograpy (EEG and fMRI. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.04.011

  15. Progress of nuclear safety research. 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anoda, Yoshinari; Kudo, Tamotsu; Tobita, Tohru (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] (and others)

    2002-11-01

    JAERI is conducting nuclear safety research primarily at the Nuclear Safety Research Center in close cooperation with the related departments in accordance with the Long Term Plan for Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy and Annual Plan for Safety Research issued by the Japanese government. The fields of conducting safety research at JAERI are the engineering safety of nuclear power plants and nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and radioactive waste management as well as advanced technology for safety improvement or assessment. Also, JAERI has conducted international collaboration to share the information on common global issues of nuclear safety and to supplement own research. Moreover, when accidents occurred at nuclear facilities, JAERI has taken a responsible role by providing technical experts and investigation for assistance to the government or local public body. This report summarizes the nuclear safety research activities of JAERI from April 2000 through April 2002 and utilized facilities. This report also summarizes the examination of the ruptured pipe performed for assistance to the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) for investigation of the accident at the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 on November, 2001. (author)

  16. CSPG4, a potential therapeutic target, facilitates malignant progression of melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Matthew A.; Wanshura, Leah E. Colvin; Yang, Jianbo; Carlson, Jennifer; Xiang, Bo; Li, Guiyuan; Ferrone, Soldano; Dudek, Arkadiusz Z.; Turley, Eva A.; McCarthy, James B.

    2011-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), a transmembrane proteoglycan originally identified as a highly immunogenic tumor antigen on the surface of melanoma cells, is associated with melanoma tumor formation and poor prognosis in certain melanomas and several other tumor types. The complex mechanisms by which CSPG4 affects melanoma progression have started to be defined, in particular the association with other cell surface proteins and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and its central role...

  17. [Progress in research on the biological reason of male homosexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Feng, Tie-jian

    2012-04-01

    Male homosexuality is a complex phenomenon which is universal and with unknown causes. Researchers believe that both biological and environmental factors have played a role in its pathogenesis. Researches focusing on genetics, neurobiology, development and endocrinology have made certain progress. In this paper, we have reviewed the biological causes of male homosexuality, which may provide clues for further research in this field.

  18. Facilitation of Child Health Research in hospital settings; the views of nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J; Barr, O; Lindsay, M; Ennis, E; O'Neill, S

    2017-09-19

    Child health research in clinical practice is increasing throughout the UK. Nurses and midwives facilitate access to patients, enact research study protocols and have a critical role in parental decisions to enrol children into research studies. Little is known about their perception of this process. To explore the views of nurses towards child health research and to identify factors influencing their willingness to facilitate it in practice. This study was a descriptive study design. A newly designed questionnaire was completed in 2013 by 105 nurses in 3 neonatal and 2 children's units in 2 discrete acute hospital sites. Overwhelming support for clinical research was reported. Participants were motivated to facilitate research in order to improve patient care and contribute to the evidence base; but discouraged by external organisational factors and ethical concerns. Training, education and a dedicated team to support research were considered important. Misconceptions regarding consent and the allocation of treatment were reported. Participants raised particular concerns about trials of Investigational Medicinal Product (IMP). Negative views of nurses towards research, combined with a lack of knowledge of research processes, governance and ethics have the potential to threaten the success of clinical research studies. Focus on three main areas; staff education, improved communication and the demonstration of managerial commitment to clinical research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. [Research progress on urban green space].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qing; Li, Shuang-Cheng; Li, Hong-Yuan; Peng, Jian; Wang, Yang-Lin

    2007-07-01

    Nature, diversity, and openness are what we demand from urban green space in the 21st century. Based on the summary of urban green space connotation, types and significance, this paper reviewed the research hotspots of urban green space, i.e., conservation and planning of urban-rural fringe, restoration and preservation of natural areas and indigenous vegetation, ecological restoration and planning of green way, biodiversity conservation, ecosystem structure and services, and management policy. The difference between foreign and domestic urban green space researches and practices were summarized, and some preferential urban green space research aspects in the future were proposed. It was suggested that in China, urban green space strategy should be integrated into urban planning and land use planning.

  20. CNRS researchers' popularization activities: a progress report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Croissant

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed the popularization activities undertaken by ten thousand CNRS researchers by means of their annual reports for the years 2004, 2005 and 2006. This is the first time that such an extensive statistical study on science popularization practices is carried out. Our main findings are : - the majority of researchers is not involved in popularization (51% has not done any popularization over the three-year period, two thirds have been involved in no more than one popularization action. - popularization practices are extremely diverse, both at the individual level (we have identified three subpopulations that feature distinctive attitudes towards popularization, and at the level of scientific disciplines (researchers in Humanities are twice as active as the average, as well as in laboratories or geographical regions. - the number of actions reported in 2005 greatly increased compared to 2004 (+ 26%, while they slightly diminished in 2006.

  1. [Progress of research in retinal image registration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lun; Wei, Lifang; Pan, Lin

    2011-10-01

    The retinal image registration has important applications in the processes of auxiliary diagnosis and treatment for a variety of diseases. The retinal image registration can be used to measure the disease process and the therapeutic effect. A variety of retinal image registration techniques have been studied extensively in recent years. However, there are still many problems existing and there are numerous research possibilities. Based on extensive investigation of existing literatures, the present paper analyzes the feature of retinal image and current challenges of retinal image registration, and reviews the transformation models of the retinal image registration technology and the main research algorithms in current retinal image registration, and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of various types of algorithms. Some research challenges and future developing trends are also discussed.

  2. Progress and Prospects of Geographical Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Du

    2001-01-01

    Contemporary geography includes physical geography, human geography and geographical information science. Advanced trends in geographical research are characterized by the following aspects:intersection and infiltration with various disciplines, the strengthening of integrated studies within geography, the deepening of micro-scale studies of geographical processes, the broadening of applied research fields, experimental geography and the introduction of new techniques and the transformation of theoretical concepts. In order to promote the development of earth system science and to coordinate the man-land relationship, geographers may make contributions in aspects such as the process and pattern of the terrestrial surface, global change and its regional response, natural resources security and eco-reconstruction, sustainable regional development, mechanism of the man-land relationship and its coordination, geo-information science and technology, digital earth research.

  3. Educational Design Research: Signs of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of the "Australasian Journal of Educational Technology" includes an introductory article by the guest editors and six papers that illustrate the potential of educational design research (EDR) to address important problems in higher education. In this final paper, reflections on the papers are made. Then the rationale…

  4. Saba Bank research expedition 2011 - Progress Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van I.J.M.; Meesters, H.W.G.

    2013-01-01

    The Saba Bank is a large submerged carbonate platform of approximately 2,200 km2 in the Caribbean Sea which lies partially within the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Netherlands and partially within the territorial waters of Saba and St. Eustatius. The Saba Bank research program aims to obtain inform

  5. Research progress in avian dispersal behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang LIU; Zhengwang ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Dispersal, defined as a linear spreading move-ment of individuals away from others of the population is a fundamental characteristic of organisms in nature. Dispersal is a central concept in ecological, behavioral and evolutionary studies, driven by different forces such as avoidance of inbreeding depression, density-dependent competition and the need to change breeding locations. By effective dispersal, organisms can enlarge their geo-graphic range and adjust the dynamic, sex ratio and gen-etic compositions of a population. Birds are one of the groups that are studied intensively by human beings. Due to their diurnal habits, diverse life history strategies and complex movement, birds are also ideal models for the study of dispersal behaviors. Certain topics of avian dispersal including sex-biased, asymmetric dispersal caused by differences in body conditions, dispersal pro-cesses, habitat selection and long distance dispersal are discussed here. Bird-ringing or marking, radio-telemetry and genetic markers are useful tools widely applied in dispersal studies. There are three major challenges regard-ing theoretical study and methodology research of dis-persal: (1) improvement in research methodology is needed, (2) more in-depth theoretical research is neces-sary, and (3) application of theoretical research into the conservation efforts for threatened birds and the manage-ment of their habitats should be carried out immediately.

  6. Annual Research Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1983,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    COL, MC Chief, Department of Clinical Investigation REFERENCES I. Asimov , Isaac : How It Happened. In: The Winds of Change and Other Stories...research endeavors. This brings to mind a story, "How It happened," by Isaac Asimov.l "In the beginning," he said, "exactly fifteen point two billion years

  7. Educational Design Research: Signs of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of the "Australasian Journal of Educational Technology" includes an introductory article by the guest editors and six papers that illustrate the potential of educational design research (EDR) to address important problems in higher education. In this final paper, reflections on the papers are made. Then the rationale…

  8. Progress of Soil Research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Soil,as a survival natural resource for the existent of human beings,is always highly concerned by contemporary scientists.Being a tag to symbolize the development level of soil science,research in soil classification is a focus in today's international soil science.

  9. Progress on Solar Physics Research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Yihua; AI Guoxiang

    2004-01-01

    The progress on Chinese Space Solar Telescope (SST) in 2002-2004 is introduced. The documentations on plans and outlines based on the standards of Chinese aerospace industry for SST mission has been fulfilled. The key technical problems of SST satellite platform and payloads are tackled during pre-study stage of the mission. The laboratory assembly and calibration of the main optical telescope of 1.2 m spherical mirror and 1 m plain mirror have been carried out with the accuracy of λ/40 and λ/30, respectively. The prototype at 17.1 nm for extreme ultraviolet telescope is under development and manufacture with a diameter of 13 cm. Its primary and secondary mirrors have a manufacturing error of 5 nm with a roughness degree of less than 0.5 nm and a multiplayer reflection factor of better than 20%. The on-board scientific data processing unit has been developed. Prototypes for other payloads such as H. and white light telescope, wide band spectroscopy in high energy and solar and interplanetary radio spectrometer have been developed accordingly.

  10. Research progress on dam-break floods

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jiansong

    2011-08-01

    Because of the catastrophic effects downstream of dam-break failure, more and more researchers around the world have been working on the study of dam-break flows to accurately forecast the downstream inundation mapping. With the rapid development of computer hardware and computing techniques, numerical study on dam-break flows has been a popular research subject. In the paper, the numerical methodologies used to solve the governing partial differential equations of dam-break flows are classified and summarized, and their characteristics and applications are discussed respectively. Furthermore, the fully-developed mathematical models developed in recent decades are reviewed, and also introduced the authors\\' on-going work. Finally, some possible future developments on modeling the dam-break flows and some solutions are presented and discussed. © 2011 IEEE.

  11. Biodiesel research progress 1992-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyson, K.S. [ed.

    1998-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fuels Development began evaluating the potential of various alternative fuels, including biodiesel, as replacement fuels for traditional transportation fuels. Biodiesel is derived from a variety of biological materials from waste vegetable grease to soybean oil. This alkyl ester could be used as a replacement, blend, or additive to diesel fuel. This document is a comprehensive summary of relevant biodiesel and biodiesel-related research, development demonstration, and commercialization projects completed and/or started in the US between 1992 and 1997. It was designed for use as a reference tool to the evaluating biodiesel`s potential as a clean-burning alternative motor fuel. It encompasses, federally, academically, and privately funded projects. Research projects are presented under the following topical sections: Production; Fuel characteristics; Engine data; Regulatory and legislative activities; Commercialization activities; Economics and environment; and Outreach and education.

  12. Office of Industrial Technologies research in progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) conducts research and development activities which focus on improving energy efficiency and providing for fuel flexibility within US industry in the area of industrial conservation. The mission of OIT is to increase the utilization of existing energy-efficient equipment and to find and promote new, cost-effective ways for industrial facilities to improve their energy efficiency and minimize waste products. To ensure advancement of the technological leadership of the United States and to improve the competitiveness of American industrial products in world markets, OIT works closely with industrial partners, the staffs of the national laboratories, and universities to identify research and development needs and to solve technological challenges. This report contains summaries of the currently active projects supported by the Office of Industrial Technologies.

  13. Progress of Research on Inonotus Obliquus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟秀宏; 任旷; 吕士杰; 杨淑艳; 孙东植

    2009-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus has high nutritional and medicinal value,especially in treating malignant tumors,diabetes,cardiovascular disease and AIDS,attracting significant attention from scholars in recent years.In this paper,the biological characteristics,chemical composition and pharmacologic effects of Inonotus obliquus were summarized.And the applications in medicine and food were introduced.Future research on Inonotus obliquus was also discussed in order to make Inonotus obliquus obtain effective exploitatio...

  14. Organizational Innovation and its Facilitators: A brief overview of work in progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Hollaender; Dr. Paul Breman; B.M.E. de Waal; M. Oteman; M. Makowski; A. Bolland; E. Hijmans

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents four research projects on organizational innovation in the Netherlands. These projects are still in a design and theoretical investigation stage, but the authors find it useful to share their findings and insights with the research community in order to inspire them with their

  15. CSPG4, a potential therapeutic target, facilitates malignant progression of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew A; Colvin Wanshura, Leah E; Yang, Jianbo; Carlson, Jennifer; Xiang, Bo; Li, Guiyuan; Ferrone, Soldano; Dudek, Arkadiusz Z; Turley, Eva A; McCarthy, James B

    2011-12-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), a transmembrane proteoglycan originally identified as a highly immunogenic tumor antigen on the surface of melanoma cells, is associated with melanoma tumor formation and poor prognosis in certain melanomas and several other tumor types. The complex mechanisms by which CSPG4 affects melanoma progression have started to be defined, in particular the association with other cell surface proteins and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and its central role in modulating the function of these proteins. CSPG4 is essential to the growth of melanoma tumors through its modulation of integrin function and enhanced growth factor receptor-regulated pathways including sustained activation of ERK 1,2. This activation of integrin, RTK, and ERK1,2 function by CSPG4 modulates numerous aspects of tumor progression. CSPG4 expression has further been correlated to resistance of melanoma to conventional chemotherapeutics. This review outlines recent advances in our understanding of CSPG4-associated cell signaling, describing the central role it plays in melanoma tumor cell growth, motility, and survival, and explores how modifying CSPG4 function and protein-protein interactions may provide us with novel combinatorial therapies for the treatment of advanced melanoma.

  16. Reduced E-cadherin facilitates renal cell carcinoma progression by WNT/β-catenin signaling activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinqi; Yang, Mingxi; Shi, Hua; Hu, Jianxin; Wang, Yuanlin; Sun, Zhaolin; Xu, Shuxiong

    2017-02-15

    Reduced expression of E-cadherin was observed in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, its potential clinical value and correlation with WNT/β-catenin signaling in RCC progression was still unclear. Immunohistochemical staining was performed in RCC tissue microarray to examine the expression status and prognosis value of E-cadherin and β-catenin. The potential role of E-cadherin in β-catenin translocation was analyzed with immunobloting assays. A significant negative correlation was observed between E-cadherin and β-catenin expression in RCC tissues. E-cadherin inhibits β-catenin translocation from membrane to cytoplasm in RCC tissues, which was an important step for WNT/β-catenin signaling. Reduced E-cadherin expression was associated with poor prognosis. More importantly, E-cadherin-/β-catenin+ was an independent detrimental factor for survival estimation of RCC patients. Reduced E-cadherin expression in RCC promoted cancer progression via WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway activation. E-cadherin/β-catenin provides a valuable prognosis marker for RCC, which may be an effective target for RCC therapy.

  17. Research on the Facilitation of Dietary Fiber to Body Digestive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Han

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the facilitation of dietary fiber to body intestinal canal digestive function; Make analyses to the efficacy of different dietary fibers to digestive system and study their mechanism of action. The research shows that dietary fiber can promote the proliferation of beneficial bacterium and can restrain the production of harmful bacterium. Through the research on intrinsic factor intestinal flora and extrinsic factor dietary fiber which have an influence on body metabolism, it discussed and analyzed the interaction relation between the intake of dietary fiber and the variety and quantity of intestinal flora. Dietary fiber can facilitate body digestive function.

  18. A meta-analysis of plant facilitation in coastal dune systems: responses, regions, and research gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanho, Camila de Toledo; Lortie, Christopher J; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Prado, Paulo Inácio

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies in salt marshes, arid, and alpine systems support the hypothesis that facilitation between plants is an important ecological process in severe or 'stressful' environments. Coastal dunes are both abiotically stressful and frequently disturbed systems. Facilitation has been documented, but the evidence to date has not been synthesized. We did a systematic review with meta-analysis to highlight general research gaps in the study of plant interactions in coastal dunes and examine if regional and local factors influence the magnitude of facilitation in these systems. The 32 studies included in the systematic review were done in coastal dunes located in 13 countries around the world but the majority was in the temperate zone (63%). Most of the studies adopt only an observational approach to make inferences about facilitative interactions, whereas only 28% of the studies used both observational and experimental approaches. Among the factors we tested, only geographic region mediates the occurrence of facilitation more broadly in coastal dune systems. The presence of a neighbor positively influenced growth and survival in the tropics, whereas in temperate and subartic regions the effect was neutral for both response variables. We found no evidence that climatic and local factors, such as life-form and life stage of interacting plants, affect the magnitude of facilitation in coastal dunes. Overall, conclusions about plant facilitation in coastal dunes depend on the response variable measured and, more broadly, on the geographic region examined. However, the high variability and the limited number of studies, especially in tropical region, indicate we need to be cautious in the generalization of the conclusions. Anyway, coastal dunes provide an important means to explore topical issues in facilitation research including context dependency, local versus regional drivers of community structure, and the importance of gradients in shaping the outcome of net

  19. Research progress in cation-π interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG JiaGao; LUO XiaoMin; YAN XiuHua; LI Zhong; TANG Yun; JIANG HuaLiang; ZHU WeiLiang

    2008-01-01

    Cation-π interaction is a potent intermolecular interaction between a cation and an aromatic system, which has been viewed as a new kind of binding force, as being compared with the classical interac-tions (e.g. hydrogen bonding, electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions). Cation-π interactions have been observed in a wide range of biological contexts. In this paper, we present an overview of the typi-cal cation-π interactions in biological systems, the experimental and theoretical investigations on cation-π interactions, as well as the research results on cation-π interactions in our group.

  20. Research progress in cation-π interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cation-π interaction is a potent intermolecular interaction between a cation and an aromatic system,which has been viewed as a new kind of binding force,as being compared with the classical interactions(e.g. hydrogen bonding,electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions). Cation-π interactions have been observed in a wide range of biological contexts. In this paper,we present an overview of the typical cation-π interactions in biological systems,the experimental and theoretical investigations on cation-π interactions,as well as the research results on cation-π interactions in our group.

  1. Research and Progress on Virtual Cloud Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jian Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, cloud computing technology has experienced continuous development and improvement, and has gradually expanded to the education sector. First, this paper will introduce the background knowledge of the current virtual cloud laboratory; by comparing the advantages and disadvantages between traditional laboratory and virtual cloud laboratory, and comparing the application, advantages and disadvantages, and development trend of OpenStack technology and VMWare technology in safety, performance, design, function, use case, and value of virtual cloud laboratory, this paper concludes that application based on OpenStack virtual cloud laboratory in universities and research institutes and other departments is essential.

  2. Prognosis Research Strategy (PROGRESS 3: prognostic model research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewout W Steyerberg

    Full Text Available Prognostic models are abundant in the medical literature yet their use in practice seems limited. In this article, the third in the PROGRESS series, the authors review how such models are developed and validated, and then address how prognostic models are assessed for their impact on practice and patient outcomes, illustrating these ideas with examples.

  3. Research progress in dynamic security assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-12-01

    Areas discussed are power system modeling, state estimation, structure decomposition, state forecasting, clustering and security measure development. A detailed dynamic model of a multi-machine power system has been developed. A process state estimator was developed to estimate the long-term dynamic behavior of the power system. The algorithm is identical to the extended Kalman filter but has a modified process noise driving term. A two-stage structure estimation technique was proposed for identifying the power system network configuration. Two approaches to structure decomposition were investigated. A time-scale decomposition of the system equations, based on a singular perturbation approach, was evaluated using a detailed model of a generating system. Spatial decomposition was examined by applying an optimal network decomposition technique to a 39-bus test system. Stochastic approximation based approaches to estimator simplification were examined. Explicit expressions were obtained for the evolution of the first and second moments of the system state. Research into security measures proceeded in three directions. The first area involves viewing the security assessment problem as a hyperplane crossing problem for a stochastic process. The second approach examined the stability of an unforced linear system where the system coefficients are subject to future jumps. The third area of research has led to the formulation of a security measure suitable for on-line assessment of transient stability.

  4. Research progress of exercise-induced fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-yi DAI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced fatigue is a comprehensive response to a variety of physiological and biochemical changes in the body, and can affect people's quality of life to different extents. If no timely recovery after occurrence of fatigue, accumulated gradually, it can lead to "burnout", a "overtraining syndrome", "chronic fatigue syndrome", etc., which will cause endocrine disturbance, immune suppression, even physical illness. Exercise-induced fatigue becomes an important factor endangering human health. In recent years, many experts and scholars at home and abroad are committed to the research of exercise-induced fatigue, and have put forward a variety of hypothesis to explain the cause of exercise-induced fatigue. They expect to find out the methods for preventing and eliminating exercise-induced fatigue. This article discusses mainly the pathogenesis, model building, elimination/ relief, etc. of exercise-induced fatigue to point out the research achievements of exercise-induced fatigue and its existing problems. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.11.14

  5. [Research progress of fecal microbiota transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ting; Tang, Tongyu

    2015-07-01

    Intestinal microbial ecosystem is the most complex and the largest micro-ecosystem of the mammals. The use of antibiotics can lead to a lot of major changes of the flora, making the intestinal flora damaged and impacted, even developing Clostridium difficile infection. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a special organ transplant therapy, which can rebuild the intestinal flora, has raised the clinical concerns. It has been used in the refractory Clostridium difficile, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, and some non-intestinal diseases related to the metabolic disorders. But this method of treatment has not become a normal treatment, and many clinicians and patients can not accept it. This paper reviews relevant literature in terms of origin, indications, mechanism, production process, current situation and future research, and provide a reference for the clinical application of the treatment of fecal microbiota transplantation.

  6. Research progress in study of accidental hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui YUAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Accidental hypothermia refers to a state of lowering of core body temperature down to 35 ℃induced by drowning, burial in snow and prolonged exposure to cold environment, etc. Hypothermia may affect the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, digestive system, etc. The triad consisting "hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy" is an important factor accelerating the death of patients. Early, timely application of rewarming measures is regarded as the basic principle in treatment of hypothermia. A series of rewarming measures, such as infusion of warm fluids, inspiration of warm air, abdominal infusion of warm fluid, instruction of warm fluid into pleural cavity, intravenous infusion of warm fluid, rewarming through ECMO, etc. have been used recently. Advance in research on the classification of hypothermia, its impact to the body and the treatment methods are reviewed in present paper. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.04.15

  7. Slx5/Slx8 Promotes Replication Stress Tolerance by Facilitating Mitotic Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Mon Thu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Loss of minichromosome maintenance protein 10 (Mcm10 causes replication stress. We uncovered that S. cerevisiae mcm10-1 mutants rely on the E3 SUMO ligase Mms21 and the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase complex Slx5/8 for survival. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we identified changes in the SUMO proteome of mcm10-1 mutants and revealed candidates regulated by Slx5/8. Such candidates included subunits of the chromosome passenger complex (CPC, Bir1 and Sli15, known to facilitate spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC activation. We show here that Slx5 counteracts SAC activation in mcm10-1 mutants under conditions of moderate replication stress. This coincides with the proteasomal degradation of sumoylated Bir1. Importantly, Slx5-dependent mitotic relief was triggered not only by Mcm10 deficiency but also by treatment with low doses of the alkylating drug methyl methanesulfonate. Based on these findings, we propose a model in which Slx5/8 allows for passage through mitosis when replication stress is tolerable.

  8. Progress of Iran in Medical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahdoozan, Shadi; Massarrat, Sadegh

    2016-11-01

     The indexed Iranian journals in ISI and PubMed at the end of 2012 with known impact factor (IF) were evaluated with regard to the number of articles published in 2010-2012, the number of citations by authors from inside and outside Iran, their IF as well as their ranking order among all other journals in their specialized categories. There were among 130 English journals, 21 indexed with known IF. The mean IF of these journals increased from 0.4 in 2010 to 0.68 in 2012. The number of citations per article by authors from outside Iran increased from 0.19 to 0.49 during the same time period. The rank of the majority of the indexed journals was in the lowest 20% of their category. Although some improvement has been observed in the quality and the number of citations of Iranian journals indexed in ISI during these two years, the quality of the manuscripts remains low. A reduction in the number of journals, a change of their structure as well as more financial resources for research is necessary for the improvement of the quality and better rank and status of Iranian science among an international audience.

  9. A Road Map for Learning Progressions Research in Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Niem Tu; Solem, Michael; Bednarz, Sarah Witham

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of learning progressions (LP) and assesses the potential of this line of research to improve geography education. It presents the merits and limitations of three of the most common approaches used to conduct LP research and draws on one approach to propose a first draft of a LP on map reading and interpretation.…

  10. Progress in the research of routing and switching system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The research team led by Prof. Bin Liu in Tsinghua University pursued their research in the theories of network switching, Qos business administration as well as security issues of high speed networking system etc., and achieved significant progress with the funding support from NSFC.

  11. Facilitative Components of Collaborative Learning: A Review of Nine Health Research Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Lisa; Rittner, Jessica Levin; Johnson, Karin E; Gerteis, Jessie; Miller, Therese

    2017-02-01

    Collaborative research networks are increasingly used as an effective mechanism for accelerating knowledge transfer into policy and practice. This paper explored the characteristics and collaborative learning approaches of nine health research networks. Semi-structured interviews with representatives from eight diverse US health services research networks conducted between November 2012 and January 2013 and program evaluation data from a ninth. The qualitative analysis assessed each network's purpose, duration, funding sources, governance structure, methods used to foster collaboration, and barriers and facilitators to collaborative learning. The authors reviewed detailed notes from the interviews to distill salient themes. Face-to-face meetings, intentional facilitation and communication, shared vision, trust among members and willingness to work together were key facilitators of collaborative learning. Competing priorities for members, limited funding and lack of long-term support and geographic dispersion were the main barriers to coordination and collaboration across research network members. The findings illustrate the importance of collaborative learning in research networks and the challenges to evaluating the success of research network functionality. Conducting readiness assessments and developing process and outcome evaluation metrics will advance the design and show the impact of collaborative research networks. Copyright © 2017 Longwoods Publishing.

  12. Up-regulation of hepatoma-derived growth factor facilitates tumor progression in malignant melanoma [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-En Tsai

    Full Text Available Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the fastest increasing malignancy in humans. Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF is a novel growth factor identified from human hepatoma cell line. HDGF overexpression is correlated with poor prognosis in various types of cancer including melanoma. However, the underlying mechanism of HDGF overexpression in developing melanoma remains unclear. In this study, human melanoma cell lines (A375, A2058, MEL-RM and MM200 showed higher levels of HDGF gene expression, whereas human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn expressed less. Exogenous application of HDGF stimulated colony formation and invasion of human melanoma cells. Moreover, HDGF overexpression stimulated the degree of invasion and colony formation of B16-F10 melanoma cells whereas HDGF knockdown exerted opposite effects in vitro. To evaluate the effects of HDGF on tumour growth and metastasis in vivo, syngeneic mouse melanoma and metastatic melanoma models were performed by manipulating the gene expression of HDGF in melanoma cells. It was found that mice injected with HDGF-overexpressing melanoma cells had greater tumour growth and higher metastatic capability. In contrast, mice implanted with HDGF-depleted melanoma cells exhibited reduced tumor burden and lung metastasis. Histological analysis of excised tumors revealed higher degree of cell proliferation and neovascularization in HDGF-overexpressing melanoma. The present study provides evidence that HDGF promotes tumor progression of melanoma and targeting HDGF may constitute a novel strategy for the treatment of melanoma.

  13. Design Research as a Mechanism for Consultants to Facilitate and Evaluate Educational Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jose M.; Dorman, Clark; Gaunt, Brian; Hardcastle, Beth; Justice, Kelly; March, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    Schools across the nation are implementing innovative practices; however, questions remain regarding how to facilitate quality implementation. Research designs that emphasize high degrees of control over independent variables result in findings with internal validity, but that may not generalize to complex, dynamic educational systems. The purpose…

  14. Design Research as a Mechanism for Consultants to Facilitate and Evaluate Educational Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jose M.; Dorman, Clark; Gaunt, Brian; Hardcastle, Beth; Justice, Kelly; March, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    Schools across the nation are implementing innovative practices; however, questions remain regarding how to facilitate quality implementation. Research designs that emphasize high degrees of control over independent variables result in findings with internal validity, but that may not generalize to complex, dynamic educational systems. The purpose…

  15. Participation, Roles and Processes in a Collaborative Action Research Project: A Reflexive Account of the Facilitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgitidou, Sofia

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses and discusses the roles and participation of those involved in a collaborative action research project to highlight the factors that influenced their content, quality and intensity. Emphasis is given to the reflections of the facilitator (author) on the processes employed to achieve equal participation and roles in the action…

  16. [Research progress of adventitious respiratory sound signal processing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenzhen; Wu, Xiaoming

    2013-10-01

    Adventitious respiratory sound signal processing has been an important researching topic in the field of computerized respiratory sound analysis system. In recent years, new progress has been achieved in adventitious respiratory sound signal analysis due to the applications of techniques of non-stationary random signal processing. Algorithm progress of adventitious respiratory sound detections is discussed in detail in this paper. Then the state of art of adventitious respiratory sound analysis is reviewed, and development directions of next phase are pointed out.

  17. Progress in Research on Acupuncture Treatment of Senile Dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Hai-ying; CHENG Dong-qi

    2009-01-01

    @@ Senile dementia is a chronic retrograde encephalopathy seriously jeopardizing the health of elderly people. It is clinically manifested by progressive remote and recent dysmnesia, declined ability in analysis and judgment, emotional changes,abnormal behaviors, and even disturbances of consciousness.In recent years, acupuncture has been used to treat dementia with satisfactory therapeutic effects.The following is a survey for the progress in research on acupuncture treatment of senile dementia in the past 10 years.

  18. Research Progress of Exosomes in Lung Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo ZOU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As the leading cause of morbidity and cancer related-death worldwide, lung cancer has a serious threat to human health. Exosomes are nanoscale lipid membrane vesicles derived from multivesicles, which containing active biomolecules including proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and etc. Exosomes play important roles in lung cancer initiation and progression by promoting the formation of tumor microenvironment, enhancing tumor invasive and metastasis capability, leading to immunosuppression and resistance to chemoradiotherapy, and also have the application value in early diagnosis and treatment. This review summarizes the research progress of exosomes in tumor initiation and progression, and its roles in diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer.

  19. Facilitating a research culture in an academic library: top down and bottom up approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Pickton, Miggie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose:\\ud The purpose of this paper is to consider why and how a research culture might be established in an academic library and to describe and evaluate efforts to achieve this at the University of Northampton. \\ud Design/methodology/approach:\\ud Contextualised within current literature on this topic, the paper examines the top down and bottom up approaches taken to facilitate practitioner research in one academic library. \\ud Findings:\\ud The approaches taken have led to a significant in...

  20. Research on the Facilitation of Dietary Fiber to Body Digestive Function

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the facilitation of dietary fiber to body intestinal canal digestive function; Make analyses to the efficacy of different dietary fibers to digestive system and study their mechanism of action. The research shows that dietary fiber can promote the proliferation of beneficial bacterium and can restrain the production of harmful bacterium. Through the research on intrinsic factor intestinal flora and extrinsic factor dietary fiber which have an influence on body metabolism, ...

  1. Intermediate Progenitors Facilitate Intracortical Progression of Thalamocortical Axons and Interneurons through CXCL12 Chemokine Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Philipp; Molnár, Zoltán; Tzeng, Yi-Shiuan; Lai, Dar-Ming; Arnold, Sebastian J; Stumm, Ralf

    2015-09-23

    Glutamatergic principal neurons, GABAergic interneurons and thalamocortical axons (TCAs) are essential elements of the cerebrocortical network. Principal neurons originate locally from radial glia and intermediate progenitors (IPCs), whereas interneurons and TCAs are of extrinsic origin. Little is known how the assembly of these elements is coordinated. C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12), which is known to guide axons outside the neural tube and interneurons in the cortex, is expressed in the meninges and IPCs. Using mouse genetics, we dissected the influence of IPC-derived CXCL12 on TCAs and interneurons by showing that Cxcl12 ablation in IPCs, leaving meningeal Cxcl12 intact, attenuates intracortical TCA growth and disrupts tangential interneuron migration in the subventricular zone. In accordance with strong CXCR4 expression in the forming thalamus and TCAs, we identified a CXCR4-dependent growth-promoting effect of CXCL12 on TCAs in thalamus explants. Together, our findings indicate a cell-autonomous role of CXCR4 in promoting TCA growth. We propose that CXCL12 signals from IPCs link cortical neurogenesis to the progression of TCAs and interneurons spatially and temporally. Significance statement: The cerebral cortex exerts higher brain functions including perceptual and emotional processing. Evolutionary expansion of the mammalian cortex is mediated by intermediate progenitors, transient amplifying cells generating cortical excitatory neurons. During the peak period of cortical neurogenesis, migrating precursors of inhibitory interneurons originating in subcortical areas and thalamic axons invade the cortex. Although defects in the assembly of cortical network elements cause neurological and mental disorders, little is known how neurogenesis, interneuron recruitment, and axonal ingrowth are coordinated. We demonstrate that intermediate progenitors release the chemotactic cytokine CXCL12 to promote intracortical interneuron migration and growth of thalamic axons

  2. Barriers and facilitators to recruitment of South Asians to health research: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, Teo Aw; Frimer, Leora; Janssen, Patricia A; Lamers, Yvonne

    2017-06-01

    People of South Asian ethnicity are under-represented in health research studies. The objectives of this scoping review were to examine the barriers and facilitators to recruitment of South Asians to health research studies and to describe strategies for improving recruitment. Scoping review METHODS: Using the Arksey and O'Malley framework for scoping reviews, we comprehensively searched electronic databases (MEDLINE via PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and PsycINFO). Studies that identified barriers and facilitators to recruitment, or recruitment strategies for South Asian populations were included. Recruitment barriers, facilitators and strategies were grouped thematically and summarised narratively. Of 1846 potentially relevant articles, 15 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the thematic synthesis. Multiple facilitators and barriers to enrolment of South Asians in health research studies were identified; these most commonly related to logistical challenges, language and cultural barriers, concerns about adverse consequences of participating and mistrust of research. Several actionable strategies were discussed, the most common being engagement of South Asian communities, demonstration of cultural competency, provision of incentives and benefits, language sensitivity through the use of translators and translated materials and the development of trust and personal relationships. There is a growing awareness of the barriers and facilitators to recruitment of South Asian participants to health research studies. Knowledge of effective recruitment strategies and implementation during the grant funding stages may reduce the risk of poor recruitment and representation of South Asians. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Facilitating factors and barriers to malaria research utilization for policy development in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwendera, Chikondi A; de Jager, Christiaan; Longwe, Herbert; Phiri, Kamija; Hongoro, Charles; Mutero, Clifford M

    2016-10-19

    Research on various determinants of health is key in providing evidence for policy development, thereby leading to successful interventions. Utilization of research is an intricate process requiring an understanding of contextual factors. The study was conducted to assess enhancing factors and barriers of research utilization for malaria policy development in Malawi. Qualitative research approach was used through in-depth interviews with 39 key informants that included malaria researchers, policy makers, programme managers, and key stakeholders. Purposive sampling and snowballing techniques were used in identifying key informants. Interview transcripts were entered in QSR Nvivo 11 software for coding and analysis. Respondents identified global efforts as key in advancing knowledge translation, while local political will has been conducive for research utilization. Other factors were availability of research, availability of diverse local researchers and stakeholders supporting knowledge translation. While barriers included: lack of platforms for researcher-public engagement, politics, researchers' lack of communication skills, lack of research collaborations, funder driven research, unknown World Health Organization policy position, and the lack of a malaria research repository. Overall, the study identified facilitating factors to malaria research utilization for policy development in Malawi. These factors need to be systematically coordinated to address the identified barriers and improve on malaria research utilization in policy development. Malaria research can be key in the implementation of evidence-based interventions to reduce the malaria burden and assist in the paradigm shift from malaria control to elimination in Malawi.

  4. Advanced sensing and control techniques to facilitate semi-autonomous decommissioning. 1998 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalkoff, R.J.; Geist, R.M.; Dawson, D.M.

    1998-06-01

    'This research is intended to advance the technology of semi-autonomous teleoperated robotics as applied to Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) tasks. Specifically, research leading to a prototype dual-manipulator mobile work cell is underway. This cell is supported and enhanced by computer vision, virtual reality and advanced robotics technology. This report summarizes work after approximately 1.5 years of a 3-year project. The autonomous, non-contact creation of a virtual environment from an existing, real environment (virtualization) is an integral part of the workcell functionality. This requires that the virtual world be geometrically correct. To this end, the authors have encountered severe sensitivity in quadric estimation. As a result, alternative procedures for geometric rendering, iterative correction approaches, new calibration methods and associated hardware, and calibration quality examination software have been developed. Following geometric rendering, the authors have focused on improving the color and texture recognition components of the system. In particular, the authors have moved beyond first-order illumination modeling to include higher order diffuse effects. This allows us to combine the surface geometric information, obtained from the laser projection and surface recognition components of the system, with a stereo camera image. Low-level controllers for Puma 560 robotic arms were designed and implemented using QNX. The resulting QNX/PC based low-level robot control system is called QRobot. A high-level trajectory generator and application programming interface (API) as well as a new, flexible robot control API was required. Force/torque sensors and interface hardware have been identified and ordered. A simple 3-D OpenGL-based graphical Puma 560 robot simulator was developed and interfaced with ARCL and RCCL to assist in the development of robot motion programs.'

  5. Brain-machine interface facilitated neurorehabilitation via spinal stimulation after spinal cord injury: Recent progress and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Monzurul; Rodrigues, Willyam; Pham, Bau Ngoc; Thakor, Nitish V

    2016-09-01

    Restoration of motor function is one of the highest priorities in individuals afflicted with spinal cord injury (SCI). The application of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) to neuroprostheses provides an innovative approach to treat patients with sensorimotor impairments. A BMI decodes motor intent from cortical signals to control external devices such as a computer cursor or a robotic arm. Recent BMI systems can now use these motor intent signals to directly activate paretic muscles or to modulate the spinal cord in a way that reengage dormant neuromuscular systems below the level of injury. In this perspective, we review the progress made in the development of brain-machine-spinal-cord interfaces (BMSCIs) and highlight their potential for neurorehabilitation after SCI. The advancement and application of these neuroprostheses goes beyond improved motor control. The use of BMSCI may combine repetitive physical training along with intent-driven neuromodulation to promote neurorehabilitation by facilitating activity-dependent plasticity. Strong evidence suggests that proper timing of volitional neuromodulation facilitates long-term potentiation in the neuronal circuits that can promote permanent functional recovery in SCI subjects. However, the effectiveness of these implantable neuroprostheses must take into account the fact that there will be continuous changes in the interface between the signals of intent and the actual trigger to initiate the motor action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. NeuroDebian Virtual Machine Deployment Facilitates Trainee-Driven Bedside Neuroimaging Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alexander; Kenney-Jung, Daniel; Botha, Hugo; Tillema, Jan-Mendelt

    2016-09-21

    Freely available software, derived from the past 2 decades of neuroimaging research, is significantly more flexible for research purposes than presently available clinical tools. Here, we describe and demonstrate the utility of rapidly deployable analysis software to facilitate trainee-driven translational neuroimaging research. A recipe and video tutorial were created to guide the creation of a NeuroDebian-based virtual computer that conforms to current neuroimaging research standards and can exist within a HIPAA-compliant system. This allows for retrieval of clinical imaging data, conversion to standard file formats, and rapid visualization and quantification of individual patients' cortical and subcortical anatomy. As an example, we apply this pipeline to a pediatric patient's data to illustrate the advantages of research-derived neuroimaging tools in asking quantitative questions "at the bedside." Our goal is to provide a path of entry for trainees to become familiar with common neuroimaging tools and foster an increased interest in translational research.

