WorldWideScience

Sample records for facilitate reading comprehension

  1. Developing Reading Comprehension Modules to Facilitate Reading Comprehension among Malaysian Secondary School ESL Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Javed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to develop a set of 6 Reading Comprehension Modules (RCMs for Malaysian ESL teachers to facilitate different reading abilities of ESL students effectively. Different skill categories were selected for developing the RCMs. This article describes how and why diverse texts of varying length were adopted and adapted from various authentic sources for ESL students having different reading abilities/bands. It also discusses how literal, reorganisation, and inferential questions were constructed appropriately based on the texts selected in the RCMs. Five experienced content/language experts validated the RCMs while eighty ESL students selected through purposive sampling from a secondary school from Penang, Malaysia participated in the pilot study for determining the reliability of the RCMs. The results of the pilot study revealed that the participants improved their scores gradually. Kuder and Richardson Formula 20 (KR-20 was employed to determine the internal consistency of the RCMs. The calculated values of RCMs ranged between 0.804 and 0.923 that indicate high reliability. The RCMs were standardised through a rigorous developmental process by using the Pebble in the Pond Model (Merril, 2002. We hope that the standardised RCMs would act as indicators for the ESL teachers to enhance ESL students’ performance in reading comprehension

  2. How Consciousness-Raising Affects Intonation and Facilitates Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation about the relation between a student's conscious awareness of the structure of a sentence and the degree of his/her intonation accuracy as well as his/her reading comprehension. The research was done based on the hypothesis that: "if the students are made conscious of the infrastructure of lengthy…

  3. Evaluation of attention training and metacognitive facilitation to improve reading comprehension in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaime B; Moore Sohlberg, McKay

    2013-05-01

    This pilot study investigated the impact of direct attention training combined with metacognitive facilitation on reading comprehension in individuals with aphasia. A single-subject, multiple baseline design was employed across 4 participants to evaluate potential changes in reading comprehension resulting from an 8-week intervention using Attention Process Training-3 (APT-3). The primary outcome measure was a maze reading task. Pre- and posttesting included attention and reading comprehension measures. Visual inspection of graphed performance data across conditions was used as the primary method of analysis. Treatment effect sizes were calculated for changes in reading comprehension probes from baseline to maintenance phases. Two of the study's 4 participants demonstrated improvements in maze reading, with corresponding effect sizes that were small in magnitude according to benchmarks for aphasia treatment research. All 4 participants made improvements on select standardized measures of attention. Interventions that include a metacognitive component with direct attention training may elicit improvements in participants' attention and allocation of resources. Maze passage reading is a repeated measure that appears sensitive to treatment-related changes in reading comprehension. Issues for future research related to measurement, candidacy, and clinical delivery are discussed.

  4. Systematic Tracking of Malaysian Primary School Students’ ESL Reading Comprehension Performance to Facilitate Instructional Processes

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    Lin Siew Eng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to systematically track and benchmark upper primary school students‟ ESL reading comprehension ability and subsequently generate data at the micro and macro levels according to individual achievement, school location, gender and ethnicity at the school, district, state and national levels. The main intention of this initiative was to provide information to assist ESL teachers about their students‟ reading ability and to determine students' reading comprehension performance standards. The auto generated data is expected to facilitate classroom instructional process without necessitating teachers to prepare test materials or manage data of their students‟ reading comprehension track records. The respondents were 1,514 Year 5 students from urban and rural schools from a district in northern Malaysia. The idea was conceptualised through a series of tests and development of the Reading Evaluation and Decoding System (READS for Primary Schools. The findings indicated that majority of the respondents were „below standard‟ and „at academic warning‟. We believe the generated data can assist the Ministry of Education to develop better quality instructional processes that are evidence based with a more focused reading instruction and reading material to tailor to the needs of students.

  5. Systematic Tracking of Malaysian Primary School Students' ESL Reading Comprehension Performance to Facilitate Instructional Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Lin Siew; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid; Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to systematically track and benchmark upper primary school students' ESL reading comprehension ability and subsequently generate data at the micro and macro levels according to individual achievement, school location, gender and ethnicity at the school, district, state and national levels. The main intention of this…

  6. A Research into Effectiveness of Comprehension Strategies for Facilitating Reading Performance and Reader Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CuiYali

    2004-01-01

    In looking at reading comprehension and reader development, the traditional assumption in EFL (English as foreign language) teaching is that it is a process in which the reader passively absorbs what the writer has produced and a process of input of knowledge, especially in lexical and syntactical terms. Priority, therefore, has been given to the

  7. Reading Guided by Automated Graphical Representations: How Model-Based Text Visualizations Facilitate Learning in Reading Comprehension Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirnay-Dummer, Pablo; Ifenthaler, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Our study integrates automated natural language-oriented assessment and analysis methodologies into feasible reading comprehension tasks. With the newly developed T-MITOCAR toolset, prose text can be automatically converted into an association net which has similarities to a concept map. The "text to graph" feature of the software is based on…

  8. Encouraging prediction during production facilitates subsequent comprehension: Evidence from interleaved object naming in sentence context and sentence reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, Florian; Meyer, Antje S; Huettig, Falk

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown that a supportive context facilitates language comprehension. A currently influential view is that language production may support prediction in language comprehension. Experimental evidence for this, however, is relatively sparse. Here we explored whether encouraging prediction in a language production task encourages the use of predictive contexts in an interleaved comprehension task. In Experiment 1a, participants listened to the first part of a sentence and provided the final word by naming aloud a picture. The picture name was predictable or not predictable from the sentence context. Pictures were named faster when they could be predicted than when this was not the case. In Experiment 1b the same sentences, augmented by a final spill-over region, were presented in a self-paced reading task. No difference in reading times for predictive versus non-predictive sentences was found. In Experiment 2, reading and naming trials were intermixed. In the naming task, the advantage for predictable picture names was replicated. More importantly, now reading times for the spill-over region were considerable faster for predictive than for non-predictive sentences. We conjecture that these findings fit best with the notion that prediction in the service of language production encourages the use of predictive contexts in comprehension. Further research is required to identify the exact mechanisms by which production exerts its influence on comprehension.

  9. Tactics for Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥航; 张艳荣

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, reading comprehension is taking up a larger and larger part in almost every international test or domestic examination. Knowing the basic knowledge and grasping the test - taking tactics are key factors of good reading comprehension. In this thesis, I will dwell on nine commonly used tactics for reading comprehension. This will help you to deal with the problems with reading comprehension efficiently.

  10. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  11. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

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    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Assessment of Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madani HABIB

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to shed light on the concept of assessment as an essential pedagogical practice for the improvement of the teaching-learning process. Particularly, it stresses the strategies and the techniques that should be used in assessing reading comprehension with reference to EFL classrooms. It describes the kinds of tasks that actually reveal students’ reading comprehension abilities and needs. Moreover, this paper aims to illustrate the types and the advantages of assessment for both teachers and learners. More importantly, this study tries to bring equitable evidence of how reading comprehension can be adequately assessed. The findings showed that assessment of reading comprehension is central to English language teaching as it provides teachers with essential information about students’ weaknesses, needs, obstacles, and deficits. Thus, teachers can implement the appropriate techniques and use the assessment results to amend their classroom instruction and enhance the learning abilities.

  13. Metacognition in Reading Comprehension

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    Ceylan, Eda; Harputlu, Leyla

    2015-01-01

    Metacognition is defined basically as thinking about thinking. It is a significant factor that affects many activities related to language use. Reading comprehension, which is an indispensable part of daily life and language classrooms, is affected by metacognition, too. Hence, this paper aims to present an overview of the recent theoretical and empirical studies about metacognition and reading comprehension. Firstly, it provides the definitions and the importance of metacognition. Secondly, ...

  14. Reading Comprehension Depends on Language Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Charles A.

    A corollary of the principle that reading comprehension depends on language comprehension is that word skill plus language comprehension skill produces reading comprehension skill. This corollary points to word decoding as being the major source of differences in skilled reading. Various data supporting this claim have been collected from…

  15. Scaffolding Reading Comprehension Skills

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    Salem, Ashraf Atta Mohamed Safein

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigates whether English language teachers use scaffolding strategies for developing their students' reading comprehension skills or just for assessing their comprehension. It also tries to demonstrate whether teachers are aware of these strategies or they use them as a matter of habit. A questionnaire as well as structured…

  16. Teaching reading comprehension strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majlinda Lika

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The academic debate nowadays is focused on producing an applied science of learning, aiming to teach students how to learn and be strategic in their acquisition. The aim of the study is to identify and discuss the reading comprehension instruction approach applied in the Albanian system of education. Findings from 10 classes of Albanian language and literature with students of third grade were directly observed and analyzed, in order to gather evidence based on indicators and instruments that assess the way of reading comprehension. Findings were categorized according to strategy use; the frequency of their application in different classes was counted and represented in percentages. In this paper we will try to respond to questions like: What are students' main barriers of comprehending? Does the instructional approach respond to students’ needs and level of comprehension? Are teachers prepared to teach comprehension strategies? Furthermore, examples of procedures on how to deliver instruction of comprehension strategies in natural contexts will be represented. Results from teacher practices during lessons of reading comprehension confirmed that teachers use limited teaching strategies to deliver lessons. They mainly use strategies to test comprehension; while the approach of teaching students to read independently and strategically is an unknown practice.

  17. Metacognition and Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cecilia Chang

    2000-01-01

    @@ Introduction Reading is a mysterious process that has attracted attention from psychologists, reading researchers and educators alike for decades. Currently, reading is viewed as a meaningconstructing process where the reader interacts with the text by simultaneously using information from a variety of sources ranging from one's background knowledge of the content and about the world to the knowledge about the language in which the text is written (Mulling, 1994). Moreover, reading comprehension is achieved only after skillful orchestration of all the resources the reader possess when engaged in the act of reading. Among the various kinds of strategies a reader needs during the reading process are the monitoring strategies. In order to fully utilize the strategies, the reader needs to possess good metacognition. Metacognition refers to one's deliberate conscious control of one's cognition actions (Brown, 1980). Since it is crucial for success that we know what we know and what we don't know and, consequently what to do about what we know and don't know, it is not surprising to find the notion of metacognition being stressed in almost every situation of learning. Given the importance of metacognition in successful learning, the purpose of this paper is to explore the role metacognition plays in reading comprehension, and consequently, identify future research directions.

  18. Painless reading comprehension

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, EdD, Darolyn "Lyn"

    2016-01-01

    Reading comprehension gets easier as students learn what kind of reader they are, discover how to keep facts in their head, and much more. Bonus Online Component: includes additional games, including Beat the Clock, a line match game, and a word scramble.

  19. Beyond Cognition: Reading Motivation and Reading Comprehension

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    Wigfield, Allan; Gladstone, Jessica; Turci, Lara

    2016-01-01

    The authors review research on children’s reading motivation and its relation to their reading comprehension. They begin by discussing work on the development of school motivation in general and reading motivation in particular, reviewing work showing that many children’s reading motivation declines over the school years. Girls tend to have more positive motivation for reading than do boys, and there are ethnic differences in children’s reading motivation. Over the last 15 years researchers h...

  20. Comprehension of Discourse Markers and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Mohamad

    2011-01-01

    According to many research findings, the presence of discourse markers (DMs) enhances readers' comprehension of the texts they read. However, there is a paucity of research on the relationship between knowledge of DMs and reading comprehension (RC) and the present study explores the relationship between them. Knowledge of DMs is measured through…

  1. Beyond Cognition: Reading Motivation and Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigfield, Allan; Gladstone, Jessica; Turci, Lara

    2016-09-01

    The authors review research on children's reading motivation and its relation to their reading comprehension. They begin by discussing work on the development of school motivation in general and reading motivation in particular, reviewing work showing that many children's reading motivation declines over the school years. Girls tend to have more positive motivation for reading than do boys, and there are ethnic differences in children's reading motivation. Over the last 15 years researchers have identified in both laboratory and classroom-based research instructional practices that positively impact students' reading motivation and ultimately their reading comprehension. There is a strong need for researchers to build on this work and develop and study in different age groups of children effective classroom-based reading motivation instructional programs for a variety of narrative and informational materials.

  2. Reading comprehension in Parkinson's disease.

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    Murray, Laura L; Rutledge, Stefanie

    2014-05-01

    Although individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) self-report reading problems and experience difficulties in cognitive-linguistic functions that support discourse-level reading, prior research has primarily focused on sentence-level processing and auditory comprehension. Accordingly, the authors investigated the presence and nature of reading comprehension in PD, hypothesizing that (a) individuals with PD would display impaired accuracy and/or speed on reading comprehension tests and (b) reading performances would be correlated with cognitive test results. Eleven adults with PD and 9 age- and education-matched control participants completed tests that evaluated reading comprehension; general language and cognitive abilities; and aspects of attention, memory, and executive functioning. The PD group obtained significantly lower scores on several, but not all, reading comprehension, language, and cognitive measures. Memory, language, and disease severity were significantly correlated with reading comprehension for the PD group. Individuals in the early stages of PD without dementia or broad cognitive deficits can display reading comprehension difficulties, particularly for high- versus basic-level reading tasks. These reading difficulties are most closely related to memory, high-level language, and PD symptom severity status. The findings warrant additional research to delineate further the types and nature of reading comprehension impairments experienced by individuals with PD.

  3. Cultural Schema and Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TanFuhong

    2004-01-01

    This paper is mainly focused on the examination of the role of cultural schema in readinghow the cultural schemacomprehension, in particular,helps or impedes reading comprehension; most important of all, the implications for teaching reading in China.

  4. Content Schemata and Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiKe

    2004-01-01

    For students of non-English majors in China, reading ability has been considered as one of the most important skills that they should acquire. However, teachers of English often complain that students reading in English seem to read with less comprehension and slower speed than expected. It is true that their failure is due to inadequate knowledge of vocabulary and

  5. Reading Rate and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodai, Hojat

    2011-01-01

    Reading fluency is one of the most important signs of language proficiency both for native and foreign language speakers (Grabe, 2010; Macalister, 2010; Winston, 2010; Hasbrouck, 2008; Rasinski, 2004; Oakley, 2003; Waldman, 1985; Cited in: Sayenko, 2010, Introduction Para 1). This paper is in the area of reading fluency and tries to investigate…

  6. What Oral Text Reading Fluency Can Reveal about Reading Comprehension

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    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency--the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation--has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor to reading comprehension outcomes in addition to…

  7. What Oral Text Reading Fluency Can Reveal about Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency--the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation--has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor to reading comprehension outcomes in addition to…

  8. Reading Strategies and Hypertext Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmeron, Ladislao, Canas, Jose J.; Kintsch, Walter; Fajardo, Immaculada

    2005-01-01

    The literature on assessing the cognitive processes involved in hypertext comprehension during the past 15 years has yielded contradictory results. In this article we explore a possible factor affecting this situation, mainly the fact that previous works did not control for the potential effects on comprehension of reading strategies in hypertext.…

  9. How to Improve English Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓珊

    2013-01-01

      Comprehension is the base of reading and also the purpose of reading. Improving reading comprehension is one of the most important tasks in English study. Only mastering English basic knowledge, accumulating rich vocabulary and using proper reading strategies and techniques can reading comprehension be improved effectively.

  10. The Translation Problems of English Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蓓

    2013-01-01

    In the process of learning English, reading comprehension is a very important part. Firstly, the paper analyzes the trans-lation’s role in reading comprehension. Secondly, it considers translation could enhance English reading comprehension. Thirdly, it mainly discusses the translation problem and skills of English Reading Comprehension.

  11. Developmental Relations between Reading Comprehension and Reading Strategies

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    Muijselaar, Marloes M. L.; Swart, Nicole M.; Steenbeek-Planting, Esther G.; Droop, Mienke; Verhoeven, Ludo; de Jong, Peter F.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary, and working memory were administered. A structural…

  12. Developmental relations between reading comprehension and reading strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.; Droop, W.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Jong, P.F. de

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary,

  13. The Effects of Reading Fluency on Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugel, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to examine the effects reading fluency has on reading comprehension. The analysis was done through a synthesis of recent literature on the topic. Research shows improvement in reading fluency does improve reading comprehension and suggests reading development similarities for all readers. This consistency in…

  14. What oral text reading fluency can reveal about reading comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenendaal, N.J.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency – the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation – has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor t

  15. What oral text reading fluency can reveal about reading comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenendaal, N.J.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency – the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation – has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor t

  16. Schemata and reading comprehension Schemata and reading comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Meurer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available t school, and also after formal schooling takes place, the acquisition of new knowledge is in great measure dependent on reading comprehension. The total task of understanding written discourse depends on the distribution of information in the printed text, and on the voluntary and automatic activation of information or "schemata" in the reader's mind. Thus, what different readers 'comprehend' of a given text may vary considerably. Reading comprehension is a function of the nature of the text itself and of the extent to which the reader possesses, uses, and integrates pertinent background knowledge, or schemata. Schemata can be loosely defined as patterns which represent the way experinece and knowledge are organized in the mind. The schema for a concept like "break", for instance, will have associated with it at least the variables "breaker", "the thing broken", "the method or' instrument" for the action of breaking, and the notion of "causing something to change into a different state" (Rumelhart and Ortony 1977. Schemata constitute a powerful means used by readers in understanding information which is both explicit and implicit in texts. As an illustration, let us say that we read (or hear the following sentences: "The Karate champion broke the cinder block" (Brewer 1977:3. t school, and also after formal schooling takes place, the acquisition of new knowledge is in great measure dependent on reading comprehension. The total task of understanding written discourse depends on the distribution of information in the printed text, and on the voluntary and automatic activation of information or "schemata" in the reader's mind. Thus, what different readers 'comprehend' of a given text may vary considerably. Reading comprehension is a function of the nature of the text itself and of the extent to which the reader possesses, uses, and integrates pertinent background knowledge, or schemata. Schemata can be loosely defined as patterns which

  17. Reading comprehension levels in scholars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Carolina Alves Ferreira de; Avila, Clara Regina Brandão de; Chiari, Brasília Maria

    2009-01-01

    important reading performance measurements are related to how and to what extent a child understands a written text. to study the performance of primary school (Ensino Fundamental) students in reading comprehension tasks according to the variables grade and type of school. 160 students from the 3rd to the 6th grades were screened and later evaluated based on the retelling and question answering about a given text. students of the 5th and 6th grades of private schools presented a better performance on issues related to implicit information when compared to students of public schools. The overall analysis of the educational level revealed, through the retelling task, a better performance of the 6th grade students in terms of the number of present macro propositions and a low performance of the 5th grade students in terms of the achieved comprehension level, in both types of school. When answering text-derived questions, the 4th, 5th and 6th grade students performed better than the 3rd grade students regarding explicit questions. When considering implicit questions, the 4th grade students performed better than all the other grades, in both types of school. These results gave evidence to the influence of the different texts used in each grade. the 5th and 6th grades from private schools were the only grades that performed better when compared to public schools in general, regarding answering implicit knowledge questions. All students achieved some level of reading comprehension.

  18. Pleasure Reading Cures Readicide and Facilitates Academic Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer, J. Mary; Ponniah, R. Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Pleasure reading is an absolute choice to eradicate readicide, a systematic killing of the love for reading. This paper encompasses the different forms and consequences of readicide which will have negative impact not only on comprehension but also on the prior knowledge of a reader. Reading to score well on tests impedes the desire for reading…

  19. Fluency and reading comprehension in students with reading difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Tânia Augusto; Carvalho, Carolina Alves Ferreira de; Kida, Adriana de Souza Batista; Avila, Clara Regina Brandão de

    2011-12-01

    To characterize the performance of students with reading difficulties in decoding and reading comprehension tasks as well as to investigate the possible correlations between them. Sixty students (29 girls) from 3rd to 5th grades of public Elementary Schools were evaluated. Thirty students (Research Group - RG), ten from each grade, were nominated by their teachers as presenting evidences of learning disabilities. The other thirty students were indicated as good readers, and were matched by gender, age and grade to the RG, composing the Comparison Group (CG). All subjects were assessed regarding the parameters of reading fluency (rate and accuracy in words, pseudowords and text reading) and reading comprehension (reading level, number and type of ideas identified, and correct responses on multiple choice questions). The RG presented significantly lower scores than the CG in fluency and reading comprehension. Different patterns of positive and negative correlations, from weak to excellent, among the decoding and comprehension parameters were found in both groups. In the RG, low values of reading rate and accuracy were observed, which were correlated to low scores in comprehension and improvement in decoding, but not in comprehension, with grade increase. In CG, correlation was found between different fluency parameters, but none of them was correlated to the reading comprehension variables. Students with reading and writing difficulties show lower values of reading fluency and comprehension than good readers. Fluency and comprehension are correlated in the group with difficulties, showing that deficits in decoding influence reading comprehension, which does not improve with age increase.

  20. Reading comprehension in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Glynis; Brown, Heather; Main, Elizabeth

    Two studies aimed to investigate the reading comprehension abilities of 14 readers with Down syndrome aged 6 years 8 months to 13 years relative to those of typically developing children matched on word reading ability, and to investigate how these abilities were associated with reading accuracy, listening comprehension, phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge. Study 1 confirmed significantly poorer passage-reading comprehension than the typically developing group. In an experimental task, readers with Down syndrome understood fewer written sentences than the typical group and, contrary to prediction, received no advantage from printed sentences compared to spoken sentences, despite the lower memory load. Reading comprehension was associated with listening comprehension, word reading and phonological awareness in DS. Vocabulary knowledge was also associated with reading comprehension, mediated by word reading and nonverbal cognitive abilities. Study 2 investigated the longitudinal relationships between reading and language measures in the readers with DS over around 22 months. Time 1 listening comprehension and phonological awareness predicted Time 2 reading comprehension but there was no evidence that reading or reading comprehension predicted Time 2 language scores or phonological awareness, and no evidence that readers had acquired greater depth of vocabulary.

  1. The Effects of Oral and Silent Reading on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Naomi; Ness, Molly

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of reading mode (oral and silent) and text genre (narrative and expository) on fourth graders' reading comprehension. While controlling for prior reading ability of 48 participants, we measured comprehension. Using a repeated measured design, data were analyzed using analysis of covariance, paired t-tests, and…

  2. Reading Comprehension in Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Glynis; Brown, Heather; Main, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Two studies aimed to investigate the reading comprehension abilities of 14 readers with Down syndrome aged 6 years 8 months to 13 years relative to those of typically developing children matched on word reading ability, and to investigate how these abilities were associated with reading accuracy, listening comprehension, phonological awareness and…

  3. Reading Comprehension in Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Glynis; Brown, Heather; Main, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Two studies aimed to investigate the reading comprehension abilities of 14 readers with Down syndrome aged 6 years 8 months to 13 years relative to those of typically developing children matched on word reading ability, and to investigate how these abilities were associated with reading accuracy, listening comprehension, phonological awareness and…

  4. University Students with Poor Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the nature of the working memory and general cognitive ability deficits experienced by university students with a specific reading comprehension deficit. A total of 32 university students with poor reading comprehension but average word-reading skills and 60 age-word-matched controls with no comprehension…

  5. Early Identification of Reading Comprehension Difficulties

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    Catts, Hugh W.; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Liu, Yi-Syuan

    2016-01-01

    Most research on early identification of reading disabilities has focused on word reading problems and little attention has been given to reading comprehension difficulties. In this study, we investigated whether measures of language ability and/or response to language intervention in kindergarten uniquely predicted reading comprehension…

  6. Effectiveness of Four Supplemental Reading Comprehension Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    James-Burdumy, Susanne; Deke, John; Gersten, Russell; Lugo-Gil, Julieta; Newman-Gonchar, Rebecca; Dimino, Joseph; Haymond, Kelly; Liu, Albert Yung-Hsu

    2012-01-01

    This article presents evidence from a large-scale randomized controlled trial of the effects of four supplemental reading comprehension curricula (Project CRISS, ReadAbout, Read for Real, and Reading for Knowledge) on students' understanding of informational text. Across 2 school years, the study included 10 school districts, more than 200…

  7. Effectiveness of Four Supplemental Reading Comprehension Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    James-Burdumy, Susanne; Deke, John; Gersten, Russell; Lugo-Gil, Julieta; Newman-Gonchar, Rebecca; Dimino, Joseph; Haymond, Kelly; Liu, Albert Yung-Hsu

    2012-01-01

    This article presents evidence from a large-scale randomized controlled trial of the effects of four supplemental reading comprehension curricula (Project CRISS, ReadAbout, Read for Real, and Reading for Knowledge) on students' understanding of informational text. Across 2 school years, the study included 10 school districts, more than 200…

  8. Early Identification of Reading Comprehension Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Hugh W.; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Liu, Yi-Syuan

    2016-01-01

    Most research on early identification of reading disabilities has focused on word reading problems and little attention has been given to reading comprehension difficulties. In this study, we investigated whether measures of language ability and/or response to language intervention in kindergarten uniquely predicted reading comprehension…

  9. How Do We Motivate Reading Comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Timothy

    1982-01-01

    Considers the nature of motivation and its place in the development of reading comprehension. Uses A. Maslow's hierarchy of motivation as a heuristic for examining the motivational quality of several teaching methods commonly proposed for comprehension instruction. (FL)

  10. Independent Reading of CD-ROM Storybooks: Measuring Comprehension with Oral Retellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, Cathy J.

    2008-01-01

    CD-ROM storybooks may facilitate reading comprehension for students who are struggling with reading comprehension. Therefore, the use of CD-ROM storybooks in the classroom as part of a reading instruction program, literacy center, or for independent reading time could benefit young readers. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  11. Suggestions for Conducting a Reading Comprehension Lesson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Tiefeng

    2006-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ. Aims and Content of a Reading Comprehension Lesson As stated in the New English Course curriculum, "the aim of senior school English teaching is to develop students'overall abilities of listening, speaking, reading and writing,with more emphasis on reading". The main task of a reading comprehension lesson is to develop students' reading ability and help them form good habit of reading. Enabling students to read independently is the ultimate goal of teaching comprehension. But the fact is that students are too heavily burdened with too many subjects to learn. There is not enough time both for teachers and students to develop their reading comprehension ability together, which makes the reading passages in each unit in the textbook and whether we can make the most of the valuable class time extremely important. The reading passages in each unit, though not absolutely true, are perhaps the only mediums through which students and teachers can cooperate with each other to develop reading comprehension ability. Then what should be done when we deal with a reading passage?

  12. A Cognitive View of Reading Comprehension: Implications for Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendeou, Panayiota; Broek, Paul; Helder, Anne; Karlsson, Josefine

    2014-01-01

    Our aim in the present paper is to discuss a "cognitive view" of reading comprehension, with particular attention to research findings that have the potential to improve our understanding of difficulties in reading comprehension. We provide an overview of how specific sources of difficulties in inference making, executive functions, and…

  13. A Cognitive View of Reading Comprehension: Implications for Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendeou, Panayiota; Broek, Paul; Helder, Anne; Karlsson, Josefine

    2014-01-01

    Our aim in the present paper is to discuss a "cognitive view" of reading comprehension, with particular attention to research findings that have the potential to improve our understanding of difficulties in reading comprehension. We provide an overview of how specific sources of difficulties in inference making, executive functions, and…

  14. Peer Tutors Improve Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGue, Kristina M.; Wilson, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    The influential report "Teaching Children to Read: An Evidenced-Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and Its Implications for Reading Instruction," published by the National Reading Panel in 2000, presented recommendations for daily literacy instruction in five key areas: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency,…

  15. Measures of Reading Comprehension: A Latent Variable Analysis of the Diagnostic Assessment of Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, David J.; Snow, Catherine E.; August, Diane; Carlson, Coleen D.; Miller, Jon; Iglesias, Aquiles

    2006-01-01

    This study compares 2 measures of reading comprehension: (a) the Woodcock-Johnson Passage Comprehension test, a standard in reading research, and (b) the Diagnostic Assessment of Reading Comprehension (DARC), an innovative measure. Data from 192 Grade 3 Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) were used to fit a series of latent variable…

  16. Foreign language comprehension achievement: insights from the cognate facilitation effect

    OpenAIRE

    Casaponsa, Aina; Antón, Eneko; Pérez, Alejandro; Duñabeitia, Jon A.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the native language influences foreign word recognition and that this influence is modulated by the proficiency in the non-native language. Here we explored how the degree of reliance on cross-language similarity (as measured by the cognate facilitation effect) together with other domain-general cognitive factors contribute to reading comprehension achievement in a non-native language at different stages of the learning process. We tested two groups of native ...

  17. Reading Comprehension Instruction Practices in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hersbach, S.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Droop, W.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: In this study an attempt was made to give insight in the way reading comprehension is taught in Sierra Leone. Attention was paid to the didactical strategies and the materials used during reading comprehension instruction. Methodology: Primary school teachers in Sierra Leone (N=43) were observe

  18. How to Improve Your Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MollieSmith

    2005-01-01

    When seeking to improve any skill, it is important to have a positive attitude, to set clear goals, and to practice regularly. The same is true of improving your reading comprehension skills. First, I want to discuss some positive thinking strategies, and then we will discuss some more practical ways of improving in the area of reading comprehension.

  19. Reading Comprehension Assessment: A Cognitive Basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Peter H.

    Drawing on work from a number of disciplines, this volume brings together experimental and theoretical information relevant to the problems of assessing children's reading comprehension. After a short introduction, the first section defines reading comprehension, presenting theoretical issues intended to provide an understanding of what is being…

  20. A Low Vision Reading Comprehension Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, G. R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Fifty adults (ages 28-86) with macular degeneration were given the Low Vision Reading Comprehension Assessment (LVRCA) to test its reliability and validity in evaluating the reading comprehension of those with vision impairments. The LVRCA was found to take only nine minutes to administer and was a valid and reliable tool. (CR)

  1. Improving Reading Comprehension through Cooperative Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caposey, Tracey; Heider, Barbara

    This report describes a program for improving reading comprehension through cooperative learning. The targeted population consisted of elementary and middle school students in growing middle class communities, located in northern Illinois. The problems of reading comprehension in content areas were documented through teacher observation and…

  2. Reading Comprehension Instruction Practices in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hersbach, S.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Droop, W.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: In this study an attempt was made to give insight in the way reading comprehension is taught in Sierra Leone. Attention was paid to the didactical strategies and the materials used during reading comprehension instruction. Methodology: Primary school teachers in Sierra Leone (N=43) were

  3. The Importance of Metacognitive Reading Strategy Awareness in Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Abdullah, Muhammad Kamarul Kabilan

    2013-01-01

    Metacognitive reading strategy awareness plays a significant role in reading comprehension and educational process. In spite of its importance, metacognitive strategy has long been the ignored skill in English language teaching, research, learning, and assessment. This lack of good metacognitive reading strategy skill is exacerbated by the central…

  4. Using Peer Tutors to Improve Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGue, Kristina M.; Wilson, Katrina

    2010-01-01

    The influential report "Teaching Children to Read: An Evidenced-Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and Its Implications for Reading Instruction" presented recommendations for daily literacy instruction in five key areas: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Applying techniques to…

  5. The "RAP" on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagaman, Jessica L.; Luschen, Kati; Reid, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Reading problems are one of the most frequent reasons students are referred for special education services and the disparity between students with reading difficulties and those who read successfully appears to be increasing. As a result, there is now an emphasis on early intervention programs such as RTI. In many cases, early intervention in…

  6. How to Do Reading Comprehension Effectively

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华

    2011-01-01

    <正>As is known reading is a very demanding job.During the process,readers have to conquer variety of barriers before reaching a comparatively higher understanding level. Sometimes it is rather frustrating.So it is necessary to conduct a research on reading comprehension.This paper aims at finding some difficulties which we often encounter in reading,and introduces some practical ways to solve them;finally,some reading skills will be discussed.

  7. Screening reading comprehension in adults: Development and initial evaluation of a reading comprehension measure

    OpenAIRE

    Proyer, René T.; Wagner-Menghin, Michaela M; Gyöngyi Grafinger

    2014-01-01

    Reading comprehension in adults is a rather neglected variable in the practice of psychological assessment. We propose a new screening instrument for adult reading comprehension based on a pragmatic definition of reading comprehension as the textual understanding of the text read. Using data from a calibration sample (n = 266) and a replication sample (n = 148) for cross-validation, we tested the model fit for the 1-PL model (Rasch-model; graphic model test, Anderson’s Conditional Likelihood-...

  8. I "hear" what you're "saying": Auditory perceptual simulation, reading speed, and reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peiyun; Christianson, Kiel

    2016-01-01

    Auditory perceptual simulation (APS) during silent reading refers to situations in which the reader actively simulates the voice of a character or other person depicted in a text. In three eye-tracking experiments, APS effects were investigated as people read utterances attributed to a native English speaker, a non-native English speaker, or no speaker at all. APS effects were measured via online eye movements and offline comprehension probes. Results demonstrated that inducing APS during silent reading resulted in observable differences in reading speed when readers simulated the speech of faster compared to slower speakers and compared to silent reading without APS. Social attitude survey results indicated that readers' attitudes towards the native and non-native speech did not consistently influence APS-related effects. APS of both native speech and non-native speech increased reading speed, facilitated deeper, less good-enough sentence processing, and improved comprehension compared to normal silent reading.

  9. READING COMPREHENSION RFSEARCH AND LINGUISTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    "At present, one can hardly speak of a coherent 'science of language'. At best ... comprehension is not a special skill, separate from listening comprehension. Horowitz & .... most important pragmatic theories of utterance interpretation. Where ...

  10. Foundations of reading comprehension in children with intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingerden-Fontein, E.G. van; Segers, P.C.J.; Balkom, L.J.M. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Knowledge about predictors for reading comprehension in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) is still fragmented. Aims This study compared reading comprehension, word decoding, listening comprehension, and reading related linguistic and cognitive precursor measures in children wit

  11. Shadow-Reading Effect on Reading Comprehension: Actualization of Interactive Reading Comprehension: (A Vygotskyan View!)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Elahe; Afghari, Akbar; Zarei, Gholam-Reza

    2016-01-01

    Reading comprehension has been the main concern for second language learners and researchers. Today with rising interests towards Vygotskyan Sociocultural Theory (SCT), attempts have been made to insert Vygotskyan approach into Foreign/Second Language classrooms emphasizing the role of scaffolding and meaningful interactions to promote learners'…

  12. Using Television Commercials to Develop Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James D.; Bowman, S. Ray

    1991-01-01

    Suggests that teachers can use reluctant readers' sensitivity to and sophistication with "musicomedy" to both assess and develop reading comprehension. Discusses several class activities using the musical and humorous expressions in television commercials for fulfilling this objective. (RS)

  13. Improving Reading Comprehension through Metacognitive Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Nancy G.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Argues that metacognitive training in students can help students to remediate comprehension difficulties, to more accurately guage their success as learners, and to view reading as a flexible, thought-provoking process of interaction with text. (HOD)

  14. Reading Comprehension for The SOL-20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Randy

    1980-01-01

    The development of a software package to be used in developing basic reading comprehension skills is described. The package uses a cassette to present a short story, with multiple-choice questions on a screen. (MK)

  15. How to read a text with reading comprehension skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; zhao

    2015-01-01

    Reading is a process in which the reader must be actively involved.You must use what knowledge you can gain from the text and what you knows about the world in general in order to infer meanings and other sorts of information.This paper will puts forward some skills for reading comprehension.

  16. How to read a text with reading comprehension skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Reading is a process in which the reader must be actively involved. You must use what knowledge you can gain fromthe text and what you knows about the world in general in order to infer meanings and other sorts of information. This paper willputs forward some skills for reading comprehension.

  17. Word Reading and Reading Comprehension: Stability, Overlap and Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betjemann, Rebecca S.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Olson, Richard K.; Keenan, Janice M.; Defries, John C.; Wadsworth, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal twin data were analyzed to investigate the etiology of the stability of genetic and environmental influences on word reading and reading comprehension, as well as the stability of those influences on their relationship. Participating twin pairs were initially tested at a mean age of 10.3 years, and retested approximately five years…

  18. Effects of metalinguistic awareness on reading comprehension and the mediator role of reading fluency from grades 2 to 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liping; Wu, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of metalinguistic awareness including morphological awareness, phonological awareness and orthographical awareness to reading comprehension, and the role of reading fluency as a mediator of the effects of metalinguistic awareness on reading comprehension from grades 2 to 4. Four hundred and fifteen elementary students in China mainland were administered a test battery that included measures of morphological awareness, phonological awareness, orthographical awareness, reading fluency, reading comprehension and IQ. Hierarchical regression and structural equation models (SEM) were used to analyze the data. Morphological awareness uniquely explained 9%, 10% and 13% variance of reading comprehension respectively from grade 2 to grade 4, however, phonological awareness and orthographical awareness did not contribute to reading comprehension; Reading fluency partially mediated the effect of morphological awareness on reading comprehension in grades 2-4. These findings indicated that reading fluency and morphological awareness should be facilitated in the Chinese instruction. Morphological awareness played an important role in Chinese reading and affected reading comprehension in grades 2 to 4; Reading fluency was a significant link between morphological awareness and reading comprehension in grades 2-4.

  19. Effects of Metalinguistic Awareness on Reading Comprehension and the Mediator Role of Reading Fluency from Grades 2 to 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liping; Wu, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the contribution of metalinguistic awareness including morphological awareness, phonological awareness and orthographical awareness to reading comprehension, and the role of reading fluency as a mediator of the effects of metalinguistic awareness on reading comprehension from grades 2 to 4. Methods Four hundred and fifteen elementary students in China mainland were administered a test battery that included measures of morphological awareness, phonological awareness, orthographical awareness, reading fluency, reading comprehension and IQ. Hierarchical regression and structural equation models (SEM) were used to analyze the data. Results Morphological awareness uniquely explained 9%, 10% and 13% variance of reading comprehension respectively from grade 2 to grade 4, however, phonological awareness and orthographical awareness did not contribute to reading comprehension; Reading fluency partially mediated the effect of morphological awareness on reading comprehension in grades 2-4. Conclusions These findings indicated that reading fluency and morphological awareness should be facilitated in the Chinese instruction. Morphological awareness played an important role in Chinese reading and affected reading comprehension in grades 2 to 4; Reading fluency was a significant link between morphological awareness and reading comprehension in grades 2-4. PMID:25799530

  20. Foreign language comprehension achievement: insights from the cognate facilitation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaponsa, Aina; Antón, Eneko; Pérez, Alejandro; Duñabeitia, Jon A

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the native language influences foreign word recognition and that this influence is modulated by the proficiency in the non-native language. Here we explored how the degree of reliance on cross-language similarity (as measured by the cognate facilitation effect) together with other domain-general cognitive factors contribute to reading comprehension achievement in a non-native language at different stages of the learning process. We tested two groups of native speakers of Spanish learning English at elementary and intermediate levels in an academic context. A regression model approach showed that domain-general cognitive skills are good predictors of second language reading achievement independently of the level of proficiency. Critically, we found that individual differences in the degree of reliance on the native language predicted foreign language reading achievement, showing a markedly different pattern between proficiency groups. At lower levels of proficiency the cognate facilitation effect was positively related with reading achievement, while this relation became negative at intermediate levels of foreign language learning. We conclude that the link between native- and foreign-language lexical representations helps participants at initial stages of the learning process, whereas it is no longer the case at intermediate levels of proficiency, when reliance on cross-language similarity is inversely related to successful non-native reading achievement. Thus, at intermediate levels of proficiency strong and direct mappings from the non-native lexical forms to semantic concepts are needed to achieve good non-native reading comprehension, in line with the premises of current models of bilingual lexico-semantic organization.

  1. Foreign language comprehension achievement: insights from the cognate facilitation effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aina eCasaponsa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown that the native language influences foreign word recognition and that this influence is modulated by the proficiency in the nonnative language. Here we explored how the degree of reliance on cross-language similarity (as measured by the cognate facilitation effect together with other domain-general cognitive factors contribute to reading comprehension achievement in a nonnative language at different stages of the learning process. We tested two groups of native speakers of Spanish learning English at elementary and intermediate levels in an academic context. A regression model approach showed that domain-general cognitive skills are good predictors of second language reading achievement independently of the level of proficiency. Critically, we found that individual differences in the degree of reliance on the native language predicted foreign language reading achievement, showing a markedly different pattern between proficiency groups. At lower levels of proficiency the cognate facilitation effect was positively related with reading achievement, while this relation became negative at intermediate levels of foreign language learning. We conclude that the link between native- and foreign-language lexical representations helps participants at initial stages of the learning process, whereas it is no longer the case at intermediate levels of proficiency, when reliance on cross-language similarity is inversely related to successful nonnative reading achievement. Thus, at intermediate levels of proficiency strong and direct mappings from the nonnative lexical forms to semantic concepts are needed to achieve good nonnative reading comprehension, in line with the premises of current models of bilingual lexico-semantic organization.

  2. Fluency: Bridge Between Decoding and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikulski, John J.; Chard, David J.

    2005-01-01

    A deep, developmental construct and definition of fluency, in which fluency and reading comprehension have a reciprocal relationship, is explicated and contrasted with superficial approaches to that construct. The historical development of fluency is outlined, along with conclusions of the U.S. National Reading Panel, to explore why fluency has…

  3. Improving reading comprehension through Reciprocal Teaching Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Komariah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at discovering the benefits of the Reciprocal Teaching Method (RTM in the reading classroom, finding out the achievements of students after four comprehension training sessions of using RTM, and exploring the perceptions of students on the use of RTM. This method uses four comprehension strategies: predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing, to help learners monitor their development of reading comprehension by themselves. Students work in groups of four or five and the members are divided into five roles which are the leader, predictor, clarifier, questioner, and summarizer. The subjects were 24 students from the twelfth grade at a high school in Banda Aceh. Observations, tests, documents and interviews were collected to get the data. The results showed that the students were more active and productive in the reading classroom after RTM sessions and their reading proficiency improved. They learnt how to apply several of the strategies from RTM while reading. The results also showed that they preferred this method for teaching-learning reading compared to the conventional one. Therefore, teachers are suggested to consider using this method for teaching reading that instils the students on how to apply the four comprehension strategies used in reading.

  4. Electronic Books: Children's Reading and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Shirley; Dungworth, Naomi; McKnight, Cliff; Morris, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the differences in children's comprehension and enjoyment of storybooks according to the medium of presentation. Two different storybooks were used and 132 children participated. Of these, 51 children read an extract from "The Magicians of Caprona," about half reading an electronic version with an online dictionary, and the…

  5. Comprehension: The Key to Reading Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Kim; Del Santo, Jolene; Scheiner, Deb; Skok, Elly; Tucci, Leah Rae

    This report describes a program for using explicit instruction of reading strategies through the implementation of guided reading groups to improve student comprehension. The targeted population consisted of elementary school students in growing, middle class communities, located in northern Illinois. Evidence for the existence of a deficiency of…

  6. Electronic Books: Children's Reading and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Shirley; Dungworth, Naomi; McKnight, Cliff; Morris, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the differences in children's comprehension and enjoyment of storybooks according to the medium of presentation. Two different storybooks were used and 132 children participated. Of these, 51 children read an extract from "The Magicians of Caprona," about half reading an electronic version with an online dictionary, and the…

  7. Improving Reading Comprehension Strategies through Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnoutse, C.; Brand-Gruwel, S.; Oduber, R.

    1997-01-01

    Seeks to determine whether it is possible to teach children who are poor readers four text comprehension strategies (clarifying, questioning, summarizing, and predicting) in listening contexts. Demonstrates that it is possible to teach the strategies to poor readers; that they can improve their reading comprehension; and that listening…

  8. Role of Reading Engagement in Mediating Effects of Reading Comprehension Instruction on Reading Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigfield, Allan; Guthrie, John T.; Perencevich, Kathleen C.; Taboada, Ana; Klauda, Susan Lutz; McRae, Angela; Barbosa, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    The engagement model of reading development suggests that instruction improves students' reading comprehension to the extent that it increases students' engagement processes in reading. We compared how Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) (support for cognitive and motivational processes in reading), strategy instruction (support for…

  9. Developmental relations between reading fluency and reading comprehension: A longitudinal study from grade one to two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K.; Lopez, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    From a developmental framework, relations among list reading fluency, oral and silent reading fluency, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension might be expected to change as children’s reading skills develop. We examined developmental relations among these constructs in a latent-variable longitudinal study of first- and second-grade students. Results showed that list reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in grade one, but not in grade two after accounting for text reading fluency (oral or silent) and listening comprehension. In contrast, text reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in grade two, but not in grade one, after accounting for list reading fluency and listening comprehension. When oral and silent reading fluency were compared, oral reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for silent reading fluency in grade one whereas in grade two, silent reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for oral reading fluency. PMID:22726256

  10. Early Prediction of Reading Comprehension within the Simple View Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Hugh W.; Herrera, Sarah; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner

    2015-01-01

    The simple view of reading proposes that reading comprehension is the product of word reading and language comprehension. In this study, we used the simple view framework to examine the early prediction of reading comprehension abilities. Using multiple measures for all constructs, we assessed word reading precursors (i.e., letter knowledge,…

  11. Early Prediction of Reading Comprehension within the Simple View Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Hugh W.; Herrera, Sarah; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner

    2015-01-01

    The simple view of reading proposes that reading comprehension is the product of word reading and language comprehension. In this study, we used the simple view framework to examine the early prediction of reading comprehension abilities. Using multiple measures for all constructs, we assessed word reading precursors (i.e., letter knowledge,…

  12. Explicit Reading Comprehension Instruction in Elementary Classrooms: Teacher Use of Reading Comprehension Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Molly

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this observational study was to identify the frequency of reading comprehension instruction in elementary classrooms. Additional objectives were to determine which reading comprehension instructional strategies were most employed by teachers in elementary classrooms. In 3,000 minutes of direct classroom observation in 20 first-…

  13. Test Reading Comprehension and MCQs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1.Introduction Reading means getting meaning from certain combination of letters.It involves the identification and recognition of printed or written symbols,which serves as stimuli for the recall of meanings built up through past experience and the construction of new meanings through the reader's manipulation of relevant concepts already in his mind.With the influence of Tinker and Mc-Cullough' s ideas,multiple choice question(MCQ)came into being.There are many drawbacks of applying MCQ in testing,such as low interactiveness validity and authenticity.MCQ still has many advantages that can' t be replaced by any other kind of question type.

  14. The Influence of Grammatical Competenceon Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘畅

    2013-01-01

    With the development of globalization, English has become one of the most popular languages in the world.In many non-English-speaking countries, English teaching and learning occupies a very important position in their foreign language education .Grammar teaching is an indispensable part of English language teaching in EFL context like China;however, in recent years, grammar teaching has been more or less neglected.Without doubt, grammatical competence is one of the major factors that influence reading efficiency .This paper mainly focuses on examining how a learner's grammatical competence influences his or her reading comprehension , starting with a comprehensive review of the grammar-related factors involved in reading comprehension.

  15. Test Differences in Diagnosing Reading Comprehension Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Janice M.; Meenan, Chelsea E.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the implications of test differences for defining and diagnosing comprehension deficits using reading comprehension tests. We had 995 children complete the Gray Oral Reading Test-3, the Qualitative Reading Inventory-3, the Woodcock-Johnson Passage Comprehension-3, and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test, and compared which children were identified by each test as being in the lowest 10%. Although a child who performs so poorly might be expected to do poorly on all tests, we found that the average overlap between tests in diagnosing comprehension difficulties was only 43%. Consistency in diagnosis was greater for younger children, when comprehension deficits are due to weaker decoding skills, than for older children. Inconsistencies between tests were just as evident when identifying the top performers. The different children identified as having a comprehension deficit by each test were compared on four profile variables - word decoding skill, IQ, ADHD symptoms, and working memory skill – to understand the nature of the different deficits assessed by each test. Theoretical and practical implications of these test differences in defining and diagnosing comprehension deficits are discussed. PMID:22442251

  16. READING COMPREHENSION. NOTION OF READING AND USE OF MACRORREGLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Montes-Salas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the NMS has been relevant to investigate the notion of reading and how reading comprehension skills are developed as they are the basis of learning. According to Frida Diaz Barriga and Hernandez (2002 critical and reflective understanding of the composition of texts written are nodal activities in the construction of meanings. We now know that the skills of reading and typesetting apprentices develop in subjects strategically and self-regulated, thanks to this research. Promote the development of communication skills contributes to the foundation of the curriculum consists of educating for students to acquire skills that allow them to face problems collaboratively and competently.

  17. SMART STRATEGY TO BOOST STUDENTS’ READING COMPREHENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Lukman Syafi’i

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reading as one of language skills plays significant roles in the teaching English as a foreign language. Since the teacher still uses the conventional way to teach reading, students‘ ability in reading comprehension seems still unsatisfactory yet. So, teacher should explore and develop new strategies. One of strategies in reading comprehension that can trigger our students to attain that purpose is SMART (Self Monitoring Approach for Reading and Thinking strategy. This study is developing SMART strategy to boost the reading comprehension achievement of the ninth grade students. The research applies a collaborative classroom action research design in which the researcher and the collaborative teacher work together in preparing a suitable procedure of SMART strategy, designing the lesson plan, determining the criteria of success, implementing the action, observing, and doing reflection. The finding indicated that SMART strategy was successful to enhance students‘ motivation to be actively involved in the instructional process. The improvement on the students‘ participation was 75% in Cycle 1 and 87% in Cycle 2.

  18. Does reading strategy instruction improve students’ comprehension?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyetunji, Christianah Oluwatoyin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the effect of reading strategy instruction on Second Language (L2 students’ reading comprehension in a Botswana College of Education. The intervention programme was implemented based on the observation that some trainee teachers failed to improve on their L2 proficiency after spending a year in the L2 classroom. Prior to the intervention, difficulty in reading and comprehending had been identified as one of the contributing factors to their failure to improve on their proficiency level. A reading comprehension test was used to collect data from participants who were trainee teachers at a College of Education in Botswana before and after the intervention. The six-week intervention programme focused on seven reading strategies, namely the use of background knowledge, self-questioning, inferencing, rereading, drawing conclusions, identifying main ideas and summarising. The findings suggest that strategy training can increase L2 students’ reading comprehension. Based on the findings, it is recommended that strategy training be introduced into the L2 syllabus of the primary school teacher trainees in all Botswana Colleges of Education.

  19. COLLABORATIVE STRATEGIC READING IMPLEMENTATION TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ READING COMPREHENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Olivia Riani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This collaborative action research is aimed to find out whether or not the implementation of Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR improves students' reading comprehension and also to identify students' attitude towards the implementation of CSR. CSR is reading strategy that employs four strategies namely Preview, Click and Clunk, Get the Gist and Wrap Up during students’ cooperative learning. A class of eleventh grade students of a public senior high school in Majalengka, West Java, Indonesia is participated as the participant of the study. The required data were collected through the use of questionnaire, observation checklist, and reading test. The data from the questionnaire indicated that 82% students had positive attitude toward the implementation of CSR. They feel that CSR improves their motivation in learning English and CSR brings more fun to the process of learning. Moreover, it was found from observation data that the students were actively participated during CSR implementation and they were motivated when comprehending a text by means CSR strategy. Finally, the study proved that CSR improved students’ reading comprehension. Students’ mean score of reading test in the beginning of the study was 67, meanwhile, after applying CSR as reading strategy, their mean scores improved to 88.

  20. Reading Comprehension Assessment : From Text Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 美代子; コバヤシ, ミヨコ; MIYOKO, KOBAYASHI

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the nature of reading comprehension questions. Very few studies have so far examined comprehension questions in relation to text features. Kintsch and Yarbrough (1982) and Shohamy and Inbar (1991) are among the few studies, and their results suggest that there is an interaction between text features and the focus of questions. The present study builds on these findings and examines how Meyer's (1975, 1985) model of content structure analysis can help identify what exac...

  1. The Role of Speech Prosody and Text Reading Prosody in Children's Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Text reading prosody has been associated with reading comprehension. However, text reading prosody is a reading-dependent measure that relies heavily on decoding skills. Investigation of the contribution of speech prosody--which is independent from reading skills--in addition to text reading prosody, to reading comprehension could…

  2. The Role of Speech Prosody and Text Reading Prosody in Children's Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Text reading prosody has been associated with reading comprehension. However, text reading prosody is a reading-dependent measure that relies heavily on decoding skills. Investigation of the contribution of speech prosody--which is independent from reading skills--in addition to text reading prosody, to reading comprehension could…

  3. Performance of Saudi English Language Teachers in Reading Comprehension Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thouqan Saleem Yakoub Masadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study identified how Saudi schoolteachers perceive reading and comprehension. It also investigated the effect of teachers’ willingness and lesson presentation on learners’ achievement. A descriptive approach was used, and the sample consisted of 56 teachers. The lesson plan in Broughton et al.’s study was adopted as a model lesson plan. Respondents’ responses revealed their poor awareness of the most important activities that facilitate or hinder comprehension. Furthermore, teachers’ willingness and readiness to teach reading were not sufficient to yield competent teachers. It concluded that students were not given sufficient time and assigned to cleverly chosen roles to better understand the text. Teachers, however, should reconsider their daily lesson plans through which reading lessons are executed, taking into account students’ culture, interests, feelings, and so forth. Finally, other researchers were recommended to investigate the differences in students’ achievement levels due to the adoption of the lesson plan proposed by Broughton et al.

  4. The Effect of the Retelling on Chinese University Students’ English Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁本彬

    2016-01-01

    Retelling is a very efficient means of generative learning;it engages students in meaning reconstruction, and conse-quently facilitates students’reading comprehension. This study aims to explore how the retelling technique can affect Chinese tertiary-level students’reading comprehension of narrative and expository texts.

  5. Is Oral/Text Reading Fluency a “Bridge” to Reading Comprehension?

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Park, Chea Hyeong; Wagner, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we investigated developmental relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, and text reading fluency to reading comprehension in a relatively transparent language, Korean. A total of 98 kindergartners and 170 first graders in Korea were assessed on a series of tasks involving listening comprehension, word reading fluency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension. Results from multigroup structural equation models showed that text reading fluency wa...

  6. Maximizing Completion and Comprehension of Reading Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Leanne R.

    The author presents self-report data from students in three upper-level undergraduate courses to illustrate the comparative effectiveness of different out-of-class assessment approaches in promoting completion and comprehension of reading assignments. Students reported agreeing or strongly agreeing that all three assignments motivated them to…

  7. Relationship between Prior Knowledge and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaal, Noureldin Mohamed; Sase, Amal Saleh

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between prior knowledge and reading comprehension in second language among postgraduate students in UPM. Participants in the study were 20 students who have the same level in English as a second language from several faculties. On the basis of a prior-knowledge questionnaire and test, students were…

  8. Developing Reading Comprehension with Moving Image Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, Fiona; Shields, Robin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the findings from a small-scale exploratory study that investigated how moving-image narratives might enable children to develop transferable reading comprehension strategies. Using short, animated, narrative films, 28 primary-aged children engaged in a 10-week programme that included the explicit instruction of comprehension…

  9. Segmentation in Reading and Film Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Speer, Nicole K.; Reynolds, Jeremy R.

    2009-01-01

    When reading a story or watching a film, comprehenders construct a series of representations in order to understand the events depicted. Discourse comprehension theories and a recent theory of perceptual event segmentation both suggest that comprehenders monitor situational features such as characters' goals, to update these representations at…

  10. Improving Reading Comprehension through Explicit Summarization Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, Deborah Harding

    2013-01-01

    Research over the last several decades has revealed that adolescents in the United States are leaving school with insufficient literacy skills to compete in the global marketplace. A primary contributor to poor literacy rates is poor reading comprehension. The purpose of this research was to develop and test the efficacy of a protocol for teaching…

  11. Metacognitive Strategy Training in Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Hai-ping

    2016-01-01

    Despite that language learning strategy (LLS) has been heatedly discussed since its emergence in 1975, its conceptual-ization, categorization and strategy training models are still in dispute. However, what commonly revealed by most studies is that there is a positive correlation between the use of language learning strategy and language learners’performance. This paper applies Dornyei’s classification, known as cognitive strategies, metacognitive strategies, social strategies and affective strate-gies. By reviewing previous studies on the application of metacognitive strategy in English as a second language (ESL) reading comprehension, plenty of useful implications for reading pedagogy are suggested. It further explains how certain important meta-cognitive strategies, namely Semantic Mapping (SM) and Experience-Text-Relationship (ETR), can be implemented in second language reading comprehension, aiming to encourage language learners to be aware of learning strategies,“learn how to learn”(Cohen, 1988, p66)!

  12. SKILLS-BASED TEACHING OF READING COMPREHENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionTeaching English reading in a non-English speaking situation is a very.challenging job.Despite greatefforts made,not much effect is shown.As the importance of reading comprehension is once againstressed,all the teachers and language workers in the college English world in China have been trying todeal with the issue of how best to teach reading comprehension.During the past few years,someimprovement has been made in this field.As ESL workers,we have been teaching English to Chinese medical students,and have also had theexperience of teaching English to Spanish speakers in the USA.What impresses us most is that no matterwhat native language our students speak,they are all very well motivated to learn English in order to meettheir specific needs.Our goal is not only to improve their English language competence,but to makethem become efficient English readers.

  13. Prologue: Reading Comprehension Is Not a Single Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Hugh W.; Kamhi, Alan G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In this initial article of the clinical forum on reading comprehension, we argue that reading comprehension is not a single ability that can be assessed by one or more general reading measures or taught by a small set of strategies or approaches. Method: We present evidence for a multidimensional view of reading comprehension that…

  14. Promoting Different Reading Comprehension Levels through Online Annotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Sheng-Shiang; Yeh, Hui-Chin; Yang, Shih-hsien

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have evaluated reading comprehension as the general understanding of reading texts. However, this broad and generic assessment of reading comprehension overlooks the specific aspects and processes that students need to develop. This study adopted Kintsch's Construction-Integration model to tap into reading comprehension at…

  15. Promoting Different Reading Comprehension Levels through Online Annotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Sheng-Shiang; Yeh, Hui-Chin; Yang, Shih-hsien

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have evaluated reading comprehension as the general understanding of reading texts. However, this broad and generic assessment of reading comprehension overlooks the specific aspects and processes that students need to develop. This study adopted Kintsch's Construction-Integration model to tap into reading comprehension at…

  16. Metacognitive awareness of TOEFL reading comprehension strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungatullina Dilyana D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rising demand for exchange and mobility programs as well as double diploma opportunities with world leading universities highlights the importance of ESL proficiency. TOEFL iBT as a test of EAP is accepted by most of the HEI in various countries. The aim of the present study is to determine students’ metacognitive awareness of global academic reading strategies, namely the use of context clues, within the framework of preparation for TOEFL reading section. The article establishes the connection between success in reading comprehension and the degree of students’ metacognitive awareness. The authors concentrate on expository texts from TOEFL reading section as a testing material and provide detailed description of single context clues types and double context clues patterns typical for this text structure. The following study is concerned with comparison and interpretation of the results obtained in three focus groups of students, who have accomplished reading comprehension task from TOEFL iBT with and without learning to employ the context clues reading strategy.

  17. Predicting individual differences in reading comprehension: a twin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Laurie; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; DeThorne, Laura S.; Justice, Laura M.; Schatschneider, Chris; Thompson, Lee A.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the Simple View of reading from a behavioral genetic perspective. Two aspects of word decoding (phonological decoding and word recognition), two aspects of oral language skill (listening comprehension and vocabulary), and reading comprehension were assessed in a twin sample at age 9. Using latent factor models, we found that overlap among phonological decoding, word recognition, listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension was primarily due to genetic influences. Shared environmental influences accounted for associations among word recognition, listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension. Independent of phonological decoding and word recognition, there was a separate genetic link between listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension and a specific shared environmental link between vocabulary and reading comprehension. There were no residual genetic or environmental influences on reading comprehension. The findings provide evidence for a genetic basis to the “Simple View” of reading. PMID:20814768

  18. Predicting individual differences in reading comprehension: a twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlaar, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dethorne, Laura S; Justice, Laura M; Schatschneider, Chris; Thompson, Lee A; Petrill, Stephen A

    2010-12-01

    We examined the Simple View of reading from a behavioral genetic perspective. Two aspects of word decoding (phonological decoding and word recognition), two aspects of oral language skill (listening comprehension and vocabulary), and reading comprehension were assessed in a twin sample at age 9. Using latent factor models, we found that overlap among phonological decoding, word recognition, listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension was primarily due to genetic influences. Shared environmental influences accounted for associations among word recognition, listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension. Independent of phonological decoding and word recognition, there was a separate genetic link between listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension and a specific shared environmental link between vocabulary and reading comprehension. There were no residual genetic or environmental influences on reading comprehension. The findings provide evidence for a genetic basis to the "Simple View" of reading.

  19. Reading Strategies to Develop Higher Thinking Skills for Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echeverri Acosta Luz Marina

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an action research project which examined the foreign language reading comprehension of public school eighth graders who experienced a directed reading-thinking approach with strategies for comprehension and application. The strategies used were prediction, prior knowledge, graphic organizers, and questions. Data analyzed included participants’ perceptions of the usefulness of the strategies and students’ work on the graphic organizers and reading worksheets. Findings showed that participants thought that the strategies and an interactive reading task improved reading comprehension. The majority of students used English to answer knowledge, comprehension and a good number of application questions. The answers to the application questions provided by the less proficient students were, despite their use of Spanish, unclear. Key words: Foreign language teaching, reading comprehension, directed reading-thinking approach, thinking skills, reading strategies En este artículo se hace un reporte sobre un proyecto de investigación acción que examinó la comprensión de lectura en lengua extranjera de estudiantes de grado octavo de un colegio público, quienes vivenciaron un enfoque de lectura dirigida hacia el pensamiento, con estrategias para la comprensión y la aplicación. Se utilizaron las estrategias de predicción, conocimiento previo, organizadores gráficos y preguntas. El análisis de datos incluyó las percepciones de los participantes sobre la utilidad de las estrategias y el trabajo de los estudiantes en organizadores gráficos y en talleres de lectura. Los resultados mostraron que los participantes consideraron que las estrategias y una actividad de lectura interactiva permitieron mejorar la comprensión de lectura. La mayoría de los estudiantes usaron el inglés para responder a preguntas de conocimiento, comprensión y un buen número de preguntas de aplicación. Se encontró además que las respuestas

  20. How to Improve College Students' English Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江丽; 王晓丽; 张维维

    2007-01-01

    The importance of college students' reading comprehension is introduced at the beginning of the paper.To improve their reading comprehension,the author studies student factors -patience and reading motivation.Thereading motivation is the main element in the reading comprehension.And analyze the instrumental motivation,enjoysontal motivation and the relation between the reading proficiency and both the motivation.Therefore,advice on the English reading teaching is put forward.

  1. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity)—how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency and reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word reading fluency and reading comprehension. We examined (1) developmentally changing relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension; (2) the relation of reading comprehension to text readi...

  2. "Passageless" Administration of the Nelson-Denny Reading Comprehension Test: Associations with IQ and Reading Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, Rebecca E.; Chaudhry, Maheen F.; Schatz, Kelly C.; Strazzullo, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    There are few tests that assess reading comprehension in adults, but these tests are needed for a comprehensive assessment of reading disorders (RD). "The Nelson-Denny Reading Test" (NDRT) has a long-passage reading comprehension component that can be used with adolescents and adults. A problem with the NDRT is that reading comprehension…

  3. "Passageless" Administration of the Nelson-Denny Reading Comprehension Test: Associations with IQ and Reading Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, Rebecca E.; Chaudhry, Maheen F.; Schatz, Kelly C.; Strazzullo, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    There are few tests that assess reading comprehension in adults, but these tests are needed for a comprehensive assessment of reading disorders (RD). "The Nelson-Denny Reading Test" (NDRT) has a long-passage reading comprehension component that can be used with adolescents and adults. A problem with the NDRT is that reading comprehension…

  4. Man's Best Friend as a Reading Facilitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Donita Massengill

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript was to describe information about an animal-assisted therapy, specifically the Reading Education Assistance Dog (R.E.A.D.) program. In this manuscript I provide information about R.E.A.D. programs in general. Next, I share perspectives solicited from R.E.A.D. participants, specifically teachers, parents, students and…

  5. Word Reading Efficiency, Text Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension among Chinese Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangying; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Sabatini, John

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among word reading efficiency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension for adult English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Data from 185 adult Chinese EFL learners preparing to take the Test-of-English-as-a-Foreign-Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) were analyzed in this study. The participants completed a…

  6. Word Reading Efficiency, Text Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension among Chinese Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangying; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Sabatini, John

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among word reading efficiency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension for adult English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Data from 185 adult Chinese EFL learners preparing to take the Test-of-English-as-a-Foreign-Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) were analyzed in this study. The participants completed a…

  7. Characteristics of reading comprehension in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlenys Calderón-Ibáñez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects upon the low level of reading comprehension in university students, in their first years of university, particularly in the degrees of Law and Psychology in the Cooerative University of Colombia (Barrancabermeja campus.The content of the is the product of research carried out during the year 2007 and 2008 with students of both programmes. The characteristics and skills of reading comprehension of the students of the programmes of Psychology (3º semester and of Law (4º and 5º semester, of the Cooperative University of Sectional Colombia Barrancabermeja, year 2008 were studied In the research the quantitative positivist paradigm predominated, since they used as a source of fundamental information the test “CLOZE”. From the qualitative results teacher interviews were conducted.

  8. The Effects of Comprehensive Vocabulary Instruction on Title I Students' Metacognitive Word-Learning Skills and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubliner, Shira; Smetana, Linda

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a multifaceted, metacognitive vocabulary intervention on the reading comprehension and vocabulary achievement of fifth-grade children in one of California's lowest performing Title I schools. Instruction was comprehensive, designed to facilitate encoding of student-selected words, mastery of clarifying…

  9. Follow-up study on reading comprehension in Down's syndrome: the role of reading skills and listening comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, Maja; Florit, Elena; Levorato, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    According to the 'Simple View of Reading', reading comprehension requires some abilities such as reading skill and listening comprehension. Individuals with Down's syndrome show relative strengths in reading skills, mainly in word recognition, where they attain a reading age of about 7-8 years. Compared with word recognition, their reading comprehension is usually delayed by at least 6 months. Poor reading comprehension is paralleled by weak listening comprehension. It is claimed that poor listening comprehension might constrain the development of reading comprehension and, therefore, be a cause for the asynchrony between reading skills and reading comprehension. A follow-up study was carried out in order to analyse the improvements in reading skills, listening and reading text comprehension, and to support the hypothesis of a causal relationship between listening and reading comprehension. Ten children and adolescents with Down's syndrome, aged between 11 years 3 months and 19 years 10 months, were assessed twice over a one-year period as to their reading skills, listening and reading text comprehension. Three main findings emerged: (1) reading skills, on the one hand, and comprehension (both listening and reading), on the other hand, are independent; (2) reading comprehension development is determined mainly by listening comprehension, which in the present study proved to be very poor; and (3) an improvement after a one-year period, even though limited, occurred for all examined abilities except for listening comprehension. The results are discussed in the light of the theoretical framework of the 'Simple View of Reading' and of their relevance for practical and educational issues. © 2011 Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists.

  10. Culture Influence on English Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周桂枝

    2013-01-01

    Ilie limitation of traditional English teaching is that it often confined to English language skills,ignoring the English language cul?ture backgrounds.However,acquisition of English culture background can not only stimulate ledmers*interests,but also help them master the language more comprehensively.As reading teaching is an impoitant pari of language teaching,culture backgrounds must be integrated into foreign language teaching.