  7. Conscious Engagement in Undergraduate Male Nursing Students: Facilitating Voice through an Action Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maykut, Colleen A.; Lee, Andrew; Argueta, Nelson Garcia; Grant, Sean; Miller, Cole

    2016-01-01

    Although women have made significant progress into traditionally male-dominated professions, such as medicine and engineering, the same cannot be said of men in the nursing profession. Utilizing a critical social theory perspective, an action research project was designed to encourage participants, current male nursing students and alumni of…

  8. What are the key organisational capabilities that facilitate research use in public health policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckel Schneider, Carmen; Campbell, Danielle; Milat, Andrew; Haynes, Abby; Quinn, Emma

    2014-11-28

    Literature about research use suggests that certain characteristics or capabilities may make policy agencies more evidence attuned. This study sought to determine policy makers' perceptions of a suite of organisational capabilities identified from the literature as potentially facilitating research uptake in policy decision making. A literature scan identified eight key organisational capabilities that support research use in policy making. To determine whether these capabilities were relevant, practical and applicable in real world policy settings, nine Australian health policy makers were consulted in September 2011. We used an open-ended questionnaire asking what facilitates the use of research in policy and program decision making, followed by specific questions rating the proposed capabilities. Interviews were transcribed and the content analysed. There was general agreement that the capabilities identified from the literature were relevant to real world contexts. However, interviewees varied in whether they could provide examples of experiences with the capabilities, how essential they considered the different capabilities to be and how difficult they considered the capabilities were to achieve. Efforts to improve the use of research in policy decision making are likely to benefit from targeting multiple organisational capabilities, including staff skills and competence, tools such as templates and checklists to aid evidence use and leadership support for the use of research in policy development. However, such efforts should be guided by an understanding of how policy agencies use evidence and how they view their roles, and external factors such as resource constraints and availability of appropriate research.

  9. Exploring Forms of Triangulation to Facilitate Collaborative Research Practice: Reflections From a Multidisciplinary Research Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja Tiainen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article contains critical reflections of a multidisciplinary research group studying the human and technological dynamics around some newly offered electronic services in a specific rural area of Finland. For their research, the group adopted ethnography. On facing the challenges of doing ethnographic research in a multidisciplinary setting, the group evolved its own breed of research practice based on multiple forms of triangulation. This implied the use of multiple data sources, methods, theories, and researchers, in different combinations. One of the outcomes of the work is a model for collaborative research. It highlights, among others, the importance of creating a climate for collaboration within the research group and following a process of individual and collaborative writing to achieve the potential benefits of such research. The article also identifies a set of remaining challenges relevant to collaborative research.

  10. Research Progress on Furfural Residues Recycling : A Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dai, Chun'ai; Liu, Bo; Girisuta, B.; Heeres, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Millions of tons of furfural residues from the furfural industry are produced every year in China. Proper recycling of these residues is highly desirable as it may reduce associated environmental problems and increase the economic viability of the furfural industry. Research progress on furfural res

  11. Research Progress on Northern Leaf Blight in Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yingnan; WANG Zhenhua

    2009-01-01

    The northern corn leaf blight is one of the most serious diseases in maize production. The research progress on etiology, generation law and control strategy, antigen identification, resistance mechanism and inheritance of this disease was discussed. And the research work which should be enhanced in China was pointed out, such as mechanism of resistance inheritance, developing function marker, gene mining, screening resistance resource and dominant physiological race in different areas.

  12. Research progress of magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a clinical diagnostic modality, which has become popular in hospitals around the world. Approximately 30% of MRI exams include the use of contrast agents. The research progress of the paramagnetic resonance imaging contrast agents was described briefly. Three important approaches in the soluble paramagnetic resonance imaging contrast agents design including nonionic, tissue-specific and macromolecular contrast agents were investigated. In addition, the problems in the research and development in future were discussed.

  13. Recent research progress in wettability of colloidal crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The wettability of solid surfaces has attracted extensive interest in both theoretical research and industrial applications. This paper reviews recent research progress in the fabrication and applications of the colloidal crystals with special wettability. Based on the modified equation of Wenzel and Cassie, the colloidal crystals with special wettability have been obtained by either application of the intrinsic rough structure or modification of the surface chemical composition. Some typical applications of colloidal crystals with special wettability have also been demonstrated.

  14. Pharmacists’ views on involvement in pharmacy practice research: Strategies for facilitating participation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armour C

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In order for community pharmacy practice to continue to evolve, pharmacy practice research on potential new services is essential. This requires the active participation of community pharmacists. At present the level of involvement of community pharmacists in pharmacy practice research is minimal. Objectives: To ascertain the attitudes of a group of research-experienced community pharmacists towards participating in research; to investigate the barriers and facilitators to participation; to identify potential strategies to increase the involvement of community pharmacists in research. Methods: A focus group was conducted with a purposive sample of 11 research-experienced community pharmacists. A pharmacist academic moderated the focus group using a semi-structured interview guide. The participants were asked about their attitudes towards research, previous involvement in research, barriers to their involvement and strategies to overcome these barriers. The session was audio-taped and notes were taken by an observer. Thematic analysis of the notes and audio-tape transcripts was conducted.Results: Three themes emerged around pharmacists’ attitudes towards research: pharmacists’ perception of the purpose of research, pharmacists’ motivation for involvement in research, and pharmacists’ desired role in research. Barriers to research participation were grouped into four themes: pharmacists’ mindset, communication, infrastructure (time, money and staff, and skills/knowledge. Strategies to address each of these barriers were suggested.Conclusions: Participants recognised the importance of research towards advancing their profession and this was a motivating factor for involvement in research. They perceived their role in research primarily as data collection. A series of practical strategies to overcome the barriers to participation were offered that researchers may wish to consider when promoting research outcomes and designing research

  15. Assessing tobacco use by cancer patients and facilitating cessation: an American Association for Cancer Research policy statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Benjamin A; Brandon, Thomas H; Gritz, Ellen R; Warren, Graham W; Herbst, Roy S

    2013-04-15

    When diagnosed with cancer, patients can immediately make a meaningful positive impact on their health by stopping their tobacco use. Scientific evidence clearly shows that tobacco use in patients with cancer leads to poorer outcomes. The specific biological processes driving tobacco consumption's interference in cancer therapy are the subject of continuing research, but the evidence is clear that tobacco use in patients with cancer leads to decreased treatment efficacy and safety, decreased survival, decreased quality of life, increased treatment-related toxicity, and increased risk of cancer recurrence and second primary tumors. Data suggest that tobacco cessation can improve outcomes and survival in patients with cancer, yet full execution of evidence-based cessation interventions is infrequent in oncology settings. Therefore, both improved provision of cessation assistance to all patients with cancer who use tobacco or have recently quit and further study of the deleterious effects of tobacco use and benefits of tobacco cessation on cancer progression and treatment are needed and recommended by the American Association for Cancer Research. Progress on both fronts begins with universal assessment and documentation of tobacco use as a standard of quality cancer care regardless of treatment setting and will be further facilitated through the development of reliable, valid, and standard measures of tobacco use, incorporation of evidence-based procedures into quality and accreditation procedures, and the development of appropriate training, clinical infrastructure, and incentives for delivery of tobacco cessation interventions.

  16. Facilitation of research-based evidence within occupational therapy in stroke rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, H.; Borg, T.; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the facilitation of evidence-based practice with the use of everyday life occupations and client-centred practice within occupational therapy in three settings of stroke rehabilitation. Method: The study was based on a phenomenological hermeneutical research...... adapted to local contexts. The implementation resulted in various new working routines. Learning processes became part of developing the occupational therapists' professional identities, expressed in more professional confidence. Collaboration in the organisation of the implementation process...

  17. Technology-Facilitated Sexual Violence: A Literature Review of Empirical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Nicola; Powell, Anastasia

    2016-06-16

    Technology-facilitated sexual violence (TFSV) refers to a range of behaviors where digital technologies are used to facilitate both virtual and face-to-face sexually based harms. Such behaviors include online sexual harassment, gender- and sexuality-based harassment, cyberstalking, image-based sexual exploitation, and the use of a carriage service to coerce a victim into an unwanted sexual act. This article reviews the current state of knowledge on these different dimensions, drawing on existing empirical studies. While there is a growing body of research into technology-facilitated harms perpetrated against children and adolescents, there is a dearth of qualitative and quantitative research on TFSV against adults. Moreover, few of the existing studies provide reliable data on the nature, scope, and impacts of TFSV. Preliminary studies, however, indicate that some harms, much like sexual violence more broadly, may be predominantly gender-, sexuality-, and age-based, with young women being overrepresented as victims in some categories. This review collects the empirical evidence to date regarding the prevalence and gender-based nature of TFSV against adults and discusses the implications for policy and programs, as well as suggestions for future research.

  18. Annual Research Progress Report Letterman Army Institute of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-30

    Institute of Research Department of Maxlllofaclal Sciences «ooNufc* Presidio of San Francisco, CA 94129 mUNCirU. IIIWtiTla»TO« (***•* UV " C/.J. A—*m...have been Inltltated or conducted under this work unit during the past year: STUDY MO. 19 The effect of stress and hydro- cortisone treatwent on...nutriture. A number or enzymes are known to require pyridOAal-P04 (P-PO^) as the active vitamin B6 cofactor, including the transarainase systems. The UV

  19. Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY 2000 Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2001-05-01

    This is the FY00 Annual Progress report for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It gives an overview of the LDRD Program, summarizes progress on each project conducted during FY00, characterizes the projects according to their relevance to major funding sources, and provides an index to principal investigators. Project summaries are grouped by LDRD component: Directed Research and Exploratory Research. Within each component, they are further grouped into the ten technical categories: (1) atomic, molecular, optical, and plasma physics, fluids, and beams, (2) bioscience, (3) chemistry, (4) computer science and software engineering, (5) engineering science, (6) geoscience, space science, and astrophysics, (7) instrumentation and diagnostics, (8) materials science, (9) mathematics, simulation, and modeling, and (10) nuclear and particle physics.

  20. Environmental Research Division technical progress report, January 1984-December 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-05-01

    Technical progress in the various research and assessment activities of Argonne National Laboratory's Environmental Research Division is reported for the period 1984 to 1985. Textual, graphic, and tabular information is used to briefly summarize (in separate chapters) the work of the Division's Atmospheric Physics, Environmental Effects Research, Environmental Impacts, Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry, and Waste Management Programs. Information on professional qualifications, awards, and outstanding professional activities of staff members, as well as lists of publications, oral presentations, special events organized, and participants in educational programs, are provided in appendices at the end of each chapter.

  1. Recent progress of solar physics research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Fang

    2011-01-01

    Owing to the largely improved facilities and working conditions,solar physics research in China has recently shown marked development.This paper reports on the recent progress of solar physics research in Mainland China,mainly focusing on several hot issues,including instrumentations,magnetic field observations and research,solar flares,filaments and their eruptions,coronal mass ejections and related processes,as well as active regions and the corona,small-scale phenomena,solar activity and its predictions.A vision of the future is also described.

  2. The research progress of diving medicine in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-qun FANG; Xiao-chen BAO; Ci LI; Miao MENG; Heng-rong YUAN; Jun MA; Yan WANG

    2012-01-01

    Diving medicine is one of the branches of military medicine,and plays an important role in naval development.This review introduces the progress of researches on undersea and hyperbaric physiology and medicine in the past few years in China.The article describes our research achievement in conventional diving and its medical support,researches on saturation diving and its medical support,submarine escape and its medical support,effects of hyperbaric environments and fast buoyancy ascent on immunological and cardiological functions.Diving disorders (including decompression sickness and oxygen toxicity) are also introduced.

  3. Status, challenges and facilitators of consumer involvement in Australian health and medical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girgis Afaf

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergent international practice of involving consumers in health research is driven, in part, by the growing share of health research that can only be applied in and emerge from knowledge that is shaped by human values and societal contexts. This is the first investigation of its kind to identify the current prevalence, challenges, enabling factors and range of approaches to consumer involvement in health and medical research in Australia. Methods A nation-wide survey of research funding organisations and organisations that conduct research was performed during 2008-2009. Results Marked variation in consumer involvement experience and perceptions exists between research funders and researchers. Research funders were over eight times more likely than organisations conducting research to involve consumers in identifying research needs and prioritising research topics. Across both groups, practical and time constraints were reported as key challenges to involving consumers, while guidelines on consumer involvement and evidence of effect were the most important potential enablers. More than a third of research organisations indicated that when consumer involvement was a condition of research funding, it was an important facilitator of involvement. Conclusion It is no longer simply enough to keep society informed of important scientific breakthroughs. If Australian health research is to take into account important social contexts and consequences, it must involve consumers. A set of minimum consumer involvement standards and associated guidelines, that are agreed and routinely adopted, could ensure that consumers and the Australian community they represent, are given an opportunity to shed light on experiences and local circumstance, and express views and concerns relevant to health research.

  4. Exome sequencing greatly expedites the progressive research of Mendelian diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejun

    2014-03-01

    The advent of whole-exome sequencing (WES) has facilitated the discovery of rare structure and functional genetic variants. Combining exome sequencing with linkage studies is one of the most efficient strategies in searching disease genes for Mendelian diseases. WES has achieved great success in the past three years for Mendelian disease genetics and has identified over 150 new Mendelian disease genes. We illustrate the workflow of exome capture and sequencing to highlight the advantages of WES. We also indicate the progress and limitations of WES that can potentially result in failure to identify disease-causing mutations in part of patients. With an affordable cost, WES is expected to become the most commonly used tool for Mendelian disease gene identification. The variants detected cumulatively from previous WES studies will be widely used in future clinical services.

  5. Recruitment of HIV-Positive Women in Research: Discussing Barriers, Facilitators, and Research Personnel’s Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutfy, Mona R; V, Logan Kennedy; Mohammed, Saira; Wu, Wei; Muchenje, Marvelous; Masinde, Khatundi; Salam, Khaled; Soje, Lena; Gregorovich, Sandra; Tharao, Wangari

    2014-01-01

    Background : Women have historically been under-represented in HIV research, partly due to ineffective recruitment strategies. Objective : To improve the existing understanding of recruitment for HIV-positive women based on a province-wide cross-sectional study. Methods : A survey was emailed to all site coordinators who recruited participants in a study involving 490 HIV-positive women living in Ontario, Canada. The survey consisted of questions regarding the important recruitment barriers and successes. Quantitative data were then contextualized within extensive knowledge from research personnel and team members. Results : Completed surveys were received from (89%) site coordinators (34/38) and 98% (31/34) were women. The highest ranked recruitment barriers identified were: sensitivity of the research topic (59%), time/availability constraints (59%), language barriers (53%), HIV disclosure/stigma issues (47%), lack of trust of research personnel (41%), fear of research (41%) and inaccessibility to child care and transportation (41%). The respondents felt that the most important personal attributes for recruitment were research personnel who were respectful (97%), skilled (91%), flexible (88%) and empathetic (88%) and had good communication skills (88%). The most successful recruitment strategies identified were: developing a strong rapport (88%) that was facilitated by an empathetic relationship (100%), acknowledging the sensitive nature of the research topic (94%), providing cash financial compensation (88%), and developing recruitment strategies unique to women (88%). Conclusion : There are differences in the approaches needed for the recruitment of HIV-positive women in research. For successful recruitment of HIV-positive women, a strong rapport between the research personnel and study participants is important. This rapport is facilitated by having study personnel who are respectful, trustworthy, empathetic, and flexible. Population-specific recruitment

  6. Research Progress on Metastatic Carcinoma of the Spleen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoxiang Zhang

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT Metastatic carcinoma of the spleen (MCS) is a rare condition which is frequency misdiagnosed. Research progress on the prevalence,clinicopathological features and diagnosis of MCS from the Chinese and English medical literature was reviewed to increase understanding of all aspects related to MCS. It is hoped that a better comprehension of MCS will increase the diagnotic level and the rate of MCS detection.

  7. Research progress of the Superheated Steam Drying Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yongchun; Li, Jie; Li, Xuanyou; Zhao, Gaiju; Wu, Maogang

    2012-01-01

    The superheated steam drying technology has lots of advantages such as safe, energy-saving, pollution-free and so on, so it causes more and more extensive concern. The superheated steam drying technology is introduced and its merits and faults are analyzed. The theoretical research progress of the superheated steam drying is summarized and the recent application of the materials including the food, wood, paper, sludge and lignite is stated. In brief, the superheated steam drying technol...

  8. Research Progress on Pseudorabies Gene-deleted Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Sheng-zao; CHEN Huang-chun; XIONG Fu

    2002-01-01

    Pseudorabies is caused by pseudorabies virus (PrV), which is a member of family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae and is the agent of acute infectious disease in many domestic and wild animals. Swine was the natural host and reservior of PRV, which inflicts major economic loss in pig industries world wide. Immunization with safe, effective vaccine is main measurements to prevent the disease.In this assay, research progress on PRV gene-deleted vaccine used extensively today was discussed.

  9. Theoretical research progress in complexity of complex dynamical networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Jinqing

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the main progress in dynamical complexity of theoretical models for nonlinear complex networks proposed by our Joint Complex Network Research Group (JCNRG). The topological and dynamical properties of these theoretical models are numerically and analytically studied. Several findings are useful for understanding and deeply studying complex networks from macroscopic to microscopic levels and have a potential of applications in real-world networks.

  10. Stockpiling and Comprehensive Utilization of Red Mud Research Progress

    OpenAIRE

    Chuan-Sheng Wu; Dong-Yan Liu

    2012-01-01

    With increasing production of red mud, the environmental problems caused by it are increasingly serious, and thus the integrated treatment of red mud is imminent. This article provides an overview of the composition and the basic characteristics of red mud. The research progress of safe stockpiling and comprehensive utilization of red mud is summarized. The safe stockpiling of red mud can be divided into two aspects: the design and safe operation of the stocking yard. The comprehensive utiliz...

  11. Stockpiling and Comprehensive Utilization of Red Mud Research Progress

    OpenAIRE

    Chuan-Sheng Wu; Dong-Yan Liu

    2012-01-01

    With increasing production of red mud, the environmental problems caused by it are increasingly serious, and thus the integrated treatment of red mud is imminent. This article provides an overview of the composition and the basic characteristics of red mud. The research progress of safe stockpiling and comprehensive utilization of red mud is summarized. The safe stockpiling of red mud can be divided into two aspects: the design and safe operation of the stocking yard. The comprehensive utiliz...

  12. Research Progress of Melanoma Imaging with Radionuclide Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOU Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In comparison with CT, ultrasonography, MRI et al, scintigraphic imaging have the advantages of high specificity and recognizes lesions and structure-function of the receptor and metabolism in molecular level, which could diagnose melanoma and its metastasis earlier. With the emergence of more new imaging agents, this unique advantage was more obviously. This article discussed the latest research progress of melanoma imaging with radionuclide agents from aspects of single photon and positron.

  13. Research progress on the red cell diseases in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Lan-zhu; SHAO Zong-hong

    2012-01-01

    In recent years,there have been lots of progresses in the studies on red cell diseases in China,especially bone marrow failure diseases including immune-related pancytopenia,aplastic anemia,myelodysplastic syndrome,and paroxymal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.Numerous laboratory experiments as well as clinical researches have been carried out by Chinese hematologists,which brought about much clearer pathogenesis,more rational diagnosis methods and more effective therapies for red cell diseases.

  14. Research Progress on Technique of Frozen Embryo Transfer in Sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Qiu-sheng; HU Jian-ye; LOU Peng-yan; TAO Jing; XIE Zhao-hui

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduced the research progress on the technique of frozen embryo transfer in sheep, illustrated selection of donors and receptors, superovulation, synchronization of estrus, embryo cryopreservation and embryo transplantation. Frozen embryo transfer in sheep is another breakthrough in the high-quality sheep raising, and this technique in China is in its infancy recommendation stage, but it will be comprehensively popularized in the future.

  15. Facilitating Research and Learning in Petrology and Geochemistry through Classroom Applications of Remotely Operable Research Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    Bringing the use of cutting-edge research tools into student classroom experiences has long been a popular educational strategy in the geosciences and other STEM disciplines. The NSF CCLI and TUES programs have funded a large number of projects that placed research-grade instrumentation at educational institutions for instructional use and use in supporting undergraduate research activities. While student and faculty response to these activities has largely been positive, a range of challenges exist related to their educational effectiveness. Many of the obstacles these approaches have faced relate to "scaling up" of research mentoring experiences (e.g., providing training and time for use for an entire classroom of students, as opposed to one or two), and to time tradeoffs associated with providing technical training for effective instrument use versus course content coverage. The biggest challenge has often been simple logistics: a single instrument, housed in a different space, is difficult to integrate effectively into instructional activities. My CCLI-funded project sought primarily to knock down the logistical obstacles to research instrument use by taking advantage of remote instrument operation technologies, which allow the in-classroom use of networked analytical tools. Remote use of electron microprobe and SEM instruments of the Florida Center for Analytical Electron Microscopy (FCAEM) in Miami, FL was integrated into two geoscience courses at USF in Tampa, FL. Remote operation permitted the development of whole-class laboratory exercises to familiarize students with the tools, their function, and their capabilities; and it allowed students to collect high-quality chemical and image data on their own prepared samples in the classroom during laboratory periods. These activities improve student engagement in the course, appear to improve learning of key concepts in mineralogy and petrology, and have led to students pursuing independent research projects, as

  16. PROGRESS IN RESEARCH ON RIVER WATERCHEMISTRY IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    River water resource is the most important component of water resources in China. This paper reviews the progress in the research on river water chemistry in China. It includes three parts: 1) the development of river water quality monitoring in China (at present, there exist three water quality monitoring networks in China: near 3000 water quality monitoring stations under the Ministry of Water Resources, several thousands water quality monitoring sites under the State Environmental Protection Administration and four sites under the China's GEMS/Water Program); 2) progress in the research on chemical characteristics of river water chemistry in China and their geographical roles on natio-wide and region-wide scales; and 3) progress in the research on river quality changes in the last 40 years (the 1ong-term monitoring data reveals that the water quality of the Changjiang River has acidification trend, the Songhuajiang River had alkalization trend, and the Huanghe River has concentration trend in the last 4 decades).

  17. Bio-Intelligence: A Research Program Facilitating the Development of New Paradigms for Tomorrow's Patient Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Sieu; Famili, Fazel; Liu, Ziying; Peña-Castillo, Lourdes

    The advancement of omics technologies in concert with the enabling information technology development has accelerated biological research to a new realm in a blazing speed and sophistication. The limited single gene assay to the high throughput microarray assay and the laborious manual count of base-pairs to the robotic assisted machinery in genome sequencing are two examples to name. Yet even more sophisticated, the recent development in literature mining and artificial intelligence has allowed researchers to construct complex gene networks unraveling many formidable biological puzzles. To harness these emerging technologies to their full potential to medical applications, the Bio-intelligence program at the Institute for Information Technology, National Research Council Canada, aims to develop and exploit artificial intelligence and bioinformatics technologies to facilitate the development of intelligent decision support tools and systems to improve patient care - for early detection, accurate diagnosis/prognosis of disease, and better personalized therapeutic management.

  18. Research progress of III-V laser bonding to Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Ren; Yan, Hou; Yanan, Liang

    2016-12-01

    The vigorous development of silicon photonics makes a silicon-based light source essential for optoelectronics' integration. Bonding of III-V/Si hybrid laser has developed rapidly in the last ten years. In the tireless efforts of researchers, we are privileged to see these bonding methods, such as direct bonding, medium adhesive bonding and low temperature eutectic bonding. They have been developed and applied to the research and fabrication of III-V/Si hybrid lasers. Some research groups have made remarkable progress. Tanabe Katsuaki of Tokyo University successfully implemented a silicon-based InAs/GaAs quantum dot laser with direct bonding method in 2012. They have bonded the InAs/GaAs quantum dot laser to the silicon substrate and the silicon ridge waveguide, respectively. The threshold current of the device is as low as 200 A/cm2. Stevan Stanković and Sui Shaoshuai successfully produced a variety of hybrid III-V/Si laser with the method of BCB bonding, respectively. BCB has high light transmittance and it can provide high bonding strength. Researchers of Tokyo University and Peking University have realized III-V/Si hybrid lasers with metal bonding method. We describe the progress in the fabrication of III-V/Si hybrid lasers with bonding methods by various research groups in recent years. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are presented. We also introduce the progress of the growth of III-V epitaxial layer on silicon substrate, which is also a promising method to realize silicon-based light source. I hope that readers can have a general understanding of this field from this article and we can attract more researchers to focus on the study in this field.

  19. Research Elements: new article types by Elsevier to facilitate reproducibility in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zudilova-Seinstra, Elena; van Hensbergen, Kitty; Wacek, Bart

    2016-04-01

    When researchers start to make plans for new experiments, this is the beginning of a whole cycle of work, including experimental designs, tweaking of existing methods, developing protocols, writing code, collecting and processing experimental data, etc. A large part of this very useful information rarely gets published, which makes experiments difficult to reproduce. The same holds for experimental data, which is not always provided in a reusable format and lacks descriptive information. Furthermore, many types of data, such as a replication data, negative datasets or data from "intermediate experiments" often don't get published because they have no place in a research journal. To address this concern, Elsevier launched a series of peer-reviewed journal titles grouped under the umbrella of Research Elements (https://www.elsevier.com/books-and-journals/research-elements) that allow researchers to publish their data, software, materials and methods and other elements of the research cycle in a brief article format. To facilitate reproducibility, Research Elements have thoroughly thought out submission templates that include all necessary information and metadata as well as peer-review criteria defined per article type. Research Elements can be applicable to multiple research areas; for example, a number of multidisciplinary journals (Data in Brief, SoftwareX, MethodsX) welcome submissions from a large number of subject areas. At other times, these elements are better served within a single field; therefore, a number of domain-specific journals (e.g.: Genomics Data, Chemical Data Collections, Neurocomputing) support the new article formats, too. Upon publication, all Research Elements are assigned with persistent identifiers for direct citation and easy discoverability. Persistent identifiers are also used for interlinking Research Elements and relevant research papers published in traditional journals. Some Research Elements allow post-publication article updates

  20. Oil shale research and coordination. Progress report, 1980-1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappell, W R

    1981-01-01

    Purpose is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements by an oil shale industry. Emphasis is on the five elements As, Mo, F, Se, and B. Results of four years' research are summarized and the research results over the past year are reported in this document. Reports by the task force are included as appendices, together with individual papers on various aspects of the subject topic. Separate abstracts were prepared for the eleven individual papers. A progress report on the IWG oil shale risk analysis is included at the end of this document. (DLC)

  1. Marine Meteorology Research Progress of China from 2003 to 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dongxiao; ZHANG Yan; ZENG Lili; LUO Lin

    2009-01-01

    The progress in marine meteorology research achieved by scientists in China during the four-year period from 2003 to 2006 is summarized under four categories: marine disaster study, typhoon over the ocean, ocean-atmosphere monitoring technology, and ocean-atmosphere forecasting technology. Compared to the previous four years, many more first-hand datasets have been obtained and more scientific issues have been addressed. In particular, many contributions have been made by young scientists. A brief statement on the research strategy of marine meteorology in China for the coming years is given at the end.

  2. The Research Progress of CO2 Capture with Ionic Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志军; 董海峰; 张香平

    2012-01-01

    Due to their negligible volatility, reasonable thermal stability, strong dissolubility, wide liquid range and tunability of structure and property, ionic liquids have been regarded as emerging candidate reagents for CO2 cap- ture from industries gases. In this review, the research progresses in CO2 capture using conventional ionic liquids,functionalized ionic liquids, supported ionic-liquids membranes, polymerized ionic liquids and mixtures of ionic liquids with some molecular solvents were investigated and reviewed. Discussion of relevant research fields was presented and the future developments were suggested.

  3. Research progress of aluminum alloy automotive sheet and application technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Mingtu; You Jianghai; Lu Hongzhou; Wang Zhiwen

    2012-01-01

    Pretrcatment technology is deeply discussed to explain its importance in guaranteeing properties and form- ability of aluminum alloy automotive sheet. Some typical applications of aluminum alloy automotive sheet to automotive industry are listed. Based on the author's knowledge and recognition and research progress presently, the important re- search contents about aluminum alloy automotive sheet are emphasized. Reducing cost and price of sheet and going deeply into application research are the main work for expending the application of aluminum alloy automotive sheet in the automobile.

  4. Progress and Results from the 4DH Research Centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Sven; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2014-01-01

    and 2017, with The Danish Council for Strategic Research as main financier and the participating 31 Danish and international companies and universities as cofinanciers. Thirteen PhD student projects constitute a vital part of the research centre. In 4GDH systems, synergies are created between three areas...... of district heating and cooling, which also sum up the work of the 4DH Centre: Grids and components; Production and system integration, and Planning and implementation. This paper presents an overview of the progress and results achieved after more than two years of work. This includes the basic definition...

  5. [Research progresses of anabolic steroids analysis in doping control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yuanyuan; Wang, Dingzhong; Li, Ke'an; Liu, Feng

    2008-07-01

    Anabolic steroids, a kind of physiological active substance, are widely abused to improve athletic performance in human sports. They have been forbidden in sports by the International Olympic Committee since 1983. Since then, many researchers have been focusing their attentions on the establishment of reliable detection methods. In this paper, we review the research progresses of different analytical methods for anabolic steroids since 2002, such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, immunoassay, electrochemistry analysis and mass spectrometry. The developing prospect of anabolic steroids analysis is also discussed.

  6. Facilitation of research-based evidence within occupational therapy in stroke rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hanne Kaae; Borg, T.; Hounsgaard, L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose:This study investigated the facilitation of evidence-based practice with the use of everyday life occupations and client-centred practice within occupational therapy in three settings of stroke rehabilitation. Method:The study was based on a phenomenological hermeneutical research approach...... of evidence-based occupational therapy....... to local contexts.The implementation resulted in various new working routines. Learning processes became part of developing the occupational therapists’ professional identities, expressed in more professional confidence. Collaboration in the organisation of the implementation process was significant...

  7. Facilitation of research-based evidence within occupational therapy in stroke rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, H.; Borg, T.; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the facilitation of evidence-based practice with the use of everyday life occupations and client-centred practice within occupational therapy in three settings of stroke rehabilitation. Method: The study was based on a phenomenological hermeneutical research...... of the implementation of evidence-based occupational therapy....... adapted to local contexts. The implementation resulted in various new working routines. Learning processes became part of developing the occupational therapists' professional identities, expressed in more professional confidence. Collaboration in the organisation of the implementation process...

  8. [Research progress of cover crop in Chinese orchard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Yan-ting; Ji, Xiao-hao; Wu, Yu-sen; Mao, Zhi-quan; Jiang, Yuan-mao; Peng, Fu-tian; Whang, Zhi-qiang; Chen, Xue-sen

    2015-06-01

    Grass growing in orchard is implemented in most fruit cultivation advanced countries, but only China carries out grass weeding. To effectively resolve the puzzle on harmful or beneficial effect on fruit production imparted by grass growing, and promote grass growing management in orchard in China, more and more domestic research was reported in recent years. Combined the results of our research and domestic related research, we reviewed the latest research progress about the effect of growing grass on soil, microclimate, fruit tree diseases and insect pests, tree growth and fruit quali- ty, etc. in this paper. We pointed out that grass growing in orchard must consider the local conditions, economic efficiency, the critical period, and the supporting technique.

  9. Developing and Launching an Online Hub to Facilitate the Exchange of Research Knowledge in Education: The Case of the OERE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuters, Stephanie; Read, Robyn; Harris, Shasta Carr; Anwar, Arif; Levin, Ben

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the process by which the Ontario Education Research Exchange (OERE), part of the Knowledge Network of Applied Education Research, developed and launched an online hub of education research summaries to facilitate greater use of research by stakeholders in the field of education. The project is an effort in knowledge…

  10. Facilitating collaboration and research in sex and gender differences and women's health: year one experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mary E; Norton, Hannah F; Schaefer, Nancy; Tennant, Michele R

    2014-01-01

    Librarians at the University of Florida Health Science Center Libraries partnered with faculty to promote awareness of and access to research on women's health and sex and gender resources in an outreach project funded by the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health Office of Research on Women's Health. The project featured elements that facilitated cross-disciplinary collaboration (using CoLAB Planning Series®, or CoLABs), instruction to various groups (including faculty, undergraduate students, graduate students, and professional students), collection development, and information dissemination. Librarians leveraged existing partnerships with faculty and built new ones. Success in this project demonstrates that libraries can partner effectively with their faculty on emerging trends and new initiatives.

  11. Biosensor. Recent research progress; Baiosensa. Saikin no kenkyu doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsue, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yamada, H. [National Defence Academy, Yokosuka (Japan)

    1995-11-20

    Chemical sensor is made of up transducer that transfers the part and signal recognizing the measurement objects. Biosensor that normally transfers the amount of chemicals into electrical signal is a sensor in which living materials like enzyme, microorganism or antigen, antibody and so forth are used in the recognition part. Recently, the structure or the function of the living materials is clarified gradually with the significant progress in biofeedback, however, the synthesis of artificial material having same function as that of living materials is extremely difficult. Accordingly, it is very practical to develop high degree sensor function by using living materials with developed function in material recognition part, an important element of the sensor. In this report, solid state biosensor using electrode as a transducer is focused, and specially, recent research progress regarding the amperometric measurement which measures oxidation/reduction current is discussed. 35 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Research Progress of PET Traces for Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Cai-hua1,2;HU Kong-zhen1;TANG Gang-hua1

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is unknown cause progressive degenerative diseases of central nervous system. It is a serious threat to the health of the elderly people. The diagnosis is mainly based on pathological examination after death. With the wide application of positron emission tomography (PET imaging in clinic, in vivo noninvasive imaging diagnosis of AD at the early stage become possible. PET imaging mainly depends on the positron-labeled imaging agents. The PET imaging agents can be used in the early diagnosis and differential diagnosis on AD include several kinds: PET traces for glucose metabolic, PET traces combined with amyloid proteinplaques,tau protein, neurotransmitter and receptor, activation of microglia and PET traces for cell apoptosis.The research progress of various PET tracers were reviewed that can be used in the early diagnosis and differential diagnosis on AD in recent years.

  13. Research Progress in Corneal Cross-linking Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Li; Xiujun Peng; Zhengjun Fan

    2014-01-01

    Corneal collagen cross-linking with UVA-riboflavin is cur-rently the only method for preventing the progression of kera-toconus from the pathological perspective. Topical application of a direct cross-linking agent is now attracting widespread at-tention in clinical settings..This article reviews the research progress in the application of indirect or direct cross-linking agents (e.g., riboflavin, glucose, ribose, glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde,.glyceraldehyde,.short chain aliphatic β-nitro alcohol, and genipin) in the treatment of corneal diseases and analyzes the cross-linking efficacy,.toxicity,.and merits and disadvantages of each cross-linking agent,.providing clinical information for further studies.

  14. Research utilization in a multicultural nursing setting in Saudi Arabia: barriers and facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Tagwa

    2012-03-01

    Clinical decision making is most effective when guided by the latest evidence-based methods. Although policies governing modern nursing clinical practice advocate the need for evidence-based practice (EBP) to maximize quality and contain costs, the literature indicates a persistently low utilization of research findings in nursing. The gap between available research evidence and the use of this evidence in practice is an issue that requires attention. This study explored barriers to and facilitators of research finding utilization in nursing practice and examined the associations between these barriers and nurse demographic characteristics. This study employed a quantitative, nonexperimental, descriptive, and correlational design. Researchers used the Barriers to Research Utilization Scale, which contains quantitative and some qualitative structured questions, and recruited a convenience sample of nurses working in Saudi National Guard hospitals in the three cities of Riyadh, Jeddah, and Al-Ahsa. Participants rated nearly two thirds of the Barriers to Research Utilization Scale items as moderate to strong barriers to utilizing research in practice. Organization factors had the highest perceived barrier scores, followed by communication, adopter, and innovation factors, respectively. Themes emerging from the qualitative data indicated the presence of other barriers such as lack of time, lack of authority, lack of physician cooperation, and lack of EBP-related education. Participants suggested the importance of increasing organizational support and creating an organizational culture based on EBP to further promote utilization of research findings in nursing practice. Policymaker and administrator support is necessary to promote the utilization of research findings in nursing practice. Further initiatives are needed to raise awareness of the importance of using the best scientific evidence in practice.

  15. Progress of estuarine research in China over last 50 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈吉余; 李道季; 陈沈良

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that the estuarine research in China has got great achievements since the past 50 years. The development of estuarine research in China and progress in fundamental study are presented firstly in this paper. Especially in the aspect of theoretic studies, a distinctive feature is the combination studies of dynamics, sedimentology and geomorphology, which obtain a series of achievements, such as estuarine diluted water, estuarine fronts, turbidity maximum, sediment movement, formation of mouth bar, estuarine discontinuity phenomena, estuarine development, etc. Then some successful applications are introduced taking the Qiantang River Estuary and Yangtze Estuary as examples. Finally, main directions of estuarine research are discussed on fundamental study, the impacts of human activities on estuaries, estuarine material flux, sediment movement, prediction of estuarine erosion and accretion, estuarine discontinuity, artificial estuaries, land reclamation and wetland protection.

  16. Research progress of extreme climate and its vegetation response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaolin; Wei, Xiaoqing; Wang, Tao

    2017-08-01

    The IPCC’s fifth assessment report indicates that climate warming is unquestionable, the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events may increase, and extreme weather events can destroy the growth conditions of vegetation that is otherwise in a stable condition. Therefore, it is essential to research the formation of extreme weather events and its ecological response, both in terms scientific development and the needs of societal development. This paper mainly examines these issues from the following aspects: (1) the definition of extreme climate events and the methods of studying the associated response of vegetation; (2) the research progress on extreme climate events and their vegetation response; and (3) the future direction of research on extreme climate and its vegetation response.