  11. Culture Influence on English Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周桂枝

    2013-01-01

    The limitation of traditional English teaching is that it often confined to English language skills,ignoring the English language cul-ture backgrounds.However,acquisition of English culture background can not only stimulate learners’interests,but also help them master the language more comprehensively.As reading teaching is an important part of language teaching,culture backgrounds must be integrated into foreign language teaching.

  12. Reading Comprehension Strategies for Adult Literacy Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Mike; Mellard, Daryl

    2005-11-01

    Although research on improving child literacy is converging, no such body of research exists for adult literacy. Yet the need is no less significant. This study extends the knowledge garnered with younger populations by determining the reading comprehension strategies most important to adults' success on adult literacy outcome measures and aligning them with previously researched interventions. According to an analysis of key adult literacy outcome measures (i.e., competency-based, standardized tests of literacy commonly accepted as reasonable proxies for the global construct of adult literacy: Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System [CASAS], General Educational Development [GED], and National Assessment of Educational Progress [NAEP]), adults should benefit from strategies that teach looking for clues in or generating questions about a text. Additionally, adults need to learn how to summarize and draw inferences in order to address higher-level literacy demands. Adult learners also need a metacognitive strategy to self-regulate reading behavior (e.g., choose a strategy to use, evaluate its effectiveness, and abandon and choose another strategy if necessary.) Furthermore, when using a competency-based standardized test, adult learners need to be coincidentally taught test-taking skills to reduce the test-related task demands and produce a better index of a learner's reading comprehension skills.

  13. Performance in Reading Comprehension--Product or Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Samuel S.

    1991-01-01

    Evaluation of reading performance is influenced by perceptions of what constitutes reading. Both product (testing of discrete thinking skills) and process (metacomprehension) information is needed to understand and improve reading comprehension. (SK)

  14. Improving 4th Grade Primary School Students' Reading Comprehension Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Aydin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out action research to investigate reading comprehension skills when using the SQ3R reading comprehension strategy. To that end, this strategy was used for improving the reading comprehension skills of 7 primary school 4th grade students who had problems with these skills. An action plan was prepared for 3hours a…

  15. Overlapping genetic and child-specific nonshared environmental influences on listening comprehension, reading motivation, and reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Victoria J; Petrill, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the genetic and environmental influences on observed associations between listening comprehension, reading motivation, and reading comprehension. Univariate and multivariate quantitative genetic models were conducted in a sample of 284 pairs of twins at a mean age of 9.81 years. Genetic and nonshared environmental factors accounted for statistically significant variance in listening and reading comprehension, and nonshared environmental factors accounted for variance in reading motivation. Furthermore, listening comprehension demonstrated unique genetic and nonshared environmental influences but also had overlapping genetic influences with reading comprehension. Reading motivation and reading comprehension each had unique and overlapping nonshared environmental contributions. Therefore, listening comprehension appears to be related to reading primarily due to genetic factors whereas motivation appears to affect reading via child-specific, nonshared environmental effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Overlapping Genetic and Child-Specific Nonshared Environmental Influences on Listening Comprehension, Reading Motivation, and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Victoria J.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the genetic and environmental influences on observed associations between listening comprehension, reading motivation, and reading comprehension. Univariate and multivariate quantitative genetic models were conducted in a sample of 284 pairs of twins at a mean age of 9.81 years. Genetic and nonshared environmental factors accounted for statistically significant variance in listening and reading comprehension, and nonshared environmental factors accounted for variance in reading motivation. Furthermore, listening comprehension demonstrated unique genetic and nonshared environmental influences but also had overlapping genetic influences with reading comprehension. Reading motivation and reading comprehension each had unique and overlapping nonshared environmental contributions. Therefore, listening comprehension appears to be related to reading primarily due to genetic factors whereas motivation appears to affect reading via child-specific, nonshared environmental effects. PMID:26321677

  17. Syntactic priming without lexical overlap in reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Christina S; Carbary, Kathleen M; Tanenhaus, Michael K

    2014-06-01

    Syntactic priming without lexical overlap is well-documented in language production. In contrast, reading-time comprehension studies, which typically use locally ambiguous sentences, generally find syntactic priming only with lexical overlap. This asymmetry has led some researchers to propose that distinct mechanisms underlie the comprehension and production of syntactic structure. Instead, we propose that methodological differences in how priming is assessed are largely responsible for the asymmetry: in comprehension, lexical biases in a locally ambiguous target sentence may overwhelm the influence of syntactic priming effects on a reader's interpretation. We addressed these issues in a self-paced reading study by (1) using target sentences containing global attachment ambiguities, (2) examining a syntactic structure which does not involve an argument of the verb, and (3) factoring out the unavoidable lexical biases associated with the target sentences in a mixed-effects regression model. Under these conditions, syntactic priming affected how ambiguous sentences were parsed, and facilitated reading times when target sentences were parsed using the primed structure. This resolves discrepancies among previous findings, and suggests that the same mechanism underlies syntactic priming in comprehension and production.

  18. Effects of Varying Text Difficulty Levels on Second Language (L2) Reading Attitudes and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Min-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of varying text difficulty on L2 reading attitudes and reading comprehension. To provide the optimal challenge for L2 reading, comprehensible input hypothesis postulates that choosing text slightly harder than the learner's current level will enhance reading comprehension. Fifty-four freshmen from one university…

  19. Facilitating pictorial comprehension with color highlighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougald, Brannan R; Wogalter, Michael S

    2014-09-01

    Pictorials can aid in communicating warning information, but viewers may not always correctly comprehend them. Two experiments focused on whether the use of relevant highlighting could benefit pictorial comprehension. A set of warning-related pictorials were manipulated according to three-color highlighting conditions: highlighting areas more relevant to correct comprehension, highlighting areas less relevant to comprehension, and no highlighting. Participants were asked to describe the purpose and meaning of each pictorial presented to them. The findings from both experiments indicate that comprehension of warning pictorials is higher for the relevant highlighting condition than the other two conditions. The highlighting of less relevant areas reduced comprehension compared to no highlighting. Use of appropriately placed highlighting could benefit the design of a complex symbol by pointing out pertinent areas to aid in determining its intended conceptual meaning.

  20. Relations Among Oral Reading Fluency, Silent Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension: A Latent Variable Study of First-Grade Readers

    OpenAIRE

    Y. S. Kim; Wagner, Richard K.; Foster, E.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined oral and silent reading fluency and their relations with reading comprehension. In a series of structural equation models (SEM) with latent variables using data from 316 first-grade students, (1) silent and oral reading fluency were found to be related yet distinct forms of reading fluency; (2) silent reading fluency predicted reading comprehension better for skilled readers than for average readers; (3) list reading fluency predicted reading compr...

  1. Developmental relations between reading fluency and reading comprehension: A longitudinal study from grade one to two

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K.; Lopez, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    From a developmental framework, relations among list reading fluency, oral and silent reading fluency, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension might be expected to change as children’s reading skills develop. We examined developmental relations among these constructs in a latent-variable longitudinal study of first- and second-grade students. Results showed that list reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in grade one, but not in grade two after accounting fo...

  2. Overlapping neural circuitry for narrative comprehension and proficient reading in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Vannest, Jennifer J; Holland, Scott K

    2013-11-01

    Narrative comprehension is a perinatal linguistic ability which is more intuitive than reading activity. Whether there are specific shared brain regions for narrative comprehension and reading that are tuned to reading proficiency, even before reading is acquired, is the question of the current study. We acquired fMRI data during a narrative comprehension task at two age points, when children are age 5-7 (K-2nd grade) and later when the same children were age 11 (5th-7th grade). We then examined correlations between this fMRI data and reading and reading comprehension scores from the same children at age 11. We found that greater frontal and supramarginal gyrus (BA 40) activation in narrative comprehension at the age of 5-7 years old was associated with better word reading and reading comprehension scores at the age of 11. A shift towards temporal and occipital activation was found when correlating their narrative comprehension functional data at age 11, with reading scores at the same age point. We suggest that increased reliance on executive functions and auditory-visual networks when listening to stories before reading is acquired, facilitates reading proficiency in older age and may be a biomarker for future reading ability. Children, who rely on use of imagination/visualization as well as auditory processing for narrative comprehension when they reach age 11, also show greater reading abilities. Understanding concordant neural pathways supporting auditory narrative and reading comprehension might be guide for development of effective tools for reading intervention programs.

  3. ONLINE READING COMPREHENSION: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Coiro/

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper details a number of challenges and opportunities for today’s learners when reading for information on the Internet. After defining online reading comprehension from a new literacies perspective and how it appears to be different than offline reading comprehension, I highlight details about four of the biggest challenges for today’s learners. These include 1 understanding and becoming proficient with the new literacy skills and practices needed for online research; 2 developing a special kind of digital wisdom that focuses on learning how to learn with the Internet; 3 taking on new roles in a digital culture that expects learners to actively participate and contribute with new knowledge as a member of their community; and 4 developing positive attitudes toward using the Internet for academic work. The second part of the paper shares examples of how skilled online readers can use the steps of online inquiry to think more deeply about topics that interest them; develop a personal voice as they share ideas with others; and work collaboratively to build meaning and new digital products that enable them to make a difference in their world, or matter. You can explore the research and resources from this presentation in more depth at .

  4. "Passageless" administration of the Nelson-Denny Reading Comprehension Test: associations with IQ and reading skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, Rebecca E; Chaudhry, Maheen F; Schatz, Kelly C; Strazzullo, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    There are few tests that assess reading comprehension in adults, but these tests are needed for a comprehensive assessment of reading disorders (RD). The Nelson-Denny Reading Test (NDRT) has a long-passage reading comprehension component that can be used with adolescents and adults. A problem with the NDRT is that reading comprehension test items can be answered correctly without reading the associated passage. The current study determined how IQ, verbal comprehension, and reading skills were associated with scores on a passageless administration of the NDRT. Results indicated that IQ, verbal comprehension, and broad reading skills were significantly associated with greater NDRT passageless scores. Results raise questions about the validity of the reading comprehension component of the NDRT and suggest that the test may have differential validity based on individual differences in vocabulary, general fund of knowledge, and broad reading skills.

  5. Use of Meta-comprehensive Strategies to Strengthen Reading Comprehension in Second-Cycle Students from a Public School at Bogotá, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Bibian Alexandra Rodríguez Ribero; María Eugenia Calderón Sánchez; Martha Helena Leal Reyes; Nicolás Arias-Velandia

    2016-01-01

    This research inquired about the effect of a classroom intervention in metacomprehension strategies, specifically self-questioning, on reading comprehension improvement in third and fourth - graders. Reading comprehension was understood as a process that relates content, text and inferences, and is facilitated by metacomprehension or metacognitive processes applied to reading comprehension. The participants were third- and fourth-grade students: the intervention group (which had an initial as...

  6. Global Method in English Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小花

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at introducing Global method,a new way of teaching reading comprehension in English.After analyzing advantages and disadvantages of sentence method and text method carefully,the author puts forward Global method.In this paper,the concept of Global method is reviewed;the similarities and differences between traditional method and global method are briefly examined;theoretical basis as well as guiding ideology of global method are then discussed;finally,examples are given to show how this meth...

  7. Web Based Application for Reading Comprehension Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Zidat

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of the web in languages learning has been developed at very high speed these last years. Thus, we are witnessing many research and development projects set in universities and distance learning programs. However, the interest in research related to writing competence remains relatively low. Our proposed research examines the use of the web for studying English as a second foreign language at an Algerian university. One focus is on pedagogy: therefore, a major part of our research is on developing, evaluating, and analyzing writing comprehension activities, and then composing activities into a curriculum. The article starts with the presentation of language skills and reading comprehension. It then presents our approach of the use of the web for learning English as a second language. Finally a learner evaluation methodology is presented. The article ends with the conclusion and future trends.

  8. EFFICIENCY OF READING COMPREHENSION TRAINING IN PUPILS LIVING IN POVERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Kosak Babuder

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of Slovene and foreign studies reveal the connection between literacy levels and the level of education, employment opportunities and consequent socio-economic status of individuals and families. Reading efficiency relating to reading comprehension is an important element of reading literacy performance. The findings of several authors indicate empirical evidence of the existence of deficits and poor reading comprehension in pupils living in poverty and stress the importance of offsetting deficits and developing reading comprehension. Results of both foreign and Slovene studies indicate that the program of reading comprehension should be implemented in this group of pupils. In the article, we want to present effectiveness of the reading comprehension improvement program in pupils living in poverty. According to the findings of our research, in which we structured and implemented the reading comprehension program for pupils living in poverty with the Metacognitive-intersentential model of reading comprehension, the reading comprehension of the experimental group pupils who participated in the program improved compared to the control group pupils who did not participate in the program. Experimental group pupils also significantly improved correctness of their reading, their vocabulary and skills of verbal expression. When the program ended, we tested its efficiency by applied tests. The results on the manifest variables indicated that the program was good and efficient for pupils who live in poverty and experience reading comprehension problems.

  9. Predicting individual differences in reading comprehension: a twin study

    OpenAIRE

    Harlaar, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; DeThorne, Laura S.; Justice, Laura M.; Schatschneider, Chris; Thompson, Lee A.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the Simple View of reading from a behavioral genetic perspective. Two aspects of word decoding (phonological decoding and word recognition), two aspects of oral language skill (listening comprehension and vocabulary), and reading comprehension were assessed in a twin sample at age 9. Using latent factor models, we found that overlap among phonological decoding, word recognition, listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension was primarily due to genetic influences....

  10. The role of speech prosody and text reading prosody in children's reading comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenendaal, N.J.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2014-01-01

    Text reading prosody has been associated with reading comprehension. However, text reading prosody is a reading-dependent measure that relies heavily on decoding skills. Investigation of the contribution of speech prosody - which is independent from reading skills - in addition to text reading proso

  11. Examining the Effects of Skill Level and Reading Modality on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Rachel H.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of reading skill and reading modality (oral versus silent) on reading comprehension. A normative sample of sixth-grade students (N = 74) read texts aloud and silently and then answered questions about what they read. Skill in word reading fluency was assessed by the Test of Word Reading…

  12. Examining the Effects of Skill Level and Reading Modality on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Rachel H.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of reading skill and reading modality (oral versus silent) on reading comprehension. A normative sample of sixth-grade students (N = 74) read texts aloud and silently and then answered questions about what they read. Skill in word reading fluency was assessed by the Test of Word Reading…

  13. Effects of Studying to Music and Post-Study Relaxation on Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etaugh, Claire; Ptasnik, Patricia

    1982-01-01

    Twenty female and 20 male college students studied a passage in quiet surroundings or while listening to preferred music and then either relaxed or read unrelated material. Reading comprehension of the passage was facilitated by silent study for subjects who seldom listen to music and by poststudy relaxation. (Author)

  14. Short Vowels versus Word Familiarity in the Reading Comprehension of Arab Readers: A Revisited Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraye, Abdullah M.

    2016-01-01

    Arab readers, both beginning and advanced, are encouraged to read and accustomed to unvowelized and undiacriticized texts. Previous literature claimed that the presence of short vowels in the text would facilitate the reading comprehension of both beginning and advanced Arab readers. However, with a claimed strict controlling procedure, different…

  15. Productive Figurative Communication: Conventional Metaphors Facilitate the Comprehension of Related Novel Metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Paul; Durgin, Frank H.

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments explored whether conceptual mappings in conventional metaphors are productive, by testing whether the comprehension of novel metaphors was facilitated by first reading conceptually related conventional metaphors. The first experiment, a replication and extension of Keysar et al. [Keysar, B., Shen, Y., Glucksberg, S., Horton, W.…

  16. Readability and Its Effects on Reading Rate, Subjective Judgments of Comprehensibility and Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coke, Esther U.

    Prose passages read aloud or silently were rated for pronounceability and comprehensibility. The relationships of text-derived readability indices to reading rate, comprehensibility ratings and comprehension test scores were explored. Reading rate in syllables per minute was unrelated to readability. The high correlation between rate in words per…

  17. A Special Chinese Reading Acceleration Training Paradigm: To Enhance the Reading Fluency and Comprehension of Chinese Children with Reading Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available According to a number of studies, use of a Reading Acceleration Program as reading intervention training has been demonstrated to improve reading speed and comprehension level effectively in most languages and countries. The objective of the current study was to provide further evidence of the effectiveness of a Reading Acceleration Program for Chinese children with reading disabilities using a distinctive Chinese reading acceleration training paradigm. The reading acceleration training paradigm is divided into a non-accelerated reading paradigm, a Character-accelerated reading paradigm and a Words-accelerated reading paradigm. The results of training Chinese children with reading disabilities indicate that the acceleration reading paradigm applies to children with Chinese-reading disabilities. In addition, compared with other reading acceleration paradigms, Words- accelerated reading training is more effective in helping children with reading disabilities read at a high speed while maintaining superior comprehension levels.

  18. Reading Comprehension Deficits in Adolescents: Addressing Underlying Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to discuss reading comprehension deficits in adolescents in relation to their word reading skills and lexical and syntactic development. Although reading comprehension strategies (e.g., "Find the main idea") are often recommended, it is argued that before these can be effective, students'…

  19. A Comparison of Deaf and Hearing Children's Reading Comprehension Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Fiona E.; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Although deaf children typically exhibit severe delays in reading achievement, there is a paucity of research looking at their text-level comprehension skills. We present a comparison of deaf and normally hearing readers' profiles on a commonly used reading comprehension assessment: the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability II. Methods:…

  20. Calibration of comprehension and performance in L2 reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda SARAC

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Comprehension monitoring is crucial for successful reading. Although the researchers appreciate the importance of comprehension monitoring in L2 reading, there are only a few studies done on the comprehension monitoring ability of L2 readers. The main aim of this study was to investigate the comprehension monitoring abilities of university students while reading expository texts in L2. The results showed that the students’ were not able to calibrate their comprehension at above chance level whereas they were able to calibrate their performance. The results were discussed comparative to findings from earlier research in L1 reading.

  1. Chinese College Students' English Reading Comprehension in Silent and Loud Reading-Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    In language teaching, emphasis is usually placed on students' reading comprehension, because reading comprehension remains one of the main important factors for their English language learning. Research shows, however, that reading comprehension is a sophisticated process and many students have met difficulties in constructing meaning from writing…

  2. Examining the Effectiveness of Pre-Reading Strategies on Saudi EFL College Students' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rasheed, Hana S. S.

    2014-01-01

    Reading comprehension is a key issue in learning English as a foreign language, and it is critical that teachers utilize pre-reading strategies in reading classes in order to help students enhance their comprehension. The present study investigates the effectiveness of two pre-reading strategies on EFL students' performance in reading…

  3. The Role of Reading Time Complexity and Reading Speed in Text Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallot, Sebastian; O'Brien, Beth A.; Haussmann, Anna; Kloos, Heidi; Lyby, Marlene S.

    2014-01-01

    Reading speed is commonly used as an index of reading fluency. However, reading speed is not a consistent predictor of text comprehension, when speed and comprehension are measured on the same text within the same reader. This might be due to the somewhat ambiguous nature of reading speed, which is sometimes regarded as a feature of the reading…

  4. The Relationship between Reading Fluency, Writing Fluency, and Reading Comprehension in Suburban Third-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Mary Leonard

    2010-01-01

    The topic of reading fluency is of great importance in education today. Research has shown a significant positive relationship between reading fluency and reading comprehension. However, little is known about writing fluency and its connection with reading comprehension. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between reading…

  5. How Does Speed and Accuracy in Reading Relate to Reading Comprehension in Arabic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Leil, Aula Khateeb; Share, David L.; Ibrahim, Raphiq

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential contribution of decoding efficiency to the development of reading comprehension among skilled adult native Arabic speakers. In addition, we tried to investigate the influence of Arabic vowels on reading accuracy, reading speed, and therefore to reading comprehension. Seventy-five Arabic…

  6. The role of reading time complexity and reading speed in text comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallot, Sebastian; O'Brien, Beth; Haussmann, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Reading speed is commonly used as an index of reading fluency. However, reading speed is not a consistent predictor of text comprehension, when speed and comprehension are measured on the same text within the same reader. This might be due to the somewhat ambiguous nature of reading speed, which...

  7. Metacognition Theory as Related to Reading Strategies and Reading Comprehension at the Fifth Grade Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppins, Laci Sharyl

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the application of metacognition theory as related to reading strategies and reading comprehension in the Fifth Grade. Specifically, the researcher examined the impact of metacognition in reading comprehension, the effect of metacognition on reading strategies, and the role the teacher…

  8. Facilitating a Summer Reading Book Group Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Ginger Goldman

    2007-01-01

    Summer book groups enhance and sustain student literacy behaviors over the break, making available an enjoyable social forum for critical-thinking and critical-reading practices to occur naturally. Significantly, the book groups grant faculty and students an informal space to connect meaningfully through reflective discussion of texts. Because…

  9. Testing Reading Comprehension and the Use of Multiple-choice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力思

    2005-01-01

    Reading is one of the most important skills to acquire language knowledge. Reading ability is the most important way of measuring one's language ability. Learning how to read is very important. For most teachers and students, it is also important to get a clear understanding of reading and reading ability and their relation. This article is just written to solve this problem and discuss the use of the multiple- choice in reading comprehension test.

  10. Recognition or Recall: What Reading Comprehension Tests Really Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubliner, Shira; Smetana, Linda

    This study examined format differences in the measurement of fifth grade students' reading comprehension achievement. Children were given a multiple-choice reading comprehension test, followed 4 weeks later by a constructed response test on 2 of the same text passages. Results indicated that little comprehension of text content was transferred…

  11. Reading Comprehension: What Every Teacher Needs to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes ten principles through which she examines the essentials of teaching reading comprehension. Topics explored include the nature of reading comprehension and the roles of good readers and influential teachers. Related issues include motivation, comprehension strategies, explicit instruction, and vocabulary.…

  12. Providing Independent Reading Comprehension Strategy Practice through Workstations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chase

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an action research project undertaken by a second grade teacher looking for research-based ways to increase his students' reading comprehension. He designed fifteen comprehension workstations and evaluated their effect on his second graders' reading comprehension scores as measured by district Imagination Station…

  13. Developmental relations between reading fluency and reading comprehension: a longitudinal study from Grade 1 to Grade 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K; Lopez, Danielle

    2012-09-01

    From a developmental framework, relations among list reading fluency, oral and silent reading fluency, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension might be expected to change as children's reading skills develop. We examined developmental relations among these constructs in a latent-variable longitudinal study of first and second graders. Results showed that list reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in Grade 1, but not in Grade 2, after accounting for text reading fluency (oral or silent) and listening comprehension. In contrast, text reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in Grade 2, but not in Grade 1, after accounting for list reading fluency and listening comprehension. When oral reading fluency and silent reading fluency were compared, oral reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for silent reading fluency in Grade 1, whereas silent reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for oral reading fluency in Grade 2. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Psychological Study of Lexical Ambiguity in Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏玥

    2016-01-01

    Lexical ambiguity is the common phenomenon people encounter when they do reading comprehensions. Studying mental decoding process of the ambiguous words helps improve reading instruction skills efficiently. From the perspec-tive of psychology, this thesis tries to analyze the decoding process of lexical ambiguity in reading and raise some sug-gestions for reading instruction.

  15. Early Oral Language Comprehension, Task Orientation, and Foundational Reading Skills as Predictors of Grade 3 Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepola, Janne; Lynch, Julie; Kiuru, Noona; Laakkonen, Eero; Niemi, Pekka

    2016-01-01

    The present five-year longitudinal study from preschool to grade 3 examined the developmental associations among oral language comprehension, task orientation, reading precursors, and reading fluency, as well as their role in predicting grade 3 reading comprehension. Ninety Finnish-speaking students participated in the study. The students' oral…

  16. Early Oral Language Comprehension, Task Orientation, and Foundational Reading Skills as Predictors of Grade 3 Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepola, Janne; Lynch, Julie; Kiuru, Noona; Laakkonen, Eero; Niemi, Pekka

    2016-01-01

    The present five-year longitudinal study from preschool to grade 3 examined the developmental associations among oral language comprehension, task orientation, reading precursors, and reading fluency, as well as their role in predicting grade 3 reading comprehension. Ninety Finnish-speaking students participated in the study. The students' oral…

  17. Foundations of reading comprehension in children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wingerden, Evelien; Segers, Eliane; van Balkom, Hans; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about predictors for reading comprehension in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) is still fragmented. This study compared reading comprehension, word decoding, listening comprehension, and reading related linguistic and cognitive precursor measures in children with mild ID and typically developing controls. Moreover, it was explored how the precursors related to reading achievement. Children with mild ID and typical controls were assessed on reading comprehension, decoding, language comprehension, and linguistic (early literacy skills, vocabulary, grammar) and cognitive (rapid naming, phonological short-term memory, working memory, temporal processing, nonverbal reasoning) precursor measures. It was tested to what extent variations in reading comprehension could be explained from word decoding, listening comprehension and precursor measures. The ID group scored significantly below typical controls on all measures. Word decoding was at or above first grade level in half the ID group. Reading comprehension in the ID group was related to word decoding, listening comprehension, early literacy skills, and temporal processing. The reading comprehension profile of children with mild ID strongly resembles typical early readers. The simple view of reading pertains to children with mild ID, with additional influence of early literacy skills and temporal processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Is Oral/Text Reading Fluency a “Bridge” to Reading Comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Park, Chea Hyeong; Wagner, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we investigated developmental relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, and text reading fluency to reading comprehension in a relatively transparent language, Korean. A total of 98 kindergartners and 170 first graders in Korea were assessed on a series of tasks involving listening comprehension, word reading fluency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension. Results from multigroup structural equation models showed that text reading fluency was a dissociable construct for both kindergartners and first graders. In addition, a developmental pattern emerged: listening comprehension was not uniquely related to text reading fluency for first graders, but not for kindergartners, over and above word reading fluency. In addition, text reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension for kindergartners, but not for first graders, after accounting for word reading fluency and listening comprehension. For first graders, listening comprehension dominated the relations. There were no differences in the pattern of relations for skilled and less skilled readers in first grade. Results are discussed from a developmental perspective for reading comprehension component skills including text reading fluency. PMID:25653474

  19. The Level of Prediction of Reading Comprehension by Fluent Reading Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet BAŞTUĞ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine whether there is a relationship between reading comprehension and fluent reading skills of primary school students (2nd-5th graders and their reading comprehension is predicted by their fluent reading skills. This study had a survey design and was conducted in Kulu, Konya, Turkey. The sample consisted of totally 72 students of whom 18 were selected for each grade level who vary from each other in terms of gender and academic performance. Data were collected through “The Prosodic Reading Scale” and “Comprehension Tests”. Besides, the data related to students’ reading fluency and reading rate were rated through the scales regarding video records. Correlational and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Results indicated that reading fluency, reading rate, and prosody are found to be significantly interrelated. According to the correlational results, prosodic skills and reading rate were found to be closely related. Fluent reading skills and comprehension were also found to be interrelated. The most significant factor that is related to reading comprehension was found to be prosody as one of fluent reading skills. According to the results of multiple regression analysis, fluent reading skills were found to significantly predict reading comprehension. The factor that best predicts reading comprehension was found to be prosody.

  20. Development of multiple choice items for reading comprehension assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Lance, Burrows

    2010-01-01

    Creating reading comprehension assessment instruments remains a problem for many EFL educators and researchers, alike. This paper will first provide an overview of literature pertaining to the various facets that make up the concept of reading comprehension. In addition, the cognitive processing model framework proposed by Embretson and Wetzel, will be discussed in detail. From the basis of this model, an explanation of how to create reading comprehension multiple-choice items of varying diff...

  1. Correlates of early reading comprehension skills: A componential analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Babayigit, S.; Stainthorp, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study had three main aims. First, we examined to what extent listeningcomprehension, vocabulary, grammatical skills and verbal short-term memory(VSTM) assessed prior to formal reading instruction explained individual differences\\ud in early reading comprehension levels. Second, we examined to what extent the three common component skills, namely vocabulary, grammar and VSTM explained the relationship between kindergarten listening comprehension and early reading comprehension levels. Thi...

  2. The Influence of Background Knowledge on Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Zhi-xin

    2013-01-01

    English has never been of more importance in our society than today. However,reading is often considered the most diffi⁃cult in terms of literacy, accuracy and efficiency. Generally speaking, improving reading skills requires more time of training than improving listening and speaking. Reading comprehension, a complicated psycholinguistic process, is an interactive process be⁃tween the reader’s background knowledge and the text. This essay considers that background knowledge is the key factor affecting reading comprehension.

  3. How reading comprehension is embodied and why that matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M. GLENBERG

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Reading comprehension, much like comprehension of situations and comprehension of oral language, is embodied. In all cases, comprehension is the ability to take effective action on the basis ofaffordances related to the body, the physical world, and personal goals and cultural norms. In language contexts, action-based comprehension arises from simulating the linguistic content usingneural and bodily systems of perception, action, and emotion. Within this framework, a new approach to teaching reading comprehension is described: Teach children how to simulate while reading. TheMoved by Reading intervention teaches simulation in two stages. In the first stage, physical manipulation, children manipulate toys to simulate the content of what they are reading. After success in physically manipulating the toys, the children are taught to manipulate the toys in imagination. Research demonstrates that both physical and imagined manipulation leads to large gains in memory and comprehension.

  4. Examining Associations between Reading Motivation and Inference Generation beyond Reading Comprehension Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between reading motivation and inference generation while reading. Undergraduate participants (N = 69) read two science articles while thinking aloud, completed a standardized reading comprehension assessment, and self reported their habitual reading motivation. Findings indicate that…

  5. The Contributions of Oral and Silent Reading Fluency to Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Katherine W.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Louwerse, Max M.; D'Mello, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Silent reading fluency has received limited attention in the school-based literatures across the past decade. We fill this gap by examining both oral and silent reading fluency and their relation to overall abilities in reading comprehension in fourth-grade students. Lower-level reading skills (word reading, rapid automatic naming) and vocabulary…

  6. The Impact of Reading for Pleasure on Georgian University EFL Students' Reading Comprehension (IBSU Case)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goctu, Ramazan

    2016-01-01

    Reading is one of the most significant skills, particularly for EFL students. Many students today do not have the reading skills needed to do effective work in their courses. This paper explores reading for pleasure, its importance and impact on reading comprehension. Pleasure reading helps students to communicate, listen and, most importantly, to…

  7. The Contributions of Oral and Silent Reading Fluency to Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Katherine W.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Louwerse, Max M.; D'Mello, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Silent reading fluency has received limited attention in the school-based literatures across the past decade. We fill this gap by examining both oral and silent reading fluency and their relation to overall abilities in reading comprehension in fourth-grade students. Lower-level reading skills (word reading, rapid automatic naming) and vocabulary…

  8. Metacognitive Reading Strategies, Motivation, and Reading Comprehension Performance of Saudi EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meniado, Joel C.

    2016-01-01

    Metacognitive reading strategies and reading motivation play a significant role in enhancing reading comprehension. In an attempt to prove the foregoing claim in a context where there is no strong culture for reading, this study tries to find out if there is indeed a relationship between and among metacognitive reading strategies, reading…

  9. Examining Associations between Reading Motivation and Inference Generation beyond Reading Comprehension Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between reading motivation and inference generation while reading. Undergraduate participants (N = 69) read two science articles while thinking aloud, completed a standardized reading comprehension assessment, and self reported their habitual reading motivation. Findings indicate that…

  10. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity)—how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency and reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word reading fluency and reading comprehension. We examined (1) developmentally changing relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension; (2) the relation of reading comprehension to text reading fluency; (3) unique emergent literacy predictors (i.e., phonological awareness, orthographic awareness, morphological awareness, letter name knowledge, vocabulary) of text reading fluency vs. word reading fluency; and (4) unique language and cognitive predictors (e.g., vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, theory of mind) of text reading fluency vs. reading comprehension. These questions were addressed using longitudinal data (two timepoints; Mean age = 5;24 & 6;08) from Korean-speaking children (N = 143). Results showed that listening comprehension was related to text reading fluency at time 2, but not at time 1. At both times text reading fluency was related to reading comprehension, and reading comprehension was related to text reading fluency over and above word reading fluency and listening comprehension. Orthographic awareness was related to text reading fluency over and above other emergent literacy skills and word reading fluency. Vocabulary and grammatical knowledge were independently related to text reading fluency and reading comprehension whereas theory of mind was related to reading comprehension, but not text reading fluency. These results reveal developmental nature of relations and mechanism of text reading fluency in reading development. PMID:26435550

  11. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity)-how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency and reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word reading fluency and reading comprehension. We examined (1) developmentally changing relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension; (2) the relation of reading comprehension to text reading fluency; (3) unique emergent literacy predictors (i.e., phonological awareness, orthographic awareness, morphological awareness, letter name knowledge, vocabulary) of text reading fluency vs. word reading fluency; and (4) unique language and cognitive predictors (e.g., vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, theory of mind) of text reading fluency vs. reading comprehension. These questions were addressed using longitudinal data (two timepoints; Mean age = 5;24 & 6;08) from Korean-speaking children (N = 143). Results showed that listening comprehension was related to text reading fluency at time 2, but not at time 1. At both times text reading fluency was related to reading comprehension, and reading comprehension was related to text reading fluency over and above word reading fluency and listening comprehension. Orthographic awareness was related to text reading fluency over and above other emergent literacy skills and word reading fluency. Vocabulary and grammatical knowledge were independently related to text reading fluency and reading comprehension whereas theory of mind was related to reading comprehension, but not text reading fluency. These results reveal developmental nature of relations and mechanism of text reading fluency in reading development.

  12. Uneven Profiles: Language Minority Learners' Word Reading, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Lesaux, Nonie K.; Crosson, Amy C.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Pierce, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    English reading comprehension skill development was examined in a group of 87 native Spanish-speakers developing English literacy skills, followed from fourth through fifth grade. Specifically, the effects of Spanish (L1) and English (L2) oral language and word reading skills on reading comprehension were investigated. The participants showed average word reading skills and below average comprehension skills, influenced by low oral language skills. Structural equation modeling confirmed that ...

  13. Reading Self-Efficacy Predicts Word Reading But Not Comprehension in Both Girls and Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Julia M.; Fox, Amy C.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between cognitive skills and reading has been well-established. However, the role of motivational factors such as self-efficacy in reading progress is less clear. In particular, it is not clear how self-efficacy relates to word level reading versus comprehension, and whether this differs in boys and girls. This study examines the relationship between self-efficacy, word reading and reading comprehension across the range of reading abilities after controlling for reading-related cognitive factors. One hundred and seventy nine children (86 males and 93 females) between 8 and 11 years old completed a self-report measure of reading self-efficacy together with measures of reading comprehension and word reading, working memory, auditory short-term memory, phonological awareness, and vocabulary. Boys and girls showed similar levels of attainment and reading self-efficacy. Reading self-efficacy was associated with word reading, but not with reading comprehension in either boys or girls. It is argued that this may reflect important differences between reading self-efficacy and more general measures of reading motivation and engagement. Reading self-efficacy is an element of reading motivation that is closely associated with a child’s perceived attainments in reading and is less susceptible to the gender differences seen in broader measures. PMID:28144223

  14. A Narrow View of Reading Promotes Comprehension

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alan G Kamhi

    2007-01-01

      In sum, embracing the narrow view of reading will promote differentiated assessment of reading and content-specific knowledge that will not only eliminate the reading crisis, but also focus attention...

  15. The Relative Contributions of Word Identification Skill and Comprehension-Monitoring Behavior to Reading Comprehension Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinar

    2000-10-01

    Ninety-five fourth-grade children completed measures of reading comprehension, word identification, and several aspects of comprehension-monitoring behavior. Correlations indicated that word identification was the strongest predictor of reading comprehension. However, hierarchical regression analysis indicated that after the effects of word identification were partialed, comprehension-monitoring behavior explained significant additional variability in reading comprehension. Subgroup analysis indicated that the effect of comprehension-monitoring behavior was strongest among those students whose word-analysis skills were less well developed. Results were interpreted as suggesting that comprehension-monitoring strategies can be used to compensate for weaknesses in word-identification skills. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  16. The Contribution of Segmental and Suprasegmental Phonology to Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J; Groen, Margriet A; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relation between decoding and segmental and suprasegmental phonology, and their contribution to reading comprehension, in the upper primary grades. Following a longitudinal design, the performance of 99 Dutch primary school children on phonological awareness (segmental phonology) and text reading prosody (suprasegmental phonology) in fourth-grade and fifth-grade, and reading comprehension in sixth-grade were examined. In addition, decoding efficiency as a general assessment of reading was examined. Structural path modeling firstly showed that the relation between decoding efficiency and both measures of phonology from fourth- to fifth grade was unidirectional. Secondly, the relation between decoding in fourth- and fifth-grade and reading comprehension in sixth-grade became indirect when segmental and suprasegmental phonology were added to the model. Both factors independently exerted influence on later reading comprehension. This leads to the conclusion that not only segmental, but also suprasegmental phonology, contributes substantially to children's reading development.

  17. The Role of First-Language Listening Comprehension in Second-Language Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edele, Aileen; Stanat, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Although the simple view of reading and other theories suggest that listening comprehension is an important determinant of reading comprehension, previous research on linguistic transfer has mainly focused on the role of first language (L1) decoding skills in second language (L2) reading. The present study tested the assumption that listening…

  18. The role of reading time complexity and reading speed in text comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallot, Sebastian; O'Brien, Beth A; Haussmann, Anna; Kloos, Heidi; Lyby, Marlene S

    2014-11-01

    Reading speed is commonly used as an index of reading fluency. However, reading speed is not a consistent predictor of text comprehension, when speed and comprehension are measured on the same text within the same reader. This might be due to the somewhat ambiguous nature of reading speed, which is sometimes regarded as a feature of the reading process, and sometimes as a product of that process. We argue that both reading speed and comprehension should be seen as the result of the reading process, and that the process of fluent text reading can instead be described by complexity metrics that quantify aspects of the stability of the reading process. In this article, we introduce complexity metrics in the context of reading and apply them to data from a self-paced reading study. In this study, children and adults read a text silently or aloud and answered comprehension questions after reading. Our results show that recurrence metrics that quantify the degree of temporal structure in reading times yield better prediction of text comprehension compared to reading speed. However, the results for fractal metrics are less clear. Furthermore, prediction of text comprehension is generally strongest and most consistent across silent and oral reading when comprehension scores are normalized by reading speed. Analyses of word length and word frequency indicate that the observed complexity in reading times is not a simple function of the lexical properties of the text, suggesting that text reading might work differently compared to reading of isolated word or sentences. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Relationship between 8th Grade Secondary School Students’ Reading Attitudes and Reading Comprehension Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eyyüp SALLABAS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Language has two dimensions and these are comprehension (reading and listening andexpression (speaking and writing. Reading takes place within the comprehensiondimension and it is one of the most influential ways of communication. Attitude isindividual’s response tendency against any phenomenon or object around him. Duringthe process of education and training, students are expected to develop positiveattitudes towards reading effectiveness. In this study it is aimed to determine the effectof student gender in the process of reading comprehension and developing attitudetowards reading. According to the results of this study, it is determined that there is alow level correlation between students’ attitudes towards reading and readingcomprehension skills. Also it is determined that there is a moderate level correlationbetween students’ reading comprehension skills and academic achievement.Furthermore, there is a significant difference between the percentage point of students’reading comprehension and attitudes towards reading in fever of girls.

  20. Longitudinal Associations Among Reading-Related Skills and Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbeli, Florina; Hart, Sara A; Taylor, Jeanette

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the etiology of longitudinal relations among kindergarten prereading skills, first-grade word level reading skills, and seventh-grade reading comprehension in 265 monozygotic and 459 dizygotic twin pairs (Mage  = 6.29 years in kindergarten) from the Florida Twin Project on Reading. Using a quadvariate Cholesky decomposition, results showed genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental overlap among prereading skills, word level reading skills, and reading comprehension. In addition, genetic and shared environmental overlap was indicated among word level reading skills and reading comprehension, outside the influence of prereading skills. After accounting for overlapping, there remained moderate genetic and nonshared environmental influence specific to reading comprehension. Implications for reading education are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  1. Bidirectional Relations between Text Reading Prosody and Reading Comprehension in the Upper Primary School Grades: A Longitudinal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the directionality of the relationship between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper grades of primary school. We compared 3 theoretical possibilities: Two unidirectional relations from text reading prosody to reading comprehension and from reading comprehension to text reading prosody…

  2. Bidirectional Relations between Text Reading Prosody and Reading Comprehension in the Upper Primary School Grades: A Longitudinal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the directionality of the relationship between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper grades of primary school. We compared 3 theoretical possibilities: Two unidirectional relations from text reading prosody to reading comprehension and from reading comprehension to text reading prosody…

  3. Uneven Profiles: Language Minority Learners' Word Reading, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaux, Nonie K.; Crosson, Amy C.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Pierce, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    English reading comprehension skill development was examined in a group of 87 native Spanish-speakers developing English literacy skills, followed from fourth through fifth grade. Specifically, the effects of Spanish (L1) and English (L2) oral language and word reading skills on reading comprehension were investigated. The participants showed…

  4. Relations among Personal Initiative and the Development of Reading Strategy Knowledge and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Greta J.; Fay, Doris; Spörer, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    Reading comprehension is a self-regulated activity that depends on the proactive effort of the reader. Therefore, the authors studied the effects of personal initiative (PI) on the development of reading comprehension, mediated by reading strategy knowledge. Structural equation modelling was applied to a longitudinal study with two data waves…

  5. Simple View of Reading in Down's Syndrome: The Role of Listening Comprehension and Reading Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, Maja; Levorato, M. Chiara

    2009-01-01

    Background: According to the "Simple View of Reading" (Hoover and Gough 1990), individual differences in reading comprehension are accounted for by decoding skills and listening comprehension, each of which makes a unique and specific contribution. Aims: The current research was aimed at testing the Simple View of Reading in individuals with…

  6. Uneven Profiles: Language Minority Learners' Word Reading, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaux, Nonie K.; Crosson, Amy C.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Pierce, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    English reading comprehension skill development was examined in a group of 87 native Spanish-speakers developing English literacy skills, followed from fourth through fifth grade. Specifically, the effects of Spanish (L1) and English (L2) oral language and word reading skills on reading comprehension were investigated. The participants showed…

  7. Rapid naming, reading and comprehension in students with learning difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cláudia da; Cunha, Vera Lúcia Orlandi; Pinheiro, Fábio Henrique; Capellini, Simone Aparecida

    2012-01-01

    To compare and correlate the performance of students with learning difficulties in rapid naming, reading and comprehension. Participants were 32 students from 4th grade of elementary school of both genders, with ages between 11 years and 4 months and 12 years and 7 months. The first and second oral reading of a text selected based on the indication of 4th grade teachers were conducted, as well as the first and second reading comprehension task composed by four questions presented right after the reading, to which students should answered orally, and the rapid naming task from the Test of Cognitive-Linguistic Performance, individual version. Differences were found between the first and the second comprehension scores, and between rapid naming, first and second reading. There was a strong correlation between comprehension and reading, suggesting that the performance in the first reading significantly influenced the performance in the second reading, which also occurred for comprehension. The delay in the activities of naming, reading and comprehension in the first evaluation provoked failures in the phoneme-grapheme conversion that may be enough to cause learning difficulties in reading.

  8. The relevance of receptive vocabulary in reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalom, Ana Flávia de Oliveira; Soares, Aparecido José Couto; Cárnio, Maria Silvia

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the performance of students from the 5th year of primary school, with and without indicatives of reading and writing disorders, in receptive vocabulary and reading comprehension of sentences and texts, and to verify possible correlations between both. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the institution (no. 098/13). Fifty-two students in the 5th year from primary school, with and without indicatives of reading and writing disorders, and from two public schools participated in this study. After signing the informed consent and having a speech therapy assessment for the application of inclusion criteria, the students were submitted to a specific test for standardized evaluation of receptive vocabulary and reading comprehension. The data were studied using statistical analysis through the Kruskal-Wallis test, analysis of variance techniques, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient with level of significance to be 0.05. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (was constructed in which reading comprehension was considered as gold standard. The students without indicatives of reading and writing disorders presented a better performance in all tests. No significant correlation was found between the tests that evaluated reading comprehension in either group. A correlation was found between reading comprehension of texts and receptive vocabulary in the group without indicatives. In the absence of indicatives of reading and writing disorders, the presence of a good range of vocabulary highly contributes to a proficient reading comprehension of texts.

  9. Tell Us More: Reading Comprehension, Engagement, and Conceptual Press Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhone, Dot

    2012-01-01

    This study examines interactions between teachers and students during reading comprehension instruction to determine how certain patterns of teacher-student talk support student comprehension achievement and reading engagement. The central focus of the study is "conceptual press discourse," a pattern of teacher response that includes requests for…

  10. Word Knowledge in a Theory of Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Charles; Stafura, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    We reintroduce a wide-angle view of reading comprehension, the Reading Systems Framework, which places word knowledge in the center of the picture, taking into account the progress made in comprehension research and theory. Within this framework, word-to-text integration processes can serve as a model for the study of local comprehension…

  11. How to assess and improve children's reading comprehension?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijselaar, M.M.L.

    2016-01-01

    Reading comprehension is one of the most important skills children have to acquire during the final years of primary education. It is therefore unfortunate that many children have severe problems with a proper understanding of texts. To design methods that foster children’s reading comprehension, mo

  12. Mining Student Behavior Patterns in Reading Comprehension Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Terry; McCalla, Gord

    2012-01-01

    Reading comprehension is critical in life-long learning as well as in the workplace. In this paper, we describe how multidimensional k-means clustering combined with Bloom's Taxonomy can be used to determine positive and negative cognitive skill sets with respect to reading comprehension tasks. This information could be used to inform environments…

  13. Effects of listening comprehension training on listening and reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnoutse, C.A.J.; Van den Bos, K.P.; Brand-Gruwel, S.

    1998-01-01

    In this study the effects of providing text strategy instruction in a listening mode on listening and reading comprehension of experimental and control groups of 9- to 11-year-old poor readers were examined. All students were very poor in decoding and poor in reading comprehension. In addition, half

  14. Effects of Comprehension Skill on Inference Generation during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Sarah E.; van den Broek, Paul; McMaster, Kristen; Rapp, David N.; Bohn-Gettler, Catherine M.; Kendeou, Panayiota; White, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between readers with different levels of comprehension skill when engaging in a causal questioning activity during reading, and the varied effects on inference generation. Fourth-grade readers (n?=?74) with different levels of comprehension skill read narrative texts aloud and were asked…

  15. Metacognitive Strategies and Reading Comprehension in Elementary-School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolic-Vehovec, Svjetlana; Bajsanski, Igor

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore comprehension monitoring and perceived use of reading strategies as factors of reading comprehension. Participants were elementary school students from the fifth to the eighth grade. Error correction and text sensitivity tasks from the Metacomprehension test (Pazzaglia, De Beni, & Cristante, 1994), and the…

  16. Reading Comprehension and Autism in the Primary General Education Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Neal Nghia; Leytham, Patrick; Schaefer Whitby, Peggy; Gelfer, Jeffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    Reading comprehension is a critical building block for effective early literacy development. Many students with autism spectrum disorder demonstrate difficulties in reading comprehension. These difficulties may be attributed to deficits in Theory of Mind, Weak Central Coherence, and Executive Functioning. Given the rise in the number of students…

  17. Investigating the Relationship between Connectives and Readers' Reading Comprehension Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençer, Yusuf; ÇetiInkaya, Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between connectives in Turkish texts and readers' reading comprehension. Research was conducted with a total of 50 teachers. In the study group, readers' reading comprehension was determined through 10 descriptive texts by using open-ended questions. The results of the analysis revealed…

  18. Riddle Appreciation and Reading Comprehension in Cantonese-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ivy N. Y.; To, Carol K. S.; Weekes, Brendan S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Inference-making skills are necessary for reading comprehension. Training in riddle appreciation is an effective way to improve reading comprehension among English-speaking children. However, it is not clear whether these methods generalize to other writing systems. The goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship between…

  19. Predicting Individual Differences in Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlaar, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; DeThorne, Laura S.; Justice, Laura M.; Schatschneider, Chris; Thompson, Lee A.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the Simple View of reading from a behavioral genetic perspective. Two aspects of word decoding (phonological decoding and word recognition), two aspects of oral language skill (listening comprehension and vocabulary), and reading comprehension were assessed in a twin sample at age 9. Using latent factor models, we found that overlap…

  20. Teaching Students a New Reading Comprehension Strategy: SCAN and RUN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉芹

    2014-01-01

    <正>Reading comprehension refers to the ability to understand information presented in written form.While this process usually entails understanding textbook assignments,reading comprehension skills also may affect one’s interpretation of directions on exams,labs and homework

  1. How to assess and improve children's reading comprehension?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijselaar, M.M.L.

    2016-01-01

    Reading comprehension is one of the most important skills children have to acquire during the final years of primary education. It is therefore unfortunate that many children have severe problems with a proper understanding of texts. To design methods that foster children’s reading comprehension, mo

  2. Correlates of Early Reading Comprehension Skills: A Componential Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayigit, Selma; Stainthorp, Rhona

    2014-01-01

    This study had three main aims. First, we examined to what extent listening comprehension, vocabulary, grammatical skills and verbal short-term memory (VSTM) assessed prior to formal reading instruction explained individual differences in early reading comprehension levels. Second, we examined to what extent the three common component skills,…

  3. Improving Reading Comprehension Skills through the SCRATCH Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatga, Erdal; Ersoy, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal how reading comprehension skills of elementary fourth graders who have problems in reading comprehension can be improved by means of the SCRATCH program. The study was designed as a participant action research. It was carried out within a 15- week process at an elementary school with middle socio-economic level…

  4. Riddle Appreciation and Reading Comprehension in Cantonese-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ivy N. Y.; To, Carol K. S.; Weekes, Brendan S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Inference-making skills are necessary for reading comprehension. Training in riddle appreciation is an effective way to improve reading comprehension among English-speaking children. However, it is not clear whether these methods generalize to other writing systems. The goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship between…

  5. Correlates of Early Reading Comprehension Skills: A Componential Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayigit, Selma; Stainthorp, Rhona

    2014-01-01

    This study had three main aims. First, we examined to what extent listening comprehension, vocabulary, grammatical skills and verbal short-term memory (VSTM) assessed prior to formal reading instruction explained individual differences in early reading comprehension levels. Second, we examined to what extent the three common component skills,…

  6. Investigating the Relationship between Connectives and Readers' Reading Comprehension Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençer, Yusuf; ÇetiInkaya, Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between connectives in Turkish texts and readers' reading comprehension. Research was conducted with a total of 50 teachers. In the study group, readers' reading comprehension was determined through 10 descriptive texts by using open-ended questions. The results of the analysis revealed…

  7. The Assessment of Reading Comprehension: Considerations and Cautions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Lynn; Caccamise, Donna; Wise, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the main purposes of reading comprehension assessment and identifies the key features of good assessment. The article also identifies pitfalls that clinicians and educators should avoid to conduct valid assessments of reading comprehension, such as the degree to which the measure taps the constructive and integrative…

  8. A Case for Naturalistic Assessment of Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David W.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a historical overview of the introduction of the major reading comprehension assessments, showing that the predominant approaches were shaped by the prevailing educational measurement milieu and were implemented largely in response to public pressure. Argues in favor of a naturalistic reading comprehension assessment for evaluating those…

  9. Pressure Points in Reading Comprehension: A Quantile Multiple Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine how selected pressure points or areas of vulnerability are related to individual differences in reading comprehension and whether the importance of these pressure points varies as a function of the level of children's reading comprehension. A sample of 245 third-grade children were given an assessment battery…

  10. Improving Reading Comprehension in a Foreign Language: Strategic Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaki, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    Second language reading comprehension is the most important skill required by students, especially in a foreign language context. One way to help these students improve their reading comprehension is strategy instruction. In the present study, the effect of two strategies, namely, summarizing and students-generated questions have been…

  11. Effects of listening comprehension training on listening and reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnoutse, CAJ; van den Bos, KP; Brand-Gruwel, S

    1998-01-01

    In this study the effects of providing text strategy instruction in a listening mode on listening and reading comprehension of experimental and control groups of 9- to 11-year-old poor readers were examined. All students were very poor in decoding and poor in reading comprehension. In addition, half

  12. Exploring the Factors that Affect Reading Comprehension of EAP Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nergis, Aysegul

    2013-01-01

    As far as academic reading comprehension is concerned, a network of linguistic skills and strategies operate in a complex and integrated matter. Since it is impossible to examine all the factors affecting reading comprehension all at once, it is more reasonable to compare and contrast the predictive effects of specific variables against each other…

  13. Reading Comprehension and Autism in the Primary General Education Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Neal Nghia; Leytham, Patrick; Schaefer Whitby, Peggy; Gelfer, Jeffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    Reading comprehension is a critical building block for effective early literacy development. Many students with autism spectrum disorder demonstrate difficulties in reading comprehension. These difficulties may be attributed to deficits in Theory of Mind, Weak Central Coherence, and Executive Functioning. Given the rise in the number of students…

  14. Multisyllabic word reading as a moderator of morphological awareness and reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jennifer K; Goodwin, Amanda P; Compton, Donald L; Kearns, Devin M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the relation between morphological awareness on reading comprehension is moderated by multisyllabic word reading ability in fifth-grade students (N = 169, 53.7% female, 65.2% minority status, 69.2% free/reduced lunch status), oversampled for poor reading skill, when controlling for general knowledge and vocabulary. Based on the lexical quality hypothesis, it was expected that morphological awareness would have a stronger effect on comprehension for children with poor word reading skills, suggesting possible use of morphological awareness for word identification support. Results indicated that neither morphological awareness nor word reading was uniquely associated with reading comprehension when both were included in the model along with vocabulary and general knowledge. Instead, the interaction between word reading and morphological awareness explained significant additional variance in reading comprehension. By probing this interaction, it was determined that the effect of morphological awareness on reading comprehension was significant for the 39% of the sample that had more difficulty reading multisyllabic words but not for students at the higher end of the multisyllabic word reading continuum. We conclude from these results that the relation between morphological awareness and reading comprehension is moderated by multisyllabic word reading ability, providing support for the lexical quality hypothesis. Although we have only correlational data, we suggest tentative instructional practices for improving the reading skill of upper elementary struggling readers.

  15. Oral Comprehension Sets the Ceiling on Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemiller, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    To succeed at reading, children must be able to identify or "read" printed words and understand the story or text composed of those words. For many children, increasing reading and school success will involve increasing oral language competence in the elementary years. Lack of appropriate vocabulary knowledge can result in academic failure. (SM)

  16. Mental juggling: when does multitasking impair reading comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kit W; Altarriba, Jeanette; Popiel, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the conditions under which multitasking impairs reading comprehension. Participants read prose passages (the primary task), some of which required them to perform a secondary task. In Experiment 1, we compared two different types of secondary tasks (answering trivia questions and solving math problems). Reading comprehension was assessed using a multiple-choice test that measured both factual and conceptual knowledge. The results showed no observable detrimental effects associated with multitasking. In Experiment 2, the secondary task was a cognitive load task that required participants to remember a string of numbers while reading the passages. Performance on the reading comprehension test was lower in the cognitive load conditions relative to the no-load condition. The present study delineates the conditions under which multitasking can impair or have no effect on reading comprehension. These results further our understanding of our capacity to multitask and have practical implications in our technologically advanced society in which multitasking has become commonplace.

  17. The Impact of Vocabulary Knowledge Level on EFL Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Kameli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the impact of vocabulary knowledge level on reading comprehension performance among EFL language learners. The ultimate intention was to determine the association between levels of vocabulary knowledge and to clarify the relationship among vocabulary knowledge on reading comprehension performance of EFL Iranian students on subtest of VLT and IELTS. Quantitative data were collected from 220 EFL Iranian adult students at the beginning of second semester of 2011 in private English language institute (BAHAR, Shiraz, Iran. The Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT and Reading Comprehension Test (IELTS were performed in one session as research instruments. The findings indicated that there were positive relationships among different levels of vocabulary test and also test scores on vocabulary size/breadth of vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension. Keywords: vocabulary level, vocabulary size/breadth, reading comprehension

  18. Three Reading Comprehension Strategies: TELLS, Story Mapping, and QARs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrell, Adrian L.

    1990-01-01

    Three reading comprehension strategies are presented to assist learning-disabled students: an advance organizer technique called "TELLS Fact or Fiction" used before reading a passage, a schema-based technique called "Story Mapping" used while reading, and a postreading method of categorizing questions called "Question-Answer Relationships." (JDD)

  19. Reading Comprehension Improvement with Individualized Cognitive Profiles and Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kathleen D.; Hancock, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    This study models improving classroom reading instruction through valid assessment and individualized metacomprehension. Individualized cognitive profiles of Woodcock-Johnson III cognitive abilities correlated with reading comprehension were used during classroom independent reading for judgments of learning, feedback, self-reflection, and…

  20. A Model of Reading Comprehension in Chinese Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Pui-sze; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa; Wong, Yau-kai

    2013-01-01

    The relationships of reading-related skills (rapid naming, morphological awareness, syntactic skills, discourse skills, and verbal working memory) and word reading to reading comprehension were examined among 248 Chinese fourth graders in Hong Kong. Multiple regression analysis results showed that syntactic skills (word order knowledge,…

  1. Thematic Solutions Using Young Adult Literature to Increase Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jill; Bushman, John H.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss thematic solutions using young adult literature to increase reading comprehension. Here, they emphasize that prior knowledge plays a very important role in the reading process. As students read, they actively "construct meaning through the integration of existing and new knowledge and the flexible use of…

  2. Conceptual Change, Text Comprehension and Eye Movements during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttinen, Marjaana; Anto, Erkki; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija

    2013-01-01

    In the two studies presented in this article, we examine the interplay of conceptual change, text comprehension, and eye-movements during reading and develop and test methods suitable for such explorations. In studies 1 and 2, university students (N = 15 and 23) read a text on photosynthesis, explained their reading processes retrospectively cued…

  3. Now We Get It! Boosting Comprehension with Collaborative Strategic Reading

    CERN Document Server

    Klingner, Janette K; Boardman, Alison; Swanson, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    A proven method for teaching reading skills in mixed-ability classrooms Collaborative Strategic Reading is an innovative new approach to teaching reading that weaves together two instructional programs: cooperative learning and reading comprehension strategy instruction. In small groups, students work through the four main steps-Preview, "Click and Clunk," Get the Gist, and Wrap Up-helping each other improve comprehension and increase reading fluency. This book offers a hands-on guide to implementing CSR in grades 4 through 12. It includes sample dialogues for teachers to use during instruct

  4. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text-reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity): how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word-reading fluency, reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word-reading fluency and reading comprehension. The study examined (a) developmentally changing relations…

  5. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text-reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity): how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word-reading fluency, reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word-reading fluency and reading comprehension. The study examined (a) developmentally changing relations…

  6. Lexical-Semantic Processing and Reading: Relations between Semantic Priming, Visual Word Recognition and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Alexandre de Pontes; de Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate relations between lexical-semantic processing and two components of reading: visual word recognition and reading comprehension. Sixty-eight children from private schools in Porto Alegre, Brazil, from 7 to 12 years, were evaluated. Reading was assessed with a word/nonword reading task and a reading…

  7. Lexical-Semantic Processing and Reading: Relations between Semantic Priming, Visual Word Recognition and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Alexandre de Pontes; de Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate relations between lexical-semantic processing and two components of reading: visual word recognition and reading comprehension. Sixty-eight children from private schools in Porto Alegre, Brazil, from 7 to 12 years, were evaluated. Reading was assessed with a word/nonword reading task and a reading…

  8. The Relationship between Good Readers' Attention, Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Mustafa; Çetinkaya, Ezgi

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between fourth-graders' reading fluency, reading comprehension and attention. It was conducted using the relational screening model and included 132 fourth-graders with grade level adequate reading skills. The study results showed that good readers' attention had significant effects on reading speed,…

  9. Enhancing the reading fluency and comprehension of children with reading disabilities in an orthographically transparent language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snellings, P.; van der Leij, A.; de Jong, P.F.; Blok, H.

    2009-01-01

    Breznitz (2006) demonstrated that Hebrew-speaking adults with reading disabilities benefited from a training in which reading rate was experimentally manipulated. In the present study, the authors examine whether silent reading training enhances the sentence reading rate and comprehension of

  10. Oral Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Kenya: Reading Acquisition in a Multilingual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Benjamin; Schroeder, Leila; Trudell, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Reading research has shown that variable relationships exist between measures of oral reading fluency and reading comprehension, depending on whether the language of the text is the reader's first language or an additional language. This paper explores this phenomenon, using reading assessment data for 2,000 Kenyan children in two or three…

  11. High and Low Reading Comprehension Achievers' Strategic Behaviors and Their Relation to Performance in a Reading Comprehension Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermitzaki, Irini; Andreou, Georgia; Paraskeva, Violetta

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the actual strategic behaviors of high and low achievers in reading comprehension and their relation with respective performance. The participants were 45 individually examined third graders, 20 high and 25 low reading comprehension achievers. Cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational aspects of the participants'…

  12. Reading Comprehension Strategies in Secondary Content Area Classrooms: Teacher Use of and Attitudes towards Reading Comprehension Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Molly K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methodology study was to identify the frequency of reading comprehension instruction in middle and high school social studies and science classrooms. An additional purpose was to explore teachers' perceptions of and beliefs about the need for reading comprehension instruction. In 2,400 minutes of direct classroom…

  13. Reading Comprehension Difficulties in Chinese-English Bilingual Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuhong; McBride, Catherine; Shu, Hua; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2017-09-13

    The co-occurrence of reading comprehension difficulties for first language (L1) Chinese and second language (L2) English and associated longitudinal cognitive-linguistic correlates in each language were investigated. Sixteen poor comprehenders in English and 16 poor comprehenders in Chinese, 18 poor readers in both, and 18 children with normal performance in both were identified at age 10. The prevalence rate for being poor in both was 52.94%, suggesting that approximately half of children who are at risk for Chinese reading comprehension difficulty are also at risk for English reading comprehension difficulty. Chinese word reading, phonological, and morphological awareness were longitudinal correlates of poor comprehension in Chinese. English word reading and vocabulary were longitudinal correlates of poor comprehension in English. Chinese phonological awareness was an additional correlate of poor comprehension in English. Moreover, poor comprehenders in both Chinese and English showed slower rapid automatized naming scores than the other groups. Findings highlight some factors that might be critical for reading comprehension in L1 Chinese and L2 English; fluency is likely to be a critical part of reading comprehension across languages. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Silent Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Beth A.; Wallot, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on reading fluency by bilingual primary school students, and the relation of text fluency to their reading comprehension. Group differences were examined in a cross-sectional design across the age range when fluency is posed to shift from word-level to text-level. One hundred five bilingual children from primary grades 3, 4, and 5 were assessed for English word reading and decoding fluency, phonological awareness, rapid symbol naming, and oral language proficiency with standardized measures. These skills were correlated with their silent reading fluency on a self-paced story reading task. Text fluency was quantified using non-linear analytic methods: recurrence quantification and fractal analyses. Findings indicate that more fluent text reading appeared by grade 4, similar to monolingual findings, and that different aspects of fluency characterized passage reading performance at different grade levels. Text fluency and oral language proficiency emerged as significant predictors of reading comprehension. PMID:27630590

  15. Metacognitive Strategy Use in English Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈赏

    2015-01-01

    Metacogonitive strategies are in connection with the reading process. It is essential for language learners to master a se⁃ries of metacogonitive strategies. Teachers should conduct metacognitive training among students. Thus, students are sure to im⁃prove their reading proficiency with some metacognitive knowledge during the reading process.

  16. The Effect of the Reader's Background on Reading Comprehension Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Saadoon Mohammed Al-Noori

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at measuring the amount of the effect of the reader's background knowledge on performance in reading comprehension tests through the assessment of information gained in reading comprehension (RC tests across-four testing techniques, short answer questions ,true-false items , multiple - choice items , and cloze test and re-test. This technique involves the examinees in two types of tasks, i.e. pre-reading and post -reading task. Two hypotheses have been proposed to achieve the aims of this study. They are  1-There are no significant differences between the pre-reading and post-reading performances of examinees on reading comprehension(RC. 2-There are no significant differences in information gain scores across the different techniques of testing reading comprehension (RC in EFL. To verify the validity of these two hypotheses, a number of statistical procedures have been used such as arithmetical mean, t-test for correlated and independent samples to analyze the performance of third and fourth year College students studying at the Department of English at University of Baghdad /Ibn Rushd College of Education for Humanities on two reading passages taken from TOEFL practice tests (2011. The analysis of the data has shown the following results: 1-The background knowledge has an effect on the performance on reading comprehension (RC. 2-There is a significant difference in students' performance on reading comprehension (RC. 3-The effect of background knowledge is investable on reading comprehension (RC tests, but it can be identified or neutralized. Based on these conclusions, the researcher presented a number of recommendations.

  17. Assessing Comprehension During Reading with the Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (RSAT)

    OpenAIRE

    Magliano, Joseph P.; Millis, Keith K.; Levinstein, Irwin

    2011-01-01

    Comprehension emerges as the results of inference and strategic processes that support the construction of a coherent mental model for a text. However, the vast majority of comprehension skills tests adopt a format that does not afford an assessment of these processes as they operate during reading. This study assessed the viability of the Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (RSAT), which is an automated computer-based reading assessment designed to measure readers’ comprehension and spontaneous...

  18. Clarifying Linguistic Comprehension in the Simple View of Reading: The Influence of Word-, Sentence-, and Discourse-Level Linguistic Skills on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Julie Kay

    2012-01-01

    There are a high number of students who struggle with reading comprehension beyond the primary grades and understanding the skills involved in successful reading comprehension continues to be a topic of investigation. The Simple View of Reading (SVR) is a viable theory of reading that suggests reading comprehension results from developing skills…

  19. Lexical Access and Reading Comprehension: A Study with University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Fajardo Hoyos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor automatization of lexical access results in poor performance in reading comprehension (Perfetti, 1985 and 1991. This study relates the performance of 84 undergraduate students in word recognition and reading comprehension skills. Three items of a standardized test were given to the students—the reading of words and pseudowords to identify the percentage of error, and a reading comprehension item. The results show that 36% had high percentages of error in both lexical and semantic processes, while 19% had low percentages of error in both tasks. The effect of the lexical variables of frequency and length is evident. There is a higher percentage of error for low-frequency words and pseudowords and for long words and pseudowords. A higher rate of error in words and pseudowords correlated to a greater number of mistakes in reading comprehension.

  20. A Lattice Model of the Development of Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald

    2016-12-01

    In this article, I present a developmental model of how children learn to comprehend what they read, which builds on current models of reading comprehension and integrates findings from instructional research and evidence-based models of development in early and middle childhood. The lattice model holds that children's developing reading comprehension is a function of the interacting, reciprocal, and bootstrapping effects of developing text-specific, linguistic, and social-cognitive processes, which interact with instruction as child-characteristic-by-instruction (CXI) interaction effects. The processes develop over time and in the context of classroom, home, peer, community, and other influences to affect children's development of proficient reading comprehension. I first describe models of reading comprehension. I then review the basic processes in the model, the role of instruction, and CXI interactions in the context of the lattice model. I then discuss implications for instruction and research.