  17. US Army Institute of Surgical Research Annual Research Progress Report for Fiscal Year 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    Cellulitis diagnosed by clinical criteria and treated with penicillin will not be grounds for exclusion from the study. Patient pairs will be excluded... mitochondrial studies. In US Army Institute of Surgical Research Annual Research Progress Report for Fiscal Year 1983. San Antonio: US Government Printing

  18. Research Progress of Ig Y Application in Immunoassay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin of yolk( IgY) is the major antibody in birds,reptiles and amphibian,which is generally extracted from yolk of immunized hen,with a biological role similar to mammal Ig G. Compared with IgG,IgY has many significant characters. It is extensively applied in production of polyclonal antibodies against various antigens,immunoassay and immunotherapy,and many medical areas in both animals and human. This article summarized research progress of IgY application in immunoassay.

  19. Research on human genetics in Iceland. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-31

    Records of the Icelandic Population are being used to investigate the possible inheritance of disabilities and diseases as well as other characters and the effect of environment on man. The progress report of research covers the period 1977 to 1980. The investigation was begun in 1965 by the Genetical Committee of the University of Iceland and the materials used are demographic records from the year 1840 to present and various medical information. The records are being computerized and linked together to make them effective for use in hereditary studies.

  20. Progress report on research on human genetics in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-31

    Records of the Icelandic population are being used to investigate the possible inheritance of disabilities and diseases as well as other characteristics and the effect of environment on man. The progress report of research covers the period from 1977 to 1980. The investigation was begun in 1965 by the Genetical Committee of the University of Iceland and the materials used are demographic records from the year 1840 to present and various medical information. The records are being computerized and linked together to make them effective for use in hereditary studies.

  1. Recent progress in translational research on neurovascular and neurodegenerative disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Farr, Tracy D

    2017-01-01

    The already established and widely used intravenous application of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator as a re-opening strategy for acute vessel occlusion in ischemic stroke was recently added by mechanical thrombectomy, representing a fundamental progress in evidence-based medicine to improve...... translational research on stroke and dementia, thereby spurring the entire field of translational neuroscience. Moreover, they may also pave the way for the renaissance of classical neuroprotective paradigms.This review reports and summarizes some of the most interesting and promising recent achievements...

  2. Research Progress in Tomato Responses to Abiotic Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianing XU; Gang LIU; Liyun ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    Tomato is a kind of vegetable with high economic benefits in protected farmland.Accounting for 30% of vegetable planting area in the entire protected farmland,tomato plays an essential role in cultivation of protected vegetable.Different abiotic stresses have different degrees of influence on growth and development,yield,and fruit quality of tomatoes.Therefore,finding out life activity rules of tomatoes under different abiotic stresses will be of great significance to breeding for stress tolerance and increasing tomato yield and income.This paper made an overview of research progress in tomato responses to abiotic stress in growth and development,physiology and biochemistry,and gene regulation.

  3. [The recent research progress of chemistry of marine natural products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qing-wen; Li, Li-geng; Wang, Yu-fang; Huo, Chang-hong; Zhang, Man-li

    2010-10-01

    Ocean is a unique and excellent resource that provides a diverse array of intriguing natural products. Marine natural products have demonstrated significant and extremely potent biological activities and have captured the attention of natural products chemists in the past few decades. It is increasingly recognized that a wealth of fascinating natural products and novel chemical entities will play a dominant role in the discovery of useful leads for the development of pharmaceutical agents and provide useful probes to lead to breakthroughs in a variety of life-science fields. This article focused on the research progress of chemistry of marine natural products in recent five years.

  4. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup for Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation, FY06 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.

    2006-10-03

    This annual report is a deliverable for fiscal year 2006 (FY06) for Project 2002-077-00, Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS). The EOS is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) developed in response to the 2000 and 2004 Biological Opinions on operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System. The goal of the EOS project is to facilitate activities of the estuary/ocean RME subgroup as it coordinates implementation of the Estuary RME Plan. In FY06, EOS project accomplishments included: 1) subgroup meetings; 2) participation in the estuary work group of the Pacific Northwest Aquatic Monitoring Partnership; 3) project management via the project tracking system, PISCES; 4) quarterly project status reports; and 5) a major revision to the Estuary RME Plan (new version May 2006) based on comments by EOS members, the Independent Scientific Review Panel, and other reviewers. In the context of uncertainty about the direction of the federal RME due to litigation on the FCRPS Biological Opinion, FY06 activities for the EOS project resulted in expanded substantive coordination with other regional RME forums, project tracking infrastructure, and a new version of the Estuary RME Plan.

  5. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup for Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation, FY07 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.

    2007-10-10

    This annual report is a deliverable for fiscal year 2007 (FY07) for Project 2002-077-00, Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS). The EOS is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) developed in response to responsibilities arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The goal of the EOS project is to facilitate activities of the estuary/ocean RME subgroup as it coordinates design and implementation of federal RME in the lower Columbia River and estuary. In FY07, EOS project accomplishments included 1) subgroup meetings; 2) participation in the estuary work group of the Pacific Northwest Aquatic Monitoring Partnership; 3) project management via the project tracking system, PISCES; 4) quarterly project status reports; and 5) a major revision to the Estuary RME Plan (new version September 2007) based on comments by EOS members and invited reviewers.

  6. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup for Research, Monitoring and Evaluation - FY07 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-10-10

    This annual report is a deliverable for fiscal year 2007 (FY07) for Project 2002-077-00, Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS). The EOS is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort of the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) developed in response to responsibilities arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The goal of the EOS project is to facilitate activities of the estuary/ocean RME subgroup as it coordinates design and implementation of federal RME in the lower Columbia River and estuary. In FY07, EOS project accomplishments included (1) subgroup meetings; (2) participation in the estuary work group of the Pacific Northwest Aquatic Monitoring Partnership; (3) project management via the project tracking system, PISCES; (4) quarterly project status reports; and (5) a major revision to the Estuary RME Plan (new version September 2007) based on comments by EOS members and invited reviewers.

  7. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup for Research, Monitoring and Evaluation - FY07 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-10-10

    This annual report is a deliverable for fiscal year 2007 (FY07) for Project 2002-077-00, Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS). The EOS is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort of the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) developed in response to responsibilities arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The goal of the EOS project is to facilitate activities of the estuary/ocean RME subgroup as it coordinates design and implementation of federal RME in the lower Columbia River and estuary. In FY07, EOS project accomplishments included (1) subgroup meetings; (2) participation in the estuary work group of the Pacific Northwest Aquatic Monitoring Partnership; (3) project management via the project tracking system, PISCES; (4) quarterly project status reports; and (5) a major revision to the Estuary RME Plan (new version September 2007) based on comments by EOS members and invited reviewers.

  8. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup for Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation, FY07 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.

    2007-10-10

    This annual report is a deliverable for fiscal year 2007 (FY07) for Project 2002-077-00, Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS). The EOS is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) developed in response to responsibilities arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The goal of the EOS project is to facilitate activities of the estuary/ocean RME subgroup as it coordinates design and implementation of federal RME in the lower Columbia River and estuary. In FY07, EOS project accomplishments included 1) subgroup meetings; 2) participation in the estuary work group of the Pacific Northwest Aquatic Monitoring Partnership; 3) project management via the project tracking system, PISCES; 4) quarterly project status reports; and 5) a major revision to the Estuary RME Plan (new version September 2007) based on comments by EOS members and invited reviewers.

  9. Laboratory directed research and development: FY 1997 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, J.; Prono, J. [comps.

    1998-05-01

    This is the FY 1997 Progress Report for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It gives an overview of the LDRD program, summarizes work done on individual research projects, relates the projects to major Laboratory program sponsors, and provides an index to the principal investigators. Project summaries are grouped by their LDRD component: Competency Development, Program Development, and Individual Projects. Within each component, they are further grouped into nine technical categories: (1) materials science, (2) chemistry, (3) mathematics and computational science, (4) atomic and molecular physics and plasmas, fluids, and particle beams, (5) engineering science, (6) instrumentation and diagnostics, (7) geoscience, space science, and astrophysics, (8) nuclear and particle physics, and (9) bioscience.

  10. Research progress in nanographene oxide with tumor imaging and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOU Peihong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanographene oxide,one of graphene oxide derivatives and a novel two-dimensional carbon nanomaterial,has become a popular research topic in nanomedicine due to its unique properties such as ultra-high surface-to-volume ratio and great photo-thermal effect.It contains a large amount of reactive chemical groups,including carboxy group,carbonyl group,hydroxyl group and epoxy group,which enable its easy biological and chemical functionalization and excellent biocompatibility.Therefore,it has potential applications in biomedical field.This paper briefly describes the preparation and functionalization of nanographeme oxide,and then mainly focuses on its application studies in the biomedical field,including in vitro and in vivo toxicity tests and advanced research progress of tumor imaging and treatment.

  11. Research And Development Contributions to Aviation Progress (RADCAP): Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Positive contributions of military aeronautical research and development programs to civil aviation are reviewed and some possible future contributions of those military programs are assessed. A summary is presented of detailed results concerned with: (1) review of the progress that has been made in aviation since 1925 and the significant technological advances that have been made; (2) an examination of current and planned military aeronautical research and technology programs and an assessment of their relevancy to the aeronautical R and D needs of civil aviation; (3) the relationship of the development base generated by military programs to the needs of civil airliner design, development, and production; (4) information on aeronautical R and D funding; and (5) the findings and observations of the RADCAP study.

  12. Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY 1998 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Vigil; Kyle Wheeler

    1999-04-01

    This is the FY 1998 Progress Report for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It gives an overview of the LDRD Program, summarizes work done on individual research projects, relates the projects to major Laboratory program sponsors, and provides an index to the principle investigators. Project summaries are grouped by their LDRD component: Competency Development, Program Development, and Individual Projects. Within each component, they are further grouped into nine technical categories: (1) materials science, (2) chemistry, (3) mathematics and computational science, (4) atomic, molecular, optical, and plasma physics, fluids, and particle beams, (5) engineering science, (6) instrumentation and diagnostics, (7) geoscience, space science, and astrophysics, (8) nuclear and particle physics, and (9) bioscience.

  13. Recent Research Progress in China on Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunqun Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus is one of the most important parasites of ruminants with worldwide distribution that can bring huge economic losses to the breeding industry of cattle, sheep, and goats. In recent 20 years, studies on H. contortus in China mainly focused on the epidemiology, population genetics, anthelmintic resistance, structural and functional studies of important genes regulating the development of this parasite, interaction between parasite molecules and host cells and vaccine development against haemonchosis, and achieved good progress. However, there is no systematic review about the studies by Chinese researchers on H. contortus in China. The purpose of this review is to bring together the findings from the studies on H. contortus in China in order to obtain the knowledge gained from the recent studies in China and provide foundation for identifying future research directions to establish novel diagnostic methods, discover new drug targets and vaccine candidates for use in preventing and controlling H. contortus in China.

  14. RenderToolbox3: MATLAB tools that facilitate physically based stimulus rendering for vision research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heasly, Benjamin S; Cottaris, Nicolas P; Lichtman, Daniel P; Xiao, Bei; Brainard, David H

    2014-02-07

    RenderToolbox3 provides MATLAB utilities and prescribes a workflow that should be useful to researchers who want to employ graphics in the study of vision and perhaps in other endeavors as well. In particular, RenderToolbox3 facilitates rendering scene families in which various scene attributes and renderer behaviors are manipulated parametrically, enables spectral specification of object reflectance and illuminant spectra, enables the use of physically based material specifications, helps validate renderer output, and converts renderer output to physical units of radiance. This paper describes the design and functionality of the toolbox and discusses several examples that demonstrate its use. We have designed RenderToolbox3 to be portable across computer hardware and operating systems and to be free and open source (except for MATLAB itself). RenderToolbox3 is available at https://github.com/DavidBrainard/RenderToolbox3.

  15. New research progress on the ultrastructure of tectonically deformed coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiwen Ju; Xiaoshi Li

    2009-01-01

    The structure of tectonically deformed coals shows some characteristics and regulations on the ultra-scale when influenced by different factors such as temperature, pressure and directional stress. Deformations of the macromolecular structure may induce changes in the nano-scale pore structure, which are very important for gas adsorption and pervasion. The geological impact of different mechanisms of deformation on different types of ultrastructure of tectonically deformed coals is not only of significance as a topic for scientific research, but also in studying environments of metamorphism-deformation at differing metamorphic stages. This research is also very important in studying the accumulation and occurrence conditions of coalbed methane gas, mechanisms of coal and gas outbursts, predictions of coalbed methane resources and dangers of coal and gas outbursts. This paper analyzes current research, within China and other coun-tries, in the ultrastructure of tectonically deformed coals. The research includes (1) structural models of tectonically deformed coals; (2) the relationship between ultrastructure and stress; (3) the structure of tectonically deformed coals and its strain environment. These results are also based on our own experiments including vitirnite reflectance (R_(o,max)), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and nuclear magnetic res-onance (NMR (CP/MAS+TOSS)). We discuss the important effects of the structure of tectonically deformed coals and their physical properties, and then point out some problems concerning the research progress of tectonically deformed coals.

  16. Pharmacometrics: a multidisciplinary field to facilitate critical thinking in drug development and translational research settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jeffrey S; Fossler, Michael J; Cadieu, K David; Gastonguay, Marc R

    2008-05-01

    Pharmacometrics has evolved beyond quantitative analysis methods used to facilitate decision making in drug development, although the application of the discipline in this arena continues to represent the primary emphasis of scientists calling themselves pharmacometricians. While related fields populate and interface with pharmacometrics, there is a natural synergy with clinical pharmacology due to common areas of research and the decision-making expectation with respect to evolving conventional and translational research paradigms. Innovative and adaptable training programs and resources are essential in this regard as both disciplines promise to be key elements of the clinical research workplace of the future. The demand for scientists with pharmacometrics skills has risen substantially. Likewise, the salary garnered by those with these skills appears to be surpassing their counterparts without such backgrounds. Given the paucity of existing training programs, available training materials, and academic champions, a virtual faculty and online curriculum would allow students to matriculate into one of several programs associated with their advisor but take instruction from faculty at multiple institutions, including instructors in both industrial and regulatory settings. Flexibility in both the curriculum and the governance of the degree would provide the greatest hope of addressing the short supply of trained pharmacometricians.

  17. How action researchers use anxiety to facilitate change in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nicola; Hopkinson, Jane

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to report on the role of an action researcher in a study investigating the change process in a health service context where a new assessment clinic was developed to manage the excessive waiting list for that service. For effective organisational change in health, there is a suggestion that change agents need to be emotionally intelligent; recognising the emotional state of individuals, reconciling that with the organisational drivers and making an assessment of readiness for organisational change. Anxiety features throughout this literature and there is a suggestion that being aware of anxiety and managing anxiety is within the emotionally intelligent change agent's repertoire, but there is a gap in the literature that explains this relationship in detail. Data were generated to investigate the discrete nature of the role of the action researcher during this organisational change that spanned two years, through three methods: participant observations in the field captured in field notes (n = 72); observations of team meetings that had been recorded and transcribed (n = 13); interviews with key informants pre- and postintervention (n = 14); a reflexive diary one document of 8920 words (n = 1). The data illuminating the interaction between the action researcher and participants were synthesised into two broad themes: how the action researcher introduced anxiety into the system; how the action researcher facilitated the participants to tolerate change anxiety. The findings from this study can be applied in clinical practice where change in practice is planned. Part of the requirement of a change agent in the NHS might be to be sufficiently emotionally literate to understand anxiety in the participant system and manage it to effect change. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Recent progress in translational research on neurovascular and neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Farr, Tracy D; Gelderblom, Mathias; Horsburgh, Karen; Iadecola, Costantino; Mcleod, Damian D; Michalski, Dominik; Murphy, Tim H; Orbe, Josune; Otte, Willem M; Petzold, Gabor C; Plesnila, Nikolaus; Reiser, Georg; Reymann, Klaus G; Rueger, Maria A; Saur, Dorothee; Savitz, Sean I; Schilling, Stephan; Spratt, Neil J; Turner, Renée J; Vemuganti, Raghu; Vivien, Denis; Yepes, Manuel; Zille, Marietta; Boltze, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    The already established and widely used intravenous application of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator as a re-opening strategy for acute vessel occlusion in ischemic stroke was recently added by mechanical thrombectomy, representing a fundamental progress in evidence-based medicine to improve the patient's outcome. This has been paralleled by a swift increase in our understanding of pathomechanisms underlying many neurovascular diseases and most prevalent forms of dementia. Taken together, these current advances offer the potential to overcome almost two decades of marginally successful translational research on stroke and dementia, thereby spurring the entire field of translational neuroscience. Moreover, they may also pave the way for the renaissance of classical neuroprotective paradigms.This review reports and summarizes some of the most interesting and promising recent achievements in neurovascular and dementia research. It highlights sessions from the 9th International Symposium on Neuroprotection and Neurorepair that have been discussed from April 19th to 22nd in Leipzig, Germany. To acknowledge the emerging culture of interdisciplinary collaboration and research, special emphasis is given on translational stories ranging from fundamental research on neurode- and -regeneration to late stage translational or early stage clinical investigations.

  19. Promoting universal financial protection: evidence from seven low- and middle-income countries on factors facilitating or hindering progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Di; Ranson, Michael K; Aulakh, Bhupinder K; Honda, Ayako

    2013-09-24

    problem in LMICs. The case studies also highlighted the critical role of high-level political leadership in pursuing UHC policies and citizen support in sustaining these policies.This series demonstrates the value of promoting greater sharing of experiences on UHC reforms across LMICs. It also identifies key areas of future research on health care financing in LMICs that would support progress towards UHC.

  20. Research progress of Si-based germanium materials and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buwen, Cheng; Cheng, Li; Zhi, Liu; Chunlai, Xue

    2016-08-01

    Si-based germanium is considered to be a promising platform for the integration of electronic and photonic devices due to its high carrier mobility, good optical properties, and compatibility with Si CMOS technology. However, some great challenges have to be confronted, such as: (1) the nature of indirect band gap of Ge; (2) the epitaxy of dislocation-free Ge layers on Si substrate; and (3) the immature technology for Ge devices. The aim of this paper is to give a review of the recent progress made in the field of epitaxy and optical properties of Ge heterostructures on Si substrate, as well as some key technologies on Ge devices. High crystal quality Ge epilayers, as well as Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells with high Ge content, were successfully grown on Si substrate with a low-temperature Ge buffer layer. A local Ge condensation technique was proposed to prepare germanium-on-insulator (GOI) materials with high tensile strain for enhanced Ge direct band photoluminescence. The advances in formation of Ge n+p shallow junctions and the modulation of Schottky barrier height of metal/Ge contacts were a significant progress in Ge technology. Finally, the progress of Si-based Ge light emitters, photodetectors, and MOSFETs was briefly introduced. These results show that Si-based Ge heterostructure materials are promising for use in the next-generation of integrated circuits and optoelectronic circuits. Project supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation (Nos. 61036003, 61435013) and the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (No. 2013CB632103).

  1. Research progress in nanoparticles as anticancer drug carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingying Sun; Huaqing Lin ; Chuqin Yu; Suna Lin

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles drug delivery system has sustained and controled release features as wel as targeted drug deliv-ery, which can change the characteristics of drug distributionin vivo. It can increase the stability of the drug and enhance drug bioavailability. The selective targeting of nanoparticles can be achieved through enhanced permeability and retention efect and a conjugated specific ligand or through the efects of physiological conditions, such as pH and temperature. Nanoparticles can be prepared by using a wide range of materials and can be used to encapsulate chemotherapeutic agents to reduce toxic-ity, which can be used for imaging, therapy, and diagnosis. In this research, recent progress on nanoparticles as a targeted drug delivery system wil be reviewed, including positive-targeting, negative-targeting, and physicochemical-targeting used as anticancer drug carriers.

  2. Progress in Research on Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Cementitious Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As one-dimensional (1D nanofiber, carbon nanotubes (CNTs have been widely used to improve the performance of nanocomposites due to their high strength, small dimensions, and remarkable physical properties. Progress in the field of CNTs presents a potential opportunity to enhance cementitious composites at the nanoscale. In this review, current research activities and key advances on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs reinforced cementitious composites are summarized, including the effect of MWCNTs on modulus of elasticity, porosity, fracture, and mechanical and microstructure properties of cement-based composites. The issues about the improvement mechanisms, MWCNTs dispersion methods, and the major factors affecting the mechanical properties of composites are discussed. In addition, large-scale production methods of MWCNTs and the effects of CNTs on environment and health are also summarized.

  3. Research Progress of Photoanodes for Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Zhi-min

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development status and tendency of quantum dot sensitized solar cells. Photoanode research progress and its related technologies are analyzed in detail from the three ways of semiconductor thin films, quantum dot co-sensitization and quantum dot doping, deriving from the approach that the conversion efficiency can be improved by photoanode modification for quantum dot sensitized solar cells. According to the key factors which restrict the cell efficiency, the promising future development of quantum dot sensitized solar cells is proposed,for example,optimizing further the compositions and structures of semiconductor thin films for the photoanodes, exploring new quantum dots with broadband absorption and developing high efficient techniques of interface modification.

  4. Research Progress of Lung Cancer with Leptomeningeal Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua MA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Leptomeningeal metastases is one of the most serious complications of lung cancer, the patients with poor prognosis. Leptomeningeal metastasis in patients with lack specificity of clinical manifestations. The main clinical performance are the damage of cerebral symptoms, cranial nerve and spinal nerve. The diagnosis primarily based on the history of tumor, clinical symptoms, enhance magnetic resnance image (MRI scan and cerebrospinal fluid cytology. In recent years, new ways of detecting clinically, significantly increase the rate of early detection of leptomeningeal metastases. The effect of comprehensive treatments are still sad. The paper make a review of research progress in pathologic physiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis methods and treatments of lung cancer with leptomeningeal metastases.

  5. [Progress of research on microRNAs of parasites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing-Xin; Zhou, Yong-Hua; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Zhong-Xi; Fan, Hong-Jie; Yao, Huo-Chun

    2013-04-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are small molecules of non-coding RNA, a class size of about 21-25 nt widespread in eukaryotes, resulting from single-stranded RNA precursors with the size of 70-90 bases of a hairpin structure generated after dicer enzyme processing. They play an important role in eukaryotic gene regulation, widely involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, development, metabolism, apoptosis and other physiological activities. miRNA extensively involved in the physiological and metabolic processes of the parasite development process, but the key miRNA relevant to parasite invasion of a host still lacks reports. This paper summarizes the miRNA analytical methods and the progress on its researches in parasitology.

  6. Research progress of new technologies in stroke rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin MENG

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Survivors of stroke commonly experience a different range of dysfunction, and recovery can be slow and incomplete, which lead to a serious and long-term impact on patients themselves and their families. Although the treatment of stroke patients relies mainly on rehabilitation intervention, but the rehabilitation needs of discharged patients are not fully met due to lots of restrictions, such as the lack of professional rehabilitation services, the difficulty and inconvenience in transportation from home to hospital, therefore their prognosis of rehabilitation are affected. At present a number of new rehabilitation technologies, including telerehabilitation (TR, virtual reality (VR, robotics, electronic textiles (E-textiles, etc., are coming into being and may solve these problems. This article tries to discuss the research progress of these new rehabilitation technologies, and provide a new perspective for the rehabilitation intervention of stroke patients. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.03.003

  7. Recent Progress in Atmospheric Observation Research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Recent progress in atmospheric observation techniques,observational systems and their application in China are reviewed.According to different observational platforms,the review is presented in three sections,i.e.,satellite remote sensing(SRS),ground-based observation technologies and applications,and aircraft/balloon measurements.The section"satellite remote sensing"presents advances in SRS techniques,SRS of clouds and aerosols,and SRS of trace gases and temperature/moisture profiles.The section"groundbased observation technologies and applications"focuses on research such as lidar systems and applications,sun/sky radiometer and broadband radiation observations,weather radar and wind profilers,GPS measurements,and some new concept systems.The section"aircraft/balloon measurements"presents some newly developed aircraft-and balloon-based sounding techniques.

  8. [Research Progress on Artemisinin Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-long; Pan, Wei-qing

    2015-12-01

    Artemisinin (ART) is a novel and effective antimalarial drug discovered in China. As recommended by the World Health Organization, the ART-based combination therapies (ACTs) have become the first-line drugs for the treatment of falciparum malaria. ART and its derivatives have contributed greatly to the effective control of malaria globally, leading to yearly decrease of malaria morbidity and mortality. However, there have recently been several reports on the resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to ART in Southeast Asia. This is deemed a serious threat to the global malaria control programs. In this paper, we reviewed recent research progress on ART resistance to P. falciparum, including new tools for resistance measurement, resistance-associated molecular markers, and the origin and spread of the ART-resistant parasite strains.

  9. Play in the Sandpit: A University and a Child-Care Center Collaborate in Facilitated-Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Olga; French-Lee, Stacey; Bulunuz, Nermin; Bulunuz, Mizrap

    2010-01-01

    Sand play commonly occupies children at preschools, child-development centers, and school and park playgrounds. The authors review the research on sand play and present a small study on outdoor sand play conducted at a university-based, child-development center using a method they call "facilitated-action research." This study had four…

  10. Specialist nurses' perceptions of inviting patients to participate in clinical research studies: a qualitative descriptive study of barriers and facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Caroline; Stavropoulou, Charitini

    2016-08-11

    Increasing the number of patients participating in research studies is a current priority in the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom. The role of specialist nurses in inviting patients to participate is important, yet little is known about their experiences of doing so. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of barriers and facilitators held by specialist nurses with experience of inviting adult NHS patients to a wide variety of research studies. A cross-sectional qualitative descriptive study was conducted between March and July 2015. Participants were 12 specialist nurses representing 7 different clinical specialties and 7 different NHS Trusts. We collected data using individual semi-structured interviews, and analysed transcripts using the Framework method to inductively gain a descriptive overview of barriers and facilitators. Barriers and facilitators were complex and interdependent. Perceptions varied among individuals, however barriers and facilitators centred on five main themes: i) assessing patient suitability, ii) teamwork, iii) valuing research, iv) the invitation process and v) understanding the study. Facilitators to inviting patients to participate in research often stemmed from specialist nurses' attitudes, skills and experience. Positive research cultures, effective teamwork and strong relationships between research and clinical teams at the local clinical team level were similarly important. Barriers were reported when specialist nurses felt they were providing patients with insufficient information during the invitation process, and when specialist nurses felt they did not understand studies to their satisfaction. Our study offers several new insights regarding the role of specialist nurses in recruiting patients for research. It shows that strong local research culture and teamwork overcome some wider organisational and workload barriers reported in previous studies. In addition, and in contrast to common practice

  11. Progress of Interoperability in Planetary Research for Geospatial Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, T. M.; Gaddis, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    For nearly a decade there has been a push in the planetary science community to support interoperable methods of accessing and working with geospatial data. Common geospatial data products for planetary research include image mosaics, digital elevation or terrain models, geologic maps, geographic location databases (i.e., craters, volcanoes) or any data that can be tied to the surface of a planetary body (including moons, comets or asteroids). Several U.S. and international cartographic research institutions have converged on mapping standards that embrace standardized image formats that retain geographic information (e.g., GeoTiff, GeoJpeg2000), digital geologic mapping conventions, planetary extensions for symbols that comply with U.S. Federal Geographic Data Committee cartographic and geospatial metadata standards, and notably on-line mapping services as defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The latter includes defined standards such as the OGC Web Mapping Services (simple image maps), Web Feature Services (feature streaming), Web Coverage Services (rich scientific data streaming), and Catalog Services for the Web (data searching and discoverability). While these standards were developed for application to Earth-based data, they have been modified to support the planetary domain. The motivation to support common, interoperable data format and delivery standards is not only to improve access for higher-level products but also to address the increasingly distributed nature of the rapidly growing volumes of data. The strength of using an OGC approach is that it provides consistent access to data that are distributed across many facilities. While data-steaming standards are well-supported by both the more sophisticated tools used in Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing industries, they are also supported by many light-weight browsers which facilitates large and small focused science applications and public use. Here we provide an

  12. Research on treatment and disposal of RI and Research Institute Waste. Progress in Department of Fuel Cycle Safety Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Department of Fuel Cycle Safety Research, JAERI, has been carrying out research on safe and rational disposal systems of radioactive wastes arising from medical activities and research institutes (RI and Research Institute Waste). The research area includes a study on molten solidified waste form, a geological survey on Japan, a proposal on integrated disposal systems, data acquisition for safety evaluation, and a safety analysis of disposal systems. This report introduces progress and future works for the treatment and disposal of RI and Research Institute Waste. (author)

  13. Research Progress on Ni-Based Antiperovskite Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The superconductivity in antiperovskite compound MgCNi3 was discovered in 2001 following the discovery of the superconducting MgB2. In spite of its lower superconducting transition temperature (8 K than MgB2 (39 K, MgCNi3 has attracted considerable attention due to its high content of magnetic element Ni and the cubic structure analogous to the perovskite cuprates. After years of extensive investigations both theoretically and experimentally, however, it is still not clear whether the mechanism for superconductivity is conventional or not. The central issue is if and how the ferromagnetic spin fluctuations contribute to the cooper paring. Recently, the experimental results on the single crystals firstly reported in 2007 trend to indicate a conventional s-wave mechanism. Meanwhile many compounds neighboring to MgCNi3 were synthesized and the physical properties were investigated, which enriches the physics of the Ni-based antiperovskite compounds and help understand the superconductivity in MgCNi3. In this paper, we summarize the research progress in these two aspects. Moreover, a universal phase diagram of these compounds is presented, which suggests a phonon-mediated mechanism for the superconductivity, as well as a clue for searching new superconductors with the antiperovskite structure. Finally, a few possible scopes for future research are proposed.

  14. [Research progress in relative crystallin genes of congenital cataract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D D; Yang, H J; Yi, J L

    2016-02-01

    Congenital cataract is the common cause of visual disability in children. Nearly one third of congenital cataract cases may have a related genetic mutation. With the development of molecular genetics, especially gentechnik, more and more genes, such as crystallin genes, membrane protein genes, eytoskeletal protein genes and regulatory protein genes have been confirmed to participate in the process of congenital cataract. Furthermore, crystallin genes account for most of these genes and the crystallin has the highest amount of the whole protein in lens.It has been found that nearly one hundred mutations in crystallin genes are associated with the onset of congenital cataract. Researchers are exploring how these mutations further affect the function of cellular biology and eventually lead to cataract. Although more and more research results gradually reveal the pathogenesis of congenital cataract from the level of gene and protein, the specific pathogenesis is still unclear. The recent progression about inherited congenital cataract related with crysallin genes is summarized in this review.

  15. Research progress in nonlinear analysis of heart electric activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinear science research is a hot point in the world. It has deepened our cognition of determinism and randomicity, simplicity and complexity, noise and order and it will profoundly influence the progress of the study of natural science, including life science.Life is the most complex nonlinear system and heart is the core of lifecycle system. In the late more than 20 years, nonlinear research on heart electric activities has made much headway. The commonly used parameters are based on chaos and fractal theory, such as correlation dimension, Lyapunov exponent, Kolmogorov entropy and multifractal singularity spectrum. This paper summarizes the commonly used methods in the nonlinear study of heart electric signal. Then, considering the shortages of the above traditional nonlinear parameters, we mainly introduce the results on short-term heart rate variability (HRV) signal (500 R-R intervals) and HFECG signal (1-2s). Finally, we point out it is worthwhile to put emphasis on the study of the sensitive nonlinearity parameters of short-term heart electric signal and their dynamic character and clinical effectivity.

  16. Progress in Research on Diurnal and Semidiurnal Earth Rotation Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xueqing

    2015-08-01

    We mainly focus on the progress of research on high frequency changes in the earth rotation. Firstly, we review the development course and main motivating factors of the diurnal and semidiurnal earth rotation change. In recent decades, earth orientation has been monitored with increasing accuracy by advanced space-geodetic techniques, including lunar and satellite laser ranging, very long baseline interferometry and the global positioning system. We are able to obtain the Earth Rotation Parameters (ERP, polar motion and rotation rate changes) by even 1 to 2 hours observation data, form which obvious diurnal and semidiurnal signals can be detected, and compare them with the predicted results by the ocean model. Both the amplitude and phase are in good agreement in the main diurnal and semidiurnal wave frequency, especially for the UT1, whose compliance is 90%, and 60% for polar motion, there are 30% motivating factor of the diurnal and semidiurnal polar motion have not been identified. Then we comprehensively review the different types of global ocean tidal correction models since the last eighties century, as well as the application research on diurnal and semidiurnal polar motion and UT1, the current ocean tidal correction models have 10% to 20% uncertainty, and need for further refinement.

  17. [Research progress on plant diversity conservation in sand dune areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-min; Ma, Jun-ling

    2008-01-01

    The landscape in sand dune areas is characterized by the alternate distribution of sand dune and interdune lowland, and the unique floras in these areas are some endemic or rare plant species. In recent years, the decrease in plant species richness and the disappearance of some endemic or rare plant species in these areas have been received special attention, which were listed in the Program of International Biodiversity Conservation, and studied in many countries and districts. In this paper, the research progress in these fields was summarized from the aspects of significance of plant diversity conservation, formation mechanisms of plant diversity, ways of plant diversity conservation, roles of plant diversity research in the development of ecological theories, and important issues in operating plant diversity conservation project. To conserve plant diversity in sand dune areas, attentions should be paid to the differences in conservation goals (to maintain high species richness or to conserve endemic or rare species) among different regions, and the balances between the stabilization of active sand and the conservation of endemic or rare species, and the maintenance of high species richness and the conservation of endemic or rare species. It needed also to consider the sand dune and the interdune lowland as a unified landscape unit to explore the impacts of disturbances and habitat fragment on plant diversity.

  18. Use of Social Media in Facilitating Health Care Research Among Nursing and Allied Health Undergraduates in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S N

    2016-01-01

    A mentoring program was designed to promote conduction, completion and dissemination of undergraduate research among Nursing and Allied Health students in Sri Lanka. Several social media platforms were used; mainly the Facebook, YouTube and Google Hangouts. Knowledge sharing, interaction and collaboration were promoted. Student motivation was also done. Research presentation skills and applying for conferences was also facilitated. Over 90% of the participated 262 students completed a research project and close to 50% presented them both locally and internationally.

  19. Proposed Special Issue: Progress of cancer research in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Jong

    2016-10-01

    % growth in the same period, with two consecutive years of decline between 2012 and 2014. This steady upward trend of publication output from developing countries shows that researchers are becoming increasingly aware of the values of evidence-based research, without which would limit funding opportunities and restrict international collaborations, as well as partnerships.Advances in Modern Oncology Research is an Open Access journal aimed at increasing the accessibility of peer-reviewed information among researchers worldwide. The journal emphasizes on equal opportunity in scientific publishing, and is committed towards bridging the existing knowledge gap in cancer research between developed and developing countries. AMOR is keen to highlight the current challenges and opportunities of cancer research in developing countries, and the creation of a special issue dedicated to this subject is especially relevant and urgent to the broad community of cancer researchers because:(i It provides a much-needed platform to clinicians and researchers from developing countries to share important region-specific data, statistics, observations, and findings with the international community. This will not only improve the visibility of researchers from developing countries, but also enrich existing medical literature with updated information on the progress of cancer research in the developing world.(ii It gives clinicians, researchers, and policy makers from developed nations the opportunity to assess the existing and projected capability of developing countries in coping with the disease burden of cancer. Moreover, it is expected to equip stakeholders with key data and information to better manage vital resources, i.e. the allocation of funding and creation of knowledge transfer programs, moving forward.It takes collective efforts to address the escalating threat of cancer mortality and morbidity in the developing world. In order to introduce effective long-term solutions, it is

  20. Research in progress: Medical Research Council United Kingdom Refractory Asthma Stratification Programme (RASP-UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Liam G; Djukanovic, Ratko; Woodcock, Ashley; Walker, Samantha; Matthews, John G; Pavord, Ian D; Bradding, Peter; Niven, Robert; Brightling, Chris E; Chaudhuri, Rekha; Arron, Joseph R; Choy, David F; Cowan, Douglas; Mansur, Adel; Menzies-Gow, Andrew; Adcock, Ian; Chung, Kian F; Corrigan, Chris; Coyle, Peter; Harrison, Timothy; Johnston, Sebastian; Howarth, Peter; Lordan, James; Sabroe, Ian; Bigler, Jeannette; Smith, Dirk; Catley, Matthew; May, Richard; Pierre, Lisa; Stevenson, Chris; Crater, Glenn; Keane, Frank; Costello, Richard W; Hudson, Val; Supple, David; Hardman, Tim

    2016-02-01

    The UK Refractory Asthma Stratification Programme (RASP-UK) will explore novel biomarker stratification strategies in severe asthma to improve clinical management and accelerate development of new therapies. Prior asthma mechanistic studies have not stratified on inflammatory phenotype and the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms in asthma without Type 2 cytokine inflammation is limited. RASP-UK will objectively assess adherence to corticosteroids (CS) and examine a novel composite biomarker strategy to optimise CS dose; this will also address what proportion of patients with severe asthma have persistent symptoms without eosinophilic airways inflammation after progressive CS withdrawal. There will be interactive partnership with the pharmaceutical industry to facilitate access to stratified populations for novel therapeutic studies.

  1. History of Physics Education Research as a Model for Geoscience Education Research Community Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, T. F.

    2011-12-01

    Discipline-based Education Research (DBER) is a research field richly combining a deep understanding of how to teach a particular discipline with an evolving understanding how people learn that discipline. At its center, DBER has an overarching goal of improving the teaching and learning of a discipline by focusing on understanding the underlying mental mechanisms learners use as they develop expertise. Geoscience Education Research, or GER, is a young but rapidly advancing field which is poised to make important contributions to the teaching and learning of earth and space science. Nascent geoscience education researchers could accelerate their community's progress by learning some of the lessons from the more mature field of Physics Education Research, PER. For the past three decades, the PER community has been on the cutting edge of DBER. PER started purely as an effort among traditionally trained physicists to overcome students' tenaciously held misconceptions about force, motion, and electricity. Over the years, PER has wrestled with the extent to which they included the faculty from the College of Education, the value placed on interpretive and qualitative research methods, the most appropriate involvement of professional societies, the nature of its PhD programs in the College of Science, and how to best disseminate the results of PER to the wider physics teaching community. Decades later, as a more fully mature field, PER still struggles with some of these aspects, but has learned important lessons in how its community progresses and evolves to be successful, valuable, and pertinent.