  1. Reading motivation, reading amount, and text comprehension in deaf and hearing adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parault, Susan J; Williams, Heather M

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the variables of reading motivation, reading amount, and text comprehension in deaf and hearing adults. Research has shown that less than 50% of deaf students leave high school reading at or above a fourth-grade level (Allen, 1994). Our question is, how does this affect the levels of reading motivation and amount of reading in which deaf adults engage? Assessments of 30 hearing and 24 deaf adults showed that deaf participants reported significantly higher levels of reading motivation despite having been found to read at less than a sixth-grade level. No significant difference in the amount of reading between hearing and deaf adults was found. Amount of reading for personal reasons was found to be the best predictor of text comprehension in the deaf participants, and intrinsic motivation was found to be the best predictor of amount of reading in the deaf participants.

  2. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES AS PREDICTORS OF READING COMPREHENSION AND VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Zarei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate types of Multiple Intelligences as predictors of reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge. To meet this objective, a 60-item TOEFL test and a 90-item multiple intelligences questionnaire were distributed among 240 male and female Iranians studying English at Qazali and Parsian Universities in Qazvin. Data were analyzed using a multiple regression procedure. The result of the data analysis indicated that musical, interpersonal, kinesthetic, and logical intelligences were predicators of reading comprehension. Moreover, musical, verbal, visual, kinesthetic and natural intelligences made significant contributions to predicting vocabulary knowledge.   Key words: Multiple intelligences, reading comprehension, vocabulary knowledge.

  3. A dynamic developmental link between verbal comprehension-knowledge (Gc) and reading comprehension: verbal comprehension-knowledge drives positive change in reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Matthew R; Turek, Joshua J

    2012-12-01

    Intelligence and general academic achievement have a well-established relation, but the interrelated development of the two constructs over time is less well-known. In this study, the dynamic developmental relation between verbal comprehension-knowledge (Gc) and reading comprehension was examined by applying bivariate dual change score models (McArdle, 2009) to longitudinal data collected from children aged 9 through 15 who were part of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (NICHD SECCYD). A unidirectional dynamic link was found in which higher levels of prior Gc led to increased positive change in reading comprehension scores. This unidirectional link was not altered by including intelligence measured at 24-months, SES, sex, basic reading, and reading volume as time-invariant covariates. Gc is a leading indicator of reading comprehension and should be considered when developing and monitoring long-term reading comprehension interventions for children. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Listening While Reading (LWR on Swahili Reading Fluency and Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipo Lubua

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have examined the contribution of technology in teaching such languages as English, French, and Spanish, among many others. Contrarily, most LCTL’s, have received very little attention. This study investigates if listening while reading (LWR may expedite Swahili reading fluency and comprehension. The study employed the iBook Author tool to create weekly mediated and interactive reading texts, with comprehension exercises, which were eventually used to collect descriptive and qualitative data from four Elementary Swahili students. Participants participated in a seven week reading program, which provided them with some kind of directed self-learning, and met with the instructor for at least 30 minutes every week for observation and more reading activities. The teacher recorded their reading scores, and a number of themes on how LWR influenced reading fluency and comprehension are discussed here. It shows that participants have a positive attitude towards LWR and they suggest it for all the reading classes.

  5. Shorter lines facilitate reading in those who struggle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H Schneps

    Full Text Available People with dyslexia, who ordinarily struggle to read, sometimes remark that reading is easier when e-readers are used. Here, we used eye tracking to observe high school students with dyslexia as they read using these devices. Among the factors investigated, we found that reading using a small device resulted in substantial benefits, improving reading speeds by 27%, reducing the number of fixations by 11%, and importantly, reducing the number of regressive saccades by more than a factor of 2, with no cost to comprehension. Given that an expected trade-off between horizontal and vertical regression was not observed when line lengths were altered, we speculate that these effects occur because sluggish attention spreads perception to the left as the gaze shifts during reading. Short lines eliminate crowded text to the left, reducing regression. The effects of attention modulation by the hand, and of increased letter spacing to reduce crowding, were also found to modulate the oculomotor dynamics in reading, but whether these factors resulted in benefits or costs depended on characteristics, such as visual attention span, that varied within our sample.

  6. THE PQRST STRATEGY, READING COMPREHENSION, AND LEARNING STYLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfi Hidayatu Miqowati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aims at investigating the effectiveness of the PQRST strategy in students’ reading comprehension, the effectiveness of the PQRST strategy in reading comprehension of students with different learning styles, and the interaction between the PQRST strategy and the students’ learning styles. This study employed a 2x2 factorial design. The subjects were the second semester students of Public Administration Department, Faculty of Political and Social Science, University of Bondowoso. Two classes were randomly selected as the samples of this study. The experimental class was taught by using the PQRST strategy and the non-experimental class by translation and reading aloud. The data were analysed by utilizing non parametric testing: Mann–Whitney U and Kruskall-Wallis. The findings showed that the PQRST strategy statistically impacted students’ reading comprehension compared to the one taught using the translation and reading aloud. But, it was revealed that there was no difference in the reading comprehension of students with different learning styles taught under the PQRST strategy and translation and reading aloud, and there was no interaction between teaching strategies and students’ learning styles.   Keywords: PQRST, learning styles, reading comprehension

  7. A framework to facilitate consistent characterization of read across uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Karen; Stuard, Sharon B

    2014-04-01

    A process for evaluating analogues for use in structure activity relationship (SAR) assessments was previously published (Wu et al., 2010) and tested using a series of case studies (Blackburn et al., 2011). SAR-based "read across" approaches continue to be broadly used to address toxicological data gaps. The potential additional uncertainty introduced into risk assessments as a result of application of read across approaches to fill data gaps has been widely discussed (OECD, 2007; ECETOC, 2012; Patlewicz et al., 2013), but to date a systematic framework to guide the characterization of uncertainty in read across assessments has not been proposed. The current manuscript presents both a systematic framework to describe potential areas of additional uncertainty that may arise in read across (evaluated based on the number and suitability of analogues contributing data, severity of the critical effect, and effects and potency concordance), as well as a questionnaire for evaluating and documenting consideration of these potential additional sources of uncertainty by risk assessors. Application of this framework represents a next step in standardizing the read across process, both by providing a means to transparently assign a level of uncertainty to a SAR-based read across assessment and by facilitating consistency in read across conclusions drawn by different risk assessors.

  8. Comparison of the Efficiency of Reading Comprehension Strategies on Iranian University Students' Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotovatian, Sepideh; Shokrpour, Nasrin

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of the strategies used by English as a foreign language (EFL) or second language (ESL) readers can help instructors teach these techniques and thereby enhance their students' reading comprehension. The present study compared three categories of reading comprehension strategies (metacognitive, cognitive, and socio-affective) to determine…

  9. Reading Comprehension Tests Vary in the Skills They Assess: Differential Dependence on Decoding and Oral Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Janice M.; Betjemann, Rebecca S.; Olson, Richard K.

    2008-01-01

    Comprehension tests are often used interchangeably, suggesting an implicit assumption that they are all measuring the same thing. We examine the validity of this assumption by comparing some of the most popular reading comprehension measures used in research and clinical practice in the United States: the Gray Oral Reading Test (GORT), the two…

  10. Capacity for self-monitoring reading comprehension in Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Gabriela Juliane; Carvalho, Carolina Alves Ferreira; Ávila, Clara Regina Brandão de

    2017-06-08

    To investigate the capacity for self-monitoring reading comprehension in Brazilian Elementary School students. Fifty-three Elementary students in the 5th and 9th grades from two Public Schools in the city of São Paulo were assessed. They were selected based on their oral reading rate and grouped according to their performance in reading comprehension in the following categories: Group with best comprehension: students with adequate rate and accuracy, without difficulties in reading comprehension; Group with worst comprehension: students with adequate rate and accuracy but with difficulties in reading comprehension. Two narrative texts followed by eight questions to assess reading comprehension were presented. Two sentences and two words were replaced by ungrammatical elements and pseudo-words. Under the condition of spontaneous monitoring, students read the text aloud and answered the questions. The analysis considered the calculation of hesitation, self-correction, repetitions and mistakes. Under the condition of directed monitoring, students were instructed to read the text, either aloud or silently, after being told that certain parts of the text could not make sense, and they were oriented to underline such parts. The analysis was carried out by counting of underlined items. The comparisons were made with the Mann-Whitney test. A difference was observed between the groups only at the sentence level among the 9th grade schoolchildren under the spontaneous monitoring and among the 5th grade schoolchildren under directed monitoring. Students with worst comprehension had a poorer performance to monitor the presence of ungrammatical sentences than their peers with best comprehension.

  11. An investigation of Chinese university EFL learner’s foreign language reading anxiety, reading strategy use and reading comprehension performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongshe Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the interrelations between foreign language (FL reading anxiety, FL reading strategy use and their interactive effect on FL reading comprehension performance at the tertiary level in China. Analyses of the survey data collected from 1702 university students yielded the following results: (a Both Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS and Foreign Language Reading Strategy Use Scale (FLRSUS had important subcomponents, (b more than half of the students generally did not feel anxious when reading English, and were confident in and satisfied with their English reading proficiency. Meanwhile, (c more than half of them moderately used different types of reading strategies such as planning, checking and confirming, predicting and assessing, when reading English, (d compared with their female peers, male students felt significantly more anxious when facing reading activities, less satisfied with their English reading proficiency, and used specific analyzing and planning strategies significantly less often during a reading activity, (e FLRAS was significantly inversely related to FLRSUS, and both were significantly correlated with the students’ FL reading comprehension performance, and (f FLRAS (overall FL reading anxiety, FLRAS1 (general anxiety about FL reading, and FLRSUS2 (predicting strategies were good predictors of FL reading comprehension performance. Based on the findings, some implications are discussed.

  12. Social Learning Effects on Reading Comprehension among Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Lawrence

    1978-01-01

    Nursing students who believed that they were in control of their own destinies performed better on a reading comprehension test when a woman administered the test than when a man administered the test. (MKM)

  13. The relationship between component skills, reading experience, and reading comprehension in Danish 3rd graders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønberg, Louise Flensted-Jensen; Petersen, Dorthe Klint

    data sets were obtained from 179 Danish Grade 3 pupils. Participants were given a standard reading comprehension test requiring multiple-choice answers to six different texts of various length and type. Orthographic and phonological coding, as well as non-verbal problem solving were assessed by means......: path, street, road, river). Results Data analyses showed that in the entire sample, skills of semantic lexical structuring and reading experience made strong contributions to reading comprehension. Analyses of the pupils below the 25%-percentile in reading comprehension revealed that for the vast...

  14. Evaluation of use of reading comprehension strategies to improve reading comprehension of adult college students with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Gina G; Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Kirk, Cecilia; Fickas, Stephen; Biancarosa, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI. Despite the rising need, empirical evaluation of reading comprehension interventions for adults with ABI is scarce. This study used a within-subject design to evaluate whether adult college students with ABI with no more than moderate cognitive impairments benefited from using reading comprehension strategies to improve comprehension of expository text. Integrating empirical support from the cognitive rehabilitation and special education literature, the researchers designed a multi-component reading comprehension strategy package. Participants read chapters from an introductory-level college anthropology textbook in two different conditions: strategy and no-strategy. The results indicated that reading comprehension strategy use was associated with recall of more correct information units in immediate and delayed free recall tasks; more efficient recall in the delayed free recall task; and increased accuracy recognising statements from a sentence verification task designed to reflect the local and global coherence of the text. The findings support further research into using reading comprehension strategies as an intervention approach for the adult ABI population. Future research needs include identifying how to match particular reading comprehension strategies to individuals, examining whether reading comprehension performance improves further through the incorporation of systematic training, and evaluating texts from a range of disciplines and genres.

  15. Effects of Tier I Differentiation and Reading Intervention on Reading Fluency, Comprehension, and High Stakes Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Ruth E.; Grant, Christina E.; Sander, Janay B.

    2017-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study examined differences in student reading outcomes. Participants were third grade non-struggling readers. Intervention classrooms included core curriculum instruction plus evidence-based reading comprehension instruction and differentiated repeated readings. Comparison classrooms provided core curriculum instruction…

  16. Talking about Reading as Thinking: Modeling the Hidden Complexities of Online Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiro, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights four cognitive processes key to online reading comprehension and how one might begin to transform existing think-aloud strategy models to encompass the challenges of reading for information on the Internet. Informed by principles of cognitive apprenticeship and an emerging taxonomy of online reading comprehension…

  17. Structures of Cognitive and Metacognitive Reading Strategy Use for Reading Comprehension of Geometry Proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai-Lin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we explored the structural relationship between the students' perceived use of cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies (CMRS) and their reading comprehension of geometry proof (RCGP), and we also examined the differences in students' perceived use of reading strategies among the poor, moderate and good comprehenders. A sample…

  18. Extending Research on Oral Reading Fluency Measures, Reading Speed, and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Megan; Skinner, Christopher H.; Cazzell, Samantha; Ciancio, Dennis; Ruddy, Jonah; Thompson, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Middle-school students completed a comprehension assessment. The following day, they read four, 120-word passages, two standard and two non-standard ransom-note passages with altered font sizes. Altering font sizes increased students' reading time (i.e., reduced reading speed) by an average of 3 s and decreased students' words correct per minute…

  19. Investigating Reading Comprehension and Learning Styles in Relation to Reading Strategies in L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürses, Meral Özkan; Bouvet, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the extent to which reading comprehension and learning styles are related to perceived use of reading strategies among students studying French at an Australian university and a Turkish university. Ninety-one participants completed a background questionnaire, the Survey of Reading Strategies, the Kolb Learning Style…

  20. Investigating Reading Comprehension and Learning Styles in Relation to Reading Strategies in L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürses, Meral Özkan; Bouvet, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the extent to which reading comprehension and learning styles are related to perceived use of reading strategies among students studying French at an Australian university and a Turkish university. Ninety-one participants completed a background questionnaire, the Survey of Reading Strategies, the Kolb Learning Style…

  1. Exploring the Co-Development of Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Callie W.; Hart, Sara A.; Quinn, Jamie M.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Taylor, Jeanette; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the co-development of two related but separate reading skills, reading fluency and reading comprehension, across Grades 1-4. A bivariate biometric dual change score model was applied to longitudinal data collected from 1,784 twin pairs between the ages of 6 and 10 years. Grade 1 skills were influenced by highly overlapping…

  2. Reading Motivation, Reading Amount, and Text Comprehension in Deaf and Hearing Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parault, Susan J.; Williams, Heather M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the variables of reading motivation, reading amount, and text comprehension in deaf and hearing adults. Research has shown that less than 50% of deaf students leave high school reading at or above a fourth-grade level (Allen, 1994). Our question is, how does this affect the levels of…

  3. CORI: Explicit Reading Instruction to Enhance Informational Text Comprehension and Reading Engagement for Thai EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongkrachang, Salila; Chinwonno, Apasara

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the effect of explicit reading instruction as an approach to Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) framework on EFL students' informational text comprehension and engagement. The explicit reading instruction was implemented with 39 first-year Thai undergraduate students over a 10-week period. It was found that the…

  4. The Effects of Pre-Reading Activities on Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Nahid Nemati; Mahmoudi, Asgar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three types of pre-reading activities (movie-watching, vocabulary presentation, and pre-reading summarization) on the reading comprehension of 76 elementary-level EFL Iranian learners. The participants were randomly assigned to one control and three experimental conditions and then a pretest was given to…

  5. EFL Reading Comprehension, Individual Differences and Text Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilikozen, Neslihan; Akyel, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the relative contribution to EFL reading comprehension of the following individual-difference variables: prior knowledge, topic interest, linguistic proficiency, gender, reading motivation, and metacognitive awareness. It also investigates the relationship between the aforementioned individual differences and the role of text…

  6. Shared Book Reading and English Learners' Narrative Production and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez, Perla B.; González, Dahlia; Urbin, LaNette M.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relation between exposure to shared book reading and Spanish-speaking English learners' (ELs'; n = 102) narrative production and comprehension skills in kindergarten (mean age = 6.12 years). Audio- and videotaped book-reading sessions in Spanish were coded in terms of teachers' extratextual talk and gestures. Using a silent…

  7. EFL Reading Comprehension, Individual Differences and Text Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilikozen, Neslihan; Akyel, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the relative contribution to EFL reading comprehension of the following individual-difference variables: prior knowledge, topic interest, linguistic proficiency, gender, reading motivation, and metacognitive awareness. It also investigates the relationship between the aforementioned individual differences and the role of text…

  8. R-WISE: A Learning Environment for Teaching Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Patricia A.; Larralde, Veronica

    1995-01-01

    R-WISE (Reading and Writing in a Supportive Environment), a computerized package for teaching critical literacy, is described, focusing on its use in developing reading comprehension. The program eases demands on short-term memory, highlights strategically important aspects of comprehending text, guides internalization and self-initiation of…

  9. Using Arabic in Testing Reading Comprehension in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Jihad; Diab, Turki

    A study examined the role of the native language (Arabic) in assessing the reading comprehension of learners of English as a second language. Subjects were 60 secondary school students in two comparable classes in Jordan. After receiving instruction for one month using reading material in the prescribed textbook, students were administered a…

  10. Effects of Discourse Structure Graphic Organizers on EFL Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangying

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a 16-week reading instruction program with discourse structure graphic organizers (DSGOs) on the development of English reading comprehension among college-level English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students. A total of 340 first and third semester students of non-English majors at a Chinese university…

  11. Metacognition and reading comprehension : Alireza Karbalaei

    OpenAIRE

    Parra Galvis, Marcela; Restrepo, Diana Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper is aimed to argument, expand and critique some points that were held in the article “METACOGNITION AND READING COMPREHENSION” written by Alireza Karbalaei, 2010, an EFL teacher and Ph. D Graduate in ELT from the Department of English Language, Islamic Azad University. We organize the paper in three sessions. First, we explore the policies for teaching reading in the EFL; contextualizing into a more specific setting and supporting the ideas with the results from the ICFES exam. T...

  12. Metacognitive awareness of TOEFL reading comprehension strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Sungatullina Dilyana D.; Zalyaeva Ekaterina O.; Gorelova Yuliya N.

    2016-01-01

    The rising demand for exchange and mobility programs as well as double diploma opportunities with world leading universities highlights the importance of ESL proficiency. TOEFL iBT as a test of EAP is accepted by most of the HEI in various countries. The aim of the present study is to determine students’ metacognitive awareness of global academic reading strategies, namely the use of context clues, within the framework of preparation for TOEFL reading section. The article establishes the conn...

  13. Kindergarten predictors of second versus eighth grade reading comprehension impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlof, Suzanne M; Catts, Hugh W; Lee, Jaehoon

    2010-01-01

    Multiple studies have shown that kindergarten measures of phonological awareness and alphabet knowledge are good predictors of reading achievement in the primary grades. However, less attention has been given to the early predictors of later reading achievement. This study used a modified best-subsets variable-selection technique to examine kindergarten predictors of early versus later reading comprehension impairments. Participants included 433 children involved in a longitudinal study of language and reading development. The kindergarten test battery assessed various language skills in addition to phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge, naming speed, and nonverbal cognitive ability. Reading comprehension was assessed in second and eighth grades. Results indicated that different combinations of variables were required to optimally predict second versus eighth grade reading impairments. Although some variables effectively predicted reading impairments in both grades, their relative contributions shifted over time. These results are discussed in light of the changing nature of reading comprehension over time. Further research will help to improve the early identification of later reading disabilities.

  14. The Effect of Background Music While Silent Reading on EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sakineh sahebdel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to determine the effect of background music while silent reading on Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension. The participants were 57 Iranian EFL learners between the ages of 14 and 16 in two 3rd grade high schoolclasses at pre-intermediate proficiency level. Before treatment,both experimental and control groups took a reading comprehension pretest. In the experimental group, the researchers played Mozart sonatas as background music and asked them to read the passage silently and then answer the reading comprehension questions. In the control group, the procedure was the same, but no music was played while silent reading by the students. After ten sessions, the students of both groups were asked to answer another independent but parallel form of reading section of PET as their post-test. The independent samples t-testresultsindicated that the experimental group outperformed the control group in reading comprehension posttest, and listening to background music while silent reading had a significantly positive effect on Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension. The results of the present study have implications for EFL students, teachers, and teacher educators as well as syllabus designers and materials developers.

  15. The Role of Reading Fluency in Children's Text Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Understanding a written text requires some higher cognitive abilities that not all children have. Some children have these abilities, since they understand oral texts; however, they have difficulties with written texts, probably due to problems in reading fluency. The aim of this study was to determine which aspects of reading fluency are related to reading comprehension. Four expositive texts, two written and two read by the evaluator, were presented to a sample of 103 primary school children (third and sixth grade). Each text was followed by four comprehension questions. From this sample we selected two groups of participants in each grade, 10 with good results in comprehension of oral and written texts, and 10 with good results in oral and poor in written comprehension. These 40 subjects were asked to read aloud a new text while they were recorded. Using Praat software some prosodic parameters were measured, such as pausing and reading rate (number and duration of the pauses and utterances), pitch and intensity changes and duration in declarative, exclamatory, and interrogative sentences and also errors and duration in words by frequency and stress. We compared the results of both groups with ANOVAs. The results showed that children with less reading comprehension made more inappropriate pauses and also intersentential pauses before comma than the other group and made more mistakes in content words; significant differences were also found in the final declination of pitch in declarative sentences and in the F0 range in interrogative ones. These results confirm that reading comprehension problems in children are related to a lack in the development of a good reading fluency.

  16. The Effect of Explicit Teaching of Comprehension Strategies on Reading Comprehension in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, James Grant

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of explicit teaching of comprehension strategies on the comprehension performance of elementary school students. Two schools with similar demographics, including a significant proportion of students at risk for reading failure, participated in the study. One school utilized an explicit comprehension strategy…

  17. DEVELOPING A MODEL OF TEACHING READING COMPREHENSION FOR EFL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifuddin Hamra

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at designing a model of teaching reading comprehension based on the objectives of teaching reading at the senior high school and the teachers’ understanding of the school curriculum and to describe the implementation of the model. The subject consisted of 24 teachers, 167 students of five SMAs (senior high schools in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. This developmental study had five steps: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. The result indicates that the model significantly increases the reading comprehension of EFL students (M = -14.43114, t (166 = -16.155, p

  18. How Graphic Novels Support Reading Comprehension Strategy Development in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenna, Beverley

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored the relationship between comprehension strategies and graphic novels in one Grade 4 classroom, utilising children as informants. The primary research questions related to children's applications of metacognitive reading comprehension strategies as well as the potential for graphic novels to support the…

  19. Processing Demands of Reading Comprehension Tests in Young Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendeou, Panayiota; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Spanoudis, George

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we examined the processing demands of three reading comprehension tests, namely the Woodcock-Johnson Passage Comprehension (WJPC), a Curriculum-Based Measure test (CBM-Maze), and a Recall test, in the early elementary years. Our investigation was theoretically motivated by Perfetti's Verbal Efficiency Theory and examined the…

  20. Improving text comprehension strategies in reading and listening settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand-Gruwel, S; Aarnoutse, CAJ; Van den Bos, KP

    1998-01-01

    Traditional intervention programs for children with decoding and reading comprehension problems often focus on remediation of the decoding ability. The goal of this study was to determine whether it is possible to teach these children text comprehension strategies. The subjects were fourth-grade stu

  1. Prediction of the development of reading comprehension: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van

    2008-01-01

    Specific effects of word decoding, vocabulary and listening comprehension abilities on the development of reading comprehension were longitudinally examined for a representative sample of 2143 Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. An attempt was made to test two theoretical framewo

  2. Specific Reading Comprehension Disability: Major Problem, Myth, or Misnomer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Mercedes; Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to test three competing hypotheses about the nature of comprehension problems of students who are poor in reading comprehension. Participants in the study were first, second, and third graders, totaling nine cohorts and over 425,000 participants in all. The pattern of results was consistent across all cohorts:…

  3. Specific Reading Comprehension Disability: Major Problem, Myth, or Misnomer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Mercedes; Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to test three competing hypotheses about the nature of comprehension problems of students who are poor in reading comprehension. Participants in the study were first, second, and third graders, totaling nine cohorts and over 425,000 participants in all. The pattern of results was consistent across all cohorts:…

  4. Prediction of the development of reading comprehension: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van

    2008-01-01

    Specific effects of word decoding, vocabulary and listening comprehension abilities on the development of reading comprehension were longitudinally examined for a representative sample of 2143 Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. An attempt was made to test two theoretical framewo

  5. Communicative Literacy Pedagogy: Engaging EAL Students in Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    In culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms reading comprehension is essential for students to access all areas of the curriculum. For English as an Additional Language (EAL) students, research has identified the need to combine literacy strategies with second language principles to scaffold students' comprehension of text. To illustrate…

  6. How Graphic Novels Support Reading Comprehension Strategy Development in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenna, Beverley

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored the relationship between comprehension strategies and graphic novels in one Grade 4 classroom, utilising children as informants. The primary research questions related to children's applications of metacognitive reading comprehension strategies as well as the potential for graphic novels to support the…

  7. Improving text comprehension strategies in reading and listening settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand-Gruwel, S; Aarnoutse, CAJ; Van den Bos, KP

    Traditional intervention programs for children with decoding and reading comprehension problems often focus on remediation of the decoding ability. The goal of this study was to determine whether it is possible to teach these children text comprehension strategies. The subjects were fourth-grade

  8. The effect of Arabic vowels on the reading comprehension of second- and sixth-grade native Arab children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, S

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of Arabic vowels on the reading comprehension of native Arabic speakers. This issue has not been addressed yet. Two groups of native Arabic speakers were randomly sampled, one from two elementary schools in the Haifa area, and the other from two elementary schools in Nazareth. Both groups in both experiments read Arabic texts in two reading conditions, vowelized and unvowelized; the older group (n = 74) answered 10 multiple-choice comprehension questions about each story, and the younger group (n = 71) answered seven multiple-choice comprehension questions. The results revealed that vowels were a significant facilitator of reading comprehension in both age groups. Considering these results, reading in Arabic orthography is not an autonomous word recognition process. An alternative approach is suggested for reading Arabic.

  9. "Decoding versus comprehension": Brain responses underlying reading comprehension in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Haley M; Maximo, Jose O; Murdaugh, Donna L; O'Kelley, Sarah; Kana, Rajesh K

    2017-02-24

    Despite intact decoding ability, deficits in reading comprehension are relatively common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, few neuroimaging studies have tested the neural bases of this specific profile of reading deficit in ASD. This fMRI study examined activation and synchronization of the brain's reading network in children with ASD with specific reading comprehension deficits during a word similarities task. Thirteen typically developing children and 18 children with ASD performed the task in the MRI scanner. No statistically significant group differences in functional activation were observed; however, children with ASD showed decreased functional connectivity between the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and the left inferior occipital gyrus (LIOG). In addition, reading comprehension ability significantly positively predicted functional connectivity between the LIFG and left thalamus (LTHAL) among all subjects. The results of this study provide evidence for altered recruitment of reading-related neural resources in ASD children and suggest specific weaknesses in top-down modulation of semantic processing.

  10. Reading comprehension and reading development for learning in children from unstimulating environment caused by poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Košak Babuder, Milena

    2012-01-01

    A review of foreign and home research results has shown a significant connection between a level of literacy and a level of education, employment prospects and consequently socio-economic status of an individual and a family. Home environment, life habits related to literacy (reading culture) and level of parents' education have a direct impact on a child's development of literacy. Reading efficiency is an important element of literacy and relates to reading comprehension and reading for lear...

  11. Writing-Reading Relationships: Effectiveness of Writing Activities as Pre-Reading Tasks to Enhance L2 Inferential Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramaarachchi, Thilina Indrajie

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the interaction between reading and writing processes in general and more specifically the impact of pre-reading tasks incorporating writing tasks (referred to as "prw tasks") in helping the development of inferential reading comprehension. A sample of 70 first year ESL students of the University of Kelaniya were…

  12. Use of Meta-comprehensive Strategies to Strengthen Reading Comprehension in Second-Cycle Students from a Public School at Bogotá, Colombia

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    Bibian Alexandra Rodríguez Ribero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research inquired about the effect of a classroom intervention in metacomprehension strategies, specifically self-questioning, on reading comprehension improvement in third and fourth - graders. Reading comprehension was understood as a process that relates content, text and inferences, and is facilitated by metacomprehension or metacognitive processes applied to reading comprehension. The participants were third- and fourth-grade students: the intervention group (which had an initial assessment, and were submitted to classroom intervention in metacomprehension using self-questioning—implemented by the first three authors—, and had a final assessment, and the control group (which had initial assessment, the usual classroom work with other teachers, and final assessment. The Comprensión Lingüística Progresiva (clp, Alliende, Condemarín & Milicic, 2004—a reading comprehension test—and the students’ metacomprehensive strategies questionnaire were administered to students in both groups, in the initial and final assessments. This information was complemented with interview data from other teachers (different from the authors in order to know their perspective on reading comprehension underlying their reading teaching practices. Results showed a rise in reading comprehension tests scores and diversification in the use of metacomprehensive strategies only in the intervention group, and different conceptions of reading comprehension in other teachers, which had nothing to do with metacomprehension strategies.

  13. Decoding, Semantic Processing, and Reading Comprehension Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Rosinski, Richard R.

    1976-01-01

    A set of decoding tests and picture-word interference tasks was administered to third and fifth graders to explore the relationship between single-word decoding, single-word semantic processing, and text comprehension skill. (BRT)

  14. Reading Journal as A Way to Improve Students’ Comprehension toward A Textbook Reading Material

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    Menik Winiharti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Reading journal is one way to record students’ independent learning based on text they read. This study was conducted to find out the students’ level of reading comprehension through some notes written in the reading journal, the extent to which the activity of writing reading journals improved students’ reading comprehension, whether the students got benefit from reading journal. There were 104 respondents coming from four different departments in Bina Nusantara University were asked to read a text related to the subject they learned in a certain session. Then they were assigned to write a journal that records the things they had read. When this task was finished, the lecturer ran a quiz containing related questions to check whether they really understood the content of the text. Afterwards, students were to fill in a questionnaire regarding their opinion on the impact of the reading journal toward their reading comprehension. The findings indicate that more than half of the participants appear to understand the material well, and the task plays a certain role in improving students’ understanding. The most crucial thing is that most students think they get benefit by writing the reading journal.

  15. The Effect of Short Vowelization on Curriculum-Based Measurement of Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Al-Hmouz, Hanan; Kenana, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    This study facilitates the use of Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) to investigate the effect of short vowels on oral reading fluency (ORF) and silent reading comprehension in Arabic orthography. A total sample of 131 fifth-grade students (89 skilled readers and 42 poor readers) participated in the study. Two kinds of CBM probes were…

  16. What Do We Test When We Test Reading Comprehension?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊红梅

    2005-01-01

    As English teachers we give our students reading assessments in order to test theirreading abilities.However,some teachers may not be aware that the comprehension questions theyformulate only test students’ ability to understand and recall ideas and information directly stated in thegiven text.Actually there are more our students need to learn through different levels of comprehension-literal,interpretive and critical comprehension.

  17. The Impact of Topic Congruence on Second Language Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Sadeghpour

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study scrutinized the impact of congruent topics on the quality of L2 reading comprehension. 56 Iranian advanced-level students read 2 texts on a controversial topic, one on the advantages of child gender selection, and the other on disadvantages. Quality analysis of immediate and delayed recall tasks, defined as the amount of high and low-level information recalled correctly, was performed by analysis of variance. Results revealed that topic congruence affected immediate recall of both high and low-level information, and also delayed recall of low-level information. Findings showed that the effect of congruent topics on reading recall was detrimental; participants recalled less information from the passage with congruent topic than a passage with incongruent topic. Outcomes of the study suggest that controversial topics should be selected more cautiously, because they may not truly reflect L2 readers’ reading comprehension. Keywords: congruent topic, L2 reading, readers’ attitude, immediate recall, delayed recall

  18. The utility and accuracy of oral reading fluency score types in predicting reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petscher, Yaacov; Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-02-01

    This study used data from the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS; Good & Kaminski, 2002) oral reading fluency (ORF) probes to examine variation among different ORF score types (i.e., the median of three passages, the mean of all three passages, the mean of passages 2 and 3, and the score from passage 3) in predicting reading comprehension as a function of student reading fluency level and to compare the screening accuracy of these score types in predicting student reading comprehension. The results revealed that the relation between oral reading fluency and reading comprehension varied as a function of students' oral reading fluency and that different score types had varying predictive validity for year-end reading comprehension. The mean of all three passages demonstrated a marginally better balance in screening efficiency from September to December of grade one (especially for low-performing students), whereas in grades two and three, the median score was the best predictor. Furthermore, across all grades, increasing reading rates were observed for the three administered passages within an assessment period. The observed patterns mimicked previous experimental studies (Francis et al., 2008; Jenkins, Graff, & Miglioretti, 2009), suggesting that practice effects are an important consideration in the administration of multiple passages assessing oral reading fluency. Copyright © 2010 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Adolescent reading skill and engagement with digital and traditional literacies as predictors of reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lynne G; McGeown, Sarah P; Griffiths, Yvonne M; Stothard, Susan E; Dobai, Anna

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the concurrent predictors of adolescent reading comprehension (literal, inferential) for fiction and non-fiction texts. Predictors were examined from the cognitive (word identification, reading fluency), psychological (gender), and ecological (print exposure) domains. Print exposure to traditional and digital texts was surveyed using a diary method of reading habits. A cross-sectional sample of 312 students in early (11-13 years) or middle adolescence (14-15 years) participated from a range of SES backgrounds. Word identification emerged as a strong predictor of reading comprehension across adolescence and text genres. Gender effects favouring female students were evident for reading frequency but not for reading skill itself. Reading habits also differed, and comprehension advantages were observed among females for fiction and males for non-fiction. Age effects emerged for reading frequency, which was lower in middle adolescence. Although more time was spent on digital than on traditional texts, traditional extended text reading was the only reading habit to predict inference-making in comprehension and to distinguish skilled from less skilled comprehenders. The theoretical and educational implications of these results are discussed.