  2. Progress report on neutron scattering research. April 1, 2001 - March 31, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katano, Susumu; Koizumi, Satoshi; Matsuda, Masaaki (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    This issue summarizes research progress in neutron scattering at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) by utilizing the research reactor JRR-3M during the period between April 1, 2001 and March 31, 2002. (author)

  3. Progress report on neutron scattering research (April 1, 1998 - March 31, 1999)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Fujiwara, Satoru; Aizawa, Kazuya [eds.] [Advanced Science Research Center (Tokai Site), Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    The present issue summarizes research progress in neutron scattering at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) by utilizing the research reactor (JRR-3M) during the period between April 1, 1998 and March 31, 1999. (author)

  4. Progress report on neutron scattering research. April 1, 1999 - March 31, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Satoru; Aizawa, Kazuya; Katano, Susumu (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    This issue summarizes research progress in neutron scattering at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) by utilizing the research reactor (JRR-3M) during the period between April 1, 1999 and March 31, 2000. (author)

  5. Progress report on neutron scattering research (April 1, 1998 - March 31, 1999)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Fujiwara, Satoru; Aizawa, Kazuya [eds.] [Advanced Science Research Center (Tokai Site), Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    The present issue summarizes research progress in neutron scattering at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) by utilizing the research reactor (JRR-3M) during the period between April 1, 1998 and March 31, 1999. (author)

  6. Research progress of large optics in the TMT MOBIE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shijie; Xu, Longbo; Zhou, You; Zhang, Weili; Lu, Qi; Gao, Wenlan; Wang, Jianguo; Wei, Zhaoyang; Xu, Xueke; He, Hongbo; Shao, Jianda

    2016-10-01

    The multi-object broadband imaging echellette (MOBIE) is the seeing-limited, visible-wavelength imaging multi-object spectrograph (MOS) planned for first-light use on the thirty meter telescope (TMT). The current MOBIE optical design provides two color channels, spanning the 310nm-550nm and 550nm-1000nm passbands. The involved large optics includes an atmospheric dispersion corrector (ADC) prism (1.4m in diameter), a collimator (1.7mx1.0m), a dichroic(680 mm x500 mm x 30 mm), a red folding mirror and two corrector lenses(570mm in diameter) for different channels. In the past two years, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics (SIOM) has been included in the preliminary study of folding mirror sub-system in MOBIE, especially the study on the large optics manufacture techniques. The research progress of these large optics will be reviewed in this paper. The influence of optical quality of the large optics on the MOBIE is analyzed in order to define the specifications of the large optics. The manufacture methods are designed for different large optics. In order to testify the effectiveness of the manufacture methods, some samples have been processed and the final performance including wavefront error and spectral properties are tested. Finally, the future work including remaining problems and possible solutions are introduced.

  7. Research progress of socio-economic water cycle in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    China has made great progress in the study of socio-economic water cycle. She has completed national water resources appraisement and medium to long-term water supply planning. She has been engaging in study on water-deficient regions in North China and Northwest China for about half a century. For solving water shortage problem in northern China, she has put forward the famous South-to-North Water Transferring Projects, which has been set as one of the four biggest national projects in the Tenth Five-Year-Plan period although there are still debates. For promoting water use efficiency, China has been reforming her water management system, including water right system and water price system. There has already been a case of water right purchase. China has also done a lot of research on the interaction between human activity, water and ecosystem. For meeting the need of sustainability and coordinating water resources development and environmental protection, the study of ecological water requirement became very hot in recent years. There are three focuses of socio-economic water cycle study now in China: water transfer projects from the south to the north, water resources management and ecological water requirement.

  8. Research progress in neuro-immune interactions in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-ling CAI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune response may be activated quickly once the organism is invaded by exotic pathogens. An excessive immune response may result in inflammation and tissue damage, whereas an insufficient immune response may result in infection. Nervous system may regulate the intensity of innate immune responses by releasing neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones. Compared with the complicated neuro-immune system in mammals, it is much simpler in Caenorhabditis elegans. Besides, C. elegans is accessible to genetic, molecular biology and behavioral analyses, so it has been used in studies on neuro-immune interactions. It has been revealed recently in the studies with C. elegans that the neuronal pathways regulating innate immune responses primarily include a transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β pathway, an insulin/insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF pathway and dopaminergic neurotransmission. Since these pathways are evolutionally conservative, so it might be able to provide some new ideas for the research on neuro-immune interactions at molecular levels. The recent progress in this field has been reviewed in present paper.

  9. Research progress of terahertz wave technology in food inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhanke; Ying, Yibin; Zhang, Hongjian; Yu, Haiyan

    2006-10-01

    Food safety and quality concern have become more and more significant in recent years. There is therefore an increasing focus on new technologies that can be applied to food quality evaluation or safety inspection, either to simplify or speed up the checking process, or to provide additional functionality. For example, the technique of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been used for the authentication of agricultural products and food samples. Terahertz (THz) radiation, or THz wave, is electromagnetic wave lies between mid-infrared and microwave radiation. During the past decade, THz waves have been used to characterize the electronic, vibrational and compositional properties of solid, liquid and gas phase materials. The main two applications in which THz fields involved are THz spectroscopy and THz imaging. Terahertz wave technology, as a new area of research, has shown its wide prospects in imaging, diagnosis, detection, and monitoring, etc. Recently, THz technology has gained a lot of attention from biological spectral analysis to bio-medical imaging due to its unique features compared with microwave and optical waves. In this paper, a brief review is given to summarize the progress of THz techqiues in the field of food inspection. The properties of THz wave, its uniqueness in sensing and imaging applications, and the prospect of this novel technology in food industry were discussed.

  10. Texas Experimental Tokamak, a plasma research facility: Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, A.J.

    1995-08-01

    In the year just past, the authors made major progress in understanding turbulence and transport in both core and edge. Development of the capability for turbulence measurements throughout the poloidal cross section and intelligent consideration of the observed asymmetries, played a critical role in this work. In their confinement studies, a limited plasma with strong, H-mode-like characteristics serendipitously appeared and received extensive study though a diverted H-mode remains elusive. In the plasma edge, they appear to be close to isolating a turbulence drive mechanism. These are major advances of benefit to the community at large, and they followed from incremental improvements in diagnostics, in the interpretation of the diagnostics, and in TEXT itself. Their general philosophy is that the understanding of plasma physics must be part of any intelligent fusion program, and that basic experimental research is the most important part of any such program. The work here demonstrates a continuing dedication to the problems of plasma transport which continue to plague the community and are an impediment to the design of future devices. They expect to show here that they approach this problem consistently, systematically, and effectively.

  11. Progress on Research of Contact Resistance of Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAI Lifeng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The high contact resistance of carbon nanotubes (CNTs with metal is one key factor that retards the application of CNTs in micro- and nano-electronics devices. This paper reviews recent research progress on the contact resistance of CNTs from two aspects, they are the formation and improvement of the CNT's contact resistance. Theoretical studies of the contact resistance of CNTs using the first principles and experimental investigations into the effect of metal work function on the interface barrier were introduced. Results show that the contact resistance is low when there is a weak hybrid effect and large contact length between the metal and CNTs, and the closer the work function of the metal to that of the CNTs, the lower the barrier height. The commonly used methods for improving the contact resistance of CNTs, including ultrasonic nanowelding, high temperature annealing, metal deposition, and local Joule heating were presented, and the improvement of device performance using these methods was analysed. Among these methods, local Joule heating is more ideal at present time since it is with the advantages of simple operation, high degree of automation, less device damage, and low cost.

  12. Research and Application Progress of Silicone Rubber Materials in Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Yanhua

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The research progress of heat resistance, cold resistance, electrical conductivity and damping properties of aviation silicone rubber were reviewed in this article. The heat resistance properties of silicone rubber can be enhanced by changing the molecular structure (main chain, end-group, side chain and molecular weight of the gum and adding special heat-resistance filler. The cold resistance of aviation silicone rubber can be enhanced by adjusting the side chain molecular structure of the gum and the content of different gum chain. The electrical conductivity of silicone rubber can be improved by optimizing, blending and dispersing of conductive particles. The damping property of silicone rubber can be improved by designing and synthesizing of high-molecular polysiloxane damping agent. Furthermore, the application of aviation silicone rubber used in high-low temperature seal, electrical conduction and vibration damping technology are also summarized, and the high performance (for example long-term high temperature resistance, ultralow temperature resistance, high electromagnetic shelding, long-term fatigue resistance vibration damping, quasi constant modulus and so on of special silicone rubber is the future direction of aviation silicone rubber.

  13. Stockpiling and Comprehensive Utilization of Red Mud Research Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Sheng Wu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available With increasing production of red mud, the environmental problems caused by it are increasingly serious, and thus the integrated treatment of red mud is imminent. This article provides an overview of the composition and the basic characteristics of red mud. The research progress of safe stockpiling and comprehensive utilization of red mud is summarized. The safe stockpiling of red mud can be divided into two aspects: the design and safe operation of the stocking yard. The comprehensive utilization of red mud can be further divided into three aspects: the effective recycling of components, resource utilization and application in the field of environmental protection. This paper points out that the main focus of previous studies on red mud stockpiling is cost reproduction and land tenure. The recovery of resources from red mud has a high value-added, but low level industrialization. The use of red mud as a building material and filler material is the most effective way to reduce the stockpiling of red mud. Red mud used for environmental remediation materials is a new hotspot and worth promoting for its simple processing and low cost.

  14. The Progress of Metabolomics Study in Traditional Chinese Medicine Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengcheng; Wang, Qiuhong; Yang, Bingyou; Zhao, Shan; Kuang, Haixue

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played important roles in health protection and disease treatment for thousands of years in China and has gained the gradual acceptance of the international community. However, many intricate issues, which cannot be explained by traditional methods, still remain, thus, new ideas and technologies are needed. As an emerging system biology technology, the holistic view adopted by metabolomics is similar to that of TCM, which allows us to investigate TCM with complicated conditions and multiple factors in depth. In this paper, we tried to give a timely and comprehensive update about the methodology progression of metabolomics, as well as its applications, in different fields of TCM studies including quality control, processing, safety and efficacy evaluation. The herbs investigated by metabolomics were selected for detailed examination, including Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, Atractylodes macrocephala Kidd, Pinellia ternate, etc.; furthermore, some valuable results have been obtained and summarized. In conclusion, although the study of metabolomics is at the early phase and requires further scrutiny and validation, it still provides bright prospects to dissect the synergistic action of multiple components from TCM. Overall, with the further development of analytical techniques, especially multi-analysis techniques, we expect that metabolomics will greatly promote TCM research and the establishment of international standards, which is beneficial to TCM modernization.

  15. Research progress in the treatment of small cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yan-fang; Liu, Zhi-gang; Yang, Wen-juan; Zhao, Yu; Tang, Jiao; Tang, Wei-zhi; Jin, Yi; Li, Fang; Zhong, Rui; Wang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for approximately 10-15% of all lung cancers. No significant improvement has been made for patients with SCLC in the past several decades. The main progresses were the thoracic radiation and prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) that improved the patient survival rate. For patients with limited disease and good performance status (PS), concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) followed by PCI should be considered. For extensive disease, the combination of etoposide and platinum-based chemotherapy remains the standard treatment and consolidative thoracic radiotherapy is beneficial for patients who have a significant respond to initial chemotherapy. However, the prognosis still remains poor. Recently, efforts have been focused on molecular targets and immunotherapy. But numerous molecular targets methods have failed to show a significant clinical benefit in patients with SCLC. It is anticipated that further development of research will depend on the on-going trials for molecular targeted therapy and immunotherapy which are promising and may improve the outcomes for SCLC in the next decade.

  16. Stockpiling and Comprehensive Utilization of Red Mud Research Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-Yan; Wu, Chuan-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    With increasing production of red mud, the environmental problems caused by it are increasingly serious, and thus the integrated treatment of red mud is imminent. This article provides an overview of the composition and the basic characteristics of red mud. The research progress of safe stockpiling and comprehensive utilization of red mud is summarized. The safe stockpiling of red mud can be divided into two aspects: the design and safe operation of the stocking yard. The comprehensive utilization of red mud can be further divided into three aspects: the effective recycling of components, resource utilization and application in the field of environmental protection. This paper points out that the main focus of previous studies on red mud stockpiling is cost reproduction and land tenure. The recovery of resources from red mud has a high value-added, but low level industrialization. The use of red mud as a building material and filler material is the most effective way to reduce the stockpiling of red mud. Red mud used for environmental remediation materials is a new hotspot and worth promoting for its simple processing and low cost.

  17. Research progress of triphenylamine dye sensitizers of solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifeng YU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC attracted widespread attention for its low cost, being easy to manufacture, large-scale production and environmentally friendly features. Sensitizer is a core component of the DSSC which plays a role in collecting sunlight and injecting excited state electron into the conduction band of the semiconductor, which is crucial to the photo-electric conversion efficiency. Organic dyes have a number of advantages such as easy synthesizing and tuning of photo-physical and electrochemical properties through molecular design. Triphenylamine is a strong electron donating group, and its non-planar spatial structure makes the degree of the dye molecules aggregation to be decreased. These properties are conducive to improve the absorption properties of the dye and the electron transport efficiency. In recent years, triphenylamine or substituted triphenylamine as electron donor of organic sensitizers becomes the research focus for improving the photoelectric conversion efficiency of solar cells. In this paper, the progress of triphenylamine photosensitive dyes is described.

  18. Current progress in epigenetic research for hepato-carcinomagenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the main type of primary liver cancer,and also one of the most malignant tumors.At present,the pathogenesis mechanisms of liver cancer are not entirely clear.It has been shown that inactivation of tumor suppressor genes and activation of oncogenes play a significant role in carcinogenesis,caused by the genetic and epigenetic aberrance.In the past,people generally thought that genetic mutation is a key event of tumor pathogenesis,and somatic mutation of tumor suppressor genes is in particular closely associated with oncogenesis.With deeper understanding of tumors in recent years,increasing evidence has shown that epigenetic silencing of those genes,as a result of aberrant hypermethylation of CpG islands in promoters and histone modification,is essential to carcinogenesis and metastasis.The term epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene expression caused by regulation mechanisms,other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence.Specific epigenetic processes include DNA methylation,genome imprinting,chromotin remodeling,histone modification and microRNA regulations.This paper reviews recent epigenetics research progress in the hepatocellular carcinoma study,and tries to depict the relationships between hepatocellular carcinomagenesis and DNA methylation as well as microRNA regulation.

  19. Current progress in epigenetic research for hepato-carcinomagenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jian

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the main type of primary liver cancer, and also one of the most malignant tumors. At present, the pathogenesis mechanisms of liver cancer are not entirely clear. It has been shown that inactivation of tumor suppressor genes and activation of oncogenes play a significant role in carcinogenesis, caused by the genetic and epigenetic aberrance. In the past, people generally thought that genetic mutation is a key event of tumor pathogenesis, and somatic mutation of tumor suppressor genes is in particular closely associated with oncogenesis. With deeper understanding of tumors in recent years, increasing evidence has shown that epigenetic silencing of those genes, as a result of aberrant hypermethylation of CpG islands in promoters and histone modification, is essential to carcinogenesis and metastasis. The term epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene expression caused by regulation mechanisms, other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence. Specific epi-genetic processes include DNA methylation, genome imprinting, chromotin remodeling, histone modi-fication and microRNA regulations. This paper reviews recent epigenetics research progress in the hepatocellular carcinoma study, and tries to depict the relationships between hepatocellular carci-nomagenesis and DNA methylation as well as microRNA regulation.

  20. [Research progress on free radicals in human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q B; Xu, F P; Wei, C X; Peng, J; Dong, X D

    2016-08-10

    Free radicals are the intermediates of metabolism, widely exist in the human bodies. Under normal circumstances, the free radicals play an important role in the metabolic process on human body, cell signal pathway, gene regulation, induction of cell proliferation and apoptosis, so as to maintain the normal growth and development of human body and to inhibit the growth of bacteria, virus and cancer. However, when organic lesion occurs affected by external factors or when equilibrium of the free radicals is tipped in the human body, the free radicals will respond integratedly with lipids, protein or nucleic acid which may jeopardize the health of human bodies. This paper summarizes the research progress of the free radicals conducted in recent years, in relations to the perspective of the types, origins, test methods of the free radicals and their relationship with human's health. In addition, the possible mechanisms of environmental pollutants (such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) mediating oxidative stress and free radicals scavenging in the body were also summarized.

  1. Monthly progress abstracts of general research, liquid waste disposal research and biological research for September 1949

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1949-11-28

    Brief descriptions of progress are given in the areas of chemistry, physics, instrumentation (calorimetry), process development (electrolysis and waste disposal), electronics (alpha counters, trigger circuits, flow counter, and sliding pulse generator), health division (distribution of polonium in tissues, fluids, and excreta), instrumentation, and process engineering.

  2. Progress and Prospect of Physics Research and Education in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynien Kwo, J.

    2010-03-01

    Started about two decades ago, the global trend of shifting industrial manufacture power from western developed countries toward developing countries in Asia has in turn become the impetus in building up physical science and research in these areas. A very good example is the remarkable progress of physical research and education in Taiwan, in terms of quantity and quality. The continuous elevation of Taiwan's high education into graduate level plus the government's strong commitment to research and development on a level of 2.62 % GDP have led to an impressive physics program with an annual budget ˜32 million USD from National Science Council in supporting 568 PIs. The investigation scope encompasses high energy and astrophysics, nano and condensed matter, and semiconductor, optoelectronic physics, etc. The former is vigorously conducted via international collaborative efforts of LHC, KEK, ALMA, Pan-STARRS, etc. The latter is driven by vital Taiwan high tech industry mostly semiconductor IC and optoelectronics flourished during this period. The early trend of outflows of BS physics majors to western world for advanced studies has reversed dramatically. Nearly 80% of the BS students continue their MS and PhD degrees in Taiwan, attracted by lucrative job markets of high tech industry. In addition, healthy inflow of high-quality science manpower of well trained PhDs and senior scholars returning to homeland has strengthened the competitiveness. Overall, the physics community in Taiwan is thriving. The annual Physical Society meeting is expanding at a rate of 6%, reaching ˜1800 attendants and 1200 papers, and dedicated to promotions of female physicists and students. The publication quantity of Taiwan in top journals of PRs and PRL is ranked among top 20^th for all fields of physics, and ranked the 6^th in APL. Clearly Taiwan has now emerged as a strong power in applied science, not limited by its population size. Concerted efforts on scientific exchanges are being

  3. Using Matching Grants to Facilitate Corporate-University Research Linkages: A Preliminary Examination of Outcomes from One Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Stephen

    1990-01-01

    A study used public finance theory to evaluate Ontario's matching grants in support of university-industry interaction, which encourage faculty to seek new research and development contracts facilitating technology transfer activities. Results suggest it may not be an effective mechanism. Conceptual and methodological obstacles to assessing these…

  4. Current research progress in grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys: A review article

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Yahia; Qiu, Dong [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Jiang, Bin; Pan, Fusheng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Zhang, Ming-Xing, E-mail: Mingxing.Zhang@uq.edu.au [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2015-01-15

    Grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, particularly in magnesium–aluminium (Mg–Al) based alloys, has been an active research topic in the past two decades, because it has been considered as one of the most effective approaches to simultaneously increase the strength, ductility and formability. The development of new grain refiners was normally based on the theories/models that were established through comprehensive and considerable studies of grain refinement in cast Al alloys. Generally, grain refinement in cast Al can be achieved through either inoculation treatment, which is a process of adding, or in situ forming, foreign particles to promote heterogeneous nucleation rate, or restricting grain growth by controlling the constitutional supercooling or both. But, the concrete and tangible grain refinement mechanism in cast metals is still not fully understood and there are a number of controversies. Therefore, most of the new developed grain refiners for Mg–Al based alloys are not as efficient as the commercially available ones, such as zirconium in non-Al containing Mg alloys. To facilitate the research in grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, this review starts with highlighting the theoretical aspects of grain refinement in cast metals, followed by reviewing the latest research progress in grain refinement of magnesium alloys in terms of the solute effect and potent nucleants.

  5. Research progress on the resource development of Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianan Zhang; Hongyu Guan; Wei Gao; Changli Liu; Rong Luo; Jia Li; Xiujuan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is a traditional Chinese medicine commonly used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.It contains two kinds of effective ingredients:fat-soluble diterpene quinones and water-soluble phenolic com-pounds.It shows significant effects including anti-bacterial,anti-inflammatory,anti-thrombotic,hepato-protective,and antiox-idant properties and protection against myocardial ischemia.However,extraction ofactive components from S.miltiorrhiza di-rectly is challenging due to low purity.Furthermore,the limited material resources of S.miltiorrhiza affect its utility in clinical medicine and the sustainable exploitation of natural drugs.In order to overcome this challenge,chemistry,molecular biology and other scientific technologies are being explored to improve the yield and quality of S.miltiorrhiza,with considerable pro-gress made to date.Firstly,a variety of tanshinone and salvianolic acid compounds have been synthesized successfully from S. miltiorrhiza,while compounds such as tanshinone IIA have been structure-modified to improve solubility and bioavailability. Secondly,biological technologies such as induction of polyploidy,cell-suspension culture,and the induction of hairy-roots have been developed.Hairy root of S.miltiorrhiza,which is most widely used at present,can be manufactured on a large scale and harvested using a spherical gas-lifted bioreactor.Additionally,due to good genetic and chemical stability of the hairy root,it can be used as a research model for further development of S.miltiorrhiza.Thirdly,a variety ofbiotic and abiotic elici-tors have been exploited for the study of effective components of S.miltiorrhiza,which have different effects on the plant.Ap-propriate combinations of these elicitors could further improve the yield of active components of S.miltiorrhiza.Finally,with the development of molecular biology,secondary metabolite engineering has become a new hotspot of medicinal plant re-search.S.miltiorrhiza is

  6. A Portfolio Analysis Tool for Measuring NASAs Aeronautics Research Progress toward Planned Strategic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Farhad; Pearce, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Description of a tool for portfolio analysis of NASA's Aeronautics research progress toward planned community strategic Outcomes is presented. The strategic planning process for determining the community Outcomes is also briefly described. Stakeholder buy-in, partnership performance, progress of supporting Technical Challenges, and enablement forecast are used as the criteria for evaluating progress toward Outcomes. A few illustrative examples are also presented.

  7. Specialist nurses’ perceptions of inviting patients to participate in clinical research studies: a qualitative descriptive study of barriers and facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline French

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing the number of patients participating in research studies is a current priority in the National Health Service (NHS in the United Kingdom. The role of specialist nurses in inviting patients to participate is important, yet little is known about their experiences of doing so. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of barriers and facilitators held by specialist nurses with experience of inviting adult NHS patients to a wide variety of research studies. Methods A cross-sectional qualitative descriptive study was conducted between March and July 2015. Participants were 12 specialist nurses representing 7 different clinical specialties and 7 different NHS Trusts. We collected data using individual semi-structured interviews, and analysed transcripts using the Framework method to inductively gain a descriptive overview of barriers and facilitators. Results Barriers and facilitators were complex and interdependent. Perceptions varied among individuals, however barriers and facilitators centred on five main themes: i assessing patient suitability, ii teamwork, iii valuing research, iv the invitation process and v understanding the study. Facilitators to inviting patients to participate in research often stemmed from specialist nurses’ attitudes, skills and experience. Positive research cultures, effective teamwork and strong relationships between research and clinical teams at the local clinical team level were similarly important. Barriers were reported when specialist nurses felt they were providing patients with insufficient information during the invitation process, and when specialist nurses felt they did not understand studies to their satisfaction. Conclusion Our study offers several new insights regarding the role of specialist nurses in recruiting patients for research. It shows that strong local research culture and teamwork overcome some wider organisational and workload barriers reported in

  8. TU-CD-304-11: Veritas 2.0: A Cloud-Based Tool to Facilitate Research and Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, P; Patankar, A; Etmektzoglou, A; Svatos, M [Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Lewis, J [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We introduce Veritas 2.0, a cloud-based, non-clinical research portal, to facilitate translation of radiotherapy research ideas to new delivery techniques. The ecosystem of research tools includes web apps for a research beam builder for TrueBeam Developer Mode, an image reader for compressed and uncompressed XIM files, and a trajectory log file based QA/beam delivery analyzer. Methods: The research beam builder can generate TrueBeam readable XML file either from scratch or from pre-existing DICOM-RT plans. DICOM-RT plan is first converted to XML format and then researcher can interactively modify or add control points to them. Delivered beam can be verified via reading generated images and analyzing trajectory log files. Image reader can read both uncompressed and HND-compressed XIM images. The trajectory log analyzer lets researchers plot expected vs. actual values and deviations among 30 mechanical axes. The analyzer gives an animated view of MLC patterns for the beam delivery. Veritas 2.0 is freely available and its advantages versus standalone software are i) No software installation or maintenance needed, ii) easy accessibility across all devices iii) seamless upgrades and iv) OS independence. Veritas is written using open-source tools like twitter bootstrap, jQuery, flask, and Python-based modules. Results: In the first experiment, an anonymized 7-beam DICOM-RT IMRT plan was converted to XML beam containing 1400 control points. kV and MV imaging points were inserted into this XML beam. In another experiment, a binary log file was analyzed to compare actual vs expected values and deviations among axes. Conclusions: Veritas 2.0 is a public cloud-based web app that hosts a pool of research tools for facilitating research from conceptualization to verification. It is aimed at providing a platform for facilitating research and collaboration. I am full time employee at Varian Medical systems, Palo Alto.

  9. Facilitators and barriers to doing workplace mental health research: Case study of acute psychological trauma in a public transit system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Paul S; Bender, Ash; Eynan, Rahel; O'Grady, John; Shah, Ravi

    2016-03-10

    The Acute Psychological Trauma (APT) Study was a collaboration between an acute care hospital, a specialized multidisciplinary program designed to meet the mental health needs of injured workers, and a large urban public transit system. The overall purpose was to evaluate a Best Practices Intervention (BPI) for employees affected by acute psychological trauma compared to a Treatment as Usual (TAU) group. The specific purpose is to discuss facilitators and barriers that were recognized in implementing and carrying out mental health research in a workplace setting. Over the course of the APT study, a joint implementation committee was responsible for day-to-day study operations and made regular observations on the facilitators and barriers that arose throughout the study. The facilitators to this study included the longstanding relationships among the partners, increased recognition for the need of mental health research in the workplace, and the existence of a community advisory committee. The significant barriers to doing this study of mental health research in the workplace included differences in organizational culture, inconsistent union support, co-interventions, and stigma. Researchers and funding agencies need to be flexible and provide additional resources in order to overcome the barriers that can exist doing workplace mental health research.

  10. Identifying Molecular Culprits of Cervical Cancer Progression | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA is found in 99.7% of invasive cervical carcinomas, providing strong evidence that the virus is a causative agent in the development of this disease. However, most women who become infected with HPV do not develop invasive cervical lesions, indicating that additional exogenous or genetic factors may determine whether HPV preclinical lesions will progress to cancer. Identification of these factors would be facilitated by a deeper understanding of the cellular and molecular changes that accompany progression to malignancy. In addition, knowledge of which women are at greatest risk for disease progression would be a significant clinical advancement in the management of patients with premalignant cervical lesions.

  11. Progress towards more uniform assessment and reporting of soil disturbance for operations, research, and sustainability protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael P. Curran; Richard E. Miller; Steven W. Howes; Douglas G. Maynard; Thomas A. Terry; Ronald L. Heninger; Thomas Niemann; Ken van Rees; Robert F. Powers; Stephen H. Schoenholtz

    2005-01-01

    International protocols, such as those of the Montreal Process (MP), specify desired outcomes without specifying the process and components required to attain those outcomes. We suggest that the process and its components are critical to achieve desired outcomes. We discuss recent progress in northwestern North America, on three topics that will facilitate development...

  12. Progress on research of materials science and biotechnology by ion beam application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishigaki, Isao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Research of materials science and biotechnology by ion beam application in Takasaki Establishment was reviewed. Especially, the recent progresses of research on semiconductors in space, creation of new functional materials and topics in biotechnology were reported. (author)

  13. Advanced Reactor Safety Research Division. Quarterly progress report, January 1-March 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, A.K.; Cerbone, R.J.; Sastre, C.

    1980-06-01

    The Advanced Reactor Safety Research Programs quarterly progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: HTGR Safety Evaluation, SSC Code Development, LMFBR Safety Experiments, and Fast Reactor Safety Code Validation.

  14. Advanced Reactor Safety Research Division. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Advanced Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Progress Report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: HTGR safety evaluation, SSC Code Development, LMFBR Safety Experiments, and Fast Reactor Safety Code Validation.

  15. Porphyromonas gingivalis Facilitates the Development and Progression of Destructive Arthritis through Its Unique Bacterial Peptidylarginine Deiminase (PAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresz, Katarzyna J.; Hellvard, Annelie; Sroka, Aneta; Adamowicz, Karina; Bielecka, Ewa; Koziel, Joanna; Gawron, Katarzyna; Mizgalska, Danuta; Marcinska, Katarzyna A.; Benedyk, Malgorzata; Pyrc, Krzysztof; Quirke, Anne-Marie; Jonsson, Roland; Alzabin, Saba; Venables, Patrick J.; Nguyen, Ky-Anh

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis are two prevalent chronic inflammatory diseases in humans and are associated with each other both clinically and epidemiologically. Recent findings suggest a causative link between periodontal infection and rheumatoid arthritis via bacteria-dependent induction of a pathogenic autoimmune response to citrullinated epitopes. Here we showed that infection with viable periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis strain W83 exacerbated collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in a mouse model, as manifested by earlier onset, accelerated progression and enhanced severity of the disease, including significantly increased bone and cartilage destruction. The ability of P. gingivalis to augment CIA was dependent on the expression of a unique P. gingivalis peptidylarginine deiminase (PPAD), which converts arginine residues in proteins to citrulline. Infection with wild type P. gingivalis was responsible for significantly increased levels of autoantibodies to collagen type II and citrullinated epitopes as a PPAD-null mutant did not elicit similar host response. High level of citrullinated proteins was also detected at the site of infection with wild-type P. gingivalis. Together, these results suggest bacterial PAD as the mechanistic link between P. gingivalis periodontal infection and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:24068934

  16. Porphyromonas gingivalis facilitates the development and progression of destructive arthritis through its unique bacterial peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna J Maresz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis are two prevalent chronic inflammatory diseases in humans and are associated with each other both clinically and epidemiologically. Recent findings suggest a causative link between periodontal infection and rheumatoid arthritis via bacteria-dependent induction of a pathogenic autoimmune response to citrullinated epitopes. Here we showed that infection with viable periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis strain W83 exacerbated collagen-induced arthritis (CIA in a mouse model, as manifested by earlier onset, accelerated progression and enhanced severity of the disease, including significantly increased bone and cartilage destruction. The ability of P. gingivalis to augment CIA was dependent on the expression of a unique P. gingivalis peptidylarginine deiminase (PPAD, which converts arginine residues in proteins to citrulline. Infection with wild type P. gingivalis was responsible for significantly increased levels of autoantibodies to collagen type II and citrullinated epitopes as a PPAD-null mutant did not elicit similar host response. High level of citrullinated proteins was also detected at the site of infection with wild-type P. gingivalis. Together, these results suggest bacterial PAD as the mechanistic link between P. gingivalis periodontal infection and rheumatoid arthritis.

  17. Beyond Constructivism: The Progressive Research Programme into Learning Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Keith S.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, it is suggested that while there are a variety of frames or perspectives that guide research into learning science, a pre-paradigmatic field need not be a "free-for-all". Lakatos suggested that academic research fields were characterised by research programmes (RP), which offered heuristic guidance to researchers, and which…

  18. Research progress in synthesis and catalysis of polyoxometalates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yun; HU Changwen; LIANG Hong

    2005-01-01

    Recent progress in the synthetic chemistry and catalysis of polyoxometalates (POMs) is reviewed. The novel POMs and their derivatives emerging in nearly three years (2002-2004) are introduced, including POMs with novel structure, POMs-organic hybrid compounds and host-guest complexes. Our review is focused on the elaboration of POMs' supramolecular chemistry.

  19. Research program in elementary-particle theory, 1983. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudarshan, E C.G.; Ne& #x27; eman, Y

    1983-08-01

    Progress is reviewed on the following topics: physics of ultra high energies and cosmology; phenomenology of particle physics; quantum field theory, supersymmetry and models of particles; and geometric formulations and algebraic models. Recent DOE reports resulting from the contract are listed. (WHK)

  20. Natural products chemistry research 2010's progress in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yang; Li, Xi-Qiang; Tang, Chun-Ping; Yao, Sheng

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the progresses made by Chinese scientists in the field of natural products chemistry in 2010. Selected compounds with unique structural features and/or promising bioactivities were described herein on the basis of structural types. Copyright © 2012 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Current status, research progress and future plan of Kartini research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardjono, Y.; Syarip; Tjiptono, T.W. [Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Center, Batan (Indonesia)

    1999-10-01

    The current status, research progress and future plan of the Kartini Research Reactor (KRR) is presented. The measurements of axial burn-up distributions for each fuel element by gamma scanning techniques, core axial power distribution display, fuel management for safeguards purpose as well as some research progress activities i.e.; utilization of beamport for: neutron radiography, application neutron activation analysis and history record of KRR power operations is also presented. The KRR is 100 kW pool water reactor type which uses natural circulation and provided by: five beamports in which one of them already coupled with natural uranium subcritical assembly, two thermalizing columns in which one of them is prepared for developing Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), two rabbit systems utilized for special analysis uranium ore by delayed neutron counting techniques, one center timbre and 40 irradiation rack (lazy susan) for neutron activation analysis. The KRR was constructed as a second research reactor in Indonesia with special purpose for training and education, high safety margin with involve in high negative temperature coefficient which achieved its first criticality on January 25, 1979. The maximum power level on first criticality is 50 kW and since August 1981 up to now is operating 100 kW. Base on the KRR design limit, it is planned to increase the power level up to 250 kW in the future plan. The preliminary activities such as Non Destructive Testing (NDT) for some reactor components especially water tank and thermal column should be done before decided to increase power level. (author)

  2. Further exploration of dissemination bias in qualitative research required to facilitate assessment within qualitative evidence syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Ingrid; Booth, Andrew; Berg, Rigmor C; Lewin, Simon; Glenton, Claire; Munthe-Kaas, Heather M; Noyes, Jane; Schroter, Sara; Meerpohl, Joerg J

    2017-08-01

    To conceptualise and discuss dissemination bias in qualitative research. It is likely that the mechanisms leading to dissemination bias in quantitative research, including time lag, language, gray literature, and truncation bias also contribute to dissemination bias in qualitative research. These conceptual considerations have informed the development of a research agenda. Further exploration of dissemination bias in qualitative research is needed, including the extent of non-dissemination and related dissemination bias, and how to assess dissemination bias within qualitative evidence syntheses. We also need to consider the mechanisms through which dissemination bias in qualitative research could occur to explore approaches for reducing it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Graduate Education to Facilitate Interdisciplinary Research Collaboration: Identifying Individual Competencies and Developmental Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Valerie Ciocca

    2013-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research collaborations (IDRC) are considered essential for addressing the most complex global community problems concerning science, health, education, energy, the environment, and society. In spite of technological advances, supportive funding, and even researcher proclivity to collaborate, these complex interdisciplinary…

  4. Graduate Education to Facilitate Interdisciplinary Research Collaboration: Identifying Individual Competencies and Developmental Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Valerie Ciocca

    2013-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research collaborations (IDRC) are considered essential for addressing the most complex global community problems concerning science, health, education, energy, the environment, and society. In spite of technological advances, supportive funding, and even researcher proclivity to collaborate, these complex interdisciplinary…

  5. Pfh1 Is an Accessory Replicative Helicase that Interacts with the Replisome to Facilitate Fork Progression and Preserve Genome Integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin R McDonald

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Replicative DNA helicases expose the two strands of the double helix to the replication apparatus, but accessory helicases are often needed to help forks move past naturally occurring hard-to-replicate sites, such as tightly bound proteins, RNA/DNA hybrids, and DNA secondary structures. Although the Schizosaccharomyces pombe 5'-to-3' DNA helicase Pfh1 is known to promote fork progression, its genomic targets, dynamics, and mechanisms of action are largely unknown. Here we address these questions by integrating genome-wide identification of Pfh1 binding sites, comprehensive analysis of the effects of Pfh1 depletion on replication and DNA damage, and proteomic analysis of Pfh1 interaction partners by immunoaffinity purification mass spectrometry. Of the 621 high confidence Pfh1-binding sites in wild type cells, about 40% were sites of fork slowing (as marked by high DNA polymerase occupancy and/or DNA damage (as marked by high levels of phosphorylated H2A. The replication and integrity of tRNA and 5S rRNA genes, highly transcribed RNA polymerase II genes, and nucleosome depleted regions were particularly Pfh1-dependent. The association of Pfh1 with genomic integrity at highly transcribed genes was S phase dependent, and thus unlikely to be an artifact of high transcription rates. Although Pfh1 affected replication and suppressed DNA damage at discrete sites throughout the genome, Pfh1 and the replicative DNA polymerase bound to similar extents to both Pfh1-dependent and independent sites, suggesting that Pfh1 is proximal to the replication machinery during S phase. Consistent with this interpretation, Pfh1 co-purified with many key replisome components, including the hexameric MCM helicase, replicative DNA polymerases, RPA, and the processivity clamp PCNA in an S phase dependent manner. Thus, we conclude that Pfh1 is an accessory DNA helicase that interacts with the replisome and promotes replication and suppresses DNA damage at hard

  6. Critical Perspectives on Clandestine Migration Facilitation: An Overview of Migrant Smuggling Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Sanchez

    2017-02-01

    The dichotomist script of smugglers as predators and migrants and asylum seekers as victims that dominates narratives of clandestine migration has often obscured the perspectives of those who rely on smugglers for their mobility. This has not only silenced migrants and asylum seekers’ efforts to reach safety, but also the collective knowledge their communities use to secure their mobility amid increased border militarization and migration controls. This paper provides an overview of contemporary, empirical scholarship on clandestine migration facilitation.  It then argues that the processes leading to clandestine or irregular migration are not merely the domain of criminal groups. Rather, they also involve a series of complex mechanisms of protection crafted within migrant and refugee communities as attempts to reduce the vulnerabilities known to be inherent to clandestine journeys. Both criminal and less nefarious efforts are shaped by and in response to enforcement measures worldwide on the part of nation-states to control migration flows. Devised within migrant and refugee communities, and mobilized formally and informally among their members, strategies to facilitate clandestine or irregular migration constitute a system of human security rooted in generations-long, historical notions of solidarity, tradition, reciprocity, and affect (Khosravi 2010. Yet amid concerns over national and border security, and the reemergence of nationalism, said strategies have become increasingly stigmatized, traveling clandestinely being perceived as an inherently — and uniquely — criminal activity.  This contribution constitutes an attempt to critically rethink the framework present in everyday narratives of irregular migration facilitation. It is a call to incorporate into current protection dialogues the perceptions of those who rely on criminalized migration mechanisms to fulfill mobility goals, and in so doing, articulate and inform solutions towards promoting

  7. Changing Libraries: Facilitating Self-Reflection and Action Research on Organizational Change in Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, Andrew; Torras I Calvo, Maria Carme; Moss, Bodil; Amlesom Kifle, Nazareth; Blåsternes, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Visualization and mapping techniques can build a dynamic picture of information practices, including action research, within libraries, raising awareness of how the information landscape at each library may both support and retard research into the library's information practices. These techniques have implications for researchers as they generate…

  8. Facilitating progress in health behaviour theory development and modification: the reasoned action approach as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Katharine J; Noar, Seth M

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the question: what are barriers to health behaviour theory development and modification, and what potential solutions can be proposed? Using the reasoned action approach (RAA) as a case study, four areas of theory development were examined: (1) the theoretical domain of a theory; (2) tension between generalisability and utility, (3) criteria for adding/removing variables in a theory, and (4) organisational tracking of theoretical developments and formal changes to theory. Based on a discussion of these four issues, recommendations for theory development are presented, including: (1) the theoretical domain for theories such as RAA should be clarified; (2) when there is tension between generalisability and utility, utility should be given preference given the applied nature of the health behaviour field; (3) variables should be formally removed/amended/added to a theory based on their performance across multiple studies and (4) organisations and researchers with a stake in particular health areas may be best suited for tracking the literature on behaviour-specific theories and making refinements to theory, based on a consensus approach. Overall, enhancing research in this area can provide important insights for more accurately understanding health behaviours and thus producing work that leads to more effective health behaviour change interventions.

  9. Quality management tools: facilitating clinical research data integrity by utilizing specialized reports with electronic case report forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocky, N M; Fontinha, M

    2005-01-01

    Data collected throughout the course of a clinical research trial must be reviewed for accuracy and completeness continually. The Oracle Clinical (OC) data management application utilized to capture clinical data facilitates data integrity through pre-programmed validations, edit and range checks, and discrepancy management modules. These functions were not enough. Coupled with the use of specially created reports in Oracle Discoverer and Integrated Review, both ad-hoc query and reporting tools, research staff have enhanced their ability to clean, analyze and report more accurate data captured within and among Case Report Forms (eCRFs) by individual study or across multiple studies.

  10. [Research progress on molecular genetics of male homosexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Dan; Xu, Ruiwei; Zhao, Guanglu; Wang, Binbin; Feng, Tiejian

    2016-08-01

    Sexual orientation is influenced by both environmental factors and biological factors. Family and twin studies have shown that genetic factors play an important role in the formation of male homosexuality. Genome-wide scan also revealed candidate chromosomal regions which may be associated with male homosexuality, but so far no clearly related genes have been found. This article reviews the progress of relevant studies and candidate genes which are related to male homosexuality.

  11. Research in Progress 1 July 1990 - 30 June 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-30

    Review of Progress in Quantitative Toughening of Ceria- Tetragonal - Zirconia -Alumina (Ce- TZP / Nondestructive Evaluation. Vol 9. 1990. p1 123. AD A228 AI...crystal Y205 stabilized cubic zirconia after change occurs. These observations are consistent implantation with 240 KeV Xe. These measurements with the...Ceria-Partially-Stabilized Zirconia University of Michigan iCe- TZP )-Alumina Composites, by Jing-Fong Tsai et al.. J SC: BWL. MTL Am Ceram Soc 73.2992

  12. Recent Progress in Arabidopsis Research in China: A Preface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hong Xu

    2006-01-01

    @@ In 2002, a workshop on Arabidopsis research in China was held in Shanghai, when a small group of Chinese plant scientists was working on this model species. Since then, we have witnessed the rapid growth of Arabidopsis research in China. This special issue of Journal of Integrative Plant Biology is dedicated exclusively to the Fourth Workshop on Arabidopsis Research in China, scheduled on November 30, 2005, in Beijing. In addition to reports collected in this special issue, the Chinese Arabidopsis community has been able to make significant contributions to many research fields. Here, I briefly summarize recent advances in Arabidopsis research in China.

  13. Research Progress of Tourism-oriented Poverty Alleviation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoqing; HUANG; Pengfei; XIE

    2013-01-01

    Through systematic summary of domestic research documents about China’s tourism-oriented poverty alleviation in recent 10 years,it is found that researches mainly focus on 5 aspects:effect of tourism-oriented poverty alleviation,model and development strategy,benefit of poverty stricken people,practice of tourism-oriented poverty alleviation in specific region,and other related problems.At present,academic circle mainly has weak points of research content,method,object and region in tourism-oriented poverty alleviation.Finally,it points out key research interests:(1)Strengthening combination of qualitative and quantitative researches;(2)Expanding research fields and scope and promoting in-depth researches;(3)Analyzing benefiting mechanism of poverty-stricken people participating in tourism development in depth with poverty-stricken people as research objects;(4)Increasing scale development of perception research on effect of tourism-oriented poverty alleviation and research on measurement testing,to make subsequent research have reliability and comparability.

  14. PS1-29: Resources to Facilitate Multi-site Collaboration: the PRIMER Research Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Sarah; Thompson, Ella; Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Neale, Anne Victoria; Dolor, Rowena

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims: The national research enterprise has typically functioned in a decentralized fashion, resulting in duplicative or undocumented processes, impeding not only the pace of research, but diffusion of established best practices. To remedy this, many long-standing networks have begun capturing and documenting proven strategies to streamline and standardize various aspects of the research process. The project, “Partnership-driven Resources to IMprove and Enhance Research” (PRIMER), was funded through the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) initiative to leverage the collective expertise from two networks: the HMO Research Network and Practice Based Research Networks (PBRNs). Each network has a shared goal of propagating research resources and best practices. Methods: We created and distributed an online survey to 92 CTSA and PBRN representatives in March, 2009 to define critical needs and existing resources that could inform a resource repository. The survey identified barriers and benefits to forming research partnerships, and assessed the perceived utility of various tools that could accelerate the research process. The study team identified, reviewed and organized tools based on the typical research trajectory from design to dissemination. Results: Fifty-five of 92 invitees (59%) completed the survey. Respondents rated the ability to conduct community-relevant research through true academic-community partnerships as the top-rated benefit of multi-site research, followed by the opportunity to accelerate translation of research into practice. The top two perceived barriers to multi-site research were ‘funding opportunities are not adequate (e.g., too few, not enough to support true collaborations), and ‘lack of research infrastructure to support [all] partners (e.g., no IT support, IRB, dedicated research staff). Respondents’ ratings of the utility of various tools and templates was used to guide development of an online

  15. Developing a Culture to Facilitate Research Capacity Building for Clinical Nurse Consultants in Generalist Paediatric Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Wilkes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a research capacity building exercise with a group of CNCs practicing in the speciality of paediatrics in New South Wales (NSW, Australia. It explores the first step in building a research culture, through identifying the research priorities of members of the NSW Child Health Networks Paediatric Clinical Nurse Consultant group, and this forms the major focus of this paper. A nominal group technique (NGT was utilised with sixteen members to identify research topics for investigation which were considered a priority for improving children's health care. The group reviewed and prioritised 43 research topics in children's health which were identified in the literature. As a result of conducting this research prioritisation exercise, the group chose two research topics to investigate: reasons for children representing to the Emergency Department and a comparison of the use of high-flow and low-flow nasal prongs in children with bronchiolitis. The research team will continue to mentor the nurses throughout their research projects which resulted from the NGT. One bridge to leadership development in enhancing patient care is translating knowledge to practice and policy development. This study leads the way for a group of CNCs in paediatric nursing to combine their research capacity and influence clinical knowledge.

  16. Recent progressions in stem cell research: breakthroughs achieved and challenges faced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Jowy; Umbas, Rainy

    2009-01-01

    Stem cell studies have been conducted to study characteristics of stem cells, to develop better techniques for patient-specific stem cell lines generation, and to explore the therapeutic potential of stem cells. Techniques that enable efficient generation of new stem cell lines would facilitate research and allow generation of patient-specific stem cell lines for transplantation therapy. Somatic-Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT), which involves injection of donor cell nucleus into enucleated ovum, is the standard technique for new embryonic stem (ES) cell lines generation; presently its efficiency is low. A newer technique, pluripotent stem cell induction, reprograms somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells by introducing certain factors into somatic cells. While certain adult stem cell treatments have been investigated on human participants, most ES cell or iPS cell treatments were still experimented on animal models. Recently, therapeutic potential of stem cell for several disorders was demonstrated. Researchers demonstrated stem cell's potential for treating hematologic disorders by correcting sickle cell anemia in rat model with iPS cells. Its potential role in treating cardiovascular disorder was demonstrated as injection of damaged rat heart with human ES cells derived cardiomyocyte plus "prosurvival" cocktail improved heart function. It might also treat nervous system disorders; injected into brain, ES cells derived neurons replace some loss cells in stroke rats and iPS cells derived neurons improved Parkinsonian syndrome in rats. Progress was also seen in other aspects of regenerative medicine. To overcome controversies caused by embryo destruction for obtaining ES cells, single blastomer stem cell derivation, Cdx2-inactivation, and parthenogenesis were proposed. All ES cell, iPS cell, and adult stem cell research should be continued with support from all sides.

  17. The Development of a Communication Tool to Facilitate the Cancer Trial Recruitment Process and Increase Research Literacy among Underrepresented Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Samantha; de la Riva, Erika E; Tom, Laura S; Clayman, Marla L; Taylor, Chirisse; Dong, Xinqi; Simon, Melissa A

    2015-12-01

    Despite increasing need to boost the recruitment of underrepresented populations into cancer trials and biobanking research, few tools exist for facilitating dialogue between researchers and potential research participants during the recruitment process. In this paper, we describe the initial processes of a user-centered design cycle to develop a standardized research communication tool prototype for enhancing research literacy among individuals from underrepresented populations considering enrollment in cancer research and biobanking studies. We present qualitative feedback and recommendations on the prototype's design and content from potential end users: five clinical trial recruiters and ten potential research participants recruited from an academic medical center. Participants were given the prototype (a set of laminated cards) and were asked to provide feedback about the tool's content, design elements, and word choices during semi-structured, in-person interviews. Results suggest that the prototype was well received by recruiters and patients alike. They favored the simplicity, lay language, and layout of the cards. They also noted areas for improvement, leading to card refinements that included the following: addressing additional topic areas, clarifying research processes, increasing the number of diverse images, and using alternative word choices. Our process for refining user interfaces and iterating content in early phases of design may inform future efforts to develop tools for use in clinical research or biobanking studies to increase research literacy.

  18. Research, Development, and Validation of a School Leader's Resource Guide for the Facilitation of Social Media Use by School Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Deanna L.

    2012-01-01

    Many school leaders do not understand their rights and responsibilities to facilitate social media use by their staff in P-12 education. This dissertation was designed to research, develop, and validate a resource guide school leaders can use to facilitate social media use by school staff. "Research, Development, and Validation of a School…

  19. Vhub: a knowledge management system to facilitate online collaborative volcano modeling and research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palma, Jose L; Courtland, Leah; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Tortini, Riccardo; Valentine, Greg A

    2014-01-01

    ... ) is a community cyberinfrastructure platform designed for collaboration in volcanology research, education, outreach, and discovery that complements existing volcano databases and other cyberinfrastructure projects...

  20. Progress in the toxicological researches for quantum dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have received more and more attention as a novel example of nanomaterials. Due to their unique fluorescent characteristics,quantum dots have been successfully applied in biotech-nology and medicine applications. Recently,the toxicity and the potential environmental effects of QDs have become a research hotspot. In this paper,toxicological effects of QDs are reviewed,and the prospects and research directions are given based on the analysis of this research field.

  1. Progress in the toxicological researches for quantum dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI HongCheng; ZHOU QunFang; LIU Wei; YAN Bing; ZHAO Yibing; JIANG GuiBin

    2008-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have Received more and more attention as a novel example of nanomaterials. Due to their unique fluorescent characteristics, quantum dots have been successfully applied in biotech-nology and medicine applications. Recently, the toxicity and the potential environmental effects of QDs have become a research hotspot. In this paper, toxicological effects of QDs are reviewed, and the prospects and research directions are given based on the analysis of this research field.

  2. Facilitating cooperation in interprofessional education using a study activity model- An action research project’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Winther; Hatt, Camusa

    2016-01-01

    conducted a baseline investigation in 2015, exploring 538 students´ and participating lecturers´ evaluation of the current use of the model in interprofessional courses. This baseline and previous evaluations show that there are continuous challenges, concerning both the collaboration between the course...... lecturers and student satisfaction and participation. Objectives Develop collaborative and didactical knowledge and generate deeper insight into facilitation of interprofessional education (IPE) and interprofessional collaborative practice (IPC). Investigate the current use of the study activity model...... for students and lecturers due to quality and design of the courses. Biographical information Camusa Hatt (caha@phmetropol.dk) M.A., Associate Professor, Metropolitan University College. Having years of experience developing, implementing and evaluating interprofessional education and knowing challenges...

  3. Accelerating regulatory progress in multi-institutional research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Andrea R; Lauf, Sherry Lee; Pieper, Lisa E; Rowe, Jared; Vargas, Ileana M; Goff, Melissa A; Daley, Matthew F; Tuzzio, Leah; Steiner, John F

    2014-01-01

    Multi-institutional collaborations are necessary in order to create large and robust data sets that are needed to answer important comparative effectiveness research (CER) questions. Before scientific work can begin, a complex maze of administrative and regulatory requirements must be efficiently navigated to avoid project delays. Staff from research, regulatory, and administrative teams involved in three HMO Research Network (HMORN) multi-institutional collaborations developed and employed novel approaches: to secure and maintain Institutional Review Board (IRB) approvals; to enable data sharing, and to expedite subawards for two data-only minimal risk studies. These novel approaches accelerated required processes and approvals while maintaining regulatory, human subjects, and institutional protections. Outcomes from the processes described here are compared with processes outlined in the research and regulatory literature and with processes that have been used in previous multisite research collaborations. Research, regulatory, and administrative staff are essential contributors to the success of multi-institutional collaborations. Their flexibility, creativity, and effective communication skills can lead to the development of efficient approaches to achieving the necessary oversight for these complex projects. Elements of these specific strategies can be adapted and used by other research networks. Other efforts in these areas should be evaluated and shared. The processes that help develop a "learning research system" play an important and complementary role in sustaining multi-institutional research collaborations.

  4. Recent progress in translational research on neurovascular and neurodegenerative disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Farr, Tracy D

    2017-01-01

    translational research on stroke and dementia, thereby spurring the entire field of translational neuroscience. Moreover, they may also pave the way for the renaissance of classical neuroprotective paradigms.This review reports and summarizes some of the most interesting and promising recent achievements...... in neurovascular and dementia research. It highlights sessions from the 9th International Symposium on Neuroprotection and Neurorepair that have been discussed from April 19th to 22nd in Leipzig, Germany. To acknowledge the emerging culture of interdisciplinary collaboration and research, special emphasis is given...... on translational stories ranging from fundamental research on neurode- and -regeneration to late stage translational or early stage clinical investigations....

  5. Optics and Plasma Research Department. Annual progress report for 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindslev, H.; Lynov, J.P.; Pedersen, C.; Petersen, P.M.; Skaarup, B. (eds.)

    2005-03-01

    The Optics and Plasma Research Department performs basic and applied research within three scientific programmes: (1) laser systems and optical materials, (2) optical diagnostics and information processing and (3) plasma physics and technology. The department has core competencies in optical sensors, optical materials, biophotonics, fusion plasma physics, and industrial plasma technology. The department employs key technologies in micro- and nanotechnology for optical systems, temperature calibration, and infrared measurement techniques. The research is supported by several EU programmes, including EURATOM, by Danish research councils and by industry. A summary of the activities in 2004 is presented. (au)

  6. A checklist to facilitate objective hypothesis testing in social psychology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Anthony N; Morgan, G Scott; Skitka, Linda J

    2015-01-01

    Social psychology is not a very politically diverse area of inquiry, something that could negatively affect the objectivity of social psychological theory and research, as Duarte et al. argue in the target article. This commentary offers a number of checks to help researchers uncover possible biases and identify when they are engaging in hypothesis confirmation and advocacy instead of hypothesis testing.

  7. Highly Adaptable but Not Invulnerable: Necessary and Facilitating Conditions for Research in Evolutionary Developmental Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laudel, Grit; Benninghoff, Martin; Lettkemann, Eric; Håkansson, Elias; Whitley, Richard; Gläser, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary developmental biology is a highly variable scientific innovation because researchers can adapt their involvement in the innovation to the opportunities provided by their environment. On the basis of comparative case studies in four countries, we link epistemic properties of research tas

  8. Unique Power Electronics and Drives Experimental Bench (PEDEB) to Facilitate Learning and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, S.; Farswan, R. S.; Fernandes, B. G.

    2012-01-01

    Experimentation is important for learning and research in the field of power electronics and drives. However, a great deal of equipment is required to study the various topologies, controllers, and functionalities. Thus, the cost of establishing good laboratories and research centers is high. To address this problem, the authors have developed a…

  9. Facilitating the participation of people with aphasia in research : a description of strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalemans, R.; Wade, D.T.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.; de Witte, L.P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: People with aphasia are often excluded from research because of their communication impairments, especially when an investigation into the communication impairment is not the primary goal. In our research concerning social participation of people with aphasia, we wanted to include people

  10. How Research and Development on Educational Roles and Institutional Structures Can Facilitate Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Paul

    1973-01-01

    The objectives of this article, which emanate from a concern for returns on educational research and development investment, are to review and comment on types of research and development efforts to improve educational R&D communication and to indicate roughly the state-of-the-art and some needed developments. (Author/RK)

  11. Negotiating Tensions in Researching, Facilitating, and Critiquing Gender: Exploring Institutional and Feminist Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lane

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores our experiences with negotiating tensions when conducting research. As three female researchers in various stages of our academic careers, we describe our own reflexive accounts of the research process as we negotiated our roles and responsibilities in relation to academic institutions and feminism. We discuss the literature related to responsibilities of academics, the tensions associated with conducting research, and the feminist methodologies addressing gendered issues in the current study. We contextualize the research project by outlining our positionalities and the methodology for our reflexive process. We then discuss our experiences of negotiating ourselves within an academic institution and within feminism. We conclude by discussing the importance of creating a feminist space through collaboration within academic institutions. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1203100

  12. Government databases and public health research: facilitating access in the public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Carolyn; Allen, Judy

    2014-06-01

    Access to datasets of personal health information held by government agencies is essential to support public health research and to promote evidence-based public health policy development. Privacy legislation in Australia allows the use and disclosure of such information for public health research. However, access is not always forthcoming in a timely manner and the decision-making process undertaken by government data custodians is not always transparent. Given the public benefit in research using these health information datasets, this article suggests that it is time to recognise a right of access for approved research and that the decisions, and decision-making processes, of government data custodians should be subject to increased scrutiny. The article concludes that researchers should have an avenue of external review where access to information has been denied or unduly delayed.

  13. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, January 1--June 30, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, J W; Boccio, J L; Diamond, D; Fitzpatrick, R; Ginsberg, T; Greene, G A; Guppy, J G; Hall, R E; Higgins, J C; Weiss, A J [comp.

    1988-12-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through December 31, 1987.

  14. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, October 1--December 31, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, A J; Azarm, A; Baum, J W; Boccio, J L; Carew, J; Diamond, D J; Fitzpatrick, R; Ginsberg, T; Greene, G A; Guppy, J G; Haber, S B

    1989-07-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through September 30, 1988.

  15. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, January 1--March 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, A.J. (comp.)

    1989-08-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through December 31, 1988.

  16. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, October 1--December 31, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, A J; Azarm, A; Baum, J W; Boccio, J L; Carew, J; Diamond, D J; Fitzpatrick, R; Ginsberg, T; Greene, G A; Guppy, J G; Haber, S B

    1989-07-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through September 30, 1988.

  17. Advancing user experience research to facilitate and enable patient-centered research: current state and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Philip R O

    2013-01-01

    Human-computer interaction and related areas of user experience (UX) research, such as human factors, workflow evaluation, and data visualization, are thus essential to presenting data in ways that can further the analysis of complex data sets such as those used in patient-centered research. However, a review of available data on the state of UX research as it relates to patient-centered research demonstrates a significant underinvestment and consequently a large gap in knowledge generation. In response, this report explores trends in funding and research productivity focused on UX and patient-centered research and then presents a set of recommendations to advance innovation at this important intersection point. Ultimately, the aim is to catalyze a community-wide dialogue concerning future directions for research and innovation in UX as it applies to patient-centered research.

  18. [Research progress on the phenotype informative SNP in forensic science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Xuan; Hu, Qing-Qing; Ma, Hong-Du; Huang, Dai-Xin

    2014-10-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) refers to the single base sequence variation in specific location of the human genome. Phenotype informative SNP has gradually become one of the research hot spots in forensic science. In this paper, the forensic research situation and application prospect of phenotype informative SNP in the characteristics of hair, eye and skin color, height, and facial feature are reviewed.

  19. Practice and Progression in Second Language Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Since its inception, the field of second language research has utilized methods from a number of areas, including general linguistics, psychology, education, sociology, anthropology and, recently, neuroscience and corpus linguistics. As the questions and objectives expand, researchers are increasingly pushing methodological boundaries to gain a…

  20. Laboratory directed research and development. FY 1995 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, J.; Prono, J. [comps.

    1996-03-01

    This document presents an overview of Laboratory Directed Research and Development Programs at Los Alamos. The nine technical disciplines in which research is described include materials, engineering and base technologies, plasma, fluids, and particle beams, chemistry, mathematics and computational science, atmic and molecular physics, geoscience, space science, and astrophysics, nuclear and particle physics, and biosciences. Brief descriptions are provided in the above programs.

  1. Practice and Progression in Second Language Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Since its inception, the field of second language research has utilized methods from a number of areas, including general linguistics, psychology, education, sociology, anthropology and, recently, neuroscience and corpus linguistics. As the questions and objectives expand, researchers are increasingly pushing methodological boundaries to gain a…

  2. UCLA Particle Physics Research Group annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nefkens, B.M.K.

    1983-11-01

    The objectives, basic research programs, recent results, and continuing activities of the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group are presented. The objectives of the research are to discover, to formulate, and to elucidate the physics laws that govern the elementary constituents of matter and to determine basic properties of particles. The research carried out by the Group last year may be divided into three separate programs: (1) baryon spectroscopy, (2) investigations of charge symmetry and isospin invariance, and (3) tests of time reversal invariance. The main body of this report is the account of the techniques used in our investigations, the results obtained, and the plans for continuing and new research. An update of the group bibliography is given at the end.

  3. [Description of factors facilitating and restricting the use of research results: the point of view of Tunisian nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krifa, Fethi; Gagnon, Johanne; Nouira, Amel

    2014-03-01

    The written agree on the importance of nursing research as a means to improve the quality effectiveness and efficiency of care and contribute to advance in the nursing discipline. Studies from different countries have attempted to describe the barriers and facilitating the use of researcher by staff nurse, however, no original studies have been conducted in Tunisia. PURPOSE AND FRAMEWORK: According to the theory of innovation of Rogers, this study aims to identify factors facilitating and contraining the use of research as an innovation from the point of view of Tunisian nurses. A mixed descriptive design allowed to raise perceptions of 5 manager nurses and 37 clinicians nurses in 2 care units of the university hospital of Sousse in Tunisia. Three methods of data collection were used either semistructured interviews (n = 5), a self-reported questionnaire including the scale of measurement of Funk and al., on the barriers of using the research (n = 37) and an observation grid units of participating care (n = 2). A triangulation of data revealed that they are organizational factors that seem to be the main determinants of using the research. In fact, the average of score calculated for the four factors of the scale of Funk showed that for the interviewed nurses, the characteristic of the organization present the highest average (3,01), followed by those with relation to the characteristic of the nurse (2,86) of the research (2,73) and of the diffusion (2,55). The qualitative analysis support these results. The recommendations for the value of using the results of research in Tunisia were formulated followed by limitations of the study.

  4. An Action Research to Facilitate Science Teacher Educator in Infusing Environment Education Themes

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid Hussain Mughal

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study that has attempted to find out the perceptions and classroom teaching practices of Science teacher educator about environmental education (EE) infusion. The study also looked at the process of environmental infusion in Science and associated challenges emerging from it.The research was designed in a qualitative paradigm, within this paradigm, action research model proposed by Retallick (2003) was used. The purposive sampling strategy was used to sele...

  5. Patents & the progress of personalized medicine: biomarkers research as lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the barriers to personalized medicine, focusing on the burgeoning field of biomarkers research. The author begins by framing intellectual property issues as more than a product of industry incentives and suggests that these issues are deeply entangled with other barriers facing personalized medicine such as regulatory framework deficiencies. The author proposes a set of future research questions to more fully define the barriers to biomarkers research and to uncover which corrective measures may be effective. The author concludes by recommending an integration of regulatory and patent reforms, with a call to action by scholars, scientists, representatives of the biopharmaceutical industry, and policy-makers.

  6. Environmental Research Division technical progress report: January 1986--October 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    Technical process in the various research activities of Argonne National Laboratory's Environmental Research Division is reported for the period 1986-1987. Textual, graphic, and tabular information is used to briefly summarize (in separate chapters) the work of the Division's Atmospheric Physics, Environmental Effects Research, Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry, and Organic Geochemistry and Environmental Instrumentation Programs. Information on professional qualifications, awards, and outstanding professional activities of staff members, as well as lists of publications, oral presentations, special events organized, and participants in educational programs, are provided in appendices at the end of each chapter. Individual projects under each division are processed separately for the data bases.

  7. Research progress and prospects on machinery monitoring under varying working condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Jing; Zhao Ming

    2013-01-01

    A general review is given about the research progress of the rotating machinery condition monitoring under varying working condition.The major typical methods for analyzing are reviewed,including their progress,deficiencies and capabilities.Some prospects are given finally.

  8. Barriers and facilitators to recruitment of physicians and practices for primary care health services research at one centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogg William

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While some research has been conducted examining recruitment methods to engage physicians and practices in primary care research, further research is needed on recruitment methodology as it remains a recurrent challenge and plays a crucial role in primary care research. This paper reviews recruitment strategies, common challenges, and innovative practices from five recent primary care health services research studies in Ontario, Canada. Methods We used mixed qualitative and quantitative methods to gather data from investigators and/or project staff from five research teams. Team members were interviewed and asked to fill out a brief survey on recruitment methods, results, and challenges encountered during a recent or ongoing project involving primary care practices or physicians. Data analysis included qualitative analysis of interview notes and descriptive statistics generated for each study. Results Recruitment rates varied markedly across the projects despite similar initial strategies. Common challenges and creative solutions were reported by many of the research teams, including building a sampling frame, developing front-office rapport, adapting recruitment strategies, promoting buy-in and interest in the research question, and training a staff recruiter. Conclusions Investigators must continue to find effective ways of reaching and involving diverse and representative samples of primary care providers and practices by building personal connections with, and buy-in from, potential participants. Flexible recruitment strategies and an understanding of the needs and interests of potential participants may also facilitate recruitment.

  9. Research Progress of Staged Vertical and Horizontal Fracturing Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Lei

    2012-01-01

    The United States carried out the first hydraulic fracturing in 1947 after 60 years of development, and has made amazing development in fracturing technology from fundamental research to t practice, with the number of fracturing wells rising year by year.

  10. Research Progress in Microbiological Degradation of Bensulfuron-Methyl Herbicide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Minghua; LI Chunyan

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviewed the strategies and methods of screening for microorganisms having strong ability to remove bensulfuron-methyl (BSM), and discussed BSM degradation pathways and factors affecting its microbial metabolism. Finally, it prospected the research emphasis in the future.

  11. China Advanced Research Reactor Project Progress in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    2011, China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR) Project finished the B stage commissioning and resolved the relative technical problems. Meanwhile, the acceptance items and the cold neutron source were carrying out.

  12. Progress of Solidification Researches and the Applications in Materials Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The research achievements of solidification theories and technologies in the last decades are reviewed with the stresses on some new development in the recent years. Some new interesting areas emerged in the last years are also pointed out.

  13. Progress through Collaboration - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI), through the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR), has signed two Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs) in the areas of sharing proteomics reagents and protocols and also in regulatory science.

  14. Recent Progress in Cloud Physics Research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A review of China cloud physics research during 2003-2006 is made in this paper.The studies on cloud field experiments and observation,cloud physics and precipitation,including its theoretical applications in hail suppression and artificial rain enhancement,cloud physics and lightning,and clouds and climate change are included.Due primarily to the demand from weather modification activities,the issue of cloud Physics and weather modification has been addressed in China with many field experiments and model studies.While cloud Physics and weather modification is still an important research field,the interaction between aerosol,cloud and radiation processes,which is the key issue of current climate change research,has become a new research direction in China over the past four years.

  15. Progress in Documentation; Research in User Behaviour in University Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Geoffrey

    1973-01-01

    Perhaps the most important finding of this review of research in user behaviour is that it has yet to be demonstrated that the use of lbiraries has any definite influence on anything else. (111 references) (Author/NH)

  16. Optics and Plasma Research Department annual progress report for 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, Henrik; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Pedersen, C.

    2005-01-01

    , optical materials, biophotonics, fusion plasma physics, and industrial plasma technology. The department employs key technologies in micro- and nanotechnology for optical systems, temperaturecalibration, and infrared measurement techniques. The research is supported by several EU programmes, including...

  17. [Progress of orthodontics in the clinical and basic research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-He

    2008-06-01

    In recent years, clinical diagnostic and treatment techniques of orthodontics have been developed rapidly. The orthopedic mechanism of malocclusion has been the hot spot of basic research of orthodontics.

  18. UCLA Particle and Nuclear Physics Research Group, 1993 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nefkens, B.M.K.; Clajus, M.; Price, J.W.; Tippens, W.B.; White, D.B.

    1993-09-01

    The research programs of the UCLA Particle and Nuclear Physics Research Group, the research objectives, results of experiments, the continuing activities and new initiatives are presented. The primary goal of the research is to test the symmetries and invariances of particle/nuclear physics with special emphasis on investigating charge symmetry, isospin invariance, charge conjugation, and CP. Another important part of our work is baryon spectroscopy, which is the determination of the properties (mass, width, decay modes, etc.) of particles and resonances. We also measure some basic properties of light nuclei, for example the hadronic radii of {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He. Special attention is given to the eta meson, its production using photons, electrons, {pi}{sup {plus_minus}}, and protons, and its rare and not-so-rare decays. In Section 1, the physics motivation of our research is outlined. Section 2 provides a summary of the research projects. The status of each program is given in Section 3. We discuss the various experimental techniques used, the results obtained, and we outline the plans for the continuing and the new research. Details are presented of new research that is made possible by the use of the Crystal Ball Detector, a highly segmented NaI calorimeter and spectrometer with nearly 4{pi} acceptance (it was built and used at SLAC and is to be moved to BNL). The appendix contains an update of the bibliography, conference participation, and group memos; it also indicates our share in the organization of conferences, and gives a listing of the colloquia and seminars presented by us.

  19. Progress of Research in Antitumor Mechanisms with Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩淑燕; 李萍萍

    2009-01-01

    The anti-tumor effects of Chinese herbal medicines and their prescription preparations attracted more and more attention at home and abroad.Thus,it is becoming a hot research topic to exploit the anti-tumor mechanisms of Chinese medicine,and some of them have been partly clarified with the improved research ability to date.In brief,the Chinese herbal medicines possess unique advantages on the treatment of tumors through their multiple actions on multiple targets.

  20. Progress of Scientific Research Work of CEFR in 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Pei-de; HU; Ping; ZHAO; Zhong-zhen

    2012-01-01

    <正>The emphasis of the scientific research work in 2012 of the China Experimental Fast Reactor Engineering Department is the new project application based on the subject of the key technical problems to be solved for the demonstration fast reactor; continue to promote the establishment of the commercial demonstration fast reactor project; ensure the effective implementation of the ongoing research projects according to plan.

  1. [Research Progress on Genetic Diversity in Animal Parasitic Nematodes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    YIN, Fang-yuan; LI, Fa-cai; ZHAO, Jun-long; HU, Min

    2015-10-01

    The development of molecular genetic markers for parasitic nematodes has significant implications in fundamental and applied research in Veterinary Parasitology. Knowledge on genetic diversity of nematodes would not only provide a theoretical basis for understanding the spread of drug-resistance alleles, but also have implications in the development of nematode control strategies. This review discusses the applications of molecular genetic markers (RFLP, RAPD, PCR-SSCP, AFLP, SSR and mitochondrial DNA) in research on the genetic diversity of parasitic nematodes.

  2. Progress in Research of Bacteria Fertilizer Strengthening Resistance of Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Bacteria fertilizer is used most widely among all kinds of microbial fertilizers. We summarize the research headway of bacteria fertilizer. It mainly focuses on bacteria fertilizer improving the stress resistance of plant. Then we can offer basis to research and exploit bacteria fertilizer. These bacteria include azotobacter, photosynthetic bacteria, Bacillus mucilaginosus siliceous, phosphorus bacteria, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria(PGPR), effective microorganism(EM).

  3. Chemistry research and development progress report, May-October, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miner, F. J.

    1979-08-30

    Work in progress includes: calorimetry and thermodynamics of nuclear materials; americium recovery and purification; optimization of the cation exchange process for recovering americium and plutonium from molten salt extraction residues, photochemical separations of actinides; advanced ion exchange materials and techniques; secondary actinide recovery; removal of plutonium from lathe coolant oil; evaluation of tributyl phosphate-impregnated sorbent for plutonium-uranium separations; plutonium recovery in advance size reduction facility; plutonium peroxide precipitation; decontamination of Rocky Flats soil; soil decontamination at other Department of Energy sites; recovery of actinides from combustible wastes; induction-heated, tilt-pour furnace; vacuum melting; determination of plutonium and americium in salts and alloys by calorimetry; plutonium peroxide precipitation process; silica removal study; a comparative study of annular and Raschig ring-filled tanks; recovery of plutonium and americium from a salt cleanup alloy; and process development for recovery of americium from vacuum melt furnace crucibles.

  4. New research progress of vegetable oil-based polyurethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie LIU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the latest progress for vegetable oil-based polyurethanes mainly from the view of thermoset and thermoplastic. Firstly, the modification methods for traditional thermoset polyurethane are introduced, including physical modification methods (filling and alloying and chemical modification methods (copolymerization grafting, crosslinking and interpenetrating polymer network. Materials used for physical modification mainly contain inorganic materials such as SiO2 and organic substances such as cellulose. Grafting copolymerization of styrene, acrylate and other monomers with polyurethane is the main method of chemical modification. The characteristics, preparations and application fields of thermoplastic polyurethane are reviewed, and the preparations, performances and applications of oleic acid-based thermoplastic polyurethane are chiefly presented. The development prospects of vegetable oil-based polyurethane are put forward. Surface-initiated living polymerization and other methods are used to controllable chemical modification of the traditional thermoset polyurethane and click chemistry method is uesd to promote multi-functionalization of the thermoplastic polyurethane.

  5. Overview of Compact Toroidal Hybrid research program progress and plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, David; Ennis, David; Hanson, James; Hartwell, Gregory; Herfindal, Jeffrey; Knowlton, Stephen; Ma, Xingxing; Pandya, Mihir; Roberds, Nicholas; Ross, Kevin; Traverso, Peter

    2016-10-01

    disruptive behavior on the level of applied 3D magnetic shaping; (2) test and advance the V3FIT reconstruction code and NIMROD modeling of CTH; and (3) study the implementation of an island divertor. Progress towards these goals and other developments are summarized. The disruptive density limit exceeds the Greenwald limit as the vacuum transform is increased, but a threshold for avoidance is not observed. Low- q disruptions, with 1.1 behavior has been reproducibly modified with external transform and NIMROD is used to model these observations and reproduces experimental trends. An island divertor design has begun with connection length studies to model energy deposition on divertor plates located in an edge 1/3 island as well as the study of a non-resonant divertor configuration. This work is supported by U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-00ER54610.

  6. Opportunities and Challenges in Using Research to Facilitate Climate Communication Collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, K.; Johnson, B. B.; Nackerman, C. J.; Maibach, E.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change represents the worst of wicked environmental problems, requiring collaborations among individuals and groups that cross public, private and voluntary sectors on a global scale to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and prepare for impacts. The Climate Communication Consortium of Maryland represents such a collaboration on a state level for the purpose of supporting governments, non-profits, businesses and universities in communicating with the public about climate and energy within the context of multiple frames, such as public health, extreme weather, and coastal resilience. The collaboration was developed using communication research as an organizational framework - providing data from yearly public opinion surveys on Marylanders' attitudes, behaviors and policy support, and a variety of other qualitative and quantitative studies. In this presentation, we will highlight four dimensions of the use of research within collaborative organizational climate communication that can lead to success, or impediments: 1) individual organizational ability and resources for using audience data; 2) the linking of research questions to programmatic development goals and processes; 3) the weighing of audience- versus communicator-oriented values and priorities; and 4) identification of overarching communication objectives that span individual organizational interests. We will illustrate these dimensions using findings from surveys of our member organizations describing the types of barriers organizations face in communicating about climate change effectively, including their use of formative and evaluative research, and will discuss some of the findings from our public opinion and experimental research, illustrating the ways in which these findings influenced programmatic development and were used by Consortium member organizations.

  7. The FaceBase Consortium: A comprehensive program to facilitate craniofacial research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochheiser, Harry; Aronow, Bruce J.; Artinger, Kristin; Beaty, Terri H.; Brinkley, James F.; Chai, Yang; Clouthier, David; Cunningham, Michael L.; Dixon, Michael; Donahue, Leah Rae; Fraser, Scott E.; Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Iwata, Junichi; Klein, Ophir; Marazita, Mary L.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Murray, Stephen; de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel; Postlethwait, John; Potter, Steven; Shapiro, Linda; Spritz, Richard; Visel, Axel; Weinberg, Seth M.; Trainor, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    The FaceBase Consortium consists of ten interlinked research and technology projects whose goal is to generate craniofacial research data and technology for use by the research community through a central data management and integrated bioinformatics hub. Funded by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) and currently focused on studying the development of the middle region of the face, the Consortium will produce comprehensive datasets of global gene expression patterns, regulatory elements and sequencing; will generate anatomical and molecular atlases; will provide human normative facial data and other phenotypes; conduct follow up studies of a completed genome-wide association study; generate independent data on the genetics of craniofacial development, build repositories of animal models and of human samples and data for community access and analysis; and will develop software tools and animal models for analyzing and functionally testing and integrating these data. The FaceBase website (http://www.facebase.org) will serve as a web home for these efforts, providing interactive tools for exploring these datasets, together with discussion forums and other services to support and foster collaboration within the craniofacial research community. PMID:21458441

  8. Recent progress in α1-adrenergic receptor research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-jian CHEN; Kenneth P MINNEMAN

    2005-01-01

    α1-Adrenergic receptors (AR) play an important role in the regulation of physiological responses mediated by norepinephrine and epinephrine, particularly in the cardiovascular system. The three cloned α1-AR subtypes (α1A, α1B, and α1D)are G protein-coupled receptors that signal through the Gq/11 signaling pathway,each showing distinct pharmacological properties and tissue distributions.However, due to the lack of highly subtype-selective drugs, the functional rolesof individual subtypes are still not clear. Development of new subtype-specific drugs will greatly facilitate the identification of the functions of each subtype.Conopeptide ρ-TIA has been found to be a new α1B-AR selective antagonist withdifferent modes of inhibition at α1-AR subtypes. In addition, recent studies using genetically engineered mice have shed some light on α1-AR functions in vivo,especially in the cardiovascular system and brain. Several proteins have been shown to interact directly with particular α1-AR, and may be important in regulating receptor function. Receptor heterodimerization has been shown to be important for cell surface expression, signaling and internalization. These new observations are likely to help elucidate the functional roles of individual α1-AR subtypes.