  20. Translating advances in reading comprehension research to educational practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle S. McNAMARA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors review five major findings in reading comprehension and their implications for educational practice. First, research suggests that comprehension skills are separable from decodingprocesses and important at early ages, suggesting that comprehension skills should be targeted early, even before the child learns to read. Second, there is an important distinction between readingprocesses and products, as well as their causal relationship: processes lead to certain products. Hence, instructional approaches and strategies focusing on processes are needed to improve students’reading performance (i.e., product. Third, inferences are a crucial component of skilled comprehension. Hence, children need scaffolding and remediation to learn to generate inferences, even when they know little about the text topic. Fourth, comprehension depends on a complex interaction between the reader, the characteristics of the text, and the instructional task, highlighting the need for careful selection of instructional materials for individual students and specific groups of students. Finally, educators may benefit from heightened awareness of the limitations and inadequacies of standardized reading comprehension assessments, as well as the multidimensionality of comprehension to better understand their students’ particular strengths and weaknesses.

  1. How do typographical factors affect reading text and comprehension performance in Arabic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganayim, Deia; Ibrahim, Raphiq

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to establish basic reading performance that could lead to useful design recommendations for print display text formats and layouts for the improvement of reading and comprehension performance of print text, such as academic writings, books, and newspapers, of Arabic language. Readability of English print text has been shown to be influenced by a number of typographical variables, including interline spacing, column setting and line length, and so on.Therefore, it is very important to improve the reading efficiency and satisfaction of print text reading and comprehension by following simple design guidelines. Most existing research on readability of print text is oriented to build guidelines for designing English texts rather than Arabic. However, guidelines built for English script cannot be simply applied for Arabic script because of orthographic differences. In the current study, manipulating interline spacing and column setting and line length generated nine text layouts. The reading and comprehension performance of 210 native Arab students assigned randomly to the different text layouts was compared. Results showed that the use of multicolumn setting (with medium or short line length) affected comprehension achievement but not reading and comprehension speed. Participants' comprehension scores were better for the single-column (with long line length) than for the multicolumn setting. However, no effect was found for interline spacing. The recommendations for appropriate print text format and layout in Arabic language based on the results of objective measures facilitating reading and comprehension performance is a single-column (with long line length) layout with no relevance of the interline spacing.

  2. Exploring the Co-Development of Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Callie W; Hart, Sara A; Quinn, Jamie M; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Taylor, Jeanette; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-11-10

    This study explores the co-development of two related but separate reading skills, reading fluency and reading comprehension, across Grades 1-4. A bivariate biometric dual change score model was applied to longitudinal data collected from 1,784 twin pairs between the ages of 6 and 10 years. Grade 1 skills were influenced by highly overlapping genetic and environmental factors. Growth in both skills was influenced by highly overlapping shared environmental factors. Cross-lagged parameters indicated bidirectional effects, with stronger effects from fluency to comprehension change than from comprehension to fluency change.

  3. Predicting reading comprehension of narrative and expository texts among Hebrew-speaking readers with and without a reading disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primor, Liron; Pierce, Margaret E; Katzir, Tami

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which cognitive and reading-related linguistic skills contribute to reading comprehension of narrative and expository texts. The study examined an Israeli national database of Hebrew-speaking readers in fourth grade, from which a subsample of 190 readers with a reading disability (RD) and 190 readers with no reading disability (NRD) was selected. IQ, text reading, reading comprehension, and various linguistic and cognitive skills were assessed. Structural equation modeling results suggested that both groups rely on lower level processes such as text reading accuracy and orthographic knowledge for reading comprehension of both genres. However, RD readers depend more heavily upon these lower level processes compared with NRD for whom higher level processes contribute more to reading comprehension. The various variables accounted for only 25-34% of reading comprehension variance, and possible explanations are discussed. Taken together, these findings highlight the variety of factors influencing reading comprehension and its multidimensional nature.

  4. Reading Processes of University Students with Dyslexia - An Examination of the Relationship between Oral Reading and Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Henriette Folkmann; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Lauridsen, Lene Louise; Parrila, Rauno

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of oral reading and how it relates to reading comprehension in students with dyslexia. A group of Danish university students with dyslexia (n = 16) and a comparison group of students with no history of reading problems (n = 16) were assessed on their oral reading performance when reading a complex text. Along with reading speed, we measured not only the number and quality of reading errors but also the extent and semantic nature of the self-corrections during reading. The reading comprehension was measured through aided text retellings. The results showed that, as a group, the dyslexics performed poorer on most measures, but there were notable within-group differences in the reading behaviours and little association between how well university students with dyslexia read aloud and comprehended the text. These findings suggest that many dyslexics in higher education tend to focus their attention on one subcomponent of the reading process, for example, decoding or comprehension, because engaging in both simultaneously may be too demanding for them. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Content Schema and English Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎明珠

    2013-01-01

    Schema is usually the general knowledge structure in mind, and there are different kinds of schema in reader ’s mind. Content schema refers to the background knowledge about the content area of a text. And the reader ’s content schema in mind has greater effects on English comprehension.

  6. Language-related values, reading amount, and reading comprehension in students with migration backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khechen, Wahiba; Ferdinand, Hanna D; Steinmayr, Ricarda; McElvany, Nele

    2016-06-01

    Although various studies on general language performance have investigated determinants of students' reading comprehension (e.g., reading amount), they have paid insufficient attention to how students perceive parental values influence their language-related values and behaviour - and, as a consequence, their performance. This is particularly the case for bilingual students with a migration background. The present study aims to examine the impact of how students perceive parental values regarding German (attainment, utility, and cost), students' (utility) value of German/Turkish, and students' reading amount in German/Turkish on German reading comprehension. A total of 118 Grade 4 students in Germany with Turkish as their family language. Reading comprehension was measured with a 15-item standardized test. Whereas students' reading amount (German/Turkish) was assessed through students' self-reports on three questions, students' utility value (German/Turkish) and perceived parental values regarding German (attainment, utility, and cost) were each measured with two items. Results of path modelling supported the hypotheses that students' utility value regarding German and their reading amount in German would positively predict their German reading comprehension, whereas their utility value regarding Turkish and their reading amount in Turkish would negatively predict their German reading comprehension. Data also confirmed a direct effect of the negatively perceived parental cost value of German on German reading comprehension. The new evidence is of practical relevance for teachers, educational scientists, and psychologists who are striving to improve the educational outcomes of bilingual students. Further research needs and the significance of the results for educational practice and home environment are discussed. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  7. The neural correlates of strategic reading comprehension: cognitive control and discourse comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jarrod; Schunn, Christian D; Schneider, Walter; McNamara, Danielle S; Vanlehn, Kurt

    2011-09-15

    Neuroimaging studies of text comprehension conducted thus far have shed little light on the brain mechanisms underlying strategic learning from text. Thus, the present study was designed to answer the question of what brain areas are active during performance of complex reading strategies. Reading comprehension strategies are designed to improve a reader's comprehension of a text. For example, self-explanation is a complex reading strategy that enhances existing comprehension processes. It was hypothesized that reading strategies would involve areas of the brain that are normally involved in reading comprehension along with areas that are involved in strategic control processes because the readers are intentionally using a complex reading strategy. Subjects were asked to reread, paraphrase, and self-explain three different texts in a block design fMRI study. Activation was found in both executive control and comprehension areas, and furthermore, learning from text was associated with activation in the anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC). The authors speculate that the aPFC may play a role in coordinating the internal and external modes of thought that are necessary for integrating new knowledge from texts with prior knowledge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Influence of Grammatical Competence on Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘畅

    2013-01-01

    With the development of globalization,English has become one of the most popular languages in the world.In many non-English-speaking countries,English teaching and learning occupies a very important position in their foreign language education.Grammar teaching is an indispensable part of English language teaching in EFL context like China;however,in recent years,grammar teaching has been more or less neglected.Without doubt,grammatical competence is one of the major factors that influence reading efficiency.This paper mainly focuses on examining how a learner’s grammatical competence influences his or her reading comprehension,starting with a comprehensive review of the grammar-related factors involved in reading comprehension.

  9. Using Anticipatory Reading Guides to Improve Elementary Students’ Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Ortlieb

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges of an elementary school teacher is equipping students with comprehension strategies that transfer to all content areas. With stable levels of reading achievement over the last two decades in the United States, it is necessary that further research be conducted on methods of increasing students’ comprehension proficiencies. This experimental research study explores the use of an anticipatory reading guide with third grade struggling readers across multiple subject areas. Findings indicate that the experimental treatment group outperformed the control group by a statistically significant rate on both reading and content area measures, indicating that when struggling readers practice and use strategies to explicitly think what will be asked of them after reading the passage they perform at higher levels.

  10. Reading Comprehension: A Viable Challenge for Public School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correales Rocío

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in the Diana Turbay state school with students of one eighth grade class with a low English level. The group was chosen because of their special characteristics within this public institution: their number (just eighteen students and their interest in and motivation for learning English as a foreign language. The motivation they show allowed the researchers to observe and collect more specific information for this study and for future research on reading comprehension. Data collection was conducted using many different techniques, such as open observations, diary, surveys, students’ self-evaluation and field notes. All these techniques provided information as authentic as possible. The purpose of the study was to determine if students improved their reading comprehension in English by applying specific reading strategies. Results showed that students from state schools can achieve good comprehension of English texts through adequate training despite the fact that they start their English learning so late. Further research on this topic should study the relationship between reading comprehension in Spanish and in English. It would also be necessary to study how students can acquire language structures through reading activities.

  11. Short Vowels Versus Word Familiarity in the Reading Comprehension of Arab Readers: A Revisited Issue

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    Abdullah M. SERAYE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Arab readers, both beginning and advanced, are encouraged to read and accustomed to unvowelized and undiacriticized texts. Previous literature claimed that the presence of short vowels in the text would facilitate the reading comprehension of both beginning and advanced Arab readers. However, with a claimed strict controlling procedure, different results emerged, revealing that the only variable that affected the reading process of Arab adult skilled readers was word frequency, and its effect was limited to the time load of the reading process; this result raised the question of whether the neutral role of short vowels in the text reading process of experienced Arab readers would be maintained for less experienced readers, as represented by fourth graders, or whether word frequency would be the only variable that plays a role in their reading process. In experiment, 1,141 fourth-grade students were randomly assigned to 5 reading conditions: plain, only shaddah, short vowels plus shaddah, only short vowels, and finally the wrong short vowels plus shaddah. In experiment 2, 38 participants from the same population were assigned to a fully vowelized and diacriticized reading condition. Each participant was asked to read two texts, of high and low frequency words and then given recall and multiple-choice tests. In general, the multivariate analysis showed that the only manipulated variable that was found to affect their reading process in terms of reading time load and, to some degree, reading comprehension was word frequency, although its effect was marginal. Accordingly, pedagogical recommendations and future research were proposed.

  12. Reading Motivation and Reading Comprehension in Chinese and English among Bilingual Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dan; Wong, Ka Ki; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    One hundred four Hong Kong Chinese fifth graders completed a questionnaire on eight separate motivational subscales related to reading separately for Chinese as a first language (L1) and English as a foreign language (EFL) in addition to measures of both Chinese and English reading comprehension. Motivations related to self-efficacy, curiosity,…

  13. The Relationship between Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension in Fifth-Grade Turkish Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Mustafa; Yildirim, Kasim; Ates, Seyit; Rasinski, Timothy; Fitzgerald, Shawn; Zimmerman, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    This research study focused on the relationships among the various components of reading fluency components (word recognition accuracy, automaticity, and prosody), as well as their relationships with reading comprehension among fifth-grade students in Turkey. A total of 119 fifth-grade elementary school students participated in the study. The…

  14. Effects of Pre-Reading Strategies on EFL/ESL Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, Kei

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on two pre-reading strategies: vocabulary pre-teaching and comprehension question presentation. Researchers have claimed that a vocabulary strategy is less effective than any other pre-reading strategy. This study investigates whether their claim is true of Japanese university students. The purpose of the study is twofold. The…

  15. Examining the Relationships of Component Reading Skills to Reading Comprehension in Struggling Adult Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The current study employed a meta-analytic approach to investigate the relative importance of component reading skills to reading comprehension in struggling adult readers. A total of 10 component skills were consistently identified across 16 independent studies and 2,707 participants. Random effects models generated 76 predictor-reading…

  16. Language-Related Values, Reading Amount, and Reading Comprehension in Students with Migration Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khechen, Wahiba; Ferdinand, Hanna D.; Steinmayr, Ricarda; McElvany, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although various studies on general language performance have investigated determinants of students' reading comprehension (e.g., reading amount), they have paid insufficient attention to how students perceive parental values influence their language-related values and behaviour--and, as a consequence, their performance. This is…

  17. The Contribution of Morphological Awareness to Reading Comprehension in Early Stages of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered; Sarid, Miri; Raveh, Michal; Nevo, Einat

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of morphological awareness to reading comprehension in Hebrew was studied in 298 second grade students who practiced two types of inflections, plural and possessive. Reading tasks at the beginning and end of the school year indicated that all improved on all tests in that period. Orthographic word recognition and morphological…

  18. The Relationship between Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension in Fifth-Grade Turkish Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Mustafa; Yildirim, Kasim; Ates, Seyit; Rasinski, Timothy; Fitzgerald, Shawn; Zimmerman, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    This research study focused on the relationships among the various components of reading fluency components (word recognition accuracy, automaticity, and prosody), as well as their relationships with reading comprehension among fifth-grade students in Turkey. A total of 119 fifth-grade elementary school students participated in the study. The…

  19. Examining the Relationships of Component Reading Skills to Reading Comprehension in Struggling Adult Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The current study employed a meta-analytic approach to investigate the relative importance of component reading skills to reading comprehension in struggling adult readers. A total of 10 component skills were consistently identified across 16 independent studies and 2,707 participants. Random effects models generated 76 predictor-reading…

  20. Narrow Reading: Effects on EFL Learners' Reading Speed, Comprehension, and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.-S.; Millett, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the reading speed, comprehension and perceptions of two groups of English as a foreign language (EFL) learners. Each group addressed one of two types of narrow reading: same genre and same title. The same genre texts were three graded readers in the "Sherlock Holmes" series, and the same title texts were "The…

  1. Effects of audio-visual aids on foreign language test anxiety, reading and listening comprehension, and retention in EFL learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Ping; Lee, Shin-Da; Liao, Yuan-Lin; Wang, An-Chi

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the effects of audio-visual aids on anxiety, comprehension test scores, and retention in reading and listening to short stories in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms. Reading and listening tests, general and test anxiety, and retention were measured in English-major college students in an experimental group with audio-visual aids (n=83) and a control group without audio-visual aids (n=94) with similar general English proficiency. Lower reading test anxiety, unchanged reading comprehension scores, and better reading short-term and long-term retention after four weeks were evident in the audiovisual group relative to the control group. In addition, lower listening test anxiety, higher listening comprehension scores, and unchanged short-term and long-term retention were found in the audiovisual group relative to the control group after the intervention. Audio-visual aids may help to reduce EFL learners' listening test anxiety and enhance their listening comprehension scores without facilitating retention of such materials. Although audio-visual aids did not increase reading comprehension scores, they helped reduce EFL learners' reading test anxiety and facilitated retention of reading materials.

  2. Improving text comprehension: scaffolding adolescents into strategic reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukrainetz, Teresa A

    2015-02-01

    Understanding and learning from academic texts involves purposeful, strategic reading. Adolescent readers, particularly poor readers, benefit from explicit instruction in text comprehension strategies, such as text preview, summarization, and comprehension monitoring, as part of a comprehensive reading program. However, strategies are difficult to teach within subject area lessons where content instruction must take primacy. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) have the expertise and service delivery options to support middle and high school students in learning to use comprehension strategies in their academic reading and learning. This article presents the research evidence on what strategies to teach and how best to teach them, including the use of explicit instruction, spoken interactions around text, cognitive modeling, peer learning, classroom connections, and disciplinary literacy. The article focuses on how to move comprehension strategies from being teaching tools of the SLP to becoming learning tools of the student. SLPs can provide the instruction and support needed for students to learn and apply of this important component of academic reading.

  3. Reading comprehension metacognitive strategies as a means for controlling behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinorah Aladina Caballero López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Textual comprehension implies the use of various metacognitive strategies by the students when they have to face a text to be competent readers. That is why the objective of this article is to illustrate the application of metacognitive strategies in order to achieve an efficient textual comprehension, taking into account the self – regulation the student exerts over his own learning process. It is applied as the main method historical-logical studies based on a professional-researching systematic practice; at the same time observation is largely used. The main result is the introduction of metacognitive strategies in reading comprehension, which subsequently favor the self-control of personal behavior. The article is the result of a research project sponsored by the department of Special Education. Key words: reading comprehension, metacognitive strategies, behavior self-control.

  4. Effects of Schematic Factors on the EFL Reading Comprehension

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    Wido H. Toendan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper report an experimental study on the effects of EFL reading proficiency (PROF, text structure (TEXT, and prefactory Framework (PREF on the EFL reading comprehension (COMP of expository texts. The subjects of the study were the intermediate and advanced readers of the English Department students of STKIP Unika Widya Mandala Surabaya. Results of the study significantly reveal the independent effects of EFL PROF, TEXT, and PREF on the COMP of expository texts. Based on the findings of the study, some suggestions intended for the reading instructors, developers of the written instructional materials, and area of further research are offered

  5. Matthew effects in young readers: reading comprehension and reading experience aid vocabulary development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Kate; Oakhill, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The authors report data from a longitudinal study of the reading development of children who were assessed in the years of their 8th, 11th, 14th, and 16th birthdays. They examine the evidence for Matthew effects in reading and vocabulary between ages 8 and 11 in groups of children identified with good and poor reading comprehension at 8 years. They also investigate evidence for Matthew effects in reading and vocabulary between 8 and 16 years, in the larger sample. The poor comprehenders showed reduced growth in vocabulary compared to the good comprehenders, but not in word reading or reading comprehension ability. They also obtained lower scores on measures of out-of-school literacy. Analyses of the whole sample revealed that initial levels of reading experience and reading comprehension predicted vocabulary at ages 11, 14, and 16 after controlling for general ability and vocabulary skills when aged 8. The authors discuss these findings in relation to the influence of reading on vocabulary development.

  6. Reading Amount as a Mediator of the Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Ellen; Schiefele, Ulrich; Ulferts, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of reading amount as a mediator of the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation on higher order reading comprehension (comprised of paragraph-and passage-level comprehension) in a sample of 159 fifth-grade elementary students. A positive association between intrinsic reading motivation and reading amount…

  7. Reading Amount as a Mediator of the Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Ellen; Schiefele, Ulrich; Ulferts, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of reading amount as a mediator of the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation on higher order reading comprehension (comprised of paragraph-and passage-level comprehension) in a sample of 159 fifth-grade elementary students. A positive association between intrinsic reading motivation and reading amount…

  8. Deep Reading, Cost/Benefit, and the Construction of Meaning: Enhancing Reading Comprehension and Deep Learning in Sociology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Judith C.; Roberts, Keith A.

    2008-01-01

    Reading comprehension skill is often assumed by sociology instructors, yet many college students seem to have marginal reading comprehension skills, which may explain why fewer than half of them are actually doing the reading. Sanctions that force students to either read or to pay a price are based on a rational choice model of behavior--a…

  9. Bidirectional relations between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper primary school grades: A longitudinal perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenendaal, N.J.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the directionality of the relationship between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper grades of primary school. We compared 3 theoretical possibilities: Two unidirectional relations from text reading prosody to reading comprehension and f

  10. Developmental Relations between Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension: A Longitudinal Study from Grade 1 to Grade 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K.; Lopez, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    From a developmental framework, relations among list reading fluency, oral and silent reading fluency, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension might be expected to change as children's reading skills develop. We examined developmental relations among these constructs in a latent-variable longitudinal study of first and second graders.…

  11. Bidirectional relations between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper primary school grades: A longitudinal perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenendaal, N.J.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the directionality of the relationship between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper grades of primary school. We compared 3 theoretical possibilities: Two unidirectional relations from text reading prosody to reading comprehension and f

  12. A Comparison of Reading Rates, Comprehension, and Stamina in Oral and Silent Reading of Fourth-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainin, Guy; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Wilson, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between silent and oral reading fluency and comprehension. Findings indicated that fourth grade students had consistent levels of comprehension in both reading modes. Students of all reading levels showed a similar pattern across the segments of a text set in both oral and silent reading--a gradual increase in…

  13. Deep Reading, Cost/Benefit, and the Construction of Meaning: Enhancing Reading Comprehension and Deep Learning in Sociology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Judith C.; Roberts, Keith A.

    2008-01-01

    Reading comprehension skill is often assumed by sociology instructors, yet many college students seem to have marginal reading comprehension skills, which may explain why fewer than half of them are actually doing the reading. Sanctions that force students to either read or to pay a price are based on a rational choice model of behavior--a…

  14. Impact of a Technology-Mediated Reading Intervention on Adolescents' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Melissa; Clemens, Nathan; Simmons, Deborah; Anderson, Leah; Davis, John; Smith, Ashley; Wang, Huan; Kwok, Oi-man; Simmons, Leslie E.; Oslund, Eric

    2017-01-01

    In this experimental study we examined the effects of a technology-mediated, multicomponent reading comprehension intervention, Comprehension Circuit Training (CCT), for middle school students, the majority of whom were struggling readers. The study was conducted in three schools, involving three teachers and 228 students. Using a within-teacher…

  15. Enhancing Reading Comprehension of Iranian Advanced EFL Learners through Task-based Reading Activities

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    Vahid Fallah Golchin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Language learning has experienced a shift of focus from a form-focused to a meaning-focused approach, and the necessity of using task-based learning, a relatively recent approach, has emerged. The vital role of task-based materials makes it obligatory not to exclude them from the language learning syllabi.  The current study aims at investigating whether task-based reading can contribute significantly to the development of reading comprehension of Iranian advanced EFL learners of English. An experimental study was carried out in order to scrutinize the applicability of task-based language teaching. To this end, 60 female advanced EFL learners, selected from among a pool of 100 learners, were assigned equally and randomly into two groups of thirty, consisting of an experimental and a control group. The selection of the participants was based on the results of a standard and piloted version of Paper-based TOEFL. The participant’s mean age was about 23, ranging from 20 to 27 years of age. Both groups received a pretest and a post-test of reading. During the treatment period the experimental group received task-based reading activities while the control group received reading instructions through traditional methods. The impact of the treatment upon the reading comprehension ability of the participants was analyzed through an independent-samples t-test, and comparisons between groups were made. The results clearly indicated the development of reading comprehension ability of the participants in the first group (the experimental group through the application of task-based reading activities. Keywords: Task-based Reading, Traditional Reading, Reading Comprehension, EFL Learner

  16. The Impact of Gloss Types on Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary Gain and Vocabulary Retention: A Comparative Study

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    Atefeh Elekaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The significance and impact of vocabulary learning in reading comprehension and L2 language learning are apparent to teachers, researchers and language learners. Moreover, glosses are found as one of the most effective strategies regarding vocabulary retention. Therefore, the present study attempted to investigate the effect of different types of glosses on reading comprehension, vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. To this end, 140 Iranian EFL learners learning English were selected and were divided into four groups (footnote gloss group, interlinear gloss group, marginal gloss group, and glossary group. They were required to read a text and answer four reading comprehension questions. In addition, one immediate vocabulary post-test and one delayed vocabulary post-test were taken in order to investigate learners' vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. In order to analyze the data, one one-way ANOVA and one MANOVA were run. The results of one-way ANOVA revealed that participants who received interlinear glosses significantly outperformed the other groups regarding comprehending the text. Moreover, the immediate vocabulary post-test was conducted immediately after reading test and the delayed post-test was administered after four weeks. The results of MANOVA indicated that the group which received interlinear glosses outperformed the other groups in both vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. The present study has implications for teachers and learners. Teachers can find better methods to teach new reading passages as well as vocabulary items. Also, glosses help learners to have a better comprehension of difficult passages and they facilitate learning. Moreover, learners can enhance their vocabulary knowledge with the help of glosses. Keywords: footnote gloss, interlinear gloss, marginal gloss, glossary, Iranian EFL learners, reading comprehension, vocabulary gain, vocabulary retention

  17. Evaluating the Efficacy of Using a Digital Reading Environment to Improve Reading Comprehension within a Reading Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortlieb, Evan; Sargent, Stephan; Moreland, Meagan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of using the online digital reading environment to increase elementary students' comprehension within a reading clinic. Preservice teachers at a four-year university in the Midwest worked one-on-one with 58 fourth-grade students from three schools who were assigned to one of three conditions: print-based text…

  18. Evaluating the Efficacy of Using a Digital Reading Environment to Improve Reading Comprehension within a Reading Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortlieb, Evan; Sargent, Stephan; Moreland, Meagan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of using the online digital reading environment to increase elementary students' comprehension within a reading clinic. Preservice teachers at a four-year university in the Midwest worked one-on-one with 58 fourth-grade students from three schools who were assigned to one of three conditions: print-based text…

  19. Functional anatomy of listening and reading comprehension during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berl, Madison M; Duke, Elizabeth S; Mayo, Jessica; Rosenberger, Lisa R; Moore, Erin N; VanMeter, John; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Vaidya, Chandan J; Gaillard, William Davis

    2010-08-01

    Listening and reading comprehension of paragraph-length material are considered higher-order language skills fundamental to social and academic functioning. Using ecologically relevant language stimuli that were matched for difficulty according to developmental level, we analyze the effects of task, age, neuropsychological skills, and post-task performance on fMRI activation and hemispheric laterality. Areas of supramodal language processing are identified, with the most robust region being left-lateralized activation along the superior temporal sulcus. Functionally, this conjunction has a role in semantic and syntactic processing, leading us to refer to this conjunction as "comprehension cortex." Different from adults, supramodal areas for children include less extensive inferior frontal gyrus but more extensive right cerebellum and right temporal pole. Broader neuroanatomical pathways are recruited for reading, reflecting the more active processing and larger set of cognitive demands needed for reading compared to listening to stories. ROI analyses reveal that reading is a less lateralized language task than listening in inferior frontal and superior temporal areas, which likely reflects the difficulty of the task as children in this study are still developing their reading skills. For listening to stories, temporal activation is stable by age four with no correlations with age, neuropsychological skills or post-task performance. In contrast, frontal activation during listening to stories occurs more often in older children, and frontal activation is positively correlated with better performance on comprehension questions, suggesting that the activation of frontal networks may reflect greater integration and depth of story processing.

  20. Differential Lexical Predictors of Reading Comprehension in Fourth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Nicole M.; Muijselaar, Marloes M. L.; Steenbeek-Planting, Esther G.; Droop, Mienke; de Jong, Peter F.; Verhoeven, L.

    2017-01-01

    The mental lexicon plays a central role in reading comprehension (Perfetti & Stafura, 2014). It encompasses the number of lexical entries in spoken and written language (vocabulary breadth), the semantic quality of these entries (vocabulary depth), and the connection strength between lexical representations (semantic relatedness); as such, it…

  1. Reading Comprehension Strategies as Applied by Iranian EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrpour, Nasrin; Fotovatian, Sepide

    2006-01-01

    To enhance reading comprehension, several strategies have been identified in previous research conducted (Naiman et al. 1978; O'Malley & Chamot 1990; O'Malley, Chamot, Manzanares, Russo and Kypper 1985; Politzer and McGroarty 1985; Prokop 1989; Oxford 1990; Salataci and Akyel 2002; Tercanlioglu 2004). However, using different types of Reading…

  2. The Correlation of IQ and Emotional Intelligence with Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabanchi, Zargham; Rastegar, Rabe'e

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of both IQ and emotional intelligence on reading comprehension in Iran. Forty-five EFL college students from Payame Noor University of Gonbad and Azad University of Gorgan participated in this study. Three independent tests were administrated, including Bar-On's emotional intelligence inventory…

  3. Joint Book Reading: How Do Blogs Foster Collaborative Comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behjat, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    A blog is an innovative web tool which has an immense potential to enhance language abilities. As one of the ways to enhance foreign language learning is collaboration and interaction, the present study is an attempt to find out if blogs can be used to foster language learners' comprehension through collaborative book reading. To this end, 62…

  4. Efficacy of Supplementary Image Schemes on Reading Motivation and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ming; Wang, I-Chen; Ma, Min-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the efficacy of three teaching methods, namely, passive supported image pedagogy, active supported image pedagogy, and traditional instruction, in increasing the reading motivation and comprehension of students. 116 fourth-grade students participated in the study and were evenly assigned, according to their pre-test…

  5. Reading Comprehension from a First to a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Florencia; Botero, María Patricia; Pechthalt, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this action research paper is to disseminate the results of a 2-month study which focuses on how a student's first language (L1) reading comprehension skills affect the same skills in their second language (L2). The subjects of the study are sixth grade girls, ranging in age from 11 to 13 years old. They attend a private bilingual…

  6. The Relationship between Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵旭

    2015-01-01

    Having a large vocabulary is a key in learning a foreign language successfully.The present study attempts to investigate the relationship between depth of vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension.DVK relates to how well one knows a word and it is the quality of one’s knowledge about a word.It involves a good number of aspects representing

  7. Fast and Loud Background Music Disrupts Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William Forde; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Letnic, Adriana Katharine

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effect of background music on reading comprehension. Because the emotional consequences of music listening are affected by changes in tempo and intensity, we manipulated these variables to create four repeated-measures conditions: slow/low, slow/high, fast/low, fast/high. Tempo and intensity manipulations were selected to be…

  8. Drawing on Text Features for Reading Comprehension and Composing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risko, Victoria J.; Walker-Dalhouse, Doris

    2011-01-01

    Students read multiple-genre texts such as graphic novels, poetry, brochures, digitized texts with videos, and informational and narrative texts. Features such as overlapping illustrations and implied cause-and-effect relationships can affect students' comprehension. Teaching with these texts and drawing attention to organizational features hold…

  9. Do Knowledge Arrangements Affect Student Reading Comprehension of Genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jen-Yi; Tung, Yu-Neng; Hwang, Bi-Chi; Lin, Chen-Yung; Che-Di, Lee; Chang, Yung-Ta

    2014-01-01

    Various sequences for teaching genetics have been proposed. Three seventh-grade biology textbooks in Taiwan share similar key knowledge assemblages but have different knowledge arrangements. To investigate the influence of knowledge arrangements on student understanding of genetics, we compared students' reading comprehension of the three texts…

  10. The TextLearner System: Reading Learning Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    1:0- payoff and low- risk involved, the scope of the Reading Learning Comprehension objective was extended to move beyond formalized translation and...asHtmlSourceString: "Ghandi followed a <a href="/wiki/ Vegetarian " title= Vegetarian " vegetarian </a> diet.". A context model-the microtheory where almost

  11. Reading Comprehension in Latin America: Difficulties and Possible Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lions, Séverin; Peña, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Reading comprehension (RC) is below the international standard in many countries of Latin America (LA). Here we review factors that might be associated with failure in RC of the first language in LA. Then we present interventions reporting beneficial impact on RC in typically developing students from English-speaking countries and discuss their…

  12. The Correlation of IQ and Emotional Intelligence with Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabanchi, Zargham; Rastegar, Rabe'e

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of both IQ and emotional intelligence on reading comprehension in Iran. Forty-five EFL college students from Payame Noor University of Gonbad and Azad University of Gorgan participated in this study. Three independent tests were administrated, including Bar-On's emotional intelligence inventory…

  13. Storyboards and Reading Comprehension of Literary Fiction in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Naar, José Mario

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a study developed in order to help a group of six limited-proficient students of English (newcomers) to improve their reading comprehension of English novels by designing storyboards, a type of graphic organizer that condenses both images and scripts. The investigation was carried out in a public school in the state of…

  14. Differential lexical predictors of reading comprehension in fourth graders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, N.M.; Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.; Droop, W.; Jong, P.F. de; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    The mental lexicon plays a central role in reading comprehension (Perfetti & Stafura, 2014). It encompasses the number of lexical entries in spoken and written language (vocabulary breadth), the semantic quality of these entries (vocabulary depth), and the connection strength between lexical

  15. Reading Comprehension and Immersion Schooling: Evidence from Component Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Laura Birke; Morales, Julia; Macizo, Pedro; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Saldaña, David; Carreiras, Manuel; Fuentes, Luis J.; Bajo, M. Teresa

    2017-01-01

    The present research aims to assess literacy acquisition in children becoming bilingual via second language immersion in school. We adopt a cognitive components approach, assessing text-level reading comprehension, a complex literacy skill, as well as underlying cognitive and linguistic components in 144 children aged 7 to 14 (72 immersion…

  16. Oral and Written Expression in Children with Reading Comprehension Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretti, Barbara; Motta, Eleonora; Re, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have highlighted that children with reading comprehension difficulties also have problems in tasks that involve telling a story, in writing or verbally. The main differences identified regard poor comprehenders' lower level of coherence in their productions by comparison with good comprehenders. Only one study has compared poor and…

  17. Reading Comprehension Skills of Bilingual Children in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Seher

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to compare the reading comprehension skills of the bilingual students studying at the 4th Grade of the Primary School with the monolingual students studying at the 4th Grade. With this purpose, 303 students were included from the Black Sea Region, where mainly monolingual students studied and 247 students were included from the…

  18. A Scalable Set of ESL Reading Comprehension Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kyle

    Guttman implicational scaling techniques were used to identify a unidimensional set of English as a Second Language reading comprehension items. Data were analyzed from 202 students who sat for an institutional administration of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). The examinees who contributed to the scalable set had significantly…

  19. Practitioner Talk on Deaf Children's Reading Comprehension: Analysing Multiple Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanwick, Ruth A.; Kitchen, Ruth; Clarke, Paula J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined different perspectives of deaf education practitioners on deafness and reading comprehension. This involved a full deaf education support team comprising teachers of the deaf, communication support workers, and deaf instructors from a UK citywide service covering early years, primary and secondary settings. Using a focus group…

  20. Learning Styles, Personality Types and Reading Comprehension Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Nabiollah; Kasim, Zalina Mohd; Tan, Bee Hoon; Abdullah, Faiz Sathi