  9. Barriers and Facilitators to Safe Food Handling among Consumers: A Systematic Review and Thematic Synthesis of Qualitative Research Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian; Waddell, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illness has a substantial health and economic burden on society, and most cases are believed to be due to unsafe food handling practices at home. Several qualitative research studies have been conducted to investigate consumers' perspectives, opinions, and experiences with safe food handling at home, and these studies provide insights into the underlying barriers and facilitators affecting their safe food handling behaviours. We conducted a systematic review of previously published qualitative studies in this area to synthesize the main across-study themes and to develop recommendations for future consumer interventions and research. The review was conducted using the following steps: comprehensive search strategy; relevance screening of abstracts; relevance confirmation of articles; study quality assessment; thematic synthesis of the results; and quality-of-evidence assessment. A total of 39 relevant articles reporting on 37 unique qualitative studies were identified. Twenty-one barriers and 10 facilitators to safe food handling were identified, grouped across six descriptive themes: confidence and perceived risk; knowledge-behaviour gap; habits and heuristics; practical and lifestyle constraints; food preferences; and societal and social influences. Our overall confidence that each barrier and facilitator represents the phenomenon of interest was rated as high (n = 11), moderate (11), and low (9). Overarching analytical themes included: 1) safe food handling behaviours occur as part of a complex interaction of everyday consumer practices and habituation; 2) most consumers are not concerned about food safety and are generally not motivated to change their behaviours based on new knowledge about food safety risks; and 3) consumers are amenable to changing their safe food handling habits through relevant social pressures. Key implications and recommendations for research, policy and practice are discussed.

  10. Using an Implementation Research Framework to Identify Potential Facilitators and Barriers of an Intervention to Increase HPV Vaccine Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selove, Rebecca; Foster, Maya; Mack, Raquel; Sanderson, Maureen; Hull, Pamela C

    Although the incidence of cervical cancer has been decreasing in the United States over the last decade, Hispanic and African American women have substantially higher rates than Caucasian women. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary, although insufficient, cause of cervical cancer. In the United States in 2013, only 37.6% of girls 13 to 17 years of age received the recommended 3 doses of a vaccine that is almost 100% efficacious for preventing infection with viruses that are responsible for 70% of cervical cancers. Implementation research has been underutilized in interventions for increasing vaccine uptake. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), an approach for designing effective implementation strategies, integrates 5 domains that may include barriers and facilitators of HPV vaccination. These include the innovative practice (Intervention), communities where youth and parents live (Outer Setting), agencies offering vaccination (Inner Setting), health care staff (Providers), and planned execution and evaluation of intervention delivery (Implementation Process). Secondary qualitative analysis of transcripts of interviews with 30 community health care providers was conducted using the CFIR to code potential barriers and facilitators of HPV vaccination implementation. All CFIR domains except Implementation Process were well represented in providers' statements about challenges and supports for HPV vaccination. A comprehensive implementation framework for promoting HPV vaccination may increase vaccination rates in ethnically diverse communities. This study suggests that the CFIR can be used to guide clinicians in planning implementation of new approaches to increasing HPV vaccine uptake in their settings. Further research is needed to determine whether identifying implementation barriers and facilitators in all 5 CFIR domains as part of developing an intervention contributes to improved HPV vaccination rates.

  11. Health and Safety Research Division progress report, July 1, 1984-September 30, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes progress made for the period July 1984 through September 1985. Sections describe research in health studies, dosimetry and biophysical transport, biological and radiation physics, chemical physics, and risk analysis. (ACR)

  12. The face of an imposter: computer vision for deception detection research in progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elkins, Aaron C.; Sun, Yijia; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2013-01-01

    Using video analyzed from a novel deception experiment, this paper introduces computer vision research in progress that addresses two critical components to computational modeling of deceptive behavior: 1) individual nonverbal behavior differences, and 2) deceptive ground truth. Video interviews ana

  13. Supporting Progressive Change: The James R. Squire Office of Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Edmund J.

    2004-01-01

    The NCTE has established a center of policy research to honor the legacy of James R. Squire in order to support progressive reform in English language arts education. James R. Squire's life and work are discussed in detail.

  14. Laser development for laser fusion applications research. Progress report, October 1977--March 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    Research progress is reported on three laser programs being developed for the commercialization of laser-fusion energy. The lasers include iodine, hydrogen fluoride and Group VI atoms (e.g., O, S, Se, Te). (TFD)

  15. Progress report on neutron scattering research (April 1, 1997 - March 31, 1998)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Fujiwara, Satoru; Aizawa, Kazuya [eds.

    1999-02-01

    The present issue summarizes research progress in neutron scattering at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) by utilizing the research reactor (JRR-3M) during the period between April 1, 1997 and March 31, 1998. The 76 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  16. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review No. 89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    Summaries are presented for the DOE contracts related to supported research for thermal recovery of petroleum, geoscience technology, and field demonstrations in high-priority reservoir classes. Data included for each project are: title, contract number, principal investigator, research organization, beginning date, expected completion date, amount of award, objectives of the research, and summary of technical progress.

  17. Progress report on neutron scattering research (April 1, 1996 - March 31, 1997)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Yoshinobu; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Fujiwara, Satoru [eds.

    1997-10-01

    This issue summarizes research progress in neutron scattering at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) by utilizing the research reactor (JRR-3M) mainly during the period between April 1, 1996 and March 31, 1997. The 57 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  18. Theory, Modeling and Simulation: Research progress report 1994--1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, B.C.; Dixon, D.A.; Dunning, T.H.

    1997-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has established the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL). In April 1994, construction began on the new EMSL, a collaborative research facility devoted to advancing the understanding of environmental molecular science. Research in the Theory, Modeling, and Simulation (TM and S) program will play a critical role in understanding molecular processes important in restoring DOE`s research, development, and production sites, including understanding the migration and reactions of contaminants in soils and ground water, developing processes for isolation and processing of pollutants, developing improved materials for waste storage, understanding the enzymatic reactions involved in the biodegradation of contaminants, and understanding the interaction of hazardous chemicals with living organisms. The research objectives of the TM and S program are fivefold: to apply available electronic structure and dynamics techniques to study fundamental molecular processes involved in the chemistry of natural and contaminated systems; to extend current electronic structure and dynamics techniques to treat molecular systems of future importance and to develop new techniques for addressing problems that are computationally intractable at present; to apply available molecular modeling techniques to simulate molecular processes occurring in the multi-species, multi-phase systems characteristic of natural and polluted environments; to extend current molecular modeling techniques to treat ever more complex molecular systems and to improve the reliability and accuracy of such simulations; and to develop technologies for advanced parallel architectural computer systems. Research highlights of 82 projects are given.

  19. Research in progress: FY 1992. Summaries of projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Program of OHER has two main missions: (1) to develop the knowledge base necessary to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health and environmental consequences of energy use and development and (2) to utilize the Department`s unique scientific and technological capabilities to solve major scientific problems in medicine, biology, and the environment. These missions reflect a commitment to develop the beneficial uses of advanced energy technologies while at the same time assuring that any potentially adverse health and environmental impacts of the Nation`s energy policies are fully identified and understood. The BER Program includes research in atmospheric, marine, and terrestrial processes, including the linkage between the use in greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, and regional and global climate change; in molecular and subcellular mechanisms underlying human somatic and genetic processes and their responses to energy-related environmental toxicants; in nuclear medicine, structural biology, the human genome, measurement sciences and instrumentation, and other areas that require the unique capabilities of the Department`s laboratory system. The principal areas of research are Health Research and Environmental Research.

  20. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup for Federal Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation, FY09 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.

    2009-10-22

    This document is the annual report for fiscal year 2009 (FY09) for the project called Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS). The EOS is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration [BPA], U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [Corps or USACE], U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS).

  1. Facilitating Scientific Research through Workflows and Provenance on the DataONE Cyberinfrastructure (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludaescher, B.; Cuevas-Vicenttín, V.; Missier, P.; Dey, S.; Kianmajd, P.; Wei, Y.; Koop, D.; Chirigati, F.; Altintas, I.; Belhajjame, K.; Bowers, S.

    2013-12-01

    Provenance data has numerous applications in science. Two key ones are 1) replication: facilitate the repeatable derivation of results and 2) discovery: enable the location of data based on processing history and derivation relationships. The following scenario illustrates a typical use of provenance data. Alice, a climate scientist, has developed a VisTrails workflow to prepare Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) data. After verifying that the workflow generates data in the desired form, she uses the ReproZip tool to create a reproducible package that will enable other scientists to re-run the workflow without having to install and configure the particular libraries she is using. In addition, she exports the provenance information of the workflow execution and customizes it through a tool such as the ProvExplorer, in order to eliminate the information she regards as superfluous. She then creates and shares a DataONE data package containing the data she prepared, the ReproZip package, the customized provenance, and additional science/system metadata. Both the customized provenance and metadata are indexed by the DataONE Cyberinfrastructure (CI) for discovery purposes. Bob, another climate scientist, is looking for a benchmark GPP data to validate the Terrestrial Biosphere Model (TBM) he has developed. Searching the DataONE repository he finds Alice's data package. He retrieves its ReproZip package, customizes it (e.g. changing the spatial resolution), and re-runs it to generate the benchmark data in the form he desires. The newly generated data is then used as input for his own model evaluation workflow. His workflow generates residual maps and a Taylor diagram that enable him to evaluate the similarity between the results of his model and the benchmark data. At this point, Bob can also make use of the tools Alice used to publish his results as another discoverable and reproducible data package. In order to support these capabilities, we propose to extend the Data

  2. Research in actinide chemistry. Progress report, 1990--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choppin, G.R.

    1993-04-01

    This research studies the behavior of the actinide elements in aqueous solution. The high radioactivity of the transuranium actinides limits the concentrations which can be studied and, consequently, limits the experimental techniques. However, oxidation state analogs (trivalent lanthanides, tetravalent thorium, and hexavalent uranium) do not suffer from these limitations. Behavior of actinides in the environment are a major USDOE concern, whether in connection with long-term releases from a repository, releases from stored defense wastes or accidental releases in reprocessing, etc. Principal goal of our research was expand the thermodynamic data base on complexation of actinides by natural ligands (e.g., OH{sup {minus}}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}}, humates). The research undertakes fundamental studies of actinide complexes which can increase understanding of the environmental behavior of these elements.

  3. CNRS researchers' popularization activities: a progress report (French original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Croissant

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed the popularization activities undertaken by ten thousand CNRS researchers by means of their annual reports for the years 2004, 2005 and 2006. This is the first time that such an extensive statistical study on science popularization practices is carried out. Our main findings are : - the majority of researchers is not involved in popularization (51% has not done any popularization over the three-year period, two thirds have been involved in no more than one popularization action. - popularization practices are extremely diverse, both at the individual level (we have identified three subpopulations that feature distinctive attitudes towards popularization, and at the level of scientific disciplines (researchers in Humanities are twice as active as the average, as well as in laboratories or geographical regions. - the number of actions reported in 2005 greatly increased compared to 2004 (+ 26%, while they slightly diminished in 2006.

  4. Facilitating Data-Intensive Education and Research in Earth Science through Geospatial Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Meixia

    2009-01-01

    The realm of Earth science (ES) is increasingly data-intensive. Geoinformatics research attempts to robustly smooth and accelerate the flow of data to information, information to knowledge, and knowledge to decisions and to supply necessary infrastructure and tools for advancing ES. Enabling easy access to and use of large volumes of ES data and…

  5. What Does It Mean to Be Pragmatic? Pragmatic Methods, Measures, and Models to Facilitate Research Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Russell E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: One of the reasons for the slow and uncertain translation of research into practice is likely due to the emphasis in science on explanatory models and efficacy designs rather than more pragmatic approaches. Methods: Following a brief definition of what constitutes a pragmatic approach, I provide examples of pragmatic methods, measures,…

  6. Basic Research Needs for Geosciences: Facilitating 21st Century Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaolo, D. J.; Orr, F. M.; Benson, S. M.; Celia, M.; Felmy, A.; Nagy, K. L.; Fogg, G. E.; Snieder, R.; Davis, J.; Pruess, K.; Friedmann, J.; Peters, M.; Woodward, N. B.; Dobson, P.; Talamini, K.; Saarni, M.

    2007-06-01

    To identify research areas in geosciences, such as behavior of multiphase fluid-solid systems on a variety of scales, chemical migration processes in geologic media, characterization of geologic systems, and modeling and simulation of geologic systems, needed for improved energy systems.

  7. Applying the Digital Doorway design research model in facilitating skills transfer in rural communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herselman, ME

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to indicate how skills can be transferred through the application of the Digital Doorway (DD) design research model. Skills transfer takes place between the initiators of Digital Doorway (CSIR Meraka Institute) project...

  8. Research Results Ultra-fast Energy Transfer from Monomer to Dimer within a Trimeric Molecule New Progress in Heterogeneous Catalysis Research Key Progress in Research on Terrestrial Carbon Cycle in China A New Progress in Research on the Mechanism of Bio-Invasion New Findings in Anti-viral infection and Control of Inflammation Major Headway in Avian Origin Research New Progress in Gold-Nanoparticle-Based Biochips Topological Insulator Research Made Important Progress Major Progress in Biodiversity Achieved New Developments of Direct Methods in Protein Crystallography Major Progress in China-UK Collaboration on the Causal Relationship between Volcanic Activity and Biological Distinction News in Brief: NSFC set up "Research Fund for Young Foreign Scholars" How Often Does Human DNA Mutate? Research Progress on Colossal Anisotropic Magneto Resistive Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Ultra-fast Energy Transfer from Monomer to Dimer within a Trimeric Molecule New Progress in Heterogeneous Catalysis Research Key Progress in Research on Terrestrial Carbon Cycle in China A New Progress in Research on the Mechanism of Bio-Invasion New Findings in Anti-viral infection and Control of Inflammation Major Headway in Avian Origin Research New Progress in Gold-Nanoparticle-Based Biochips Topological Insulator Research Made Important Progress Major Progress in Biodiversity Achieved New Developments of Direct Methods in Protein Crystallography Major Progress in China-UK Collaboration on the Causal Relationship between Volcanic Activity and Biological Distinction News in Brief: NSFC set up "Research Fund for Young Foreign Scholars" How Often Does Human DNA Mutate? Research Progress on Colossal Anisotropic Magneto Resistive Effect

  9. Laboratory-directed research and development: FY 1996 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, J.; Prono, J. [comps.

    1997-05-01

    This report summarizes the FY 1996 goals and accomplishments of Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) projects. It gives an overview of the LDRD program, summarizes work done on individual research projects, and provides an index to the projects` principal investigators. Projects are grouped by their LDRD component: Individual Projects, Competency Development, and Program Development. Within each component, they are further divided into nine technical disciplines: (1) materials science, (2) engineering and base technologies, (3) plasmas, fluids, and particle beams, (4) chemistry, (5) mathematics and computational sciences, (6) atomic and molecular physics, (7) geoscience, space science, and astrophysics, (8) nuclear and particle physics, and (9) biosciences.

  10. Review: Research progress on Fabry-Perot resonator antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-guo LIU; Zhi-chen GE; Xi-yuan CHEN

    2009-01-01

    The Fabry-Perot resonator (FPR) antenna has found wide applications in microwave and millimeter waves and recently attracted considerable interest, in this paper, a summary of planar and cylindrical structures, analytic models and research development is presented, and a comparison between these structures and analytic models is made, showing that such analytic models as the FP cavity mode, electromagnetic band gap (EBG) defect mode, transmission line mode, and leaky-wave mode are consistent when applied to analyze this type of resonator antenna. Some interesting topics under recent research, including dual or multi-band, improvement of gain bandwidth, low profile and beam control, are surveyed.

  11. [Progress of research on quality of life of glaucoma patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Shu-Xin; Guo, Wen-Yi

    2009-01-01

    Glaucoma is a kind of long life disease characterized by irreversible optic nerve damage, visual field impairment, and visual acuity loss. Both the disease and its medical management could make the patient perceive difficulties in their daily life activities and social function. Therefore, their quality of life would be affected significantly. This report briefly reviews the recent researches on the quality of life and its influencing factors of glaucoma patients. The researches on how to improve the quality of life of glaucoma patients are also reviewed.

  12. Exergaming with a pediatric exoskeleton: Facilitating rehabilitation and research in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulea, Thomas C; Lerner, Zachary F; Gravunder, Andrew J; Damiano, Diane L

    2017-07-01

    Effective rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy (CP) requires intensive task-specific exercise but many in this population lack the motor capabilities to complete the desired training tasks. Providing robotic assistance is a potential solution yet the effects of this assistance are unclear. We combined a novel exoskeleton and exercise video game (exergame) to create a new rehabilitation paradigm for children with CP. We incorporated high density electroencephalography (EEG) to assess cortical activity. Movement to targets in the game was controlled by knee extension while standing. The distance between targets was the same with and without the exoskeleton to isolate the effect of robotic assistance. Our results show that children with CP maintain or increase knee extensor muscle activity during knee extension in the presence of synergistic robotic assistance. Our EEG findings also demonstrate that participants remained engaged in the exercise with robotic assistance. Interestingly we observed a developmental trajectory of sensorimotor mu rhythm in children with CP similar, though delayed, to those reported in typically developing children. While not the goal here, the exoskeleton significantly increased knee extension in 3/6 participants during use. Future work will focus on utilizing the exoskeleton to enhance volitional knee extension capability and in combination with EMG and EEG to study sensorimotor cortex response to progressive exercise in children with CP.

  13. SU-E-T-213: Development of a Web Wrapper to Facilitate Radiotherapy Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkerts, M; Graves, Y; Gautier, Q; Kim, G; Jia, X; Jiang, S

    2012-06-01

    Researchers write many computer programs with unique implementations, usually requiring a great amount of effort for other researchers to learn how to install, configure, and use. Some programs require specialized hardware platforms such as GPU workstation or CPU cluster, which may not readily available for many researchers. This work develops a general web platform to 'wrap' radiotherapy software tools into a user friendly, browser-based interface. We developed a web wrapper based on existing technologies (e.g. HTML5, JavaScript, PHP, Python, XML) to interface with command line-based research tools. This wrapper enables users to easily perform various tasks in any modern web browser, while underlying tools are launched remotely. Visitors can upload data, configure settings, process data remotely, then view, share, and download results with minimal effort. This web wrapper is developer friendly; new tools are easily integrated by editing XML configuration files. As a test case, we have successfully wrapped a set of command line tools, developed by our group, into a single web app, providing fluence map generation, CT image processing, and GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation. The result is a web-based quality assurance tool. With this tool, users can upload compressed DICOM-RT files, recompute dose using the MC method, and evaluate the results by viewing dose distribution, 3D gamma index distribution and DVH curves. The entire work-flow can be completed within 2 minutes provided users have a reasonable Internet connection speed. We have developed an web wrapper to increase the accessibility of radiotherapy tools and reduce users' learning curve through a friendly web-based interface. This work also allows quick and easy deployment and distribution of software tools developed by researchers to the whole community. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  14. Materials research and beam line operation utilizing NSLS. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liedl, G.L.

    1993-06-01

    MATRIX, a participating research team of Midwest x-ray scattering specialists, continues to operate beam line X-18A at NSLS. Operations of this line now provides state-of-the-art capabilities to a wide range of people in the Materials Science and Engineering research community. Improvements of the beam line continue to be a focus of MATRIX. Throughout this past year the emphasis has been shifting towards improvement in ``user friendly`` aspects. Simplified control operations and a shift to single-user personal computer has been a major part of the effort. Over the past year all 232 operational days were fully utilized. Beam line tests coupled with MATRIX members combined to use 284 days. General user demand for use of the beam line continues to be strong and four groups were provided 48 operating days. Research production has been growing as NSLS and the beam line become a more stable type of operation. For 1992 the MATRIX group published six articles. To date, for 1993 the same group has published, submitted, or has in preparation nine articles. Recent research milestones include: the first quantitative structural information on the as-quenched and early stages of decomposition of supersaturated Al-Li alloys; the first quantitative diffuse scattering measurements on a complex system (Co substitute for Cu YBCO superconductor); demonstration of capabilities of a new UHV surface diffraction chamber with in-situ characterization and temperature control (30-1300K); feasibility of phasing structure factors in a quasicrystal using multiple Bragg scattering.

  15. China Advanced Research Reactor Project Progress in 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Tie-jun

    2012-01-01

    <正>In 2012, all the commissioning for the China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR) had been finished and the diffraction pattern had been successfully obtained on the neutron scattering spectrometer. Meanwhile, the cold neutron source project and the acceptance items of CARR project had been carrying out.

  16. Research progress in genomics of environmental and industrial microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Microbes contribute to geochemical cycles in the ecosystem.They also play important roles in biodegradation and bioremediation of contaminated environments,and have great potential in energy conversion and regeneration.Up to date,at least 150 genomes of non-pathogenic microbes have been sequenced,of which,the majority are bacteria from various environments or of industrial uses.The emerging field ’metagenomics’ in combination with the high-throughput sequencing technology offers opportunities to discover new functions of microbes in the environment on a large scale,and has become the ’hot spot’ in the field of environmental microbiology.Seven genomes of bacteria from various extreme environments,including high temperature,high and low pressure,and extreme acidic regions,have been sequenced by researchers in China,leading to the discovery of metabolic pathways,genetic functions and new enzymes,which are related to the niches those bacteria occupy.These results were published in Nature,PNAS,Genome Research and other top international journals.In the meantime,several groups in China have started ’metagenomics’ programs.The outcomes of these researches are expected to generate a considerable number of novel findings,taking Chinese researchers to the frontier of genomics for environmental and industrial microorganisms.

  17. Research program in elementary particle theory, 1980. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudarshan, E. C.G.; Ne' eman, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Research is reported for these subject areas: particle physics in relativistic astrophysics and cosmology; phenomenology of weak and electromagnetic interactions; strong interaction physics, QCD, and quark-parton physics; quantum field theory, quantum mechanics and fundamental problems; groups, gauges, and grand unified theories; and supergeometry, superalgebra, and unification. (GHT)

  18. The research progress on layered LixMnO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The structural characteristics, preparation methods and electrochemical properties of LixMnO2 were introduced in this paper, and many problems of the research status of LixMnO2 at present were pointet out, meanwhile the developmental direction of layered LixMnO2 in the future was put forward.

  19. Research progress in genomics of environmental and industrial microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lei; LIU Bin; ZHOU ZheMin

    2009-01-01

    Microbes contribute to geochemical cycles in the ecosystem. They also play important roles in bio-degradation and bioremediation of contaminated environments, and have great potential in energy conversion and regeneration. Up to date, at least 150 genomes of non-pathogenic microbes have been sequenced, of which, the majority are bacteria from various environments or of industrial uses. The emerging field 'metagenomics' in combination with the high-throughput sequencing technology offers opportunities to discover new functions of microbes in the environment on a large scale, and has be-come the 'hot spot' in the field of environmental microbiology. Seven genomes of bacteria from various extreme environments, including high temperature, high and low pressure, and extreme acidic regions, have been sequenced by researchers in China, leading to the discovery of metabolic pathways, genetic functions and new enzymes, which are related to the niches those bacteria occupy. These results were published in Nature, PNAS, Genome Research and other top international journals. In the meantime, several groups in China have started 'metagenomics' programs. The outcomes of these researches are expected to generate a considerable number of novel findings, taking Chinese researchers to the fron-tier of genomics for environmental and industrial microorganisms.

  20. Building theories from case study research: the progressive case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2006-01-01

    Meredith (1998) argues for more case and field research studies in the field of operations management. Based on a literature review, we discuss several existing approaches to case studies and their characteristics. These approaches include; the Grounded Theory approach which proposes no prior litera

  1. Nuclear Safety Research Department annual progress report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majborn, B.; Brodersen, K.; Damkjaer, A.; Hoejerup, C.F. [eds.

    1995-03-01

    The report describes the work of the Nuclear Safety Research Department during 1994. The activities cover health physics, reactor physics, operation of the small reactor DR1, and radioactive waste management. Lists of staff and publications are included together with a summary of the staff`s participation in international committees. (au) (1 tab., 12 ills.).

  2. Biobanks and human health research: Balancing progress and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-01

    Aug 1, 2015 ... from biobanks to networking and sample and data-sharing. We ... The use of biobank assets will lead to significant benefits ... Department of Medicine, Clinical HIV Research Unit, Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Health ... defined as 'an organisation, institution or person that provides or.

  3. Research Progress on Laser Cladding Amorphous Coatings on Metallic Substrates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    CHEN Ming-hui; ZHU Hong-mei; WANG Xin-lin

    2017-01-01

    ... in this paper.Combined with characteristics of the laser cladding technique,the research status of the laser cladding Fe-based,Zr-based,Ni-based,Cu-based and Al-based amorphous coatings on the metal substrates were mainly...

  4. Progress of research on AGNs at the Urumqi Observatory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.P.KRICHBAUM; L.FUHRMANN; N.MARCHILI

    2010-01-01

    We report the progress on Very Long Baseline Interferometry(VLBI) observations of Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum(GPS) radio sources,and single-dish observations of active galactic nuclei(AGNs).The GPS sources are a kind of young AGNs observable in radio.From our VLBI observations at 1.6 and 5 GHz with the European VLBI Network(EVN) including the Urumqi and Shanghai stations,most GPS sources show compact doubles with sizes less than 1 kiloparsec.We have classified the sources into double-lobes,core-jets,and complex structures according to the spectral indices as well as images.We also estimated the values of the jet viewing angle for the symmetric objects.In addition,we are monitoring a few samples of AGNs with the Urumqi 25-meter radio telescope,in order to find flux variability.We detected rapid flux variability in quasar 1156+295,and relatively slow variability in a few of the others.The origin of the rapid variability is discussed.Moreover,we launched a radio-optical monitoring program called Fermi-AGN in 2009.

  5. Research and Application Progress in Countercurrent Solvent Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾江涛; 吴声; 廖春生; 严纯华

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the recent progress made by Peking University is briefly introduced. Based on Theory of Countercurrent Extraction established by Prof. Guangxian Xu, the static equilibrium and dynamic process for two- and three-outlet countercurrent extractions, and designed the optimized parameters for the real cascades to separate different rare earth minerals, which can be scaled-up to the industrial process without any further experimental verification were systematically investigated. In order to stabilize the quality of products and improve the capability of automation for extraction process, we have also established an 241Am stimulated X-ray fluorescent energy dispersive method to detect the elemental composition in both organic and aqueous phases, which can be used as an on-line analysis method in practice. Furthermore, the expert system and the control software with open- and close-loop models have been set up. Combined with the detected data from on-line analysis, the flow-rates of extracting, feeding, scrubbing and stripping solutions can be controlled in an optimum status for the industrial cascades. In addition, we have developed a new multi-input and multi-output countercurrent extraction process for separating multi-component rare earth mixture with lower chemical cost and pollution.

  6. Application of imaging mass spectrometry approaches to facilitate metal-based anticancer drug research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ronald F S; Theiner, Sarah; Meibom, Anders; Koellensperger, Gunda; Keppler, Bernhard K; Dyson, Paul J

    2017-02-03

    Mass spectrometry imaging is being increasingly used in metal-based anticancer drug development to study elemental and/or molecular drug distributions in different biological systems. The main analytical tools employed are SIMS (especially nanoSIMS), LA-ICP-MSI and MALDI-MSI as well as a combination of complementary imaging techniques. Main challenges are appropriate sample preparation methods, reliable and validated quantification strategies and a trade-off between sensitivity and spatial resolution. So far, research has mostly focused on the development of analytical methods for imaging with the long term goal to study drug uptake into tumor tissue and toxicity affected organs and to identify cellular targets of metal-based drugs. In this review we cover the technological features of the mass spectrometry imaging methods used and give an overview of the applications in metal-based anticancer drug research as well as some future perspectives.

  7. Towards a portal and search engine to facilitate academic and research collaboration in engineering and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla Villarreal, Isaura Nathaly

    While international academic and research collaborations are of great importance at this time, it is not easy to find researchers in the engineering field that publish in languages other than English. Because of this disconnect, there exists a need for a portal to find Who's Who in Engineering Education in the Americas. The objective of this thesis is to built an object-oriented architecture for this proposed portal. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) model developed in this thesis incorporates the basic structure of a social network for academic purposes. Reverse engineering of three social networks portals yielded important aspects of their structures that have been incorporated in the proposed UML model. Furthermore, the present work includes a pattern for academic social networks..

  8. A One Health overview, facilitating advances in comparative medicine and translational research

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Table of contents A1 One health advances and successes in comparative medicine and translational research Cheryl Stroud A2 Dendritic cell-targeted gorilla adenoviral vector for cancer vaccination for canine melanoma Igor Dmitriev, Elena Kashentseva, Jeffrey N. Bryan, David T. Curiel A3 Viroimmunotherapy for malignant melanoma in the companion dog model Jeffrey N. Bryan, David Curiel, Igor Dmitriev, Elena Kashentseva, Hans Rindt, Carol Reinero, Carolyn J. Henry A4 Of mice and men (and dogs!): ...

  9. The collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 facilitates hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma progression by regulating multiple cellular factors and signal cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Cao, Yanhua; Bai, Lan; Zhu, Chengliang; Li, Rui; He, Hui; Liu, Yingle; Wu, Kailang; Liu, Fang; Wu, Jianguo

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major causes of acute and chronic liver diseases, fulminant hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC accounts for more than 85% of primary liver cancers and is the seventh most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths. However, the mechanism by which HBV induces HCC is largely unknown. Collagen triple helixes repeat containing 1 (CTHRC1) is a secreted protein and has characteristics of a circulating hormone with potentially broad implications for cell metabolism and physiology. CTHRC1 is associated with human cancers, but its effect on HCC is unknown. Here, we revealed that CTHRC1 expression is highly correlated with HCC progression in HBV-infected patients, and demonstrated that HBV stimulates CTHRC1 expression by activating nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), through extracellular signal-regulated kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (ERK/c-JNK) pathway. In addition, CTHRC1 activates hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) through regulating phosphoinosmde-3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI-3K/AKT/mTOR) pathway. More interestingly, CTHRC1 enhances colony formation, migration, and invasion of hepatoma cells by regulating p53 and stimulating matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression. In addition, knock-down of CTHRC1 results in the repression of HBV-associated carcinogenesis in nude mice. Thus, we revealed a novel mechanism by which HBV facilitates HCC development through activating the oncoprotein CTHRC1, which in turn enhances HBV-related HCC progression by stimulates colony formation, migration, and invasion of hepatoma cells through regulating multiple cellular factors and signal cascades.

  10. [Top ten progressions of clinical research in fundus diseases in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Ten research items in the past five years representing the progression of clinical research in fundus diseases in China were voted by specialists from the Ocular Fundus Disease Group of Ophthalmology Society of Chinese Medical Association. Choroidal neovascular disease, pediatric retinal disease, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, intraocular malignant tumor, and intraocular infection caused by specific pathogens are covered. Novel treatment, like anti-VEGF medication, PDT, minimally invasive vitrectomy, and intraocular injection, establishment of the Clinical Research Center of New Drug Development, and the epidemiologic study of fundus diseases are also included. These landmark research progressions represent the power and influence of Chinese fundus disease scholars in the world.

  11. The specialized centers of research in rheumatoid arthritis. Recent progress and prospects for future advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisetsky, D S; Haynes, B F; Lipsky, P E; Kang, A H; Postlethwaite, A E

    1991-06-01

    Specialized Centers of Research (SCOR) in arthritis are interdisciplinary research programs to investigate disease pathogenesis as well as advance diagnosis and treatment. A recent meeting of investigators from the three SCOR programs in rheumatoid arthritis demonstrated progress in several important research areas. Because of the multiplier effects of SCOR programs, new investigators have been enlisted into arthritis research as issues related to this disease become a focus of investigation throughout universities and medical centers. Continued progress by the SCOR programs should provide new targets for therapeutic intervention as well as strategies for monitoring disease activity.

  12. Tackling fuel poverty through facilitating energy tariff switching: a participatory action research study in vulnerable groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenc, A; Pedro, L; Badesha, B; Dize, C; Fernow, I; Dias, L

    2013-10-01

    A fifth of UK households live in fuel poverty, with significant health risks. Recent government strategy integrates public health with local government. This study examined barriers to switching energy tariffs and the impact of an energy tariff switching 'intervention' on vulnerable peoples' likelihood to, success in, switching tariffs. Participatory Action Research (PAR), conducted in West London. Community researchers from three voluntary/community organisations (VCOs) collaborated in recruitment, study design, data collection and analysis. VCOs recruited 151 participants from existing service users in three groups: Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) communities, older people (>75 yrs) and families with young children. Researchers conducted two semi-structured interviews with each participant, a week apart. The first interview asked about demographics, current energy supplier, financial situation, previous experience of tariff-switching and barriers to switching. Researchers then provided the 'intervention' - advice on tariff-switching, printed materials, access to websites. The second interview explored usefulness of the 'intervention', other information used, remaining barriers and information needs. Researchers kept case notes and a reflective log. Data was analysed thematically and collaboratively between the research coordinator and researchers. Quantitative data was analysed using SPSS, with descriptive statistics and Chi-squared tests. A total of 151 people were interviewed: 47 older people over 75 years, 51 families with young children, 51 BME (two were missing demographics). The majority were not White British or UK-born. Average household weekly income was £230. Around half described 'difficult' financial situations, 94% were receiving state benefits and 62% were in debt. Less than a third had tried to find a better energy deal; knowledge was the main barrier. After the intervention 19 people tried to switch, 13 did. Young families were most likely to

  13. Research Progress on Laser Cladding Amorphous Coatings on Metallic Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Ming-hui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure and property of amorphous alloy as well as the limitations of the traditional manufacturing methods for the bulk amorphous alloy were briefly introduced in this paper.Combined with characteristics of the laser cladding technique,the research status of the laser cladding Fe-based,Zr-based,Ni-based,Cu-based and Al-based amorphous coatings on the metal substrates were mainly summarized.The effects of factors such as laser processing parameter,micro-alloying element type and content and reinforcing phase on the laser cladding amorphous coatings were also involved.Finally,the main problems and the future research directions of the composition design and control of the laser-cladded amorphous coating,the design and optimization of the laser cladding process,and the basic theory of the laser cladding amorphous coatings were also put forward finally.

  14. Progress of Research on Organic Fibrosis with Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Lan Wang; Xiao-Ning Wang; Ping Liu

    2016-01-01

    Fibrosis is the remodeling and repair processes of chronic injuries. There are few effective therapies. Chinese medicine formula, the main pattern of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in clinic, applies a multi-component, multi-target and complicated approach in the treatment of diseases, and certainly shows good comprehensive therapeutic effects on fibrosis. In this review, the clinical study, effects and mechanism of action of Fuzheng Huayu recipe in the treatment of liver, pulmonary, and renal fibrosis was analyzed and evaluated. Meanwhile, based on the understanding of TCM pathogenesis for liver cirrhosis, this review will also briefly introduce the research of different classical Chinese medicine formulae with various functions in the treatment of experimental liver fibrosis induced by different methods, including comparing the efficacy, analyzing the action characteristics and mechanism of effective formulae, exploring pathological and biological basis of TCM diagnostic and therapeutic pattern, which will contribute to the research of TCM in the treatment of organ fibrosis.

  15. 20 YEARS OF PROGRESS IN DIARRHEAL DISEASE RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narain H. Punjabi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available When NAMRU started its collaboration work with the National Institute of Health, Research and Development (NIHRD, it became apparent that diarrheal disease was one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in Indonesia, especially in children. Many of the most important etiologic agents of diarrhea were not known and the percentage of diarrheas with an identifiable etiologic agent was very low. Since these early times NAMRU and NIHRD have worked together in all aspects of diarrheal disease research. Increased capabilities for the identification of bac­tériologie, parasitic and viral enteropathogens, new vaccines, and better treatment via oral rehydration solutions are some of the results of this collaboration.

  16. Research progress of traditional Chinese medicine treatment of diabeticnephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoming Wu; Na Zhang; Yanbin Gao

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the main reason of the end-stage renal failure and endanger human health seriously.Ef-fective treatment of diabetic nephropathy is in an urgent demand.In recent years,we confirmed the good effect of TCM on dia-betic nephropathy by evidence based medicine method.We also explored the treatment mechanism of TCM on diabetic ne-phropathy from overall level,cellular level and molecular level and found that both single herb and Chinese herbal compound can treat diabetic nephropathy by multiple targets control.TCM may become one of the effective methods for treating diabetic ne-phropathy.This paper will review the advances in this research field of recent years and provide references for future researches.

  17. [Research progression of translational medicine in gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maoran; Zhao, Gang; Zhu, Chunchao

    2014-02-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors which is a great threat to human health. In recent years, the reform of surgical mordalities and the optimization of radiation and chemotherapy is still far from reducing morbidity and mortality of gastric cancer. As a new research pattern, translational medicine has emerged in various clinical subjects, which leads to remarkable effects. In this paper, the definition and development of translational medicine, molecular markers and drug treatment of gastric cancer will be discussed and the feasibility of translational medicine in the treatment of gastric cancer will be explained. In our opinion, the intervention of translational medicine could change the current situation that scientific researches is severely disconnected with clinical practice and increase the detection rate of gastric cancer and the effective rate of adjuvant therapy after surgery to improve the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer.

  18. Research progress of the endocrine disrupting activities of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jingming; QIN Zhanfen; CONG Lin; XU Xiaobai

    2004-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are global persistent organic pollutants. Almost all commercial PCBs mixtures, single PCB congener, and their metabolites possess endocrine disrupting activities. They can disrupt the estrogen/androgen system, thyroid hormone system and other endocrine systems by interfering with the synthesis, transport, storage, metabolism, and feedback regulation of hormones. The newest data related to the endocrine disrupting activities of PCBs and their mechanisms are reviewed and the research perspectives are also discussed.

  19. Research progress in gecko locomotion and biomimetic gecko-robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Zhendong; SUN Jiurong

    2007-01-01

    Geckos are known for their excellent ability to climb walls and mn on ceilings. Previous studies of the gecko's locomotive and adhesive mechanisms, its neuro-sensory and neuro-modulatory systems, its fabrication of artificial setae array, and other related developments, have inspired further research on gecko-based and gecko-like robots. Key resesrch findings in this area are reviewed in the present paper.

  20. Register of Research in Progress on Mental Workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    Tempe, Arizona 95281 TASK Pilots at various levels of experience will fly simulated hostile threat missions in the A-10 or F-16 versions of the ASPT ...value of the tones. DEPENDENT VARIABLES ASPT computes several indices of mission performance. The primary thrust of the present research is to relate...physiological indices of mental workload to ASPT performance variables. The physiological variables of greatest initial interest are heart rate, pulse

  1. Research progress on animal models of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen DONG

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a degenerative disease of the central nervous system, and its pathogenesis is complex. Animal models play an important role in study on pathogenesis and treatment of AD. This paper summarized methods of building models, observation on animal models and evaluation index in recent years, so as to provide related evidence for basic and clinical research in future. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.08.003

  2. Research progress of arcuate fasciculus with diffusion tensor tractography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-feng GENG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Arcuate fasciculus (AF is a crucial part of human language network. Diffusion tensor tractography (DTT is the most common method for reconstruction of white matter fibers in vivo. DTT is widely applied in both basic researches on the anatomical structure and functions of AF and clinical studies on AF navigation. However, the validity of AF with DTT needs further investigation in the future. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.04.015

  3. Ubiquitous Wireless Computing: Current Research Progress, Challenging, and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Elyas, Palantei

    2014-01-01

    - The aggressive research activities and generous studies focusing on the ubiquitous mobile computing carried-out during the last two decades have gained very tremendous outcomes to apply in broad areas of modern society lives. In the near future, the computing technology application is highly possible to emerge as the dominant method to connect any objects to the global ICT infrastructure, the internet. This talk mainly discusses several R&D achievements performed during the last five yea...

  4. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dear, R J; Akimoto, T; Arens, E A; Brager, G; Candido, C; Cheong, K W D; Li, B; Nishihara, N; Sekhar, S C; Tanabe, S; Toftum, J; Zhang, H; Zhu, Y

    2013-12-01

    Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has taken place in thermal comfort thinking over the last 20 years; a shift away from the physically based determinism of Fanger's comfort model toward the mainstream and acceptance of the adaptive comfort model. Another noticeable shift has been from the undesirable toward the desirable qualities of air movement. Additionally, sophisticated models covering the physics and physiology of the human body were developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we deliver comfortable indoor environments. These trends, in turn, continue setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research for the next decades.

  5. Italian autochthonous pigs: progress report and research perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Franci

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics and research perspectives of autochthonous Italian pig are summarised and discussed. Nowadays only six breeds are still farmed (Mora Romagnola, Cinta Senese, Casertana, Calabrese, Nero Siciliano and Sarda, on twenty-one local pig genotypes existing in Italy at beginning of the last century. Recently all the breeds are recorded on the National Pedigree Register. For the genetic conservation of these populations, an adequate management of mating appears fundamental to limit the inbreeding and to increase the genetic variability, as nowadays it is carried out in Cinta Senese that offers the deepest pedigree. For Nero Siciliano and Sarda, individuation of morphological standard and recovery of appropriate genotypes appear also urgent. From the recent literature it is evident that the local breeds are worse than the improved ones in reproductive performance and productive traits as growth rate, feed conversion and carcass composition but they show interesting quality of meat and fat. Among the six breeds Cinta Senese, Mora Romagnola and Casertana seem to show higher body size and faster growth rate. The link with free-range rearing increases the commercial value of products of local pigs, because of both effective characterization and consumer suggestion, but research is helpful to increase the knowledge of their rearing system. The more interesting fields of research seem the following: genetic traceability; feeding traceability; evolution of body composition; sustainable exploitation of natural resources.

  6. Valuation of Ecosystem Services:Research Progress and Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ling

    2012-01-01

    The ecosystem services are material base and natural capital for sustainable development of human being. Valuation of ecosystem services is favorable for people realizing the importance of natural ecosystem to human being, and considering its long-term influence on sustainable development of human society when making decisions. Besides, it is an attempt of ecology, geography and other natural sciences to influence social decision process by economic methods. The Value of the World’s Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital, written by Robert Costanza et al., in 1997, is generally regarded as a masterpiece for the research of valuing ecosystem services. However, the classifying standard of ecosystem services, the method of various services summation and the purpose for static global value, had confronted many criticisms. Still to now, accurately valuing ecosystem services is not easy, because of the complexity of natural ecosystem, the weak capability of economic system to pricing ecosystem services and the lack of more study in this field. Based on the criticisms summarizing and comprehensive analysis, further study suggestions of ecosystem services valuation is presented: multi-scale integrated and community participation applied in evaluation, dynamic changes of material value and intangible value of ecosystem services, investigation and simulation studies of the marginal value when ecosystem services changed, associated with related areas like ecological compensation research, and research on the market-oriented evaluation of ecosystem’s intangible values.

  7. Folates in plants: research advances and progress in crop biofortification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelova, Vera; Ambach, Lars; Rébeillé, Fabrice; Stove, Christophe; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2017-03-01

    Folates, also known as B9 vitamins, serve as donors and acceptors in one-carbon (C1) transfer reactions. The latter are involved in synthesis of many important biomolecules, such as amino acids, nucleic acids and vitamin B5. Folates also play a central role in the methyl cycle that provides one-carbon groups for methylation reactions. The important functions fulfilled by folates make them essential in all living organisms. Plants, being able to synthesize folates de novo, serve as an excellent dietary source of folates for animals that lack the respective biosynthetic pathway. Unfortunately, the most important staple crops such as rice, potato and maize are rather poor sources of folates. Insufficient folate consumption is known to cause severe developmental disorders in humans. Two approaches are employed to fight folate deficiency: pharmacological supplementation in the form of folate pills and biofortification of staple crops. As the former approach is considered rather costly for the major part of the world population, biofortification of staple crops is viewed as a decent alternative in the struggle against folate deficiency. Therefore strategies, challenges and recent progress of folate enhancement in plants will be addressed in this review. Apart from the ever-growing need for the enhancement of nutritional quality of crops, the world population faces climate change catastrophes or environmental stresses, such as elevated temperatures, drought, salinity that severely affect growth and productivity of crops. Due to immense diversity of their biochemical functions, folates take part in virtually every aspect of plant physiology. Any disturbance to the plant folate metabolism leads to severe growth inhibition and, as a consequence, to a lower productivity. Whereas today’s knowledge of folate biochemistry can be considered very profound, evidence on the physiological roles of folates in plants only starts to emerge. In the current review we will discuss the

  8. Barriers and Facilitators to Research Use Among Allied Health Practitioners: A Mixed-Method Approach to Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Dunne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives – The disparity between what is known to be effective and what is done in practice points to barriers to research use among health practitioners. Library and information services (LIS collect, organize and disseminate published research findings so they may be uniquely positioned to be of influence. This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to research use among allied health practitioners working in the alcohol and other drugs (AOD field in Ireland, and to explore the services, strategies, and resources that may help alleviate these issues.Methods – Three focus groups were held with AOD practitioners. A survey questionnaire was then sent by post to 175 counsellors. The survey included the Barriers to Research Utilization Scale (Barriers Scale (Funk et al. 1991, which assessed potential barriers from four factors: practitioner, setting, qualities of the research, and communication.Results – The number of responses was 71 (41%. All communication-related Barriers Scale items, and some items associated with the setting and practitioner, were perceived to be a moderate or great barrier by the majority of survey respondents. Similar issues were also raised in focus groups, where language, presentation, and time to engage with research were considered significant influences. Qualitative aspects of the study also revealed scepticism about research application and relevance.All proposed LIS were rated as moderate or great facilitators by the majority of respondents who expressed an opinion (those who choose “no opinion” or did not respond, 6–8%, were excluded.Conclusions – The high incidence of communication-related issues among top barriers and the enthusiasm expressed about proposed library services and training reveals the key role that LIS personnel can play in enabling practitioners to use research in practice. The addition of setting and practitioner factors indicates that a holistic, collaborative approach to

  9. The challenges of facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika

    and at the same time make closures in order to secure progress in the process? The analysis draws upon theoretical perspectives on deliberative democracy and facilitation. Whereas, the scholarly literature on deliberative democracy is rich in describing potential outcomes and criteria for deliberative processes...... hours transcriptions of three table deliberations; questionnaires of 91 participants, 2 focus group interviews with participants and facilitators....

  10. Training facilitators and supervisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Louise Binow; O Connor, Maja; Krogh, Kristian;

    At the Master’s program in Medicine at Aarhus University, Denmark, we have developed a faculty development program for facilitators and supervisors in 4 progressing student modules in communication, cooperation, and leadership. 1) A course for module 1 and 3 facilitators inspired by the apprentic...

  11. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup for Federal Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation, FY10 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.

    2010-10-26

    The Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort that the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) developed in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as applied to operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The goal of the EOS project is to facilitate activities of the estuary/ocean RME subgroup as it coordinates design and implementation of federal RME in the lower Columbia River and estuary. The EOS is one of multiple work groups in the federal research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort developed in response to responsibilities arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the FCRPS. The EOS is tasked by NOAA Fisheries and the Action Agencies to design and coordinate implementation of the federal RME plan for the lower Columbia River and estuary, including the plume.

  12. Recruitment and retention of pregnant women into clinical research trials: an overview of challenges, facilitators, and best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Paula M; Saint-Victor, Diane S; Isaacs, Margaret Brewinski; Kim, Sonnie; Swamy, Geeta K; Sheffield, Jeanne S; Edwards, Kathryn M; Villafana, Tonya; Kamagate, Ouda; Ault, Kevin

    2014-12-15

    Pregnant women are a vulnerable group who are needed in clinical research studies to advance prevention and treatment options for this population. Yet, pregnant women remain underrepresented in clinical research. Through the lens of the socioecological model, we highlight reported barriers and facilitators to recruitment and retention of pregnant women in studies that sought their participation. We trace historical, policy-based reasons for the exclusion of pregnant women in clinical studies to present-day rationale for inclusion of this group. The findings highlight why it has been difficult to recruit and retain this population over time. A body of literature suggests that integrative sampling and recruitment methods that leverage the influence and reach of prenatal providers will overcome recruitment challenges. We argue that these strategies, in combination with building strong engagement with existing community-based organizations, will enable teams to more effectively promote and retain pregnant women in future longitudinal cohort studies.

  13. Progressive Research and Outreach at the WestRock Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Johnny Eugene; Lantz Caughey, Austin; O'Keeffe, Brendon; Johnson, Michael; Murphy Williams, Rosa Nina

    2016-01-01

    The WestRock Observatory (WRO), located in Columbus State University's Coca-Cola Space Science Center (CCSSC), is dedicated to education and research in astronomy through hands-on engagement and public participation. The WRO has recently received funding to upgrade the PlaneWave CDK 24-inch Corrected Dall-Kirkham Astrograph telescope. Recent additions to the telescope include an all-new Apogee Alta F16 CCD camera complete with a filter wheel (with narrowband and broadband filters) and a Minor Planet Center Observatory Code (W22). These new upgrades have allowed Astrophysics students to conduct unique research ranging from high precision minor planet astrometry, to broad- and narrow-band imaging of nebulae, to light curve analysis for variable star photometry. These new endeavours, in conjunction with an existing suite of Solar telescopes, gives the WRO the ability to live-stream solar and night-time observing. These streams are available both online and through interactive displays at the CCSSC making the WRO an educational outreach program for a worldwide public audience and a growing astronomical community.Current funding is allowing students to get even more research experience than previously attainable further enabling the expansion of our publicly available gallery of nebula and galaxy images. Support and funding for the acquirement,installation, and upgrading of the new PlaneWave CDK24 has been provided by the International Museum and Library Services via the Museums for America Award Additionally, individual NASA Space Grant Scholarships have helped to secure a number of student interns partially responsible for recent improvements.

  14. Research progress of gene target therapy for refractory epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-hua TANG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the strategies of gene therapy for the treatment of refractory epilepsy (RE mainly include modulating neurotransmitter systems, neuropeptide Y (NPY and neurotrophic factors. Among them, the hot target spots include γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA and its receptor, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA and its receptor, galanin, NPY and neurotrophic factors. This paper reviews the chief research results, and advantages and disadvantages of studies, and provides evidence for the treatment of refractory epilepsy. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.12.004

  15. Research progress in live attenuated Brucella vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Wu, Qingmin

    2013-01-01

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis, which is a globally occurring zoonotic disease that is characterized by abortion in domestic animals and undulant fever, arthritis, endocarditis, and meningitis in humans. There are currently no licensed vaccines against brucellosis for human use, and only a few licensed live Brucella vaccines are available for use in animals. However, the available animal vaccines may cause abortion and are associated with lower protection rates in animals and higher virulence in humans. Much research has been performed recently to develop novel Brucella vaccines for the prevention and control of animal brucellosis. This article discusses the approaches and strategies for novel live attenuated vaccine development.

  16. Recent progress in neurodegenerative disorder research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders,including Alzheimer’s disease(AD) and Parkinson’s disease(PD),are common disorders of the central nervous system among aging populations.In the last 10 years insights concerning the etiology,diagnosis and pathogenesis of these diseases have come from research carried out by Chinese neuroscientists.Their findings include the description of Chinese patients with autosomal recessive early-onset PD,the function of the tau protein,molecular mechanisms underlying protein aggregation,and the identification of biomarkers for AD diagnosis and molecules/compounds with potential neuroprotective activities.

  17. Research progress of relationship between gap junctions and movement disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-lei WANG

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gap junctions (GJ is an important way to transmit signals among body cells. Studies have confirmed that changes on structure and composition of gap junction proteins are associated with many kinds of diseases. Movement disorders is a common disease of the central nervous system (CNS, which has a certain degree of correlation with GJ, and it has become a key factor in the domestic and foreign research of pathogenesis and treatment mechanism of central nervons system diseases. This paper reviews GJ and its relationship with movement disorders. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.12.011

  18. Progress in Research on Materials Under Microgravity in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Nuofu; CHEN Wanchun; LUO Xinghong; YE Yude

    2004-01-01

    Research on materials under microgravity in China began in the 1980s, sparked by Prof. Lanying Lin (academician of CAS), Prof. Xiji Wang (academician of CAS), Prof. Guirong Min (academician of CAS), and Prof. Huabao Lin (academician of CAS), and others. The first semiconductor crystal, first optical crystal, and first alloys were grown in space on board a recoverable satellite in 1987. Since then, microgravity materials science became a new scientific branch in China.Scientific and technical activities on space crystal growth and solidification are carried out through two major programs: ground-based studies and orbital experiments. The main results obtained during 2001-2003 are reported below.

  19. [Research progress of mechanism of functional dyspepsia treated with acupuncture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kaiwei; Zhao, Ling; Yang, Jie; Lan, Ying; Xu, Jing; Wei, Chenchen; Liang, Fanrong

    2015-09-01

    Literature about functional dyspepsia treated with acupuncture in recent 5 years is retrieved in China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang database and PubMed. The research achievements are arranged and summed up to explore the mechanism of acupuncture for functional dyspepsia. It is found that acupuncture can regulate the secretion of braingut petide, and cause the coordination response of limbic system-brain. Also, it adjusts serum molecule metabolin and the gene expression of the transduction pathway of adjustment signal for rats. It is believed that functional dyspepsia treated with acupuncture is through multiple ways, and adjusting the function of braingut axis is one of the important mechanisms.

  20. Effects of Device-Facilitated Isometric Progressive Resistance Oropharyngeal Therapy on Swallowing and Health-Related Outcomes in Older Adults with Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogus-Pulia, Nicole; Rusche, Nicole; Hind, Jacqueline A; Zielinski, Jill; Gangnon, Ronald; Safdar, Nasia; Robbins, JoAnne

    2016-02-01

    Swallowing disorders (dysphagia) are associated with malnutrition, aspiration pneumonia, and mortality in older adults. Strengthening interventions have shown promising results, but the effectiveness of treating dysphagia in older adults remains to be established. The Swallow STRengthening OropharyNGeal (Swallow STRONG) Program is a multidisciplinary program that employs a specific approach to oropharyngeal strengthening-device-facilitated (D-F) isometric progressive resistance oropharyngeal (I-PRO) therapy-with the goal of reducing health-related sequelae in veterans with dysphagia. Participants completed 8 weeks of D-F I-PRO therapy while receiving nutritional counseling and respiratory status monitoring. Assessments were completed at baseline, 4, and 8 weeks. At each visit, videofluoroscopic swallowing studies were performed. Dietary and swallowing-related quality of life questionnaires were administered. Long-term monitoring for 6-17 months after enrollment allowed for comparison of pneumonia incidence and hospitalizations to the 6-17 months before the program. Veterans with dysphagia confirmed with videofluoroscopy (N = 56; 55 male, 1 female; mean age 70) were enrolled. Lingual pressures increased at anterior (effect estimate = 92.5, P dysphagia.

  1. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, July 1--September 30, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, A J [comp.

    1989-02-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through June 30, 1988. 71 figs., 24 tabs.

  2. Integrating anthropogenic hazard data to facilitate research related to the exploitation of geo-resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Blanke, Aglaja; Olszewska, Dorota; Orlecka-Sikora, Beata; Lasocki, Stanisław; Kozlovskaya, Elena; Nevalainen, Jouni; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Grasso, Jean-Robert; Schaming, Marc; Bigarre, Pascal; Kinscher, Jannes-Lennart; Saccorotti, Gilberto; Garcia, Alexander; Cassidy, Nigel; Toon, Sam; Mutke, Grzegorz; Sterzel, Mariusz; Szepieniec, Tomasz

    2017-04-01

    The Thematic Core Service "Anthropogenic Hazards" (TCS AH) integrates data and provides various data services in a form of complete e-research infrastructure for advanced analysis and geophysical modelling of anthropogenic hazard due to georesources exploitation. TCS AH is based on the prototype built in the framework of the IS-EPOS project POIG.02.03.00-14-090/13-00 (https://tcs.ah-epos.eu/). The TCS AH is currently being further developed within EPOS Implementation phase (H2020-INFRADEV-1-2015-1, INFRADEV-3-2015). The TCS AH aims to have a measurable impact on innovative research and development by providing a comprehensive, wide-scale and high quality research infrastructure available to the scientific community, industrial partners and public. One of the main deliverable of TCS AH is the access to numerous induced seismicity datasets called "episodes". The episode is defined as a comprehensive set of data describing the geophysical process induced or triggered by technological activity, which under certain circumstances can become hazardous for people, infrastructure and the environment. The episode is a time-correlated, standardized collection of geophysical, technological and other relevant geodata forming complete documentation of seismogenic process. In addition to the 6 episodes already implemented during previous phase of integration, and 3 episodes integrated within SHEER project, at least 18 new episodes related to conventional hydrocarbon extraction, reservoir treatment, underground mining and geothermal energy production are currently being integrated into the TCS AH. The heterogeneous multi-disciplinary data from different episodes are subjected to an extensive quality control (QC) procedure composed of five steps and involving the collaborative work of data providers, quality control team, IT team, that is being supervised by the quality control manager with the aid of Redmine platform. The first three steps of QC are performed at local data center

  3. Research progress on reconstruction of meniscus in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Pengsong; Wang, Hai; Wang, Yiwei; Song, Kedong; Li, Tianqing

    2017-05-01

    Meniscus damages are most common in sports injuries and aged knees. One third of meniscus lesions are known as white-white zone or nonvascular zones, which are composed of chondrocyte and extracellular matrix composition only. Due to low vascularization the ability of regeneration in such zones is inherently limited, leading to impossible self-regeneration post damage. Meniscus tissue engineering is known for emerging techniques for treating meniscus damage, but there are questions that need to be answered, including an optimal and suitable cell source, the usability of growth factor, the selectivity of optimal biomaterial scaffolds as well as the technology for improving partial reconstruction of meniscus tears. This review focuses on current research on the in vitro reconstruction of the meniscus using tissue engineering methods with the expectation to develop a series of tissue engineering meniscus products for the benefit of sports injuries. With rapid growth of clinical demand, the key breakthrough of meniscus tissue engineering research foundation is enlarged to a great extent. This review discusses aspects of meniscus tissue engineering, which is relative to the clinical treatment of meniscus injuries for further support and establishment of fundamental and clinical studies.

  4. The latest progress in research of plastics processing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Jinping

    2012-01-01

    According to the great demand for the" green" plastics processing technology of the low energy consumption, high efficiency and environmental protection in plastics industry, the plastics processing method and technology based on the elongation rheology, with continuing evolution and innovation of the plastics plasticating and conveying method, are presented and researched on the basis of the plastics dynamic processing method arid equipment, and the plastics plasticating and conveying process in the vane extrusion system, the technical characteristics and the applications of vane plasticating and conveying technology are discussed. The research results show that compared with the conventional processing equipment, this new technology and equipment shows many outstanding advantages, such as shortening the thermo-meehanical history of the plastics processing by more than 50 % , reducing the energy consumption by 30 % or so, improving the mixing and blending effects, improving the quality of the products and the adaptability to materials, etc. , and it is found that the new technology and equipment has special superiority in the fields of the processing for material systems, such as the multiphase and multicomponent composite materials, the shear heat sensitive macromolecular materials, etc.

  5. Research progress of the fractional Fourier transform in signal processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The fractional Fourier transform is a generalization of the classical Fourier transform, which is introduced from the mathematic aspect by Namias at first and has many applications in optics quickly. Whereas its potential appears to have remained largely unknown to the signal processing community until 1990s. The fractional Fourier transform can be viewed as the chirp-basis expansion directly from its definition, but essentially it can be interpreted as a rotation in the time-frequency plane, i.e. the unified time-frequency transform. With the order from 0 increasing to 1, the fractional Fourier transform can show the characteristics of the signal changing from the time domain to the frequency domain. In this research paper, the fractional Fourier transform has been comprehensively and systematically treated from the signal processing point of view. Our aim is to provide a course from the definition to the applications of the fractional Fourier transform, especially as a reference and an introduction for researchers and interested readers.

  6. Open Source Opens Doors: Repurposing Library Software to Facilitate Faculty Research and Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L. Stump

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Asked to convert a faculty-created Microsoft Word document of biblical references found within popular films into a searchable database for scholars, the Albright College library staff helped create a multi-access database called Bible in the Reel World. The database relied on student workers for inputting data, used MARC standard formatting for future portability, and encouraged interactive feedback, enabling scholars to submit comments and suggest additional films and references. Using the open source integrated library system Koha, MarcEdit software, and free record exporting from IMDb, library staff created a fully-searchable database for researchers and scholars to examine the use of scripture in popular film.

  7. Data Quality Parameters and Web Services Facilitate User Access to Research-Ready Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabant, C. M.; Templeton, M. E.; Van Fossen, M.; Weertman, B.; Ahern, T. K.; Casey, R. E.; Keyson, L.; Sharer, G.

    2016-12-01

    IRIS Data Services has the mission of providing efficient access to a wide variety of seismic and related geoscience data to the user community. With our vast archive of freely available data, we recognize that there is a constant challenge to provide data to scientists and students that are of a consistently useful level of quality. To address this issue, we began by undertaking a comprehensive survey of the data and generating metrics measurements that provide estimates of data quality. These measurements can inform the scientist of the level of suitability of a given set of data for their scientific investigation. They also serve as a quality assurance check for network operators, who can act on this information to improve their current recording or mitigate issues with already recorded data and metadata. Following this effort, IRIS Data Services is moving forward to focus on providing tools for the scientist that make it easier to access data of a quality and characteristic that suits their investigation. Data that fulfill this criterion are termed "research-ready". In addition to filtering data by type, geographic location, proximity to events, and specific time ranges, we will offer the ability to filter data based on specific quality assessments. These include signal-to-noise ratio measurements, data continuity, timing quality, absence of channel cross-talk, and potentially many other factors. Our goal is to ensure that the user receives only the data that meets their specifications and will not require extensive review and culling after delivery. We will present the latest developments of the MUSTANG automated data quality system and introduce the Research-Ready Data Sets (RRDS) service. Together these two technologies serve as a data quality assurance ecosystem that will provide benefit to the scientific community by aiding efforts to readily find appropriate and suitable data for use in any number of objectives.

  8. A Comparison of National Policies on Research Involving Human Subjects to Facilitate Review and Approval of Collaborative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-26

    procedures, undergoing acceptable, occupational training techniques (e.g. military pilots taking centrifuge training). However, experiments on...mean: 20 a living individual about whom an investigator (whether professional or student ) conducting research obtains (1) data through...which may arise from work activities. Human Tissue Act 2004 A licence is required for removal of tissue and for retention and use of tissue

  9. Cylindrospermopsin: A Decade of Progress on Bioaccumulation Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Kinnear

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrospermopsin (CYN is rapidly being recognised as one of the most globally important of the freshwater algal toxins. The ever-expanding distribution of CYN producers into temperate zones is heightening concern that this toxin will represent serious human, as well as environmental, health risks across many countries. Since 1999, a number of studies have demonstrated the ability for CYN to bioaccumulate in freshwater organisms. This paper synthesizes the most current information on CYN accumulation, including notes on the global distribution of CYN producers, and a précis of CYN’s ecological and human effects. Studies on the bioaccumulation of CYN are systematically reviewed, together with an analysis of patterns of accumulation. A discussion on the factors influencing bioaccumulation rates and potential is also provided, along with notes on detection, monitoring and risk assessments. Finally, key gaps in the existing research are identified for future study.

  10. Research progress of Tunisian medicinal plants used for acute diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wissem Aidi Wannes; Brahim Marzouk

    2016-01-01

    The use of the medicinal plants in treating diabetes is frequent in Africa, especially in Tunisia, and it is ritually transmitted from generation to generation within cultures. Many of Tunisian medicinal plants have been experimentally validated. A comprehensive re-view was conducted to pile up information from scientific journal articles, including indigenous knowledge researches, about Tunisian medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes. The aim of this review article is to provide the reader with information concerning the importance of Tunisian medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes and to draw attention of the health professionals and scientists working in the field of phar-macology and therapeutics to develop new drug formulations to cure different kinds of diabetes.

  11. Nitrilases in nitrile biocatalysis: recent progress and forthcoming research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decades, nitrilases have drawn considerable attention because of their application in nitrile degradation as prominent biocatalysts. Nitrilases are derived from bacteria, filamentous fungi, yeasts, and plants. In-depth investigations on their natural sources function mechanisms, enzyme structure, screening pathways, and biocatalytic properties have been conducted. Moreover, the immobilization, purification, gene cloning and modifications of nitrilase have been dwelt upon. Some nitrilases are used commercially as biofactories for carboxylic acids production, waste treatment, and surface modification. This critical review summarizes the current status of nitrilase research, and discusses a number of challenges and significant attempts in its further development. Nitrilase is a significant and promising biocatalyst for catalytic applications. PMID:23106943

  12. Research Progress on Preparation of Graphene by Supercritical Fluid Exfoliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HU Sheng-fei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a new type of two-dimensional carbonaceous material, graphene has excellent physical properties and great application potential. The key problem to realize graphene industrialization is to find a large-scale preparing method of graphene with high quality and low cost. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of preparation methods for graphene were first reviewed, and then the mechanism, research status and characterization methods of supercritical fluids exfoliated method were introduced in details. And the features of supercritical fluids exfoliated method with the assistance of ultrasonication and pyrene-polymers were summarized. The advantages of supercritical fluids exfoliated method are simple equipment, processing conditions easy to achieve and products with high quality, and a new way of thinking for the industrial production of graphene is provided.

  13. Research progress of primary prevention for stroke: reports from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-dan TU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese researchers have published some studies in English journals in the past 2 years. These studies focused on status and costs of primary prevention for stroke, warfarin for atrial fibrillation (AF, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI and angiotensin Ⅱ receptor blocker (ARB for diabetes mellitus, vitamin B supplementation for reducing plasm homocysteine level and the risk of cerebrovascular disease, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C levels and asymptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis, and Qigong exercises for the prevention of stroke. In this review, we outline the data on primary prevention for stroke and review the risk factors and their management. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.01.004

  14. Overview of the Research Progress in the Earth Tessellation Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Xuesheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the related literatures on the earth tessellation grid (ETG in recent 10 years, the research achievements in this field are systematic reviewed in four aspects, i.e. the earth subdivision modeling (include quadrangle subdivision, equal-area subdivision and 3D subdivision, encoding computation (include hierarchical encoding computation, filling curve encoding computation and integer coordinate encoding computation, grid quality assessment (include evaluation criteria, evaluation factors, and propagation trend in diffferent levels and typical applications (include government agency applications,business software applications and industry applications. The structural characteristics, applicable models and their shortcomings in the different grid models are given in details. Finally, some advanced academic problems in the ETG are given based on the completeness of basic theory, the efficiency of grid computing, and the reliability of grid quality.

  15. Progress in the research and development of photonic structure devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Van Hoi; Bui, Huy; Van Nguyen, Thuy; Nguyen, The Anh; Son Pham, Thanh; Pham, Van Dai; Cham Tran, Thi; Trang Hoang, Thu; Ngo, Quang Minh

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we review the results of the research and development of photonic structure devices performed in the Institute of Materials Science in the period from 2010-2015. We have developed a configuration of 1D photonic crystal (PC) microcavities based on porous silicon (PS) layers and applied them to optical sensing devices that can be used for the determination of organic content with a very low concentration in different liquid environments. Various important scientific and technological applications of photonic devices such as the ultralow power operation of microcavity lasers, the inhibition of spontaneous emissions and the manipulation of light amplification by combining the surface plasmonic effect and the microcavity are expected. We developed new kinds of photonic structures for optical filters based on guided-mode resonances in coupled slab waveguide gratings, which have great potential for application in fiber-optic communication and optical sensors.

  16. [Progress in researches on synthetic antimicrobial macromolecular polymers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Gang; Yang, Lihua; Chu, Liangyin

    2010-08-01

    Broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides provide a new way to address the urgent growing problem of bacterial resistance. However, the limited natural resources and the high cost of extraction and purification of natural antimicrobial peptides can not meet the requirements of clinical application. In order to solve this problem, researchers have utilized two basic common structural features (amphiphilic and cationic) for designing and preparing synthetic antimicrobial macromolecular polymers. During the last decade, several kinds of amphiphilic polymers, including arylamide oligomers, phenylene ethynylenes, polymethacrylates, polynorbornenes as well as nylon-3 polymers have been synthesized. In this paper, the structures, antibacterial activities and selectivities of these polymers are reviewed, and the effects of molecular size, polarity and ratio of hydrophobic groups, positive charge density on antibacterial activity and selectivity are also summarized.

  17. [Research in elementary particles and interactions]. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adair, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Schmidt, M.

    1992-05-01

    Research of the Yale University groups in the areas of elementary particles and their interactions are outlined. Work on the following topics is reported: development of CDF trigger system; SSC detector development; study of heavy flavors at TPL; search for composite objects produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions; high-energy polarized lepton-nucleon scattering; rare K{sup +} decays; unpolarized high-energy muon scattering; muon anomalous magnetic moment; theoretical high-energy physics including gauge theories, symmetry breaking, string theory, and gravitation theory; study of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions with the SLD detector at SLAC; and the production and decay of particles containing charm and beauty quarks.

  18. Research progress of secondary prevention for stroke: reports from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu LU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chinese researchers have published some studies in English journals since 2013 on the secondary prevention of stroke. These studies focused on implementation of a structured guideline-based program for the secondary prevention of ischemic stroke in China, clopidogrel with aspirin in acute minor stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA, higher risk of recurrent ischemic events in patients with intracranial in-stent restenosis, association of hypertension with stroke recurrence depends on ischemic stroke subtype, impact of quality of anticoagulation control, and so on. In this review, we outline the data of these high-qualitied studies on secondary prevention of stroke. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.03.004

  19. Recent progress in 8igenomic research of liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Along the course of occurrence and development of liver cancer,the corresponding somatic cells accumulate some important genetic variations.These variations may be divided into two categories.For the genetic changes closely related to etiology of liver cancer,the well-known cases include insertion and integration of the hepatitis B virus(HBV) DNA after infection,and mutations at site 249 of the tumor suppressor gene p53 induced by exposure to aflatoxin B1.The secondary genetic changes include amplification and deletion of certain chromosome regions,mutations in p53 at the sites other than 249,as well as the mutational activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway.The tumor cells with these genetic variations may gradually become the dominant clones under evolutionary selection.Besides,identification of genetic susceptible against risk of liver malignancy is also an important aspect of research in this field.

  20. Recent progress in 8igenomic research of liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN ZeGuang

    2009-01-01

    Along the course of occurrence and development of liver cancer, the corresponding somatic cells ac-cumulate some important genetic variations. These variations may be divided into two categories. For the genetic changes closely related to etiology of liver cancer, the well-known cases include insertion and integration of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA after infection, and mutations at site 249 of the tumor suppressor gene p53 induced by exposure to aflatoxin B1. The secondary genetic changes include amplification and deletion of certain chromosome regions, mutations in p53 at the sites other than 249, as well as the mutational activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway. The tumor cells with these genetic variations may gradually become the dominant clones under evolutionary selection. Besides, identification of genetic susceptible against risk of liver malignancy is also an important aspect of re-search in this field.

  1. Research progress of Tunisian medicinal plants used for acute diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissem Aidi Wannes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of the medicinal plants in treating diabetes is frequent in Africa, especially in Tunisia, and it is ritually transmitted from generation to generation within cultures. Many of Tunisian medicinal plants have been experimentally validated. A comprehensive review was conducted to pile up information from scientific journal articles, including indigenous knowledge researches, about Tunisian medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes. The aim of this review article is to provide the reader with information concerning the importance of Tunisian medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes and to draw attention of the health professionals and scientists working in the field of pharmacology and therapeutics to develop new drug formulations to cure different kinds of diabetes.

  2. [Progress in research of urban greenhouse gas emission inventory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cao-Cao; Liu, Chun-Lan; Tian, Gang; Wang, Hai-Hua; Li, Zheng

    2010-11-01

    Urban areas carry main responsibility for consuming massive energy sources and make great contribution to global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. City and local governments are seen to have a key role in climate mitigation. Hence,one of the important work concerns accounting for city greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, because it plays significant role in setting reduction targets and evaluating success of local measures. However, open system architectures like city face many challenges for greenhouse gas accounting. Based on the review in details the methodology and case study, our study focuses on the difference and interconnection between country and city GHG accounts,and uncertainty of accounts. Further, we propose the valuable experience in order to improve domestic research on city GHG emission inventory.

  3. Nitrilases in nitrile biocatalysis: recent progress and forthcoming research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Jin-Song

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past decades, nitrilases have drawn considerable attention because of their application in nitrile degradation as prominent biocatalysts. Nitrilases are derived from bacteria, filamentous fungi, yeasts, and plants. In-depth investigations on their natural sources function mechanisms, enzyme structure, screening pathways, and biocatalytic properties have been conducted. Moreover, the immobilization, purification, gene cloning and modifications of nitrilase have been dwelt upon. Some nitrilases are used commercially as biofactories for carboxylic acids production, waste treatment, and surface modification. This critical review summarizes the current status of nitrilase research, and discusses a number of challenges and significant attempts in its further development. Nitrilase is a significant and promising biocatalyst for catalytic applications.

  4. Progress of experimental research on nuclear safety in NPIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Houjun; Zan, Yuanfeng; Peng, Chuanxin; Xi, Zhao; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Ying; He, Yanqiu; Huang, Yanping [Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu (China)

    2016-05-15

    Two kinds of Generation III commercial nuclear power plants have been developed in CNNC (China National Nuclear Corporation), one is a small modular reactor ACP100 having an equivalent electric power 100 MW, and the other is HPR1000 (once named ACP1000) having an equivalent electric power 1 000 MW. Both NPPs widely adopted the design philosophy of advanced passive safety systems and considered the lessons from Fukushima Daichi nuclear accident. As the backbone of the R and D of ACP100 and HPR1000, NPIC (Nuclear power Institute of China) has finished the engineering verification test of main safety systems, including passive residual heat removal experiments, reactor cavity injection experiments, hydrogen combustion experiments, and passive autocatalytic recombiner experiments. Above experimental work conducted in NPIC and further research plan of nuclear safety are introduced in this paper.

  5. [Research progress in molecular mechanism of animal seasonal reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dong-Wei; Chu, Ming-Xing

    2011-07-01

    Animal seasonal reproduction involves complicated neuroendocrine processes of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. It is dominantly regulated by photoperiod, a crucial environmental cue. Melatonin, as internal photoperiod signal, regulates seasonal reproduction of animals. In recent years, it has been found that Kiss1/GPR54 system, which may influence GnRH secretion evidently, is regulated by both melatonin and feedback action of gonadal steroid hormones. Consequently, Kiss1/GPR54 system may play a key role in seasonal reproduction. Additionally, there exists another potential retrograde control pathway of seasonal breeding, which involves TSH-DIO2/DIO3 system. TSH-DIO2/ DIO3 system affects synthesis and secretion of GnRH and is regulated by melatonin, as well as Kiss1/GPR54 system. In this article, melatonin signal, especially the research advances of Kissl/GPR54 system and TSH-DIO2/DIO3 system were reviewed.