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at reviewing the relationship between learning styles, personality and reading comprehension performance. In the last two decades, ample studies have been done to examine the relationship between learning styles, learner's personality and performance in academic settings. The reviewed studies substantiate that there is a…

  1. A Model of Reading Comprehension of Geometry Proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai-Lin; Lin, Fou-Lai

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to investigate a construct of reading comprehension of geometry proof (RCGP). The research aims to investigate (a) the facets composing RCGP, and (b) the structure of these facets. Firstly, we conceptualize this construct with relevant literature and on the basis of the discrimination between the logical and the epistemic meanings…

  2. Do Knowledge Arrangements Affect Student Reading Comprehension of Genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jen-Yi; Tung, Yu-Neng; Hwang, Bi-Chi; Lin, Chen-Yung; Che-Di, Lee; Chang, Yung-Ta

    2014-01-01

    Various sequences for teaching genetics have been proposed. Three seventh-grade biology textbooks in Taiwan share similar key knowledge assemblages but have different knowledge arrangements. To investigate the influence of knowledge arrangements on student understanding of genetics, we compared students' reading comprehension of the three…

  3. The contribution of segmental and suprasegmental phonology to reading comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenendaal, N.J.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relation between decoding and segmental and suprasegmental phonology, and their contribution to reading comprehension, in the upper primary grades. Following a longitudinal design, the performance of 99 Dutch primary school students on phonological awa

  4. Reading pictures for story comprehension requires mental imagery skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, I.E.; Mol, S.E.; Jolles, J.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the role of mental imagery skills on story comprehension in 150 fifth graders (10- to 12-year-olds), when reading a narrative book chapter with alternating words and pictures (i.e., text blocks were alternated by one- or two-page picture spreads). A parallel group design was used, in whi

  5. Enhancing Vocabulary Development and Reading Comprehension through Metacognitive Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubukcu, Feryal

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a study of the teacher trainees in an English department who have received instruction in metacognitive awareness for reading comprehension. Metacognition or "thinking about thinking" involves the awareness and regulation of thinking processes. Metacognitive strategies are those strategies which require students to…

  6. How storage and executive functions contribute to children's reading comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouwens, S.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2016-01-01

    In the current study we investigated the contribution of storage and separate measures of executive functions to reading comprehension in Dutch 5th graders, while controlling for word recognition and vocabulary. In addition we investigated the relationship between this model and working memory as as

  7. Effects of Reciprocal Teaching Strategies on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Tan Ooi Leng; Eng, Tan Kok; Ahmad, Norlida

    2011-01-01

    Reading Comprehension is one of the four components tested by the "MUET" (Malaysian University English Test) for Sixth-Form students in Malaysia, and school teachers are charged with the task of helping these students improve. This article discusses how "reciprocal teaching strategies" could help low-proficiency Sixth-Form students improve their…

  8. Do Knowledge Arrangements Affect Student Reading Comprehension of Genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jen-Yi; Tung, Yu-Neng; Hwang, Bi-Chi; Lin, Chen-Yung; Che-Di, Lee; Chang, Yung-Ta

    2014-01-01

    Various sequences for teaching genetics have been proposed. Three seventh-grade biology textbooks in Taiwan share similar key knowledge assemblages but have different knowledge arrangements. To investigate the influence of knowledge arrangements on student understanding of genetics, we compared students' reading comprehension of the three texts…

  9. The Relationship between Understanding Prepositions and Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, Charles David

    The major objective of this study was to determine whether understanding prepositions and the relationships they signal is related to reading comprehension. A sample of 127 fourth grade students was selected from three socioeconomic levels of the Columbus, (Ohio) Public Schools using a stratified random sampling technique. The subjects were…

  10. Reading Comprehension and Immersion Schooling: Evidence from Component Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Laura Birke; Morales, Julia; Macizo, Pedro; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Saldaña, David; Carreiras, Manuel; Fuentes, Luis J.; Bajo, M. Teresa

    2017-01-01

    The present research aims to assess literacy acquisition in children becoming bilingual via second language immersion in school. We adopt a cognitive components approach, assessing text-level reading comprehension, a complex literacy skill, as well as underlying cognitive and linguistic components in 144 children aged 7 to 14 (72 immersion…

  11. Functional Anatomy of Listening and Reading Comprehension during Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berl, Madison M.; Duke, Elizabeth S.; Mayo, Jessica; Rosenberger, Lisa R.; Moore, Erin N.; VanMeter, John; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Vaidya, Chandan J.; Gaillard, William Davis

    2010-01-01

    Listening and reading comprehension of paragraph-length material are considered higher-order language skills fundamental to social and academic functioning. Using ecologically relevant language stimuli that were matched for difficulty according to developmental level, we analyze the effects of task, age, neuropsychological skills, and post-task…

  12. Fostering EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension: Animation Film Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabian, Asefeh; Tajadini, Massoud

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the effect of implementing animation films on developing reading comprehension texts among EFL learners of a language institute in Kerman. For this purpose, two groups of pre-intermediate EFL learners were chosen (30 participants in each group). After three months of instruction, twice a week, 2story books named the…

  13. Use of Bloom's Taxonomy in Developing Reading Comprehension Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebke, Stephen; Lorie, James

    2013-01-01

    This article is a brief account of the use of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (Bloom, Engelhart, Furst, Hill, & Krathwohl, 1956) by staff of the Law School Admission Council in the 1990 development of redesigned specifications for the Reading Comprehension section of the Law School Admission Test. Summary item statistics for the…

  14. A Content Comprehension Approach to Reading English for Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Thom

    1991-01-01

    Reports on an English-for-special-purposes (ESP) reading project that emphasizes the role of content comprehension. The project results suggest that the content comprehension approach can improve reading comprehension as well as knowledge of reading grammar and general reading ability. (45 references) (GLR)

  15. Socio-cultural variation in reading comprehension development among fifth graders in Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Silva, S.L.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the socio-cultural variation in reading comprehension development was examined in 331 fifth graders from schools in Lima, Peru. Reading comprehension was measured using an adaptation of the PIRLS Reading Literacy test. The fifth graders' reading comprehension results, measured over th

  16. Socio-cultural variation in reading comprehension development among fifth graders in Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Silva, S.L.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the socio-cultural variation in reading comprehension development was examined in 331 fifth graders from schools in Lima, Peru. Reading comprehension was measured using an adaptation of the PIRLS Reading Literacy test. The fifth graders' reading comprehension results, measured over th

  17. Socio-Cultural Variation in Reading Comprehension Development among Fifth Graders in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Silvia Morales; Verhoeven, Ludo; van Leeuwe, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the socio-cultural variation in reading comprehension development was examined in 331 fifth graders from schools in Lima, Peru. Reading comprehension was measured using an adaptation of the PIRLS Reading Literacy test. The fifth graders' reading comprehension results, measured over the course of fifth grade, were related to the…

  18. An Observation Tool for EFL Reading Comprehension Teaching Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Nienke; de Bot, Kees; van de Grift, Wim; Jansen, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The present study addresses the validation process of an observation tool for measuring the range of processes in which a teacher is involved when helping secondary school EFL learners comprehend reading input and when facilitating meaningful language output. The observation tool will be used in a p

  19. An Observation Tool for EFL Reading Comprehension Teaching Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Nienke; de Bot, Kees; van de Grift, Wim; Jansen, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The present study addresses the validation process of an observation tool for measuring the range of processes in which a teacher is involved when helping secondary school EFL learners comprehend reading input and when facilitating meaningful language output. The observation tool will be used in a

  20. The Incremental Variance of Morphological Knowledge to Reading Comprehension in Grades 3-10 beyond Prior Reading Comprehension, Spelling, and Text Reading Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Petscher, Yaacov; Bishop, M. Denise

    2012-01-01

    We know that knowledge of word structure--morphology--relates to reading, but there is limited research on its unique contribution to reading comprehension, especially with students in middle and high schools and with the nesting of students within classrooms taken into account. In this study with 4780 students in grades 3 to 10, we examined how…

  1. Repeated Reading for Japanese Language Learners: Effects on Reading Speed, Comprehension, and Comprehension Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsuch, Greta; Taguchi, Etsuo; Umehara, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    A perennial challenge to second language educators and learners is getting sufficient input in settings where the L2 is not widely used, in this case beginning-level American university students learning Japanese. Reading is a significant means of getting L2 input, with recent calls for attention to reading and authentic texts as curriculum…

  2. Reading Comprehension of Flemish Deaf Children in Belgium: Sources of Variability in Reading Comprehension after Cochlear Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kant, Anne; Vermeulen, Anneke; De Raeve, Leo; Schreuder, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of two studies of reading comprehension of Flemish children in Belgium. In the northern part of Belgium (Flanders), Dutch is the official language. The Dutch-speaking inhabitants of Flanders are called Flemish. Dutch is also the national language of the Netherlands. Despite both groups using Dutch, cultural…

  3. Writing-Reading Relationships: Effectiveness of Writing Activities As Pre-Reading Tasks to Enhance L2 Inferential Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilina Indrajie Wickramaarachchi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the interaction between reading and writing processes in general and more specifically the impact of pre-reading tasks incorporating writing tasks (referred to as “prw tasks” in helping the development of inferential reading comprehension. A sample of 70 first year ESL students of the University of Kelaniya were initially selected with one group (experimental group engaging in “prw tasks” while the other group (control group performing the tasks without a pre-reading component. The intervention was for 6 sessions (one hour in each session. At the end of each session, the performance of the two groups was measured and the test scores were analyzed using the data analysis package SPSS to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. The results indicated that the experimental group had significantly performed better than the control group which indicated the effectiveness of the prw tasks in improving reading comprehension.

  4. Conceptual Change, Text Comprehension and Eye Movements During Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttinen, Marjaana; Anto, Erkki; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija

    2013-08-01

    In the two studies presented in this article, we examine the interplay of conceptual change, text comprehension, and eye-movements during reading and develop and test methods suitable for such explorations. In studies 1 and 2, university students (N = 15 and 23) read a text on photosynthesis, explained their reading processes retrospectively cued with their own gaze videos, and answered written pre- and posttests. In Study 1, a case study demonstrated connections between re-readings and high-level cognitive processing. Out of all of the participants' retrospective reports, categories were formed based on the expressions referring to either situation model or textbase construction during reading. In Study 2, conceptual change learners differed from other learner groups in terms of prolonged overall reading time and a relatively high amount of expressing textbase construction at the beginning of the retrospective reporting. The results emphasise the importance of careful construction of the textbase in conceptual change and point to the benefits of complementing the eye tracking with cued retrospective reporting when examining high-level cognitive processes during reading.

  5. Reading Pictures for Story Comprehension Requires Mental Imagery Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inouk E. Boerma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined the role of mental imagery skills on story comprehension in 150 fifth graders (10-12-year-olds, when reading a narrative book chapter with alternating words and pictures (i.e., text blocks were alternated by one- or two-page picture spreads. A parallel group design was used, in which we compared our experimental book version, in which pictures were used to replace parts of the corresponding text, to two control versions, i.e., a text-only version and a version with the full story text and all pictures. Analyses showed an interaction between mental imagery and book version: children with higher mental imagery skills outperformed children with lower mental imagery skills on story comprehension after reading the experimental narrative. This was not the case for both control conditions. This suggests that children’s mental imagery skills significantly contributed to the mental representation of the story that they created, by successfully integrating information from both words and pictures. The results emphasize the importance of mental imagery skills for explaining individual variability in reading development. Implications for educational practice are that we should find effective ways to instruct children how to read pictures and how to develop and use their mental imagery skills. This will probably contribute to their mental models and therefore their story comprehension.

  6. The impact of reading self-efficacy and task value on reading comprehension scores in different item formats

    OpenAIRE

    Solheim, Oddny Judith

    2011-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that students with low self-efficacy will struggle with complex reading tasks in assessment situations. In this study we examined whether perceived reading self-efficacy and reading task value uniquely predicted reading comprehension scores in two different item formats in a sample of fifth-grade students. Results showed that, after controlling for variance associated with word reading ability, listening comprehension, and nonverbal ability through hierarchical multiple ...

  7. The effects of reading comprehension and launch site on frequency-predictability interactions during paragraph reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Veronica; Titone, Debra

    2014-01-01

    We used eye movement measures of paragraph reading to examine whether word frequency and predictability interact during the earliest stages of lexical processing, with a specific focus on whether these effects are modulated by individual differences in reading comprehension or launch site (i.e., saccade length between the prior and currently fixated word--a proxy for the amount of parafoveal word processing). The joint impact of frequency and predictability on reading will elucidate whether these variables additively or multiplicatively affect the earliest stages of lexical access, which, in turn, has implications for computational models of eye movements during reading. Linear mixed effects models revealed additive effects during both early- and late-stage reading, where predictability effects were comparable for low- and high-frequency words. Moreover, less cautious readers (e.g., readers who engaged in skimming, scanning, mindless reading) demonstrated smaller frequency effects than more cautious readers. Taken together, our findings suggest that during extended reading, frequency and predictability exert additive influences on lexical and postlexical processing, and that individual differences in reading comprehension modulate sensitivity to the effects of word frequency.

  8. From fluency to comprehension powerful instruction through authentic reading

    CERN Document Server

    Rasinski, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Helping teachers move beyond fluency as measured by speed alone, this book focuses on building the skills that students need to read accurately, meaningfully, and expressively--the essential components of reading comprehension. Each concise chapter presents a tried-and-true instructional or assessment strategy and shows how K-12 teachers can apply it in their own classrooms, using a wide variety of engaging texts. Special features include classroom examples, ""Your Turn"" activities, and 24 reproducible forms, in a large-size format for easy photocopying. Purchasers also get access to a

  9. Improving Reading Comprehension Skills through Reading Strategies Used by a Group of Foreign Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Gómez Torres

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A research study included the examination and implementation of a variety of strategies in order to improve students’ reading comprehension skills in a foreign language. Reading is the process of identification, interpretation and perception of written or printed material. Comprehension is the understanding of the meaning of written material and involves the conscious strategies that lead to understanding. The reading strategies are conscious techniques or unconscious processes employed by readers in their attempt to make sense of the written text (Barnett as cited by Gascoigne, 2005. Thus, the main goal of this piece of research was to implement some reading strategies in 2 elementary courses in EFL in order to obtain better results in the middle and long term in class and on ECAES, MICHIGAN, MELICET and PET tests.

  10. Do First Language Writing and Second Language Reading Equal Second Language Reading Comprehension? An Assessment Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    FNIGNUMBE SDo First Language Writing and Second Language ReadingLn Equal Second Language Reading Comprehension? An _ Assessment Dilemma ~ -6. AUTHOR...young writer knows about writing in the first language forms the basis of new hypotheses rather than interferes with writing in another language" (1982, p...Jones and Tetroe (1987) interpret this finding as "strong, direct data for the transfer of first - language skill to the second language" (p. 55). Like

  11. Reading comprehension and understanding idiomatic expressions: a developmental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levorato, Maria Chiara; Nesi, Barbara; Cacciari, Cristina

    2004-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate idiom comprehension in school-age Italian children with different reading comprehension skills. According to our hypothesis, the level of a child's text comprehension skills should predict his/her ability to understand idiomatic meanings. Idiom comprehension in fact requires children to go beyond a simple word-by-word comprehension strategy and to integrate figurative meaning into contextual information. In a preliminary phase, we used a standardized battery of tests (Cornoldi & Colpo, 1998) to assess the ability of second graders and fourth graders to comprehend written texts. Three groups were identified at each age level: good, medium, and poor comprehenders. Children were then presented with familiar idiomatic expressions which also have a literal meaning (e.g., "break the ice"). Idioms were embedded in short stories: in Experiment 1 only the idiomatic interpretation was contextually appropriate, in Experiment 2 a literal reading of the string was also plausible in the context. A multiple-choice task was used in both experiments: children were asked to choose one answer among three corresponding to: (a) the idiomatic meaning; (b) the literal meaning; and (c) an interpretation contextually appropriate but not connected with the idiomatic or literal meaning of the idiom string. The results of both experiments showed that the ability to understand a text indeed predicted children's understanding of idioms in context. To verify whether possible improvements in children's comprehension skills might produce an increase in figurative language understanding, Experiment 3 was carried out. A group of poor comprehenders who participated in Experiments 1 and 2 was tested eight months later. The results of Experiment 3 showed that children whose general comprehension skills improved their performance on an idiom comprehension test.

  12. Objective and Comprehensive Evaluation of Bisulfite Short Read Mapping Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Tran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Large-scale bisulfite treatment and short reads sequencing technology allow comprehensive estimation of methylation states of Cs in the genomes of different tissues, cell types, and developmental stages. Accurate characterization of DNA methylation is essential for understanding genotype phenotype association, gene and environment interaction, diseases, and cancer. Aligning bisulfite short reads to a reference genome has been a challenging task. We compared five bisulfite short read mapping tools, BSMAP, Bismark, BS-Seeker, BiSS, and BRAT-BW, representing two classes of mapping algorithms (hash table and suffix/prefix tries. We examined their mapping efficiency (i.e., the percentage of reads that can be mapped to the genomes, usability, running time, and effects of changing default parameter settings using both real and simulated reads. We also investigated how preprocessing data might affect mapping efficiency. Conclusion. Among the five programs compared, in terms of mapping efficiency, Bismark performs the best on the real data, followed by BiSS, BSMAP, and finally BRAT-BW and BS-Seeker with very similar performance. If CPU time is not a constraint, Bismark is a good choice of program for mapping bisulfite treated short reads. Data quality impacts a great deal mapping efficiency. Although increasing the number of mismatches allowed can increase mapping efficiency, it not only significantly slows down the program, but also runs the risk of having increased false positives. Therefore, users should carefully set the related parameters depending on the quality of their sequencing data.

  13. Reading comprehension and textual consciousness on primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Wannmacher Pereira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The difficulties on reading comprehension in the primary school are evidenced by several official exams applied. Given these statistics and the evidences obtained through academic research and observations on children’s performance during the school life, there is acknowledgment of the situation as a problem that requires further development and finding solutions. The Psycholinguistics is giving its contribution, especially regarding the role of linguistic consciousness on reading learning. Many studies have been conducted specifically focusing on phonological consciousness. Studies on syntactic consciousness are also found, although less than phonological ones. Regarding the role of textual consciousness, few initiatives considers the students of the primary school. This makes the author proposes as the heartland of this communication the textual consciousness with support predominantly on Gombert (1992, aiming to examine the relationship between this level of consciousness and learning to read. Based on recent studies (PEREIRA; SCLIAR-CABRAL, 2012, the author presents in this paper: a the analysis of the context of learning and teaching of reading; b a theoretical exposition about reading learning and textual consciousness; c the pedagogical referrals for education based on the interaction between these two topics; and d the development of reflections on the possibility of the proposed path contribute to the solution of the worrying problem on read learning by the primary schools students.

  14. No Effect of Writing Advice on Reading Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2017-01-01

    instead of nominalizations. These recommended and problem constructions and two other contrasts were investigated in an eye-tracking experiment where 27 students read four authentic texts where the target constructions had been manipulated. A mixed-effects regression analysis showed no difference between...... recommended and problem constructions, while several control variables were significant. This result indicates that the linguistic manipulations are not in themselves crucial to text comprehension, and it is hypothesized that the central aspect for text comprehension is how the linguistic manipulations...

  15. Executive skills and reading comprehension a guide for educators

    CERN Document Server

    Cartwright, Kelly B

    2015-01-01

    How do K-12 students become self-regulated learners who actively deploy comprehension strategies to make meaning from texts? This cutting-edge guide is the first book to highlight the importance of executive skills for improving reading comprehension. Chapters review the research base for particular executive functions--such as planning, organization, cognitive flexibility, and impulse control--and present practical skills-building strategies for the classroom. Detailed examples show what each skill looks like in real readers, and sidebars draw explicit connections to the Common Core State Sta

  16. Individual Differences in Reading Comprehension Gains from Assisted Reading Practice: Pre Existing Conditions, Vocabulary Acquisition, and Amounts of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shany, Michal; Biemiller, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a study of the effects of assisted reading practice (Shany & Biemiller, 1995). In this paper we examined the original data to find factors affecting gains in reading comprehension. We contrasted 14 children who had below median gains in reading comprehension and 15 who had above median gains. There were no significant correlations…

  17. It matters whether reading comprehension is conceptualised as rate or accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønberg, Louise Flensted-Jensen; Petersen, Dorthe Klint

    2016-01-01

    This study shows that it makes a difference whether accuracy measures or rate measures are used when assessing reading comprehension. The predictor variables of reading comprehension contribute differentially to reading comprehension when the outcome is reading comprehension accuracy opposed to r......, nonverbal problem solving, word reading measures, and receptive vocabulary controlled, a written measure of the ability to access and connect similar word meanings (synonym judgement) is also strongly associated with reading comprehension rate....... to reading comprehension rate. Receptive vocabulary explains more of the variance in 10-year-olds’ reading comprehension compared to word reading skills measured as access to orthographic representations), when accuracy measures are used (i.e., the percentage of correct items). However, this changes when...

  18. Prior knowledge and reading comprehension ability of deaf adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D; Paul, P; Smith, J

    1997-01-01

    Fifty-one severely to profoundly deaf students (mean dB hearing loss = 89) were randomly assigned to two groups that differed by the type of probes (short or long) used to elicit prior knowledge (PK). PK scores were used to predict reading comprehension (RC), which was assessed by students' responses to three types of questions: test-explicit (TE), text-implicit (TI), and script-implicit (SI). Multiple regression models with PK scores and scores from a standardized achievement test (Stanford Achievement Test - Hearing Impaired Version, reading subtest) were also used to predict RC. The regression model showed that, for the group pretested with an in-depth, or long, probe of PK, the best predictor of RC was the ability to answer TE and SI questions. We present discussions of the observed differences in comprehension as a function of long and short knowledge probes and the use of three question types, together with implications for instruction.

  19. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES AS PREDICTORS OF READING COMPREHENSION AND VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Ali Zarei; Nima Shokri Afshar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate types of Multiple Intelligences as predictors of reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge. To meet this objective, a 60-item TOEFL test and a 90-item multiple intelligences questionnaire were distributed among 240 male and female Iranians studying English at Qazali and Parsian Universities in Qazvin. Data were analyzed using a multiple regression procedure. The result of the data analysis indicated that musical, interpersonal, kin...

  20. Does "pure" phonemic awareness training affect reading comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashen, S

    2001-10-01

    The six studies found concerning the effect of pure phonemic awareness training (without phonics) on reading comprehension gave a positive but modest overall effect size in favor of phonemic awareness training. Four studies had small samples, two showed no or very small effect sizes, and one inconsistent results. Three involved languages other than English. Such results do not support the popular movement for universal phonemic awareness training.

  1. Reading and listening comprehension and their relation to inattention and hyperactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Cain, Kate; Bignell, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently have reading problems. To date, it is not clear whether poor reading is associated with both inattention and hyperactivity and also whether poor reading comprehension is the result of poor word reading skills or more general language comprehension weaknesses. Aims: We report two studies to examine how reading and listening comprehension skills are related to inattention and hyperactivity/impulsiv...

  2. The reading comprehension abilities of dyslexic students in higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, F; Singleton, C

    2000-01-01

    The reading comprehension abilities of a group of dyslexic university students were compared with those of non-dyslexic university students. A 655-word passage, followed by literal and inferential questions, was used to measure reading comprehension. The text was designed to be syntactically complex, yet place relatively modest demands on decoding skills. Although dyslexic students performed at a similar level to the non-dyslexic students on the literal questions, their performance on the inferential questions was poorer. An index of the participants' ability to make inferences was calculated by subtracting the inferential question score from the literal question score. The groups differed significantly on this measure, indicating that the dyslexic students were specifically impaired in constructing inferences when processing complex text. It was concluded that dyslexic students in higher education have reading comprehension difficulties that cannot be accounted for by an inability to decode individual words in the text. The possible contribution that poor lexical automaticity and an impaired working memory make to this impairment is discussed. The implications for the assessment and support of dyslexic students are considered.

  3. Calibration of a reading comprehension test for Portuguese students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Cadime

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Reading comprehension assessments are important for determining which students are performing below the expected levels for their grade's normative group. However, instruments measuring this competency should also be able to assess students' gains in reading comprehension as they move from one grade to the next. In this paper, we present the construction and calibration process of three vertically scaled test forms of an original reading comprehension test to assess second, third and fourth grade students. A sample of 843 students was used. Rasch model analyses were employed during the following three phases of this study: (a analysis of the items' pool, (b item selection for the test forms, and (c test forms' calibration. Results suggest that a one dimension structure underlies the data. Mean-square residuals (infit and outfit indicated that the data fitted the model. Thirty items were assigned to each test form, by selecting the most adequate items for each grade in terms of difficulty. The reliability coefficients for each test form were high. Limitations and potentialities of the developed test forms are discussed.

  4. IMPROVING THE READING COMPREHENSION ABILITY THROUGH WEBBING STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suud Purnomo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to improve the students’ reading comprehension ability through webbing strategy which is designed to find a strategy of teaching reading skills in expository texts. The study employed a collaborative classroom action research design in which the researcher and the collaborator worked together designing the lesson plan, implementing the action, observing the action, and reflecting the action. The subjects of this research were 40 students the eleventh grade students of SMA PGRI Mojosari in the 2010/2011 academic year. The webbing strategy was successful in improving both the students’ ability in comprehending expository texts and the students’ involvement in reading activities. The strategy increased students’ mean scores and the students’ individual score percentage from preliminary study to Cycle 2 ranging from 64.83 to 78.17 or the students’ individual score percentage extended from 42.50% to 85% equal or greater than 70% of 40 students. The results of the second cycle indicated higher scores in which predetermined criteria of success met in the second cycle. The majority students showed active involvement (92.50% in the third meeting of Cycle 2. Keywords: reading comprehension, expository texts, webbing strategy

  5. Reading Assessment Methods for Middle-School Students: An Investigation of Reading Comprehension Rate and Maze Accurate Response Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Andrea D.; Henning, Jaime B.; Hawkins, Renee O.; Sheeley, Wesley; Shoemaker, Larissa; Reynolds, Jennifer R.; Moch, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the validity of four different aloud reading comprehension assessment measures: Maze, comprehension questions, Maze accurate response rate (MARR), and reading comprehension rate (RCR). The criterion measures used in this study were the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ-III ACH) Broad Reading…

  6. Repeated Reading for Developing Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension: The Case of EFL Learners in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsuch, Greta; Taguchi, Etsuo

    2008-01-01

    Reading in a foreign or second language is often a laborious process, often caused by underdeveloped word recognition skills, among other things, of second and foreign language readers. Developing fluency in L2/FL reading has become an important pedagogical issue in L2 settings and one major component of reading fluency is fast and accurate word…

  7. The Effects of Extensive Reading on Reading Comprehension, Reading Rate, and Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Namhee

    2017-01-01

    Several empirical studies and syntheses of extensive reading have concluded that extensive reading has positive impacts on language learning in second- and foreign-language settings. However, many of the studies contained methodological or curricular limitations, raising questions about the asserted positive effects of extensive reading. The…

  8. An Experimental Study on the Effects of the Use of Blogs on EFL Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakut, Ayse Didem; Aydin, Selami

    2017-01-01

    Few findings were noted on the effects of blogs specifically on English as a foreign language (EFL) reading comprehension. However, those studies did not address the effect of blogs on reading comprehension in the Turkish EFL context. Thus, this study aims to investigate the effects of the use of blogs on reading comprehension among Turkish EFL…

  9. Using a New Reading Comprehension Assessment to Measure Discourse Representations and Identify Types of Comprehenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Sarah; Seipel, Ben; McMaster, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    Many researchers focus on assessing the cognitive components of reading comprehension. However, researchers are challenged to find the best way to measure the cognitive components of reading comprehension because many reading comprehension assessments differ in terms of format (i.e., cloze, multiple-chose, open-ended); presentation (i.e., print);…

  10. Effects on and Predictability of Computer-Mediated Glosses in Reading Comprehension of EFL College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhi, Abdullah A.

    2014-01-01

    Prior research indicated that computer-mediated glosses had an overall medium effect on second language reading comprehension. This study investigated the effects of computer-mediated glosses on reading comprehension. It also investigated the predictive power index of the e-glosses use with regard to reading comprehension performance, from a…

  11. Oral Morphosyntactic Competence as a Predictor of Reading Comprehension in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buil-Legaz, Lucía; Aguilar-Mediavilla, Eva; Rodríguez-Ferreiro, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with a diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI) present impaired oral comprehension. According to the simple view of reading, general amodal linguistic capacity accounts for both oral and reading comprehension. Considering this, we should expect SLI children to display a reading comprehension deficit. However, previous…

  12. EMC[superscript 2] = Comprehension: A Reading Strategy Instruction Framework for All Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapwijk, Nanda M.

    2015-01-01

    Comprehension is a critical part of the reading process, and yet learners continue to struggle with it and teachers continue to neglect it in their teaching. Many reasons exist for the lack of focus on reading comprehension instruction, but for the most part, teachers simply do not seem to view comprehension as part of the reading process, are not…

  13. Progressive Achievement Tests in Reading: Comprehension & Vocabulary. Teacher's Handbook. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The teacher handbook for Progressive Achievement Tests (PATs) in Reading presents an overall description of these survey tests in reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge for school years 3 to 9. There are two alternative forms of each test: (1) the Reading Comprehension tests are designed to measure two major aspects of reading skills…

  14. Contribution of Discourse and Morphosyntax Skills to Reading Comprehension in Chinese Dyslexic and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chik, Pakey Pui-man; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Yeung, Pui-sze; Wong, Yau-kai; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa; Lo, Lap-yan

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying important skills for reading comprehension in Chinese dyslexic children and their typically developing counterparts matched on age (CA controls) or reading level (RL controls). The children were assessed on Chinese reading comprehension, cognitive, and reading-related skills. Results showed that the dyslexic…

  15. Hypertext Reading Comprehension in Adolescents with Typical Language Development and Language-Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Pradyumn

    2010-01-01

    With the global expansion of technology our reading platform has changed from traditional text to predominantly hypertext. Little consideration has been given to how the shift in reading platforms might help or hinder children's reading comprehension. The purpose of this study was to compare reading comprehension in computer-based and paper-based…

  16. Revisiting Assumptions about the Relationship of Fluent Reading to Comprehension: Spanish-Speakers' Text-Reading Fluency in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosson, Amy C.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the growing body of research investigating the nature of text-reading fluency and its relationship to comprehension among monolingual children, very little is known about text-reading fluency for language minority (LM) learners reading in English. The present study investigated the nature of text-reading fluency--its relationship to…

  17. The Effect of Speed Reading Instruction on Japanese High School Students' English Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Paul; Myskow, Gordon; Hattori, Takahiko

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a six-month course in speed reading in three areas of reading proficiency development: 1) general reading comprehension, 2) knowledge of high-frequency vocabulary, and 3) reading-rate and accuracy. The participants (N = 105) were Japanese students studying English as a foreign language in Grade 10 at a…

  18. Efficiency in Reading Comprehension: A Comparison of Students' Competency in Reading Printed and Digital Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Erol

    2013-01-01

    In this study, survey model was used, for investigating the effect of printed and electronic texts on the reading comprehension levels of teacher candidates. While dependent variable of the research comprises the levels of understanding of the teacher candidates, independent variable comprises the departments of the teacher candidates, types of…

  19. Reading while Watching Video: The Effect of Video Content on Reading Comprehension and Media Multitasking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Lee, Jennifer; Robertson, Tip

    2011-01-01

    Media multitasking, or engaging in multiple media and tasks simultaneously, is becoming an increasingly popular phenomenon with the development and engagement in social media. This study examines to what extent video content affects students' reading comprehension in media multitasking environments. One hundred and thirty university students were…

  20. Factors that influence improvement in numeracy, reading and comprehension in the context of a numeracy intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Dowker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a randomized controlled trial 104 primary school children, who received an individualized numeracy intervention, Catch Up Numeracy, were compared with 100 children, who received matched-time teaching, and 107, who received business-as-usual teaching. They were assessed before and after intervention, on the Number Screening Test and on both the reading and comprehension components of the Salford Sentence Reading Test. Those who received the intervention improved significantly more than the controls in numeracy but not in reading or comprehension. Numeracy, reading and comprehension scores were significantly correlated. Both reading and numeracy predicted improvement in comprehension, but only comprehension predicted improvement in reading, and neither literacy measure predicted improvement in numeracy. Children eligible for free school meals scored lower than others on all pretests and post-tests, but did not differ in their levels of improvement. Age negatively predicted improvement in reading and comprehension, but not numeracy. Gender affected comprehension but not reading or numeracy.

  1. Effect of phonological and morphological awareness on reading comprehension in Hebrew-speaking adolescents with reading disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Rachel; Schwartz-Nahshon, Sarit; Nagar, Revital

    2011-06-01

    This research explored phonological and morphological awareness among Hebrew-speaking adolescents with reading disabilities (RD) and its effect on reading comprehension beyond phonological and word-reading abilities. Participants included 39 seventh graders with RD and two matched control groups of normal readers: 40 seventh graders matched for chronological age (CA) and 38 third graders matched for reading age (RA). We assessed phonological awareness, word reading, morphological awareness, and reading comprehension. Findings indicated that the RD group performed similarly to the RA group on phonological awareness but lower on phonological decoding. On the decontextualized morphological task, RD functioned on par with RA, whereas in a contextualized task RD performed above RA but lower than CA. In reading comprehension, RD performed as well as RA. Finally, results indicated that for normal readers contextual morphological awareness uniquely contributed to reading comprehension beyond phonological and word-reading abilities, whereas no such unique contribution emerged for the RD group. The absence of an effect of morphological awareness in predicting reading comprehension was suggested to be related to a different recognition process employed by RD readers which hinder the ability of these readers to use morphosemantic structures. The lexical quality hypothesis was proposed as further support to the findings, suggesting that a low quality of lexical representation in RD students leads to ineffective reading skills and comprehension. Lexical representation is thus critical for both lexical as well as comprehension abilities.