  6. Progress in Open Rotor Research: A U.S. Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zante, Dale E.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the 1970s oil crisis, NASA created the Advanced Turboprop Project (ATP) to mature technologies for high-speed propellers to enable large reductions in fuel burn relative to turbofan engines of that era. Both single rotation and contra- rotation concepts were designed and tested in ground based facilities as well as flight. Some novel concepts/configurations were proposed as part of the effort. The high-speed propeller concepts did provide fuel burn savings, albeit with some acoustics and structural challenges to overcome. When fuel prices fell, the business case for radical new engine configurations collapsed and the research emphasis returned to high bypass ducted configurations. With rising oil prices and increased environmental concerns there is renewed interest in high-speed propeller based engine architectures. Contemporary analysis tools for aerodynamics and aeroacoustics have enabled a new era of blade designs that have both high efficiency and lower noise characteristics. A recent series of tests in the U.S. have characterized the aerodynamic performance and noise from these modern contra-rotating propeller designs. Additionally the installation and noise shielding aspects for conventional airframes and blended wing bodies have been studied. Historical estimates of 'propfan' performance have relied on legacy propeller performance and acoustics data. Current system studies make use of the modern propeller data and higher fidelity installation effects data to estimate the performance of a contemporary aircraft system. Contemporary designs have demonstrated high net efficiency, approximately 86%, at 0.78 Mach, and low noise, greater than 15 EPNdB cumulative margin to Chapter 4 when analyzed on a NASA derived aircraft/mission. This paper presents the current state of high-speed propeller/open rotor research within the U.S. from an overall viewpoint of the various efforts ongoing. The remaining technical challenges to a production engine include

  7. The Sangre Por Salud Biobank: Facilitating Genetic Research in an Underrepresented Latino Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaibi, Gabriel; Singh, Davinder; De Filippis, Eleanna; Hernandez, Valentina; Rosenfeld, Bill; Otu, Essen; Montes de Oca, Gregorio; Levey, Sharon; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen; Sharp, Richard; Olson, Janet; Cerhan, James; Thibodeau, Stephen; Winkler, Erin; Mandarino, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    The Sangre Por Salud (Blood for Health; SPS) Biobank was created for the purpose of expanding precision medicine research to include underrepresented Latino patients. It is the result of a unique collaboration between Mayo Clinic and Mountain Park Health Center, a federally qualified community health center in Phoenix, Arizona. This report describes the rationale, development, implementation, and characteristics of the SPS Biobank. Latino adults (ages 18-85 years) who were active patients within Mountain Park Health Center's internal medicine practice in Phoenix, Ariz., and had no history of diabetes were eligible. Participants provided a personal and family history of chronic disease, completed a sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral questionnaire, underwent a comprehensive cardiometabolic risk assessment (anthropometrics, blood pressure and labs), and provided blood samples for banking. Laboratory results of cardiometabolic testing were returned to the participants and their providers through the electronic health record. During the first 2 years of recruitment into the SPS Biobank, 2,335 patients were approached and 1,432 (61.3%) consented to participate; 1,354 (94.5%) ultimately completed all requisite questionnaires and medical evaluations. The cohort is primarily Spanish-speaking (72.9%), female (73.3%), with a mean age of 41.3 ± 12.5 years. Most participants were born outside of the US (77.9%) and do not have health insurance (77.5%). The prevalence of overweight (35.5%) and obesity (45.0%) was high, as was previously unidentified prediabetes (55.9%), type 2 diabetes (7.4%), prehypertension (46.8%), and hypertension (16.2%). The majority of participants rated their health as good to excellent (72.1%) and, as a whole, described their overall quality of life as high (7.9/10). Collaborative efforts such as the SPS Biobank are critical for ensuring that underrepresented minority populations are included in precision medicine initiatives and biomedical

  8. 50 years of medicinal plant research - every progress in methodology is a progress in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, J David

    2003-06-01

    Many scientific methods of analysis have been developed for the investigation of the constituents and biological activities of medicinal plants during the 50 years since the inaugural meeting of the Gesellschaft für Arzneipflanzenforschung (GA). The chromatographic (e. g., TLC, GLC, HPLC), spectroscopic (e. g., UV, IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR, MS), and biological (e. g., anticancer, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, antiprotozoal, CNS) techniques utilized for medicinal plant research are briefly reviewed. The contribution that advances in scientific methodology have made to our understanding of the actions of some herbal medicines (e. g., Echinacea, Ginkgo, St John's wort, Cannabis), as well as to ethnopharmacology and biotechnology, are briefly summarized. Plants have provided many medicinal drugs in the past and remain as a potential source of novel therapeutic agents. Despite all of the powerful analytical techniques available, the majority of plant species has not been investigated chemically or biologically in any great detail and even well known medicinal plants require further clinical study.

  9. Research progress on the proliferation and differentiation of

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, A.; Tan, B.

    Space environments such as microgravity magnetic field radiation and heavy metal ions affects the development and functions of human and mammalian cells To study these influences and the corresponding metabolisms is in favour of knowing about the development and differentiation process of organism cells In recent years researches on the differentiation of stem cells induced in vitro provide a new pathway for the repair of tissue lesion and therapy of human diseases Stem cells are potential in capable of differentiating into different functional cells But there has no reliable methods to induce the stem cells differentiating forward specific cells and to gain enough cells for transplantation which limited their application on clinical therapy It has been indicated that microgravity influenced embryonic development hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells and so on Hematopoietic stem cell migration and its differentiation were affected by microgravity The specific differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells was inhibited under microgravity The expression of proteins regulating cell cycle period also changed Mesenchymal stem cells provide a source of cells for the repair of musculoskeletal tissue in ground experiment While under microgravity the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells were influenced along with the differentiated cells function changed Furthermore in the differentiation process of stem cells under microgravity the mechanism of signal transport was also affected and the specific differentiation

  10. Research progress of active polypeptides of Cordyceps militaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Guangyu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is recognized at home and abroad that Cordyceps militaris is a fungus that can be edible and used for medicinal application, and also a common cordyceps taishanensis that is widely distributed and with very high medicinal value in China. Active Cordyceps militaris polypeptide has shown several highlights in its absorption mechanism, such as directly absorbed without the need for digestion, and absorbed quickly and completely, and more and more international researchers are attaching great importance to it. Physiological and pharmacological activities of Cordyceps militaris polypeptide are mainly to activate related enzyme systems, promote intermediary metabolisms or control the DNA transcription and translation, simultaneously activate the reticuloendothelial system and macrophage, promote the transformation of lymphocytes, and as a nonspecific immune enhancer and regulator, activate the immune competent cells, especially lymphocytes, lymphokines, mononuclear macrophage system and NK cells, thereby attacking the target cells to play an antitumor role, and also exerting its anti-aging, anticoagulant, hypolipidemic to enhance the immunity, improve the liver function and delay the aging. In this paper, the immunity improvement, anticancer, antioxidation and antimicrobial activities of active polypeptides from Cordyceps militaris are reviewed, in order to provide a solid theoretical help for the further development and application of active polypeptides of Cordyceps militaris.

  11. [Research progress on the risk factors of geographic tongue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huamei, Yang; Yu, Zhou; Xin, Zeng; Ga, Liao; Qianming, Chen

    2015-02-01

    Geographic tongue, also called benign migratory glossitis, is a common and superficial benign inflammatory disorder that affects the tongue epithelium. The majority of geographic tongue lesions typically manifest as irregular central erythematous patches. These lesions, which are caused by the loss of filiform papillae, are defined by an elevated whitish band-like border that can change location, size, and pattern over a period of time. Histological observations of the oral mucosa affected by geographic tongue revealed nonspecific inflammation. Some reports described cases of migratory stomatitis, wherein lesions simultaneously manifested on the extra lingual oral mucosa. This condition is also called ectopic geographic tongue, which is clinically and histologically similar to the type normally confined to the tongue. In most cases, patients are asymptomatic and do not require treatment. The condition may spontaneously exhibit periods of remission and exacerbation with good prognosis. The specific etiology of geographic tongue remains unknown. Geographic tongue is age-related and is prevalent among young individuals. Various etiological factors that have been suggested in literature include immunological factors, genetic factors, atopic or allergic tendency, emotional stress, tobacco consumption, hormonal disturbances, and zinc deficiency. Geographic tongue may coexist with other disorders, such as fissured tongue, psoriasis, diabetes mellitus, gastroin- testinal diseases, burning mouth syndrome, and Down syndrome. Experts currently disagree on whether geographic tongue is an oral manifestation of psoriasis. Moreover, some scholars suggest that geographic tongue is a prestage of fissured tongue. The objective of this review is to summarize current research on risk factors of geographic tongue.

  12. Research progresses and future directions on pool boiling heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the previous work carried on pool boiling heat transfer during heating of various liquids and commodities categorized as refrigerants and dielectric fluids, pure liquids, nanofluids, hydrocarbons and additive mixtures, as well as natural and synthetic colloidal solutions. Nucleate pool boiling is an efficient and effective method of boiling because high heat fluxes are possible with moderate temperature differences. It is characterized by the growth of bubbles on a heated surface. It occurs during boiling of liquids for excess temperature ranging from 5 to 30 °C in various processes related to high vaporization of liquid for specific purposes like sugarcane juice heating for jaggery making, milk heating for khoa making, steam generation, cooling of electronic equipments, refrigeration and etcetera. In this review paper, pool boiling method during heating of liquids for specific purpose is depicted. It is inferred that enhancement in pool boiling heat transfer is a challenging and complex task. Also, recent research and use of various correlations for natural convection pool boiling is reviewed.

  13. Research progress of genome editing and derivative technologies in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiwei, Shan; Caixia, Gao

    2015-10-01

    Genome editing technologies using engineered nucleases have been widely used in many model organisms. Genome editing with sequence-specific nuclease (SSN) creates DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the genomic target sites that are primarily repaired by the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR) pathways, which can be employed to achieve targeted genome modifications such as gene mutations, insertions, replacements or chromosome rearrangements. There are three major SSNs─zinc finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system. In contrast to ZFN and TALEN, which require substantial protein engineering to each DNA target, the CRISPR/Cas9 system requires only a change in the guide RNA. For this reason, the CRISPR/Cas9 system is a simple, inexpensive and versatile tool for genome engineering. Furthermore, a modified version of the CRISPR/Cas9 system has been developed to recruit heterologous domains that can regulate endogenous gene expression, such as activation, depression and epigenetic regulation. In this review, we summarize the development and applications of genome editing technologies for basic research and biotechnology, as well as highlight challenges and future directions, with particular emphasis on plants.

  14. Progress with OPAL, the new Australian research reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R A Robinson

    2008-11-01

    Australian science is entering a new `golden age', with the start-up of bright new neutron and photon sources in Sydney and Melbourne, in 2006 and 2007 respectively. The OPAL reactor and the Australian Synchrotron can be considered as the greatest single investment in scientific infrastructure in Australia's history. They will essentially be `sister' facilities, with a common open user ethos, and a vision to play a major role in international science. Fuel was loaded into the reactor in August 2006, and full power was (20 MW) achieved in November 2006. The first call for proposals was made in 2007, and commissioning experiments have taken place well before then. The first three instruments in operation are high-resolution powder diffractometer (for materials discovery), high-intensity powder diffractometer (for kinetics experiments and small samples) and a strain scanner (for mechanical engineering and industrial applications). These are closely followed by four more instruments with broad application in nanoscience, condensed matter physics and other scientific disciplines. Instrument performance will be competitive with the best research-reactor facilities anywhere. To date there is committed funding for nine instruments, with a capacity to install a total of ∼ 18 beamlines. An update will be given on the status of OPAL, its thermal and cold neutron sources, its instruments and the first results.

  15. [Progress of researches on the mechanism of cupping therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shuai; Cui, Jin

    2012-12-01

    Cupping therapy of Chinese medicine is able to relieve a variety of diseases or clinical conditions, which results from the comprehensive effects of multiple types of stimulation exerted onto the regional acupoint areas. Among the stimuli, the negative pressure from cupping is one of the main factors inducing therapeutic effects. In the present paper, the authors review development of researches on the underlying mechanism of therapeutic effects of cupping-negative pressure from 1) the factor of intra-cup negative pressure; 2) influence of intra-cup negative pressure on cup-blackspot formation; 3) influence of cupping on regional blood vessels and blood flow; 4) effect of cupping on regional ultrastructure of the capillary in the raw-surface tissue; 5) effect of cupping-negative pressure on regional endothelial cells; and 6) biological effects of negative pressure drainage. Generally, cupping induced negative pressure can dilate local blood vessels to improve microcirculation, promote capillary endothelial cells repair, accelerate granulation and angiogenesis, etc., in the regional tissues, normalizing the patients' functional state at last.

  16. Research progress in the genetics of hyperuricaemia and gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Zheng; Junwu, Ma

    2016-04-01

    Gout is one of the most common inflammatory arthritis caused by hyperuricaemia, which is affected by both genetic factors and environmental factors. Early researches show that a few of rare monogenic mutations, such as PRPS1 and HPRT1 mutations, lead to abnormal purine anabolism and then cause hyperuricaemia and gout. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified dozens of susceptibility loci and/or candidate genes associated with hyperuricemia and gout. Loss-of-function mutations in SLC2A9, SLC22A11, and SLC22A12 cause hereditary hypouricaemia, while their overexpression may increase the reabsorption of uric acid. In contrast, loss-of-function mutations in ABCG2, SLC17A1, and SLC17A3 cause urate underexcretion of renal and intestinal. These variations leading to blood uric acid excretion disorder (excess reabsorption and underexcretion) are the main genetic factors affecting hyperuicemia and gout. Moreover, to some degree, inhibins-activins growth factor system, transcription factors, cytoskeleton and gene-environment interaction can also affect the level of blood uric acid. In addition, two risk genes, RFX3 and KCNQ1, which might impair immune response and lead to functional deficiency of beta cell were recently discovered to influence hyperuiceamia and gout in Han Chinese. This paper systematically reviews genetic studies on hyperuricaemia and gout to improve our understanding of pathogenesis of hyperuricaemia and gout.

  17. Research progress in non-equilibrium grain-boundary segregation and intergranular embrittlement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a summary of the research progress made by the author in the study of non-equilibrium grain-boundary segregation and intergranular embrittlement during the last 20 years. Some new concepts and new models in this research field are proposed, and their scientific backgrounds are introduced.

  18. Health and Safety Research Division. Progress report, October 1, 1979-March 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    Research progress for the period October 1, 1979 through March 31, 1981 is reported. Research conducted by the Office of Integrated Assessments and Policy Analysis, Health Studies Section, Technology Assessments Section, Biological and Radiation Physics Section, and Chemical Physics Section is summarized. (ACR)

  19. Light-water-reactor safety research program. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Progress is summarized in the following research and development areas: (1) loss-of-coolant accident research; heat transfer and fluid dynamics; (2) transient fuel response and fission-product release; and (3) mechanical properties of Zircaloy containing oxygen. Also included is an appendix on Kinetics of Fission Gas and Volatile Fission-product Behavior under Transient Conditions in LWR Fuel.

  20. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    Approximately 30 research projects are summarized in this report. Title of the project, contract number, company or university, award amount, principal investigators, objectives, and summary of technical progress are given for each project. Enhanced oil recovery projects include chemical flooding, gas displacement, and thermal recovery. Most of the research projects though are related to geoscience technology and reservoir characterization.

  1. [Research progress of thermal control system for extravehicular activity space suit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z Q; Shen, L P; Yuan, X G

    1999-08-01

    New research progress of thermal control system for oversea Extravehicular Activity (EVA) space suit is presented. Characteristics of several thermal control systems are analyzed in detail. Some research tendencies and problems are discussed, which are worthwhile to be specially noted. Finally, author's opinion about thermal control system in the future is put forward.

  2. Water Reactor Safety Research Division. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abuaf, N.; Levine, M.M.; Saha, P.; van Rooyen, D.

    1980-08-01

    The Water Reactor Safety Research Programs quarterly report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: LWR Thermal Hydraulic Development, Advanced Code Evlauation, TRAC Code Assessment, and Stress Corrosion Cracking of PWR Steam Generator Tubing.

  3. Le discours oral en elaboration: Directions de recherche (Oral Discourse in Process: Research in Progress).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, Francis M.

    Research is in progress on oral interactive discourse, that is, discourse produced by several participants working in collaboration. The intent of the research is to investigate how the discourse is organized at several different levels of structure (acts, sequences of acts, interactive structure, propositional content, and formal realizations).…

  4. The Research Progress of FSH%FSH研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华荣茂; 曾斌

    2014-01-01

    Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is glycoprotein hormone produced and secreted by animal anterior pituitary basophils. FSH has been widely used in the fields of animal husbandry and medicine. FSH is commonly applied in superovulation and in vitro fertilization (IVF) in the field of animal husbandry, and FSH beta genes closely related to animal breed. In the field of medicine, FSH is usually used in the treatment of diseases such as male and female infertility treatment, and it is closely related to menopausal women's bone mineral density (BMD) loss and women ovarian cancer.This paper briefly discusses the biological function and mechanism of FSH and summarized the research and application in the field of animal husbandry and medical field.%卵泡刺激素(Follicle stimulating hormone,FSH)是由动物脑垂体前叶嗜碱性细胞合成与分泌的一种糖蛋白类促性腺激素,其在畜牧业以及医学等领域有着广阔的应用。 FSH在畜牧业当中常应用于动物超数排卵、体外受精,并且FSHβ基因与动物产仔关系密切。在医学领域,FSH常用来治疗男女不孕不育等疾病,并且FSH与绝经期妇女骨密度(BMD)丢失以及女性卵巢癌等疾病也有很大的联系。文章简要概述FSH的生物学功能和机理,综述了其在畜牧业以及医学领域的研究与应用。

  5. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup for Federal Research, Monitoring and Evaluation FY08 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, GE; Diefenderfer, HL [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2008-09-29

    The Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort that the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) developed in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as applied to operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The goal of the EOS project is to facilitate activities of the estuary/ocean RME subgroup as it coordinates design and implementation of federal RME in the lower Columbia River and estuary. In fiscal year 2008 (FY08), EOS project accomplishments included (1) subgroup meetings; (2) participation in the estuary work group of the Pacific Northwest Aquatic Monitoring Partnership; (3) project management via BPA's project tracking system, Pisces; (4) quarterly project status reports; and (5) a major revision to the Estuary RME document and its subsequent regional release (new version January 2008). Many of the estuary RME recommendations in this document were incorporated into the Biological Opinion on FCRPS operations (May 2008). In summary, the FY08 EOS project resulted in expanded, substantive coordination with other regional RME forums, a new version of the federal Estuary RME program document, and implementation coordination. This annual report is a FY08 deliverable for the project titled Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup.

  6. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup for Federal Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation, FY08 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.

    2008-09-29

    The Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort that the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) developed in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as applied to operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The goal of the EOS project is to facilitate activities of the estuary/ocean RME subgroup as it coordinates design and implementation of federal RME in the lower Columbia River and estuary. In fiscal year 2008 (FY08), EOS project accomplishments included 1) subgroup meetings; 2) participation in the estuary work group of the Pacific Northwest Aquatic Monitoring Partnership; 3) project management via the project tracking system, Pisces; 4) quarterly project status reports; and 5) a major revision to the Estuary RME document and its subsequent regional release (new version January 2008). Many of the estuary RME recommendations in this document were incorporated into the Biological Opinion on hydrosystem operations (May 2008). In summary, the FY08 EOS project resulted in expanded, substantive coordination with other regional RME forums, a new version of the federal Estuary RME program document, and implementation coordination. This annual report is a FY08 deliverable for the project titled Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup.

  7. Progresses of Researches on Numerical Weather Prediction in China:1999-2002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛纪善

    2004-01-01

    The recent progresses in the research and development of (NWP) in China are reviewed in this paper. The most impressive achievements are the development of direct assimilation of satellite irradiances with a 3DVAR (three-dimentional variational) data assimilation system and a non-hydrostatic model with a semi-Lagrangian semi-implicit scheme. Progresses have also been made in model physics and model application to precipitation and environmental forecasts. Some scientific issues of great importance for further development are discussed.

  8. A Tool for Measuring NASA's Aeronautics Research Progress Toward Planned Strategic Community Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Farhad; Pearce, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Description of a tool for portfolio analysis of NASA's Aeronautics research progress toward planned community strategic Outcomes is presented. For efficiency and speed, the tool takes advantage of a function developed in Excels Visual Basic for Applications. The strategic planning process for determining the community Outcomes is also briefly discussed. Stakeholder buy-in, partnership performance, progress of supporting Technical Challenges, and enablement forecast are used as the criteria for evaluating progress toward Outcomes. A few illustrative examples of using the tool are also presented.

  9. Toward a quality guide to facilitate the transference of analytical methods from research to testing laboratories: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisetty, Krisnha; Gumede, Njabulo Joyfull; Escuder-Gilabert, Laura; Sagrado, Salvador

    2009-01-01

    At present, there is no single viewpoint that defines QA strategies in analytical chemistry. On the other hand, there are no unique protocols defining a set of analytical tasks and decision criteria to be performed during the method development phase (e.g., by a single research laboratory) in order to facilitate the transference to the testing laboratories intending to adapt, validate, and routinely use this method. This study proposes general criteria, a priori valid for any developed method, recommended as a provisional quality guide containing the minimum internal tasks necessary to publish new analytical method results. As an application, the selection of some basic internal quality tasks and the corresponding accepted criteria are adapted to a concrete case study: indirect differential pulse polarographic determination of nitrate in water samples according to European Commission requisites. Extra tasks to be performed by testing laboratories are also outlined.

  10. Mathematics and Statistics Research Department progress report for period ending June 30, 1979. [ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardiner, D.A.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Gray, L.J.; Lever, W.E.; Shepherd, D.E.

    1979-09-01

    This is the twenty-second in the series of progress reports of the Mathematics and Statistics Research Department and its predecessor organizations. Part A reports research progress in biomedical and environmental applications, materials science applications, model development and evaluation, moving-boundary problems, multivariate multipopulation classification, numerical linear algebra, risk analysis, and complementary areas. The results of collaboration with other researchers on problems in biology, chemistry, energy, engineering, environmental sciences, geology, health and safety research, information sciences, and material sciences are recorded in Part B. Parts C, D, and E contain short accounts of educational activities, lists of written and oral presentations of research results, and a list of other professional activities in which the staff was engaged. Although a few results are shown, the reports in this volume are only of extended abstract length. One may expect completed research to be reported in the usual channels. 6 figures, 2 tables. (RWR)

  11. Theoretical Research Progress in High-Velocity/Hypervelocity Impact on Semi-Infinite Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Yunhou Sun; Cuncheng Shi; Zheng Liu; Desheng Wen

    2015-01-01

    With the hypervelocity kinetic weapon and hypersonic cruise missiles research projects being carried out, the damage mechanism for high-velocity/hypervelocity projectile impact on semi-infinite targets has become the research keystone in impact dynamics. Theoretical research progress in high-velocity/hypervelocity impact on semi-infinite targets was reviewed in this paper. The evaluation methods for critical velocity of high-velocity and hypervelocity impact were summarized. The crater shape,...

  12. Research Progression of Anti-HIV Chinese Medicines and Their Natural Active Ingredients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jing; Fu Linchun; Li Maoqing; Chen Jiantao

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To review the research progression of Chinese medicines for anti-human immunodeifciency virus (HIV) and their natural active ingredients at home and abroad so as to provide references for pharmaceutical research and clinical medication. Methods:Abundant representative literatures at home and abroad were classiifed to introduce the anti-HIV monomers, compounds and natural active ingredients of Chinese medicines. Results:The researches on anti-HIV natural medicines have obtained great achievements, in which medicines with anti-virus and immunity-improving functions have had rapid progression and new-types for anti-virus also have had dramatic development. Conclusion:The progression of anti-HIV Chinese medicines and their active ingredients has favorable prospect.

  13. Research progress on ultra-precision machining technologies for soft-brittle crystal materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hang; Wang, Xu; Guo, Dongming; Chen, Yuchuan

    2016-12-01

    Soft-brittle crystal materials are widely used in many fields, especially optics and microelectronics. However, these materials are difficult to machine through traditional machining methods because of their brittle, soft, and anisotropic nature. In this article, the characteristics and machining difficulties of soft-brittle and crystals are presented. Moreover, the latest research progress of novel machining technologies and their applications for softbrittle crystals are introduced by using some representative materials (e.g., potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP), cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)) as examples. This article reviews the research progress of soft-brittle crystals processing.

  14. Mathematics and statistics research department. Progress report, period ending June 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lever, W.E.; Kane, V.E.; Scott, D.S.; Shepherd, D.E.

    1981-09-01

    This report is the twenty-fourth in the series of progress reports of the Mathematics and Statistics Research Department of the Computer Sciences Division, Union Carbide Corporation - Nuclear Division (UCC-ND). Part A records research progress in biometrics research, materials science applications, model evaluation, moving boundary problems, multivariate analysis, numerical linear algebra, risk analysis, and complementary areas. Collaboration and consulting with others throughout the UCC-ND complex are recorded in Part B. Included are sections on biology and health sciences, chemistry, energy, engineering, environmental sciences, health and safety research, materials sciences, safeguards, surveys, and uranium resource evaluation. Part C summarizes the various educational activities in which the staff was engaged. Part D lists the presentations of research results, and Part E records the staff's other professional activities during the report period.

  15. Progress on stem cell research towards the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Stuart A J; Gao, Guo-Dong; McDonagh, Katya; Shen, Sanbing

    2012-04-03

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive accumulation of Lewy body inclusions along with selective destruction of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the nigrostriatal tract of the brain. Genetic studies have revealed much about the pathophysiology of PD, enabling the identification of both biomarkers for diagnosis and genetic targets for therapeutic treatment, which are evolved in tandem with the development of stem cell technologies. The discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells facilitates the derivation of stem cells from adult somatic cells for personalized treatment and thus overcomes not only the limited availability of human embryonic stem cells but also ethical concerns surrounding their use. Non-viral, non-integration, or non-DNA-mediated reprogramming technologies are being developed. Protocols for generating midbrain DA neurons are undergoing constant refinement. The iPS cell-derived DA neurons provide cellular models for investigating disease progression in vitro and for screening molecules of novel therapeutic potential and have beneficial effects on improving the behavior of parkinsonian animals. Further progress in the development of safer non-viral/non-biased reprogramming strategies and the subsequent generation of homogenous midbrain DA neurons shall pave the way for clinical trials. A combined approach of drugs, cell replacement, and gene therapy to stop disease progression and to improve treatment may soon be within our reach.

  16. US Army Research Office research in progress, July 1, 1991--June 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The US Army Research Office, under the US Army Materiel Command (AMC), is responsible for coordinating and supporting research in the physical and engineering sciences, in materials science, geosciences, biology, and mathematics. This report describes research directly supported by the Army Research Projects Agency, and several AMC and other Army commands. A separate section is devoted to the research program at the US Army Research, Development and Standardization Group - United Kingdom. The present volume includes the research program in physics, chemistry, biological sciences, mathematics, engineering sciences, metallurgy and materials science, geosciences, electronics, and the European Research Program. It covers the 12-month period from 1 July 1991 through 30 June 1992.

  17. Research Progress of Solar Corona and Interplanetary Physics in China: 2010-2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xinhua; XIANG Changqing

    2012-01-01

    The scientific objective of solar corona and interplanetary research is the understanding of the various phenomena related to solar activities and their effects on the space environments of the Earth. Great progress has been made in the study of solar corona and interplanetary physics by the Chinese space physics community during the past years. This paper will give a brief report about the latest progress of the corona and interplanetary research in China during the years of 2010--2012. The paper can be divided into the following parts: solar corona and solar wind, CME- ICME, magnetic reconnection, energetic particles, space plasma, space weather numerical modeling by 3D SIP-CESE MHD model, space weather prediction methods, and proposed missions. They constitute the abundant content of study for the complicated phenomena that originate from the solar corona, propagate in interplanetary space, and produce geomagnetic disturbances. All these progresses are acquired by the Chinese space physicists, either independently or through international collaborations.

  18. Mathematics and statistics research progress report, period ending June 30, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauchamp, J. J.; Denson, M. V.; Heath, M. T.; Lever, W. E.; Wilson, D. G. [eds.

    1983-08-01

    This report is the twenty-sixth in the series of progress reports of Mathematics and Statistics Research of the Computer Sciences organization, Union Carbide Corporation Nuclear Division. Part A records research progress in analysis of large data sets, applied analysis, biometrics research, computational statistics, materials science applications, numerical linear algebra, and risk analysis. Collaboration and consulting with others throughout the Oak Ridge Department of Energy complex are recorded in Part B. Included are sections on biological sciences, energy, engineering, environmental sciences, health and safety, and safeguards. Part C summarizes the various educational activities in which the staff was engaged. Part D lists the presentations of research results, and Part E records the staff's other professional activities during the report period.

  19. Progress in phototaxis mechanism research and micromanipulation techniques of algae cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Chenglu; LI Heng; WANG Pengbo; LI Wei; ZHAO Jingquan

    2007-01-01

    Phototactic movement is a characteristic of some microorganisms' response to light environment. Most of the algae have dramatically phototactic responses, underlying the complicated biological, physical and photochemical mechanisms are involved. With the development of the micro/nano and sensor techniques, great progress has been made in the research of the algae phototaxis. This review article summarizes the progress made in the research on the functional phototactic structures, the mechanisms of photo-response process and photodynamics of phototaxis in algae, and describes the latest developed micro-tracking technique and micromanipulation technique.Moreover, based on our own research results, the potential correlation between the phototaxis and photosynthesis is discussed, and the directions for future research of the phototactic mechanism are proposed.

  20. Remote sensing of suspended sediment water research: principles, methods, and progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Zhang, Jing

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we reviewed the principle, data, methods and steps in suspended sediment research by using remote sensing, summed up some representative models and methods, and analyzes the deficiencies of existing methods. Combined with the recent progress of remote sensing theory and application in water suspended sediment research, we introduced in some data processing methods such as atmospheric correction method, adjacent effect correction, and some intelligence algorithms such as neural networks, genetic algorithms, support vector machines into the suspended sediment inversion research, combined with other geographic information, based on Bayesian theory, we improved the suspended sediment inversion precision, and aim to give references to the related researchers.

  1. 信息动态%Research Progress on Electrochemical Oxidation Treatment in Refractory Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the research progress of electrochemical oxidation treatment in refractory wastewater at home and abroad, discusses the mechanism of electrochemical oxidation including anodic oxidation technique and cathodic reduction technique in detail, introduces the main influential factors on the degradation efficiency of electrochemical oxidation such as electrode materials, electrochemical reactor, the pH value of the solution, solvent and other factors. The research of electrochemical oxidation mechanism for organic pollutants, the development of electrode materials, the research and development of high efficiency electrolysis reactor,the research on application of specific electrochemical oxidation systems are aspects of the prospect of electrochemical oxidation treatment in refractory wastewater.

  2. Health and Safety Research Division progress report for the period April 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, S.V.

    1992-03-01

    This is a brief progress report from the Health and Safety Research Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Information is presented in the following sections: Assessment Technology including Measurement Applications and Development, Pollutant Assessments, Measurement Systems Research, Dosimetry Applications Research, Metabolism and Dosimetry Research and Nuclear Medicine. Biological and Radiation Physics including Atomic, Molecular, and High Voltage Physics, Physics of Solids and Macromolecules, Liquid and Submicron Physics, Analytic Dosimetry and Surface Physics and Health Effects. Chemical Physics including Molecular Physics, Photophysics and Advanced Monitoring Development. Biomedical and Environmental Information Analysis including Human Genome and Toxicology, Chemical Hazard Evaluation and Communication, Environmental Regulations and Remediation and Information Management Technology. Risk Analysis including Hazardous Waste.

  3. Health and Safety Research Division progress report for the period April 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, S.V.

    1992-03-01

    This is a brief progress report from the Health and Safety Research Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Information is presented in the following sections: Assessment Technology including Measurement Applications and Development, Pollutant Assessments, Measurement Systems Research, Dosimetry Applications Research, Metabolism and Dosimetry Research and Nuclear Medicine. Biological and Radiation Physics including Atomic, Molecular, and High Voltage Physics, Physics of Solids and Macromolecules, Liquid and Submicron Physics, Analytic Dosimetry and Surface Physics and Health Effects. Chemical Physics including Molecular Physics, Photophysics and Advanced Monitoring Development. Biomedical and Environmental Information Analysis including Human Genome and Toxicology, Chemical Hazard Evaluation and Communication, Environmental Regulations and Remediation and Information Management Technology. Risk Analysis including Hazardous Waste.

  4. Advanced Artificial Science. The development of an artificial science and engineering research infrastructure to facilitate innovative computational modeling, analysis, and application to interdisciplinary areas of scientific investigation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saffer, Shelley (Sam) I.

    2014-12-01

    This is a final report of the DOE award DE-SC0001132, Advanced Artificial Science. The development of an artificial science and engineering research infrastructure to facilitate innovative computational modeling, analysis, and application to interdisciplinary areas of scientific investigation. This document describes the achievements of the goals, and resulting research made possible by this award.

  5. Health and Safety Research Division progress report, April 1, 1981-September 30, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-02-01

    Research progress for the reporting period is briefly summarized for the following sections: (1) health studies, (2) technology assessments, (3) biological and radiation physics, (4) chemical physics, (5) Office of Risk Analysis, and (6) health and environmental risk and analysis. (ACR)

  6. FY2011 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-12-01

    Annual Progress Report for the Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development (R&D) subprogram supporting the mission of the Vehicle Technologies Program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future federal emissions regulations.

  7. [Progress of diabetes research in traditional Chinese medicine in recent years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-qing

    2007-07-01

    Progress of diabetes researches in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), mainly the work on herb extracts or ingredients at cellular or molecular levels in recent years, was reviewed. The Chinese herbs investigated mostly are qi-invigorating drugs and heat-clearing and detoxifying drugs. It shows that TCM therapy bears positive effect on diabetes mellitus.

  8. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory annual technical progress report of ecological research, period ending July 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaitkus, M.R.; Wein, G.R. [eds.; Johnson, G.

    1993-11-01

    This progress report gives an overview of research programs at the Savannah River Site. Topics include; environmental operations support, wood stork foraging and breeding, defense waste processing, environmental stresses, alterations in the environment due to pollutants, wetland ecology, biodiversity, pond drawdown studies, and environmental toxicology.

  9. Health and Safety Research Division progress report for the period October 1, 1991--March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berven, B.A.

    1993-09-01

    This is a progress report from the Health and Safety Research Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Information is presented in the following sections: Assessment Technology, Biological and Radiation Physics, Chemical Physics, Biomedical and Environmental Information Analysis, Risk Analysis, Center for Risk Management, Associate Laboratories for Excellence in Radiation Technology (ALERT), and Contributions to National and Lead Laboratory Programs and Assignments--Environmental Restoration.

  10. [Research methods in dentistry. 6. In vivo and in vitro methods for studying caries lesion progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, M.C.; Thomas, R.Z.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes some of the most used methods for caries lesion progression measurement in in vivo and in vitro research. Clinical measurements are usually limited to visual inspection. Currently available scoring systems and statistical analyses, making use of changes in lesion stage, have the

  11. Researchers' Bibliography for Raven's Progressive Matrices and Mill Hill Vocabulary Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, J. H., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography enables researchers who are using Raven's Progressive Matrices or the Mill Hill Vocabulary Scales to become familiar with other work that used these tests. The bibliography derives from Raven's own collection of sources, updated to the end of 1971. The major division of material is by tests rather than subject areas;…

  12. Research Progress in the Use of Drugs for Breast Cancer Targeted Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun'e Yang; Bing Zhao

    2008-01-01

    In recent years,many significant advances have been made on molecular target therapy to aim directly at epidermal growth factor receptors and vascular endothelial growth factor in breast cancers.Clinical studies of such agents as trastuzumab,lapatinib,erlotinib and bevacituzumab have been widely conducted.This paper will review the recent research progress related to targeted therapy.

  13. National Assessment of Educational Progress Grade 12 Preparedness Research College Course Content Analysis Study: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Policy Improvement Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The National Assessment Governing Board is an independent, bipartisan organization that sets policy for the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The Governing Board established the NAEP Program of 12th Grade Preparedness Research to assess what NAEP can report on the academic preparedness of 12th grade students entering college and…

  14. FabSim: Facilitating computational research through automation on large-scale and distributed e-infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Derek; Bhati, Agastya P.; Suter, James; Hetherington, James; Zasada, Stefan J.; Coveney, Peter V.

    2016-10-01

    research tasks. Restrictions: FabSim relies on a command-line interface, and assumes some level of scripting knowledge from the user. Unusual features: FabSim has a proven track record of being easy to adapt. It has already been extensively adapted to facilitate leading research in the modelling of bloodflow, nanomaterials, and ligand-protein binding. Running time: FabSim can be used interactively, typically requiring a few seconds to perform a basic task.

  15. A system for household enumeration and re-identification in densely populated slums to facilitate community research, education, and advocacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana R Thomson

    Full Text Available We devised and implemented an innovative Location-Based Household Coding System (LBHCS appropriate to a densely populated informal settlement in Mumbai, India.LBHCS codes were designed to double as unique household identifiers and as walking directions; when an entire community is enumerated, LBHCS codes can be used to identify the number of households located per road (or lane segment. LBHCS was used in community-wide biometric, mental health, diarrheal disease, and water poverty studies. It also facilitated targeted health interventions by a research team of youth from Mumbai, including intensive door-to-door education of residents, targeted follow-up meetings, and a full census. In addition, LBHCS permitted rapid and low-cost preparation of GIS mapping of all households in the slum, and spatial summation and spatial analysis of survey data.LBHCS was an effective, easy-to-use, affordable approach to household enumeration and re-identification in a densely populated informal settlement where alternative satellite imagery and GPS technologies could not be used.

  16. Fire Effects on Soils in Lake States Forests: A Compilation of Published Research to Facilitate Long-Term Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Hix

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fire-adapted forests of the Lake States region are poorly studied relative to those of the western and southeastern United States and our knowledge base of regional short- and long-term fire effects on soils is limited. We compiled and assessed the body of literature addressing fire effects on soils in Lake States forests to facilitate the re-measurement of previous studies for the development of new long-term datasets, and to identify existing gaps in the regional knowledge of fire effects on forest soils. Most studies reviewed addressed fire effects on chemical properties in pine-dominated forests, and long-term (>10 years studies were limited. The major gaps in knowledge we identified include: (1 information on fire temperature and behavior information that would enhance interpretation of fire effects; (2 underrepresentation of the variety of forest types in the Lake States region; (3 information on nutrient fluxes and ecosystem processes; and (4 fire effects on soil organisms. Resolving these knowledge gaps via future research will provide for a more comprehensive understanding of fire effects in Lake States forest soils. Advancing the understanding of fire effects on soil processes and patterns in Lake States forests is critical for designing regionally appropriate long-term forest planning and management activities.

  17. Moving forward on facilitation research : Response to changing environments and effects on the diversity, functioning and evolution of plant communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soliveres, Santiago; Smit, Christian; Maestre, Fernando T

    2015-01-01

    Once seen as anomalous, facilitative interactions among plants and their importance for community structure and functioning are now widely recognized. The growing body of modelling, descriptive and experimental studies on facilitation covers a wide variety of terrestrial and aquatic systems througho

  18. [Progression of treatment and researches in dry age related macular degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaiyan; Tang, Shibo

    2015-03-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness and visual disability among old patients in Europe and North America. AMD has been divided into two broad clinical categories depending on whether there is a presence of abnormal neovascularization: neovascular (exudative or wet) AMD and dry (or geographic atrophic) AMD. VEGF has been understood as a pathogenesis of wet AMD which allows us to get breakthroughs in treatment. While the progression of dry AMD treatment is very slow because the lack of pathogenesis, no acute loss of vision, and without appropriate standards for treatment. This review tries to introduce about the recent researches and progressions for dry AMD treatment.

  19. Research in theoretical elementary particle physics at the University of Florida: Task A. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, R.D.; Ramond, P.M.; Sikivie, P.; Thorn, C.B.

    1994-12-01

    This is the Annual Progress Report of the theoretical particle theory group at the University of Florida under DOE Grant DE-FG05-86ER40272. At present our group consists of four Full Professors (Field, Ramond, Thorn, Sikivie), one Associate Professor (Woodard), and two Assistant Professors (Qiu, Kennedy). In addition, we have four postdoctoral research associates and seven graduate students. The research of our group covers a broad range of topics in theoretical high energy physics including both theory and phenomenology. Included in this report is a summary of the last several years, an outline of our current research program.

  20. Progress and Research of Network System Survivability Scheme with Cooperative Information Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingliang Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Research progress of network survivability during the last few years were briefly introduced, including definitions, methods, qualitative and quantitative survivability evaluation, etc. Technical measures of survivability were summarized. Cooperative survivability and further possible research problems were investigated. Based on the idea of machine learning, survivability information can be got from other systems, and were utilized by the local system to enhance local survivability in time. Some research aspects on cooperative network survivability were summarized. Peers in a system collaborate with each other, which can improve the survivability of the whole systems.