  2. The Effect of Cognitive and Compensation Strategy Instruction on Reading Comprehension Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail YAMAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Language learning is generally viewed as a quite demanding process. Considering its multi-faceted and intricate nature, there is an ongoing and ever-growing quest for new ways to render the learning period shorter and more effective. In this process, some contributive means such as language learning strategies are offered and employed as boosting and facilitating factors. Having its roots in the studies conducted to identify the common characteristics of successful language learners in 1970s, language learning strategies appear to be effective in terms of different language skills. As reading comprehension skill constitutes one of the most important aspects of competence in a language, language learning strategies promise some facilities in this context, too. Even though it can be easily observed that there is an ever-growing body of research on the use meta-cognitive strategies, cognitive and compensation strategies receive much less interest. In order to fill this gap, this study aims to find out whether teaching cognitive and compensation strategies for reading comprehension skill makes a statistically significant difference in the students’ reading performances. The subjects of the study are 60 first-year students attending the ELT program at Ondokuz Mayıs University. 30 students are assigned to the experimental group while the other 30 students are included in the control group. In order to specify the extent to which the treatment process is successful a pre- and post-test for reading comprehension were administered to the subjects. In order to evaluate the reading comprehension level of the students, ten multiple-choice questions, two open ended questions and four true-false questions are addressed to them in the test (pre-post test. The statistical analyses of the study are conducted by means of the SPSS software with statistical techniques like mean, standard deviation, frequencies and T-tests. The statistically significance level is

  3. Preparing for reading comprehension: Fostering text comprehension skills in preschool and early elementary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul van den BROEK

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available To understand what they read or hear, children and adults must create a coherent mental representation of presented information. Recent research suggests that the ability to do so starts to develop early –well before reading age- and that early individual differences are predictive of later reading-comprehension performance. In this paper, we review this research and discuss potential applications to early intervention. We then present two exploratory studies in which we examine whether it is feasible to design interventions with early readers (3rd grade and even toddlers (2-3 years old. The interventions employed causal questioning techniques as children listen to orally presented,age-appropriate narratives. Afterwards, comprehension was tested through question answering and recall tasks. Results indicate that such interventions are indeed feasible. Moreover, they suggest thatfor both toddlers and early readers questions during comprehension are more effective than questions after comprehension. Finally, for both groups higher working memory capacity was related to bettercomprehension.

  4. The Relations between Lower and Higher Level Comprehension Skills and Their Role in Prediction of Early Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Macarena; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This study of 4- to 6-year-olds had 2 aims: first, to determine how lower level comprehension skills (receptive vocabulary and grammar) and verbal memory support early higher level comprehension skills (inference and literal story comprehension), and second, to establish the predictive power of these skills on subsequent reading comprehension.…

  5. The Relations between Lower and Higher Level Comprehension Skills and Their Role in Prediction of Early Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Macarena; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This study of 4- to 6-year-olds had 2 aims: first, to determine how lower level comprehension skills (receptive vocabulary and grammar) and verbal memory support early higher level comprehension skills (inference and literal story comprehension), and second, to establish the predictive power of these skills on subsequent reading comprehension.…

  6. A predictive study of reading comprehension in third-grade Spanish students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Escribano, Carmen; Elosúa de Juan, María Rosa; Gómez-Veiga, Isabel; García-Madruga, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The study of the contribution of language and cognitive skills to reading comprehension is an important goal of current reading research. However, reading comprehension is not easily assessed by a single instrument, as different comprehension tests vary in the type of tasks used and in the cognitive demands required. This study examines the contribution of basic language and cognitive skills (decoding, word recognition, reading speed, verbal and nonverbal intelligence and working memory) to reading comprehension, assessed by two tests utilizing various tasks that require different skill sets in third-grade Spanish-speaking students. Linguistic and cognitive abilities predicted reading comprehension. A measure of reading speed (the reading time of pseudo-words) was the best predictor of reading comprehension when assessed by the PROLEC-R test. However, measures of word recognition (the orthographic choice task) and verbal working memory were the best predictors of reading comprehension when assessed by means of the DARC test. These results show, on the one hand, that reading speed and word recognition are better predictors of Spanish language comprehension than reading accuracy. On the other, the reading comprehension test applied here serves as a critical variable when analyzing and interpreting results regarding this topic.

  7. Accuracy of the DIBELS oral reading fluency measure for predicting third grade reading comprehension outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrig, Alysia D; Petscher, Yaacov; Nettles, Stephen M; Hudson, Roxanne F; Torgesen, Joseph K

    2008-06-01

    We evaluated the validity of DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills) ORF (Oral Reading Fluency) for predicting performance on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT-SSS) and Stanford Achievement Test (SAT-10) reading comprehension measures. The usefulness of previously established ORF risk-level cutoffs [Good, R.H., Simmons, D.C., and Kame'enui, E.J. (2001). The importance and decision-making utility of a continuum of fluency-based indicators of foundational reading skills for third-grade high-stakes outcomes. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5, 257-288.] for third grade students were evaluated on calibration (n(S1)=16,539) and cross-validation (n(S2)=16,908) samples representative of Florida's Reading First population. The strongest correlations were the third (February/March) administration of ORF with both FCAT-SSS and SAT-10 (r(S)=.70-.71), when the three tests were administered concurrently. Recalibrated ORF risk-level cut scores derived from ROC (receiver-operating characteristic) curve analyses produced more accurate identification of true positives than previously established benchmarks. The recalibrated risk-level cut scores predict performance on the FCAT-SSS equally well for students from different socio-economic, language, and race/ethnicity categories.

  8. Storyboards and Reading Comprehension of Literary Fiction in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mario Molina Naar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a study developed in order to help a group of six limited- proficient students of English (newcomers to improve their reading comprehension of English novels by designing storyboards, a type of graphic organizer that condenses both images and scripts. The investigation was carried out in a public school in the state of North Carolina, United States, and lasted eight weeks. The following instruments were implemented in order to measure the impact of this investigation: two pre-tests and two posttests, a teacher’s journal, students’ portfolios, and the results of a reading benchmark. Data were analyzed using cross tabulation and coding of the data collected. The results revealed that storyboards can have a positive impact on English language learners with limited language proficiency.

  9. Reading comprehension in autism spectrum disorders: The role of oral language and social functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Ricketts, Jessie; Catherine R. G. Jones; Happé, Francesca; Charman, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Reading comprehension is an area of difficulty for many individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). According to the Simple View of Reading, word recognition and oral language are both important determinants of reading comprehension ability. We provide a novel test of this model in 100 adolescents with ASD of varying intellectual ability. Further, we explore whether reading comprehension is additionally influenced by individual differences in social behaviour and social cognition in ASD...

  10. Enhancing Reading Comprehension of Iranian Advanced EFL Learners through Task-based Reading Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Fallah Golchin; Mostafa Dayyani Kheirabadi

    2013-01-01

    Language learning has experienced a shift of focus from a form-focused to a meaning-focused approach, and the necessity of using task-based learning, a relatively recent approach, has emerged. The vital role of task-based materials makes it obligatory not to exclude them from the language learning syllabi.  The current study aims at investigating whether task-based reading can contribute significantly to the development of reading comprehension of Iranian advanced EFL learners of English. An ...

  11. Unpicking the Developmental Relationship Between Oral Language Skills and Reading Comprehension: It's Simple, But Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lervåg, Arne; Hulme, Charles; Melby-Lervåg, Monica

    2017-06-12

    Listening comprehension and word decoding are the two major determinants of the development of reading comprehension. The relative importance of different language skills for the development of listening and reading comprehension remains unclear. In this 5-year longitudinal study, starting at age 7.5 years (n = 198), it was found that the shared variance between vocabulary, grammar, verbal working memory, and inference skills was a powerful longitudinal predictor of variations in both listening and reading comprehension. In line with the simple view of reading, listening comprehension, and word decoding, together with their interaction and curvilinear effects, explains almost all (96%) variation in early reading comprehension skills. Additionally, listening comprehension was a predictor of both the early and later growth of reading comprehension skills. © 2017 The Authors Child Development published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc on behalf of Society for Research in Child Development.

  12. The Strategies of Reading Comprehension for English Major

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹高飞

    2013-01-01

    Students tend to learn English in different ways. Some need to gather more examples and imitate them, while others require less. In a classroom, we, English teachers, cannot tailor the approach to each individual student, so we should make them involved personally in order to discover what works best. Teachers can introduce some strategies of learning English to the students. What are strategies? A strategy is the art of planning. After planning carefully, we can succeed in guiding our studies. In the following passage, we will discuss the strategies of reading comprehension for English majors in college.

  13. An Association between Auditory-Visual Synchrony Processing and Reading Comprehension: Behavioral and Electrophysiological Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossbridge, Julia; Zweig, Jacob; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2017-03-01

    The perceptual system integrates synchronized auditory-visual signals in part to promote individuation of objects in cluttered environments. The processing of auditory-visual synchrony may more generally contribute to cognition by synchronizing internally generated multimodal signals. Reading is a prime example because the ability to synchronize internal phonological and/or lexical processing with visual orthographic processing may facilitate encoding of words and meanings. Consistent with this possibility, developmental and clinical research has suggested a link between reading performance and the ability to compare visual spatial/temporal patterns with auditory temporal patterns. Here, we provide converging behavioral and electrophysiological evidence suggesting that greater behavioral ability to judge auditory-visual synchrony (Experiment 1) and greater sensitivity of an electrophysiological marker of auditory-visual synchrony processing (Experiment 2) both predict superior reading comprehension performance, accounting for 16% and 25% of the variance, respectively. These results support the idea that the mechanisms that detect auditory-visual synchrony contribute to reading comprehension.

  14. English Teachers' Role in Reading Comprehension Class From Pragmatic Perspective%English Teachers'Role in Reading Comprehension Class From Pragmatic Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党晨华

    2008-01-01

    With analysis on the teaching models of English reading comprehension class at present first,this paper aims to point out the necessity to transfer teaching models.With strong back-up of some pragmatics theories,this paper explores the roles that English teachers are expected to play for the sack of more efficient English teaching in reading comprehension class.

  15. Cross-Cultural Reading Comprehension Assessment in Malay and English as It Relates to the Dagostino-Carifio Model of Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagostino, Lorraine; Carifio, James; Bauer, Jennifer D. C.; Zhao, Qing

    2013-01-01

    The review of existing literature suggests that few researchers have adopted cross-language comparisons to explore how cultural background affects the assessment of reading comprehension of students. In this present study, the researchers independently reviewed and rated all the items of two reading comprehension tests translated from Malay into…

  16. Reading and listening comprehension and their relation to inattention and hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Kate; Bignell, Simon

    2014-03-01

    Children with diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently have reading problems. To date, it is not clear whether poor reading is associated with both inattention and hyperactivity and also whether poor reading comprehension is the result of poor word reading skills or more general language comprehension weaknesses. We report two studies to examine how reading and listening comprehension skills are related to inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Separate groups of 7- to 11-year-olds participated in each study. In both studies, we used teacher ratings of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity to identify three groups at risk of ADHD: poor attention, high hyperactivity, poor attention and high hyperactivity, and also same-age controls. In Study 1, we explored how inattention and hyperactivity predicted reading after controlling for non-verbal IQ and vocabulary. In Study 2, we compared listening and reading comprehension in these groups. Poor attention was related to poor reading comprehension, although the relation was partially mediated by word reading skill (Study 1). Groups with high hyperactivity had weak listening comprehension relative to reading comprehension (Study 2). These results indicate that the reading comprehension problems of children with attention difficulties are related to poor word reading and that listening comprehension is particularly vulnerable in children at risk of ADHD. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Do Graphical Overviews Facilitate or Hinder Comprehension in Hypertext?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmeron, Ladislao; Baccino, Thierry; Canas, Jose J.; Madrid, Rafael I.; Fajardo, Inmaculada

    2009-01-01

    Educational hypertexts usually include graphical overviews, conveying the structure of the text schematically with the aim of fostering comprehension. Despite the claims about their relevance, there is currently no consensus on the impact that hypertext overviews have on the reader's comprehension. In the present paper we have explored how…

  18. Longitudinal stability in reading comprehension is largely heritable from grades 1 to 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soden, Brooke; Christopher, Micaela E; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Olson, Richard K; Cutting, Laurie; Keenan, Janice M; Thompson, Lee A; Wadsworth, Sally J; Willcutt, Erik G; Petrill, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Reading comprehension is a foundational academic skill and significant attention has focused on reading development. This report is the first to examine the stability and change in genetic and environmental influences on reading comprehension across Grades 1 to 6. This developmental range is particularly important because it encompasses the timespan in which most children move from learning how to read to using reading for learning. Longitudinal simplex models were fitted separately for two independent twin samples (N = 706; N = 976). Results suggested that the shared environment contributed to variance in early but not later reading. Instead, stability in reading development was largely mediated by continuous genetic influences. Thus, although reading is clearly a learned skill and the environment remains important for reading development, individual differences in reading comprehension appear to be also influenced by a core of genetic stability that persists through the developmental course of reading.

  19. Longitudinal stability in reading comprehension is largely heritable from grades 1 to 6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke Soden

    Full Text Available Reading comprehension is a foundational academic skill and significant attention has focused on reading development. This report is the first to examine the stability and change in genetic and environmental influences on reading comprehension across Grades 1 to 6. This developmental range is particularly important because it encompasses the timespan in which most children move from learning how to read to using reading for learning. Longitudinal simplex models were fitted separately for two independent twin samples (N = 706; N = 976. Results suggested that the shared environment contributed to variance in early but not later reading. Instead, stability in reading development was largely mediated by continuous genetic influences. Thus, although reading is clearly a learned skill and the environment remains important for reading development, individual differences in reading comprehension appear to be also influenced by a core of genetic stability that persists through the developmental course of reading.

  20. Cognitive and linguistic predictors of reading comprehension in children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wingerden, Evelien; Segers, Eliane; van Balkom, Hans; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-11-01

    A considerable number of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) are able to acquire basic word reading skills. However, not much is known about their achievements in more advanced reading comprehension skills. In the present study, a group of 49 children with ID and a control group of 21 typically developing children with word decoding skills in the normal ranges of first grade were compared in lower level (explicit meaning) and higher level (implicit meaning) reading comprehension abilities. Moreover, in the group of children with ID it was examined to what extent their levels of lower level and higher level reading comprehension could be predicted from their linguistic skills (word decoding, vocabulary, language comprehension) and cognitive skill (nonverbal reasoning). It was found that children with ID were weaker than typically developing children in higher level reading comprehension but not in lower level reading comprehension. Children with ID also performed below the control group on nonverbal reasoning and language comprehension. After controlling for nonverbal reasoning, linguistic skills predicted lower level reading comprehension but not higher level reading comprehension. It can be concluded that children with ID who have basic decoding skill do reasonably well on lower level reading comprehension but continue to have problems with higher level reading comprehension.

  1. Don't believe what you read (only once): comprehension is supported by regressions during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotter, Elizabeth R; Tran, Randy; Rayner, Keith

    2014-06-01

    Recent Web apps have spurred excitement around the prospect of achieving speed reading by eliminating eye movements (i.e., with rapid serial visual presentation, or RSVP, in which words are presented briefly one at a time and sequentially). Our experiment using a novel trailing-mask paradigm contradicts these claims. Subjects read normally or while the display of text was manipulated such that each word was masked once the reader's eyes moved past it. This manipulation created a scenario similar to RSVP: The reader could read each word only once; regressions (i.e., rereadings of words), which are a natural part of the reading process, were functionally eliminated. Crucially, the inability to regress affected comprehension negatively. Furthermore, this effect was not confined to ambiguous sentences. These data suggest that regressions contribute to the ability to understand what one has read and call into question the viability of speed-reading apps that eliminate eye movements (e.g., those that use RSVP). © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. A New Tool to Facilitate Learning Reading for Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitasari, Cita; Subiyanto

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new android application for early childhood learning reading. The description includes a design, development, and an evaluation experiment of an educational game for learning reading on android. Before developing the game, Unified Modeling Language (UML) diagrams, interfaces, animation, narrative or audio were designed.…

  3. Methods for Teachers to Eliminate Lexical Obstacles to Reading Compre-hension in High School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李甜甜

    2013-01-01

    Reading comprehension is important for both teacher and students in high school. And there is a phenomenon in stu-dents when they do the reading comprehension. If word recognition is difficult, students use too much of their time to read and understand the individual words, which interferes with their ability to comprehend what is read and waste too much of their time in the examination. This makes the comprehension difficult for high school students. The paper focuses on the methods for teach-ers to eliminate lexical obstacles to reading comprehension in high school.

  4. Reading comprehension and its relationship with working memory capacity when reading horizontally scrolling text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Hannah; Walker, Robin

    2017-08-02

    The horizontally scrolling format, where text is presented in a single line drifting right to left, is relatively commonly used to display text on digital screens. This format presents a potentially challenging reading situation, as the text must be followed smoothly to the left (to track individual words) whilst rightward eye-movements are made as usual to progress through the text. This conflict may reduce attention allocated to upcoming text. Returning to previously encountered text is also more difficult with this format. Here, a sustained reading comprehension task was used to compare performance with horizontally scrolling and multiline static text formats. Results showed that literal comprehension can be reasonably well-maintained with scrolling text, although small decrements are seen at faster scrolling rates. However, they indicated that this format makes it more difficult to answer questions requiring an inference to be made. The contribution of working memory capacity and the impact of display speed on these effects was considered. These findings have implications for the application of this format in digital media, and also more widely for the conditions required for successful in-depth reading comprehension with any text format.

  5. Effect of Music on Reading Comprehension of Junior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey A.; Fuller, Gerald B.

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative study was an investigation of the effect of lyrical music on reading comprehension by adolescents. Existing research has produced results that range from concluding such distraction may be detrimental to finding it could be helpful. The reading comprehension subtest of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, 4th edition (MacGinitie,…

  6. The Relation between Morphological Awareness and Reading Comprehension: Evidence from Mediation and Longitudinal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, S. Hélène; Kieffer, Michael J.; Laroche, Annie

    2014-01-01

    We examined the role of a hypothesized factor in reading comprehension: morphological awareness, or the awareness of and ability to manipulate the smallest meaningful units or morphemes. In this longitudinal study, we measured English-speaking children's morphological awareness, word reading skills, and reading comprehension at Grades 3 and 4, in…

  7. Reading Comprehension in Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Oral Language and Social Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Jessie; Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happe, Francesca; Charman, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Reading comprehension is an area of difficulty for many individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). According to the Simple View of Reading, word recognition and oral language are both important determinants of reading comprehension ability. We provide a novel test of this model in 100 adolescents with ASD of varying intellectual ability.…

  8. Epilogue: Reading Comprehension Is Not a Single Ability--Implications for Assessment and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhi, Alan G.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In this epilogue, we review the 4 response articles and highlight the implications of a multidimensional view of reading for the assessment and instruction of reading comprehension. Method: We reiterate the problems with standardized tests of reading comprehension and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of recently developed…

  9. It Matters Whether Reading Comprehension Is Conceptualised as Rate or Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønberg, Louise Flensted; Petersen, Dorthe Klint

    2016-01-01

    This study shows that it makes a difference whether accuracy measures or rate measures are used when assessing reading comprehension. When the outcome is reading comprehension accuracy (i.e., the number of correct responses), word reading skills (measured as access to orthographic representations) account for a modest amount of the variance in the…

  10. The Effects of Self-Questioning on Reading Comprehension: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Laurice M.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila; Cullen, Jennifer; Rouse, Christina

    2016-01-01

    The ability to monitor one's own reading comprehension is a critical skill for deriving meaning from text. Self-questioning during reading is a strategy that enables students to monitor their reading comprehension and increases their ability to learn independently. The purpose of this article was to review experimental research studies that…

  11. Inference Instruction to Support Reading Comprehension for Elementary Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Colby; Barnes, Marcia A.

    2017-01-01

    Making inferences during reading is a critical standards-based skill and is important for reading comprehension. This article supports the improvement of reading comprehension for students with learning disabilities (LD) in upper elementary grades by reviewing what is currently known about inference instruction for students with LD and providing…

  12. Relationships between Reading Comprehension and Its Components in Young Chinese-as-a-Second-Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yu Ka

    2017-01-01

    Based on the Simple View of Reading model, this study examines the relationships among Chinese reading comprehension and its two componential processes, Chinese character reading and listening comprehension, in young learners of Chinese as a second language (CSL) using a longitudinal design. Using relevant measures, a sample of 142 senior primary…

  13. The Relationship between Vocabulary Size and Reading Comprehension of ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Engku Haliza Engku; Sarudin, Isarji; Muhamad, Ainon Jariah

    2016-01-01

    There are many factors that contribute to one's ability to read effectively. Vocabulary size is one important factor that enhances reading comprehension. The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between students' reading comprehension skills and their vocabulary size. A total of 129 pre-university students undergoing an intensive…

  14. Looking at CIRC through Quantitative Lenses: Can It Improve the Reading Comprehension of Filipino ESL Learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Wilkinson Daniel Wong; Torres, Patrisha Lliane

    2015-01-01

    Several pressing issues in reading instruction have prompted educators world-wide to conduct researches on how to best improve reading comprehension skills. Although there is a wealth of reading comprehension researches done with EFL learners and native English speakers, there seems to be limited published studies conducted in the Philippine ESL…

  15. Effects of Different Ways of Introducing a Reading Task on Intrinsic Motivation and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bråten, Ivar; Johansen, Roy-Petter; Strømsø, Helge I.

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effects of two brief prereading instructional practices--hands-on activities and prior knowledge activation--on sixth-graders' intrinsic motivation for reading a text and reading comprehension. Both hands-on activities and prior knowledge activation substantially improved reading comprehension relative to a control…

  16. The Relation between Morphological Awareness and Reading Comprehension: Evidence from Mediation and Longitudinal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, S. Hélène; Kieffer, Michael J.; Laroche, Annie

    2014-01-01

    We examined the role of a hypothesized factor in reading comprehension: morphological awareness, or the awareness of and ability to manipulate the smallest meaningful units or morphemes. In this longitudinal study, we measured English-speaking children's morphological awareness, word reading skills, and reading comprehension at Grades 3 and 4, in…

  17. The Effects of Self-Questioning on Reading Comprehension: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Laurice M.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila; Cullen, Jennifer; Rouse, Christina

    2016-01-01

    The ability to monitor one's own reading comprehension is a critical skill for deriving meaning from text. Self-questioning during reading is a strategy that enables students to monitor their reading comprehension and increases their ability to learn independently. The purpose of this article was to review experimental research studies that…

  18. SEMANTIC MAPPING TO IMPROVE READING COMPREHENSION FOR NON-ENGLISH MAJOR COLLEGE STUDENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the problems exiting in read-ing comprehension for non-English major college stu-dents.The writer adopted semantic mapping methodsto improve their reading comprehension,which havebeen proved to be practical and effective readingstrategies after one year’s practice.

  19. Reading Comprehension in Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Oral Language and Social Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Jessie; Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happe, Francesca; Charman, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Reading comprehension is an area of difficulty for many individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). According to the Simple View of Reading, word recognition and oral language are both important determinants of reading comprehension ability. We provide a novel test of this model in 100 adolescents with ASD of varying intellectual ability.…

  20. It Matters Whether Reading Comprehension Is Conceptualised as Rate or Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønberg, Louise Flensted; Petersen, Dorthe Klint

    2016-01-01

    This study shows that it makes a difference whether accuracy measures or rate measures are used when assessing reading comprehension. When the outcome is reading comprehension accuracy (i.e., the number of correct responses), word reading skills (measured as access to orthographic representations) account for a modest amount of the variance in the…

  1. The Explicit Teaching of Reading Comprehension in Science Class: A Pilot Professional Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon-Gibney, Tara; McCarthy, Mary Jean

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study aimed to address persistent gaps in the research regarding effective professional development models associated with reading comprehension pedagogy in content area classrooms (science). An appropriate instructional model was developed, ("Do-Read-Do") which attempts to embed the explicit teaching of reading comprehension strategies…

  2. Implementation and Effects of Explicit Reading Comprehension Instruction in Fifth-Grade Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Rune; Braten, Ivar

    2011-01-01

    In this intervention study, teachers tried to implement four instructional principles derived from the literature on research-based, explicit reading comprehension instruction in their fifth-grade classrooms. The principles focused on relevant background knowledge, reading comprehension strategies, reading-group organization, and reading…

  3. It matters whether reading comprehension is conceptualised as rate or accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønberg, Louise; Petersen, Dorthe Klint

    2015-01-01

    ) account for a modest amount of the variance in the reading comprehension of 10-year old children. However, this changes when reading comprehension is conceptualised as rate (i.e., number of correct responses per minute); when this is done, the correlation with word reading increases. The result...

  4. Modeling Local Item Dependence in Cloze and Reading Comprehension Test Items Using Testlet Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghaei, Purya; Ravand, Hamdollah

    2016-01-01

    In this study the magnitudes of local dependence generated by cloze test items and reading comprehension items were compared and their impact on parameter estimates and test precision was investigated. An advanced English as a foreign language reading comprehension test containing three reading passages and a cloze test was analyzed with a…

  5. What Is the Basis for Self-Assessment of Comprehension When Reading Mathematical Expository Texts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österholm, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize students' self-assessments when reading mathematical texts, in particular regarding what students use as a basis for evaluations of their own reading comprehension. A total of 91 students read two mathematical texts, and for each text, they performed a self-assessment of their comprehension and…

  6. Effect of Music on Reading Comprehension of Junior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey A.; Fuller, Gerald B.

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative study was an investigation of the effect of lyrical music on reading comprehension by adolescents. Existing research has produced results that range from concluding such distraction may be detrimental to finding it could be helpful. The reading comprehension subtest of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, 4th edition (MacGinitie,…

  7. Supporting Social Studies Reading Comprehension with an Electronic Pop-Up Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Sara Winstead; Gosky, Ross

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated how middle school students' comprehension was impacted by reading social studies texts online with a pop-up dictionary function for every word in the text. A quantitative counterbalance design was used to determine how 129 middle school students' reading comprehension test scores for the pop-up dictionary reading differed…

  8. A Comparison of Perceptual Motor Skill with Auditory Comprehension as Correlates of Word Recognition, Oral Reading, and Silent Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Chester E.

    A study was conducted to examine the relationship of perceptual motor skills as measured by the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test to word recognition, oral reading, and silent reading. In addition, perceptual motor skill and auditory comprehension were compared as correlates of the three reading variables. Subjects were 60 primary grade students in…

  9. The Relationship of Reading Comprehension Success with Metacognitive Awareness, Motivation, and Reading Levels of Fifth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memis, Aysel; Bozkurt, Metin

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the relationship between metacognitive awareness, reading motivations, reading levels and reading comprehension success of fifth grade students using comparative relative scan model. There were 577 students. In the result of the research, in which data were collected with four scales, it was concluded that reading…

  10. Measuring ESL Readers' Ability to Apply Reasoning in Reading: A Validity Study of the TOEFL Reading Comprehension Subtest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kyle

    1988-01-01

    Reports on an attempt to measure English as a Second Language (ESL) students' ability to apply reasoning in reading, using an experimental test based on Piaget's concrete operations. Suggests that the Test of English as a Second Language (TOEFL) reading comprehension subtest does not measure the ability to apply reasoning in reading; therefore,…

  11. The Role of Teachers' Cognitive Support in Motivating Young Hong Kong Chinese Children to Read and Enhancing Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yin-kum

    2011-01-01

    This study analysed the reading lessons of 35 Hong Kong Grade 2 Chinese teachers to investigate whether their instructional practices were related to their students' motivation and reading comprehension scores. The reading lessons of the teachers were analysed according to the five dimensions of the Motivating Instructional Context Inventory.…

  12. The Relationship of Reading Comprehension Success with Metacognitive Awareness, Motivation, and Reading Levels of Fifth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memis, Aysel; Bozkurt, Metin

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the relationship between metacognitive awareness, reading motivations, reading levels and reading comprehension success of fifth grade students using comparative relative scan model. There were 577 students. In the result of the research, in which data were collected with four scales, it was concluded that reading…

  13. Examining the Relationships of Component Reading Skills to Reading Comprehension in Struggling Adult Readers: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth L; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    The current study employed a meta-analytic approach to investigate the relative importance of component reading skills to reading comprehension in struggling adult readers. A total of 10 component skills were consistently identified across 16 independent studies and 2,707 participants. Random effects models generated 76 predictor-reading comprehension effect sizes among the 10 constructs. The results indicated that six of the component skills exhibited strong relationships with reading comprehension (average rs ≥ .50): morphological awareness, language comprehension, fluency, oral vocabulary knowledge, real word decoding, and working memory. Three of the component skills yielded moderate relationships with reading comprehension (average rs ≥ .30 and reading comprehension (r = .15). Morphological awareness was a significantly stronger correlate of reading comprehension than phonological awareness and RAN. This study provides the first attempt at a systematic synthesis of the recent research investigating the reading skills of adults with low literacy skills, a historically understudied population. Directions for future research, the relation of our results to the children's literature, and the implications for researchers and adult basic education programs are discussed.

  14. Examining the Relationships of Component Reading Skills to Reading Comprehension in Struggling Adult Readers: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The current study employed a meta-analytic approach to investigate the relative importance of component reading skills to reading comprehension in struggling adult readers. A total of 10 component skills were consistently identified across 16 independent studies and 2,707 participants. Random effects models generated 76 predictor-reading comprehension effect sizes among the 10 constructs. The results indicated that six of the component skills exhibited strong relationships with reading comprehension (average rs ≥ .50): morphological awareness, language comprehension, fluency, oral vocabulary knowledge, real word decoding, and working memory. Three of the component skills yielded moderate relationships with reading comprehension (average rs ≥ .30 and reading comprehension (r = .15). Morphological awareness was a significantly stronger correlate of reading comprehension than phonological awareness and RAN. This study provides the first attempt at a systematic synthesis of the recent research investigating the reading skills of adults with low literacy skills, a historically under-studied population. Directions for future research, the relation of our results to the children’s literature, and the implications for researchers and Adult Basic Education (ABE) programs are discussed. PMID:25350926

  15. Testing and Refining the Direct and Inferential Mediation Model of Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromley, Jennifer G.; Azevedo, Roger

    2007-01-01

    A significant proportion of American high school students struggle with reading comprehension. Theoretical models of reading comprehension might help researchers understand these difficulties, because they can point to variables that make the largest contributions to comprehension. On the basis of an extensive review of the literature, we created…

  16. Choice of Reading Comprehension Test Influences the Outcomes of Genetic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betjemann, Rebecca S.; Keenan, Janice M.; Olson, Richard K.; DeFries, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Does the choice of test for assessing reading comprehension influence the outcome of genetic analyses? A twin design compared two types of reading comprehension tests classified as primarily associated with word decoding (RC-D) or listening comprehension (RC-LC). For both types of tests, the overall genetic influence is high and nearly identical.…

  17. ESL Elementary Teachers' Use of Children's Picture Books to Initiate Explicit Instruction of Reading Comprehension Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khaiyali, Al Tiyb S.

    2014-01-01

    Reading comprehension instruction has been recognized as a key factor in developing any reading and literacy program. Therefore, many attempts were devoted to improve explicit comprehension strategy instruction at different school levels and fields including EFL and ESL. Despite these efforts, explicit comprehension instruction is still drought…

  18. Investigating the Effects of Group Investigation (GI and Cooperative Integrated Reading and Comprehension (CIRC as the Cooperative Learning Techniques on Learner's Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Karafkan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative learning consists of some techniques for helping students work together more effectively. This study investigated the effects of Group Investigation (GI and Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC as cooperative learning techniques on Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension at an intermediate level. The participants of the study were 207 male students who studied at an intermediate level at ILI. The participants were randomly assigned into three equal groups: one control group and two experimental groups. The control group was instructed via conventional technique following an individualistic instructional approach. One experimental group received GI technique. The other experimental group received CIRC technique. The findings showed that there was a meaningful difference between the mean of the reading comprehension score of GI experimental group and CRIC experimental group. CRIC technique is more effective than GI technique in enhancing the reading comprehension test scores of students.Keywords: GI, CIRC, Cooperative Learning Techniques, Reading Comprehension

  19. Evaluating the Effect of Metacognitive Strategy Training on Reading Comprehension of Female Students at KAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaila Albazi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Successful reading requires the application of different reading strategies. Reading strategies related to metacognition, which is “thinking about thinking”, have been investigated extensively and have proven to be effective in improving reading comprehension in EFL and ESL contexts. This study aimed to explore the level of metacognitive awareness of EFL learners at King Abdulaziz University (KAU. Additionally, it aimed to examine how metacognitive strategy training can raise learners’ metacognitive strategy awareness and as a result enhance their reading comprehension. Two instruments were used to find answers to these questions: the MARSI survey, which was used to measure the participants’ metacognitive awareness; and reading comprehension tests, which were used to examine their comprehension level. Both instruments were used on two occasions: once before the training sessions and once after them. The training sessions focused on three metacognitive reading strategies: planning, monitoring and evaluating. The results indicated that systematic and direct instruction had a positive effect in improving the participants’ metacognitive reading strategy awareness as well as their reading comprehension, even when they had a moderate level of metacognitive awareness prior to the training sessions. The findings of the study are significant in guiding EFL instructors at KAU as well as other tertiary institutors in similar contexts to assist learners in improving their reading comprehension. Keywords: metacognitive reading strategies, metacognitive awareness, reading comprehension

  20. Reading and Listening Comprehension and Their Relation to Inattention and Hyperactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Kate; Bignell, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently have reading problems. To date, it is not clear whether poor reading is associated with both inattention and hyperactivity and also whether poor reading comprehension is the result of poor word reading skills or more general language comprehension…